WorldWideScience

Sample records for sm gd crystal

  1. Influence of Y, Gd and Sm on the glass forming ability and thermal crystallization of aluminum based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Danez, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Al-based amorphous alloys represent an important family of metals and a great scientific activity has been devoted to determine the main features of both glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in order to have a comprehensive framework aimed at potential technological applications. Nowadays, it is well known that the best Al-based amorphous alloys are formed in ternary systems such as Al- RE-TM, where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal. This paper presents results of research in Al 85 Ni 10 RE 5 alloys (RE = Y, Gd and Sm). Amorphous ribbons were processed by melt-spinning under the same conditions and subsequently characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show appreciable micro structural differences as function of the rare earth, thus crystal is obtained for Y, nano-glassy for Gd and, fully amorphous structure for Sm. (author)

  2. Energy transfer phenomena and Judd-Ofelt analysis on Sm{sup 3+} ions in K{sub 2}GdF{sub 5} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Phan Van [Thuyloi University, 175 Tay Son, Dong da Dist, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tuyen, Vu Phi, E-mail: vptuyen@gust-edu.vast.vn [Graduate University of Science and Technology - VAST, 18 Hoang quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); DuyTan University, K7/25 QuangTrung, Danang (Viet Nam); Quang, Vu Xuan [DuyTan University, K7/25 QuangTrung, Danang (Viet Nam); Khaidukov, Nicholas M. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); TrongThanh, Nguyen [Institute of Materials Science - VAST, 18 Hoang quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sengthong, Bounyavong [DuyTan University, K7/25 QuangTrung, Danang (Viet Nam); Huy, Bui The, E-mail: buithehuy.nt@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The Raman, absorption, luminescence spectra and lifetimes curves of Sm{sup 3+}-doped K{sub 2}GdF{sub 5}were measured. Based on the Judd-Ofelt analysis, the values of radiative transition probabilities, branching ratios, integrated emission cross-sections and radiative lifetimes of excited states of Sm{sup 3+} in K{sub 2}GdF{sub 5} crystal were calculated. The migration of excitation energy between the Gd{sup 3+} ions and the trapping processes of Gd{sup 3+} excitation energy by Sm{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}ions in K{sub 2}GdF{sub 5} crystal are reported. The role of the overlapping between the broad, allowed absorption bands of the RE{sup 3+} ions and the narrow absorption lines {sup 6}I{sub J} and {sup 6}P{sub J} of Gd{sup 3+} ions on the trapping rates of the RE{sup 3+} was discussed. The energy transfer between the Sm{sup 3+} ions was studied by the decay measurement, which has been fitted by Inokuti-Hirayama energy transfer model and revealed that electric dipole–quadrupole interaction is responsible for the energy transfer process in Sm{sup 3+} ions doped K{sub 2}GdF{sub 5} crystal.

  3. Crystal structure of RCoIn5 (R - Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Y) and R2CoIn8 (R - Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Y) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalychak, Ya.M.; Zaremba, V.I.; Baranyak, V.M.; Bruskov, V.A.; Zavalij, P.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    Usng X-ray diffraction method of monocrystal, crystal structure of HoCoIn 5 compound belonging to the HoCoGa 5 structural type is determined. Using the method of powder belonging of CeCoIn 5 structure to the HoCoGa 5 structural type is confirmed. Isostructural compounds with Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy are detected. Their lattice periods are determined. Using the method of powder belonging of Ce 2 CoIn 8 compound structure to Ho 2 CoGa 8 structural type is determined. Isostructural compounds with Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm are detected and their lattice periods are determined

  4. Thermoelectric properties, crystal and electronic structure of semiconducting RECuSe{sub 2} (RE = Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy and Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Mehdi [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Tseng, Yu-Chih [CANMET Materials, Natural Resources Canada, 183 Longwood Road South, Hamilton, Ontario L8P 0A5 (Canada); Mozharivskyj, Yurij, E-mail: mozhar@mcmaster.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Crystal and electronic structure of monoclinic and trigonal RECuSe{sub 2} phases. • Thermoelectric properties of the RECuSe{sub 2} phases. • Temperature stability of the RECuSe{sub 2} phases. - Abstract: The ternary RECuSe{sub 2} phases have been prepared and structurally characterized. They adopt either a monoclinic structure (P2{sub 1}/c, z = 4) for lighter rare earths (RE = Pr, Sm and Gd) or Cu-disordered trigonal structure for heavier rare-earths (P3{sup ¯}m1, z = 1, RE = Dy and Er). The resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements on GdCuSe{sub 2}, DyCuSe{sub 2} and ErCuSe{sub 2} indicate that the studied phases are p-type semiconductors with relatively small activation energies (0.045–0.11 eV). However, their electrical resistivities are too high (0.45–220 Ω cm at room temperature) to make them competitive thermoelectric materials. Electronic structure calculations indicate presence of a band gap in the RECuSe{sub 2} phases.

  5. Thermoelectric properties, crystal and electronic structure of semiconducting RECuSe2 (RE = Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy and Er)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, Mehdi; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Crystal and electronic structure of monoclinic and trigonal RECuSe 2 phases. • Thermoelectric properties of the RECuSe 2 phases. • Temperature stability of the RECuSe 2 phases. - Abstract: The ternary RECuSe 2 phases have been prepared and structurally characterized. They adopt either a monoclinic structure (P2 1 /c, z = 4) for lighter rare earths (RE = Pr, Sm and Gd) or Cu-disordered trigonal structure for heavier rare-earths (P3 ¯ m1, z = 1, RE = Dy and Er). The resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements on GdCuSe 2 , DyCuSe 2 and ErCuSe 2 indicate that the studied phases are p-type semiconductors with relatively small activation energies (0.045–0.11 eV). However, their electrical resistivities are too high (0.45–220 Ω cm at room temperature) to make them competitive thermoelectric materials. Electronic structure calculations indicate presence of a band gap in the RECuSe 2 phases

  6. The RELixSn2 (RE=La–Nd, Sm, and Gd; 0≤x<1) series revisited. Synthesis, crystal chemistry, and magnetic susceptibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makongo, Julien P.A.; Suen, Nian-Tzu; Guo, Shengping; Saha, Shanta; Greene, Richard; Paglione, Johnpierre; Bobev, Svilen

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the ternary compounds RELi x Sn 2 (RE=La–Nd, Sm, and Gd; 0≤x 2 phases. These materials crystallize with the base-centered orthorhombic space group Cmcm (No. 63), and can be formally assigned with the CeNiSi 2 structure type (Pearson symbol oC16). Our systematic single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed substantial Li-deficiencies in all cases, with SmSn 2 (space group Cmmm, ZrGa 2 structure type, Pearson symbol oC12) and GdSn 2 (space group Cmcm, ZrSi 2 structure type, Pearson symbol oC12) being completely lithium-free. The structure refinements also uncovered positional disorder on the Sn site neighboring the vacancies. The Sn-disorder and the Li-deficiency correlate, and vary monotonically with the decreased size of the rare-earth atoms in the order RE=La–Nd. The SmSn 2 and GdSn 2 structures are devoid of any disorder. Temperature-dependent studies of the magnetic response of the title compounds are also presented and discussed. -- Graphical abstract: RELi x Sn 2 (RE=La–Nd, 0≤x 2 structure type (a). The Sn-disorder and the Li-deficiency correlate, and vary monotonically with the decreased size of the rare-earth atoms in the order RE=La–Nd. The SmSn 2 (b) and GdSn 2 (c) structures are devoid of any disorder. Highlights: • The crystal structures of the RELi x Sn 2 (RE=La–Nd, 0≤x 2 structure type or defect variant of the CeNiSi 2 structure type. • SmSn 2 is isotypic with the ZrGa 2 structure, while RESn 2 (RE=Gd–Lu) are isotypic with the ZrSi 2 structure

  7. Influence of Y, Gd and Sm on the glass forming ability and thermal crystallization of aluminum based alloy; Efeito das terras raras Y, Gd e Sm na tendencia a formacao de amorfo e na cristalizacao termica em ligas a base de aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J., E-mail: aliaga@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Danez, G.P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Al-based amorphous alloys represent an important family of metals and a great scientific activity has been devoted to determine the main features of both glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in order to have a comprehensive framework aimed at potential technological applications. Nowadays, it is well known that the best Al-based amorphous alloys are formed in ternary systems such as Al- RE-TM, where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal. This paper presents results of research in Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 10}RE{sub 5} alloys (RE = Y, Gd and Sm). Amorphous ribbons were processed by melt-spinning under the same conditions and subsequently characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show appreciable micro structural differences as function of the rare earth, thus crystal is obtained for Y, nano-glassy for Gd and, fully amorphous structure for Sm. (author)

  8. Angular non-critical phase-matching second-harmonic-generation characteristics of RECOB (RE = Tm, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd and La) crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanqing; Wang, Zhengping; Yu, Fapeng; Qi, Hongwei; Yang, Xiuqin; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Xian; Xu, Xinguang

    2017-05-15

    For the first time, the angular non-critical phase-matching (A-NCPM) second-harmonic-generation (SHG) characteristics of a family of monoclinic oxoborate crystals, RECa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 (RECOB, RE = Tm, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd and La), were comprehensively investigated. For all of the realizable A-NCPM SHG styles, the feature parameters including PM wavelength, angular, wavelength and temperature acceptance bandwidths, have been derived from the theory and verified by the experiments. We discovered that the closer the ion radius between RE 3+ and Ca 2+ , the smaller the birefringence, and the better the A-NCPM SHG properties. As a result, for the Type-I SHG on Y-axis which has the largest effective nonlinear optical coefficient (d eff ) among the three realizable A-NCPM styles, NdCOB crystal presents the longest PM wavelength (927 nm), the largest angular acceptance bandwidth (Δθ⋅l 1/2 = 84.3 mrad·cm 1/2 , Δϕ⋅l 1/2 = 58.8 mrad·cm 1/2 ), and the broadest wavelength acceptance bandwidth (8.7 nm). This discovery will contribute to the design of new NCPM materials, at the same time the parameter formula will be helpful for the theoretical prediction of NCPM performance.

  9. ions (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Dy)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) zirconia), tendency of phase transformation (tetragonal to monoclinic () zirconia) and lattice strain were studied with mechanical property e.g. tensile strength of sol–gel derived ZrO2–2 mol% RE2O3 (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Dy) spun ...

  10. In pursuit of the rhabdophane crystal structure: from the hydrated monoclinic LnPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O to the hexagonal LnPO{sub 4} (Ln = Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu and Dy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesbah, Adel, E-mail: adel.mesbah@cea.fr [ICSM, UMR 5257 CNRS – CEA – ENSCM – Université de Montpellier, Site de Marcoule - Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Clavier, Nicolas [ICSM, UMR 5257 CNRS – CEA – ENSCM – Université de Montpellier, Site de Marcoule - Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Elkaim, Erik [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Szenknect, Stéphanie; Dacheux, Nicolas [ICSM, UMR 5257 CNRS – CEA – ENSCM – Université de Montpellier, Site de Marcoule - Bât 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France)

    2017-05-15

    The dehydration process of the hydrated rhabdophane LnPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O (Ln = La to Dy) was thoroughly studied over the combination of in situ high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction and TGA experiments. In the case of SmPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O (monoclinic, C2), a first dehydration step was identified around 80 °C leading to the formation of SmPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O (Monoclinic, C2) with Z =12 and a =17.6264(1) Å, b =6.9704(1) Å, c =12.1141(1) Å, β=133.74(1) °, V =1075.33(1) Å{sup 3}. In agreement with the TGA and dilatometry experiments, all the water molecules were evacuated above 220 °C yielding to the anhydrous form, which crystallizes in the hexagonal P3{sub 1}21 space group with a =7.0389(1) Å, c =6.3702(1) Å and V =273.34(1) Å{sup 3}. This study was extended to selected LnPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O samples (Ln= Nd, Gd, Eu, Dy) and the obtained results confirmed the existence of two dehydration steps before the stabilization of the anhydrous form, with the transitory formation of LnPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O. - Graphical abstract: The dehydration process of the rhabdophane SmPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O was studied over combination of in situ high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction and TGA techniques, a first dehydration was identified around 80 °C leading to the formation of SmPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O (Monoclinic, C2). Then above 220 °C, the anhydrous form of the rhabdophane SmPO{sub 4} was stabilized and crystallizes in the hexagonal P3{sub 1}21 space group. - Highlights: • In situ synchrotron powder diffraction was carried out during the dehydration of the rhabdopahe LnPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O. • The heat of the rhabdophane LnPO{sub 4}.0.667H{sub 2}O leads to LnPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O then to anhydrous rhabdophane LnPO{sub 4}. • LnPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O (monoclinic, C2) and LnPO{sub 4} (Hexagonal, P3{sub 1}21) were solved over the use of direct methods.

  11. Temperature dependence of spin and orbital magnetic moments of Sm 4f electrons in (Sm, Gd)Al2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, S.; Kimura, A.; Adachi, H.; Iori, K.; Miyamoto, K.; Xie, T.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Tanaka, A.; Muro, T.; Imada, S.; Suga, S.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies were carried out on (Sm, Gd)Al 2 , a ferromagnet without net magnetization at a certain compensation temperature. For Sm 4f electrons, the following understandings were obtained: the magnitude of expectation value of orbital magnetic moment (m L Sm ) is always larger than that of spin one (m S Sm ), so the cancellation of total spin and orbital magnetic moments cannot be achieved only by Sm 4f electrons and the contributions from Gd ions and conduction electrons are important; when the temperature decreases, the magnitude of both m L Sm and m S Sm increases and the gross magnetic moment due to the Sm 4f electrons monotonically deviates from zero. These results tell us that the temperature dependence of magnetic moments related with the electrons other than Sm 4f ones may play important roles in the subtle adjustment of the total spin and orbital magnetic moments to the zero magnetization at the compensation temperature

  12. Isomer decay spectroscopy of 164Sm and 166Gd: midshell collectivity around N=100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Z; Söderström, P-A; Podolyák, Zs; Regan, P H; Walker, P M; Watanabe, H; Ideguchi, E; Simpson, G S; Liu, H L; Nishimura, S; Wu, Q; Xu, F R; Browne, F; Doornenbal, P; Lorusso, G; Rice, S; Sinclair, L; Sumikama, T; Wu, J; Xu, Z Y; Aoi, N; Baba, H; Bello Garrote, F L; Benzoni, G; Daido, R; Fang, Y; Fukuda, N; Gey, G; Go, S; Gottardo, A; Inabe, N; Isobe, T; Kameda, D; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, M; Komatsubara, T; Kojouharov, I; Kubo, T; Kurz, N; Kuti, I; Li, Z; Matsushita, M; Michimasa, S; Moon, C-B; Nishibata, H; Nishizuka, I; Odahara, A; Şahin, E; Sakurai, H; Schaffner, H; Suzuki, H; Takeda, H; Tanaka, M; Taprogge, J; Vajta, Zs; Yagi, A; Yokoyama, R

    2014-12-31

    Excited states in the N=102 isotones 166Gd and 164Sm have been observed following isomeric decay for the first time at RIBF, RIKEN. The half-lives of the isomeric states have been measured to be 950(60) and 600(140) ns for 166Gd and 164Sm, respectively. Based on the decay patterns and potential energy surface calculations, including β6 deformation, a spin and parity of 6- has been assigned to the isomeric states in both nuclei. Collective observables are discussed in light of the systematics of the region, giving insight into nuclear shape evolution. The decrease in the ground-band energies of 166Gd and 164Sm (N=102) compared to 164Gd and 162Sm (N=100), respectively, presents evidence for the predicted deformed shell closure at N=100.

  13. Isomer Decay Spectroscopy of Sm 164 and Gd 166 : Midshell Collectivity Around N =100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Z.; Söderström, P.-A.; Podolyák, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Walker, P. M.; Watanabe, H.; Ideguchi, E.; Simpson, G. S.; Liu, H. L.; Nishimura, S.; Wu, Q.; Xu, F. R.; Browne, F.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Sumikama, T.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Aoi, N.; Baba, H.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Benzoni, G.; Daido, R.; Fang, Y.; Fukuda, N.; Gey, G.; Go, S.; Gottardo, A.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Kameda, D.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Komatsubara, T.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Kurz, N.; Kuti, I.; Li, Z.; Matsushita, M.; Michimasa, S.; Moon, C.-B.; Nishibata, H.; Nishizuka, I.; Odahara, A.; Şahin, E.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Tanaka, M.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Yagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.

    2014-12-01

    Excited states in the N =102 isotones Gd 166 and Sm 164 have been observed following isomeric decay for the first time at RIBF, RIKEN. The half-lives of the isomeric states have been measured to be 950(60) and 600(140) ns for Gd 166 and Sm 164 , respectively. Based on the decay patterns and potential energy surface calculations, including β6 deformation, a spin and parity of 6- has been assigned to the isomeric states in both nuclei. Collective observables are discussed in light of the systematics of the region, giving insight into nuclear shape evolution. The decrease in the ground-band energies of Gd 166 and Sm 164 (N =102 ) compared to Gd 164 and Sm 162 (N =100 ), respectively, presents evidence for the predicted deformed shell closure at N =100 .

  14. Absorption Spectra of BaF2 Sm2O3, Sm, Gd, and Ho Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael; Bastiani-Ceccotti, Serena

    2009-11-01

    Knowledge of the opacities of high Z element plasmas is important in indirect drive ICF and the study of stellar evolution. There are few experimental measurements of this quantity, and its theoretical determination is difficult due to the number of possible bound electron configurations. This study aims to better the theoretical understanding of this parameter by looking at the 3d-4f transitions of BaF2, Sm2O3, Sm, Gd, and Ho plasmas at the LULI2000 facility. The plasmas are produced by radiative heating and are cold, 15 -- 40 eV, and relatively dense, ˜ .01gm/cm^3 A plasma is produced by a .5 ns laser pulse irradiating a gold hohlraum and then probed by an x-ray source created by a gold foil irradiated by a 10 ps laser pulse. The transmission is found with simultaneous source and absorption measurements by an x-ray spectrometer in the 8 - 20 å range We will compare the results with statistical atomic structure codes. From this experiment we will gain further insight into the spectral broadening of neighboring Z elements due to changing plasma temperature and into mixture thermodynamics. This is a first step towards an experimental study of astrophysical domains.

  15. Analysis of the magnetic anisotropy in SmCo5 and GdCo5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T.; Jin, H.; Groessinger, R.; Kou, X.; Kirchmayr, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy constant K 1 for SmCo 5 and GdCo 5 is well reproduced by calculations based on a single-ion model taking into account the anisotropies of the R--Co exchange interaction and the Co-sublattice magnetic moment. The anisotropy of the R--Co exchange interaction plays an important role in reproducing the experimental K 1 (T) for SmCo 5 and GdCo 5 . It is found that the absolute value of the second order crystalline electric field parameter A 0 2 in SmCo 5 decreases monotonically with increasing temperature

  16. Isomer Decay Spectroscopy of Sm-164 and Gd-166: Midshell Collectivity Around N=100

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Z; Soederstroem, P-A; Podolyak, Z; Regan, PH; Walker, PM; Watanabe, H; Ideguchi, E; Simpson, GS; Liu, HL; Nishimura, S; Wu, Q; Xu, FR; Browne, F; Doornenbal, P; Lorusso, G

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Physical Society. Excited states in the N=102 isotones Gd166 and Sm164 have been observed following isomeric decay for the first time at RIBF, RIKEN. The half-lives of the isomeric states have been measured to be 950(60) and 600(140) ns for Gd166 and Sm164, respectively. Based on the decay patterns and potential energy surface calculations, including β6 deformation, a spin and parity of 6- has been assigned to the isomeric states in both nuclei. Collective observables are disc...

  17. The isolation and the separation of Sm, Gd, Dy by extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyantoro, D.; Lahagu, F.; Basuki, K.T.; Handini, T.; Rosyidin

    1996-01-01

    The isolation of yttrium and separation of Sm, Gd, y with extraction has been investigated. The steps of the process include of this research were the production the concentrate of lanthanide, the dilution, the isolation of yttrium, and the separation of the Sm, Gd, Dy. The first step was the digestion of xenotime sand, the extraction, the dilution, the filtration, the precipitation, the baking production a lanthanide oxide. The step was the separation of yttrium, the stripping, and the calcination production of yttrium oxide. And the third process was the separation of Sm, Gd, Dy by extraction process using method liquid-liquid extraction with extractant of D 2 EHPA and a solvent of dodecane. From the result have been found concentration of yttrium oxide = 88,71 %. The optimum condition of the separation of Gd/Dy have been found : the concentration of HNO 3 = 0,5 M, time of extraction = 15 minutes, and the concentration of extractant = 30 % D 2 EHPA in dodecane. The results of this condition were the distribution coefficient of Gd = 2,226, the distribution coefficient of Dy = 3,762, and the separation factor of Gd/Dy = 0,592. (author)

  18. Energy transfer mechanism from Gd3+ to Sm3+ in K3Gd(PO4)2:Sm3+ phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Palvi; Bedyal, A K; Kumar, Vinay; Khajuria, Y; Sharma, Vishal; Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Swart, H C

    2015-01-01

    Undoped K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 and trivalent samarium (0.5–2.5 mol%) doped K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 phosphors were synthesized by the solid-state method. The phase formation, optical and luminescence properties were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The fluorescence decay spectra of the obtained phosphors were also recorded to study the energy transfer from sensitizer (Gd 3+ ) to activator (Sm 3+ ). Energy transfer effects from sensitizer to activator caused by rare-earth ions were mainly observed in the obtained PL and lifetime spectra. The decay curves of K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 phosphor with different Sm 3+ ions concentrations were found to be non-exponential and the data is well fitted with the Inokuti–Hirayama (I–H) model. The energy transfer parameters such as critical distance for the transfer processes were determined. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) chromatic coordinates and color-correlated temperature were also determined for the prepared phosphor. (paper)

  19. Cross Section Measurements for Some Elements Suited as Thermal Spectrum indicators: Cd, Sm, Gd and Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, E; Pekarek, H; Jonsson, E

    1964-05-15

    The effective cross sections of Cd, Sm, Gd and Lu have been measured by the oscillator technique in the spectrum of the central channel of the Swedish reactor R1. For Cd, Sm and Gd the 2200 m/s cross sections were deduced on the basis of Westcott's g and s factors. The values obtained were generally in agreement with other recent values obtained by integral methods, although a systematic trend indicated that the value T{sub n} - T{sub m} = 29 {+-} 10 deg C for the neutron spectrum, measured with a fast chopper, was slightly too high. A new value of T{sub n} - T{sub m} = 22.5 {+-} 3.5 deg C was deduced and new 2200 m/s cross sections were obtained by iteration. For natural Lu, the energy dependence of the cross section is not well known. Certain assumptions about the cross section function led to unreasonably high values for the 2200 m/s cross section. Complementary differential measurements of the cross sections of Cd, Sm and Gd were made with the Rl fast chopper. For Cd and Sm the 2200 m/s cross section thus obtained agreed within experimental error with those obtained from the integral measurements. For Gd, the chopper measured value was higher, confirming earlier findings and indicating that the Westcott g factor for Gd is too high. Cd: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 2,390 {+-} 45 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 2,445 {+-} 25 b; Sm: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 5,880 {+-} 90 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 5,740 {+-} 150 b; Gd: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 46,470 {+-} 550 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 47,900 {+-} 700 b.

  20. Cross Section Measurements for Some Elements Suited as Thermal Spectrum indicators: Cd, Sm, Gd and Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, E.; Pekarek, H.; Jonsson, E.

    1964-05-15

    The effective cross sections of Cd, Sm, Gd and Lu have been measured by the oscillator technique in the spectrum of the central channel of the Swedish reactor R1. For Cd, Sm and Gd the 2200 m/s cross sections were deduced on the basis of Westcott's g and s factors. The values obtained were generally in agreement with other recent values obtained by integral methods, although a systematic trend indicated that the value T{sub n} - T{sub m} = 29 {+-} 10 deg C for the neutron spectrum, measured with a fast chopper, was slightly too high. A new value of T{sub n} - T{sub m} = 22.5 {+-} 3.5 deg C was deduced and new 2200 m/s cross sections were obtained by iteration. For natural Lu, the energy dependence of the cross section is not well known. Certain assumptions about the cross section function led to unreasonably high values for the 2200 m/s cross section. Complementary differential measurements of the cross sections of Cd, Sm and Gd were made with the Rl fast chopper. For Cd and Sm the 2200 m/s cross section thus obtained agreed within experimental error with those obtained from the integral measurements. For Gd, the chopper measured value was higher, confirming earlier findings and indicating that the Westcott g factor for Gd is too high. Cd: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 2,390 {+-} 45 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 2,445 {+-} 25 b; Sm: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 5,880 {+-} 90 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 5,740 {+-} 150 b; Gd: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 46,470 {+-} 550 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 47,900 {+-} 700 b.

  1. Magnetic properties of the germanides RE3Pt4Ge6 (RE=Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Eilers-Rethwisch, Matthias; Renner, Konstantin; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Poettgen, Rainer; Janka, Oliver; Oldenburg Univ.

    2017-01-01

    The germanides RE 3 Pt 4 Ge 6 (RE=Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy) have been synthesized by arc-melting of the elements followed by inductive annealing to improve the crystallinity and allow for structural order. The compounds have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction; additionally the structure of Y 3 Pt 4 Ge 6 has been refined from single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data. It exhibits a (3+1)D modulated structure, indicating isotypism with Ce 3 Pt 4 Ge 6 . The crystal structure can be described as an intergrowth between YIrGe 2 - and CaBe 2 Ge 2 -type slabs along [100]. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements showed Pauli paramagnetism for Y 3 Pt 4 Ge 6 and Curie-Weiss paramagnetism for Pr 3 Pt 4 Ge 6 and Nd 3 Pt 4 Ge 6 . Sm 3 Pt 4 Ge 6 exhibits van Vleck paramagnetism, while antiferromagnetic ordering at T N =8.1(1) K and T N =11.0(1) K is observed for Gd 3 Pt 4 Ge 6 and Tb 3 Pt 4 Ge 6 , respectively.

  2. Magnetism of cyano-bridged hetero-one-dimensional Ln3+-M3+ complexes (Ln3+ = Sm, Gd, Yb; M3+ = FeLS, Co).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, Albert; Diaz, Carmen; Ribas, Joan; Tangoulis, Vassilis; Sangregorio, Claudio; Gatteschi, Dante; Maestro, Miguel; Mahía, José

    2003-08-25

    The reaction of Ln(NO(3))(3).aq with K(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] or K(3)[Co(CN)(6)] and 2,2'-bipyridine in water led to five one-dimensional complexes: trans-[M(CN)(4)(mu-CN)(2)Ln(H(2)O)(4) (bpy)](n)().XnH(2)O.1.5nbpy (M = Fe(3+) or Co(3+); Ln = Sm(3+), Gd(3+), or Yb(3+); X = 4 or 5). The structures for [Fe(3)(+)-Sm(3+)] (1), [Fe(3)(+)-Gd(3+)] (2), [Fe(3)(+)-Yb(3+)] (3), [Co(3)(+)-Gd(3+)] (4), and [Co(3)(+)-Yb(3+)] (5) have been solved; they crystallize in the triclinic space P1 and are isomorphous. The [Fe(3+)-Sm(3+)] complex is a ferrimagnet, its magnetic studies suggesting the onset of weak ferromagnetic 3-D ordering at 3.5 K. The [Fe(3+)-Gd(3+)] interaction is weakly antiferromagnetic. The isotropic nature of Gd(3+) allowed us to evaluate the exchange interaction (J = 0.77 cm(-)(1)).

  3. Thermoelectric power of RFeAsO (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poddar, Asok; Mukherjee, Sanjoy; Samanta, Tanmay; Saha, Rajat S.; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Dasgupta, Papri; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R.

    2009-01-01

    Thermoelectric powers of a series of compounds RFeAsO (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd) have been reported for temperatures ranging from 77 K up to room temperature. The behavior of S(T) in this temperature range can be divided into three regions. Every region has been fitted with mathematical functions of T. The physical significance of separate terms in the mathematical functions has been discussed. Some kind of universality has been observed between different members of the series.

  4. Thermoelectric power of RFeAsO (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poddar, Asok, E-mail: asok.poddar@saha.ac.i [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064, West Bengal (India); Mukherjee, Sanjoy [Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal (India); Samanta, Tanmay [Rishra High School, 15 Tilakram Dan Ghat Lane, Rishra, Hooghly, West Bengal (India); Saha, Rajat S.; Mukherjee, Rajarshi [Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal (India); Dasgupta, Papri; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064, West Bengal (India)

    2009-07-15

    Thermoelectric powers of a series of compounds RFeAsO (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd) have been reported for temperatures ranging from 77 K up to room temperature. The behavior of S(T) in this temperature range can be divided into three regions. Every region has been fitted with mathematical functions of T. The physical significance of separate terms in the mathematical functions has been discussed. Some kind of universality has been observed between different members of the series.

  5. Synthesis and magnetic properties of SmOOH crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samata, Hiroaki, E-mail: samata@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukaeminami, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-0022 (Japan); Hanioka, Masashi [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukaeminami, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-0022 (Japan); Ozawa, Tadashi C. [Materials Development Group, Superconducting Properties Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Samarium oxyhydroxide (SmOOH) crystals were synthesized using a flux method. The as-grown crystals were yellowish, transparent, and elongated with a maximum length of approximately 1.0 mm. SmOOH adopts a monoclinic structure in the space group P2{sub 1}/m with a=0.4356 nm, b=0.3766 nm, c=0.6139 nm, and β=108.464°. The magnetic susceptibility of the SmOOH crystals exhibited typical Van Vleck paramagnetism, and the experimental data at temperatures above 200 K were in close agreement with the calculated results using a spin-orbit coupling constant λ=443 K (308 cm{sup −1}). - Highlights: • SmOOH crystals were synthesized via flux method and characterized. • Magnetic susceptibilities above 200 K agreed with theoretical Van Vleck values. • Discrepancies were observed at lower temperatures based on the crystalline field.

  6. Combustion synthesis and characterization of MV0.5P0.5O4: Sm3+, Tm3+ (M = Gd, La, Y)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motloung, Selepe J.; Lephoto, Mantwa A.; Tshabalala, Kamohelo G.; Ntwaeaborwa, Odireleng M.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, GdV0.5P0.5O4: Sm3+, Tm3+, LaV0.5P0.5O4: Sm3+, Tm3+ and YV0.5P0.5O4: Sm3+, Tm3+ phosphor powders were prepared by solution combustion method using urea as a fuel. The phase purity, surface morphology, optical and photoluminescence properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The XRD results indicated that the prepared powders are of a single phase and crystallized in tetragonal structure for Gd and Y systems while monoclinic phase was observed for La system. SEM showed that the samples consisted of mixed structures. The estimated band gaps were 2.2, 2.4 and 2.3 eV for Y, Gd and La systems respectively. The photoluminescence results showed four emission peaks. One peak is assigned to 1G4 - 3H6 transition of Tm3+, and three other emission peaks are attributed to 6G5/2 - 6H5/2, 6G5/2 - 6H7/2 and 6G5/2 - 6H9/2 transitions of Sm3+. The photoluminescent intensity was the highest in the gadolinium system.

  7. Predictions of thermomagnetic properties of Laves phase compounds: TbAl2, GdAl2 and SmAl2 performed with ATOMIC MATTERS MFA computation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Rafał; Zygadło, Jakub

    2018-04-01

    Recent calculations of properties of TbAl2 GdAl2 and SmAl2 single crystals, performed with our new computation system called ATOMIC MATTERS MFA are presented. We applied localized electron approach to describe the thermal evolution of Fine Electronic Structure of Tb3+, Gd3+ and Sm3+ ions over a wide temperature range and estimate Magnetocaloric Effect (MCE). Thermomagnetic properties of TbAl2, GdAl2 and SmAl2 were calculated based on the fine electronic structure of the 4f8, 4f7 and 4f5 electronic configuration of the Tb3+ and Gd3+ and Sm3+ ions, respectively. Our calculations yielded: magnetic moment value and direction; single-crystalline magnetization curves in zero field and in external magnetic field applied in various directions m(T,Bext); the 4f-electronic components of specific heat c4f(T,Bext); and temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy and isothermal entropy change with external magnetic field - ΔS(T,Bext). The cubic universal CEF parameters values used for all CEF calculations was taken from literature and recalculated for universal cubic parameters set for the RAl2 series: A4 = +7.164 Ka04 and A6 = -1.038 Ka06. Magnetic properties were found to be anisotropic due to cubic Laves phase C15 crystal structure symmetry. These studies reveal the importance of multipolar charge interactions when describing thermomagnetic properties of real 4f electronic systems and the effectiveness of an applied self-consistent molecular field in calculations for magnetic phase transition simulation.

  8. Molecular electrophosphorescence in (Sm, Gd)-{beta}-diketonate complex blend for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, R., E-mail: fisicaplic@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica y Textil, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, UNI, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima 31, Peru (Peru); Cremona, M. [DIMAT - Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial, INMETRO, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, C.P. 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Teotonio, E.E.S. [Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, UFPB, C.P. 5093, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 5805-970 (Brazil); Brito, H.F. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, USP, C.P. 26077, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05599-970 (Brazil); Malta, O.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE, CEP 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    In this work the preparation and characterization of the triple-layer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using a mixture of the samarium and gadolinium {beta}-diketonate complexes [Sm{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}(TTA){sub 3}(TPPO){sub 2}] as emitting layer is reported. The OLED's devices contain 1-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-6-carboxyaldehyde-1, 1'-diphenylhydrazone (MTCD) as hole-transporting layer and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq{sub 3}) as electron transporting layer. The electroluminescence spectrum present emission narrow bands from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (where J=5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) characteristic of the Sm{sup 3+} ion. These sharp lines are overlapped with a broad band attributed to the electrophosphorescence from the T{sub 1}{yields}S{sub 0} transition in the ligand TTA. The intramolecular energy transfer is discussed and applied on the change of the emission color of the organic LEDs at different bias voltages. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samarium and gadolinium complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OLED with complex blend (Sm,Gd). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrophosphorescence emission detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application in OLED changing the color emission.

  9. Molecular electrophosphorescence in (Sm, Gd)-β-diketonate complex blend for OLED applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.; Cremona, M.; Teotonio, E.E.S.; Brito, H.F.; Malta, O.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the preparation and characterization of the triple-layer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using a mixture of the samarium and gadolinium β-diketonate complexes [Sm 0.5 Gd 0.5 (TTA) 3 (TPPO) 2 ] as emitting layer is reported. The OLED's devices contain 1-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-6-carboxyaldehyde-1, 1'-diphenylhydrazone (MTCD) as hole-transporting layer and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq 3 ) as electron transporting layer. The electroluminescence spectrum present emission narrow bands from the 4 G 5/2 → 6 H J transitions (where J=5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) characteristic of the Sm 3+ ion. These sharp lines are overlapped with a broad band attributed to the electrophosphorescence from the T 1 →S 0 transition in the ligand TTA. The intramolecular energy transfer is discussed and applied on the change of the emission color of the organic LEDs at different bias voltages. - Highlights: ► Samarium and gadolinium complexes. ► OLED with complex blend (Sm,Gd). ► Electrophosphorescence emission detection. ► Application in OLED changing the color emission.

  10. The new carbodiimide Li_2Gd_2Sr(CN_2)_5 having a crystal structure related to that of Gd_2(CN_2)_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unverfehrt, Leonid; Stroebele, Markus; Meyer, H. Juergen

    2013-01-01

    The new carbodiimide compounds Li_2RE_2Sr(CN_2)_5 (RE = Sm, Gd, Eu, Tb) were prepared by a straight forward solid state metathesis reaction of REF_3, SrF_2, and Li_2(CN_2) at around 600 C. The crystal structure of Li_2Gd_2Sr(CN_2)_5 was solved based on X-ray single-crystal diffraction data. Corresponding Li_2RE_2Sr(CN_2)_5 compounds were analyzed by isotypic indexing of their powder patterns. The crystal structure of Li_2Gd_2Sr(CN_2)_5 can be well related to that of Gd_2(CN_2)_3, because both structures are based on layered structures composed of close packed layers of [N=C=N]"2"- sticks, alternating with layers of metal ions. The crystal structure of Li_2Gd_2Sr(CN_2)_5 can be considered to contain an ABC layer sequence of [N = C=N]"2"- layers with the interlayer voids being occupied by (three) distinct types of cations. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Interband transitions in 106Pd, 152Sm, 152Gd and 182W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartashov, V.M.; Oborovskij, A.I.; Troitskaya, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    Internal transitions in 106 Pd, 152 Sm, 152 Gd, 182 W nuclei, observed during decay of 152,152m Eu, 182,183 Ta, 106m Ag, are studied. The experimental characteristics of E0-transitions and E0-components of E0+M1+E2 type transitions in the studied nuclei, relative intensities of internal conversion electron lines during 182 Ta decay, multipolar composition and forbidden factor for 182 W and 183 W low-energy transitions, characteristics of transitions are presented

  12. New neutron-rich isotope production in 154Sm+160Gd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep inelastic scattering in 154Sm+160Gd at energies above the Bass barrier is for the first time investigated with two different microscopic dynamics approaches: improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD model and time dependent Hartree–Fock (TDHF theory. No fusion is observed from both models. The capture pocket disappears for this reaction due to strong Coulomb repulsion and the contact time of the di-nuclear system formed in head-on collisions is about 700 fm/c at an incident energy of 440 MeV. The isotope distribution of fragments in the deep inelastic scattering process is predicted with the simulations of the latest ImQMD-v2.2 model together with a statistical code (GEMINI for describing the secondary decay of fragments. More than 40 extremely neutron-rich unmeasured nuclei with 58≤Z≤76 are observed and the production cross sections are at the order of μb to mb. The multi-nucleon transfer reaction of Sm+Gd could be an alternative way to synthesize new neutron-rich lanthanides which are difficult to be produced with traditional fusion reactions or fission of actinides.

  13. Platinum triangles in the Pt/Al framework of the intermetallic REPt6Al3 (RE = Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Stegemann, Frank; Renner, Konstantin; Janka, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    The compounds of the REPt 6 Al 3 series (RE = Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) were obtained by reaction of the elements via arc-melting. They were characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (NdPt 6 Al 3 : wR = 0.0432, 759 F 2 values, 33 variables) as well as by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The isostructural compounds crystallize with a new structure type in the trigonal crystal system with space group R anti 3c, twelve formula units in the unit cell, and lattice parameters of a = 752-755 and c = 3882-3945 pm. The crystal structure can be described by different slabs stacked along [001]. One layer features Pt 3 triangles, centering the cavities of a flat honeycomb RE layer that are arranged in a..ABCA ' B ' C ' .. sequence. The other layer consists of condensed hexagonal [Pt 6 Al 6 ] prisms, centered by Pt atoms, separating the before mentioned slabs. Magnetic measurements revealed that all rare-earth atoms are in the trivalent oxidation state, however, due to the low lanthanoide content magnetic ordering phenomena were observed only at low temperatures [SmPt 6 Al 3 : T C = 5.0(1) K; GdPt 6 Al 3 : T C = 7.3(1) K; TbPt 6 Al 3 : T N = 3.6(1) K]. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Microstructural analyses and critical current densities in the high-Tc superconductor system ReBa2Cu3OX, with RE = Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, G.; Seebacher, B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report on investigations into the impact of the rare earths (RE) as given in the title on the ceramic microstructure and the critical current density j c in the superconductor system REBa 2 Cu 3 O x . With RE = Sm, Eu, or Gd, the material is homogeneous in phase and crystallizes in platelets with maximum sizes of up to 350 μm. Material with RE = Y, Dy, or Ho exhibits grain sizes up to 500 μm, and a low amount of phase inhomogeneities. The critical currents measured are between 25 Acm -2 and 290 Acm -2 at 77 K, without external field. The highest values are found in systems with RE = Eu or Gd. (orig.) [de

  15. Síntesis hidrotermal de monocristales LnMn2O5 (Ln= Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Señarís Rodríguez, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten single crystals of the series LnMn2O5 (Ln= Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er were synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis in a single step and without subsequent thermal treatments from aqueous solutions of metals salts at 240 ºC. The obtained single crystals have a size of various micrometers and their morphology changes throughout the serie: they are polygonal in the case of the compounds with Ln= Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd and needle-like in the case of the compounds with Ln= Y, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er. After the analysis of the obtained products employing different conditions of synthesis we attributed the different morphology to a greater growth rate along the c axis when the smaller ions (Y, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er are involved, due to their better adaptation to the compound’s crystal structure.Se han conseguido preparar monocristales de 10 óxidos mixtos de la serie LnMn2O5 (Ln= Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er mediante síntesis hidrotermal optimizada, en un único paso y sin tratamientos térmicos posteriores partiendo de las correspondientes sales metálicas en disolución acuosa a 240 ºC. Los monocristales obtenidos son relativamente grandes, de varias micras y su morfología varía a lo largo de la serie: es poligonal en el caso de los compuestos de los lantánidos del inicio de la serie (Ln= Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu y Gd y acicular en el caso de los compuestos de Y y de los lantánidos del final de la serie (Ln= Tb, Dy, Ho y Er. Tras el análisis de los productos obtenidos empleando distintas condiciones de síntesis atribuimos la diferente morfología a una mayor velocidad de crecimiento cristalino a lo largo del eje c cuando intervienen los iones más pequeños (Y, Tb, Dy, Ho y Er debido a la mejor adaptación de éstos últimos a la estructura cristalina del compuesto.

  16. CW laser properties of Nd:GdYAG, Nd:LuYAG, and Nd:GdLuAG mixed crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, J. Q.; Xu, X. D.; Li, D. Z.; Zhou, D. H.; Wu, F.; Zhao, Z. W.; Xu, J.; Tang, D. Y.

    2011-10-01

    Three mixed crystals, Nd:GdYAG, Nd:LuYAG, and Nd:GdLuAG, were grown by Czochralski method. We report the continuous-wave (CW) Nd:GdYAG, Nd:LuYAG, and Nd:GdLuAG laser operation under laser diode pumping. The maximum output powers are 4.11, 5.31, and 7.47 W, with slope efficiency of 73.0, 55.3, and 57.1%, respectively. With replacing Lu3+ or Y3+ ions with large Gd3+ ions, the pump efficiency increases.

  17. β-Y(BO{sub 2}){sub 3}. A new member of the β-Ln(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} (Ln = Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu) structure family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Martin K.; Huppertz, Hubert [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie

    2017-07-01

    β-Y(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} was synthesized in a Walker-type multianvil module at 5.9 GPa/1000 C. The crystal structure has been elucidated through single-crystal X-ray diffraction. β-Y(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (no. 62) with the lattice parameters a = 15.886(2), b = 7.3860(6), and c = 12.2119(9) Aa. Its crystal structure will be discussed in the context of the isotypic lanthanide borates β-Ln(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} (Ln = Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu).

  18. The temperature dependence studies of rare-earth (Dy.sup.3+./sup., Sm.sup.3+./sup., Eu.sup.3+./sup. and Tb.sup.3+./sup.) activated Gd.sub.3./sub.Ga.sub.3./sub.Al.sub.2./sub.O.sub.12./sub. garnet single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartosiewicz, Karol; Babin, Vladimir; Beitlerová, Alena; Boháček, Pavel; Jurek, Karel; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 189, Sep (2017), s. 126-139 ISSN 0022-2313 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-15569S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316906 - LUMINET Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Gd3Ga3Al2O12 * rare earth dopants * energy transfer * thermal quenching * single crystal Sub ject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2016

  19. Charge disproportionation in (X0.6Sr0.4)0.99Fe0.8Co0.2O3-δ perovskites (X = La, Pr, Sm, Gd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Saadi, Souheil; Nielsen, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The change in crystal structure and the oxidation state in iron of iron-cobalt-based perovskites with different A-site cations is investigated by the use of powder XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The perovskites investigated are (X0.6Sr0.4)(0.99)Fe0.8Co0.2O3-delta, where X is La, Pr, Sm or Gd...

  20. Platinum triangles in the Pt/Al framework of the intermetallic REPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3} (RE = Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Stegemann, Frank; Renner, Konstantin [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Janka, Oliver [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Institut fuer Chemie, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg (Germany)

    2017-12-13

    The compounds of the REPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3} series (RE = Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) were obtained by reaction of the elements via arc-melting. They were characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (NdPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3}: wR = 0.0432, 759 F{sup 2} values, 33 variables) as well as by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The isostructural compounds crystallize with a new structure type in the trigonal crystal system with space group R anti 3c, twelve formula units in the unit cell, and lattice parameters of a = 752-755 and c = 3882-3945 pm. The crystal structure can be described by different slabs stacked along [001]. One layer features Pt{sub 3} triangles, centering the cavities of a flat honeycomb RE layer that are arranged in a..ABCA{sup '}B{sup '}C{sup '}.. sequence. The other layer consists of condensed hexagonal [Pt{sub 6}Al{sub 6}] prisms, centered by Pt atoms, separating the before mentioned slabs. Magnetic measurements revealed that all rare-earth atoms are in the trivalent oxidation state, however, due to the low lanthanoide content magnetic ordering phenomena were observed only at low temperatures [SmPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3}: T{sub C} = 5.0(1) K; GdPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3}: T{sub C} = 7.3(1) K; TbPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3}: T{sub N} = 3.6(1) K]. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Calculations of the Low-Lying Structures in the Even-Even Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Youn; Lee, J. H.; Lee, Young Jun

    2018-05-01

    The nuclear structure of deformed nuclei has been studied using the interacting boson model (IBM). In this study, energy levels and E2 transition probabilities were determined for even nuclei in the Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy chains which have a transition characteristic between the rotational, SU(3) and vibrational, U(5) limits. The structure of the nuclei exhibits a slight breaking of the SU(3) symmetry in the direction of U(5), and therefore, we add the d-boson number operator n d , which is the main term of the U(5) symmetric Hamiltonian, to the SU(3) Hamiltonian of the IBM. The calculated results for low-lying energy levels and E2 transition rates in Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy isotopes are in reasonably good agreement with known experimental results.

  2. Synthesis under ambient pressure and tri-axial magnetic orientation in REBa2Cu4O8 (RE = Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, M.; Horii, S.; Haruta, M.; Maeda, T.; Shimoyama, J.

    2011-01-01

    REBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 (RE124) was synthesized by a flux method in ambient pressure for RE = Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er. Tri-axial orientation of RE124 was achieved in a modulated rotating magnetic field of 10 T. Orientation axes in RE124 depended on the type of RE. Magnetization axes were determined from magnetic anisotropies of Cu and RE ions. We report the rare-earth (RE)-dependent magnetization axes of REBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 , which was synthesized by a flux method under ambient pressure, using powder samples tri-axially oriented in a modulated rotating magnetic field of 10 T. By optimizing the growth temperature and cooling rate, RE124 crystals were successfully grown for RE = Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, and Er. From the X-ray diffraction measurement, the magnetically oriented directions were largely dependent on the type of RE ions of RE124. However, the tri-axial magnetic anisotropies of RE124 could be qualitatively understood in terms of the magnitude relation between the single-ion magnetic anisotropy of RE 3+ ions and the magnetic anisotropy generated by the CuO 2 plane and Cu-O chain. For the practical use of this magneto-scientific process, the control of magnetization axes and tri-axial magnetic anisotropies through crystallochemical control is indispensable.

  3. Electronic and magnetic properties of SmCrSb3 and GdCrSb3: A first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandeep; Ghimire, M.P.; Thapa, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The density of states (DOS) and the magnetic moments of SmCrSb 3 and GdCrSb 3 have been studied by first principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). For the exchange-correlation potential, the local-spin density approximations with correlation energy (LSDA+U) method have been used. Total and partial DOS have been computed using the WIEN2k code. DOS result shows the exchange-splittings of Cr-3d and rare-earth (R) 4f states electrons, which are responsible for the ground state ferromagnetic (FM) behavior of the systems. The FM behavior of these systems is strongly influenced by the average number of Cr-3d and Sm (Gd) 4f-electrons. The effective moment of SmCrSb 3 is found to be 7.07 μ B while for GdCrSb 3 it is 8.27 μ B . The Cr atom plays a significant role on the magnetic properties due to the hybridization between Cr-3d and Sb-5p states. - Highlights: → DOS and the magnetic moments of SmCrSb 3 and GdCrSb 3 are studied by full-FP-LAPW method. → Exchange splitting of eg and t2g of Cr-3d states and the rare-earth 4f state electrons are responsible for ground state ferromagnetism. → Rare-earth magnetic moments are greater than Cr moment indicating presence of 4f states.

  4. Peculiar features of thermal emission of GdB4 and GdB6 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrovskij, E.K.; Taran, A.A.; Kovalev, A.V.; Tkachenko, V.F.; Dudnik, E.M.; Matvienko, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoemission parameters of single crystals (410) GdB 4 and (110) GdB 6 are studied. Work function is calculated by total current. It is stated that work function of GdB 6 within temperature range of 1500-1880 K after 80 h of annealing varies from 2.95 to 3.10 eV practically with the same temperature coefficient as GdB 4 , i.e. 4.1x10 -4 eV/K. It is shown that single crystal gadolinium hexaboride during the high-temperature annealing in the surface region (∼70 mm) is transformed into gadolinium tetraboride. Influence of free air has been first studied on the GdB 4 emissivity which is determined to increase to p=1.3x10 -2 Pa within the range of T=1640-1840 K

  5. Electric and magnetic properties of Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}R{sub 6} (R=Sm, Gd, Ho) alloys in liquid and amorphous states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, V. [Ural State Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Svec, P.; Svec, P.; Janickovic, D. [Institute of Physics SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Mikhailov, V. [Ural State Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Sidorova, E. [Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Son, L. [Ural State Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}Sm{sub 6}, Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}Gd{sub 6} and Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}Ho{sub 6} alloys are studied in a wide temperature range including amorphous, crystalline and liquid states. The negative value of resistivity temperature coefficient in amorphous ribbons is explained by the structural separation starting much before the beginning of their crystallization. The effective magnetic moments per Gd and Ho atoms are found to be essentially lower than for R{sup 3+} ions. The results are discussed in supposition of directed bonds between rare earth and aluminum atoms. - Highlights: • Electric and magnetic properties of Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}R{sub 6} alloys are studied experimentally. • The negative value of rtc in amorphous ribbons is explained. • The effective magnetic moments per Gd and Ho are found to be lower than for R{sup 3+} ions.

  6. Luminescent GdVO_4:Sm"3"+ quantum dots enhance power conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by Förster resonance energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishnoi, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Sharma, Gauri D.; Chand, Suresh; Sharma, Chhavi; Kumar, Mahesh; Haranath, D.; Naqvi, Sheerin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from samarium-doped luminescent gadolinium orthovanadate (GdVO_4:Sm"3"+) quantum dots (QDs) to polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) polymer. The photoluminescence emission spectrum of GdVO_4:Sm"3"+ QDs overlaps with the absorption spectrum of PTB7, leading to FRET from GdVO_4:Sm"3"+ to PTB7, and significant enhancements in the charge-carrier density of excited and polaronic states of PTB7 are observed. This was confirmed by means of femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The FRET from GdVO_4:Sm"3"+ QDs to PTB7 led to a remarkable increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PTB7:GdVO_4:Sm"3"+:PC_7_1BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C_7_1-butyric acid methyl ester) polymer solar cells. The PCE in optimized ternary blend PTB7:GdVO_4:Sm"3"+:PC_7_1BM (1:0.1:1.5) is increased to 8.8% from 7.2% in PTB7:PC_7_1BM. This work demonstrates the potential of rare-earth based luminescent QDs in enhancing the PCE of polymer solar cells.

  7. Mixing of the odd-parity excitations in Nd, Sm and Gd nuclei with 86 and 87 neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammaren, Esko.

    1978-08-01

    The low- and medium-spin structure of the four nuclei 148 Sm 86 , 147 Nd 87 , 149 Sm 87 and 151 Gd 87 has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The low-spin states of 151 Gd were obtained in the EC and β + decay of 151 Tb. The proposed level scheme, based on gamma-gamma coincidence and conversion-electron measurements, contains several new energy levels, among them a 5/2 - state at 427 keV. Nanosecond lifetimes of the states in 147 Nd were studied using the reaction 146 Nd(d,pγ) 147 Nd with 10 MeV deuterons. The reactions sup(148,150)Nd( 3 He,xn) at Esup(3sub(He)) = 19 - 27 MeV were used to study excited states in the nuclei 148 Sm and 149 Sm. Gamma-ray excitation fuctions, angular and time distributions, gamma-gamma coincidences and conversion electrons were measured. The presence of the Z = 64 closed proton core is proposed to be important for the structure of the even and odd isotones considered. Calculations performed for 148 Sm using the interacting-boson-approximation model and related to the N = 82, Z = 64 and N = 82, Z = 50 cores are discussed. The properties of the negative-parity low-spin states of the N = 87 isotones are explained with an axial particle-plus-rotor model. The calculated B(M1) and B(E2) probabilities are compared with a compilation of experimental values. Most of the spectroscopic factors of 149 Sm are reproduced well in the calculation. The consequences of nonaxiality are discussed for the fsub(7/2)- and hsub(9/2)-based excitations. The standard Meyer-ter-Vehn model calculation indicates different asymmetries for the fsub(7/2) and hsub(9/2) shells. (author)

  8. Enhanced photoluminescence of Sm{sup 3+}/Bi{sup 3+} co-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} phosphors by combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guangsheng; Zhang Ying [Institute of Micro-system Physics, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China); Yin Jiang [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, W.F. [Institute of Micro-system Physics, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)], E-mail: wfzhang@henu.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+},Bi{sup 3+} powders were prepared by a combustion method. Their structures were determined using X-ray diffraction. UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectra were investigated for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+},Bi{sup 3+} at different annealing temperatures and different doping concentrations. The emission spectra of all samples presented the characteristic emission narrow lines arising from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (J=5/2, 7/2, and 9/2) of Sm{sup 3+} ions upon excitation with UV irradiation. The emission intensity of Sm{sup 3+} ions was largely enhanced with introducing Bi{sup 3+} ions into Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+} and the maximum occurred at a Bi{sup 3+} concentration of 0.5 mol%. The relevant mechanisms were discussed with the sensitization theory by Dexter and the aggregation behavior of Bi{sup 3+} ions.

  9. Ternary rhombohedral Laves phases RE_2Rh_3Ga (RE = Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Er)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Stefan; Benndorf, Christopher; Heletta, Lukas; Poettgen, Rainer; Eckert, Hellmut; Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The ordered Laves phases RE_2Rh_3Ga (RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Er) were synthesized by arc-melting of the elements and subsequent annealing. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). They crystallize with the rhombohedral Mg_2Ni_3Si type structure, space group R3m. Three structures were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: a=557.1(1), c=1183.1(2), wR2=0.0591, 159 F"2 values, 10 variables for Y_2Rh_3Ga, a=562.5(2), c=1194.4(2) pm, wR2=0.0519, 206 F"2 values, 11 variables for Ce_2Rh_3Ga and a=556.7(2), c=1184.1(3) pm, wR2=0.0396, 176 F"2 values, 11 variables for Tb_2Rh_3Ga. The Rh_3Ga tetrahedra are condensed via common corners and the large cavities left by the network are filled by the rare earth atoms. The RE_2Rh_3Ga Laves phases crystallize with a translationengleiche subgroup of the cubic RERh_2 Laves phases with MgCu_2 type. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal Pauli paramagnetism for Y_2Rh_3Ga and La_2Rh_3Ga. Ce_2Rh_3Ga shows intermediate cerium valence while all other RE_2Rh_3Ga phases are Curie-Weiss paramagnets which order magnetically at low temperatures. The "8"9Y and "7"1Ga solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the diamagnetic representative Y_2Rh_3Ga show well-defined single resonances in agreement with an ordered bulk phase. In comparison to the binary Laves phase YRh_2 a strongly increased "8"9Y resonance frequency is observed owing to a higher s-electron spin density at the "8"9Y nuclei as proven by density of states (DOS) calculations.

  10. Investigations on the determination of traces of some rare earths (Eu, Sm, Gd, Y) in oxides of rare earths (Y2O3, Sm2O3, Gd2O3) by emission spectrography in d.c. arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, K.; Gajek, M.; Luan, P.

    1978-01-01

    The evaporation of traces and matrices of rare earth elements was investigated in different atmospheres. It was found, that low-boiling rare earths elements, because of their extended formation of carbides evaporate more slowly than high-boiling rare earths elements. The evaporation of the traces depends on the matrices. 3 cases for the determination of traces of rare earths elements in oxides of other rare earths elements are derived from the results of the evaporation: Low- to high-boiling traces of rare earths elements in low-boiling matrices of rare earths elements, low-boiling traces in medium- to high-boiling matrices, and medium- to high-boiling traces in medium- to high-boiling matrices. The results of the determination are: in Y 2 O 3 : 14 ppm Sm, 2 ppm Eu; in Gd 2 O 3 : 18 ppm Y, 3 ppm Sm, 2 ppm Eu; in Sm 2 O 3 : 70 ppm Y, 370 ppm Gd, 16 ppm Eu. (author)

  11. Magnetic properties of the germanides RE{sub 3}Pt{sub 4}Ge{sub 6} (RE=Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Eilers-Rethwisch, Matthias; Renner, Konstantin; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    2017-07-01

    The germanides RE{sub 3}Pt{sub 4}Ge{sub 6} (RE=Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy) have been synthesized by arc-melting of the elements followed by inductive annealing to improve the crystallinity and allow for structural order. The compounds have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction; additionally the structure of Y{sub 3}Pt{sub 4}Ge{sub 6} has been refined from single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data. It exhibits a (3+1)D modulated structure, indicating isotypism with Ce{sub 3}Pt{sub 4}Ge{sub 6}. The crystal structure can be described as an intergrowth between YIrGe{sub 2}- and CaBe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}-type slabs along [100]. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements showed Pauli paramagnetism for Y{sub 3}Pt{sub 4}Ge{sub 6} and Curie-Weiss paramagnetism for Pr{sub 3}Pt{sub 4}Ge{sub 6} and Nd{sub 3}Pt{sub 4}Ge{sub 6}. Sm{sub 3}Pt{sub 4}Ge{sub 6} exhibits van Vleck paramagnetism, while antiferromagnetic ordering at T{sub N}=8.1(1) K and T{sub N}=11.0(1) K is observed for Gd{sub 3}Pt{sub 4}Ge{sub 6} and Tb{sub 3}Pt{sub 4}Ge{sub 6}, respectively.

  12. Thermochemical properties of lanthanoid-iron-perovskite at high temperatures. [La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, T; Kitayama, K; Sugihara, T [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Kimizuka, N

    1975-06-01

    The standard Gibbs energy of formation of C/sup -/FeO/sub 3/(C/sup -/=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy) from metallic iron, C/sub 2//sup -/O/sub 3/, and oxygen has been determined at temperatures from 1473 to 1673 K. Based on the free-energy data, the heat of reaction and the entropy change resulting from the reaction have been calculated. The values of the heat of reaction of LaFeO/sub 3/, NdFeO/sub 3/, SmFeO/sub 3/, EuFeO/sub 3/, and GdFeO/sub 3/ (the first group) were identical, - 107 kcal/mol, at the present temperature interval. However, the values of the heat of reaction of TbFeO/sub 3/ and DyFeO/sub 3/ (the second group) decreased with an increase in the temperature. The entropy change of each reaction in the first group was constant, independent of the temperature, and each value decreased in the sequence from LaFeO/sub 3/ to GdFeO/sub 3/. The entropy change of the second group decreased with an increase in the temperature. The change of the standard Gibbs energy was intimately related to the ionic radii of C/sup -/-ions, and the relationship between the Gibbs energy and the tolerance factor has been clarified.

  13. Transition to intermediate valence state and x-ray photoemission in Sm/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagna, M.; Chui, S.T.; Wertheim, G.K.; Tosatti, E.

    1976-01-01

    We report a systematic x-ray photoemission study of the alloys Sm 1 /sub -//subx/Gd/subx/S for 0 2+ → Sm 3+ photoemission line shape using a model which has some similarities with the Jaccarino-Walker model for magnetic alloys. It assumes the existence of only two different kinds of Sm 2+ ions in Sm 1 /sub -//subx/Gd/subx/S for x approximately-less-than 16%. We discuss possible reasons for the fact that Gd does not show the usual clustering effects known to occur in many substitutional rare-earth alloys. Lattice-constant measurements for various substituents further illustrate the importance of electronic effects in the phase transition

  14. Peculiarities of component interaction in {Gd, Er}-V-Sn Ternary systems at 870 K and crystal structure of RV6Sn6 stannides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaka, L.; Stadnyk, Yu.; Romaka, V.V.; Demchenko, P.; Stadnyshyn, M.; Konyk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → {Gd, Er}-V-Sn ternary systems at 870 K are characterized by formation of stannides with general compositions RV 6 Sn 6 . → Isostructural RV 6 Sn 6 compounds were also found with Y, Dy, Ho, Tm, and Lu. → The crystal structure of RV 6 Sn 6 compounds was determined by powder diffraction method. → Structural analysis showed that RV 6 Sn 6 compounds (R = Gd, Dy-Tm, Lu) are disordered; YV 6 Sn 6 is characterized by structure ordering. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Gd-V-Sn and Er-V-Sn ternary systems were studied at 870 K by means of X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. Both Gd-V-Sn and Er-V-Sn systems are characterized by formation of one ternary compound at investigated temperature, with stoichiometry RV 6 Sn 6 (SmMn 6 Sn 6 -type, space group P6/mmm, a = 0.55322(3) nm, c = 0.91949(7) nm for Gd, a = 0.55191(2) nm, c = 0.91869(8) nm for Er). Solubility of the third component in the binary compounds was not observed. Compounds with the SmMn 6 Sn 6 -type were also found with Dy, Ho, Tm, and Lu, while YV 6 Sn 6 compound crystallizes in HfFe 6 Ge 6 structure type. All investigated compounds are the first ternary stannides with rare earth elements and vanadium.

  15. Crystal growth and optical properties of Sm:CaNb2O6 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Juqing; Xu Xiaodong; Xia Changtai; Zeng Huidan; Cheng Yan; Li Dongzhen; Zhou Dahua; Wu Feng; Cheng Jimeng; Xu Jun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sm:CaNb 2 O 6 single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. ► Thermal expansion coefficients and J–O parameters were calculated. ► We found that this crystal had high quantum efficiency of 97%. - Abstract: Sm:CaNb 2 O 6 single crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method. Its high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, optical absorption, emission spectroscopic as well as lifetime have been studied. Thermal expansion coefficients (α), J–O parameters (Ω i ), radiative lifetime (τ rad ), branching ratios (β) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ e ) were calculated. The quantum efficiency (η) was calculated to be 97%. The intense peak emission cross section at 610, 658 nm were calculated to be 2.40 × 10 −21 , 2.42 × 10 −21 cm 2 . These results indicate that Sm:CaNb 2 O 6 crystal has potential use in visible laser and photonic devices area.

  16. Synthesis RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R = Gd and Sm) nano- and microstructures by a simple hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Gangqiang, E-mail: zgq2006@snnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liu Peng [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Nano-materials and Technology, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Ge Bao [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liu Yun; Miao Hongyan; Tan Guoqiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Single-phase RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R = Gd and Sm) nano- and microstructures have been successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process at 250 deg. C for 24 h using NaOH as mineralizer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selective area electron diffraction patterns (SAED) were used to characterize the as-synthesized GdMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} and SmMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} samples. The effect of NaOH concentration and the molar ratio of Mn{sup 2+}/Mn{sup 7+} on the morphology and size of the final products was studied, and a possible formation mechanism of RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R = Gd and Sm) nanoplates and nanorods under hydrothermal conditions was proposed.

  17. The Gd-Co-Al system at 870/1070 K as a representative of the rare earth-Co-Al family and new rare-earth cobalt aluminides: Crystal structure and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Garshev, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Yuan, Fang; Yao, Jinlei; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The Gd-Co-Al system has been investigated at 870/1070 K by X-ray and elemental EDS analyses. The existence of the known compounds Gd2Co3Al9 (Y2Co3Ga9-type), Gd3Co4.5Al11.5 (Gd3Co4.6Al11) (Gd3Ru4Al12-type), Gd3Co6-7.4Al3-1.6 (CeNi3-type), GdCo1.15-0.65Al0.85-1.35 (MgZn2-type), Gd2Co2Al (Mo2NiB2-type) and Gd3Co3.5-3.25Al0.5-0.75 (W3CoB3-type) has been confirmed at 870/1070 K. Structure types have been determined for Gd2Co6Al19 (U2Co6Al19-type), Gd7Co6Al7 (Pr7Co6Al7-type), Gd6Co2-2.21Al1-0.79 (Ho6Co2Ga-type) and Gd14Co3.2Al2.8 (Gd14Co2.58Al3.42 at 970 K) (Lu14Co3In3-type). The structures of Gd6Co2Al, Gd6Co2.21Al0.79 and Gd14Co2.58Al3.42 flux-grown at 970 K have been refined from the single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Additionally, new ternary compounds Gd2Co5.7-5.3Al1.3-1.7 (Er2Co7-type) and Gd58Co20Al22 (unknown type structure) have been identified. Quasi-binary solid solutions were detected for Gd2Co17, GdCo5, Gd2Co7, GdCo3, GdCo2 and GdAl2 at 870/1070 K, while no appreciable solubility was observed for the other binary compounds in the Gd-Co-Al system. Magnetic properties of the Gd2Co3Al9, Gd3Co4.6Al11, Gd7Co6Al7, Gd6Co2.2Al0.8 and Gd14Co2.58Al3.42 compounds have been studied and are presented in this work. Gd6Co2.2Al0.8, Gd3Co4.6Al11, Gd7Co6Al7 and Gd14Co2.58Al3.42 order ferromagnetically, while Gd2Co3Al9 displays antiferromagnetic transition. Additionally, {Y, Sm, Tb - Tm}2Co6Al19 (U2Co6Al19-type), Yb2Co3Al9 (Y2Co3Ga9-type), {Y, Sm, Tm, Yb}3Co4.6Al11 (Gd3Ru4Al12-type) and Tb7Co6Al7 (Pr7Co6Al7-type) compounds have been synthesized and investigated.

  18. New look at magnetism in single-crystal Gd-Y alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Legvold, S.; Beaudry, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and specific-heat measurements have been made on a number of polycrystalline and single-crystal samples of Gd-rich Gd-Y alloys. It has been found (i) that samples with more than 30 at. % Y exhibit a helical structure phase; (ii) that samples between 10 and 30 at. % Y exhibit two different Curie-Weiss regimes leading to ''double'' ferromagnetism; and (iii) that samples with less than 10 at. % Y have Gd-like behavior

  19. General synthesis and structural evolution of a layered family of Ln8(OH)20Cl4 x nH2O (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Y).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Fengxia; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Ma, Renzhi; Xin, Hao; Tanaka, Masahiko; Izumi, Fujio; Iyi, Nobuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2008-12-03

    The synthesis process and crystal structure evolution for a family of stoichiometric layered rare-earth hydroxides with general formula Ln(8)(OH)(20)Cl(4) x nH(2)O (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Y; n approximately 6-7) are described. Synthesis was accomplished through homogeneous precipitation of LnCl(3) x xH(2)O with hexamethylenetetramine to yield a single-phase product for Sm-Er and Y. Some minor coexisting phases were observed for Nd(3+) and Tm(3+), indicating a size limit for this layered series. Light lanthanides (Nd, Sm, Eu) crystallized into rectangular platelets, whereas platelets of heavy lanthanides from Gd tended to be of quasi-hexagonal morphology. Rietveld profile analysis revealed that all phases were isostructural in an orthorhombic layered structure featuring a positively charged layer, [Ln(8)(OH)(20)(H(2)O)(n)](4+), and interlayer charge-balancing Cl(-) ions. In-plane lattice parameters a and b decreased nearly linearly with a decrease in the rare-earth cation size. The interlamellar distance, c, was almost constant (approximately 8.70 A) for rare-earth elements Nd(3+), Sm(3+), and Eu(3+), but it suddenly decreased to approximately 8.45 A for Tb(3+), Dy(3+), Ho(3+), and Er(3+), which can be ascribed to two different degrees of hydration. Nd(3+) typically adopted a phase with high hydration, whereas a low-hydration phase was preferred for Tb(3+), Dy(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+), and Tm(3+). Sm(3+), Eu(3+), and Gd(3+) samples were sensitive to humidity conditions because high- and low-hydration phases were interconvertible at a critical humidity of 10%, 20%, and 50%, respectively, as supported by both X-ray diffraction and gravimetry as a function of the relative humidity. In the phase conversion process, interlayer expansion or contraction of approximately 0.2 A also occurred as a possible consequence of absorption/desorption of H(2)O molecules. The hydration difference was also evidenced by refinement results. The number of coordinated water

  20. Photoluminescence characteristics of reddish-orange Eu{sup 3+} or Sm{sup 3+} singly-doped and Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} co-doped KZnGd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jun Ho; Bandi, Vengala Rao; Grandhe, Bhaskar Kumar; Jang, Ki Wan; Lee, Ho Sueb [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Soung Soo [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jung Hyun [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Eu{sup 3+} or Sm{sup 3+} singly-doped and Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} co-doped KZnGd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors were synthesized by using a conventional solid state reaction method at 750 .deg. C. The emission spectra of KZnGd{sub 1-x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+}{sub x} with {lambda}{sub ex} = 395 nm and KZnGd{sub 1-y}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+}{sub y} with {lambda}{sub ex} = 403 nm phosphors showed intense {sup 5}D{sub 0} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 1}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} emission transitions at 595 nm and 599 nm, respectively. The optimum relative intensity of the KZnGd{sub 1-x-y}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+}{sub x} , Sm{sup 3+}{sub y} phosphor was obtained for the doping concentrations of (x = 0.09, y = 0.01). In addition, the temperature dependent luminescence intensity of the synthesized phosphors was investigated and the thermal stability of the KZnGd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor was found to be higher than that of standard YAG:Ce{sup 3+} and KZnGd{sub 1-x-y}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+}{sub x} Sm{sup 3+}{sub y} under near ultra-violet (NUV) light emitting diode excitation (LED). Therefore, we suggest that Eu{sup 3+} or Sm{sup 3+} singly-doped and Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} co-doped KZnGd(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors should be efficient for different red-color-emitting display device applications and NUV-LED-based white-light-emitting diodes.

  1. Study of the R-(Zr,W)-(O,N) (R = Y, Nd, Sm, Gd, Yb) oxynitride system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessier, Franck, E-mail: Franck.Tessier@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , equipe ' Verres et Ceramiques' , Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Maillard, Pascal [UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , equipe ' Verres et Ceramiques' , Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Orhan, Emmanuelle [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et Traitements de Surface, UMR CNRS 6638, Universite de Limoges, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France); Chevire, Francois [UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , equipe ' Verres et Ceramiques' , Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    The replacement of tantalum by the couple Zr/W within the RTa-O-N systems (R = Y, Nd, Sm, Gd, Yb), enables the preparation of novel oxide and oxynitride phases in the R-Zr-W-O-N system. R{sub 2}Zr{sub 2-x}W{sub x}O{sub 7+x} oxides exhibit the fluorite-type (x < 0.9) and scheelite (x {approx} 1) structures. Corresponding oxynitride compositions are of the fluorite-type and show different colors, for example in the case of ytterbium: pale yellow (x = 0.2 or 0.25), green (x = 0.5-0.8) and brown for the tungsten-rich samples (x = 0.9, 1). Photocatalytic activity measurements have been performed to investigate the overall water splitting behavior of these colored phases.

  2. Field and sample history dependence of the compensation temperature in Sm0.97Gd0.03Al2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, U.V.; Rakhecha, V.C.; Sumithra, S.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grover, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    We present magnetization data on three polycrystalline specimens of Sm 0.97 Gd 0.03 Al 2 : (1) as-cast (grainy texture), (2) powder, and (3) re-melted fast-quenched (plate). The data are presented for nominally zero- (ZFC) and high-field-cooling (HFC) histories. A zero cross-over in magnetization curve at some temperature T=T 0 was seen in ZFC data on grainy and powder samples, but not in the plate sample. At fields surpassing magnetocrystalline anisotropy, a 4f magnetic moment flip was still evidenced by HFC data in all samples at a compensation temperature T comp , which must necessarily be treated as distinct from T 0 (T 0 may not even exist). Proper understanding of T comp should take account of thermomagnetic history effects

  3. Determination of diffusion coefficients for sulfide ions in solid electrolytes on the basis of BaSm2S4 and CaGd2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurlov, I.S.; Ushakova, Yu.N.; Medvedeva, O.V.; Kalinina, L.A.; Shirokova, G.I.; Ananchenko, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    Coefficients of self-diffusion and coefficients of diffusion of the sulfur ion in solid electrolytes BaSm 2 S 4 and CaGd 2 S 4 are determined with recourse to methods of conductometry and potentiostatic chronoamperometry. A vacancy mechanism for the defect formation in solid solutions on the basis of barium thiosamarate and calcium thiogadolynate is proposed [ru

  4. Superconductivity in Sm-doped CaFe2As2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Yun, Chen; Bin-Bin, Ruan; Jia, Yu; Qi, Guo; Xiao-Chuan, Wang; Qing-Ge, Mu; Bo-Jin, Pan; Tong, Liu; Gen-Fu, Chen; Zhi-An, Ren

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the Sm-doping single crystals Ca1 - x Sm x Fe2As2 (x = 0 ˜ 0.2) were prepared by the CaAs flux method, and followed by a rapid quenching treatment after the high temperature growth. The samples were characterized by structural, resistive, and magnetic measurements. The successful Sm-substitution was revealed by the reduction of the lattice parameter c, due to the smaller ionic radius of Sm3+ than Ca2+. Superconductivity was observed in all samples with onset T c varying from 27 K to 44 K upon Sm-doping. The coexistence of a collapsed phase transition and the superconducting transition was found for the lower Sm-doping samples. Zero resistivity and substantial superconducting volume fraction only happen in higher Sm-doping crystals with the nominal x > 0.10. The doping dependences of the c-axis length and onset T c were summarized. The high-T c observed in these quenched crystals may be attributed to simultaneous tuning of electron carriers doping and strain effect caused by lattice reduction of Sm-substitution. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474339), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2010CB923000 and 2011CBA00100), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07020100).

  5. Crystal structure and electronic states of Co and Gd ions in a Gd0.4Sr0.6CoO2.85 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platunov, M. S.; Dudnikov, V. A.; Orlov, Yu. S.; Kazak, N. V.; Solovyov, L. A.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.; Veligzhanin, A. A.; Dorovatovskii, P. V.; Vereshchagin, S. N.; Shaykhutdinov, K. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra have been measured at the Co K-edge and Gd L 3-edge in GdCoO3 and Gd0.4Sr0.6CoO2.85 cobaltites. The effect of Sr substitution on the crystal structure and electronic and magnetic states of Co3+ ions in a Gd0.4Sr0.6CoO2.85 single crystal has been analyzed. The XANES measurements at the Co K-edge have not showed a noticeable shift of the absorption edge with an increase in the concentration of Sr. This indicates that the effective valence of cobalt does not change. An increase in the intensity of absorption at the Gd L 3-edge is due to an increase in the degree of hybridization of the Gd(5 d) and O(2 p) states. The effect of hole doping on the magnetic properties results in the appearance of the ferromagnetic component and in a significant increase in the magnetic moment.

  6. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanide(III) thioarsenates [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n (Ln==Sm, Eu, Gd) and [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] (Ln==Tb, Dy, Ho)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fang; Tang, Chunying; Chen, Ruihong; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dingxian

    2013-01-01

    Solvothermal reactions of Ln 2 O 3 , As and S in diethylenetriamine (dien) at 170 °C for 6 days afforded two structural types of lanthanide thioarsenates with the general formulae [Ln(dien) 2 (μ-1κ,2κ 2 -AsS 4 )] n [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3)] and [Ln(dien) 2 (1κ 2 -AsS 4 )] [Ln=Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6)]. The Ln 2 O 3 oxides were converted to [Ln(dien) 2 ] 3+ complex units in the solvothermal reactions. The As atom binds four S atoms, forming a tetrahedral AsS 4 unit. In 1−3, the AsS 4 units interconnect the [Ln(dien) 2 ] 3+ cations via Ln−S bonds as tridentate μ-1κ,2κ 2 -AsS 4 bridging ligands, resulting in the neutral coordination polymers [Ln(dien) 2 (μ-1κ,2κ 2 -AsS 4 )] n (Ln1). In 4−6, the AsS 4 units coordinate with the Ln 3+ ion of [Ln(dien) 2 ] 3+ as 1κ 2 -AsS 4 chelating ligands to form neutral coordination compounds [Ln(dien) 2 (1κ 2 -AsS 4 )] (Ln2). The Ln 3+ ions are in nine- and eight-coordinated environments in Ln1 and Ln2, respectively. The formation of Ln1 and Ln2 is related with ionic size of the Ln 3+ ions. Optical absorption spectra showed that 1−6 have potential use as semiconductors with the band gaps in the range 2.18−3.21 eV. - Graphical abstract: Two types of Ln-thioarsenates [Ln(dien) 2 (μ-1κ,2κ 2 -AsS 4 )] n and [Ln(dien) 2 (1κ 2 -AsS 4 )] were prepared by solvothermal methods and the soft Lewis basic AsS 4 3– ligand to Ln(III) centers with polyamine co-ligand was obtained. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Lanthanide thioarsenates were prepared by solvothermal methods. • The soft Lewis basic AsS 4 ligand coordinate Ln 3+ ions with coexistence polyamine ligands. • Two structural types of Ln-thioarsenates with structural turnover at Tb were obtained along Ln series. • The Ln-thioarsenates are potential semiconductors with optical band gaps in the range 2.18−3.21 eV

  7. Weak ferromagnetism in Re0.67Ca0.33FeO3 (Re=La, Sm, Gd) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangong; Kou Xinli; Qin Yong; He Haiying

    2003-01-01

    Perovskite-type complex ferrite Re 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 (Re=La, Sm, Gd) nanoparticles of nearly the same particle size were prepared using sol-gel method. The influence of rare-earth ions on weak ferromagnetism in the Re 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles has been studied. The spontaneous magnetization M s of the Sm 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles is greater than that of Gd 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles; and M s of Gd 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles is greater than that of La 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles. The ferromagnetic component arising from the Fe sublattice increases with the decreasing rare-earth ionic radii. The magnetization of the rare-earth ions in the Sm 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles is smaller than that in the Gd 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles. The influences of the geometric and intrinsic magnetic characters of rare-earth ions as well as the particle size of the nanoparticles on weak ferromagnetism are discussed

  8. Orange-red emitting Gd2Zr2O7:Sm3+: Structure-property correlation, optical properties and defect spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Reghukumar, C.; Sudarshan, K.; Ghosh, P. S.; Pathak, Nimai; Kadam, R. M.

    2018-05-01

    Local structure analysis of dopant ion, understanding host to dopant energy transfer dynamics and defects characterization in a doped material which plays an important role in the designing a highly efficient opto-electronic material. In this connection a new Sm3+ doped Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlore material was synthesized using gel-combustion technique and was characterized systematically using X-ray diffraction (XRD), time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy (TRPLS), positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and density functional theory (DFT) based ab-initio calculation. Based on DFT site selective energetics calculation and luminescence decay measurement, it was observed that the Sm3+ was distributed at both Gd3+ and Zr4+ site with higher Sm3+ fraction at the Gd3+ site. PALS was used to probe the presence of defects in the phosphor. In this work intense orange-red emission is realized through manipulating the energy transfer from host defect emission (oxygen vacancies) to Sm3+ which allows color emission from green in undoped to orange-red in doped samples. Effect of dopant concentration and annealing temperature was probed using TRPLS and PALS. These all information is highly important for researcher looking to achieve pyrochlore based phosphor materials with high quantum yield.

  9. Observation of magnetization reversal behavior in Sm0.9Gd0.1Cr0.85Mn0.15O3 orthochromites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Neeraj; Joby, Jostin P.; Kumar, Surendra; Coondoo, Indrani; Vasundhara, M.; Kumar, Nitu; Palai, Ratnakar; Singhal, Rahul; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2018-05-01

    Impact of co-doping (Gd and Mn) on the magnetic properties has been systematically investigated in SmCrO3 compound. For the synthesized compound Sm0.9Gd0.1Cr0.85Mn0.15O3 (SGCMO), below the Neel transition temperature and under low applied magnetic field, temperature induced magnetization reversal at 105 K (crossover temperature) was noticed in the field cooled magnetization curve. Magnetization reversal attained maximum value of -1.03 emu/g at 17 K where spin reorientation occurred. The magnetization reversal disappeared under higher applied field. From the M-H plots an enhancement in the magnetization was observed due to Gd doping. Magnetocaloric effect at low temperatures measured through the magnetic entropy change was found sixteen times higher for this compound as compared to pristine SmCrO3 and twice to that of SmCr0.85Mn0.15O3 compound. The study reveals the importance of co-doping in tailoring the magnetic properties of rare-earth chromites.

  10. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanide(III) thioarsenates [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} (Ln==Sm, Eu, Gd) and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] (Ln==Tb, Dy, Ho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fang; Tang, Chunying; Chen, Ruihong; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dingxian, E-mail: jiadingxian@suda.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Solvothermal reactions of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, As and S in diethylenetriamine (dien) at 170 °C for 6 days afforded two structural types of lanthanide thioarsenates with the general formulae [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3)] and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] [Ln=Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6)]. The Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides were converted to [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} complex units in the solvothermal reactions. The As atom binds four S atoms, forming a tetrahedral AsS{sub 4} unit. In 1−3, the AsS{sub 4} units interconnect the [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} cations via Ln−S bonds as tridentate μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4} bridging ligands, resulting in the neutral coordination polymers [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} (Ln1). In 4−6, the AsS{sub 4} units coordinate with the Ln{sup 3+} ion of [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} as 1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4} chelating ligands to form neutral coordination compounds [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] (Ln2). The Ln{sup 3+} ions are in nine- and eight-coordinated environments in Ln1 and Ln2, respectively. The formation of Ln1 and Ln2 is related with ionic size of the Ln{sup 3+} ions. Optical absorption spectra showed that 1−6 have potential use as semiconductors with the band gaps in the range 2.18−3.21 eV. - Graphical abstract: Two types of Ln-thioarsenates [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] were prepared by solvothermal methods and the soft Lewis basic AsS{sub 4}{sup 3–} ligand to Ln(III) centers with polyamine co-ligand was obtained. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Lanthanide thioarsenates were prepared by solvothermal methods. • The soft Lewis basic AsS{sub 4} ligand coordinate Ln{sup 3+} ions with coexistence polyamine ligands. • Two structural types of Ln-thioarsenates with structural turnover at Tb were obtained along Ln series. • The Ln-thioarsenates are potential semiconductors

  11. Preparation of SmBCO layer for the surface optimization of GdYBCO film by MOCVD process based on a simple self-heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruipeng; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Qing; Xia, Yudong; Lu, Yuming; Cai, Chuanbing; Tao, Bowan; Li, Yanrong

    2018-07-01

    The MOCVD process was adopted to grow the REBa2Cu3O7-δ ((REBCO), RE = rare earth elements) films on the LaMnO3 (LMO) templates. Meanwhile, the LMO-template tapes are heated by the joule effect after applying a heating current through the Hastelloy metal substrates. The surface of GdYBCO films prepared by MOCVD method is prone to form outgrowths. So the surface morphology of GdYBCO film is optimized by depositing the SmBCO layer, which is an important process method for the preparation of high-quality multilayer REBCO films. At last, the GdYBCO/SmBCO/GdYBCO multilayer films were successfully prepared on the LMO templates based on the simple self-heating method. It is demonstrated that the GdYBCO surface was well improved by the characterization analysis of scanning electron microscope. And the Δω of REBCO (005) and Δφ of REBCO (103), which were performed by an X-ray diffraction system, are respectively 1.3° and 3.3° What's more, the critical current density (Jc) has been more than 3 MA/cm2 (77 K, 0 T) and the critical current (Ic) basically shows a trend of good linear increase with the increase of the number of REBCO layers.

  12. Crystal growth, spectroscopic and CW laser properties of Nd0.03Lu2.871Gd0.099Al5O12 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, J. Q.; Xu, X. D.; Cheng, S. S.; Li, D. Z.; Zhou, D. H.; Wu, F.; Zhao, Z. W.; Xu, J.

    2011-11-01

    Nd0.03Lu2.871Gd0.099Al5O12 (Nd:LuGdAG) crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The absorption, fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime of Nd:LuGdAG crystal at room temperature were investigated for the first time. We reported the continuous-wave (CW) Nd:LuGdAG laser operation under diode pumping. Output power of 1.43 W at 1064 nm was achieved with a slope efficiency of 34.1%. All the results show that Nd:LuGdAG crystal is a promising laser material.

  13. Power-law index and penetration depth of (NdxSmxGd1−2x)Ba2Cu3O7−δ films studied by AC susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaofen; He, Dong; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting (NdxSmxGd1−2x)Ba2Cu3O7−δ films with x=0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.33 were grown by PLD on STO single crystal substrates. The power-law index n and penetration depth λ are studied by AC susceptibility. During cooling, n in films with x ≠ 0 increases much slower compared with the films with x =....... The films with x ≠ 0 also tend to have a longer penetration depth. These properties might be related to the higher possibility for disorder in the mixed (Nd,Sm,Gd)BCO films....

  14. Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiYF4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.Q.; Lin, Y.F.; Gong, X.H.; Chen, Y.J.; Huang, J.H.; Luo, Z.D.; Huang, Y.D.

    2014-01-01

    A trivalent samarium-doped LiYF 4 single crystal was grown by the vertical Bridgman technique. Its polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra and fluorescence decay curves were recorded at room temperature. On the basis of the Judd–Ofelt theory, the spectral parameters of the Sm 3+ :LiYF 4 crystal were calculated. The emission cross sections for the 4 G 5/2 → 6 H J (J=5/2, 7/2. 9/2, and 11/2) transitions of special interest for visible laser application were obtained by the Fuchtbauer–Ladenburg formula. -- Highlights: • Polarized spectral properties of Sm 3+ :LiYF 4 crystal at room temperature were analyzed in detail. • The emission cross sections for the transitions of special interest for visible laser application are calculated. • Sm 3+ :LiYF 4 is a promising laser material for 401 nm GaN LD pumped 605 nm visible laser

  15. Formation of SmFe5(0001) ordered alloy thin films on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuhara, Osamu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    SmFe 5 (0001) single-crystal thin films are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy employing Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers on MgO(111) substrates. The Cu atoms diffuse into the Sm-Fe layer and substitute the Fe sites in SmFe 5 structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Fe,Cu) 5 . The Sm(Fe,Cu) 5 film is more Cu enriched with increasing the substrate temperature. The Cu underlayer plays an important role in assisting the formation of the ordered phase.

  16. Formation of SmFe{sub 5}(0001) ordered alloy thin films on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuhara, Osamu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: yabuhara@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    SmFe{sub 5}(0001) single-crystal thin films are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy employing Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers on MgO(111) substrates. The Cu atoms diffuse into the Sm-Fe layer and substitute the Fe sites in SmFe{sub 5} structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Fe,Cu){sub 5}. The Sm(Fe,Cu){sub 5} film is more Cu enriched with increasing the substrate temperature. The Cu underlayer plays an important role in assisting the formation of the ordered phase.

  17. Synthesis and magnetism of μ-oxamido-bridged Cu2IILnIII - type heterotrinuclear complexes (Ln = Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.T.; Yan, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    Eight new Cu 2 II Ln III - type (Ln = Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er) heterotrinuclear complexes bridged by N,N'-bis (2-aminopropyl)oxamidocopper(II) [Cu(oxdn)], namely Cu 2 (oxdn)Ln(NO 3 ) 3 , have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity measurements and spectroscopic (IR, UV, ESR) studies. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (4.2 ∼300 K) and studies of Cu 2 (oxdn)Gd(NO 3 ) 3 complex have revealed that the central gadolinium(III) and terminal copper(II) ions are ferromagnetically coupled with the exchange integral J (Cu-Gd) = +2.98 cm -1 , while an antiferromagnetic coupling is detected between the terminal copper(II) metal ions with the exchange integral J' (Cu-Gd) = -0.75 cm -1 , on the basis of the spin Hamiltonian operator [H -2J(S Cu1 -S Gd +S Cu2 +S Gd )-2J'(S Cu1 S Cu2 )]. (author)

  18. Growth and characterization of Sm3+ doped cerium oxalate single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Mary C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Sm3+ doped cerium oxalate decahydrate were synthesized using single diffusion gel technique and the conditions influencing the size, morphology, nucleation density and quality of the crystals were optimized. Highly transparent single crystals of average size 3 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm with well-defined hexagonal morphology were grown during a time period of two weeks. X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed that the grown crystals crystallize in the monoclinic system with space group P21/c as identical with the pure cerium oxalate. The various functional groups of the oxalate ligand and the water of crystallization were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photoluminescence spectrum of the Sm3+ doped cerium oxalate indicated that the Sm3+ ions are optically active in the cerium oxalate matrix. The crystal has a strong and efficient orange red emission with a wavelength peak at 595 nm and hence can be effectively used for optical amplification. Microhardness measurements of the crystal revealed that they belong to the soft material category.

  19. Study of a new magnetic dipole mode in the heavy deformed nuclei 154Sm, 156Gd, 158Gd, 164Dy, 168Er, and 174Yb by high-resolution electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohle, D.

    1985-01-01

    By inelastic electron scattering with high energy resolution a new magnetic dipole mode in heavy, deformed nuclei could be detected. For this the nuclei 154 Sm, 156 Gd, 158 Gd, 164 Dy, 168 Er, and 174 Yb were studied at the Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (DALINAC) at small momentum transfer q ≤ 0.6 fm -1 and low excitation energies. A collective magnetic dipole excitation could be discovered in all nuclei at an excitation energy of E x ≅ 66 δA -1/3 MeV whereby δ means the mass deformation. The transition strength extends in the mean to B(M1)↑ ≅ 1.3 μ N 2 . A systematic study of the nucleus 156 Gd yielded hints to a strong fragmentation of the magnetic dipole strength. A comparison of electron scattering, proton scattering, and nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments shows that the new mode is a pure orbital mode. (orig./HSI) [de

  20. Growth and optical properties of Tm:GdVO4 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Y.; Akagawa, K.; Wada, S.; Tashiro, H.; Fukuda, T.

    1999-01-01

    Thulium-doped gadolinium vanadate (Tm:GdVO 4 ) single crystal has been successfully grown by a modified Czochralski (CZ) technique. Effective distribution coefficient of Tm was determined to be 0.74. Absorption characterization was performed in the 800 nm region and the maximum absorption peak was found at 799 nm for π polarization. Fluorescence spectra for tuning at the maximum absorption were obtained around 1.8-2.0 μm region with 100 nm bandwidth. This suggests that a Tm:GdVO 4 crystal is expected as a new promising LD pumped solid-state laser in the 2 μm region. (orig.)

  1. Luminescent GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} quantum dots enhance power conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by Förster resonance energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishnoi, Swati [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, New Delhi 110001 (India); Luminescent Materials and Devices Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drvinaygupta@netscape.net; Sharma, Gauri D.; Chand, Suresh [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, New Delhi 110001 (India); Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sharma, Chhavi; Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Optoelectronics and Terahertz Photonics Lab, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Haranath, D. [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, New Delhi 110001 (India); Luminescent Materials and Devices Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Naqvi, Sheerin [Luminescent Materials and Devices Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-07-11

    In this work, we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from samarium-doped luminescent gadolinium orthovanadate (GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+}) quantum dots (QDs) to polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) polymer. The photoluminescence emission spectrum of GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} QDs overlaps with the absorption spectrum of PTB7, leading to FRET from GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} to PTB7, and significant enhancements in the charge-carrier density of excited and polaronic states of PTB7 are observed. This was confirmed by means of femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The FRET from GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} QDs to PTB7 led to a remarkable increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PTB7:GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+}:PC{sub 71}BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 71}-butyric acid methyl ester) polymer solar cells. The PCE in optimized ternary blend PTB7:GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+}:PC{sub 71}BM (1:0.1:1.5) is increased to 8.8% from 7.2% in PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM. This work demonstrates the potential of rare-earth based luminescent QDs in enhancing the PCE of polymer solar cells.

  2. Electron spin resonance of Gd in the nuclear cooling agent: PrNi5 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, R.; Davidov, D.; Grayevsky, A.; Shaltiel, D.; Zevin, V.

    1980-01-01

    The ESR of Gd in single crystals of PrNi 5 is observed to exhibit significant angular dependence of the resonance position and linewidth at low temperatures. This is interpreted in terms of the axial spin Hamiltonian which takes the anisotropic susceptibility and the Gd-Pr exchange into consideration. From lineshape analysis the axial crystal field parameter and isotropic Gd-Pr exchange are derived. The Gd ESR linewidth increases with temperature; the thermal broadening is angularly dependent. This is similar to that observed for the Pr NMR in PrNi 5 single crystals. Both the NMR and ESR thermal broadenings are attributed to low-frequency fluctuations of the Pr ions induced by the Pr-Pr exchange coupling. A model for hexagonal Van-Vleck compounds is given and with the linewidth enables the Pr-Pr exchange coupling, under the assumption of a Gaussian or a Lorenzian distribution of the low-frequency fluctuation spectra, to be extracted. It is suggested that the angular dependence of the ESR thermal broadening is due to the Gd-Pr exchange coupling. (UK)

  3. White-emission in single-phase Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Ce3 +,Eu2 +,Sm3 + phosphor for white-LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiumin; Zhang, Yuqian; Zhang, Jia

    2018-03-01

    To develop new white-light-emitting phosphor, a series of Ce3 +-Eu2 +-Sm3 + doped Ba2Gd2Si4O13 (BGS) phosphors were prepared by the solid-state reaction method, and their photoluminescence properties were studied. The Ce3 + and Eu2 + single-doped BGS show broad emission bands around in the region of 350-550 and 420-650 nm, respectively. By co-doping Ce3 +-Eu2 + into BGS, the energy transfer (ET) from Ce3 + to Eu2 + is inefficient, which could be due to the competitive absorption between the two activator ions. The Sm3 +-activated BGS exhibits an orangey-red emission in the region of 550-750 nm. To achieve white emission, the BGS:0.06Ce3 +,0.04Eu2 +,ySm3 + (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.18) phosphors were designed, in which the ET from Ce3 +/Eu2 + to Sm3 + was observed. The emission color can be tuned by controlling the Sm3 + concentration, and white emission was obtained in the BGS:0.06Ce3 +,0.04Eu2 +,0.06Sm3 + sample. The investigation of thermal luminescence stability for the typical BGS:0.06Ce3 +,0.04Eu2 +,0.06Sm3 + sample reveals that the emission intensities of both Eu2 + and Sm3 + demonstrate continuous decrease but the Ce3 + emission is enhanced gradually with increasing temperature. The corresponding reason has been discussed.

  4. Ion-irradiation resistance of the orthorhombic Ln_2TiO_5 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy) series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughterson, Robert D.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Ionescu, Mihail; Reyes, Massey de los; Gault, Baptiste; Whittle, Karl R.; Smith, Katherine L.; Cairney, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    The response of Ln_2TiO_5 (where Ln is a lanthanide) compounds exposed to high-energy ions was used to test their suitability for nuclear-based applications, under two different but complementary conditions. Eight samples with nominal stoichiometry Ln_2TiO_5 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy), of orthorhombic (Pnma) structure were irradiated, at various temperatures, with 1 MeV Kr"2"+ ions in-situ within a transmission electron microscope. In each case, the fluence was increased until a phase transition from crystalline to amorphous was observed, termed critical dose D_c. At certain elevated temperatures, the crystallinity was maintained irrespective of fluence. The critical temperature for maintaining crystallinity, T_c, varied non-uniformly across the series. The T_c was consistently high for La, Pr, Nd and Sm_2TiO_5 before sequential improvement from Eu to Dy_2TiO_5 with T_c's dropping from 974 K to 712 K. In addition, bulk Dy_2TiO_5 was irradiated with 12 MeV Au"+ ions at 300 K, 723 K and 823 K and monitored via grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). At 300 K, only amorphisation is observed, with no transition to other structures, whilst at higher temperatures, specimens retained their original structure. The improved radiation tolerance of compounds containing smaller lanthanides has previously been attributed to their ability to form radiation-induced phase transitions. No such transitions were observed here. - Highlights: • First ion-irradiation studies on a number of novel compounds including Pr_2TiO_5, Eu_2TiO_5 and Tb_2TiO_5. • Systematic in-situ ion-irradiation study of almost complete Ln_2TiO_5 series (Ln = lanthanides) with orthorhombic crystal structure type. • The first grazing incidence study of bulk irradiated Dy_2TiO_5 looking for irradiation induced phase transition.

  5. Optical properties and radiation response of Ce3+-doped GdScO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Futami, Yoshisuke; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kochurikhin, Vladimir; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2012-01-01

    10%-Ce doped GdScO 3 perovskite type single crystal was grown by the Czochralski process. The Ce concentration in the crystal was measured. No impurity phases were observed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. We evaluated the optical and radiation properties of the grown crystal. Ce:GdScO 3 crystal showed photo- and radio-luminescence peaks due to Ce 3+ of 5d-4f transition and colour centre. The photoluminescence decay time was sub-ns order. The relative light yield under 5.5 MeV alpha-ray excitation was calculated to be approximately 9% of BGO. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Ternary rhombohedral Laves phases RE{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga (RE = Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Benndorf, Christopher; Heletta, Lukas; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Janka, Oliver [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie; Mausolf, Bernhard [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie; Haarmann, Frank [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. of Physics

    2017-06-01

    The ordered Laves phases RE{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga (RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Er) were synthesized by arc-melting of the elements and subsequent annealing. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). They crystallize with the rhombohedral Mg{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si type structure, space group R3m. Three structures were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: a=557.1(1), c=1183.1(2), wR2=0.0591, 159 F{sup 2} values, 10 variables for Y{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga, a=562.5(2), c=1194.4(2) pm, wR2=0.0519, 206 F{sup 2} values, 11 variables for Ce{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga and a=556.7(2), c=1184.1(3) pm, wR2=0.0396, 176 F{sup 2} values, 11 variables for Tb{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga. The Rh{sub 3}Ga tetrahedra are condensed via common corners and the large cavities left by the network are filled by the rare earth atoms. The RE{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga Laves phases crystallize with a translationengleiche subgroup of the cubic RERh{sub 2} Laves phases with MgCu{sub 2} type. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal Pauli paramagnetism for Y{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga and La{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga. Ce{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga shows intermediate cerium valence while all other RE{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga phases are Curie-Weiss paramagnets which order magnetically at low temperatures. The {sup 89}Y and {sup 71}Ga solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the diamagnetic representative Y{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga show well-defined single resonances in agreement with an ordered bulk phase. In comparison to the binary Laves phase YRh{sub 2} a strongly increased {sup 89}Y resonance frequency is observed owing to a higher s-electron spin density at the {sup 89}Y nuclei as proven by density of states (DOS) calculations.

  7. Lanthanide 4f-level location in AVO4:Ln3+ (A = La, Gd, Lu) crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumpel, A.H.; Van der Kolk, E.; Cavalli, E.; Boutinaud, P.; Bettinelli, M.; Dorenbos, P.

    2009-01-01

    The spectral properties of LaVO4, GdVO4 and LuVO4 crystals doped with Ce3+, Pr3+, Eu3+ or Tb3+ have been investigated in order to determine the position of the energy levels relative to the valence and conduction bands of the hosts along the trivalent and divalent lanthanide series. Pr3+ and Tb3+

  8. Estimation of tau1 for the host Kramers' Ln3+ ions (Ln = Nd, Sm and Yb) from the EPR linewidths of Gd3+ impurity ions in Ln2(SO4)3.8H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, V.M.; Buckmaster, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the EPR linewidth data published by Misra and Mikolajczak for Gd 3+ impurity ions in Ln 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .8H 2 O (Ln = Nd, Sm and Yb) single crystals at 77 and 300 K can be used to estimate the effective spin-lattice relaxation time of Kramers' host ions. The various relaxation mechanisms which are operative in the lanthanides are reviewed and discussed. The estimated relaxation times are shown to be a sensitive function of the host ion energy level splittings and the temperature. The estimated effective spin-lattice relaxation times in these hosts are in reasonable agreement with those expected from a resonance Orbach process

  9. Anisotropic magnetization and transport properties of RAgSb2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Kenneth D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-11-08

    This study of the RAgSb2 series of compounds arose as part of an investigation of rare earth intermetallic compounds containing antimony with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry. Materials with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry frequently manifest strong anisotropies and rich complexity in the magnetic properties, and yet are simple enough to analyze. Antimony containing intermetallic compounds commonly possess low carrier densities and have only recently been the subject of study. Large single grain crystals were grown of the RAgSb2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm) series of compounds out of a high temperature solution. This method of crystal growth, commonly known as flux growth is a versatile method which takes advantage of the decreasing solubility of the target compound with decreasing temperature. Overall, the results of the crystal growth were impressive with the synthesis of single crystals of LaAgSb2 approaching one gram. However, the sample yield diminishes as the rare earth elements become smaller and heavier. Consequently, no crystals could be grown with R=Yb or Lu. Furthermore, EuAgSb2 could not be synthesized, likely due to the divalency of the Eu ion. For most of the RAgSb2 compounds, strong magnetic anisotropies are created by the crystal electric field splitting of the Hund's rule ground state. This splitting confines the local moments to lie in the basal plane (easy plane) for the majority of the members of the series. Exceptions to this include ErAgSb2 and TmAgSb2, which have moments along the c-axis (easy axis) and CeAgSb2, which at intermediate temperatures has an easy plane, but exchange coupling at low temperatures is anisotropic with an easy axis. Additional anisotropy is also observed within the basal plane of DyAgSb2, where the moments are restricted to align along one of the <110> axes. Most of

  10. Double ferromagnetism in single-crystal Gd-Y-Lu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Oka, M.; Legvold, S.; Beaudry, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetization, electrical resistivity, specific-heat and thermal-expansion measurements have been made on Gd-Y-Lu single crystals. Low isofield magnetization data for the a-axis sample of Gd 75 Y/sub 17.5/ Lu/sub 7.5/ exhibit two different Curie-Weiss regimes, which suggests double ferromagnetism. Electrical resistivity, specific-heat, and thermal-expansion data show two anomalies at the transition temperatures. The anomaly at 231.5 K shows a lambda-type second-order phase transition and the anomaly at 223 K shows a sharp spike first-order phase transition

  11. Effect of temperature on the luminescence of Sm{sup 3+} ions in YAM crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczkan, M. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics PW, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Boruc, Z., E-mail: z.boruc@stud.elka.pw.edu.pl [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics PW, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Turczyński, S. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Malinowski, M. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics PW, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • Different concentration Sm{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} crystals are fabricated by μ-pulling down method. • Thermally activated {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 5/2} emission of Sm{sup 3+} in YAM is studied. • Temperature dependent quenching mechanism of the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} luminescence is proposed. - Abstract: The spectroscopic features of samarium Sm{sup 3+} activated Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) crystals are presented and discussed. Temperature sensing properties of Sm{sup 3+}:YAM phosphor was demonstrated over the 300–1200 K range. Temperature dependent luminescence spectra and decay curves for the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} level of Sm{sup 3+} in YAM were measured. Ratio of the fluorescence intensities arising from the two close lying {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} levels (with energy separation of ΔE ∼ 1000 cm{sup −1}) followed a straight line pattern, which confirms the Boltzmann distribution of the population, and can be used to measure temperature. The lifetime for the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} level in 1% Sm doped sample decreases from 1.65 to 0.08 ms with heating from room temperature to 1200 K. This behavior of decays is discussed in terms of radiative and multiphonon decays as well as cross-relaxation dependence on temperature.

  12. Influence of the Gd.sub.2./sub.BaCuO.sub.5./sub. fine particles on thermoelectric power of melt-textured (Nd-Sm-Gd) Ba.sub.2./sub.Cu.sub.3./sub.O.sub.7 -.delta../sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Okram, G. A.; Muralidhar, M.; Jirsa, Miloš; Murakami, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 402, - (2004), s. 94-97 ISSN 0921-4534 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : melt-textured materials * thermoelectric power * (Nd,Sm,Gd)Ba 2 Cu 3 O y * Gd 2 BaCuO 5 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.072, year: 2004

  13. Nanostructured LnBaCo2O6− (Ln = Sm, Gd with layered structure for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto E. Mejía Gómez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the combination of two characteristics that are beneficial for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC cathodic performance in one material. We developed and evaluated for the first time nanostructured layered perovskites of formulae LnBaCo2O6-d with Ln = Sm and Gd (SBCO and GBCO, respectively as SOFC cathodes, finding promising electrochemical properties in the intermediate temperature range. We obtained those nanostructures by using porous templates to confine the chemical reagents in regions of 200-800 nm. The performance of nanostructured SBCO and GBCO cathodes was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique under different operating conditions using Gd2O3-doped CeO2 as electrolyte. We found that SBCO cathodes displayed lower area-specific resistance than GBCO ones, because bulk diffusion of oxide ions is enhanced in the former. We also found that cathodes synthesized using smaller template pores exhibited better performance.

  14. Stabilization of crystal and magnetic structure of Gd2Al1-xInx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, M.; Yazdani, A.

    2006-01-01

    A random mixture of two compounds with different type of crystal structure and magnetic characteristic which can lead to a new phase, is studied to find out the critical point at which both of them stabilized. such an interesting random system can be found by; 1) Gd 2 Al with two different magnetic phase transition on which T c is unstable 2) Gd 2 In which is also shows two magnetic phase transition, but completely different with Gd 2 Al on which T N is unstable. The stabilized point which is consider experimentally by X-Ray diffraction and theoretically by WIEN2K is suggested to be at x=0.3 where it is a good agreement between these two methods.

  15. Spectroscopic analysis and laser performance of Tm3+ : NaGd(MoO4)2 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Weijie; Chen Yujin; Lin Yanfu; Gong Xinghong; Luo Zundu; Huang Yidong

    2008-01-01

    Detailed polarized spectral properties of Tm 3+ : NaGd(MoO 4 ) 2 crystal have been investigated. The room temperature absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded. The fluorescence decay mechanisms of the 1 G 4 and 3 H 4 multiplets in Tm 3+ : NaGd(MoO 4 ) 2 crystal were discussed. Room temperature quasi-cw 1.9 μm laser emission from the Ti : sapphire laser pumped Tm 3+ : NaGd(MoO 4 ) 2 crystal has been demonstrated. The maximum output power of 170 mW has been achieved with a slope efficiency of 25%

  16. Thermal decomposition of RE(C2H5CO2)3·H2O (RE = Dy, Tb, Gd, Eu and Sm)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of Dy(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), Eu(III), and Sm(III) propionate monohydrates was studied in argon by means of simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry, infrared-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. After dehydration, which takes......, an intermediate stage involving a RE2O(C2H5CO2)4 composition was evidenced in the case of the Eu- and Sm-propionates. For all compounds, further decomposition of RE2O2CO3 into the corresponding sesquioxides (RE2O3) is accompanied by the release of CO2. The thermal decomposition of Dy- and Tb-propionates occurs...

  17. Crystal structure of Sm(NO3)3x6H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espenbetov, A.A.; Gerr, R.G.; Struchkov, Yu.T.; Sal'nikova, N.A.; Akimov, V.M.; Odinets, Z.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray diffraction study of a salt, prepared when mixing concentrated nitric acid solutions of NaNO 3 and Sm(NO 3 ) 3 , has been carried out. It is established, that the salt is a concretion of two crystals: NaNO 3 and Sm(NO 3 ) 3 x6H 2 O (1). X-ray diffraction study of 1 is carried out (lambda Mo, diffractometer, 1511 reflections, the method of heavy atom, the least square method in anisotropic approximation up to R=0.0348). The crystals of 1 are triclinic: a=6.755, b=9.168, c=11.684 A, α=69.93, β=88.86, γ=69.28, Z=2, Fedorov group P anti 1. Symmetery of 10-vertex coordination polyhedron (CP) of Sm atom is close to Csub(s). Sm atom coordination can be described as 4;5:1. Four H 2 O molecules are included into CP, at the expense of two remaining H 2 O molecules CP are bound with each other

  18. Experiment and density functional theory analyses of GdTaO4 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shoujun; Kinross, Ashlie; Wang, Xiaofei; Yang, Huajun; Zhang, Qingli; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Dunlu

    2018-05-01

    GdTaO4 is a type of excellent materials that can be used as scintillation, laser matrix as well as self-activated phosphor has generated significant interest. Whereas its band structure, electronic structure and optical properties are still need elucidation. To solve this intriguing problem, high-quality GdTaO4 single crystal (M-type) was grown successfully using Czochralski method. Its structure as well as optical properties was determined in experiment. Moreover, a systematic theoretical calculation based on the density function theory methods were performed on M-type and M‧-type GdTaO4 and their band structure, density of state as well as optical properties were obtained. Combine with the performed experiment results, the calculated results were proved with high reliability. Hence, the calculated results obtained in this work could provide a deep understanding of GdTaO4 material, which also useful for the further investigation on GdTaO4 material.

  19. Room temperature exchange bias in SmFeO_3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoxiong; Cheng, Xiangyi; Gao, Shang; Song, Junda; Ruan, Keqing; Li, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Exchange bias phenomenon is generally ascribed to the unidirectional magnetic shift along the field axes at interface of two magnetic materials. Room temperature exchange bias is found in SmFeO_3 single crystal. The behavior after different cooling procedure is regular, and the training behavior is attributed to the athermal training and its pinning origin is attributed to the antiferromagnetic clusters. Its being single phase and occurring at room temperature make it an appropriate candidate for application. - Graphical abstract: Room temperature exchange bias was found in oxide single crystal. Highlights: • Room temperature exchange bias has been discovered in single-crystalline SmFeO_3. • Its pinning origin is attributed to the antiferromagnetic clusters. • Its being single phase and occurring at room temperature make it an appropriate candidate for application.

  20. Growth and optical properties of Tm:GdVO{sub 4} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Y.; Akagawa, K.; Wada, S.; Tashiro, H. [Photodynamics Research Center, Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research; Suh, S.J.; Yoon, D.H. [Photodynamics Research Center, Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research]|[Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Sung Kyun Kwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Fukuda, T. [Photodynamics Research Center, Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research]|[Inst. for Materials Research, Tohoku Univ. (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Thulium-doped gadolinium vanadate (Tm:GdVO{sub 4}) single crystal has been successfully grown by a modified Czochralski (CZ) technique. Effective distribution coefficient of Tm was determined to be 0.74. Absorption characterization was performed in the 800 nm region and the maximum absorption peak was found at 799 nm for {pi} polarization. Fluorescence spectra for tuning at the maximum absorption were obtained around 1.8-2.0 {mu}m region with 100 nm bandwidth. This suggests that a Tm:GdVO{sub 4} crystal is expected as a new promising LD pumped solid-state laser in the 2 {mu}m region. (orig.) 9 refs.

  1. Structure and Chemical Bonding of the Li-Doped Polar Intermetallic RE2In1−xLixGe2 (RE = La, Nd, Sm, Gd; x = 0.13, 0.28, 0.43, 0.53 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsu Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Four polar intermetallic compounds belonging to the RE2In1−xLixGe2 (RE = La, Nd, Sm, Gd; x = 0.13(1, 0.28(1, 0.43(1, 0.53(1 system have been synthesized by the traditional solid-state reaction method, and their crystal structures have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD analyses. The isotypic crystal structures of four title compounds adopt the Mo2FeB2-type structure having the tetragonal space group P4/mbm (Z = 2, Pearson code tP40 with three crystallographically independent atomic sites and can be simply described as a pile of the identical 2-dimensioanl (2D RE2In1-xLixGe2 slabs stacked along the c-axis direction. The substituting Li atom shows a particular site preference for replacing In at the Wyckoff 2a site rather than Ge at the Wyckoff 4g in this crystal structure. As the size of a used rare-earth metal decreases from La3+ to Gd3+ throughout the title system, the Ge-Ge and Ge-In/Li bond distances, both of which consist of the 2D anionic Ge2(In/Li layer, gradually decrease resulting in the reduction of a unit cell volume. A series of theoretical investigations has been performed using a hypothetical structure model Gd2In0.5Li0.5Ge2 by tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO method. The resultant densities of states (DOS value at the Fermi level (EF suggests a metallic conductivity for this particular composition, and this calculation result is in a good agreement with the formal charge distribution assigning two extra valence electrons for a metal-metal bond in the conduction band. The thorough analyses of six crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP curves representing various interatomic interactions and an electron localization function (ELF diagram indicating the locations of paired-electron densities are also provided in this article.

  2. Mid-temperature deep removal of hydrogen sulfide on rare earth (RE = Ce, La, Sm, Gd) doped ZnO supported on KIT-6: Effect of RE dopants and interaction between active phase and support matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Zhou, Pin; Zhang, Hongbo; Meng, Xianglong; Li, Juexiu; Sun, Tonghua

    2017-06-01

    Rare earth oxides (RE = Ce, La, Sm and Gd) doped ZnO supported on KIT-6 sorbents (RE-ZnO/KIT-6) were synthesized by sol-gel method and their performance for deep removal of H2S (bellow 0.1 ppmv) from gas stream at medium temperature was tested. The RE dopants (except Ce) significantly enhance the deep desulfurization capacity of ZnO/KIT-6 sorbent and maintained higher sulfur uptake capacities upon multiple cycles of regeneration by a simple thermal oxidation in 10 v% of O2 in N2 atmosphere. The results of SAXS, XRD, N2 physisorption, TEM, FIIR, and XPS implied that the KIT-6 structure of loading metal oxides remained intact. It was found that RE could hinder the ZnO crystal ripening during calcination resulted in smaller ZnO particles, enhance the interaction of ZnO and silica matrix to improve the dispersion of active phase on KIT-6. Furthermore, by increasing the outlayer electron density of Zn atom and oxygen transfer ability, the synergistic effect considered to be favorable for RE-ZnO/KIT-6 sulfidation. Even though the performance of improving ZnO dispersion was weaker than that of Sm and Gd, La-ZnO/KIT-6 performs the best deep desulfurizers by changing the surface chemical atmosphere for ZnO. Steam in the gas stream inhibited the capture of H2S by ZnO in the sorbents, in the case of La-ZnO/KIT-6, the steam content should control as lower as 5 v% to ensure the desulfurization efficiency and precision.

  3. Structural relative stabilities and pressure-induced phase transitions for lanthanide trihydrides REH{sub 3} (RE=Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Bo, E-mail: kong79@yeah.net [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang Lin, E-mail: zhanglinbox@263.net [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chen Xiangrong [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zeng Tixian [College of Physics and Electronic Information, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002 (China); Cai Lingcang [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2012-06-15

    The structures, structural relative stabilities, pressure-induced phase transitions, and equations of state for lanthanide trihydrides REH{sub 3} (RE=Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu) are systematically studied using ab initio calculations under a core state model (CSM). The obtained ground-state parameters, such as lattice constants and bulk modulus, agree well with the available data. Among the P6{sub 3}/mm, P3-bar c1, and P6{sub 3}cm structures, the P6{sub 3}cm structure is found to be the most stable structure for lanthanide trihydride via the comparison of the calculated total energies. With the help of Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the structural transitions from hexagonal to cubic for REH{sub 3} (RE=Sm, Gd, Ho, Er, and Lu) under pressure are affirmed; especially, the similar behavior of REH{sub 3} (RE= Tb, Dy, and Tm) is reasonably predicted for the first time by this means. For the transitions, the repulsive interactions of H-H atoms may play an important role in terms of the analysis of the structures in the vicinity of the theoretical phase transition.

  4. Determination of Debye temperatures and Lamb-Mössbauer factors for LnFeO3 orthoferrite perovskites (Ln  =  La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshire, A.; Lobera, A.; Bell, A. M. T.; Jones, A. H.; Sterianou, I.; Forder, S. D.; Bingham, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    Lanthanide orthoferrites have wide-ranging industrial uses including solar, catalytic and electronic applications. Here a series of lanthanide orthoferrite perovskites, LnFeO3 (Ln  =  La Nd; Sm; Eu; Gd), prepared through a standard stoichiometric wet ball milling route using oxide precursors, has been studied. Characterisation through x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence confirmed the synthesis of phase-pure or near-pure LnFeO3 compounds. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was performed over a temperature range of 10 K-293 K to observe hyperfine structure and to enable calculation of the recoil-free fraction and Debye temperature (θ D) of each orthoferrite. Debye temperatures (Ln  =  La 474 K Nd 459 K Sm 457 K Eu 452 K Gd 473 K) and recoil-free fractions (Ln  =  La 0.827; Nd 0.817; Sm 0.816; Eu 0.812; Gd 0.826) were approximated through minimising the difference in the temperature dependent experimental centre shift and theoretical isomer shift, by allowing the Debye temperature and isomer shift values to vary. This method of minimising the difference between theoretical and actual values yields Debye temperatures consistent with results from other studies determined through thermal analysis methods. This displays the ability of variable-temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy to approximate Debye temperatures and recoil-free fractions, whilst observing temperature induced transitions over the temperature range observed. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement show an inverse relationship between FeO6 octahedral volume and approximated Debye temperatures. Raman spectroscopy show an increase in the band positions attributed to soft modes of Ag symmetry, Ag(3) and Ag(5) from La to GdFeO3 corresponding to octahedral rotations and tilts in the [0 1 0] and [1 0 1] planes respectively.

  5. Polarized single crystal neutron diffraction study of the zero-magnetization ferromagnet Sm1 -xGdxAl2 (x =0.024 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, T.; Stunault, A.; Brown, P. J.

    2018-02-01

    We have determined the temperature evolution of the spin and orbital moments in the zero-magnetization ferromagnet Sm1 -xGdxAl2 (x = 0.024) by combining polarized and unpolarized single crystal neutron diffraction data. The sensitivity of the polarized neutron technique has allowed the moment values to be determined with a precision of ≈0.1 μB . Our results clearly demonstrate that, when magnetized by a field of 8 T, the spin and orbital moments in Sm1 -xGdxAl2 are oppositely directed, so that the net magnetization is very small. Below 60 K the contributions from spin and orbital motions are both about 2 μB , with that due to orbital motion being slightly larger than that due to spin. Between 60 and 65 K the contributions of each to the magnetization fall rapidly and change sign at Tcomp ≈67 K , above which the aligned moments recover but with the orbital magnetization still slightly higher than the spin one. These results imply that above Tcomp the small resultant magnetization of the Sm3 + ion is oppositely directed to the magnetizing field. It is suggested that this anomaly is due to polarization of conduction electron spin associated with the doping Gd3 + ions.

  6. Symmetry-Breaking Transitions in RECuAs2-xPx (RE=Sm, Gd, Ho, and Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozharivskyj, Yurij [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Structural changes resulting in lower symmetries can be understood in terms of electronic instabilities and Coulomb interactions. The interplay of these two interrelated factors is complicated and difficult to analyze. The RECuAs2-xP x phases, because of the variation in the chemical content (As/P substitution), allow, with the aid of band structures, Madelung energies and Landau theory, a partial unraveling of the forces important in the symmetry-breaking transitions in RECuAs2-xP x (RE = Sm, Gd, Ho and Er). Distortions of the P layers in SmCu1.15P2, GdCuP2.20 and ErCuP2 are usefully thought of as generalized Peierls distortions, i.e., they lower the electronic (and total) energy and lead to more stable structures. On the other hand, the P4/nmm → Pmmn transitions, which are observed in all studied arsenophosphide series and occur upon substitution of P for As, originate from the B1g vibrational mode and are structural adaptations to smaller P atoms. These transitions provide tighter atomic packing and better Coulomb interactions. Configurational contribution to the entropy becomes important in stabilizing the mixed occupancy in the RECuAs 2-xP x arsenophosphides. While geometric and electronic factors favor separation of the As and P atoms over two different crystallographic sites, configurational entropy stabilizes the As/P mixing on these two sites.;Progress in the research on RECuAs2-xP x was dependent upon the ability of Landau theory to predict, explain and dismiss structural models and transitions. The space group Pmmn (arising from the B 1g vibrational mode) in all mixed arsenophosphides and the existence of these mixed arsenophosphides followed from the analysis of GdCuAs 2 and GdCuP2, using Landau theory. The impossibility of obtaining the high-symmetry structure (P4/nmm) and the low symmetry structure

  7. First-principles calculation of structural and energetic properties for A2Ti2O7 (A = Lu, Er, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd, La)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.L.; Xiao, H.Y.; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2009-01-01

    A first-principles method has been employed to investigate the structural and energetic properties for A2Ti2O7 (A = Lu, Er, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd, La), including the formation energies of the cation antisite-pair, the anion Frenkel pair that defines anion-disorder, and the coupled cation antisite-pair/anion-Frenkel. It is proposed that the interaction may have more significant influence on the radiation resistance behavior of titanate pyrochlores, although the interactions are relatively much stronger than the interactions. It is found that the defect formation energies are not simple functions of the A-site cation radii. The formation energy of the cation antisite-pair increases continuously as the A-site cation varies from Lu to Gd, and then decreases continuously with the variation of the A-site cation from Gd to La, in excellent agreement with the radiation-resistance trend of the titanate pyrochlores. The band gaps in these pyrochlores were also measured, and the band gap widths changed continuously with cation radius.

  8. Tune color of single-phase LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Sm3+, Tb3+ via adjusting the proportion of matrix and energy transfer to create white-light phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongyue; Yang, Junfeng; Wang, Xiaoxue; Gan, Shucai; Li, Linlin

    2018-03-01

    A series of LiGd(MO4)2: Sm3+, Tb3+ (M = Mo, W) phosphors was prepared by a conventional solid state reaction method. Powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the compounds are of the same structure type. Their luminescent properties have been studied. The optimal doping concentrations are 8% for Sm3+ and 18% for Tb3+ in the LiGd(MoO4)2 host. Sm3+ and Tb3+ have different sensitivity to the Mo/W ratio. For LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Sm3+ (X = 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0), the strongest emission intensity is 1.766 times than that of the weakest, while 171 times for LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Tb3+. The experimental results show that Mo/W ratio strong influences on the properties of LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Tb3+. With the increasing of WO42- groups concentration, the shape of characteristic excitation peaks of Tb3+ is almost the same and the excitation intensity gradually increase. Moreover, the energy transfer from Tb3+ to Sm3+ has been realized in the co-doped phosphors. The experimental analysis and theoretical calculations reveal that the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction is the dominant mechanism for the Tb3+→Sm3+ energy transfer. Therefore, luminous intensity can be adjusted by different sensitivities to matrix composition and energy transfer from Tb3+→Sm3+. By this tuning color method, white-light-emitting phosphor has been prepared. The excitation wavelength is 378 nm, and this indicates that the white-light-emitting phosphor could be pumped by near-UV light.

  9. Thermal conductivity of ferrimagnet GdBaMn2O5.0 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available GdBaMn2O5.0 is a double-perovskite ferrimagnet consisting of pyramidal manganese layers. In this work, we study the in-plane and the c-axis thermal conductivities of GdBaMn2O5.0 single crystals at low temperatures down to 0.3 K and in high magnetic fields up to 14 T. The κc(T curve shows a broad hump below the Néel temperature (TN = 144 K, which indicates the magnon heat transport along the c axis. Whereas, the κa(T shows a kink at TN, caused by a magnon-phonon scattering effect. This anisotropic behavior is caused by the anisotropy of spin interactions along different directions. At very low temperatures, magnetic-field-induced changes of κa and κc, which is likely due to phonon scattering by free Gd3+ spins, is rather weak. This indicates that the spin coupling between Gd3+ and Mn2+/Mn3+ is rather strong at low temperatures.

  10. Magnetic and transport properties of Sm7Rh3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutaoka, Takanori; Noguchi, Daisuke; Nakamori, Yuko; Nakamoto, Go; Kurisu, Makio

    2013-01-01

    A Sm 7 Rh 3 single crystal with Th 7 Fe 3 -type hexagonal structure was grown by the Czochralski method. The magnetic and transport measurements revealed a uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy in the magnetic susceptibility, magnetization and electrical resistivity. Sm 7 Rh 3 was found to exhibit antiferromagnetic transition at T N =54.0 K and another magnetic transition at T t =25.0 K. The specific heat data clearly showed the bulk nature of paramagnetic to ordered magnetic phase transition by the presence of a sharp peak at T N and a small anomaly at T t . The paramagnetic susceptibility does not obey the Curie–Weiss law, attributing to the temperature independent Van Vleck contribution and Pauli paramagnetism of conduction electrons. Metamagnetic phase transitions were observed along the c-axis in the ordered states. The magnetic field H–temperature T phase diagram was constructed. Anisotropic paramagnetic electrical resistivity showed the small negative temperature coefficients

  11. Experimental and theoretical study of pure and doped crystals: Gd2O2S, Gd2O2S:Eu3+ and Gd2O2S:Tb3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Xiumin; Liu, Dachun; Yang, Bin; Dai, Yongnian

    2012-08-01

    Quantum chemistry and experimental method were used to study on pure and doped Gd2O2S crystals in this paper. The band structure and DOS diagrams of pure and doped Gd2O2S crystals which calculated by using DFT (Density Functional Theory) method were illustrated to explain the luminescent properties of impurities in crystals. The calculations of the crystal structure were finished by using the program of CASTEP (Cambridge Sequential Total Energy Package). The samples showed the characteristic emissions of Tb3+ ions with 5D4-7FJ transitions and Eu3+ ions with 5D0-7FJ transitions which emit pure green luminescence and red luminescence respectively. The experimental excitation spectra of Tb3+ and Eu3+ doped Gd2O2S are in agreement of the DOS diagrams over the explored energy range, which has allowed a better understanding of different luminescence mechanisms of Tb3+ and Eu3+ in Gd2O2S crystals.

  12. Thermal, defects, mechanical and spectral properties of Nd-doped GdNbO{sub 4} laser crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shoujun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei, Anhui Province (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Zhang, Qingli; Luo, Jianqiao; Liu, Wenpeng; Wang, Xiaofei; Sun, Guihua; Li, Xiuli; Sun, Dunlu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei, Anhui Province (China)

    2017-05-15

    A Nd-doped GdNbO{sub 4} crystal was grown successfully by Czochralski method. Its monoclinic structure was determined by X-ray diffraction; the unit-cell parameters are a = 5.38 Aa, b = 11.09 Aa, c = 5.11 Aa, and β = 94.56 . The morphological defects of Nd:GdNbO{sub 4} crystal were investigated using the chemical etching with the phosphoric acid etchant. For a new crystal, the physical properties are of great importance. The hardness and density of Nd:GdNbO{sub 4} were investigated first. Thermal properties of Nd:GdNbO{sub 4}, including thermal expansion coefficient and specific heat, were measured along a-, b-, and c-crystalline axes. Thermal properties indicate that the Nd:GdNbO{sub 4} pumped along c-axis can reduce the thermal lensing effect effectively. The specific heat is 0.53 J g{sup -1} K{sup -1} at 300 K, indicating a relatively high damage threshold of Nd:GdNbO{sub 4}. The transmission and emission spectrum of Nd:GdNbO{sub 4} were measured, and the absorption peaks were assigned. The strongest emission peak of Nd:GdNbO{sub 4} is located at 1065.3 nm in the spectral range of 850-1420 nm excited by 808 nm laser. The refractive index of Nd:GdNbO{sub 4} was calculated with the transmission spectrum and fitted with Sellmeier equation. All these obtained results is of great significance for the further research of Nd:GdNbO{sub 4}. (orig.)

  13. Crystal structure and electrical resistivity studies of Gd(Fe1-x Cox)2 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onak, M.; Guzdek, P.; Stoch, P.; Chmist, J.; Bednarski, M.; Panta, A.; Pszczola, J.

    2007-01-01

    From X-ray analysis (295 K) it was found that the cubic, MgCu 2 -type, Fd3m crystal structure appears across the Gd(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 series. Electrical resistivity measurements for the Gd(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 intermetallics were performed in a wide temperature region and the parameters characterizing the resistivity dependence on temperature and composition were determined. The differential of the electrical resistivity against temperature was used to estimate Curie temperatures. The Curie temperature versus x, high and moderately increasing in the iron-rich area, rapidly drops in the cobalt-rich region. The obtained results are compared with the data known for the Dy(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 series. The Curie temperature is related to both the number of 3d electrons and the de Gennes factor

  14. Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er3+:Gd2SiO5 crystal and evaluation of Er3+:Yb3+:Gd2SiO5 crystal as a 1.55 μm laser medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Huang, J.H.; Gong, X.H.; Chen, Y.J.; Lin, Y.F.; Luo, Z.D.; Huang, Y.D.

    2016-01-01

    An Er 3+ -doped Gd 2 SiO 5 single crystal with high optical quality has been grown by the Czochralski method. Polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime of the crystal were measured at room temperature. Intensity parameters, spontaneous emission probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios, and radiative lifetimes were estimated on the basis of the Judd–Ofelt theory. Besides, potentiality of 1.55 μm laser emission in an Er 3+ –Yb 3+ co-doped Gd 2 SiO 5 crystal was evaluated.

  15. Spontaneous and stimulated emission in Sm3+-doped YAl3(BO3)4 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; Lisiecki, Radosław; Beregi, Elena; Martín, I.R.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 doped with trivalent samarium were grown by the top-seeded high temperature solution method and their absorption and emission spectra were investigated. Optical pumping into prominent absorption band around 405 nm feeds the 4 G 5/2 metastable level giving rise to intense visible luminescence distributed in several spectral lines with the most intense line around 600 nm characterized by a branching ratio of 0.42 and peak emission cross section of 0.25×10 −20 cm 2 . Optical amplification at 600 nm with a gain coefficient of 2.9 cm −1 was achieved during a pump-and-probe experiment. - Highlights: • YAB:Sm crystal grown by the top-seeded high temperature solution method. • Spectroscopic qualities relevant for visible laser operation. • YAB:Sm single crystal used in a pump-and-probe experiment. • Optical amplification properties of samarium doped YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4

  16. RE{sub 3}Ga{sub 9}Ge (RE=Y, Ce, Sm, Gd and Yb): compounds with an open three-dimensional polygallide framework synthesized from liquid gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravleva, M A; Kanatzidis, M G

    2003-07-01

    The RE{sub 3}Ga{sub 9}Ge compounds (RE=Y, Ce, Sm, Gd and Yb) were synthesized at 850 deg. C in quantitative yield from reactions containing excess liquid Ga. The orthorhombic crystal structure is characterized by a unique three-dimensional open Ga framework with parallel straight tunnels. In the tunnels, inserted are arrays of the RE atoms together with interpenetrated monoatomic RE-Ga-Ge planes. A complex disordered arrangement of the RE and Ga atoms is observed in the monoatomic plane. Depending on the extent of disorder, the crystal structure could be presented either in a sub-cell (no ordering) or in a super-cell (partial ordering). Single-crystal X-ray data for Ce{sub 3}Ga{sub 9}Ge sub-structure: space group Immm, Z=2, cell parameters a=4.3400(12) A; b=10.836(3) A; and c=11.545(3) A; super-structure: space group Cmma, Z=8, cell parameters a=8.680(3) A; b=23.090(7) A; and c=10.836(3) A. The refinement based on the full-matrix least squares on F{sub o}{sup 2}[I>2{sigma}(I)] converged to final residuals R{sub 1}/wR{sub 2}=0.0226/0.0528 and 0.0729/0.1569 for the sub- and super-structures, respectively. The relationship between the disordered sub-structure and partially ordered super-structure is discussed. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show Curie-Weiss behavior at the temperatures above 30 K with the negative Weiss constants {theta}=-49(1) and-7.7 K for Gd and Ce analogs, respectively. An antiferromagnetic transition is observed in the Gd analog at T{sub N}=26.1 K. The {mu}{sub eff} obtained for both analogs is close to the RE{sup 3+} free-ion value.

  17. Effects of annealing on the microstructure, corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties of RE{sub 65}Co{sub 25}Al{sub 10} (RE=Ce, La, Pr, Sm, and Gd) bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zhou [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, No. 336, West Road of Nan Xinzhuang, Jinan 250022 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, No. 336, West Road of Nan Xinzhuang, Jinan 250022 (China); Xing, Qi; Sun, Zhenxi; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Zhengfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, No. 336, West Road of Nan Xinzhuang, Jinan 250022 (China); Chen, Shuying; Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wang, Yan, E-mail: mse_wangy@ujn.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, No. 336, West Road of Nan Xinzhuang, Jinan 250022 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, No. 336, West Road of Nan Xinzhuang, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-02-25

    The effects of annealing on the microstructure, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the RE{sub 65}Co{sub 25}Al{sub 10} (RE=Ce, La, Pr, Sm, and Gd) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were studied. Microstructural changes are induced after annealing below the onset crystallization temperature of 484 K, resulting in the variation of thermal stability and crystallization behavior. A proper annealing enhances the corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, which can be attributed to reduction of the electrochemical activity and galvanic coupling effects in the chloride solution. Moreover, the RE-based BMG annealed at 484 K possesses the higher corrosion potential and lower corrosion current density, combined with the corrosion morphologies, which suggests the best corrosion resistance. Annealing can also obviously change the mechanical properties and fracture morphologies. It presents that free volume annihilation can cause more difficulty in the elastic atom rearrangement for the as-annealed RE-based BMGs.

  18. Oxide fluoride sulfides of the lanthanoids with the formula M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}S{sub 3} (M = La-Nd, Sm, Gd); Oxidfluoridsulfide der Lanthanoide vom Formeltyp M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}S{sub 3} (M = La-Nd, Sm, Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossholz, Hagen; Zimmermann, Dirk D.; Janka, Oliver; Schleid, Thomas [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2013-07-15

    The lanthanoid(III) oxide fluoride sulfides M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}S{sub 3} (M = La-Nd, Sm, Gd) can be obtained by reacting the rare-earth metals, their trifluorides and sesquioxides with elemental sulfur in appropriate molar ratios at 850 C flux-assisted by NaCl in gas-tightly sealed niobium or tantalum ampoules. All compounds are colorless, except for those containing M = Pr with green, M = Nd with lilac and M = Sm with yellow color. They form transparent single crystals as needles or rods. The M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}S{sub 3} representatives crystallize in a hexagonal structure (space group: P6{sub 3}/m; a {approx} 1382-1326, c {approx} 398-376 pm, c/a {approx} 0.288-0.284; Z = 2) with two different crystallographic M{sup 3+} positions. The (M2){sup 3+} cations reside in ninefold coordination of anions arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms formed by three F{sup -}, four mixed-occupied O{sup 2-}/F{sup -} and two S{sup 2-} anions, resembling the unique M{sup 3+} coordination sphere of the M{sub 3}OF{sub 5}S-type oxide fluoride sulfides. The (M1){sup 3+} cations are surrounded by square antiprisms built of four O{sup 2-}/F{sup -} and S{sup 2-} anions each, which are capped by one F{sup -} anion each, again resulting in a ninefold coordination similar to that of the A-MFS-type fluoride sulfides. While the crystallographically unique S{sup 2-} anions have six cationic neighbors arranged in trigonal prisms, there are four different light-anion positions. Two of them, representing only fluoride anions, are situated in a triangular environment of cations ((F1){sup -}: planar, (F2){sup -}: non-planar). The mixed-occupied light-anion positions (F3){sup -}/(O3){sup 2-} and (F4){sup -}/(O4){sup 2-} exhibit tetrahedral coordination spheres with a ratio F{sup -}: O{sup 2-} = 2:1. The M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}S{sub 3} arrangement is characterized by an empty hexagonal channel structure created by (F1){sup -} anions with a potential of accommodating alkali-metal cations like Na

  19. New orthorhombic derivative of CaCu{sub 5}-type structure: RNi{sub 4}Si compounds (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Ho), crystal structure and some magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@general.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Knotko, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Yapaskurt, V.O. [Department of Petrology, Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Nirmala, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-12-15

    The crystal structure of new YNi{sub 4}Si-type RNi{sub 4}Si (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Ho) compounds has been established using powder X-ray diffraction. The YNi{sub 4}Si structure is a new structure type, which is orthorhombic derivative of CaCu{sub 5}-type structure (space group Cmmm N 65, oC12). GdNi{sub 4}Si and DyNi{sub 4}Si compounds order ferromagnetically at 25 and 19 K, respectively whereas YNi{sub 4}Si shows antiferromagnetic nature. At 15 K, DyNi{sub 4}Si shows second antiferromagnetic-like transition. The magnetic moment of GdNi{sub 4}Si at 5 K in 50 kOe field is ∼7.2 μ{sub B}/f.u. suggesting a completely ordered ferromagnetic state. The magnetocaloric effect of GdNi{sub 4}Si is calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches the maximum value of −12.8 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near T{sub C} ∼25 K. - Graphical abstract: The RNi{sub 4}Si (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Ho) compounds crystallize in new YNi{sub 4}Si-type structure which is orthorhombic derivative of the basic CaCu{sub 5}-type structure. GdNi{sub 4}Si and DyNi{sub 4}Si compounds show the ferromagnetic-like ordering, whereas.YNi{sub 4}Si has the antiferromagnetic nature. The GdNi{sub 4}Si demonstrates the big magnetocaloric effect near temperature of ferromagnetic ordering. The relationship between initial CaCu{sub 5}-type DyNi{sub 5} and YNi{sub 4}Si-type DyNi{sub 4}Si lattices.

  20. EPR study of Gd sup 3 sup + centres in Tl sub 2 ZnF sub 4 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Arakawa, M; Ebisu, H; Takeuchi, H

    2003-01-01

    EPR measurements have been made at room temperature on Tl sub 2 ZnF sub 4 crystals doped with Gd sup 3 sup + and co-doped with Gd sup 3 sup + and Li sup +. For crystals doped only with Gd sup 3 sup + , a spectrum with tetragonal symmetry (A centre) is observed. For co-doped crystals new spectra with tetragonal (B centre) and monoclinic (C centre) symmetries are observed in place of the spectrum of the A centre. The A centre is identified as the substitutional Gd sup 3 sup + ion at a Zn sup 2 sup + site in six-fold coordination without any local charge compensation in its immediate neighbourhood. On the basis of spin Hamiltonian separation analysis, the separated parameter b sub 2 sub a sub ( sub 1 sub ) for the C centre has a value close to the b sub 2 sup 0 parameter for the B centre. The B and C centres in co-doped crystals are ascribed to a Gd sup 3 sup + ion substituted for a Tl sup + site in nine-fold coordination, where the divalent excess positive charge on Gd sup 3 sup + is compensated by a Li sup + i...

  1. Solubility and superconductivity in RE(Ba2-xREx)Cu3O7+δ (RE = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K.; Dabrowski, B.; Segre, C.U.; Hinks, D.G.; Schuller, I.K.; Jorgensen, J.D.; Slaski, M.

    1987-10-01

    Solid solutions of RE(Ba 2-x RE x )Cu 3 O 7- δ (RE=Nd,Sm,Eu,Gd,Dy) for x=0 to x=0.5 have been investigated. X-ray and resistivity measurements show that there exists a solid solution region, through which, the structure changes from orthorhombic to tetragonal and the superconducting properties are depressed. The solubility limits depend strongly on the size of the rare-earth ion, with the smallest (Dy) showing no appreciable solubility. The superconducting transition temperature versus x for all of the rare-earth ion substitutions falls on a universal curve, indicating that the Ba sites are extremely ionic and magnetically isolated. 20 refs., 4 figs

  2. X-ray spectroscopic and magnetic studies of RBaCo_2O_5_._5, R = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganorkar, S.; Priolkar, K. R.; Sarode, P. R.; Emura, S.

    2016-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of layered perovskites of the type RBaCo_2O_5_+_δ with δ ≤0.5 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Y) have been investigated. The samples were prepared by the sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, magnetization and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. It is found that the magnetic properties depend on the size of the rare-earth ion. The critical size of the rare-earth ion introduces structural distortion which affects the Co-O hybridization in these layered perovskites. The detailed analysis of experimental and calculated XANES spectra throws some light on spin states of Co ions in these perovskites.

  3. Luminescence and light yield of (Gd2Y)(Ga3Al2)O12:Pr3+ single crystal scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertloypanyachai, Prapon; Pathumrangsan, Nichakorn; Sreebunpeng, Krittiya; Pattanaboonmee, Nakarin; Chewpraditkul, Weerapong; Yoshikawa, Akira; Kamada, Kei; Nikl, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Praseodymium-doped (Gd2Y)(Ga3Al2)O12 (GYGAG: Pr) single crystals are grown by the micro-pulling down method with different Pr concentrations. The energy transfer process between Pr3+ and Gd3+ is investigated by photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra measurements. Photoelectron yield measurements are carried out using photomultiplier. At 662 keV γ-rays, photoelectron yield of 2520 phe/MeV obtained for the GYGAG: Pr (0.01%) sample is larger than that of 1810 phe/MeV obtained for BGO crystal. Light yield degradation for the GYGAG: Pr scintillators is presumably due to the energy transfer from 5d state of Pr3+ to 4f state of Gd3+ together with the concentration quenching in the Gd3+-sublattice.

  4. Ln28Ti2O7 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Gd): a novel series of defective Ruddlesden–Popper phases formed by topotactic dehydration of HLnTiO4

    OpenAIRE

    Thangadurai, V; Subbanna, GN; Gopalakrishnan, J

    1998-01-01

    Topotactic dehydration of HLnTiO4 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm or Gd) around 480–500 °C yields a new series of metastable layered perovskite oxides, Ln28Ti2O7, that possess a defective Sr3Ti2O7 structure, where the cubooctahedral sites within the double-perovskite layers are most likely vacant.

  5. Ab inito calculations of Hubbard parameters for NiO and Gd crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Faghihi and S Jalali Asadabadi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available   In this research the Hubbard parameters have been calculated for NiO and Gd crystals, as two strongly correlated systems with partially full 3d and 4f levels, respectively. The calculations were performed within the density functional theory (DFT using the augmented plane waves plus the local orbitat (APW+lo method. We constructed a suitable supercell and found that the Hubbard parameters for the NiO and Gd compounds are equal to 5.9 eV and 5.7 eV, respectively. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data and results of other computational methods. Then we used the obtained parameters to study the structural properties of NiO and Gd by means of LDA+U approximation. Our results calculated by the LDA+U method which are in better agreement with the experiment show a significant improvement compared to the GGA approximation. The result shows that our method for calculating U parameter can be considered as a satisfactory method to study a strongly correlated system.

  6. Peculiarities of component interaction in {l_brace}Gd, Er{r_brace}-V-Sn Ternary systems at 870 K and crystal structure of RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} stannides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, L., E-mail: romakal@franko.lviv.ua [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Stadnyk, Yu. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Romaka, V.V. [Department of Materials Engineering and Applied Physics, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Demchenko, P.; Stadnyshyn, M.; Konyk, M. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-09-08

    Highlights: > {l_brace}Gd, Er{r_brace}-V-Sn ternary systems at 870 K are characterized by formation of stannides with general compositions RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6}. > Isostructural RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} compounds were also found with Y, Dy, Ho, Tm, and Lu. > The crystal structure of RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} compounds was determined by powder diffraction method. > Structural analysis showed that RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} compounds (R = Gd, Dy-Tm, Lu) are disordered; YV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} is characterized by structure ordering. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Gd-V-Sn and Er-V-Sn ternary systems were studied at 870 K by means of X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. Both Gd-V-Sn and Er-V-Sn systems are characterized by formation of one ternary compound at investigated temperature, with stoichiometry RV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} (SmMn{sub 6}Sn{sub 6}-type, space group P6/mmm, a = 0.55322(3) nm, c = 0.91949(7) nm for Gd, a = 0.55191(2) nm, c = 0.91869(8) nm for Er). Solubility of the third component in the binary compounds was not observed. Compounds with the SmMn{sub 6}Sn{sub 6}-type were also found with Dy, Ho, Tm, and Lu, while YV{sub 6}Sn{sub 6} compound crystallizes in HfFe{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} structure type. All investigated compounds are the first ternary stannides with rare earth elements and vanadium.

  7. Temperature induced Spin Switching in SmFeO3 Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixun; Zhao, Huazhi; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang; Ren, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The prospect of controlling the magnetization (M) of a material is of great importance from the viewpoints of fundamental physics and future applications of emerging spintronics. A class of rare-earth orthoferrites RFeO3 (R is rare-earth element) materials exhibit striking physical properties of spin switching and magnetization reversal induced by temperature and/or applied magnetic field. Furthermore, due to the novel magnetic, magneto-optic and multiferroic properties etc., RFeO3 materials are attracting more and more interests in recent years. We have prepared and investigated a prototype of RFeO3 materials, namely SmFeO3 single-crystal. And we report magnetic measurements upon both field cooling (FC) and zero-field cooling (ZFC) of the sample, as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. The central findings of this study include that the magnetization of single-crystal SmFeO3 can be switched by temperature, and tuning the magnitude of applied magnetic field allows us to realize such spin switching even at room temperature.

  8. Large-sized SmBCO single crystals with T sub c over 93 K grown in atmospheric ambient by crystal pulling

    CERN Document Server

    Yao Xin; Shiohara, Y

    2003-01-01

    Sm sub 1 sub + sub x Ba sub 2 sub - sub x Cu sub 3 O sub z (SmBCO) single crystals were grown under atmospheric ambient by the top-seeded solution growth method. Inductively coupled plasma results indicate that there is negligible Sm substitution for Ba sites in the grown SmBCO crystals, although they crystallized from different Ba-Cu-O solvents with a wide composition range (Ba/Cu ratio of 0.5-0.6). As a result, these crystals show high superconducting critical transition temperature values (T sub c) of over 93 K with a sharp transition width after oxygenation. A large-sized crystal with an a-b plane of 23 x 22 mm sup 2 and a c-axis of 19 mm was obtained at a high growth rate of nearly 0.13 mm h sup - sup 1. In short, with more controllable thermodynamic parameters, SmBCO single crystals can readily achieve both large size and high superconducting properties. (rapid communication)

  9. Functional organization of the Sm core in the crystal structure of human U1 snRNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gert; Trowitzsch, Simon; Kastner, Berthold; Lührmann, Reinhard; Wahl, Markus C

    2010-12-15

    U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) recognizes the 5'-splice site early during spliceosome assembly. It represents a prototype spliceosomal subunit containing a paradigmatic Sm core RNP. The crystal structure of human U1 snRNP obtained from natively purified material by in situ limited proteolysis at 4.4 Å resolution reveals how the seven Sm proteins, each recognize one nucleotide of the Sm site RNA using their Sm1 and Sm2 motifs. Proteins D1 and D2 guide the snRNA into and out of the Sm ring, and proteins F and E mediate a direct interaction between the Sm site termini. Terminal extensions of proteins D1, D2 and B/B', and extended internal loops in D2 and B/B' support a four-way RNA junction and a 3'-terminal stem-loop on opposite sides of the Sm core RNP, respectively. On a higher organizational level, the core RNP presents multiple attachment sites for the U1-specific 70K protein. The intricate, multi-layered interplay of proteins and RNA rationalizes the hierarchical assembly of U snRNPs in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Bi2(Sr, Ln)2CuOz (Ln = Nd, Sm) phases: stability, crystal growth and superconducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faqir, H.; Kikuchi, M.; Syono, Y.; Mansori, M.; Satre, P.; Sebaoun, A.; Vacquier, G.

    2000-01-01

    Bi 2 (Sr,Ln) 2 CuO z (Ln = Nd, Sm) single crystals were successfully grown by a self-flux method from stoichiometric and (Bi, Cu)-rich melts. Thermal analysis and thermogravimetry were used to determine stability and the melting sequence of Bi 2 (Sr,Ln) 2 CuO z phases in air. As-grown crystals of the ideal Bi 2 (Sr,Ln) 2 CuO z phase, of dimensions 1x0.5x0.03 mm 3 , exhibit superconducting behaviour with critical temperature T c = 21 K for the Bi 1.9 Sr 1.6 Nd 0.6 CuO z crystal and Tc = 14 K for the Bi 1.8 Sr 1.6 Sm 0.6 CuO z crystal. The compositions of these crystals were homogeneous and close to the stoichiometric composition. We report on the growth of Bi 2 Sr 2-x Sm x CuO z single crystals of large dimensions 9x3x0.03 mm 3 using Bi 2 Sr 1.5 Sm 0.5 CuO z as precursor and Bi 2 CuO 4 as flux. (author)

  11. Characterization of mixed Nd :LuxGd1-xVO4 laser crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H. H.; Zhang, H. J.; Wang, Z. P.; Wang, J. Y.; Yu, Y. G.; Cheng, X. F.; Shao, Z. S.; Jiang, M. H.; Ling, Z. C.; Xia, H. R.

    2007-06-01

    A series of laser crystals Nd :LuxGd1-xVO4 (x=0.14,0.32,0.50,0.61,0.70,0.80) was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal properties, including the average linear thermal expansion coefficients, thermal diffusion coefficients, specific heats, and thermal conductivities, of the mixed crystals were obtained. The material constants Ms for the thermal stress resistance figure were calculated and showed that the thermal fracture limits of the mixed crystals should be comparable with that of Nd :YVO4. The polarization absorption spectra from 240to1000nm were measured at room temperature and the absorption cross sections at 809nm were calculated. Using the Judd-Ofelt theory, the theoretical radiative lifetimes were calculated and compared with the experimental results. Continuous wave laser performances were achieved with the mixed crystals at the wavelength of 1.06μm when they were pumped by a laser diode. Thermal, optical, and laser properties have shown variation as a function of x and proved that the mixed crystals are good laser materials.

  12. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of a nitrogenated melt-spun Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17] compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Choong-Jin [Electromagnetic Materials Laboratory, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, P.O. Box 135, 790-330 Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo-Young [Electromagnetic Materials Laboratory, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, P.O. Box 135, 790-330 Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Duck [Electromagnetic Materials Laboratory, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, P.O. Box 135, 790-330 Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17]N[sub 2.9] compound powders were prepared from parent alloys of Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17] which were made by both arc melting and rapid solidification processes. The cast Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17] contained mixed phases of SmFe[sub 3] and [alpha]-Fe, and correspondingly formed less Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17]N[sub x] with a rather large amount of residual [alpha]-Fe after nitrogenation. The melt-spun Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17] compound, however, was single phase and exhibited a negligible amount of residual [alpha]+Fe after nitrogenation. The residual amount of free iron was found to increase as a function of milling time and to impede the development of promising permanent magnetic properties. The melt-spun Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17]N[sub x] compound powders exhibited a coercivity value [sub i]H[sub c] of 5 kOe, which is double that of the as-cast Sm[sub 2]Fe[sub 17]N[sub x] powders and a high remanence B[sub r]=60 e.m.u. g[sup -1]. The average magnetic moment of Fe atoms in the crystal is estimated to be 2.29 [mu][sub B] and the Fe atom in the 6c site exhibits the highest magnetic moment of 2.65 [mu][sub B]. The expansion in the c axial direction of the nitrogenated crystal was found to be mainly due to extension of Sm(6c)-Fe(c) and Fe(18f)-Fe(18f) distances. ((orig.))

  13. Magnetic properties of the tetragonal RCuGa{sub 3} (R=Pr, Nd and Gd) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagalakshmi, R., E-mail: nagaphys@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 6200015 (India); Kulkarni, Ruta; Dhar, S.K.; Thamizhavel, A. [DCMPMS, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Krishnakumar, V. [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636011 (India); Reiffers, Marian; Čurlík, Ivan [Institute of Experimental Physics, Watsonova 47, SK-040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Department of Physics, University of Presov, 17 Novembra 1, SK-080 01 (Slovakia); Hagemann, Hans; Lovy, Dominique [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Nallamuthu, S. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 6200015 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Single crystals of tetragonal RCuGa{sub 3} (R=La, Pr, Nd and Gd), with BaNiSn{sub 3} type structure (space group I4 mm), have been grown by high temperature solution growth technique using Ga as flux. Their magnetic properties were determined by heat capacity and the measurement of magnetization and electrical resistivity along [100] and [001] directions. Except LaCuGa{sub 3}, the compounds order magnetically. PrCuGa{sub 3} undergoes a ferromagnetic transition with Curie temperature of 4.6 K. NdCuGa{sub 3} shows a bulk magnetic transition at 3.3 K. The data on GdCuGa{sub 3} indicate combined characteristics of spin glass and antiferromagnetic behavior at low temperatures. From the Schottky heat capacity data the crystal electric field level energy spectra have been determined. Further we have performed temperature dependent measurements of electron spin resonance (ESR) on GdCuGa{sub 3} between 11 K and room temperature. The ESR data indicate an enhancement of magnetic fluctuations associated with spin reorientation and both homogeneous and inhomogeneous thermal broadening of the linewidth. - Highlights: • RCuGa{sub 3} (R=La, Pr, Nd and Gd) single crystals were grown by flux technique. • The compounds exhibit long range magnetic ordering. • Crystal electric field levels have been derived from Schottky heat capacity. • Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of GdCuGa{sub 3} are also discussed.

  14. Growth of multiferroic Gd1-xYxMnO3 single crystals by optical floating zone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarguna, R.M.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Sridharan, V.; Subramanian, N.

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth manganites RMnO 3 with distorted perovskite structure are excellent multiferroic materials. The discovery of magnetic spin driven ferroelectricity in orthorhombic manganites (TbMnO 3 ) has sparked a surge in research into understanding the fundamental mechanism of multiferroic behavior. These systems fall under the category of type-2 multiferroics, the change of spatially modulated magnetic moment from sinusoidal to cycloidal gives rise to electric polarization. The magnetic structure depends upon the Mn-O-Mn bond angle. GdMnO 3 shows multiferroic properties only in the presence of applied magnetic field. When a magnetic field is applied along the b-axis, GdMnO 3 enters a ferroelectric state with an electric polarisation along the c-axis. By altering the Mn-O-Mn angle it is expected that GdMnO 3 will show multiferroic property even in the absence of magnetic field like TbMnO 3 . To alter the Mn-O-Mn bond angle GdMnO 3 was substituted with Y having lower ionic radius at Gd site. The effect of Y doping at the rare-earth site in GdMnO 3 investigated on polycrystalline samples of Gd 1-x Y x MnO 3 demonstrated a magneto-electric coupling in x=0.1-0.4. Single crystals are expected to give much amplified signal in respect of ferroelectric and magnetic properties. In this work we have grown Y substituted Gd 1-x Y x MnO 3 (x = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) by optical floating zone technique under different gas atmosphere. Growth rate of 1-2 mm/h yielded crack free crystals. Quality of the crystals was checked using Laue diffraction. Effect of growth rate and atmosphere pressure will be presented in this talk. (author)

  15. RE{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn (RE = Y, Sm, Gd-Ho). A new structure type with five- and six-membered rings as building units in a gold network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Birgit; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie and NRW Graduate School of Chemistry

    2016-08-01

    RE{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn (RE = Y, Sm, Gd-Ho) intermetallic compounds were synthesized by melting the elements in sealed tantalum tubes. They exhibit a new structure type which was studied by X-ray diffraction on powders and refined from single crystal diffraction data: Cmcm, a = 736.9(2), b = 1489.4(2), c = 1330.4(3) pm, wR2 = 0.0371, 1184 F{sup 2} values and 55 variables for Y{sub 3}Au{sub 4.92}Zn{sub 1.08} and a = 739.0(1), b = 1495.8(2), c = 1339.2(2) pm, wR2 = 0.0325, 1410 F{sup 2} values and 54 variables for Tb{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn. The network consists of five- and six-membered gold rings in puckered conformations. Atoms of the rare earth elements are placed within the cavities of this network where every third cavity is filled by a Zn{sub 2} dumbbell. The structure is discussed in detail and compared with the gold substructure of Hf{sub 7}Au{sub 10}.

  16. 1,3-thiazole as suitable antenna ligand for lanthanide photoluminescence in [LnCl{sub 3}(thz){sub 4}].0.5thz, Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannenbauer, Nicole; Mueller-Buschbaum, Klaus [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Inorganic Chemistry; Kuzmanoski, Ana; Feldmann, Claus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Inorganic Chemistry

    2014-02-15

    The series of luminescent monomeric lanthanide thiazole complexes [LnCl{sub 3}(thz){sub 4}].0.5thz (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy; thz = 1,3-thiazole) has been synthesised and characterised by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR and photoluminescence spectroscopy, DTA/TG as well as elemental analysis. The colourless compounds exhibit photoluminescence in the visible region with varying quantum efficiencies up to QY = 48 % for [LnCl{sub 3}(thz){sub 4}].0.5thz. Both, the lanthanide ions as well as the thiazole ligand contribute to the luminescence. Excitation can be achieved via intra-4f transitions and by exciting the ligand, emission is observed mainly from the lanthanide ions again by 4f transitions. Thiazole can transfer energy to the lanthanide ions, which further feeds the lanthanide emission by an efficient antenna effect even at room temperature. The lanthanide ions show pentagonal-bipyramidal coordination by three chloride anions and four N atoms of 1,3-thiazole, which leads to a strong {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 4} transition for europium. Significant differences arise as compared to thiophene complexes because no sulphur atom is involved in the metal coordination, as the thiazole ligand is solely coordinated via its nitrogen function. (orig.)

  17. Mid-temperature deep removal of hydrogen sulfide on rare earth (RE = Ce, La, Sm, Gd) doped ZnO supported on KIT-6: Effect of RE dopants and interaction between active phase and support matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lu; Zhou, Pin; Zhang, Hongbo; Meng, Xianglong; Li, Juexiu; Sun, Tonghua, E-mail: sunth@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Various rare earth (RE)-doped ZnO/KIT-6 sorbents were prepared via sol-gel method. • La showed the highest efficiency on promoting ZnO/KIT-6 desulfurization activity. • The morphology of ZnO on KIT-6 played a crucial role for the reactivity. • The most initial factor of improving reactivity by RE was surface chemical property. • Crystallinity, host-guest interaction were also important to ZnO state on support. - Abstract: Rare earth oxides (RE = Ce, La, Sm and Gd) doped ZnO supported on KIT-6 sorbents (RE-ZnO/KIT-6) were synthesized by sol-gel method and their performance for deep removal of H{sub 2}S (bellow 0.1 ppmv) from gas stream at medium temperature was tested. The RE dopants (except Ce) significantly enhance the deep desulfurization capacity of ZnO/KIT-6 sorbent and maintained higher sulfur uptake capacities upon multiple cycles of regeneration by a simple thermal oxidation in 10 v% of O{sub 2} in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The results of SAXS, XRD, N{sub 2} physisorption, TEM, FIIR, and XPS implied that the KIT-6 structure of loading metal oxides remained intact. It was found that RE could hinder the ZnO crystal ripening during calcination resulted in smaller ZnO particles, enhance the interaction of ZnO and silica matrix to improve the dispersion of active phase on KIT-6. Furthermore, by increasing the outlayer electron density of Zn atom and oxygen transfer ability, the synergistic effect considered to be favorable for RE-ZnO/KIT-6 sulfidation. Even though the performance of improving ZnO dispersion was weaker than that of Sm and Gd, La-ZnO/KIT-6 performs the best deep desulfurizers by changing the surface chemical atmosphere for ZnO. Steam in the gas stream inhibited the capture of H{sub 2}S by ZnO in the sorbents, in the case of La-ZnO/KIT-6, the steam content should control as lower as 5 v% to ensure the desulfurization efficiency and precision.

  18. Mid-temperature deep removal of hydrogen sulfide on rare earth (RE = Ce, La, Sm, Gd) doped ZnO supported on KIT-6: Effect of RE dopants and interaction between active phase and support matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lu; Zhou, Pin; Zhang, Hongbo; Meng, Xianglong; Li, Juexiu; Sun, Tonghua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Various rare earth (RE)-doped ZnO/KIT-6 sorbents were prepared via sol-gel method. • La showed the highest efficiency on promoting ZnO/KIT-6 desulfurization activity. • The morphology of ZnO on KIT-6 played a crucial role for the reactivity. • The most initial factor of improving reactivity by RE was surface chemical property. • Crystallinity, host-guest interaction were also important to ZnO state on support. - Abstract: Rare earth oxides (RE = Ce, La, Sm and Gd) doped ZnO supported on KIT-6 sorbents (RE-ZnO/KIT-6) were synthesized by sol-gel method and their performance for deep removal of H 2 S (bellow 0.1 ppmv) from gas stream at medium temperature was tested. The RE dopants (except Ce) significantly enhance the deep desulfurization capacity of ZnO/KIT-6 sorbent and maintained higher sulfur uptake capacities upon multiple cycles of regeneration by a simple thermal oxidation in 10 v% of O 2 in N 2 atmosphere. The results of SAXS, XRD, N 2 physisorption, TEM, FIIR, and XPS implied that the KIT-6 structure of loading metal oxides remained intact. It was found that RE could hinder the ZnO crystal ripening during calcination resulted in smaller ZnO particles, enhance the interaction of ZnO and silica matrix to improve the dispersion of active phase on KIT-6. Furthermore, by increasing the outlayer electron density of Zn atom and oxygen transfer ability, the synergistic effect considered to be favorable for RE-ZnO/KIT-6 sulfidation. Even though the performance of improving ZnO dispersion was weaker than that of Sm and Gd, La-ZnO/KIT-6 performs the best deep desulfurizers by changing the surface chemical atmosphere for ZnO. Steam in the gas stream inhibited the capture of H 2 S by ZnO in the sorbents, in the case of La-ZnO/KIT-6, the steam content should control as lower as 5 v% to ensure the desulfurization efficiency and precision.

  19. Crystal growth of Sm0.3Tb0.7FeO3 and spin reorientation transition in Sm1−xTbxFeO3 orthoferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Anhua; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Xiangyang; Xie, Tao; Man, Peiwen; Su, Liangbi; Kalashnikova, A.M.; Pisarev, R.V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 single crystal was successfully grown by optical floating zone method. Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 samples with a-, b-, and c-orientation were manufactured by means of Laue photograph. Magnetic properties of Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 single crystals are studied over a wide temperature range from 2 to 400 K. Spin reorientation transition from Γ 2 to Γ 4 are observed by means of the temperature dependence of magnetization It indicated the reorientation transition temperature of Sm 1−x Tb x FeO 3 single crystals is lowered with the contents of Tb contents rising based on this work and our previous works, thus the spin reorientation transition temperature can be adjusted through changing the compound in orthoferrites materials, which means that we can get orthoferrites single crystals with high magnetism property in various temperature through material design. - Highlights: • Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 single crystals with various compounds were successfully grown by optical floating zone method. • The relation between SRT temperature and composition in Sm 1−x Tb x FeO 3 orthoferrite was indicated. • The spin reorientation transition temperature of Sm 1−x Tb x FeO 3 single crystals can be adjusted through changing the compound in orthoferrites materials.

  20. High pressure studies of configuration interaction and crystal field effects in Sm2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.; Bray, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Divalent rare earth ions are interesting luminescence centres because of the low energy of the excited 4f n-1 5d 1 configuration relative to the 4f n ground configuration. The low energy difference between these two configurations leads to two principle effects which distinguish the luminescence properties of divalent rare earth ions from those of trivalent rare earth ions. First, a significant amount of 5d state mixing into the electronic states of the 4f n configuration occurs and second, the thermal activation barrier to 4f n → 4f n-1 5d 1 crossing is greatly reduced. The first effect introduces opposite parity character into the emitting levels of divalent rare earth ions and acts to shorten lifetimes and increase f-f luminescence intensity, while the second effect acts to enhance thermal quenching of 4f n excited electronic states closest in energy to the 4f n-1 5d 1 configuration. The interaction between the 4f n and 4f n-1 5d 1 configurations and crystal field properties are typically studied by considering the luminescence properties of divalent rare earth ions in a series of host crystals. We are currently developing a new approach, based on high pressure luminescence spectroscopy, for understanding con-figuration interaction and crystal field properties of divalent rare earth ions. The strategy of our approach is to use high pressure as a tool of structural perturbation. By applying hydrostatic pressure to solids, we have an opportunity to continuously vary the nearest neighbour coordination environment of divalent rare earth dopants. Our general goal is to correlate pressure-induced changes in local structure with pressure-induced changes in luminescence properties in an attempt to better understand structure-property-composition relations in solid state luminescent materials. In this paper we present recent results on Sm 2+ in a series of MFCl (M = Sr, Ba, Ca) host lattices. Luminescence spectra and decay properties as a function of

  1. Phase formation and crystallization behavior of melt spun Sm-Fe-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shield, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The phase formation and microstructures of Sm-Fe alloys have been investigated at Sm levels of 11 and 17 atomic percent and with alloying additions of Ti and C. At lower Sm content, virtually phase pure SmFe 7 formed, while higher Sm content resulted in the formation of SmFe 7 , SmFe 2 and amorphous phases. The addition of Ti and C resulted in greater stability and a larger volume fraction of the amorphous phase. The binary Sm-Fe alloys at both Sm levels had tremendously variable microstructures, with large discrepancies in grain size and phase distribution from region to region. The addition of Ti and C tended to result in a more homogeneous microstructure, as well as a refinement in the microstructural scale. (orig.)

  2. Growth and properties of Nd:(Lu xGd 1-x) 3Ga 5O 12 laser crystal by Czochralski method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhitai; Tao, Xutang; Yu, Haohai; Dong, Chunming; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Jiang, Minhua

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we report the growth and characterization of Nd:(Lu xGd 1-x) 3Ga 5O 12 crystal for the first time. The polycrystalline materials were synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction. Single crystal with good optical quality was successfully obtained and the dimensions of the as-grown crystal were Ø21 × 30 mm 3. X-ray powder diffraction studies confirm that the Nd:(Lu xGd 1-x) 3Ga 5O 12 crystal is isostructural with Gd 3Ga 5O 12 with unit cell parameter of 1.2361 nm which is less than that of Gd 3Ga 5O 12 crystal (1.2376 nm). The absorption and emission spectra of the crystal at room temperature have also been studied. Continuous-wave (CW) laser performance at 1.06 μm has been demonstrated on the crystal.

  3. Ternary gallides RE_4Rh_9Ga_5, RE_5Rh_1_2Ga_7 and RE_7Rh_1_8Ga_1_1 (RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb). Intergrowth structures with MgCu_2 and CaCu_5 related slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Stefan; Rodewald, Ute C.; Poettgen, Rainer; Janka, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Fourteen ternary gallides RE_4Rh_9Ga_5, RE_5Rh_1_2Ga_7 and RE_7Rh_1_8Ga_1_1 (RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting, followed by different annealing sequences either in muffle or induction furnaces. The samples were characterized through Guinier powder patterns and the crystal structures of Ce_4Rh_9Ga_5, Ce_5Rh_1_2Ga_7, Ce_7Rh_1_8Ga_1_1, Nd_5Rh_1_0_._4_4_(_4_)Ga_8_._5_6_(_4_), Nd_4Rh_9Ga_5 and Gd_4Rh_9Ga_5 were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data. The new gallides are the n=2, 3 and 5 members of the RE_2_+_n Rh_3_+_3_n Ga_1_+_2_n structure series in the Parthe intergrowth concept. The slabs of these intergrowth structures derive from the cubic Laves phase MgCu_2 (Mg_2Ni_3Si as ternary variant) and CaCu_5 (CeCo_3B_2 as ternary variant). Only the Nd_5Rh_1_0_._4_4_(_4_)Ga_8_._5_6_(_4_) crystal shows Rh/Ga mixing within the Laves type slabs. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal Pauli paramagnetism for Y_4Rh_9Ga_5 and Curie-Weiss paramagnetism for Gd_4Rh_9Ga_5 and Tb_4Rh_9Ga_5. Low-temperature data show ferromagnetic ordering at T_C=78.1 (Gd_4Rh_9Ga_5) and 55.8 K (Tb_4Rh_9Ga_5).

  4. Optical properties and radiation response of Ce{sup 3+}-doped GdScO{sub 3} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Futami, Yoshisuke; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke [Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Kochurikhin, Vladimir [General Physics Institute, 38 Vavilov Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Yanagida, Takayuki [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    10%-Ce doped GdScO{sub 3} perovskite type single crystal was grown by the Czochralski process. The Ce concentration in the crystal was measured. No impurity phases were observed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. We evaluated the optical and radiation properties of the grown crystal. Ce:GdScO{sub 3} crystal showed photo- and radio-luminescence peaks due to Ce{sup 3+} of 5d-4f transition and colour centre. The photoluminescence decay time was sub-ns order. The relative light yield under 5.5 MeV alpha-ray excitation was calculated to be approximately 9% of BGO. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. A Dual-Crystal Cavity Ho,Tm:GdVO4 Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guo-Li; Ju You-Lun; Yao Bao-Quan; Wang Yue-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    We report a 31.2 W cw diode-pumped cryogenic Ho(0.4at.%),Tm(4at.%):GdVO 4 laser in a dual-crystal cavity. The pumping sources are two fiber-coupled laser diodes with a fiber core diameter of 0.4 mm, both of which can supply 42 W near 802 nm. With an incident pump power of 70.3 W at 802.4 nm, a cw output power of 31.2 W at 2.05 μm is attained, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 44.4%. The M 2 factor is measured as ∼1.3 under an output power of 20 W. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  6. Optical waveguides in Nd:GdVO4 crystals fabricated by swift N3+ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ningning; Yao, Yicun; Chen, Feng

    2012-12-01

    Optical planar waveguides have been manufactured in Nd:GdVO4 crystal by swift N3+ ions irradiation at fluence of 1.5 × 1014 ions/cm2. A typical "barrier"-style refractive index profile was formed and the light can be well confined in the waveguide region. The modal distribution of the guided modes obtained from numerical calculation has a good agreement with the experimental modal distribution. The measured photoluminescence spectra revealed that the fluorescence properties of the Nd3+ ions have been modified to some extent in the waveguide's volume. The propagation loss of the planar waveguide can decrease to lower than 1 dB/cm after adequate annealing.

  7. Room-temperature picosecond high-order stimulated Raman scattering in laser garnet crystal hosts Gd3Ga5O12, Gd3Sc2Ga3O12, and Ca3(Nb,Ga)2Ga3O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Eichler, H J; Findeisen, J; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Fernandez, J; Balda, R

    1998-01-01

    High-order Stokes and anti-Stokes generation in the visible and near-infrared in cubic laser crystal hosts Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 , Gd 3 Sc 2 Ga 3 O 12 , and Ca 3 (Nb,Ga) 2 Ga 3 O 12 was observed for the first time. All scattering-laser components were identified and attributed to the SRS-active vibration modes of these garnet crystals. (letters to the editor)

  8. Crystal, magnetic, calorimetric and electronic structure investigation of GdScGe1-x Sb x compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, F.; Pathak, A. K.; Hackett, T. A.; Paudyal, D.; Mudryk, Y.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2017-12-01

    Experimental investigations of crystal structure, magnetism and heat capacity of compounds in the pseudoternary GdScGe-GdScSb system combined with density functional theory projections have been employed to clarify the interplay between the crystal structure and magnetism in this series of RTX materials (R  =  rare-earth, T   =  transition metal and X  =  p-block element). We demonstrate that the CeScSi-type structure adopted by GdScGe and CeFeSi-type structure adopted by GdScSb coexist over a limited range of compositions 0.65 ≤slant x ≤slant 0.9 . Antimony for Ge substitutions in GdScGe result in an anisotropic expansion of the unit cell of the parent that is most pronounced along the c axis. We believe that such expansion acts as the driving force for the instability of the double layer CeScSi-type structure of the parent germanide. Extensive, yet limited Sb substitutions 0 ≤slant x disappearance of the induced magnetic moments on Sc. For the parent antimonide, heat capacity measurements indicate an additional transition below the main antiferromagnetic transition.

  9. Formation constants of Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Pr(III) and Nd(III) complexes of tridentate schiff base, 2-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene) amino] phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omprakash, K.L.; Chandra Pal, A.V.; Reddy, M.L.N.

    1982-01-01

    A new tridentate schiff base, 2- (1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene)amino phenol derived from benzimididazole-2-carbo-xaldehyde and 2-aminophenol has been synthesised and characterised by spectral and analytical data. Proton-ligand formation constants of the schiff base and metal-ligand formation constants of its complexes with Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Nd(III) and Pr(III) have been determined potentiometrically in 50% (v/v) aqueous dioxane at an ionic strength of 0.1M (NaClO 4 ) and at 25deg C using the Irving-Rossotti titration technique. The order of stability constants (logβ 2 ) is found to be Sm(III)>Dy(III)>Gd(III)>Pr(III)>Nd(III). (author)

  10. Formation constants of Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Pr(III) and Nd(III) complexes of tridentate schiff base, 2-((1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene) amino) phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omprakash, K L; Chandra Pal, A V; Reddy, M L.N. [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1982-03-01

    A new tridentate schiff base, 2- (1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene)amino phenol derived from benzimididazole-2-carbo-xaldehyde and 2-aminophenol has been synthesised and characterised by spectral and analytical data. Proton-ligand formation constants of the schiff base and metal-ligand formation constants of its complexes with Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Nd(III) and Pr(III) have been determined potentiometrically in 50% (v/v) aqueous dioxane at an ionic strength of 0.1M (NaClO/sub 4/) and at 25deg C using the Irving-Rossotti titration technique. The order of stability constants (log..beta../sub 2/) is found to be Sm(III)>Dy(III)>Gd(III)>Pr(III)>Nd(III).

  11. Study of LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 6-d}elta (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd) double perovskites as new cathode material for IT-SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E; Mueller, M; Mogni, L; Caneiro, A, E-mail: mogni@cab.cnea.gov.a [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, Instituto Balseiro. Av. Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    Oxides with double perovskites structures of general composition LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 6-d}elta (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd) were synthesized by solid state reaction with the purpose to evaluate new materials to be used as cathodes in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC). A preliminary study about electrochemical properties was performed by impedance spectroscopy between 500 and 800 deg. C under atmosphere of pure O{sub 2}. Symmetrical cells were obtained by spray deposition of LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 6-d}elta (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd) at both sides of a dense ceramic electrolyte. The impedance spectroscopy measurements as a function of temperatures show a hysteresis loop which could be associated to a tetragonal/orthorhombic phase transition. The existence of this transition was corroborated by high temperature X-Ray diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurements.

  12. Rare earth elements in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. [Pr, Tb, Ho, Tm, Lu, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Yb, Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baar, H J.W. de; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G; Bruland, K W

    1985-09-01

    The first profiles of Pr, Tb, Ho, Tm and Lu in the Pacific Ocean, as well as profiles of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Yb are reported. Concentrations of REE (except Ce) in the deep water are two to three times higher than those observed in the deep Atlantic Ocean. Surface water concentrations are typically lower than in the Atlantic Ocean, especially for the heavier elements Ho,Tm,Yb and Lu. Cerium is strongly depleted in the Pacific water column, but less so in the oxygen minimum zone. The distribution of the REE group is consistent with two simultaneous processes: (1) cycling similar to that of opal and calcium carbonate, and (2) adsorptive scavenging by settling particles and possibly by uptake at ocean boundaries. However, the first process can probably not be sustained by the low REE contents of shells, unless additional adsorption on surfaces is invoked. The second process, adsorptive scavenging, largely controls the oceanic distribution and typical seawater pattern of the rare earths. (author).

  13. Inhomogeneous ferrimagnetic-like behavior in Gd2/3Ca1/3MnO3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberkorn, N.; Larregola, S.; Franco, D.; Nieva, G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the magnetic properties of Gd 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 single crystals at low temperatures, showing that this material behaves as an inhomogeneous ferrimagnet. In addition to small saturation magnetization at 5 K, we have found history dependent effects in the magnetization and the presence of exchange bias. These features are compatible with microscopic phase separation in the clean Gd 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 system studied

  14. An analysis on structural and magnetic properties of La{sub 1-x}RE{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (x = 0.0 and 0.5, RE = Nd, Sm and Gd) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blessington Selvadurai, A. Paul; Pazhanivelu, V.; Jagadeeshwaran, C.; Murugaraj, R. [Anna University, Department of Physics, Chennai (India); Gazzali, P.M. Mohammed; Chandrasekaran, G. [Pondicherry University, Department of Physics, Pudhucherry (India)

    2017-01-15

    La{sub 1-x}RE{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (x = 0.0 and 0.5, RE = Nd, Sm and Gd) is synthesised by sol-gel citrate combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra show orthorhombic phase with Pbnm symmetry, confirmed by profile fitting and Raman modes analysis for La{sub 1-x}R{sub x}FeO{sub 3} samples. The estimated crystallite size and the orthorhombic strain of La{sub 1-x}RE{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (x = 0.0 and 0.5, RE = Nd, Sm and Gd) from XRD data illustrate the role of ionic size substitution. The temperature- and field-dependent magnetisation M(T) and M(H) were measured using vibrating sample magnetometer. The M(H) curve parameters of La{sub 1-x}RE{sub x}FeO{sub 3}(x = 0.5, RE = Nd and Gd) exhibit a relation of M{sub r} ∝ (1)/(H{sub c}) and H{sub ex} ∝ H{sub C} at 20, 150 and 300 K. The M (T) curve of La{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} indicates the paramagnetic-like behaviour, whereas the M (H) curve reveals the antiferromagnetic signature in them. The M (H) curve of La{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} shows a strong AFM pinned ferromagnetism and ferromagnetism (FM) at 150 and 20 K, respectively. Further, field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) measurement of La{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} indicates a competitive interaction of AFM-FM, which is emphasised by a broad blocking temperature at ∝117 K in ZFC curve. The FM-like ordering of Sm{sup 3+} ions are observed below at ∝150 K in FC curve of La{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3}. In addition, the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra at room temperature show a high g value and a strong non-homogenous broadening for La{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3}. (orig.)

  15. Pressure effects on crystal structures and magnetic properties of RCo{sub 5} (R = Y or Gd) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burzo, E. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania); Vlaic, P. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca 400084 Romania and University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, Physics and Biophysics Department Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The pressure dependences of crystal structures and magnetic properties of YCo{sub 5} and GdCo{sub 5} compounds are analysed based on band structure calculations. Isomorphic transitions were evidenced for relative volumes v/v{sub 0} = 0.91 and 0.86, for YCo{sub 5} and GdCo{sub 5}, respectively. At the transition, there is a higher decrease of cobalt moments at 3g sites as compared to those located in 2c ones. The induced polarizations on Y4d and Gd5d bands, by short range interactions, are linearly dependent on the magnetizations of cobalt atoms situated in their neighborhood. The isomorphic transitions are analysed in correlations with band structures.

  16. Phase transition control, melt growth of (Gd,RE)F{sub 3} single crystal and their luminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Akira, E-mail: yosikawa@tagen.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Jouini, Anis [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); BerlinSolar GmbH, Magnusstrasse 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Kamada, Kei [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Boulon, Georges [Physical Chemistry of Luminescent Materials, Claude Bernard/Lyon 1 University, UMR 5620 CNRS, Villeurbanne (France); Nikl, Martin [Institute of Physics AS CR, Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 16253 (Czech Republic); Saito, Fumio [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Rare-earth sesquifluorides with no absorption in visible spectral region, such as LaF{sub 3}, GdF{sub 3}, LuF{sub 3}, YF{sub 3}, ScF{sub 3}, are the topic of intense study as a host for luminescence materials. However, except Nd:LaF{sub 3}, they are not studied as a host for laser materials. The main obstacle troubling further study of GdF{sub 3}, LuF{sub 3}, YF{sub 3}, ScF{sub 3} single crystal is the fact that there is first-order phase transition (LaF{sub 3} type{leftrightarrow}{beta}-YF{sub 3} type for GdF{sub 3}, {alpha}-YF{sub 3} type{leftrightarrow}{beta}-YF{sub 3} type for the rest) between the room and melting temperature.To prevent the phase transition, first of all, we have tried to make solid solution between GdF{sub 3} and YF{sub 3} in such a way that the average cation radii can be shifted to the size that does not have phase transition. Ce{sup 3+} perturbed luminescence was observed in the Ce- and Sr-codoped GdF{sub 3}-YF{sub 3} system. Similar solid solution concept was applied to the combination between GdF{sub 3} and YbF{sub 3}. The emission spectrum of Yb{sup 3+} that exhibits broad bands around 1 {mu}m was observed. Room temperature up-conversion luminescence spectra of Pr{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}F{sub 3} were studied and visible emission from Pr{sup 3+} was obtained under infrared laser pumping in the Yb{sup 3+} broad absorption band at 935.5 nm.

  17. Achieving a table-like magnetocaloric effect and large refrigerant capacity in in situ multiphase Gd65Mn25Si10 alloys obtained by crystallization treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, X Y; Zhong, X C; Huang, X W; Mo, H Y; Feng, X L; Liu, Z W; Jiao, D L

    2017-01-01

    In situ multiphase structure Gd 65 Mn 25 Si 10 alloys were fabricated by melt spinning and subsequent crystallization treatment. In the process of crystallization, the α -Gd, GdMn 2 and Gd 5 Si 3 phases precipitate in the amorphous matrix in turn. The Curie temperature ( T C ) values for the α -Gd crystallization phase and amorphous matrix can be tailored by tuning the crystallization treatment time. All three multiphase alloys obtained by crystallization treatment at 637 K for 20, 30 and 40 min, respectively, undergo multiple successive magnetic phase transitions. A table-like magnetic entropy change over a wide temperature range (∼90–120 K) and a large full width at half maximum (Δ T FWHM ) magnetic entropy change (∼230 K) were achieved in the above-mentioned crystallized alloys, resulting in large refrigerant capacities (RCs). The enhanced RCs of the three crystallized alloys for a magnetic field change of 0–5 T are in the range of 541–614 J kg −1 . Large Δ T FWHM and RC values and a table-like (−Δ S M ) max feature obtained in in situ multiphase Gd 65 Mn 25 Si 10 crystallized alloys make them suitable for potential application in efficient Ericsson-cycle magnetic refrigeration working in a temperature range from 74 to 310 K. (paper)

  18. Crystal phase transition in LixNa1-xGdF4 solid solution nanocrystals - Tuning of optical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Bański, Mateusz

    2014-01-01

    The influence of precursor composition on the crystallization of LixNa1-xGdF4 is investigated and discussed. Nanocrystals are prepared from the thermal decomposition of trifluoroacetates in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide to provide control over particle size. A crystal phase transition from hexagonal to cubic and to tetragonal is observed by increasing lithium trifluoroacetate (Li-TFA) in the solution. Controlling the composition of LixNa1-xGdF4 nanocrystals results in modified crystal field symmetry and emission properties from doped europium (Eu3+) ions. We report that for lithium (Li+) substitution <15%, the hexagonal crystal field is preferred, while the Eu3+ emission is already tuned, whereas at higher Li+ substitution, a phase change takes place and the number of crystalline matrix defects increases which is reflected in the optical properties of Eu3+. From Eu3+ emission properties, the optimum Li+ content is determined to be ∼6.2% in the prepared LixNa1-xGdF4 nanocrystals.

  19. Growth, mechanical, and magnetic study of SmFeO{sub 3} single crystal grown by optical floating zone technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, P. Ramesh [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhaumik, Indranil [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, RRCAT, Indore (India); Ganesamoorthy, S. [Material Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalainathan, S., E-mail: kalainathan@yahoo.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhatt, R.; Karnal, A.K.; Gupta, P.K. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, RRCAT, Indore (India)

    2016-08-15

    Single crystals of Samarium orthoferrite (SmFeO{sub 3}) have been grown by the optical floating zone technique. The growth parameters to yield good quality crystals are 5 mm/h for pulling and 30–40 rpm for rotation. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been investigated. Rosette pattern has been observed around the indentation and the microhardness has been found to decreases non-linearly with the applied load. For load higher than 1.96 N there is a transition from palmqvist to median crack due to plastic deformation of the crystal. The hardness parameters like fracture toughness, brittleness index, and yield strength have also been calculated for palmqvist and median cracks occurring on the crystal surface. The magnetic investigations revealed that a magnetic transition in the range of 300–180 K. Above 180 K, the magnetization decreases as Sm and Fe sublattices have opposite spins. At high temperature, two anomalies are observed, one due to near spin reorientation (T{sub SR} = 480 K) and the other is AFM to paramagnetic transitions (T{sub N} = 670 K). The M–H curves exhibit a shape change with temperature due to the emergence and enlargement of multi-domain state of the SmFeO{sub 3} crystals. Bloch parameter (3.28 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}) has also been evaluated. - Highlights: • SmFeO{sub 3} single crystals have been grown by OFZ technique in air. • The microhardness has been found to decreases non-linearly with the applied load. • At 472 K, spin reorientation occurs in Fe sublattice. • The M–H curves exhibit a shape change with temperature due to the emergence and enlargement of multi-domain state. • Bloch 3/2-law holds good for SmFeO{sub 3} (B-parameter as 3.28 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}).

  20. Growth and structural characterization of single crystals of the magnetic superconductor Ru1-xSr2-yGd1+yCu2+xO8-δ (RuGd-1212) obtained by the partial melting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, K.; Bamba, Y.; Mochiku, T.; Funahashi, S.; Matsushita, Y.; Irie, A.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, cubic single crystals of the magnetic superconductor Ru1-xSr2-yGd1+yCu2+xO8-δ (RuGd-1212) with typical dimensions of 100-150 μm in length were grown by the partial melting technique. Multiple 00l reflections were first observed by XRD measurements of the bulk RuGd-1212 single crystals. The resistivity of the obtained crystals was roughly estimated to be ∼24-80 mΩ cm and no superconducting transition was observed down to 4.2 K. From the XRD measurements and refinement of the crystal structure, it was apparent that the Ru and Sr sites of the single-crystal RuGd-1212 were partially substituted by Cu and Gd, respectively. Oxygen defects were found to be minor (δ ≈ 0.1). The lattice parameters a and c of the single crystals were found to be larger and smaller, respectively, than those of a polycrystalline sample.

  1. First-principles study of rare-earth (RE) cobaltites (RE=Nd,Sm,Gd,Dy,Er,Lu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, M.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The lanthanide series of the periodic table comprises 15 members ranging from Lanthanum (La) to Lutetium (Lu). Although they are more abundant than silver, and some of them are more abundant than lead, they are known as rare-earth (RE) elements. The "rare" in their name refers to the difficulty of obtaining the pure elements, not to their abundances in nature. They are never found as free metals in the Earth's crust and do not exist as pure minerals. Using first-principles plane-wave calculations, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of rare-earth cobaltites (RECoO3). Structurally consistent Hubbard U treatment was shown to essential for proper description of strongly correlated cobalt-d electrons. We successfully capture the experimentally observed structural trends and give first-principles insights on interesting phenomena related with the cobalt spin state change. It was demonstrated that increase of crystal-field splitting energy between eg-t2g orbitals and shrinking of unoccupied σ*-bonding eg bands are responsible for the increase of onset spin-state transition temperature along the series.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure, luminescent and magnetic properties of a new mononuclear GdIII coordination complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Mustafa Burak

    2018-06-01

    A new GdIII coordination complex, {[Gd(2-stp)2(H2O)6].2(4,4'-bipy).4(H2O)}, complex 1, (2-stp = 2-sulfoterephthalate anion and 4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine), has been synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by elemental analysis, solid state UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, solid state photoluminescence and variable-temperature magnetic measurements. The crystal structure determination shows that GdIII ions are eight coordinated and adopt a distorted square-antiprismatic geometry. Molecules interacting through intra- and intermolecular (O-H⋯O, O-H⋯N) hydrogen bonds in complex 1, give rise to 3D hydrogen bonded structure and the discrete lattice 4,4'-bipy molecules occupy the channel of the 3D structure. π-π stacking interactions also exist 4,4'-bipy-4,4'-bipy and 4,4'-bipy-2-stp molecule rings in 3D structures. Additionally, solid state photoluminescence properties of complex 1 at room temperature have been investigated. Under the excitation of UV light (at 349 nm), the complex 1 exhibited green emissions (at 505 nm) of GdIII ion in the visible region. Furthermore, Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility and isothermal magnetization as function of external magnetic field studies reveal that complex 1 displays possible antiferromagnetic interaction.

  3. Facile in-situ reduction: Crystal growth and magnetic studies of reduced vanadium (III/IV) silicates CaxLn1-xVSiO5 (Ln = Ce-Nd, Sm-Lu, Y)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysinghe, Dileka; Smith, Mark D.; Morrison, Gregory; Yeon, Jeongho; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2018-04-01

    A series of lanthanide containing mixed-valent vanadium (III/IV) silicates of the type CaxLn1-xVSiO5 (Ln = Ce-Nd, Sm-Lu, Y) was synthesized as high quality single crystals from a molten chloride eutectic flux, BaCl2/NaCl. Utilizing Ca metal as the reducing agent, an in-situ reduction of V5+ to V3+/4+ as well as of Ce4+ to Ce3+ was achieved. The structures of 14 reported isostructural compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. They crystallize in the tilasite (CaMgAsO4F) structure type in the monoclinic space group C2/c. The extended structure contains 1D chains of VO6 octahedra that are connected to each other via SiO4 groups and (Ca/Ln)O7 polyhedra. The magnetic susceptibility and the field dependent magnetization data were measured for CaxLn1-xVSiO5 (Ln = Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu, Y), and support the existence of antiferromagnetic behavior at low temperatures.

  4. Growth and scintillation properties of Ce{sup 3+}-doped (Y{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x})AlO{sub 3} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Yutaka; Wakahara, Shingo; Suzuki, Shotaro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke [Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    The optical and scintillation properties of 0.5% fixed Ce-doped (Y{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x})AlO{sub 3} single crystals have been investigated at three different levels of Gd doping: x = 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6. Single crystal of the Ce{sup 3+}-doped (Y{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2})AlO{sub 3}, (Y{sub 0.6}Gd{sub 0.4})AlO{sub 3} and (Y{sub 0.4}Gd{sub 0.6})AlO{sub 3} were successfully grown by {mu}-PD technique in nitrogen atmosphere. From X-ray diffraction analysis, no impurity phase was detected for the grown Ce-doped crystals. Ce-doped (Y{sub 0.6}Gd{sub 0.4})AlO{sub 3} crystal demonstrated highest fluorescence quantum efficiency ({proportional_to} 25%) with improvement of excitation efficiency due to the Gd-doping. When irradiated by the alpha-rays from a {sup 241}Am source, all the Ce-doped crystals showed luminescence band that corresponding to 5d (t{sub 2g})-4f transition of Ce{sup 3+}. The scintillation decay time was characterized by two components; the fast component (5-15 ns) is ascribed to 5d-4f transition of Ce{sup 3+}, while the slow one (100-200 ns) may be related to energy transfer between Ce{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+} ion. According to the result of {sup 137}Cs gamma-ray irradiated pulse height spectra compared with BGO scintillator, the relative scintillation light output was found to be about 12200 {+-} 1220 (Gd 20%) and 16000 {+-} 1600 (Gd 40%) ph/MeV. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Optical and magneto-optical properties of single crystals of RFe{sub 2} (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, and Lu) and GdCo{sub 2} intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.J.

    1999-02-12

    The author has studied the diagonal and off-diagonal optical conductivity of RFe{sub 2}(R = Gd, Tb, Ho, Lu) and GdCo{sub 2} single crystals grown by the flux method. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry the author has measured the dielectric function from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. The magneto-optical Kerr spectrometer at temperatures between 7 and 295 K and applied magnetic fields between 0.5 to 1.6 T. The apparatus and calibration method are described in detail. Using magneto-optical data and optical constants he derives the experimental value of the off-diagonal conductivity components. Theoretical calculations of optical conductivities and magneto-optical parameters were performed using the tight binding-linear muffin tin orbitals method within the local spin density approximation. He applied this TB-LMTO method to LuFe{sub 2}. The theoretical results obtained agree well with the experimental data. The oxidation effects on the diagonal part of the optical conductivity were considered using a three-phase model. The oxidation effects on the magneto-optical parameters were also considered by treating the oxide layer as a nonmagnetic thin transparent layer. These corrections change not only the magnitude but also the shape of the optical conductivity and the magneto-optical parameters.

  6. Optical properties of Ho3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2 crystal for laser materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Li, Jianfu; Jia, Guohua; You, Zhenyu; Yang, Fugui; Wei, Yanping; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Zhaojie; Lu, Xiuai; Tu, Chaoyang

    2007-01-01

    Holmium doped sodium gadolinium tungstate crystals with sizes of about O20 mm x 40 mm were grown successfully by the Czochralski technique along the (0 0 1) orientation. Polarized absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and fluorescence decay curve of Ho 3+ -doped NaGd(WO 4 ) 2 have been recorded at room temperature. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, three intensity parameters were obtained. The spectroscopic parameters of this crystal such as the oscillator strengths, radiative transition probabilities, radiative lifetimes as well as the branching ratios were calculated. The fluorescence lifetime τ f of the 5 S 2 level was measured to be 5 μs

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure, and physical properties of the Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} and Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8} phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, Scott; Yuan, Fang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kosuda, Kosuke; Kolodiazhnyi, Taras [Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Mozharivskyj, Yurij, E-mail: mozhar@mcmaster.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    The second and third known rare-earth bismuthide oxides, Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} and Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8}, have been discovered via high temperature reactions at 1300 °C. Like its Gd–Sb–O counterparts, the Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} and Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8} phases crystallize in the monoclinic C2/m space group, with the latter containing disordered Bi atoms along the b direction of the unit cell. Unlike the RE{sub 8}Sb{sub 3}O{sub 8} series, the formation of the Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} phase does not necessarily precede the formation of Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8}, which is likely due to the difficulty of accommodating bismuth in the RE–O framework due to its larger size. Physical property measurements performed on a pure Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8} sample reveal semiconducting behavior. Although electronic structure calculations predict metallic behavior due to an unbalanced electron count, the semiconducting behavior originates from the Anderson localization of the Bi p states near the Fermi level as a result of atomic disorder. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of GdBi and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} at high temperatures yields Gd–Bi–O phases. - Highlights: • Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} and Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8}, the second and third rare-earth bismuthide oxides, have been discovered. • Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} and Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8} are isostructural with RE{sub 3}SbO{sub 3} and RE{sub 8}Sb{sub 3}O{sub 8}. • Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8} displays semiconducting behavior despite an unbalanced electron count. • Anderson localization of Bi p states results in semiconducting behavior in Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8}.

  8. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of Sr{sub 2}Gd{sub 8}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26}:RE{sup 3+}(RE{sup 3+}=Tb{sup 3+}or Sm{sup 3+}) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Sk. Khaja [Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rao, Gattupalli Manikya [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatanam, Andhra Pradesh 53003 (India); Raju, G. Seeta Rama; Krishna Bharat, L. [Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Subba Rao, P.S.V., E-mail: raopsvs@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatanam, Andhra Pradesh 53003 (India); Yu, Jae Su, E-mail: jsyu@khu.ac.kr [Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Trivalent terbium (Tb{sup 3+}) or samarium (Sm{sup 3+}) ions individually activated green and orange emitting Sr{sub 2}Gd{sub 8}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26} (SGSO) phosphors were synthesized by a citrate sol–gel method. The X-ray diffraction patterns of SGSO:Tb{sup 3+} and SGSO:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors exhibited the characteristic diffraction peaks of oxyapatite in a hexagonal lattice structure. The photoluminescence (PL) properties at ultraviolet (UV) or near-UV excitation wavelengths were measured for Tb{sup 3+} or Sm{sup 3+} ions doped SGSO phosphors as a function of its respective concentration. The PL spectra of SGSO:Tb{sup 3+} phosphors revealed the characteristic emission peaks of both Gd{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions which are associated with 4f–4f transitions under 274 nm of excitation wavelength. When the concentration of Tb{sup 3+} ions increased over 0.05 mol (5 mol%), the emission intensities of {sup 5}D{sub 3} transitions decreased due to the well-known cross-relaxation process. However, based on the intensities of {sup 5}D{sub 4} transitions, the optimum concentration of Tb{sup 3+} ions was found to be 0.05 mol. Under 404 nm of excitation wavelength, the SGSO:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors exhibited the characteristic orange emission at 600 nm due to the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} electronic transition. The optimum concentration of SGSO:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors was found to be 0.02 mol. The decay curves of the optimized SGSO:Tb{sup 3+} and SGSO:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors were well fitted to single exponential functions and their lifetimes were calculated. Furthermore, the optimized phosphor samples showed good thermal stability. Likewise, cathodoluminescence properties were also studied for the optimized samples as a function of filament current and accelerating voltage. The Commission International de I-Eclairage chromaticity coordinates were calculated for the SGSO:Tb{sup 3+} and SGSO:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors.

  9. UV durable colour pigment doped SmA liquid crystal composites for outdoor trans-reflective bi-stable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Davey, A. B.; Crossland, W. A.; Chu, D. P.

    2012-10-01

    High brightness trans-reflective bi-stable displays based on smectic A (SmA) liquid crystals (LCs) can have nearly perfect transparency in the clear state and very high reflection in the scattered state. Because the LC material in use is stable under UV radiation, this kind of displays can stand for strong day-light and therefore be ideal for outdoor applications from e-books to public signage and advertisement. However, the colour application has been limited because the traditional colourants in use are conventional dyes which are lack of UV stability and that their colours are easily photo bleached. Here we present a colour SmA display demonstrator using pigments as colourant. Mixing pigments with SmA LCs and maintain the desirable optical switching performance is not straightforward. We show here how it can be done, including how to obtain fine sized pigment nano-particles, the effects of particle size and size distribution on the display performance. Our optimized pigments/SmA compositions can be driven by a low frequency waveform (~101Hz) to a scattered state to exhibit colour while by a high frequency waveform (~103Hz) to a cleared state showing no colour. Finally, we will present its excellent UV life-time (at least <7.2 years) in comparison with that of dye composition (~2.4 years). The complex interaction of pigment nano-particles with LC molecules and the resulting effects on the LC electro-optical performances are still to be fully understood. We hope this work will not only demonstrate a new and practical approach for outdoor reflective colour displays but also provide a new material system for fundamental liquid crystal colloid research work.

  10. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of RCu5-xPdx (R=Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.V.; Bonville, P.; Manfrinetti, P.; Provino, A.; Dhar, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    We report the effect of replacing Cu by Pd in RCu 5 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu). The parent RCu 5 compounds crystallize in the hexagonal CaCu 5 -type structure. The hexagonal symmetry is retained in PrCu 4 Pd and EuCu 5-x Pd x (x=1 and 2) but the crystal structure changes to cubic AuBe 5 -type in PrCu 3 Pd 2 , NdCu 5-x Pd x (x=1 and 2) and SmCu 4 Pd. Substitution with Pd leads to lattice expansion and modifies the magnetic behavior. While PrCu 5 is known to be a van-Vleck paramagnet with a singlet ground state, PrCu 4 Pd and PrCu 3 Pd 2 show ferromagnetic-like behavior at low temperatures. SmCu 4 Pd orders ferromagnetically near 28 K in contrast to the antiferromagnetic nature of the parent SmCu 5 . The divalent nature of the Eu ions in EuCu 5 is retained in the ternary alloys, but the Curie temperature is reduced from 57 to 24.5 and 14.5 K in EuCu 4 Pd and EuCu 3 Pd 2 , respectively, inferred from the location of peak in the heat capacity of these two compounds. The magnetic hyperfine field at the Eu nucleus measured with 151 Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy in the ternary Eu-alloys is comparable to that in EuCu 5 . The magnetic behavior of NdCu 4 Pd is similar to that reported in NdCu 5 . The zero-field-cooled, low-field magnetization of NdCu 3 Pd 2 shows a region of diamagnetic behavior roughly between 21 and 4 K, but the field-cooled response is positive.

  11. Complexes of o-Vanillin oxime with La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III) and Yb(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, M.L.; Gupta, V.K.; Singh, Onkar

    1988-01-01

    Ten complexes of lanthanides with o-vanillin oxime have been swynthesised and characterised. The composition of the complexes as determined by elemental and thermal analyses, infrared electronic spectral and magnetic moment studies is [Ln(C 8 H 8 NO 3 ) 3 .XH 2 O], where X=2 when Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and X=3 when Ln=Gd, Dy, Tb, Ho, Yb; C 8 H 8 NO 3 - represents the anion of the ligand. (author). 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tables

  12. Comparative optical study of thulium-doped YVO4 , GdVO4 , and LuVO4 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecki, R.; Solarz, P.; Dominiak-Dzik, G.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Sobczyk, M.; Černý, Pavel; Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Urata, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Mikio

    2006-07-01

    YVO4:Tm3+ crystals grown by the Czochralski technique and GdVO4:Tm3+ and LuVO4:Tm3+ crystals grown by the floating-zone technique were investigated using methods of optical spectroscopy. Polarized absorption and emission spectra were recorded at room temperature and at 6K . The crystal-field analysis was performed assuming the D2d site symmetry for Tm3+ ions. In this way the missing crystal-field components of the H63 ground multiplet were located. Room temperature absorption spectra were analyzed in the framework of the Judd-Ofelt theory. Evaluated radiative lifetimes of luminescent levels of Tm3+ follow a general trend diminishing in agreement with the sequence: YVO4:Tm3+→GdVO4:Tm3+→LuVO4:Tm3+ . Luminescence lifetimes measured for the systems under study are similar except for the F43 lifetime, which appears to be surprisingly short for LuVO4:Tm3+ . Anisotropy of optical spectra is particularly pronounced in LuVO4:Tm3+ . Peak absorption cross section for the band relevant for optical pumping at about 805nm is roughly three times higher for π polarization. Stimulated emission cross sections for the F43-H63 transition near 1800nm were evaluated using the reciprocity method. The diode-pumped continuous wave laser operation in GdVO4:Tm3+ with a slope efficiency of up to 40% is demonstrated. In LuVO4:Tm3+ the diode-pumped laser oscillation in a pulsed mode was observed.

  13. Efficient laser emission from cladding waveguide inscribed in Nd:GdVO(4) crystal by direct femtosecond laser writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Tan, Yang; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2014-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of depressed cladding waveguides in Nd:GdVO(4) laser crystal by using femtosecond laser inscription. The cross section of the structure is a circular shape with a diameter of 150 μm. Under the optical pump at 808 nm, the continuous wave (cw) as well as pulsed (Q-switched by graphene saturable absorber) waveguide lasing at 1064 nm has been realized, supporting guidance of both TE and TM polarizations. The maximum output power of 0.57 W was obtained in the cw regime, while the maximum pulse energy of the pulsed laser emissions was up to 19 nJ (corresponding to a maximum average output power of 0.33 W, at a resonant frequency of 18 MHz). The slope efficiencies achieved for the cw and pulsed Nd:GdVO(4) waveguide lasers were as high as 68% and 52%, respectively.

  14. On improvement of scintillation characteristics of Gd2SiO5:Ce crystals by thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, Valery G.; Grinyov, Boris V.; Katrunov, Konstantin A.; Lisetski, Longin N.; Nagornaya, Lyudmila L.; Ryzhikov, Vladimir D.; Spasov, Vladimir G.; Starzhinskiy, Nikolai; Tamulaitis, Gintautas

    2005-01-01

    Effects of thermal treatment of Gd 2 SiO 5 :Ce crystals at T∼0.7T m under low pressure on their optical and scintillation properties were studied. It is shown that thermal treatment in the atmosphere with the chemical potential of ∼40 J mol -1 decreases the absorption in the UV region and substantially improves the crystal transparency in the region of intrinsic emission peaked at 427 nm.Narrowing of the emission band due to suppression of the long-wave component in the range of 520-560 nm, light output increase by 7-10%, decrease of the emission decay time, and improvement of thermal stability of the luminescence yield were also observed. Transformations of the ensemble of structural defects in cerium-activated gadolinium oxyorthosilicate crystals are under discussion

  15. Ternary gallides RE{sub 4}Rh{sub 9}Ga{sub 5}, RE{sub 5}Rh{sub 12}Ga{sub 7} and RE{sub 7}Rh{sub 18}Ga{sub 11} (RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb). Intergrowth structures with MgCu{sub 2} and CaCu{sub 5} related slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Rodewald, Ute C.; Poettgen, Rainer [Univ. Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Janka, Oliver [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    2017-07-01

    Fourteen ternary gallides RE{sub 4}Rh{sub 9}Ga{sub 5}, RE{sub 5}Rh{sub 12}Ga{sub 7} and RE{sub 7}Rh{sub 18}Ga{sub 11} (RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting, followed by different annealing sequences either in muffle or induction furnaces. The samples were characterized through Guinier powder patterns and the crystal structures of Ce{sub 4}Rh{sub 9}Ga{sub 5}, Ce{sub 5}Rh{sub 12}Ga{sub 7}, Ce{sub 7}Rh{sub 18}Ga{sub 11}, Nd{sub 5}Rh{sub 10.44(4)}Ga{sub 8.56(4)}, Nd{sub 4}Rh{sub 9}Ga{sub 5} and Gd{sub 4}Rh{sub 9}Ga{sub 5} were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data. The new gallides are the n=2, 3 and 5 members of the RE{sub 2+n} Rh{sub 3+3n} Ga{sub 1+2n} structure series in the Parthe intergrowth concept. The slabs of these intergrowth structures derive from the cubic Laves phase MgCu{sub 2} (Mg{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si as ternary variant) and CaCu{sub 5} (CeCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} as ternary variant). Only the Nd{sub 5}Rh{sub 10.44(4)}Ga{sub 8.56(4)} crystal shows Rh/Ga mixing within the Laves type slabs. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal Pauli paramagnetism for Y{sub 4}Rh{sub 9}Ga{sub 5} and Curie-Weiss paramagnetism for Gd{sub 4}Rh{sub 9}Ga{sub 5} and Tb{sub 4}Rh{sub 9}Ga{sub 5}. Low-temperature data show ferromagnetic ordering at T{sub C}=78.1 (Gd{sub 4}Rh{sub 9}Ga{sub 5}) and 55.8 K (Tb{sub 4}Rh{sub 9}Ga{sub 5}).

  16. SM50 repeat-polypeptides self-assemble into discrete matrix subunits and promote appositional calcium carbonate crystal growth during sea urchin tooth biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yelin; Satchell, Paul G; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2016-01-01

    The two major proteins involved in vertebrate enamel formation and echinoderm sea urchin tooth biomineralization, amelogenin and SM50, are both characterized by elongated polyproline repeat domains in the center of the macromolecule. To determine the role of polyproline repeat polypeptides in basal deuterostome biomineralization, we have mapped the localization of SM50 as it relates to crystal growth, conducted self-assembly studies of SM50 repeat polypeptides, and examined their effect on calcium carbonate and apatite crystal growth. Electron micrographs of the growth zone of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sea urchin teeth documented a series of successive events from intravesicular mineral nucleation to mineral deposition at the interface between tooth surface and odontoblast syncytium. Using immunohistochemistry, SM50 was detected within the cytoplasm of cells associated with the developing tooth mineral, at the mineral secreting front, and adjacent to initial mineral deposits, but not in muscles and ligaments. Polypeptides derived from the SM50 polyproline alternating hexa- and hepta-peptide repeat region (SM50P6P7) formed highly discrete, donut-shaped self-assembly patterns. In calcium carbonate crystal growth studies, SM50P6P7 repeat peptides triggered the growth of expansive networks of fused calcium carbonate crystals while in apatite growth studies, SM50P6P7 peptides facilitated the growth of needle-shaped and parallel arranged crystals resembling those found in developing vertebrate enamel. In comparison, SM50P6P7 surpassed the PXX24 polypeptide repeat region derived from the vertebrate enamel protein amelogenin in its ability to promote crystal nucleation and appositional crystal growth. Together, these studies establish the SM50P6P7 polyproline repeat region as a potent regulator in the protein-guided appositional crystal growth that occurs during continuous tooth mineralization and eruption. In addition, our studies highlight the role of species

  17. Single-crystal-like GdNdO{sub x} thin films on silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing for crystal seed layer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ziwei; Xiao, Lei; Liang, Renrong, E-mail: wang-j@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liangrr@tsinghua.edu.cn; Shen, Shanshan; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jing, E-mail: wang-j@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liangrr@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Single-crystal-like rare earth oxide thin films on silicon (Si) substrates were fabricated by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing processes. A 30-nm-thick high-quality GdNdO{sub x} (GNO) film was deposited using a high-temperature sputtering process at 500°C. A Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture was used as the sputtering target, in which the proportions of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} were controlled to make the GNO’s lattice parameter match that of the Si substrate. To further improve the quality of the GNO film, a post-deposition annealing process was performed at a temperature of 1000°C. The GNO films exhibited a strong preferred orientation on the Si substrate. In addition, an Al/GNO/Si capacitor was fabricated to evaluate the dielectric constant and leakage current of the GNO films. It was determined that the single-crystal-like GNO films on the Si substrates have potential for use as an insulator layer for semiconductor-on-insulator and semiconductor/insulator multilayer applications.

  18. Single-crystal-like GdNdOx thin films on silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing for crystal seed layer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziwei Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal-like rare earth oxide thin films on silicon (Si substrates were fabricated by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing processes. A 30-nm-thick high-quality GdNdOx (GNO film was deposited using a high-temperature sputtering process at 500°C. A Gd2O3 and Nd2O3 mixture was used as the sputtering target, in which the proportions of Gd2O3 and Nd2O3 were controlled to make the GNO’s lattice parameter match that of the Si substrate. To further improve the quality of the GNO film, a post-deposition annealing process was performed at a temperature of 1000°C. The GNO films exhibited a strong preferred orientation on the Si substrate. In addition, an Al/GNO/Si capacitor was fabricated to evaluate the dielectric constant and leakage current of the GNO films. It was determined that the single-crystal-like GNO films on the Si substrates have potential for use as an insulator layer for semiconductor-on-insulator and semiconductor/insulator multilayer applications.

  19. Czochralski growth and optical properties of Li 6Gd 1-xEu x(BO 3) 3 ( x=0-1) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavetskiy, R. P.; Dolzhenkova, E. F.; Dubovik, M. F.; Korshikova, T. I.; Tolmachev, A. V.

    2005-04-01

    It was shown that a continuous series of Li 6Gd 1-xEu x(BO 3) 3 solid solutions exist within the whole concentration range ( x=0-1). Li 6Gd 1-xEu x(BO 3) 3 ( x=0-0.03; 1) single crystals up to 25 mm in length and up to 20 mm in diameter have been grown by the Czochralski method. The structural perfection of the crystals has been estimated from etch patterns and XPA analysis results. The optical absorption and thermally stimulated luminescence of the grown crystals has been studied.

  20. Polarized spectral properties of Yb3+ : Li2Gd4(MoO4)7 crystal: a candidate for tunable and ultrashort pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Haomiao; Chen Yujin; Lin Yanfu; Gong Xinghong; Liao Jinsheng; Chen Xueyuan; Luo Zundu; Huang Yidong

    2007-01-01

    Detailed polarized spectral properties of a 3.2 at.% Yb 3+ : Li 2 Gd 4 (MoO 4 ) 7 crystal, including absorption cross-section, emission cross-section, up-conversion spectrum and intrinsic fluorescence lifetime, were investigated. The laser potentiality was also evaluated and the results show that this crystal is a good candidate for tunable and ultrashort pulse lasers

  1. Magnetization fluctuation analysis and superconducting parameters of La0.5RE0.5BaCaCu3O7-δ(RE=Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb) superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Vargas, C.A.; Pimentel, J.L.; Pureur, P.; Landinez Tellez, D.A.; Roa-Rojas, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report the analysis of magnetization experimental data of the La 0.5 RE 0.5 BaCaCu 3 O 7-δ (RE=Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb) superconducting system. The data are analyzed in terms of thermal fluctuations on the magnetization excess ΔM(T) for different values of temperature in each one of the samples. We describe a procedure for extracting the penetration depth λ ab (∼1571A) and the coherence length ξ ab (∼1.52A) parameters from the magnetization, as a function of the applied magnetic field. This procedure was performed for polycrystalline samples of La 0.5 RE 0.5 BaCaCu 3 O 7-δ by using the theory of Bulaevskii, Ledvij and Kogan, which analyzes the vortex fluctuation in superconducting materials within the Lawrence-Doniach framework. These data allowed to determine the characteristic temperature value T * (73, 58, 48, 57, 56, 71 K, for RE=Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb, respectively) in the magnetization curves for several magnetic fields. We calculated the data of magnetization excess from the curves of magnetization as a function of logarithm of applied field. We notice that the values for these superconducting parameters are in agreement with the reports for high temperature superconductors. The obtained value of superconducting volumetric fraction is compared with that obtained through the measure of the Meissner effect.

  2. Spectral properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped CaGdAlO{sub 4} crystal for laser application around 1.55 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.H.; Gong, X.H.; Chen, Y.J.; Lin, Y.F; Luo, Z.D.; Huang, Y.D., E-mail: huyd@fjirsm.ac.cn

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • Detailed spectral properties of the Er:CaGdAlO{sub 4} crystal have been investigated. • Multi-phonon relaxation rate of Er{sup 3+} ions in the Er:CaGdAlO{sub 4} crystal is estimated. • The quantum efficiency of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} level in the Er:CaGdAlO{sub 4} crystal is near 100%. -- Abstract: Room-temperature polarized spectral properties of the Er:CaGdAlO{sub 4} crystal are reported. The Judd–Ofelt theory was applied to analyze the polarized absorption spectra and then calculate the spontaneous emission probabilities, radiative lifetimes, and branch ratios. Room-temperature fluorescence lifetimes of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} multiplets for Er{sup 3+} ions were measured. Stimulated emission cross-sections of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition obtained by the Fuchtbauer–Ladenberg formula and the reciprocity method were compared. The results show that the Er:CaGdAlO{sub 4} crystal may be a potential gain medium for a low-threshold 1.55 μm laser.

  3. Re-dispersion and film formation of GdVO4 :  Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Dy3+, Eu3+, Sm3+, Tm3+) nanoparticles: particle size and luminescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanta Singh, N; Ningthoujam, R S; Phaomei, Ganngam; Singh, S Dorendrajit; Vinu, A; Vatsa, R K

    2012-04-21

    GdVO(4) : Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Dy(3+), Eu(3+), Sm(3+), Tm(3+)) nanoparticles are prepared by a simple chemical route at 140 °C. The crystallite size can be tuned by varying the pH of the reaction medium. Interestingly, the crystallite size is found to increase significantly when pH increases from 6 to 12. This is related to slower nucleation of the GdVO(4) formation with increase of VO(4)(3-) present in solution. The luminescence study shows an efficient energy transfer from vanadate absorption of GdVO(4) to Ln(3+) and thereby enhanced emissions are obtained. A possible reaction mechanism at different pH values is suggested in this study. As-prepared samples are well dispersed in ethanol, methanol and water, and can be incorporated into polymer films. Luminescence and its decay lifetime studies confirm the decrease in non-radiative transition probability with the increase of heat treatment temperature. Re-dispersed particles will be useful in potential applications of life science and the film will be useful in display devices.

  4. Phase equilibria and crystal chemistry of the CaO-½Gd2O3-CoOz system at 885 °C in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Ng, W.; Laws, W.; Lapidus, S. H.; Ribaud, L.; Kaduk, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The CaO-½Gd2O3-CoOz system prepared at 885 °C in air consists of two thermoelectric calcium cobaltate compounds, namely, the 2D thermoelectric oxide solid solution, (Ca3-xGdx)Co4O9-z (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.42) which has a misfit layered structure, and the 1D Ca3Co2O6 compound which consists of chains of alternating CoO6 trigonal prisms and CoO6 octahedra. Ca3Co2O6 was found to be a point compound. In the peripheral binary systems, Gd was not present in the Ca site of CaO, while a small solid solution region was identified for (Gd1-xCax)O(3-z)/2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.075). A solid solution region of distorted perovskite, (Gd1-xCax)CoO3-z (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.24, space group Pnma) was established. The structure of a member of the solid solution, (Gd0.92Ca0.08)CoO3-z, was determined using high resolution synchrotron radiation. A ternary oxide compound CaGdCoO4-z which has an orthorhombic structure (Bmab) was found to be stable at this temperature. Five solid solution tie-line regions and six three-phase regions were determined in the CaO-½Gd2O3-CoOz system. A comparison of the phase diagrams of the CaO-½R2O3-CoOz (R = La, Sm and Gd) systems is provided.

  5. Growth and laser characterization of mixed Nd:Lu xGd 1-xVO 4 laser crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haohai; Yu, Yonggui; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Cheng, Xiufeng; Shao, Zongshu; Jiang, Minhua

    2006-08-01

    A new series Nd:Lu xGd 1-xVO 4 ( x=0.14, 0.32, 0.50, 0.61, 0.70 and 0.80) mixed laser crystals have been successfully grown by the Czochralski method. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis shows that the as-grown mixed crystals possess the ZrSiO 4 structure. The cell parameters are found to decrease with an increase of x. The optical absorption spectra of the mixed crystals have been measured at room temperature, and five strong-absorption bands centered at the wavelengths of 531, 594, 752, 807 and 880 nm have been revealed in all crystals. They are assigned to the different spin- and electric-dipole-allowed transition from the ground state to the 2K 13/2+ 4G 7/2+ 4G 9/2, 4G 5/2+ 2G 7/2, 4F 7/2+ 4S 3/2, 4F 5/2+ 2H 9/2 and 4F 3/2 energy levels, respectively. A continuous-wave (CW) laser output has been achieved with the mixed crystals at 1.06 μm under laser diode pumping. The maximum CW output power of 377.4 mW has been obtained with the pump power of 2 W, and the corresponding optical conversion efficiency is 18.8%.

  6. Absorption spectra of CsNd(MoO4)2 and CsGd(MoO4)2-Nd3+ crystals in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorban', I.S.; Kozeeva, L.P.; Slobodyanyuk, A.V.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The comparison of the electronic structure of Nd 3+ in CsNd(MoO 4 ) 2 and CsGd(MoO 4 ) 2 - Nd 3+ crystals is made. It is established that in these crystals the activator centers, mainly, of the certain type with the symmetry of the local environment C 2 are formed. The absorption spectra of self-activated CsNd(MoO 4 ) 2 crystal differ from spectra of CsGd(MoO 4 ) 2 - Nd 3+ by the presence of the vibrating structure. The Stark splittings of energy levels of Nd 3+ in the investigated crystalline matrices are more sensitive to the environment effect than the Zeeman ones. The ground state of Nd 3+ ion in CsNd(MoO 4 ) 2 and CsGd(MoO 4 ) 2 molybdates is characterized by the similar values of g-factors

  7. Optically stimulated luminescence of Tb{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} doubly doped K{sub 2}YF{sub 5} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, L.; Marcazzo, J.; Santiago, M.; Caselli, E. [Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco, Gral. Pinto 399, B7000GHG, Tandil (Argentina); Khaidukov, N. M., E-mail: jmarcass@exa.unicen.edu.ar [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, RAS, Leninskii Prospekt 31, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    In this work optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of K{sub 2}YF{sub 5} crystals doubly doped with Tb{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} ions have been investigated for the first time. OSL responses for different dopant concentration and for optical stimulation with different wavelengths have been analyzed for each compound. Dosimetric properties of the most efficient composition, namely, K{sub 2}YF{sub 5}:1.0 at.% Tb{sup 3+}; 1.0 at.% Sm{sup 3+}, have been studied. Finally, the possible application of this single crystal as OSL dosimeter has been evaluated. (Author)

  8. Self-powdering and nonlinear optical domain structures in ferroelastic β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals formed in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Y.; Honma, T.; Komatsu, T.

    2009-01-01

    Ferroelastic β'-Gd 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 , (GMO), crystals are formed through the crystallization of 21.25Gd 2 O 3 -63.75MoO 3 -15B 2 O 3 glass (mol%), and two scientific curious phenomena are observed. (1) GMO crystals formed in the crystallization break into small pieces with a triangular prism or pyramid shape having a length of 50-500 μm spontaneously during the crystallizations in the inside of an electric furnace, not during the cooling in air after the crystallization. This phenomenon is called 'self-powdering phenomenon during crystallization' in this paper. (2) Each self-powdered GMO crystal grain shows a periodic domain structure with different refractive indices, and a spatially periodic second harmonic generation (SHG) depending on the domain structure is observed. It is proposed from polarized micro-Raman scattering spectra and the azimuthal dependence of second harmonic intensities that GMO crystals are oriented in each crystal grain and the orientation of (MoO 4 ) 2- tetrahedra in GMO crystals changes periodically due to spontaneous strains in ferroelastic GMO crystals. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the polarized optical photograph at room temperature for a particle (piece) obtained by a heat treatment of the glass at 590 deg. C for 2 h in an electric furnace in air. This particle was obtained through the self-powdering behavior in the crystallization of glass. The periodic domain structure is observed. Ferroelastic β'-Gd 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 crystals are formed in the particle, and second harmonic generations are detected, depending on the domain structure.

  9. Ternary silicides ScIr{sub 4}Si{sub 2} and RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2} (RE = Sc, Y, Tb-Lu) and quaternary derivatives RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x} (RE = Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu) - structure, chemical bonding, and solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosswinkel, Daniel; Benndorf, Christopher; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. of Physics; Matar, Samir F. [Bordeaux Univ., CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, Pessac (France)

    2016-11-01

    The silicides ScIr{sub 4}Si{sub 2} and RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2} (RE = Sc, Y, Tb-Lu) and silicide stannides RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x}(RE = Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting and subsequent annealing. The new compounds crystallize with the orthorhombic YRh{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} type structure, space group Pnma. They were characterized by X-ray powder patterns and several structures were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data. The main structural motifs of this series of silicides are tricapped trigonal prisms formed by the transition metal and rare earth atoms. One of the two crystallographically independent silicon sites allows for formation of solid solutions with tin, exemplarily studied for ErRh{sub 4}Si{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x}. Electronic structure calculations reveal strong covalent Rh-Si bonding as the main stability factor. Multinuclear ({sup 29}Si, {sup 45}Sc, and {sup 89}Y) magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra of the structure representatives with diamagnetic rare-earth elements (Sc, Y, Lu) are found to be consistent with the crystallographic data and specifically confirm the selective substitution of Sn in the Si2 sites in the quaternary compounds YRh{sub 4}SiSn and LuRh{sub 4}SiSn.

  10. Luminescence and scintillation timing characteristics of (Lu{sub x}Gd{sub 2−x})SiO{sub 5}:Ce single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yawai, Nattasuda; Chewpraditkul, Warut; Sakthong, Ongsa [Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok10140 (Thailand); Chewpraditkul, Weerapong, E-mail: weerapong.che@kmutt.ac.th [Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok10140 (Thailand); Wantong, Kriangkrai [Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok10140 (Thailand); Szczesniak, Tomasz; Swiderski, Lukasz; Moszynski, Marek [National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sidletskiy, Oleg [Institute for Scintillation Materials NAS of Ukraine, 60 Nauky Avenue, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2017-02-01

    The luminescence and scintillation characteristics of cerium-doped lutetium-gadolinium orthosilicate (Lu{sub x}Gd{sub 2−x}SiO{sub 5}:Ce; x=0, 0.8, 1.8) single crystals were investigated. At 662 keV γ-rays, the light yield of 29,800±3000 ph MeV{sup −1} obtained for Lu{sub 1.8}Gd{sub 0.2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce is higher than that of 20,200±2000 and 11,800±1200 ph MeV{sup −1} obtained for Lu{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 1.2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce and Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, respectively. The fast component decay time of 32, 18 and 17 ns was measured in the scintillation decay of Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, Lu{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 1.2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce and Lu{sub 1.8}Gd{sub 0.2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, respectively. The coincidence time spectra for 511 keV annihilation quanta were measured in reference to a fast BaF{sub 2} detector and time resolution was discussed in terms of a number of photoelectrons and decay time of the fast component. The mass attenuation coefficient for studied crystals at 60 and 662 keV γ-rays was also evaluated and discussed. - Highlights: • Scintillation timing characteristics of Lu{sub x}Gd{sub 2−x}SiO{sub 5}:Ce crystals are studied. • Lu{sub 1.8}Gd{sub 0.2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce exhibits excellent light yield and timing response. • Energy resolution of 6% @662 keV is obtained for Lu{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 1.2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce. • Coincidence time resolution of 368 ps is obtained for Lu{sub 1.8}Gd{sub 0.2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce.

  11. Synthesis by two methods and crystal structure determination of a new pyrochlore-related compound Sm{sub 2}FeTaO{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Martinez, Leticia M., E-mail: lettorresg@yahoo.com [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Ruiz-Gomez, Miguel A. [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); Figueroa-Torres, M.Z.; Juarez-Ramirez, Isaias [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Moctezuma, Edgar [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); and others

    2012-04-16

    Graphical abstract: The monoclinic (space group C2/c) structure of a new compound, Sm{sub 2}FeTaO{sub 7} shows an alternating Sm-O and Fe/Ta-O layers. In the Fe/Ta-O layer, Fe/Ta1 and Fe/Ta3 cations are coordinated by six oxygen atoms, forming irregular octahedral interconnected into a hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) type network. The HTB layer is a fundamental framework in the pyrohlore-related structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrochlore-related compound Sm{sub 2}FeTaO{sub 7} prepared by solid state reaction and sol-gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sm{sub 2}FeTaO{sub 7} crystallizes with a monoclinic crystal structure and space group C2/c. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compound is synthesized by sol-gel at lower temperature and time than solid state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface area of sol-gel Sm{sub 2}FeTaO{sub 7} is 10 times higher than that prepared by solid state. - Abstract: This paper reports on the synthesis of a new pyrochlore-related compound Sm{sub 2}FeTaO{sub 7} by both solid state reaction and sol-gel synthesis routes. Structural features were determined by X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement and were corroborated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results revealed that Sm{sub 2}FeTaO{sub 7} crystallized in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c and the following cell parameters: a = 13.1307(5) Angstrom-Sign , b = 7.5854(3) Angstrom-Sign , c = 11.6425(4) Angstrom-Sign and {beta} = 100.971(2) Degree-Sign . The monoclinic structure of Sm{sub 2}FeTaO{sub 7} showed an arrangement of alternating Sm-O and Fe/Ta-O layers and two types of irregular octahedra of Fe/Ta-O, which are interconnected into a hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB)-type network. On the other hand, Sm{sub 2}FeTaO{sub 7} prepared by sol-gel was obtained with lower particle sizes than the solid state produced compound. The difference in particle size causes a difference of one order of magnitude in the specific surface area. In

  12. Growth, and magnetic study of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystal grown by optical floating zone technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anhua; Zhao, Xiangyang; Man, Peiwen; Su, Liangbi; Kalashnikova, A. M.; Pisarev, R. V.

    2018-03-01

    Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystals were successfully grown by optical floating zone method; high quality samples with various orientations were manufactured. Based on these samples, Magnetic property of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystals were investigated systemically by means of the temperature dependence of magnetization. It indicated that compositional variations not only alter the spin reorientation temperature, but also the compensation temperature of the orthoferrites. Unlike single rare earth orthoferrites, the reversal transition temperature point of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 increases as magnetic field increases, which is positive for designing novel spin switching or magnetic sensor device.

  13. K2Ln2As2Se9 (Ln = Sm, Gd): the first quaternary rare-earth selenoarsenate compounds with a 3D framework containing chairlike As2Se4 units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuandong; Bensch, Wolfgang

    2009-04-06

    The new compounds K(2)Ln(2)As(2)Se(9) (Ln = Sm, Gd) were obtained by applying the reactive flux method. The structure consists of a three-dimensional (3D) [Ln(2)As(2)Se(9)](2-) framework with K(+) ion-filling tunnels running along the b axis. The two unique Ln(3+) cations are coordinated by two Se(2)(2-) dumbbells, two AsSe(3)(3-) pyramids, and one chairlike As(2)Se(4)(2-) unit in a bicapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The Ln(3+)-centered trigonal prisms share triangular faces with neighboring prisms, forming one-dimensional chains along the b axis. These chains are linked to each other to form layers by sharing Se(2-) anions on the capped sites of the trigonal prisms. The As(2)Se(4) units connect these layers to form the 3D framework.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of heterobinuclear (La-Zn, Pr-Zn, Nd-Zn, Sm-Zn, Eu-Zn, Gd-Zn, Tb-Zn, Dy-Zn) azine-bridged complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bachcha; Srivastav, A.K.; Singh, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    Zinc(II) complex of 2-acetylpyridine salicyl aldazine (Haps) of the type Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 has been synthesised. The reaction of Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 with lanthanide chlorides, LnCl 3 (where Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy) yields azine-bridged heterobinuclear complexes of the formulae LnCl 3 Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 . These complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight, conductance (solid and solution) and magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, IR and electronic spectral data. X-ray powder diffraction data indicate the tetragonal unit lattice for Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 and PrCl 3 Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 . (author)

  15. Stabilization of the ferromagnetic metallic state in rare earth-doped La0.49X0.01Ca0.50MnO3+δ (X=Nd, Sm, Gd and Yb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, Affia; Hasanain, S.K.; Akhtar, M.J.; Nadeem, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report the effects of disorder induced by a small amount of substitution of the smaller cations (Nd, Sm, Gd and Yb) for La in the La 0.50 Ca 0.50 MnO 3+δ system. With decreasing size of the dopant, the ferromagnetic and metallic state is stabilized while the AFM and insulating behaviour is completely eliminating. The magnetic moment below T c increases in general, with decreasing dopant size. The behaviour is interpreted in terms of the destabilization of the charge ordering (CO) due to the disorder induced by the size mismatch of the cations. Our data support the view that close to the COI-FM phase boundary, the effect of disorder is to weaken the CO that is more sensitive to disorder, whereas it leaves the more robust double exchange relatively unaffected, thereby extending the region in phase space where the FM phase is stable

  16. Synthesis and characterization of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III) and Dy(III) complexes of 2-acetylfuran-2-thenoylhydrazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Singh, Praveen K.

    1998-01-01

    The reaction of 2-acetylfuran-2-thenoylhydrazone(afth) with Ln(III) trichlorides yields complexes of the type [Ln(afth)Cl 2 (H 2 O)(EtOH)]Cl, [Ln(III) = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy]. The complexes have been characterized by molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility and TGA and DTA measurements, magnetic susceptibility and TGA and DTA measurements, FAB mass, infrared, proton NMR, electronic absorption and emission spectra. The terbium complex is found to be monomer from the FAB mass spectrum. The IR and NMR spectra suggest neutral tridentate behaviour of the Schiff base. A coordination number seven is proposed around the metal ions. Emission spectra suggest C 3v , symmetry around the metal ion with capped octahedron geometry for the europium complex. (author)

  17. Distribution behavior of uranium, neptunium, rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and alkaline-earth metals (Sr,Ba) between molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and liquid cadmium or bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, M.; Sakamura, Y.; Hijikata, T.; Kinoshita, K.

    1995-01-01

    Distribution coefficients of uranium neptunium, eight rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) and two alkaline-earth metals (Sr and Ba) between molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and either liquid cadmium or bismuth were measured at 773 K. Separation factors of trivalent rare-earth elements to uranium or neptunium in the LiCl-KCl/Bi system were by one or two orders of magnitude larger than those in the LiCl-KCl/Cd system. On the contrary, the separation factors of alkaline-earth metals and divalent rare-earth elements to trivalent rare-earth elements were by one or two orders of magnitude smaller in the LiCl-KCl/Bi system. (orig.)

  18. Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er{sup 3+}:Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal and evaluation of Er{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+}:Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal as a 1.55 μm laser medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang, J.H.; Gong, X.H.; Chen, Y.J.; Lin, Y.F.; Luo, Z.D. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Y.D., E-mail: huyd@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2016-10-01

    An Er{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} single crystal with high optical quality has been grown by the Czochralski method. Polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime of the crystal were measured at room temperature. Intensity parameters, spontaneous emission probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios, and radiative lifetimes were estimated on the basis of the Judd–Ofelt theory. Besides, potentiality of 1.55 μm laser emission in an Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal was evaluated.

  19. Investigation of the thermoluminescent response of K2GdF5:Dy3+ crystals to photon radiation and neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edna C.; Faria, Luiz O.; Santos, Joelan A.L.; Vilela, Eudice C.

    2009-01-01

    The thermoluminescent (TL) properties of undoped and Dy 3+ doped K 2 GdF 5 crystals were investigated from the point of view of gamma and neutron dosimetry. Crystalline K 2 GdF 5 platelets with thickness of about 1 mm and doped with 0.0, 0.2, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 at.% Dy 3+ ions, synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, were irradiated in order to study TL sensitivity, as well as dose and energy response, reproducibility and fading. As it has been turned out, crystals doped with 5.0 at% Dy 3+ show the most efficient TL response and demonstrate a linear response to doses for all the radiation fields. TL glow curves from Dy 3+ doped K 2 GdF 5 crystals can be deconvoluted into four individual TL peaks centered at 153, 185, 216 and 234 deg C. Concerning the photon fields studied, the maximum TL response has been found for the 52.5 keV photons. The intensity is 15 times more than that of the response for the 662 keV photons from a Cs-137 source. On the other hand, the K 2 GdF 5 crystals doped with 5.0 at % Dy 3+ have also been found to have the better TL response for fast neutron radiation, among all dopants studied. For fast neutron radiation produced by a 241 Am-Be source, the TL responses for doses were also linear and comparable to that of commercial TLD-600, irradiated at same conditions. It has been established that the gamma sensitivity of the crystals is about 0.07% of the neutron sensitivity and the fast neutron sensitivity is about 4.5 % of the thermal neutron sensitivity. These results points out that K 2 Gd 0.95 Dy 0.05 F 5 crystals are good candidates for use in neutron dosimetry applications. (author)

  20. High-pressure synthesis and magnetic behavior of A-site columnar-ordered double perovskites, LnMn(Ga{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 6} (Ln = Sm, Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimura, Gen; Niwa, Ken; Shirako, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Masashi [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya (Japan)

    2017-01-26

    A-site columnar-ordered double perovskites, LnMn(Ga{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 6} (Ln = Sm, Gd), were successfully synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (6 GPa, 1375 K). From the synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction patterns, all of the diffraction peaks can be indexed by the P4{sub 2}/nmc space group with lattice parameters a, c ∼ 2a{sub p} (a{sub p}: primitive cubic perovskite lattice) and no ordering of the B-site cations. Rietveld analysis of the synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction patterns and Curie-Weiss fitting of their magnetizations reveal that the ionic formulae of these perovskites are Ln{sup 3+}Mn{sup 2+}(Ga{sup 3+}{sub 0.5}Ti{sup 4+}{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sup 2-}{sub 6}. SmMn(Ga{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 6} shows canted-antiferromagnetic behavior, whereas GdMn(Ga{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 6} exhibits two different magnetic states at low temperature depending on the applied magnetic field and shows an unusual magnetization curve. These magnetic behaviors originate by decreasing the antiferromagnetic interaction by substituting Ga{sup 3+}(d{sup 10}) for Ti{sup 4+}(d{sup 0}) and by decreasing the ferromagnetic interaction between columnar-ordered Ln{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+}. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Synthesis, structures, and luminescent properties of sodium rare-earth metal(III) chloride oxotellurates(IV), Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4} (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Dorofeev, Sergey G.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Dolgikh, Valery A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Zitzer, Sabine; Greiner, Stefan; Schleid, Thomas [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Olenev, Andrei V. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Sine Theta Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-17

    Six sodium rare-earth metal(III) chloride oxotellurates(IV), Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4}, isostructural to Na{sub 2}Y{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4}, were synthesized by flux techniques and characterized by single-crystal XRD. The compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/c with lattice constants a = 23.967(1), b = 5.6342(3), c = 16.952(1) Aa, β = 134.456(5) for Ln = Sm, a = 23.932(2), b = 5.6044(5), c = 17.134(1) Aa, β = 135.151(6) for Ln = Eu, a = 23.928(1), b = 5.5928(1), c = 17.1133(8) Aa, β = 135.366(3) for Ln = Gd, a = 23.907(1), b = 5.569(3), c = 16.745(1) Aa, β = 134.205(3) for Ln = Tb, a = 23.870(1), b = 5.547(3), c = 16.665(1) Aa, β = 134.102(3) for Ln = Dy, and a = 23.814(1), b = 5.526(3), c = 16.626(1) Aa, β = 134.016(3) for Ln = Ho and Z = 4. Their crystal structure can be considered as a framework built of intergrowing Ln-O and Na-(O,Cl) slabs with channel walls decorated by tellurium atoms of [TeO{sub 3}]{sup 2-} groups. The luminescent properties of the new compounds due to the Ln{sup 3+} cations are described and discussed. We also discuss the crystal chemistry of various alkali-metal rare-earth metal(III) halide oxochalcogenates(IV). (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Crystal structures of orthorhombic, hexagonal, and cubic compounds of the Sm(x)Yb(2−x)TiO5 series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughterson, Robert D.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Reyes, Massey de los; Sharma, Neeraj; Ling, Christopher D.; Gault, Baptiste; Smith, Katherine L.; Avdeev, Maxim; Cairney, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of single phase compounds with nominal stoichiometry Sm (x) Yb (2−x) TiO 5 (x=2, 1.4, 1, 0.6, and 0) have been successfully fabricated to generate a range of crystal structures covering the most common polymorphs previously discovered in the Ln 2 TiO 5 series (Ln=lanthanides and yttrium). Four of the five samples have not been previously fabricated in bulk, single phase form so their crystal structures are refined and detailed using powder synchrotron and single crystal x-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the phase information from diffraction data, there are four crystal structure types in this series; orthorhombic Pnma, hexagonal P6 3 /mmc, cubic (pyrochlore-like) Fd-3m and cubic (fluorite-like) Fm-3m. The cubic materials show modulated structures with variation between long and short range ordering and the variety of diffraction techniques were used to describe these complex crystal structure types. - Graphical abstract: A high resolution image of the compound Sm 0.6 Yb 1.4 TiO 5 showing contrast from lattice fringes and the corresponding fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the HREM image with pyrochlore related diffraction spots marked “P” and fluorite marked “F”. The crystal is oriented down the [1 1 0] zone axis based on the Fd-3m structure. The ideal crystal structure (no vacancies) of the cubic, pyrochlore-like (Sm 0.6 Yb 1.4 TiO 5 ). - Highlights: • First fabrication of bulk single-phase material with stoichiometry Sm 2 TiO 5 . • Systematic study of crystal structure types within Ln 2 TiO 5 series (Ln=lanthanides). • A novel technique using IFFT of HREM images to study cubic structures

  3. Hard X-ray MCD in GdNi/sub 5/ and TbNi/sub 5/ single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Galera, R M

    1999-01-01

    XMCD experiments have been performed at the R L/sub 2,3/ and Ni K- edges on magnetically saturated single crystals of GdNi/sub 5/ and Tb Ni/sub 5/ ferromagnetic compounds. The spectra present huge and well structured dichroic $9 signals at both the R L/sub 2,3/ and the Ni K- edges. Structures from the quadrupolar (2p to 4f) transitions are clearly observed at the R L/sub 2,3/-edges. Though Ni is not magnetic, large intensities, up to 0.4, are measured at the $9 Ni K- edge. The Ni K-edge XMCD shows a three-peak structure which intensities dependent on the rare earth. (7 refs).

  4. Lanthanide-activated Na5Gd9F32 nanocrystals precipitated from a borosilicate glass: Phase-separation-controlled crystallization and optical property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Daqin; Wan, Zhongyi; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Yan; Yu, Hua; Lu, Hongwei; Ji, Zhenguo; Huang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramics were fabricated for the first time. • Such glass ceramics were achieved by phase-separation-controlled crystallization. • Elemental mapping evidenced the segregation of activators into the Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 lattice. • Luminescent color could be tuned by controlling glass crystallization temperature. - Abstract: Lanthanide-activated cubic Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 nanocrystals were precipitated from a borosilicate glass with a specifically designed composition. The precursor glass is already phase-separated after melt-quenching, which is beneficial to the realization of the controllable glass crystallization for affording desirable size, morphology and activator partition. Elemental mapping in the scanning transmission electron microscopy evidenced that the segregation of lanthanide ions into the Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 lattice was in situ formed without the requirement of long-range ionic diffusion. Impressively, such fabricated glass ceramic co-doped with Yb 3+ /Er 3+ ions exhibited intense upconversion luminescence, which was about 500 times higher than that of the precursor glass, and its luminescent color could be easily tuned from red to green by controlling glass crystallization temperature. It is anticipated that such phase-separation synthesis strategy with precise control over nanostructure of glass ceramics offer a great opportunity to design other highly transparent nanocomposites with a wide range of tunable optical properties

  5. Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z. B.; Zhang, H. J.; Yu, H. H.; Xu, M.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Sun, S. Q.; Wang, J. Y.; Wang, Q.; Wei, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2012-01-01

    A high-quality disordered Nd3+:Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 (Nd3+:CGB) laser crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The space group and effective segregation coefficient of Nd3+ were determined to be Pnma and 1.06, respectively. The thermal properties, including the average linear thermal expansion coefficient, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity were systematically measured for the first time. It was found that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing temperature, indicating glasslike behavior. The polarized spectral properties of the crystal were investigated, including the polarized absorption spectra, polarized fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence decay. The spectroscopic parameters of Nd3+ ions in Nd3+:CGB crystal have been obtained based on Judd-Ofelt theory. The anisotropy of the spectral properties for different polarized directions was discussed. Additionally, the continuous-wave (CW) laser performance at 1.06 μm was demonstrated for the first time. The maximum output power of 603 mW was achieved with corresponding optical conversion efficiency of 8.33% and slope efficiency of 9.95%.

  6. Effects of rare-earth substitution on the stability and electronic structure of REZnOSb (RE = La-Nd, Sm-Gd) investigated via first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Kai; Man Zhenyong; Cao Qigao; Chen Haohong; Guo Xiangxin; Zhao Jingtai

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The structure stability of REZnOSb decreases with varying rare-earth from La to Gd because of the increased binding energy. Research highlights: → As increasing the atomic number of the RE, the structural stability of REZnOSb decreases. → Varying the rare-earth elements from La to Gd, the covalent interactions between [ZnSb] and [LaO] layer are enhanced by 4f-electrons. → The electrical transport properties of REZnOSb could be improved using the large atomic number of the RE. - Abstract: The structural stability, chemical bonding, Mulliken populations, and charge-density distribution of REZnOSb (RE = La-Nd, Sm-Gd) were investigated by first-principles calculations. Unit cell parameters calculated by the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) are in better agreement with experimental results than those derived from the local density approximation (LDA). Binding energy comparisons indicate that the structural stability of REZnOSb decreases with the increment of the atomic number of the RE, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. Semimetal or narrow band-gap semiconductor behaviors are found for selected REZnOSb. Moreover, chemical bonding analysis shows that there exist considerable polar covalent interactions between the participating atoms. It also reveals that the [ZnSb] layers receive some electrons from the [LaO] layers (donor) as an electrons acceptor and holes transport tunnel. The covalent interactions between the [ZnSb] and [LaO] layers, which are enhanced by 4f-electrons of the RE, are supposed to improve the electrical transport properties.

  7. Defect model of a tetragonal Sm sup 3 sup + center found from EPR measurements in CaF sub 2 and SrF sub 2 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng Wen Chen; Wu Shao Yi; Tang Sheng

    2003-01-01

    The EPR parameters (g factors g sub p sub a sub r sub a sub l sub l sub e sub l , g sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub r sub t sub o and hyperfine structure constants A sub p sub a sub r sub a sub l sub l sub e sub l , A sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub r sub t sub o) of a tetragonal (C sub 4 sub v) Sm sup 3 sup + center in CaF sub 2 and SrF sub 2 crystals are calculated by considering the crystal-field J-mixing among the ground sup 6 H sub 5 sub / sub 2 , the first excited sup 6 H sub 7 sub / sub 2 and second excited sup 6 H sub 9 sub / sub 2 state multiplets. In the calculations the free-ion and crystal-field parameters of the tetragonal Sm sup 3 sup + -F sup - center obtained from polarized laser-selective excitation spectroscopy are used. The calculated results suggest that the tetragonal Sm sup 3 sup + -F sup - center is the Sm sup 3 sup + center found by later EPR measurements. The g factors g sub p sub a sub r sub a sub...

  8. Spectroscopic properties and laser performance at 1,066 nm of a new laser crystal Nd:GdTaO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang; Yang, Huajun; Zhang, Qingli; Luo, Jianqiao; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Dunlu; Dou, Renqin; Sun, Guihua

    2015-03-01

    A new laser medium Nd3+:GdTaO4 single crystal with high optical quality was grown successfully by the Czochralski method, and its high-efficiency laser operation at 1,066 nm was demonstrated for the first time. The absorption cross section of the crystal at 808 nm is 5.098 × 10-20 cm2, and the full width at half maximum of this absorption band is about 6 nm. Spectral properties are investigated by Judd-Ofelt theory. The stimulated emission cross section at 1,066 nm is 3.9 × 10-19 cm2, and the fluorescence lifetime of 4F3/2 level is 178.4 μs. A diode end-pumped Nd:GdTaO4 laser at 1,066 nm with the maximum output power of 2.5 W is achieved in the continuous-wave mode. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency and slope efficiency are 34.6 and 36 %, respectively. In addition, the fluorescence branching ratio of 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition reaches 44.4 %, indicating that Nd:GdTaO4 may be an efficient laser medium at 920 nm. All the results demonstrate that Nd:GdTaO4 crystal is a good candidate for laser diode-pumped laser material.

  9. An electron paramagnetic resonance study on Sm{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} in KY{sub 3}F{sub 10} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaga, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Gifu (Japan); Honda, M. [Faculty of Science, Naruto University of Education, Naruto, Tokushima (Japan); Wells, J.P.R. [FELIX Free Electron Laser Facility, FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Han, T.P.J.; Gallagher, H.G. [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2000-10-09

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of Sm{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions in KY{sub 3}F{sub 10} single crystals have been measured at X-band microwave frequencies and low temperatures. The EPR lines have been fitted to a tetragonal spin Hamiltonian to determine effective g-values (g{sub parallel},g{sub perpendicular}). The observed g-values, (g{sub parallel} = 0.714(2),g{sub perpendicular} = 0.11(1)), for Sm{sup 3+} are in agreement with those calculated via crystal-field J-mixing of the first excited-state multiplet {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} into the groundstate multiplet {sup 6}H{sub 5/2} of Sm{sup 3+} as the second-order perturbation. On the other hand, the observed g-values, (g{sub parallel}=5.363(5), g{sub perpendicular}=1.306(2)) for Yb{sup 3+} are coincident with those calculated via mixing in only the groundstate multiplet {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} as the first-order perturbation because the first excited-state multiplet {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} lies above {approx}10,000 cm{sup -1} from the groundstate. The groundstate eigenfunctions of Sm{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} obtained from the EPR results are close to those calculated from a C{sub 4v} symmetry crystal-field analysis applied to their optical transitions. The distortions of the Sm{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} complexes in KY{sub 3}F{sub 10} are discussed in the term of the crystal-field Hamiltonian in comparison with LiYF{sub 4}. (author)

  10. Studies on Structural and Morphological Properties of Multidoped Ceria Ce0.8Nd0.0025Sm0.0025Gd0.005Dy0.095Y0.095O2-δ (x=0.2 as Solid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Stojmenović

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanopowdery solid solutions of multidoped ceria Ce0.8Nd0.0025Sm0.0025Gd0.005Dy0.095Y0.095O2-δ (x=0.2 with the fluorite type crystal structure of CeO2 were synthesized for the first time. Two synthesis procedures were applied: the modified glycine-nitrate procedure (MGNP method and room temperature self-propagating reaction (SPRT method. All nanopowders were characterized by XRPD analysis, Raman spectroscopy, low temperature nitrogen physisorption, TEM, and SEM methods. According to the XRPD and Raman spectroscopy results, single phase solid solutions of fluorite structure were evidenced regardless of the number of dopants and synthesis procedure. Both XRPD and TEM were analyses evidenced nanometer particle dimensions. The SPRT method results in obtaining sample with higher specific surface area, smaller crystallite and particles sizes, and the same values of the lattice parameter in comparison to pure CeO2. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to the oxygen vacancies introduced into the ceria lattice when Ce4+ ions were replaced with cations (dopants of lower valence state (3+, which may indicate the potential improvement of ionic conductivity. Additionally, the presence of oxygen vacancies in the lattice ceria, as well as very developed grain boundaries, gives a new possibility for potential application of obtained nanopowders in the area of room temperature ferromagnetism as spintronics.

  11. Studies on Structural and Morphological Properties of Multidoped Ceria Ce 0.8 Nd 0.0025 Sm 0.0025 Gd 0.005 Dy 0.095 Y 0.095 O 2 - δ ( x = 0.2 ) as Solid Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Stojmenović, Marija

    2016-04-17

    The nanopowdery solid solutions of multidoped ceria Ce0.8Nd0.0025Sm0.0025Gd0.005Dy0.095Y0.095 () with the fluorite type crystal structure of CeO2 were synthesized for the first time. Two synthesis procedures were applied: the modified glycine-nitrate procedure (MGNP method) and room temperature self-propagating reaction (SPRT method). All nanopowders were characterized by XRPD analysis, Raman spectroscopy, low temperature nitrogen physisorption, TEM, and SEM methods. According to the XRPD and Raman spectroscopy results, single phase solid solutions of fluorite structure were evidenced regardless of the number of dopants and synthesis procedure. Both XRPD and TEM were analyses evidenced nanometer particle dimensions. The SPRT method results in obtaining sample with higher specific surface area, smaller crystallite and particles sizes, and the same values of the lattice parameter in comparison to pure CeO2. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to the oxygen vacancies introduced into the ceria lattice when Ce4+ ions were replaced with cations (dopants) of lower valence state (3+), which may indicate the potential improvement of ionic conductivity. Additionally, the presence of oxygen vacancies in the lattice ceria, as well as very developed grain boundaries, gives a new possibility for potential application of obtained nanopowders in the area of room temperature ferromagnetism as spintronics.

  12. Synchrotron Based Structural Investigations of Mass-Selected PtxGd Nanoparticles and a Gd/Pt(111) Single Crystal for Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Filsøe; Velazquez-Palenzuela, Amado Andres; Masini, Federico

    2015-01-01

    . 134, 16476–16479 (2012). 3. Velazquez-Palenzuela, A. et al. The enhanced activity of mass-selected PtxGd nanoparticles for oxygen electroreduction. J. Catal. [in press] (2015). doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2014.12.012 4. Perez-Alonso, F. J. et al. The Effect of Size on the Oxygen Electroreduction Activity...

  13. Narrowing the gap: from semiconductor to semimetal in the homologous series of rare-earth zinc arsenides RE(2-y)Zn4As4·n(REAs) and Mn-substituted derivatives RE(2-y)Mn(x)Zn(4-x)As4·n(REAs) (RE = La-Nd, Sm, Gd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinsong; Tabassum, Danisa; Mar, Arthur

    2015-12-14

    A homologous series of ternary rare-earth zinc arsenides, prepared by reactions of the elements at 750 °C, has been identified with the formula RE(2-y)Zn4As4·n(REAs) (n = 2, 3, 4) for various RE members. They adopt trigonal structures: RE(4-y)Zn4As6 (RE = La-Nd), space group R3̄m1, Z = 3; RE(5-y)Zn4As7 (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd), space group P3̄m1, Z = 1; RE(6-y)Zn4As8 (RE = La-Nd, Sm, Gd), space group R3̄m1, Z = 3. The Zn atoms can be partially substituted by Mn atoms, resulting in quaternary derivatives RE(2-y)Mn(x)Zn(4-x)As4·n(REAs). Single-crystal structures were determined for nine ternary and quaternary arsenides RE(2-y)M4As4·n(REAs) (M = Mn, Zn) as representative examples of these series. The structures are built by stacking close-packed nets of As atoms, sometimes in very long sequences, with RE atoms occupying octahedral sites and M atoms occupying tetrahedral sites, resulting in an intergrowth of [REAs] and [M2As2] slabs. The recurring feature of all members of the homologous series is a sandwich of [M2As2]-[REAs]-[M2As2] slabs, while rocksalt-type blocks of [REAs] increase in thickness between these sandwiches with higher n. Similar to the previously known related homologous series REM(2-x)As2·n(REAs) which is deficient in M, this new series RE(2-y)M4As4·n(REAs) exhibits deficiencies in RE to reduce the electron excess that would be present in the fully stoichiometric formulas. Enthalpic and entropic factors are considered to account for the differences in site deficiencies in these two homologous series. Band structure calculations indicate that the semiconducting behaviour of the parent n = 0 member (with CaAl2Si2-type structure) gradually evolves, through a narrowing of the gap between valence and conduction bands, to semimetallic behaviour as the number of [REAs] blocks increases, to the limit of n = ∞ for rocksalt-type REAs.

  14. Static magnetic susceptibility, crystal field and exchange interactions in rare earth titanate pyrochlores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malkin, B. Z.; Lummen, T. T. A.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Dhalenne, G.; Zakirov, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental temperature dependence (T = 2-300 K) of single crystal bulk and site susceptibilities of rare earth titanate pyrochlores R2Ti2O7 (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) is analyzed in the framework of crystal field theory and a mean field approximation. Analytical expressions for the

  15. Study of effect of quenching and deformation on KCl: Gd crystals by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The study of ionic conductivity vs reciprocal temperature of pure KCl and KCl crystal doped with. 0⋅1, 0⋅3 and 0⋅5 mole% gadolinium has been carried out in as grown, quenched from elevated temperatures. (100, 350 and 500°C) and annealed at various timings i.e. 2–3 h and deformed by different percentages.

  16. Luminescence properties and gamma-ray response of the Ce and Ca co-doped (Gd,Y)F{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, Kei, E-mail: k-kamada@furukawakk.co.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Furukawa Co. Ltd. (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Fukabori, Akihiro [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nikl, Martin [Institute of Physics AS CR (Czech Republic)

    2011-12-11

    The Ca0.5% and Ce1%, 3%, 7%, 10% co-doped Gd{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5}F{sub 3} single crystals were grown by the {mu}-PD method. In the Ca0.5% and Ce3% co-doped sample, Ce{sup 3+}-perturbed luminescence at 380 nm was observed with 32.4 ns photoluminescence decay time. The energy transfer in the sequence of the regular Ce{sup 3+}{yields} (Gd{sup 3+}){sub n}{yields} the perturbed Ce{sup 3+} sites was evidenced through observation of decay time shortening of the regular Ce{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+} centers and the change between the Gd{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}-perturbed emission intensity. The gamma-ray excited scintillation response of the Ca0.5%, Ce7% co-doped Gd{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5}F{sub 3} sample was investigated with the help of the pulse height spectra and the light yield, energy resolution and non-proportionality was evaluated in the interval of energies of 59.4-1274 keV.

  17. Luminescence properties and gamma-ray response of the Ce and Ca co-doped (Gd,Y)F3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kei; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Fukabori, Akihiro; Yoshikawa, Akira; Nikl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Ca0.5% and Ce1%, 3%, 7%, 10% co-doped Gd 0.5 Y 0.5 F 3 single crystals were grown by the μ-PD method. In the Ca0.5% and Ce3% co-doped sample, Ce 3+ -perturbed luminescence at 380 nm was observed with 32.4 ns photoluminescence decay time. The energy transfer in the sequence of the regular Ce 3+ → (Gd 3+ ) n → the perturbed Ce 3+ sites was evidenced through observation of decay time shortening of the regular Ce 3+ and Gd 3+ centers and the change between the Gd 3+ and Ce 3+ -perturbed emission intensity. The gamma-ray excited scintillation response of the Ca0.5%, Ce7% co-doped Gd 0.5 Y 0.5 F 3 sample was investigated with the help of the pulse height spectra and the light yield, energy resolution and non-proportionality was evaluated in the interval of energies of 59.4-1274 keV.

  18. Judd-Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Sm{sup 3+} ions in K{sub 2}YF{sub 5} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Phan Van [Water Resources University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tuyen, Vu Phi; Quang, Vu Xuan; Thanh, Nguyen Trong; Ha, Vu Thi Thai [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khaidukov, Nicholas M. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee, Yong-Ill [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641 773 (Korea, Republic of); Huy, B.T., E-mail: buithehuy.nt@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641 773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed picture of the spectral characteristics of Sm{sup 3+} ions in K{sub 2}YF{sub 5} crystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bonding of Sm{sup 3+} ions with the local host is ionic bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coordination structure surrounding the RE ion has high symmetry. - Abstract: K{sub 2}YF{sub 5} crystals doped Sm{sup 3+} ions were synthesized under hydrothermal condition. The absorption, luminescence spectra, and lifetimes of K{sub 2}YF{sub 5}:Sm{sup 3+} were measured at room temperature. The results were analyzed using Judd-Ofelt (JO) theory giving the values of three {Omega}{sub 2}, {Omega}{sub 4}, and {Omega}{sub 6} intensity parameters. Using these JO parameters as well as from the emission, various radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (A{sub R}), radiative lifetime ({iota}{sub R}), calculated branching ratios ({beta}{sub R}), measured branching ratios ({beta}{sub mes}), and stimulated emission cross-sections ({sigma}{sub {lambda}p}) have been calculated for {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} excited level.

  19. Passivation of the surfaces of single crystal gadolinium molybdate (Gd2(MoO4)3) against attack by hydrofluoric acid by inert ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, A.; Cross, L.E.; Tongson, L.

    1978-01-01

    The passivation effect from inert ion beam bombardment has been studied on a ferroelectric surface. The mechanism in these materials may have some additional contributions because of the polarization charges of the domains and the dipole effect (ion beam and surface species) on the surfaces. For these studies Gd 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 (GMO) crystals were selected. Two possible mechanisms of passivation of GMO surfaces when bombarded with ion beams are discussed

  20. CW and AO Q-switched operation of a dual-crystal Tm, Ho:GdVO4 laser pumped by two diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L J; Bai, Y F; Liu, Y W; He, Z L; Wang, J; Yao, B Q; Zhou, S; Xing, M N

    2013-01-01

    Continuous wave (CW) mode and acousto-optic (AO) Q-switched mode operation of a dual-crystal Tm, Ho:GdVO 4 laser is reported. The dual-crystal Tm, Ho:GdVO 4 laser with output wavelength of 2.05 μm was pumped by two laser diodes (LDs). The Tm, Ho:GdVO 4 crystals were cooled by liquid nitrogen and pumped by two fiber-coupled LDs with a center output wavelength of 801.0 nm. A 20.5 W output power was obtained at a 255 mm physical cavity length in CW mode operation, and a 19.6 W average power was obtained at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 10 kHz with a 19 ns pulse duration. Also, the efficiency loss of the laser is not more than 4.4% from CW mode to Q-switch mode, and the M 2 factor, which is measured by the traveling knife-edge method, does not exceed 1.2. (paper)

  1. Functional organization of the Sm core in the crystal structure of human U1 snRNP.

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, G.; Trowitzsch, S.; Kastner, B.; Lührmann, R.; Wahl, M.

    2010-01-01

    The U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein initiates the assembly of the spliceosome. Here, the structure of the natively purified U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle reveals the core Sm protein ring and its interactions with the Sm site in the small nuclear RNA.

  2. Mass of the 158Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kui; Guo Jiyu; Lu Xiuqin; Cheng Yehao; Huang Xiaolin; Ma Yong; Li Shuyuan; Ruan Ming; Li Zhichang; Jiang Chenglie

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary result was reported for the experiment to determine the mass of the heavier neutron-rich nucleus 158 Sm using the 160 Gd( 18 O, 20 Ne) two proton transfer reaction in last progress report. The average Q-value of (4.046 +- 0.102) MeV for the 160 Gd( 18 O, 20 Ne) 158 Sm reaction is given. A mass excess for 158 Sm of (-65.738 +- 0.102) MeV was derived. This is the first experimentally measured value of the mass of 158 Sm which is about 450 keV higher than the evaluation value from systematic trends listed in the 1993 atomic mass table. The new prediction shows better agreement with the measured values and a significant improvement over the earlier FRDM (finite-range droplet model) value

  3. Luminescent and laser properties of Yb Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, B.; Galagan, B.; Ivleva, L.; Osiko, V.; Sverchkov, S.; Voronina, I.; Hellstrom, J. E.; Karlsson, G.; Laurell, F.

    2004-09-01

    We present for the first time 1.5-μm laser emission in Yb Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3 (GdCOB). The crystals were grown by the Czochralski method from platinum crucibles. Spectroscopic and laser tests of the crystals are described. A continuous-wave output power of 80 mW was achieved in a monolithic microchip cavity under laser-diode pumping.

  4. Cu k-edge studies of the charge carries in Th-doped cuprate system R2-xThxCuO4-δ (R = Nd, Sm and Gd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G.; Yi, Y.; Jardim, R.F.; Wang, L.V.

    1999-01-01

    To further study the charge carrier concentration in electron doped cuprate superconductors, a systematic x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurement has been carried out on Th-doped superconductor system R 2-x Th x CuO 4-δ (R = Nd, Sm, and Gd). The XANES results show that, similar to the Ce-doped compounds, while the intensity of the Cu 1+ 4p π feature increase with the increase of the Th doping level x, the intensities of the Cu 2+ 4p π and 4p σ features decreases. This clearly indicates that the electrons doped by the Th atoms are injected into the local Cu 3d-orbitals. The normalized Cu 1+ 4p π intensity data show that the Cu 1+ concentration in the Th-doped compound series with different R-elements is linearly proportional to the Th doping-level x. The data suggest that both Ce and Th donate the same fraction of electrons into the Cu sites

  5. Effect of lanthanide on the microstructure and structure of LnMn0.5Fe0.5O3 nanoparticles with Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd prepared by the polymer precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Mariano; Faccio, Ricardo; Martínez, Javier; Pardo, Helena; Montenegro, Benjamín; Plá Cid, Cristiani Campos; Pasa, André A.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of LnMn 0.5 Fe 0.5 O 3 perovskite nanoparticles by the polymer precursor method showed a strong intrinsic dependence with different lanthanides (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd). The polymerization level reached in the polymer precursor was proportional to the atomic number of lanthanide with exception of samarium, which showed the formation of a different precursor based in a citrate chelate with ethyleneglycol bonded as adduct. The increasing level of polymerization of the polymer precursors showed the formation of large-size perovskite nanoparticles after its calcination. SAXS and TEM analyses suggested that nanoparticles obtained, using this method, have a squared-like microstructure in connection with the polymer precursor microstructure. Structural analysis showed an orthorhombic structure with a slight decline in the Jahn–Teller distortion when the atomic number of lanthanide increases. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed the presence of a majority site in agreement with the Pbnm orthorhombic structure best fitted with Rietveld refinements and in some cases, a more distorted site attributed to local inhomogeneities and oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • Precursor polymerization level is lower in the presence of lighter lanthanides. • Lighter lanthanide perovskite nanoparticles after calcination are lower-sized. • Nanoparticles obtained by this method have lamellae microstructure. • Jahn–Teller distortion declines for heavier lanthanide perovskites. • Oxygen vacancy phase was observed in lighter lanthanide perovskites

  6. AC susceptibility, XRD and DSC studies of Sm1-xGdxMn2Si2 silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kervan, S.; Kilic, A.; Gencer, A.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction, AC susceptibility and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were performed on the polycrystalline Sm 1-x Gd x Mn 2 Si 2 (0≤x≤1) compounds. All compounds investigated crystallize in the body-centered tetragonal ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure with the space group I4/mmm. Substitution of Gd for Sm leads to a linear decrease of the lattice constants and the unit cell volume. The lattice constants and the unit cell volume obey Vegard's law. At low temperatures, the rare earth sublattice orders and reconfigures the ordering in the Mn sublattice. The samples with x=0.6 and 0.8 exhibit spin reorientation phenomenon. The Neel temperature T N (Mn) determined by DSC technique and the Curie temperature T C (RE) increase linearly with increasing Gd content x. The results are summarized in the x-T magnetic phase diagram

  7. SM-ND Age and REE Systematics of Larkman Nunatek 06319: Closed System Fractional Crystallization of a Shergottite Magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, J. T.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen T. J.; Righter, M.; Peslier, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic data were collected on mineral separates and bulk rock powders of LAR 06319, yielding an age of 180+/-13 Ma (2(sigma)). This age is concordant with the Lu-Hf age (197+/-29 Ma, [1]) determined in conjunction with these data and the Sm-Nd age (190+/-26 Ma) of Shih et al., 2009 [2]. The Sm-Nd data form at statistically significant isochron (Fig. 1) that is controlled largely by leachate-residue pairs (samples with the R suffix are residues after leaching in cold 2N HCl for 10 minutes).

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure and thermal decomposition mechanism of the complex [Sm(p-BrBA)3bipy.H2O]2.H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haiyan; Zhang Jianjun; Ren Ning; Xu Suling; Tian Liang; Bai Jihai

    2008-01-01

    A new binuclear samarium (III) complex [Sm(p-BrBA) 3 bipy.H 2 O] 2 .H 2 O (p-BrBA = p-bromobenzoic acid; bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV, IR, molar conductance and TG-DTG techniques. The structure of the complex was established by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in triclinic, space group P1-bar with a = 8.2476(7) A, b = 13.3483(10) A, c = 15.9035(13) A, α 73.9160(10) o , β = 78.9630(10) o , γ = 74.4770(10) o , Z = 1, D c 1.947 g cm -3 , F(000) = 910. The carboxylic groups are bonded to the samarium ion in two modes: bidentate bridging, monodentate. Each center Sm 3+ ion is eight-coordinated by one 2,2'-bipyridine molecular, four bidentate bridging and a monodentate carboxylic group, as well as one water molecular. The coordination polyhedron around each Sm 3+ ion can be described as bi-capped triangular prism geometry. The thermal decomposition behavior of the title complex in a static air atmosphere was investigated by TG-DTG and IR techniques

  9. Gamma multi-detectors and nuclear structure studies: search for superdeformed structures in {sup 147}Gd and {sup 144}Gd isotopes using Crystal Castle; simulation calculations for EUROGAM multi-detector definition; Multidetecteurs gamma et etudes de structure nucleaire: recherche avec le Chateau de Cristal de structures superdeformees dans les isotopes {sup 147}Gd et {sup 144}Gd; calculs de simulation pour la definition du multidetecteur EUROGAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, G de

    1992-12-31

    Computer simulations have been used for the calculation of the new generation of 4 {pi}{gamma} multi-detectors (Castle Crystal) of EUROGAM system (phase I and II). Two superdeformed bands (I and II), comprising 16 and 13 transitions respectively, have been described for {sup 147}Gd nucleus during the {sup 122}Sn({sup 30}Si,5n) fusion-evaporation reaction in a 155 MeV bombardment energy. Dynamic inertia momentum similarities and gamma transition energy similarities have been observed between band I and {sup 148}Gd nucleus and between band II and {sup 146}Gd nucleus, respectively. These similarities can be related to a pseudo-spin symmetry. Calculations suggest the existence of an octupolar susceptibility in this mass region. {sup 144}Gd nucleus has been studied using {sup 120}Sn({sup 29}Si,5n) fusion-evaporation reaction in a 155 MeV bombardment energy and using {sup 100}Mo({sup 48}Ti,4n) reactions in a 200 MeV bombardment energy. {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences have revealed the existence of a 58 keV width valley in the matrix representation compatible with theoretical predictions. In spite of the evidence for about ten transitions during these experiments, no superdeformed structure has been demonstrated for {sup 144}Gd nucleus. (J.S.). 87 refs., 57 figs., 41 tabs.

  10. Effect of Mg$^{2+}$ ions co-doping on timing performance and radiation tolerance of Cerium doped Gd$_{3}$Al$_{2}$Ga$_{3}$O$_{12}$ crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lucchini, M.T.; Bohacek, P.; Gundacker, S.; Kamada, K.; Nikl, M.; Petrosyan, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Auffray, E.

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic scintillators with high density and high light yield are of major interest for applications in medical imaging and high energy physics detectors. In this work, the optical and scintillation properties of Mg co-doped Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 crystals, grown using Czochralski technique, have been investigated and compared with Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 ones prepared with identical technology. Improvements in the timing performance of the Mg co-doped samples with respect to Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 ones have been measured, namely a substantial shortening of the rise time and scintillation decay components and lower afterglow were achieved. In particular, a significantly better coincidence time resolution of 233 ps FWHM, being a fundamental parameter for TOF-PET devices, has been observed in Mg co-doped crystals. The samples have also shown a good radiation tolerance under high doses of γ-rays, making them suitable candidates for applications in harsh radiation environments, such as detectors at future collider experiments.

  11. Effect of Mg"2"+ ions co-doping on timing performance and radiation tolerance of Cerium doped Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchini, M.T.; Babin, V.; Bohacek, P.; Gundacker, S.; Kamada, K.; Nikl, M.; Petrosyan, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Auffray, E.

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic scintillators with high density and high light yield are of major interest for applications in medical imaging and high energy physics detectors. In this work, the optical and scintillation properties of Mg co-doped Ce:Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 crystals, grown using Czochralski technique, have been investigated and compared with Ce:Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 ones prepared with identical technology. Improvements in the timing performance of the Mg co-doped samples with respect to Ce:Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 ones have been measured, namely a substantial shortening of the rise time and scintillation decay components and lower afterglow were achieved. In particular, a significantly better coincidence time resolution of 233 ps FWHM, being a fundamental parameter for TOF-PET devices, has been observed in Mg co-doped crystals. The samples have also shown a good radiation tolerance under high doses of γ-rays, making them suitable candidates for applications in harsh radiation environments, such as detectors at future collider experiments.

  12. Thermal, Spectral and Laser Properties of Er3+:Yb3+:GdMgB₅O10: A New Crystal for 1.5 μm Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yisheng; Yuan, Feifei; Sun, Shijia; Lin, Zhoubin; Zhang, Lizhen

    2017-12-25

    A novel laser crystal of Er 3+ :Yb 3+ :GdMgB₅O 10 with dimension of 26 × 16 × 12 mm³ was grown successfully from K₂Mo₃O 10 flux by the top seeded solution growth method. The thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity were measured to calculate the thermal conductivity of the crystal. The absorption and fluorescence properties of the crystal at room temperature were investigated in detail. The Judd-Ofelt method was used to analyze the polarized absorption spectra. The emission cross-section of the ⁴I 13/2 →⁴I 15/2 transition was calculated by the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg formula and the relevant gain cross-sections were estimated. Continuous-wave laser output of 140 mW at 1569 nm with the slope efficiency of 17.8% was demonstrated in a plano-concave resonator. The results reveal that Er 3+ :Yb 3+ :GdMgB₅O 10 crystal is a promising material for 1.5 μm lasers.

  13. Scintillation and optical properties of Ce{sup 3+}-doped CaGdAl{sub 3}O{sub 7} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Masaki, E-mail: masaki.mori.mz4@ms.naist.jp [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma-shi, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Nakauchi, Daisuke; Okada, Go [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma-shi, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Fujimoto, Yutaka [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Kawaguchi, Noriaki [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma-shi, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Koshimizu, Masanori [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma-shi, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    The single crystals of 0, 0.6, 1, 1.6 and 2 mol% Ce doped CaGdAl{sub 3}O{sub 7} (Ce:CGAM) were grown by the Floating Zone method, and investigated on photoluminescence (PL) and scintillation properties. In the PL spectra, a broad emission appeared over 380–500 nm under 280 and 360 nm excitations with the quantum yield of 33.8–38.8%. Under a vacuum ultraviolet excitation (90 nm) using a synchrotron source, non-doped CGAM single crystal showed broad emissions over 250–650 nm. The PL decay time profiles followed a monotonic exponential decay with a decay time constant of around 33 ns. The scintillation spectra were similar to those of PL. All of the samples exhibited a clear photoabsorption peak and Compton edge in the pulse height spectra measured under {sup 137}Cs γ-ray irradiation, and the absolute scintillation light yield (LY) was highest for the 2% Ce-doped sample with the value of 3300±300 ph/MeV. The scintillation decay profiles were approximated by a third order exponential decay function, and the extracted decay time of Ce{sup 3+} emission component was around 36–44 ns. Among all the samples, 2%Ce:CGAM single crystal sample showed the best afterglow level as a scintillator under X-ray irradiation. - Highlights: •Ce{sup 3+}-doped CaGdAl{sub 3}O{sub 7} single crystals were synthesized by the FZ method. •Optical and scintillation properties of Ce{sup 3+}-doped CaGdAl{sub 3}O{sub 7} were investigated. •Photoabsorption peak in a pulse height spectrum was clearly observed under γ-rays.

  14. Ising-like spin anisotropy and competing antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic orders in GdBaCo2O5.5 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, A A; Lavrov, A N; Ando, Yoichi

    2003-06-06

    In RBaCo2O5+x compounds (R is rare earth), a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic competition is accompanied by a giant magnetoresistance. We study the magnetization of detwinned GdBaCo2O5.5 single crystals and find a remarkable uniaxial anisotropy of Co3+ spins which is tightly linked with the chain oxygen ordering in GdO0.5 planes. Reflecting the underlying oxygen order, CoO2 planes also develop a spin-state order consisting of Co3+ ions in alternating rows of S=1 and S=0 states. The magnetic structure appears to be composed of weakly coupled ferromagnetic ladders with Ising-like moments, which gives a simple picture for magnetotransport phenomena.

  15. Continuous-wave and acousto-optically Q-switched 1066 nm laser performance of a novel Nd:GdTaO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; He, Ying; Peng, Zhenfang; Sun, Haiyue; Peng, Fang; Yan, Renpeng; Li, Xudong; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Qingli; Ding, Shoujun

    2018-05-01

    A diode-pumped acousto-optically (AO) Q-switched 1066 nm laser with a novel Nd:GdTaO4 crystal was demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The optimization selection of output coupler was carried out in the continuous-wave (CW) operation. After that the pulsed Nd:GdTaO4 laser performances using different modulation repetition rates of 10 kHz and 20 kHz were investigated. At an absorbed pump power of 10 W and repetition rates of 10 kHz, the obtained minimum pulse width was 28 ns and the maximum peak power was 5.4 kW.

  16. Optical waveguide formed in Yb:GdCOB and Yb:YCOB crystals by 3.0MeV O{sup +} implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Yang, E-mail: sdujy@163.com [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Planar optical waveguides were formed in Yb:GdCOB and Yb:YCOB crystals by 3.0 MeV O{sup +} ion implantation at fluence of 2 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature, respectively. The prism coupling method was performed to characterize the dark-mode property of the waveguides. The refractive index profiles in the waveguides were reconstructed by reflectivity calculation method (RCM). The results show that after the implantation, a 1.5 μm-wide region with enhanced refractive-index was formed beneath the sample surfaces to act as waveguide structures for both Yb:GdCOB and Yb:YCOB.

  17. A sodium gadolinium phosphate with two different types of tunnel structure: Synthesis, crystal structure, and optical properties of Na3GdP2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, M.; Cheng, W.-D.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, D.; Zhang, W.-L.; Yang, S.-L.

    2008-01-01

    A sodium gadolinium phosphate crystal, Na 3 GdP 2 O 8 , has been synthesized by a high-temperature solution reaction, and it exhibits a new structural family of the alkali-metal-rare-earth phosphate system. Although many compounds with formula M 3 LnP 2 O 8 have been reported, but they were shown to be orthorhombic [R. Salmon, C. Parent, M. Vlasse, G. LeFlem, Mater. Res. Bull. 13 (1978) 439] rather than monoclinic as shown in this paper. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows the structure to be monoclinic with space group C2/c and the cell parameters: a=27.55 (25), b=5.312 (4), c=13.935(11) A, β=91.30(1) o , and V=2038.80 A 3 , Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional GdP 2 O 8 3- anionic framework with two different types of interesting tunnels at where Na atoms are located by different manners. The framework is constructed by Gd polyhedra and isolated PO 4 tetrahedra. It is different from the structure of K 3 NdP 2 O 8 [R. Salmon, C. Parent, M. Vlasse, G. LeFlem, Mater. Res. Bull. 13 (1978) 439] with space group P2 1 /m that shows only one type of tunnel. The emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum of the compound have been investigated. Additionally, the calculations of band structure, density of states, dielectric constants, and refractive indexes have been also performed with the density functional theory method. The obtained results tend to support the experimental data. - Graphical abstract: Projection of the structure of Na 3 GdP 2 O 8 with a unit cell edge along the b-axis. The Na-O bonds are omitted for clarity

  18. Crystal growth, structure, defects, mechanical and spectral properties of Nd{sub 0.01}:Gd{sub 0.89}La{sub 0.1}NbO{sub 4} mixed crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shoujun; Lu, Wancheng; Xu, Jinrui [Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui Province (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Zhang, Qingli; Luo, Jianqiao; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Guihua; Sun, Dunlu [Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui Province (China)

    2017-10-15

    A novel mixed laser crystal of Nd:GdLaNbO{sub 4} (Nd:GLNO) was grown successfully by conventional Czochralski method. The unit cell parameters were obtained by Rietveld refinement method. The density of the as-grown crystal was measured by Archimedean buoyancy method and calculated in theory. Absorption spectrum of Nd:GLNO crystal was recorded at room temperature, and 11 absorption peaks were assigned. The defects of Nd:GLNO crystal were revealed by using chemical etching method with phosphoric acid as etchant. The mechanical properties (including hardness, yield strength, elastic stiffness constant, fracture toughness and brittleness index) were systemically estimated based on Vickers hardness test. All these obtained results play a quite important role in further investigation of Nd:GLNO crystal. (orig.)

  19. Spectroscopic analysis and efficient diode-pumped 1.9 μm Tm3+-doped β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianfeng; Chen, Yujin; Lin, Yanfu; Gong, Xinghong; Huang, Jianhua; Luo, Zundu; Huang, Yidong

    2011-07-04

    Tm3+-doped β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. Spectroscopic analysis was carried out along different polarizations. End-pumped by a quasi-cw diode laser at 795 nm in a plano-concave cavity, an average laser output power of 58 mW around 1.9 μm was achieved in a 0.93-mm-thick crystal when the output coupler transmission was 7.1%. The absorbed pump threshold was 8 mW and the slope efficiency of the laser was 57%. This crystal has smooth and broad gain curve around 1.9 μm, which shows that it is also a potential gain medium for tunable and short pulse lasers.

  20. Two hexagonal series of lanthanoid(III) oxide fluoride selenides.: M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}Se{sub 3} (M = La - Nd) and M{sub 2}OF{sub 2}Se (M = Nd, Sm, Gd - Ho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Dirk D.; Grossholz, Hagen; Wolf, Sarah; Schleid, Thomas [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Janka, Oliver [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Mueller, Alexander C. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Institut fuer Textilchemie und Chemiefasern, Denkendorf (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Two hexagonal series of lanthanoid(III) oxide fluoride selenides with similar structure types can be obtained by the reaction of the components MF{sub 3}, M{sub 2}O{sub 3}, M, and Se in sealed niobium tubes at 850 C using CsI as fluxing agent. The compounds with the lighter and larger representatives (M = La - Nd) occur with the formula M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}Se{sub 3}, whereas with the heavier and smaller ones (M = Nd, Sm, Gd - Ho) their composition is M{sub 2}OF{sub 2}Se. For both systems single-crystal determinations were used in all cases. The compounds crystallize in the hexagonal crystal system (space group: P6{sub 3}/m) with lattice parameters of a = 1394-1331 pm and c = 403-372 pm (Z = 2 for M{sub 6}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}Se{sub 3} and Z = 6 for M{sub 2}OF{sub 2}Se). The (M1){sup 3+} cations show different square antiprismatic coordination spheres with or without an extra capping fluoride anion. All (M2){sup 3+} cations exhibit a ninefold coordination environment shaped as tricapped trigonal prism. In both structure types the Se{sup 2-} anions are sixfold coordinated as trigonal prisms of M{sup 3+} cations, being first condensed by edges to generate trimeric units and then via faces to form strands running along [001]. The light anions reside either in threefold triangular or in fourfold tetrahedral cationic coordination. For charge compensation, both structures have to contain a certain amount of oxide besides fluoride anions. Since F{sup -} and O{sup 2-} can not be distinguished by X-ray diffraction, bond-valence calculations were used to address the problem of their adjunction to the available crystallographic sites. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Development and measurement of luminescence properties of Ce-doped Cs2LiGdBr6 crystals irradiated with X-ray, γ-ray and proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jonghun; Kim, H. J.; Rooh, Gul; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-12-01

    The effect of higher Ce-concentration on the luminescence and scintillation properties of Cs2LiGdBr6 single crystals are studied. We used the Bridgman method for the growth of Ce-doped Cs2LiGdBr6 single crystals. Luminescence properties of the grown crystals are measured by X-ray and proton excitations. We measured the pulse height and fluorescence decay time spectra of Cs2LiGdBr6:Ce3+ with a bi-alkali photo multiplier tube (PMT) under γ-ray excitation from 137Cs source. Improvements in the scintillation properties are observed with the increase of Ce-concentration in the lattice. Detailed procedure of the crystal growth is also discussed.

  2. An Hfq-like protein in archaea: crystal structure and functional characterization of the Sm protein from Methanococcus jannaschii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper S; Bøggild, Andreas; Andersen, Christian B F

    2007-01-01

    The Sm and Sm-like proteins are conserved in all three domains of life and have emerged as important players in many different RNA-processing reactions. Their proposed role is to mediate RNA-RNA and/or RNA-protein interactions. In marked contrast to eukaryotes, bacteria appear to contain only one...... diameter of the archaeal Hfq hexamer is significantly smaller than its bacterial counterparts. Functional analysis reveals that Escherichia coli and M. jannaschii Hfqs display very similar biochemical and biological properties. It thus appears that the archaeal and bacterial Hfq proteins are largely...

  3. Raman spectroscopic studies of Nd{sub 0.75}Sm{sub 0.25}GaO{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nithya, R., E-mail: nithya@igcar.gov.in; Ravindran, T. R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102, TN (India); Daniel, D. J. [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam-603110, TN (India)

    2015-06-24

    Single crystals of Nd{sub 1-x}Sm{sub x}GaO{sub 3} (x= 0 and 0.25) were grown by a four mirror IR image furnace using floating zone technique. The crystals are characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic measurements. NGO adopts orthorhombic structure with Pbnm symmetry and samarium substituted compound also exhibited the same structure as that of the pristine compound without secondary phases. Polarized Raman spectra are measured at ambient temperature in a back scattering geometry. Spectra exhibit low intensity first-order Raman bands. In addition, several high intensity second-order Raman bands have been observed in the frequency range 2000 to 4000 cm{sup −1}.

  4. Nitrato-complexes of Y(III), La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) with 2-(2'-pyridyl) benzimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.; Singh, M.P.; Singh, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    The nitrato-complexes, [Y(PyBzH) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ]NO 3 .H 2 O and Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho ; n=1-3, m=0-0.5 ; PyBzh=2-(2 -pyridyl)benzimidazole] are formed on interaction of the ligand with metal nitrates in ethanol. The electrical conductance values (116-129 ohm -1 cm 2 mol -1 ) suggest 1:1 electrolyte-nature of the complexes. Magnetic moment values of Ce(2.53 B.M.), Pr(3.62 B.M.), Nd(3.52 B.M.), Sm(1.70 B.M.), Gd(8.06 B.M.), Tb(9.44 B.M.), Dy(10.56 B.M.) and Ho(10.51 B.M.) in the complexes confirm the terpositive state of the metals. Infrared evidences are obtained for the existance of both coordinated (C 2 v) and uncoordinated (D 3 h) nitrate groups. Electronic absorption spectra of Pr(III)-, Nd(III)-, Sm(III)-, Tb(III)-, Dy(III)- and Ho(III)-complexes have been analysed in the light of LSJ terms. (author)

  5. Nitrato-complexes of Y(III), La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) with 2-(2'-pyridyl) benzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A; Singh, M P; Singh, V K

    1982-05-01

    The nitrato-complexes, (Y(PyBzH)/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/)NO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O and Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho ; n=1-3, m=0-0.5 ; PyBzh=2-(2 -pyridyl)benzimidazole) are formed on interaction of the ligand with metal nitrates in ethanol. The electrical conductance values (116-129 ohm/sup -1/cm/sup 2/mol/sup -1/) suggest 1:1 electrolyte-nature of the complexes. Magnetic moment values of Ce(2.53 B.M.), Pr(3.62 B.M.), Nd(3.52 B.M.), Sm(1.70 B.M.), Gd(8.06 B.M.), Tb(9.44 B.M.), Dy(10.56 B.M.) and Ho(10.51 B.M.) in the complexes confirm the positive state of the metals. Infrared evidences are obtained for the existance of both coordinated (C/sub 2/v) and uncoordinated (D/sub 3/h) nitrate groups. Electronic absorption spectra of Pr(III)-, Nd(III)-, Sm(III)-, Tb(III)-, Dy(III)- and Ho(III)-complexes have been analysed in the light of LSJ terms.

  6. Timing characteristics of Ce doped Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12} single crystals in comparison with CsI(Tl) scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, M.; Singh, A.K.; Singh, S.G.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Desai, V.V.; Nayak, B.K. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Single crystals of Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12}:Ce with B codopants were successfully grown using the Czochralski technique. The timing characteristics of the crystal was measured by coupling the crystal to photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photodiodes [Si(PIN)]. The two prompt γ-rays emitted in a cascade from {sup 60}Co or {sup 22}Na source were detected in coincidence using Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12}:Ce,B crystal detectors and a BaF{sub 2} detector. The time resolution of these crystals are observed to be better than that measured for CsI:Tl crystal coupled to PMT or Si(PIN) in an identical measurement setup. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Nd:(Lu0.5Gd0.5)2SiO5 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D Z; Xu, X D; Wu, F; Xia, C T; Zhang, J; Ma, J; Cong, Z H; Tang, D Y; Zhu, H M; Chen, X Y; Xu, J

    2011-01-01

    A Nd:(Lu 0.5 Gd 0.5 ) 2 SiO 5 (Nd:LGSO) crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω 2,4,6 were obtained to be 5.37, 1.63, and 5.57×10 -20 cm 2 , respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and branching ratios were calculated. The Nd:LGSO crystal reveals a broadband emission feature (FWHM = 9.8 nm), which shows potential as gain medium for ultrashort pulse lasers. The radiative and fluorescence lifetimes are 299 and 230 μs, respectively, resulting in a quantum efficiency of 77%. Pumped by a laser diode, the maximum continuous wave (CW) output power of 444 mW and a slope efficiency of 17.7% have been obtained

  8. Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Nd:(Lu0.5Gd0.5)2SiO5 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. Z.; Xu, X. D.; Zhang, J.; Cong, Z. H.; Tang, D. Y.; Ma, J.; Zhu, H. M.; Chen, X. Y.; Wu, F.; Xia, C. T.; Xu, J.

    2011-09-01

    A Nd:(Lu0.5Gd0.5)2SiO5 (Nd:LGSO) crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω2,4,6 were obtained to be 5.37, 1.63, and 5.57×10-20 cm2, respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and branching ratios were calculated. The Nd:LGSO crystal reveals a broadband emission feature (FWHM = 9.8 nm), which shows potential as gain medium for ultrashort pulse lasers. The radiative and fluorescence lifetimes are 299 and 230 μs, respectively, resulting in a quantum efficiency of 77%. Pumped by a laser diode, the maximum continuous wave (CW) output power of 444 mW and a slope efficiency of 17.7% have been obtained.

  9. Specific features of the domain structure of (Gd1-xNdx)2(MoO4)3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryzgalov, A.N.; Slepchenko, B.M.; Virachev, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Formation of the domain structures by sample transfer into thermodynamically metastable state using a simultaneous effect of electric field and temperature change is investigated in Gd 1.7 Nd 0.3 (MoO 4 ) 3 monocrystals (GMO). Some new results obtained under investigations into GMO domain structure using neodymium by means of hydrothermal etching and polarization-optical method are presented

  10. Investigation of the transport properties and compositions of the Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} series (RE=Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy; Pn=Sb, Bi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, Scott [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Yuan, Fang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Kosuda, Kosuke; Kolodiazhnyi, Taras [Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Mozharivskyj, Yurij, E-mail: mozhar@mcmaster.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    The Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases (RE=Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy; Pn=Sb, Bi) were successfully prepared from high temperature reactions at 1225–1300 °C. These phases maintain the same structure types as the parent RE{sub 9}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases, except for a Ca/RE mixing. The study and preparation of these phases was motivated by the desire to shift the metallic type properties of the parent RE{sub 9}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases to a level more suitable for thermoelectric applications. Electrical resistivity measurements performed on pure, bulk samples indicated all phases to be narrow band gap semiconductors or semimetals, supporting the charge balanced electron count of the Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} composition. Unfortunately, all samples are too electrically resistive for any potential usage as thermoelectrics. Electronic band structure calculations performed on idealized RE{sub 9}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} structures revealed the presence of a pseudogap at the Fermi level, which is consistent with the observed electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient behavior. - Graphical abstract: Ca substitution in RE{sub 9}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} leads to charge-balanced Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases with semiconducting or semimetallic properties. - Highlights: • The RE{sub 9}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} structure may be stabilized with calcium substitution in the form of Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5}. • The Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Pn{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases maintain the parent P 4/n structure, albeit with Ca/RE mixing. • The Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Sb{sub 5}O{sub 5} phases behave as semiconductors while Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Bi{sub 5}O{sub 5} are semimetals with electron-electron correlations. • Electronic structure calculations yield a semimetal-like density of states for both Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Sb{sub 5}O{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 7}Bi{sub 5}O{sub 5}.

  11. Valence and magnetic state of transition-metal and rare-earth ions in single-crystal multiferroics RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R = Y, Bi, Eu, Gd) from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozakov, A.T. [Scientific-Research Institute of Physics at Southern Federal University, 194 Stachki, Rostov-na-Donu 344194 (Russian Federation); Kochur, A.G., E-mail: agk@rgups.ru [Rostov State University of Transport Communication, 2 Narodnogo Opolcheniya, Rostov-na-Donu 344038 (Russian Federation); Nikolsky, A.V.; Googlev, K.A.; Smotrakov, V.G.; Eremkin, V.V. [Scientific-Research Institute of Physics at Southern Federal University, 194 Stachki, Rostov-na-Donu 344194 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Single crystals RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R = Y, Bi, Eu, Gd) and YMnO{sub 3} are grown. {yields} Core level XPS are measured and calculated with inclusion of temperature effect. {yields} Mn2p, Mn3s, R4s, and R4d (R = Eu, Gd) XPS are sensitive to valence and spin state. {yields} Paramagnetic moments per structural cell are estimated. - Abstract: Single crystals of orthorhombic multiferroics RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R = Y, Bi, Eu, Gd), and of hexagonal manganite YMnO{sub 3} are grown. X-ray photoelectron spectra of the core levels of the Mn, Y, Bi, Eu, Gd, and O atoms in multiferroics are obtained at room temperature with the ESCALAB 250 microprobe system with monochromatization of the exciting X-ray radiation. X-ray photoelectron spectra of Mn2p, Mn3s, R4s, and R4d (R = Eu, Gd) levels are assigned based on one-configuration isolated-ion approximation calculations with taking the temperature effect into account. It is shown using the photoelectron spectroscopy methods that both Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions are present in orthorhombic multiferroics, while Eu and Gd are in trivalent state. Paramagnetic moments per structural unit are calculated and compared with those determined from our spectroscopic data and with the data from other authors.

  12. Structure and thermal expansion of Ca9Gd(VO4)7: A combined powder-diffraction and dilatometric study of a Czochralski-grown crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkowicz, Wojciech; Shekhovtsov, Alexei; Kosmyna, Miron; Loiko, Pavel; Vilejshikova, Elena; Minikayev, Roman; Romanowski, Przemysław; Wierzchowski, Wojciech; Wieteska, Krzysztof; Paulmann, Carsten; Bryleva, Ekaterina; Belikov, Konstantin; Fitch, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Materials of the Ca9RE(VO4)7 (CRVO) formula (RE = rare earth) and whitlockite-related structures are considered for applications in optoelectronics, e.g., in white-light emitting diodes and lasers. In the CRVO structure, the RE atoms are known to share the site occupation with Ca atoms at two or three among four Ca sites, with partial occupancy values depending on the choice of the RE atom. In this work, the structure and quality of a Czochralski-grown crystal of this family, Ca9Gd(VO4)7 (CGVO), are studied using X-ray diffraction methods. The room-temperature structure is refined using the powder diffraction data collected at a high-resolution synchrotron beamline ID22 (ESRF, Grenoble); for comparison purposes, a laboratory diffraction pattern was collected and analyzed, as well. The site occupancies are discussed on the basis of comparison with literature data of isostructural synthetic crystals of the CRVO series. The results confirm the previously reported site-occupation scheme and indicate a tendency of the CGVO compound to adopt a Gd-deficient composition. Moreover, the thermal expansion coefficient is determined for CGVO as a function of temperature in the 302-1023 K range using laboratory diffraction data. Additionally, for CGVO and six other single crystals of the same family, thermal expansion is studied in the 298-473 K range, using the dilatometric data. The magnitude and anisotropy of thermal expansion, being of importance for laser applications, are discussed for these materials.

  13. Pinning performance of (Nd,Eu,Gd)-123 superconductors: Comparison of melt-textured pellet and single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsa, Miloš; Rameš, Michal; Jurek, Karel; Muralidhar, M.; Das, P.; Koblischka, M.R.; Wolf, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 1 (2008), s. 25-30 ISSN 0921-5107 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0173; GA MŠk 1P05ME728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : high-temperature superconductors * cuprous oxides * superconductivity perovskites, * (Nd,Eu,Gd)BaCuO * ternary compounds * melt-textured materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  14. First measurement of the nonlinear coefficient for Gd1-xLux Ca4O(BO3)3 and Gd1-xScxCa4O(BO3)3 crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Germershausen, Sven

    2007-01-01

    The effective nonlinear coefficient and temperature acceptance bandwidth of three Lu and Sc co-doped GdCa4O(B03)3 type nonlinear crystals were measured. NCPM for SHG in to the blue-UV spectral region can be obtained by controlling the co-dopant concentration. Measurements were based on intra-cavi...

  15. The influence of crystal structure on ion-irradiation tolerance in the Sm{sub (x)}Yb{sub (2-x)}TiO{sub 5} series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aughterson, R.D., E-mail: roa@ansto.gov.au [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lumpkin, G.R.; Reyes, M. de los [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Gault, B. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Baldo, P.; Ryan, E. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Whittle, K.R. [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH UK (United Kingdom); Smith, K.L. [Government International and External Relations, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Cairney, J.M. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-04-01

    This ion-irradiation study covers the four major crystal structure types in the Ln{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} series (Ln = lanthanide), namely orthorhombic Pnma, hexagonal P6{sub 3}/mmc, cubic (pyrochlore-like) Fd-3m and cubic (fluorite-like) Fm-3m. This is the first systematic examination of the complete Ln{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} crystal system and the first reported examination of the hexagonal structure. A series of samples, based on the stoichiometry Sm{sub (x)}Yb{sub (2-x)}TiO{sub 5} (where x = 2, 1.4, 1, 0.6, and 0) have been irradiated using 1 MeV Kr{sup 2+} ions and characterised in-situ using a transmission electron microscope. Two quantities are used to define ion-irradiation tolerance: critical dose of amorphisation (D{sub c}), which is the irradiating ion dose required for a crystalline to amorphous transition, and the critical temperature (T{sub c}), above which the sample cannot be rendered amorphous by ion irradiation. The structure type plus elements of bonding are correlated to ion-irradiation tolerance. The cubic phases, Yb{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and Sm{sub 0.6}Yb{sub 1.4}TiO{sub 5}, were found to be the most radiation tolerant, with T{sub c} values of 479 and 697 K respectively. The improved radiation tolerance with a change in symmetry to cubic is consistent with previous studies of similar compounds.

  16. Detailed crystallization study of co-precipitated Y1.47 Gd1.53 Fe5 O12 and relevant magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Rogerio Arving; Ogasawara, Tsuneharu; Ogasawara, Angelica Soares

    2007-01-01

    The crystallization process of co-precipitated Y 1.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 5 O 12 powder heated up to 1000 deg C at rate of 5 deg C min -1 was investigated. Above 810 deg C crystalline Y 1.47 Gd 1.53 Fe 5 O 12 was obtained with a lattice parameter of 12.41 A and a theoretical density of 5.84 g cm -3 . Dry pressed rings were sintered at 1270 and 1320 deg C, increasing the grain-size from 3.1 to 6.5 μm, the theoretical density by 87.6 to 95.3% and decreasing H c from 2.9725 to 1.4005 Oe. Additionally, Hc increased when the frequency of the hysteresis graph varied from 60 Hz to 10 kHz, the curie temperature was 282.4 deg C and Ms equalled 9.25 emu g -1 (0.17 kG) agreeing well with the B s -value of the hysteresis graph and literature values. (author)

  17. Linear optical properties of Ca4EuO(BO3)3 and Eu3+ : Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic-Fidancev, E.; Lemaitre-Blaise, M.; Porcher, P.; Caramanian, A.; Aka, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The title compounds are now intensively studied due to their quadratic nonlinear properties in view of applications, e.g. high power laser frequency conversion. Rare earth calcium oxoborates, Ca 4 REO(BO 3 ) 3 , constitute an isostructural family along the rare earth series with RE = La - Lu, Y included. These compounds crystallize in the monoclinic biaxial crystal system with Cm (N 8) space group. They are isostructural to the calcium fluoroborate Ca 5 (BO 3 ) 3 F which is related to the fluoroapatite structure Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F. The rare earth ions are located in the distorted octahedron with C s point site symmetry in the mirror plane. Two types of distorted octahedral sites exist for calcium ions. The existence of some disorder between calcium and rare earth atoms is suspected from the structural analysis. Good optical quality crystals of europium (or gadolinium) oxoborate, EuCOB (GdCOB) have been grown from the stoichiometric melt by the Czochralski pulling method. From the luminescence of the Eu 3+ doped gadolinium or in the europium stoichiometric compound very complex emission spectra have been obtained. It principally depends on the preparation method of studied samples: i) for a monocrystalline sample, a single phase with a single site is observed; ii) for a polycrystalline sample complex feature occurs. It is probably due to an expanded disorder between calcium and rare earth atoms. Practically, there is one principal site corresponding to the low symmetry site of the rare earth as expected from the structural investigation. Other minor sites are attributed to the local distortion created around the active rare earth ion. The intensity of the emission lines of Eu 3+ used as a local structural probe related to these minor sites increases when the gadolinium in Ca 4 GdO(BO 0 ) 3 is substituted by lanthanum or yttrium ions. It seems therefore evident that the synthesis of these rare earth calcium oxoborates must be realised carefully. The crystal

  18. Effect of mixing RE elements (Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu, Y, Yb) on the RE2BaCuO5/Nd4-2xBa2+2xCu2-xO10-2x phases in RE cuprate high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhorn, J.B.; Black, M.A.; McGinn, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The phases RE 2 BaCuO 5 /RE 4 Ba 2 Cu 2 O 10 phases (where RE is a mixture of Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu, Y and Yb) have been synthesized in an oxygen atmosphere and subsequently characterized. The mixing of RE elements which inherently form the RE 2 BaCuO 5 phase through the peritectic decomposition of REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (RE123) (i.e. Sm, Gd, Eu, Y, Yb), was observed to give homogeneous mixing of the elements in the 211 phase. In contrast it was found that on mixing Nd with other RE elements a mixture of the Nd 4-2x Ba 2+2x Cu 2-x O 10-2x (Nd422) and RE 2 BaCuO 5 (RE211) phases resulted. It was also observed that on mixing Nd with other REs a finite amount of the RE is substituted into the Nd422 phase and Nd into the RE211. (author)

  19. Diode-laser-pumped high efficiency continuous-wave operation at 912 nm laser in Nd:GdVO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, X; Chen, F; Gao, J; Li, X D; Yan, R P; Zhang, K; Yu, J H; Zhang, Z H

    2009-01-01

    High efficiency operation on continuous-wave (cw) 912 nm laser at room temperature in Nd:GdVO 4 crystal pumped by 808 nm diode-laser is reported in this letter. The maximum output power of 8.0 W was obtained at the incident un-polarized pump power of 47.0 W, giving the corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 17.0% and the average slope efficiency of 22.9%. Further tests show that the lasing threshold is reduced and the efficiency is increased evidently when using the π-polarized 808 nm pump source. 4.8 W 912 nm laser was achieved at the polarized pump power of 21.8 W, optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is increased to 22.0% and average slope efficiency is up to 33.6%

  20. 926 nm laser operation in Nd:GdNbO4 crystal based on 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Renpeng; Li, Xudong; Yao, Wenming; Shen, Yingjie; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Peng, Fang; Zhang, Qingli; Dou, Renqing; Gao, Jing

    2018-05-01

    926 nm laser operation in a Nd:GdNbO4 crystal based on quasi-three-level 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition is reported, for the first time to our best knowledge. An average output power of 393 mW at 926 nm under 879 nm LD pumping is obtained with a slope efficiency of 33.3% and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 26.0%. The slope efficiency with respect to absorbed pump power is estimated to be 47.7%. Comparison between output characters of 926 nm laser under direct and indirect pumping is conducted. The average output power at 926 nm under 808 nm LD pumping reaches 305 mW with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 16.1%.

  1. Efficient infrared (≈1.9-2.0 μm) laser operation in color-defect-free Tm:NaGd(MoO4)2 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X.; Rico, M.; Serrano, M. D.; Cascales, C.; Zaldo, C.

    2013-04-01

    Color-defect-free 5 at.% Tm:NaGd(MoO4)2 crystals have been grown in a Na2MoO4/Na2Mo2O7 flux. Using a hemispherical optical cavity and pumping at λ = 794.5 nm with a Ti-sapphire laser, up to 850 mW of output power at λ ≈ 1900 nm was obtained at 300 K with an output coupler transmission of 8%. In the cw regime, the slope efficiency versus absorbed power was η = 45% and the pump power laser threshold was ≈180 mW. The laser was tunable from 1875 to 1975 nm and the emission had a FWHM bandwidth ≈20 nm, indicating the potential for ultrashort laser pulse generation.

  2. Crystal Chemistry and Photocatalytic Properties of RE4S4Te3 (RE = Gd, Ho, Er, Tm): Experimental and Theoretical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yang; Rong, Liang-Zhen; Suen, Nian-Tzu; Xue, Huai-Guo; Guo, Sheng-Ping

    2018-04-25

    Reported are the synthesis and structural characterization of a new series of ternary rare-earth mix-chalcogenides RE 4 S 4 Te 3 (RE = Gd, Ho, Er, Tm) that have been obtained from high-temperature solid state reactions. These compounds crystallize in Ho 4 S 4 Te 2.68 structure types with monoclinic C2/ m and/or orthorhombic Immm space groups. The space group variation within this series is due to the position disorder along the Te plane (Te to TeA and TeB). The structural relationship and change between these two space groups are analyzed. It is realized that these compounds are all photocatalytic active under simulated sunlight. The trend of their photocatalytic activities and photocurrent responses is well-explained by using theoretical calculation as well as dipole moment analysis.

  3. Octupole excitations in 146Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzeti, P.G.; Bizzetti-Sona, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The mean lives of the lowest 9 - and 12 + states of 146 Sm have been measured by means of the RDM. Their (preliminary) values are r m (9 - )=0.97±0.05 ns and r m (12 + )=15±2 ps, respectively. The strengths of the collective E3 transitions of the 12 + →9 - →6 6 cascade are compared with the corresponding ones in 148 Gd

  4. A new ~1 μm laser crystal Nd:Gd2SrAl2O7: growth, thermal, spectral and lasing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feifei; Liao, Wenbin; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Yeqing; Lin, Zhoubin; Wang, Guofu; Zhang, Ge

    2018-03-01

    Nd:Gd2SrAl2O7 crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique; thermal, spectral and laser properties were investigated in detail. The average thermal expansion coefficients along a- and c-axis are 12.6  ×  10-6 K-1 and 14.9  ×  10-6 K-1, respectively. At room temperature, the thermal conductivities are 4.98 and 5.24 W (m-1 * K-1) along the a- and c-axis, respectively. The absorption cross sections at ~808 nm are 13.7  ×  10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 3.3 nm for π-polarization and 11.84  ×  10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 3.4 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections at ~1080 nm are 15  ×  10-20 cm2 and 12.7  ×  10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of about 5.1 nm and 12.5 nm for π- and σ-polarization, respectively. The fluorescence lifetime for the 4F3/2  →  4I11/2 transition was fitted to be 118 µs. Pumped by a fiber-coupled 808 nm laser diode, the maximum 1.55 W continuous-wave laser output at ~1.08 µm was achieved with a slope efficiency of 30.5%. All the results show that Nd:Gd2SrAl2O7 crystal is a promising laser material.

  5. Pulse shape discrimination properties of Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12}:Ce,B single crystal in comparison with CsI:Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawat, S. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Tyagi, Mohit [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Netrakanti, P.K.; Kashyap, V.K.S.; Mitra, A. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, A.K.; Desai, D.G. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, G. Anil [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Gadkari, S.C. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-21

    Single crystals of Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12}:Ce,B and CsI:Tl were grown by Czochralski and Bridgman techniques, respectively. While both the crystals exhibited similar emission at about 550 nm, their scintillation decay times showed significantly different characteristics. The average scintillation decay time of Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12}:Ce,B crystal was found to be about 284 ns for alpha excitation compared to 108 ns measured for a gamma source. On the other hand in CsI:Tl crystals, the alpha excitation resulted in a lower average decay time of 600 ns compared to 1200 ns with gamma excitation. Their pulse shape discrimination (PSD) for gamma and alpha radiations were studied by coupling the scintillators with photomultiplier tube or SiPM and employing an advanced digitizer as well as a conventional zero-crossing setup. In spite of having a poor α/γ light yield ratio, the PSD figure of merit and the difference of zero-crossing time in Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12}:Ce,B crystals were found to be superior in comparison to CsI:Tl crystals.

  6. Crystal phase transition in LixNa1-xGdF4 solid solution nanocrystals - Tuning of optical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Bański, Mateusz; Afzaal, Mohammad; Cha, Dong Kyu; Wang, X.; Tan, Hua; Misiewicz, Jan J.; Podhorodecki, Artur P.

    2014-01-01

    field symmetry and emission properties from doped europium (Eu3+) ions. We report that for lithium (Li+) substitution <15%, the hexagonal crystal field is preferred, while the Eu3+ emission is already tuned, whereas at higher Li+ substitution, a phase

  7. Correlating Structure and Oxygen Reduction Activity on Y/Pt(111) and Gd/Pt(111) Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrikkeholm, Elisabeth Therese; Pedersen, Anders Filsøe; Johansson, Tobias Peter

    2015-01-01

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) hold promise as a zero-emission source of power, particularly suitable for automotive vehicles. However, the high loading of Pt required to catalyse the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) at the PEMFC cathode prevents the commercialisation of this tech......Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) hold promise as a zero-emission source of power, particularly suitable for automotive vehicles. However, the high loading of Pt required to catalyse the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) at the PEMFC cathode prevents the commercialisation...... of this technology. Improving the activity of Pt by alloying it with other metals could decrease the loading of Pt at the cathode to a level comparable to Pt-group metal loading in internal combustion engines. PtxY and PtxGd exhibit exceptionally high activity for oxygen reduction, both in the polycrystalline form...

  8. Near-infrared and upconversion properties of neodymium-doped RE0.8La0.2VO4 (RE = Y, Gd) single-crystal fibres grown by the laser-heated pedestal growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, A S S de; Nunes, L A O; Andreeta, M R B; Hernandes, A C

    2002-01-01

    Neodymium-doped Y 0.8 La 0.2 VO 4 and Gd 0.8 La 0.2 VO 4 single-crystal fibres were successfully grown by the laser-heated pedestal growth (LHPG) technique. The fibres were completely transparent and no dark inclusions were observed by optical microscopy. In the characterization process, microprobe Raman, optical absorption, fluorescence, lifetime, and gain-excited state absorption spectra were investigated in addition to upconversion measurements. The fibres' structural and spectroscopic properties are very similar to those of YVO 4 and GdVO 4 bulk laser crystals, with the advantageous characteristic of broadened spectral linewidths that facilitate the pumping of the 1064 nm emission by a diode laser. These fairly new crystal compositions, that can be grown in fast and economical processes, are potential candidates for use as compact laser-active media

  9. EPR spectroscopy of MRI-related Gd(III) complexes: simultaneous analysis of multiple frequency and temperature spectra, including static and transient crystal field effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, S; Borel, A; Helm, L; Belorizky, E; Fries, P H; Merbach, A E

    2001-03-21

    For the first time, a very general theoretical method is proposed to interpret the full electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at multiple temperatures and frequencies in the important case of S-state metal ions complexed in liquid solution. This method is illustrated by a careful analysis of the measured spectra of two Gd3+ (S = 7/2) complexes. It is shown that the electronic relaxation mechanisms at the origin of the EPR line shape arise from the combined effects of the modulation of the static crystal field by the random Brownian rotation of the complex and of the transient zero-field splitting. A detailed study of the static crystal field mechanism shows that, contrarily to the usual global models involving only second-order terms, the fourth and sixth order terms can play a non-negligible role. The obtained parameters are well interpreted in the framework of the physics of the various underlying relaxation processes. A better understanding of these mechanisms is highly valuable since they partly control the efficiency of paramagnetic metal ions in contrast agents for medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  10. Crystal growth, defects, and mechanical and spectral properties of a novel mixed laser crystal Nd:GdYNbO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shoujun; Dou, Renqin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei, Anhui Province (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Liu, Wenpeng; Zhang, Qingli; Peng, Fang; Luo, Jianqiao; Sun, Guihua; Sun, Dunlu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei, Anhui Province (China)

    2017-01-15

    A mixed laser crystal of Nd-doped GYNO crystal was grown successfully by Czochralski method. The crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group I2/a, the structural parameters are obtained by the X-ray Rietveld refinement method. The defects and dislocations along three crystallographic orientations were studied by using the chemical etching method with the phosphoric acid etchant. The mechanical properties (including hardness, yield strength, fracture toughness, and brittle index) of the crystal were estimated by Vickers hardness test. The transmission spectrum was measured at room temperature, and the absorption peaks were assigned. Spectral properties of the as-grown crystal were investigated by Judd-Ofelt theory, and the Judd-Ofelt intense parameters Ω{sub 2,4,6} were obtained to be 9.674 x 10{sup -20}, 2.092 x 10{sup -20}, and 4.061 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2}, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Comparative study of crystallographic, spectroscopic, and laser properties of Tm3+ in NaT(WO4)2 (T=La, Gd, Y, and Lu) disordered single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Torres, J. M.; Rico, M.; Han, X.; Serrano, M. D.; Cascales, C.; Zaldo, C.; Petrov, V.; Griebner, U.; Mateos, X.; Koopmann, P.; Kränkel, C.

    2011-11-01

    Tetragonal double tungstate single crystals with formula NaT(WO4)2 have been grown by the Czochralski (T = Gd, La, Y) or by the top-seeded solution growth (T = Lu) methods with Tm concentration between 8 × 1018 and 7.85 × 1020 cm-3. The spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ in these crystals are related with the peculiarities of their I4¯ crystalline structure. Sixty-five percent of La ions in NaLa(WO4)2 are in the 2d site, while in the other crystal hosts, the lanthanide occupies preferentially the 2b site (59% in T = Gd, 74% in T = Y, and 58% in T = Lu). As a consequence, the linewidths of spectral bands associated with the electronic transitions are significantly narrower in NaLa(WO4)2 than in the rest of the isostructural crystals considered. Polarized spectroscopic measurements at 5 K and at higher temperatures, along with energy level simulation of the 4f12 configuration using a single-electron Hamiltonian, including free-ion and crystal field interactions, allowed us to determine the irreducible representation and energy of Stark levels up to the 3P0 multiplet and thus to obtain realistic partition functions (Z) used for emission cross-section calculations. In particular, for the 3F4(u) → 3H6(l) laser transition at λ ≈ 2 μm, this provides: Zl/Zu = 1.436 (T = Gd), 1.464 (T = La), 1.448 (T = Y), and 1.471 (T = Lu). Radiative lifetimes calculated by the Judd-Ofelt and Füchtbauer-Ladenburg methods are in agreement and decrease in the following order T = Gd, La, Y, and Lu, however, nonradiative losses are stronger for T = Gd and La crystals; therefore, experimental lifetimes of 1D2, 1G4, 3H4, and 3F4 Tm3+ multiplets do not change too much with crystal host. For 4.68 at.% Tm:NaY(WO4)2 crystal continuous-wave laser operation is obtained with ≈42% of slope efficiency and a record (for this crystal class) tuning capability of λ = 1847-2069 nm. The broad bandwidths, ΔλFWHM > 20 nm, of the free-running laser emission are promising for ultrafast (fs) mode

  12. Pr:Ca1-xRxF2+x (R=Y or Gd) crystals: Modulated blue, orange and red emission spectra with the proportion of R3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Qian, Xiaobo; Guo, Linyang; Jiang, Dapeng; Wu, Qinghui; Tang, Fei; Su, Liangbi; Ju, Qiangwen; Wang, Jingya; Xu, Jun

    2018-04-01

    The spectroscopic properties of 0.6at.%:Pr:Ca1-xRxF2+x (R = Y, Gd; x = 0,0.006, 0.012, 0.03, 0.06) crystals were investigated and compared. The XRD tests were conducted and the cell dimensions of the crystals were calculated. Room temperature absorption spectra have been registered and analyzed. The emission spectra and decay curves of the crystals were obtained at room temperature. Increasing the proportion of the lattice regulators of Y3+ or Gd3+ ions could significantly enhance the luminescence intensity of all visible emission bands with different ratios. Particularly, the emission intensity ratio of orange to red increased from 0.15 to 1.9 in Pr:Ca1-xYxF2+x crystals and to 1.02 in Pr:Ca1-xGdxF2+x crystals, respectively. Furthermore, Pr:Ca1-xGdxF2+x crystals have substantially strong emission at orange and red region of 580-660 nm, comparable with blue light at 482 nm. The quantum efficiency of the crystals increased rapidly with the increment of R3+ concentration, and finally tend to be 100%.

  13. Crystal growth and optical properties of Gd admixed Ce-doped Lu.sub.2./sub.Si.sub.2./sub.O.sub.7./sub. single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horiai, T.; Kurosawa, S.; Murakami, R.; Yamaji, A.; Shoji, Y.; Ohashi, Y.; Pejchal, Jan; Kamada, K.; Yokota, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 468, Jun (2017), s. 391-394 ISSN 0022-0248 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) JSPS-17-18 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : growth from melt * seed crystals * single crystal growth * oxides * scintillator materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  14. Judd–Ofelt analysis and transition probabilities of Er{sup 3+} doped KY{sub 1−x−y}Gd{sub x}Lu{sub y}(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez de Mendívil, Jon, E-mail: jon.martinez@uam.es [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lifante, Ginés [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pujol, Maria Cinta; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc [Física i Cristalografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Cantelar, Eugenio [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    In this work the transition probabilities, radiative lifetimes and branching ratios of Er{sup 3+} ions in KY{sub 1−x−y}Gd{sub x}Lu{sub y}(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals have been determined. With this aim, Er{sup 3+} doped KY{sub 1−x−y}Gd{sub x}Lu{sub y}(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals have been grown by means of the high temperature Top-Seeded Solution Growth. A spectroscopic analysis of Er{sup 3+} ions in this crystal has been performed following anisotropic Judd–Ofelt analysis to obtain basic spectroscopic properties. A quantum efficiency over 97% has been determined for the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition, indicating that this material is adequate for the development of lasers and amplifiers working in the third telecommunication window. - Highlights: • Er{sub 0.01}:KY{sub 1−x−y}Gd{sub x}Lu{sub y}(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals have been grown. • Anisotropic Judd Ofelt analysis has been carried out. • Optical transition probabilities and branching ratios have been calculated. • Radiative and non-radiative lifetimes have been obtained.

  15. Bulk glass ceramics containing Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+}: β-NaGdF{sub 4} nanocrystals: Phase-separation-controlled crystallization, optical spectroscopy and upconverted temperature sensing behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Daqin, E-mail: dqchen@fjirsm.ac.cn [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wan, Zhongyi; Zhou, Yan [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Huang, Ping, E-mail: phuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhong, Jiasong; Ding, Mingye [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Xiang, Weidong; Liang, Xiaojuan [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Ji, Zhenguo, E-mail: jizg@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • Hexagonal NaGdF{sub 4} nanocrystals embedded bulk glass ceramics were fabricated. • The incorporation of Ln{sup 3+} dopants into the β-NaGdF{sub 4} lattice was demonstrated. • Upconversion luminescence was highly intensified after glass crystallization. • Such glass ceramics had possible application in the optical temperature sensors. - Abstract: Lanthanide doped hexagonal β-NaGdF{sub 4} nanocrystals embedded transparent bulk glass ceramics were successfully fabricated via a phase-separation-controlled crystallization route. Elemental mapping in the scanning transmission electron microscope and optical spectroscopy analysis demonstrated the partition of the active centers into the β-NaGdF{sub 4} crystalline lattice. As a result, upconversion luminescence of the glass ceramic co-doped with Yb{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} is about 60 times as high as that of the precursor glass, attributing to the modification of Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} surrounding from phase-separated amorphous nanoparticle to β-NaGdF{sub 4} crystalline lattice with low phonon energy and high crystallinity after crystallization. Furthermore, the temperature-dependent green upconversion emissions assigned to {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (520 nm) and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (540 nm) transitions were investigated, and the corresponding fluorescence intensity ratio of these two thermally coupled emitting-states greatly enhanced with increase of temperature. Using such fabricated glass ceramic as an optical thermometric medium, the maximum sensitivity reached as high as 0.0037 K{sup −1} at 580 K. It is expected that the investigated Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} codoped glass ceramic might be a very promising candidate for accurate optical temperature sensors.

  16. Optical and scintillation properties of Sr7%:Ce15%:GdF.sub.3./sub. single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fukabori, A.; Kamada, K.; Yanagida, T.; Chani, V.; Aoki, K.; Yokota, Y.; Maeo, S.; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 318, č. 1 (2011), s. 1175-1178 ISSN 0022-0248. [International Conference on Crystal Growth (ICCG16) /16./ and International Conference on Vapor Growth and Epitaxy (ICVGE14) /14./. Beijing, 08.08.2010-13.08.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : radiation * inorganic compounds * scintillator materials * scintillators Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.726, year: 2011

  17. Determination of '14 MeV' cross sections for (n,p)-, (n,α)-, (n,2n)-, and (n,np + pn + d)-reactions on the elements Sc, Ni, Ge, Pd, Cd, Sm, Dy, Gd, and Yb in consideration of the 'effective' n-energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, H.; Michel, R.; Herr, W.

    1975-01-01

    A total of 24 cross sections was determined for (n,p)-, (n,α)-, (n,2n)-, and (n,np + pn + d)-reactions of fast (so called '14 MeV') neutrons on the elements Sc, Ni, Ge, Pd, Cd, Sm, Dy, Gd, and Yb. 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co served as monitor reaction. It is a special feature of this work that calculated neutron energy spectra for the '14 MeV' n-tube (Type Philips 18602) were considered, thus enabling us to supply each individual sigma-value with the respective n-energy distribution. On the basis of an extensive literature search (up to the beginning of 1973) the sigma-data were compared with experimental results of other authors and with those deduced from the statistical model. For some nuclides (e.g. 58 Ni, 154 Gd, 168 Yb, 176 Yb) it was possible to show the limits of applicability of the latter model. Summarizing, 12 cross sections and 3 isomeric ratios, nearly all of which belong to reaction products with rather long half-lifes, were determined for the first time. (orig.) [de

  18. Determination of '14 MeV' cross sections for (n,p), (n,. cap alpha. ), (n,2n), and (n,np + pn + d) reactions on the elements Sc, Ni, Ge, Pd, Cd, Sm, Dy, Gd, and Yb in consideration of the 'effective' n-energy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, H; Michel, R; Herr, W [Koeln Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie

    1975-01-01

    A total of 24 cross sections was determined for (n,p), (n,..cap alpha..), (n,2n), and (n,np + pn + d) reactions of fast (so called '14-MeV') neutrons on the elements Sc, Ni, Ge, Pd, Cd, Sm, Dy, Gd, and Yb. /sup 58/Ni(n,p)/sup 58/Co served as monitor reaction. It is a special feature of this work that calculated neutron energy spectra for the '14 MeV' n-tube (Type Philips 18602) were considered; each individual sigma value could thus be supplied with the respective n-energy distribution. On the basis of an extensive literature search (up to the beginning of 1973), the sigma data were compared with experimental results of other authors and with those deduced from the statistical model. For some nuclides (e.g. /sup 58/Ni, /sup 154/Gd, /sup 168/Yb, /sup 176/Yb) it was possible to show the limits of applicability of the latter model. Summarizing, 12 cross sections and 3 isomeric ratios, nearly all of which belong to reaction products with rather long half-lifes, were determined for the first time.

  19. Dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW and Q-switched laser in diode end-pumped Tm,Ho:GdYTaO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beibei; Gao, Congcong; Dou, Renqin; Nie, Hongkun; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Wenpeng; Yu, Haijuan; Wang, Guoju; Zhang, Qingli; Lin, Xuechun; He, Jingliang; Wang, Wenjun; Zhang, Bingyuan

    2018-02-01

    Dual-wavelength continuous-wave and Q-switched lasers are demonstrated in a Tm,Ho:GdYTaO4 crystal under 790 nm laser diode end pumping for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The laser operates with a dual wavelength at 1949.677 nm and 2070 nm for continuous-wave with a spacing of about 120 nm. The maximum output power is 0.332 W with a pump power of 3 W. By using graphene as the saturable absorber, a passively Q-switched operation is performed with a dual-wavelength at 1950.323 nm and 2068.064 nm with a wavelength interval of about 118 nm. The maximum average output power of the Q-switched laser goes up to 200 mW with a minimum pulse duration of 1.2 µs and a maximum repetition rate of 34.72 kHz.

  20. Spin-phonon and lattice contributions to the ground-state splitting of Gd3+ and Eu2+ in scheelite crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    The EPR spectra of Gd3+ in CaWO4 single crystals have been studied at temperatures T = 1.8, 4.2, and 114-300 K, and the temperature dependence of the parameters b {/n m } ( T) of the spin Hamiltonian has been found. The behavior of b {2/0}( T) has been analyzed. The spin-phonon and static lattice contributions b {2/0}( F) and b {2/0}( L) to b {2/0}( T) have been revealed. For this purpose, the variation of b {2/0}( L) has been calculated taking into account the thermal shifts of oxygen ions in CaWO4. Similar analysis has been carried out for CaWO4: Eu2+ based on the EPR data of other authors (Bronstein, Voterra and Harvey, Kiefte). It has been shown that at b {2/0}( F) > 0, the variation of b {2/0}( F) as a function of T for these impurity centers is described well by the Pfister model and a sign change of b {2/0}( T) for Eu2+ is determined by thermal expansion of the lattice.

  1. Lanthanide-activated Na{sub 5}Gd{sub 9}F{sub 32} nanocrystals precipitated from a borosilicate glass: Phase-separation-controlled crystallization and optical property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Daqin, E-mail: dqchen@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, CAS, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wan, Zhongyi; Zhou, Yang [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Chen, Yan, E-mail: chenyan@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yu, Hua; Lu, Hongwei; Ji, Zhenguo [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Huang, Ping, E-mail: phuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, CAS, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Na{sub 5}Gd{sub 9}F{sub 32} nanocrystals embedded glass ceramics were fabricated for the first time. • Such glass ceramics were achieved by phase-separation-controlled crystallization. • Elemental mapping evidenced the segregation of activators into the Na{sub 5}Gd{sub 9}F{sub 32} lattice. • Luminescent color could be tuned by controlling glass crystallization temperature. - Abstract: Lanthanide-activated cubic Na{sub 5}Gd{sub 9}F{sub 32} nanocrystals were precipitated from a borosilicate glass with a specifically designed composition. The precursor glass is already phase-separated after melt-quenching, which is beneficial to the realization of the controllable glass crystallization for affording desirable size, morphology and activator partition. Elemental mapping in the scanning transmission electron microscopy evidenced that the segregation of lanthanide ions into the Na{sub 5}Gd{sub 9}F{sub 32} lattice was in situ formed without the requirement of long-range ionic diffusion. Impressively, such fabricated glass ceramic co-doped with Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} ions exhibited intense upconversion luminescence, which was about 500 times higher than that of the precursor glass, and its luminescent color could be easily tuned from red to green by controlling glass crystallization temperature. It is anticipated that such phase-separation synthesis strategy with precise control over nanostructure of glass ceramics offer a great opportunity to design other highly transparent nanocomposites with a wide range of tunable optical properties.

  2. Passivation of the surfaces of single crystal gadolinium molybdate (Gd/sub 2/(MoO/sub 4/)/sub 3/) against attack by hydrofluoric acid by inert ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalla, A; Cross, L E; Tongson, L [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA). Materials Research Lab.

    1978-01-01

    The passivation effect from inert ion beam bombardment has been studied on a ferroelectric surface. The mechanism in these materials may have some additional contributions because of the polarization charges of the domains and the dipole effect (ion beam and surface species) on the surfaces. For these studies Gd/sub 2/(MoO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ (GMO) crystals were selected. Two possible mechanisms of passivation of GMO surfaces when bombarded with ion beams are discussed.

  3. Rotational and translational distortions of the crystal structure of the Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} (Hr = Ho, Dy, Gd, Eu) complex perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triana, C.A., E-mail: ctrianae@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 5997, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Landínez Téllez, D.A. [Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 5997, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Roa-Rojas, J., E-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 5997, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia)

    2013-05-15

    Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} (Hr = Ho, Dy, Gd, Eu) complex perovskites were synthesized through the high-temperature solid-state reaction method, and their crystal structures were analyzed in detail as a function of the Hr-cation ionic radius. Results of powder XRD pattern measurement and Rietveld analysis of the experimental profiles show that the Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} compounds crystallize in a monoclinic distorted perovskite-like structure, P2{sub 1}/n (#14) space group, where the unit cell parameters are related to the primitive unit cell a{sub p} by a≈√(2)a{sub p}, b≈√(2)a{sub p} and c ≈ 2a{sub p}. The structures show an alternate distribution of the Ru{sup 5+} (2d: 0.5, 0, 0) and Hr{sup 3+} (2c: 0, 0.5, 0) making up RuO{sub 6} and HrO{sub 6} octahedra alternatively arranged in two interleaving fcc sublattices, where the O(1), O(2), and O(3) ions are localized at the corner of the octahedral, while the Sr{sup 2+} is located at the A-site, occupying the cavities built by the corner-sharing octahedra with Wyckoff position 4e. Due to the existence of mismatched ionic sizes between the ionic radii of the Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} compounds, the HrO{sub 6} and RuO{sub 6} octahedra are constrained to tilting around the [111]{sub c}, [001]{sub c}, and [110]{sub c} cubic directions so as to optimize the Sr–O inter-atomic bond lengths, tending to rotate the structure in order to fix the Ru{sup 5+} and Hr{sup 3+} ions on the M′ and M″ sites of the complex perovskites. The cell parameters a, b, and c, the inter-atomic bond angles, the inter-atomic bond lengths, and the tilting angles increase as the Hr-cation ionic radius increases. The mismatch that exists in the Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} ionic radius produces a large distortion from the ideal cubic symmetry. The pure perovskite-like phase of Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} is thermodynamically and kinetically stable at high temperatures above 1420 K, where it is entirely governed by the average size of the Hr{sup 3+} and Ru

  4. Rotational and translational distortions of the crystal structure of the Sr2HrRuO6 (Hr = Ho, Dy, Gd, Eu) complex perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana, C.A.; Landínez Téllez, D.A.; Roa-Rojas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sr 2 HrRuO 6 (Hr = Ho, Dy, Gd, Eu) complex perovskites were synthesized through the high-temperature solid-state reaction method, and their crystal structures were analyzed in detail as a function of the Hr-cation ionic radius. Results of powder XRD pattern measurement and Rietveld analysis of the experimental profiles show that the Sr 2 HrRuO 6 compounds crystallize in a monoclinic distorted perovskite-like structure, P2 1 /n (#14) space group, where the unit cell parameters are related to the primitive unit cell a p by a≈√(2)a p , b≈√(2)a p and c ≈ 2a p . The structures show an alternate distribution of the Ru 5+ (2d: 0.5, 0, 0) and Hr 3+ (2c: 0, 0.5, 0) making up RuO 6 and HrO 6 octahedra alternatively arranged in two interleaving fcc sublattices, where the O(1), O(2), and O(3) ions are localized at the corner of the octahedral, while the Sr 2+ is located at the A-site, occupying the cavities built by the corner-sharing octahedra with Wyckoff position 4e. Due to the existence of mismatched ionic sizes between the ionic radii of the Sr 2 HrRuO 6 compounds, the HrO 6 and RuO 6 octahedra are constrained to tilting around the [111] c , [001] c , and [110] c cubic directions so as to optimize the Sr–O inter-atomic bond lengths, tending to rotate the structure in order to fix the Ru 5+ and Hr 3+ ions on the M′ and M″ sites of the complex perovskites. The cell parameters a, b, and c, the inter-atomic bond angles, the inter-atomic bond lengths, and the tilting angles increase as the Hr-cation ionic radius increases. The mismatch that exists in the Sr 2 HrRuO 6 ionic radius produces a large distortion from the ideal cubic symmetry. The pure perovskite-like phase of Sr 2 HrRuO 6 is thermodynamically and kinetically stable at high temperatures above 1420 K, where it is entirely governed by the average size of the Hr 3+ and Ru 5+ cations. Highlights: ► Crystal structure of Sr 2 HrRuO 6 (Hr = Ho, Dy, Gd, Eu) as a function of Hr ionic radius. ► XRD

  5. Site preference of metal atoms in Gd_5_-_xM_xTt_4 (M = Zr, Hf; Tt = Si, Ge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jinlei; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium and hafnium were incorporated into the Gd_5Ge_4 and Gd_5Si_4 parent compounds in order to study the metal-site occupation in the M_5X_4 magnetocaloric phases (M = metals; X = p elements) family. The Gd_5_-_xZr_xGe_4 phases adopt the orthorhombic Sm_5Ge_4-type (space group Pnma) structure for x ≤ 1.49 and the tetragonal Zr_5Si_4-type (P4_12_12) structure for x ≥ 1.77. The Gd_5_-_xHf_xSi_4 compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic Gd_5Si_4-type (Pnma) structure for x ≤ 0.41 and the Zr_5Si_4-type structure for x ≥ 0.7. In both systems, single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the Zr/Hf atoms preferentially occupy the slab-surface M2 and slab-center M3 sites, both of which have a significantly larger Zr/Hf population than the slab-surface M1 site. The metal-site preference, i.e. the coloring problem on the three metal sites, is discussed considering geometric and electronic effects of the local coordination environments. The analysis of the metal-site occupation in Gd_5_-_xZr_xGe_4 and Gd_5_-_xHf_xSi_4 as well as other metal-substituted M_5X_4 systems suggests that both geometric and electronic effects can be used to explain the metal-site occupation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Crystallization of 21.25Gd2O3-63.75MoO3-15B2O3 glass induced by femtosecond laser at the repetition rate of 250 kHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, M.J.; Han, Y.M.; Liu, L.P.; Zhou, P.; Du, Y.Y.; Guo, Q.T.; Ma, H.L.; Dai, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We report the formation of β'-Gd 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 (GMO) crystal on the surface of the 21.25Gd 2 O 3 -63.75MoO 3 -15B 2 O 3 glass, induced by 250 kHz, 800 nm femtosecond laser irradiation. The morphology of the modified region in the glass was clearly examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By micro-Raman spectra, the laser-induced crystals were confirmed to be GMO phases and it is found that these crystals have a strong dependence on the number and power of the femtosecond laser pulses. When the irradiation laser power was 900 mW, not only the Raman peaks of GMO crystals but also some new peaks at 214 cm -1 , 240 cm -1 , 466 cm -1 , 664 cm -1 and 994 cm -1 which belong to the MoO 3 crystals were observed. The possible mechanisms are proposed to explain these phenomena.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and photoluminescent properties of Eu{sup 3+} ion-activated R{sub 4}MoO{sub 9} (R = Y, Gd, and Lu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huaiyong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jung Hyun, E-mail: jhjeong@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hyun Kyoung [Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Jeju 695-971 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho Sueb [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Soung Soo [Department of Electronic Material Engineering, Silla University, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Rare earth molybdates R{sub 4}MoO{sub 9} (R = Y, Gd, and Lu) with Eu{sup 3+} ion-doped were synthesized by solid-state reaction. The phase structure, optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of the as-prepared powder samples were studied. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that all the compounds crystallized in a hexagonal structure, and the lattice parameters reduced in the order of the ionic radii of R. The UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra revealed that the compounds had a strong absorption of near-UV light due to the excitation of MoO{sub 6} groups in the host lattices. The energy absorbed by the host lattices could then be transferred to doped Eu{sup 3+} ions, resulting in red emission due to the f–f transitions of Eu{sup 3+} ions. The optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of the compounds indicated that they might be candidates as the color-conversion red phosphors for solid-state lighting. - Highlights: ► Structure, optical and photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} ion-activated R{sub 4}MoO{sub 9} were studied. ► Energy transfer from MoO{sub x} to Eu{sup 3+} can be used to convert near-UV to red light. ► R{sub 4}MoO{sub 9}:Eu might be candidate for color-conversion red phosphors excited by near-UV light.

  8. Strongly coupled band in 140Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, Kπ = 8 - isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in 128 Xe, 130 Ba, 132 Ce, 134 Nd, 136 Sm, and 138 Gd[. In 140 Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an Iπ = 8 - state. This could be the first case of a Kπ = 8 - state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the Kπ = 8 - isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The 140 Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in 140 Gd

  9. Synthesis and crystal structure of K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type novel Gd{sub 1+x}Ca{sub 1−x}AlO{sub 4−x}N{sub x} oxynitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masubuchi, Yuji, E-mail: yuji-mas@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Hata, Tomoyuki; Motohashi, Teruki; Kikkawa, Shinichi

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Novel gadolinium calcium aluminum oxynitride was prepared by solid state reaction. • Crystal structure of the oxynitride was refined by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. • Gd{sub 1.2}Ca{sub 0.8}AlO{sub 3.8}N{sub 0.2} has a layered K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type structure with the I4mm space group. • Nitride ions preferentially occupy the apical site of aluminum octahedron. -- Abstract: Novel gadolinium calcium aluminum oxynitrides, Gd{sub 1+x}Ca{sub 1−x}AlO{sub 4−x}N{sub x}, were prepared in x = 0.15–0.25 by the solid state reaction of a nitrogen–rich mixture with AlN as an aluminum source; the mixture was sintered twice at 1500 °C for 5 h under 0.5 MPa of nitrogen gas. Shift in the optical absorption edge was observed in their diffuse reflectance spectra from 4.46 eV for the oxide (x = 0) to 2.94 eV for the oxynitride at x = 0.2. The crystal structure of Gd{sub 1.2}Ca{sub 0.8}AlO{sub 3.8}N{sub 0.2} at x = 0.2 was refined using a synchrotron X-ray diffraction data as a layered K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type structure with the I4mm space group. Longer Al–O/N bond lengths in the oxynitride than those in GdCaAlO{sub 4} suggest that the nitride ions are in the apical site of aluminum polyhedron, similar to those in Nd{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N.

  10. Static magnetic susceptibility, crystal field and exchange interactions in rare earth titanate pyrochlores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, B Z; Lummen, T T A; van Loosdrecht, P H M; Dhalenne, G; Zakirov, A R

    2010-07-14

    The experimental temperature dependence (T = 2-300 K) of single crystal bulk and site susceptibilities of rare earth titanate pyrochlores R(2)Ti(2)O(7) (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) is analyzed in the framework of crystal field theory and a mean field approximation. Analytical expressions for the site and bulk susceptibilities of the pyrochlore lattice are derived taking into account long range dipole-dipole interactions and anisotropic exchange interactions between the nearest neighbor rare earth ions. The sets of crystal field parameters and anisotropic exchange coupling constants have been determined and their variations along the lanthanide series are discussed.

  11. Crystal field analysis of Pm$^{3+}$ (4$^{f4}) and Sm$^{3+}$ (4$^{f5}) and lattice location studies of $^{147}$Nd and $^{147}$Pm in w-AlN

    CERN Document Server

    Vetter, Ulrich; Nijjar, Anmol S; Zandi, Bahram; Öhl, Gregor; Wahl, Ulrich; De Vries, Bart; Hofsäss, Hans; Dietrich, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We report a detailed crystal field analysis of Pm3+ and Sm3+ as well as lattice location studies of 147Pm and 147Nd in 2H-aluminum nitride (w-AlN). The isotopes of mass 147 were produced by nuclear fission and implanted at an energy of 60 keV. The decay chain of interest in this work is 147Nd→147Pm→147Sm (stable). Lattice location studies applying the emission channeling technique were carried out using the β− particles and conversion electrons emitted in the radioactive decay of 147Nd→147Pm. The samples were investigated as implanted, and also they were investigated after annealing to temperatures of 873 K as well as 1373 K. The main fraction of about 60% of both 147Pm as well as 147Nd atoms was located on substitutional Al sites in the AlN lattice; the remainder of the ions were located randomly within the AlN lattice. Following radioactive decay of 147Nd, the cathodoluminescence spectra of Pm3+ and Sm3+ were obtained between 500 nm and 1050 nm at sample temperatures between 12 K and 300 K. High-re...

  12. L-shell X-ray production cross sections of Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy by impact of {sup 14}N{sup 2+} ions with energies between 7.0 MeV and 10.5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, G.; Méndez, B.; López-Monroy, J. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. México-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Méx. 52750 (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, Cd. Mx. 01000 (Mexico); Villaseñor, P. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. México-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Méx. 52750 (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A new data set of L X-ray production cross sections by nitrogen ion impact is given. • The target elements have atomic numbers in the range 58–66 (lanthanoids). • A universal scaling as function of a reduced velocity variable is applied. • The eCPSSR model with EC and MI corrections gives very good results. - Abstract: L-shell X-ray production cross sections from the lanthanoid elements Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy, induced by the impact of {sup 14}N{sup 2+} ions with energies in the interval 7.0 MeV to 10.5 MeV (0.50 MeV/μ to 0.75 MeV/μ), were measured and then compared with theoretical calculations obtained with the ECPSSR model with exact limits of integration (eCPSSR) and related corrections. These include the electron capture by the incoming ion and multiple ionizations of higher shells. Data from this work were contrasted with previously published L X-ray production cross sections for {sup 14}N{sup 2+} ion impact. As with other ions, a universal behavior is found when L{sub α} and L{sub γ} X-ray production cross sections are plotted as a function of reduced velocity parameters. The agreement with theoretical predictions was very good when the corrections were applied to the eCPSSR model.

  13. Properties of the (Sm sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Eu sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Gd sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3)Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub y superconductor prepared by different processes in air

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannelli, F; Monot-Laffez, I

    2003-01-01

    Bars and pellets of the (Sm sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Eu sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 Gd sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3)Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x superconductor were processed in air, using the floating zone method and the top-seeded melt-textured growth method, respectively. The samples were prepared using different experimental conditions, i.e. maximal processing temperature, translation rate or cooling rate. Their physical properties and their microstructure were studied. All the samples exhibit a satisfying superconducting transition whereas the critical current density greatly depends on the processing parameters. The sample prepared by the floating zone method at 1070 deg C with a translation rate of 2 mm h sup - sup 1 exhibits a very high J sub c value of 70000 A cm sup - sup 2 in the self-field and more than 30000 A cm sup - sup 2 at 1.7 T. The pellet processed at 1080 deg C with a cooling rate of 2 deg C h sup - sup 1 has a high J sub c reaching about 56000 A cm sup - sup 2 in the self-field and more than 32000 A ...

  14. Study on the thermoluminescent properties of K2YF5 and K2GdF5 crystals doped with optically active trivalent ions for gamma and neutrons dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edna Carla da

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the thermoluminescent (TL) properties of both double potassium yttrium fluoride (K 2 YF 5 ) and double potassium gadolinium fluoride (K 2 GdF 5 ) crystals doped with optically active rare earth ions were investigated from the point of view of gamma and neutron dosimetry. Crystalline platelets with thickness of about 1 mm, synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, were irradiated in order to study TL sensitivity, as well as dose and energy response, reproducibility and fading, in terms of Ce 3+ , Tb 3+ , Dy 3+ , e Pr 3+ concentrations. The K 2 YF 5 crystals doped with 1.0 at por cent Dy 3+ have been found to have an excellent linear TL response to X and gamma photons, in the range of 0.01 to 10 mGy. The TL output is comparable to that of CaS0 4 :Mn dosemeters. The main peak at 130 deg C has been found to have a TL response for 41.1 keV X-ray energy 32 times higher than that for 662 keV gamma rays. This fact points out that the K 2 Y 0.99 Dy 0.01 F 5 crystals have great potential for X-rays diagnostic and/or industrial radiography. On the other hand, the K 2 GdF 5 crystals doped with 5.0 at por cent Dy 3+ have been found to have the better TL response for gamma and fast neutron radiation, among the dopants studied. For gamma fields the TL response was linear for doses ranging from 0.1 to 200 mGy. The TL peak around 200 deg C can be deconvoluted into four individual peaks, all of them with linear behavior. For fast neutron radiation produced by an 241 Am B e source, the TL responses for doses ranging from 0.6 to 12 mSv were also linear and comparable to that of commercial TLD-600, irradiated at same conditions. The TL emission due to neutrons was in the high temperature range, above 200 deg C. These results points out that K 2 Gd 0.95 Dy 0.05 F 5 crystals are good candidates for use in neutron dosimetry applications. (author)

  15. Thermal and optical properties of Tm{sup 3+}: Li{sub 6}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} crystal: A potential candidate for 1.83 {mu}m lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xinghua [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Physics, Yangqiao West Road 155, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Jianfu; Zhu Zhaojie; You Zhenyu; Wang Yan [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Physics, Yangqiao West Road 155, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Tu Chaoyang [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Physics, Yangqiao West Road 155, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)], E-mail: tcy@fjirsm.ac.cn

    2008-10-15

    Single crystal of Tm{sup 3+}: Li{sub 6}Gd (BO{sub 3}){sub 3} was grown by the Czochralski method. The heat capacity was measured from 308 to 673 K. The absorption spectra of the crystal in three mutually perpendicular arbitrary directions were measured at room temperature. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory and the spectra measured in three mutually perpendicular directions, the intensity parameters {omega}{sub t} (t=2, 4, 6), the line strengths, the oscillator strengths, the radiative rates, radiative lifetimes and fluorescent branching ratios were calculated. We calculated the emission cross-section by the reciprocity method and also obtained the gain cross-section.

  16. Experimental evaluation of Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce (GAGG:Ce) single crystals coupled to a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) under high gamma ray irradiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinos, A.; Kefalidis, E.; Kandarakis, I.; David, S.

    2017-11-01

    Cerium (Ce) ion doped scintillators are of high interest in Medical Imaging systems and radiation monitoring devices, due to their very fast response and very good emission characteristics. In this study, a series of measurements regarding the energy resolution, photofraction, sensitivity, as well as the figure of merit, of Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce (GAGG:Ce) scintillator crystals, is presented. All GAGG:Ce crystals have a surface area of 3x3 mm2 with varying thicknesses, from 4 up to 20 mm (4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 mm). These crystals were exposed to γ radiation, using two different radioactive sources: 137Cs (0.662 MeV) and 60Co (1.173 MeV and 1.332 MeV). Each crystal was measured individually and was optically coupled to a KETEK PM3350 SiPM, an optical sensor with high gain, suitable to operate in room temperature. The digitization of the pulses was accomplished using CAEN DT5720 desktop digitizer and its corresponding digital pulse processing (DPP) firmware. Each measurement was performed in a light-tight box and had duration of 30 min. The best energy resolution value was measured for the GAGG:Ce crystal with dimensions 3x3x15mm3, equal to 3.9% at 1.332 MeV. Results were evaluated and compared to previous published data.

  17. Hyperfine fields at some 4d, 5d and 4f impurities in ferromagnetic GdZn and GdCd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Y.; Kojima, K.; Hihara, T.

    1995-01-01

    Hyperfine (hf) fields at 4d (Y, Nb, Rh, Pd), 5d (Lu, Ta, Ir) and 4f (La, Nd, Sm, Eu) impurities in ferromagnetic GdZn and GdCd have been measured by NMR at 4.2 K. The local moment contributions to the hf field suggest that the impurity moments at the beginning and end of the d series are parallel and antiparallel to Gd moments, respectively. The hf results for 4f impurities are also discussed. ((orig.))

  18. The crystal structure and electrical properties of K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type (Ca{sub 2−x}Sm{sub x})MnO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Hideki, E-mail: htaguchi@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [The Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology (Science), Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Kita-Ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kido, Hiroyasu [Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute, 1-6-50 Morinomiya, Jyoto-Ku, Osaka 536-8553 (Japan); Kato, Masaki; Hirota, Ken [Department of Molecular Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyo-Tanabe 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: The relationship between log ρ of K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type (Ca{sub 2−x}Sm{sub x})MnO{sub 4} and 1000/T. - Highlights: • K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type (Ca{sub 2−x}Sm{sub x})MnO{sub 4} was synthesized using a polymerized complex route. • The semiconductive samples had minimum values of ρ and E{sub a} at x = 0.1. • The log ρ–1/T curve of x = 0.3 consisted of two different lines at 315 K. • The 1/χ − T curve of x = 0.3 had a peak at 325 K. • These results indicated the presence of a charge-ordering transition at x = 0.3. - Abstract: K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type (Ca{sub 2−x}Sm{sub x})MnO{sub 4} (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) was synthesized using a polymerized complex route. The crystal structure changed from tetragonal to orthorhombic at x = 0.3. A variation in the lattice parameters was explained by the Mn–O(2) distance, the Mn−O(2)−Mn angle, and the (Ca,Sm)–(Ca,Sm) distance. The samples were n-type semiconductors, and the minimum values of electrical resistivity (ρ) and an energy gap (E{sub g}) at x = 0.1 were accounted by electron transfer through an Mn−O(2)−Mn path and overlap between the Mnt{sub 2g} and Op{sub π} orbitals. In the sample (x = 0.3), the log ρ–1000/T curve consisted of two different lines that intersected at ca. 325 K, and a peak was observed at ca. 315 K in the magnetic susceptibility–temperature curve. These results indicated the presence of a charge-ordering (CO) transition at 315–325 K.

  19. Syntheses and crystal structures of BaAgTbS{sub 3}, BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Jai; Beard, Jessica C.; Ibers, James A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Mesbah, Adel [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); ICSM-UMR 5257 CNRS/CEA/UM2/ENSCM, Bat 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France)

    2015-06-15

    Five new quaternary chalcogenides of the 1113 family, namely BaAgTbS{sub 3}, BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3}, were synthesized by the reactions of the elements at 1173-1273 K. For CsAgUTe{sub 3} CsCl flux was used. Their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The sulfide BaAgTbS{sub 3} crystallizes in the BaAgErS{sub 3} structure type in the monoclinic space group C{sup 3},{sub 2h}-C2/m, whereas the tellurides BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3} crystallize in the KCuZrS{sub 3} structure type in the orthorhombic space group D{sup 1},{sub 2}{sup 7},{sub h}-Cmcm. The BaAgTbS{sub 3} structure consists of edge-sharing [TbS{sub 6}{sup 9-}] octahedra and [AgS{sub 5}{sup 9-}] trigonal pyramids. The connectivity of these polyhedra creates channels that are occupied by Ba atoms. The telluride structure features {sup 2}{sub ∞}[MLnTe{sub 3}{sup 2-}] layers for BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and {sup 2}{sub ∞}[AgUTe{sub 3}{sup 1-}] layers for CsAgUTe{sub 3}. These layers comprise [MTe{sub 4}] tetrahedra and [LnTe{sub 6}] or [UTe{sub 6}] octahedra. Ba or Cs atoms separate these layers. As there are no short Q..Q (Q = S or Te) interactions these compounds achieve charge balance as Ba{sup 2+}M{sup +}Ln{sup 3+}(Q{sup 2-}){sub 3} (Q = S and Te) and Cs{sup +}Ag{sup +}U{sup 4+}(Te{sup 2-}){sub 3}. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Rare earth ruthenium gallides with the ideal composition Ln_2Ru_3Ga_5 (Ln = La-Nd, Sm) crystallizing with U_2Mn_3Si_5 (Sc_2Fe_3Si_5) type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeitschko, Wolfgang; Schlueter, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth ruthenium gallides Ln_2Ru_3Ga_5 (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) were prepared by arc-melting of cold-pressed pellets of the elemental components. They crystallize with a tetragonal structure (P4/mnc, Z = 4) first reported for U_2Mn_3Si_5. The crystal structures of the cerium and samarium compounds were refined from single-crystal X-ray data, resulting in significant deviations from the ideal compositions: Ce_2Ru_2_._3_1_(_1_)Ga_5_._6_9_(_1_), a = 1135.10(8) pm, c = 580.58(6) pm, R_F = 0.022 for 742 structure factors; Sm_2Ru_2_._7_3_(_2_)Ga_5_._2_7_(_2_), a = 1132.95(9) pm, c = 562.71(6) pm, R_F = 0.026 for 566 structure factors and 32 variable parameters each. The deviations from the ideal compositions 2:3:5 are discussed. A mixed Ru/Ga occupancy occurs only for one atomic site. The displacement parameters are relatively large for atoms with mixed occupancy within their coordination shell and small for atoms with no neighboring sites of mixed occupancy. Chemical bonding is analyzed on the basis of interatomic distances. Ln-Ga bonding is stronger than Ln-Ru bonding. Ru-Ga bonding is strong and Ru-Ru bonding is weak. The Ga-Ga interactions are of similar strength as in elemental gallium. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Strategisch management (SM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, A.P.; Vercouteren, W.J.J.C.; Hoek, van der N.; Lohman, T.A.M.; Vermeulen, N.

    1996-01-01

    Kernbegrippen die bij de discussie van strategisch management (SM) aan de orde komen, zijn productinnovatie op ondernemingsniveau (oftewel strategische productinnovatie, SPI) en technologiestrategie. In dit artikel wordt een raamwerk van SM geintroduceerd. Daartoe worden de verschillende fasen van

  2. New tetragonal derivatives of cubic NaZn13-type structure: RNi6Si6 compounds, crystal structure and magnetic ordering (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Yb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, M.; Manfrinetti, P.; Provino, A.; Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Morozkin, A.V.; Knotko, A.V.; Garshev, A.V.; Yapaskurt, V.O.; Isnard, O.

    2014-01-01

    Novel RNi 6 Si 6 compounds adopt the new CeNi 6 Si 6 -type structure for R=La–Ce (tP52, space group P4/nbm N 125-1) and new YNi 6 Si 6 -type structure for R=Y, Sm, Gd–Yb (tP52, space group P4 ¯ b2N 117) that are tetragonal derivative of NaZn 13 -type structure, like LaCo 9 Si 4 -type. The CeNi 6 Si 6 , GdNi 6 Si 6 , TbNi 6 Si 6 , DyNi 6 Si 6 and HoNi 6 Si 6 compounds are Curie–Weiss paramagnets down to ∼30 K, and do not order magnetically down to 5 K. However, the inverse paramagnetic susceptibility of LaNi 6 Si 6 does not follow Curie–Weiss law. The DyNi 6 Si 6 shows ferromagnetic-like saturation behaviour at 5 K in applied fields of 50 kOe, giving rise to a magnetic moment value of 6.5 μ B /f.u. in 50 kOe. The powder neutron diffraction study in zero applied filed indicates square modulated the c-collinear antiferromagnetic ordering of TbNi 6 Si 6 with K=[±1/4, ±1/4, 0] wave vector below ∼10 K. - Graphical abstract: Novel (La, Ce)Ni 6 Si 6 compounds adopt the new CeNi 6 Si 6 -type structure and (Y, Sm, Gd–Yb) adopt the new YNi 6 Si 6 -type structure that are tetragonal derivative of NaZn 13 -type structure, like LaCo 9 Si 4 -type. The CeNi 6 Si 6 , GdNi 6 Si 6 , TbNi 6 Si 6 , DyNi 6 Si 6 and HoNi 6 Si 6 compounds are Curie–Weiss paramagnets down to ∼30 K, and do not order magnetically down to 4.2 K. The powder neutron diffraction study in zero applied filed indicates square modulated the c-collinear antiferromagnetic ordering of TbNi 6 Si 6 with K=[±1/4, ±1/4, 0] wave vector below ∼10 K. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The new (La, Ce)Ni 6 Si 6 compounds adopt the new CeNi 6 Si 6 -type structure. • The new (Y, Sm, Gd–Yb)Ni 6 Si 6 compounds adopt the new YNi 6 Si 6 -type structure. • TbNi 6 Si 6 has square modulated c-collinear antiferromagnetic ordering below ∼10 K

  3. New tetragonal derivatives of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structure: RNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds, crystal structure and magnetic ordering (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Yb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pani, M.; Manfrinetti, P.; Provino, A. [INFM and Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita‘ di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@general.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Knotko, A.V.; Garshev, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Yapaskurt, V.O. [Department of Petrology, Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Isnard, O. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, BP166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 rue des martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2014-02-15

    Novel RNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds adopt the new CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure for R=La–Ce (tP52, space group P4/nbm N 125-1) and new YNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure for R=Y, Sm, Gd–Yb (tP52, space group P4{sup ¯}b2N 117) that are tetragonal derivative of NaZn{sub 13}-type structure, like LaCo{sub 9}Si{sub 4}-type. The CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, GdNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, TbNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, DyNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} and HoNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds are Curie–Weiss paramagnets down to ∼30 K, and do not order magnetically down to 5 K. However, the inverse paramagnetic susceptibility of LaNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} does not follow Curie–Weiss law. The DyNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} shows ferromagnetic-like saturation behaviour at 5 K in applied fields of 50 kOe, giving rise to a magnetic moment value of 6.5 μ{sub B}/f.u. in 50 kOe. The powder neutron diffraction study in zero applied filed indicates square modulated the c-collinear antiferromagnetic ordering of TbNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} with K=[±1/4, ±1/4, 0] wave vector below ∼10 K. - Graphical abstract: Novel (La, Ce)Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds adopt the new CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure and (Y, Sm, Gd–Yb) adopt the new YNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure that are tetragonal derivative of NaZn{sub 13}-type structure, like LaCo{sub 9}Si{sub 4}-type. The CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, GdNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, TbNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, DyNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} and HoNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds are Curie–Weiss paramagnets down to ∼30 K, and do not order magnetically down to 4.2 K. The powder neutron diffraction study in zero applied filed indicates square modulated the c-collinear antiferromagnetic ordering of TbNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} with K=[±1/4, ±1/4, 0] wave vector below ∼10 K. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The new (La, Ce)Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds adopt the new CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure. • The new (Y, Sm, Gd–Yb)Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds adopt the new YNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure. • TbNi{sub 6}Si

  4. Novel chromium doped perovskites A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} (A = Pr, Gd): Synthesis, crystal structure and photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hekai [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Fang, Minghao, E-mail: fmh@cugb.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, Zhaohui, E-mail: huang118@cugb.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Yan’gai [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen, Kai [National Engineering Research Center for Rare Earth Materials, General Research Institute For Nonferrous Metals, Grirem Advanced Materials Co.,Ltd., Beijing 100088 (China); Guan, Ming; Tang, Chao; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Meng [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Novel Cr doped A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} (A = Pr, Gd) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized. • The light absorbance and photocatalytic activity are enhanced through Cr doping. • The photocatalytic reaction mechanism of these photocatalyst was investigated. - Abstract: Double perovskite related oxides A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} (A = Pr, Gd) have been successfully synthesized by solid state reaction and investigated as photocatalysts for the first time. The two layered titanates mainly demonstrate absorbances under UV irradiation, except for several sharp absorption bands above 400 nm for Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}. Therefore, a series of photocatalysts by doping A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} (A = Pr, Gd) with Cr have been developed in the hope to improve their absorption in the visible light region. The successful incorporation of Cr was detected by XRD and XPS, and the prepared samples have also been characteriazed by SEM, UV–vis DRS and PL. The characterization results suggested that Cr was present mainly in the form of Cr3+, with only a small amount of Cr6+ species. It served as an efficient dopant for the extension of visible light absorbance and improved photocatalytic activities under solar light irradiation. For both Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} and Gd{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}, the valence band (VB) was composed of hybridized states of the Zn 3d, O 2p and the conduction band (CB) has major contribution from Zn 4s, Ti 3d orbitals. For Cr doped samples, the newly formed spin-polarized valence band in the middle of the band gap that primarily arises from Cr 3d orbitals was responsible for the improved optical and photocatalytic properties.

  5. Continuous-wave laser at 440 nm based on frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:GdVO(4) crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaing, Marc; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    We present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a frequency-doubled Nd:GdVO(4) laser operating in a cw on the pure three-level laser line at 880 nm. We obtained 300 mW at 440 nm for 23 W of incident pump power at 808 nm. Moreover, with a 25% output coupler we obtained a cw power of 1.9 W at the fundamental wavelength at 880 nm.

  6. Crystal structure and surface characteristics of Sr-doped GdBaCo2O6−δ double perovskites: oxygen evolution reaction and conductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Pramana, Stevin S.

    2017-12-04

    A cheap and direct solution towards engineering better catalysts through identification of novel materials is required for a sustainable energy system. Perovskite oxides have emerged as potential candidates to replace the less economically attractive Pt and IrO2 water splitting catalysts. In this work, excellent electrical conductivity (980 S cm−1) was found for the double perovskite of composition GdBa0.6Sr0.4Co2O6−δ which is consistent with a better oxygen evolution reaction activity with the onset polarisation of 1.51 V with respect to a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). GdBa1−xSrxCo2O6−δ with increasing Sr content was found to crystallise in the higher symmetry tetragonal P4/mmm space group in comparison with the undoped GdBaCo2O6−δ which is orthorhombic (Pmmm), and yields higher oxygen uptake, accompanied by higher Co oxidation states. This outstanding electrochemical performance is explained by the wider carrier bandwidth, which is a function of Co–O–Co buckling angles and Co–O bond lengths. Furthermore the higher oxygen evolution activity was observed despite the formation of non-lattice oxides (mainly hydroxide species) and enrichment of alkaline earth ions on the surface.

  7. Crystal structure and surface characteristics of Sr-doped GdBaCo2O6−δ double perovskites: oxygen evolution reaction and conductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Pramana, Stevin S.; Cavallaro, Andrea; Li, Cheng; Handoko, Albertus D.; Chan, Kuang Wen; Walker, Robert J.; Regoutz, Anna; Herrin, Jason S.; Yeo, Boon Siang; Payne, David J.; Kilner, John A.; Ryan, Mary P.; Skinner, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    A cheap and direct solution towards engineering better catalysts through identification of novel materials is required for a sustainable energy system. Perovskite oxides have emerged as potential candidates to replace the less economically attractive Pt and IrO2 water splitting catalysts. In this work, excellent electrical conductivity (980 S cm−1) was found for the double perovskite of composition GdBa0.6Sr0.4Co2O6−δ which is consistent with a better oxygen evolution reaction activity with the onset polarisation of 1.51 V with respect to a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). GdBa1−xSrxCo2O6−δ with increasing Sr content was found to crystallise in the higher symmetry tetragonal P4/mmm space group in comparison with the undoped GdBaCo2O6−δ which is orthorhombic (Pmmm), and yields higher oxygen uptake, accompanied by higher Co oxidation states. This outstanding electrochemical performance is explained by the wider carrier bandwidth, which is a function of Co–O–Co buckling angles and Co–O bond lengths. Furthermore the higher oxygen evolution activity was observed despite the formation of non-lattice oxides (mainly hydroxide species) and enrichment of alkaline earth ions on the surface.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Honghu; Malik, Vikash; Mallapragada, Surya; Akinc, Mufit

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles has attracted increasing interest due to their importance in biomedical and technological applications. Tunable magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles to meet specific requirements will greatly expand the spectrum of applications. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to studying and controlling the size, shape and magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles. Here we investigate gadolinium (Gd) doping to influence the growth process as well as magnetic properties of magnetite nanocrystals via a simple co-precipitation method under mild conditions in aqueous media. Gd doping was found to affect the growth process leading to synthesis of controllable particle sizes under the conditions tested (0–10 at% Gd"3"+). Typically, undoped and 5 at% Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles were found to have crystal sizes of about 18 and 44 nm, respectively, supported by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that Gd-doped nanoparticles retained the magnetite crystal structure, with Gd"3"+ randomly incorporated in the crystal lattice, probably in the octahedral sites. The composition of 5 at% Gd-doped magnetite was Fe_(_3_−_x_)Gd_xO_4 (x=0.085±0.002), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 5 at% Gd-doped nanoparticles exhibited ferrimagnetic properties with small coercivity (~65 Oe) and slightly decreased magnetization at 260 K in contrast to the undoped, superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles. Templation by the bacterial biomineralization protein Mms6 did not appear to affect the growth of the Gd-doped magnetite particles synthesized by this method. - Highlights: • Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized via aqueous co-precipitation method under mild conditions. • Gd doping affects growth of magnetite nanoparticles leading to tunable particle size. • Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles exhibit ferrimagnetic properties.

  9. Study of the Polarization Behavior of Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ Single Crystals below 350°C to Room Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuhaus, K.; Bernemann, M.; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2016-01-01

    was investigated by mapping the introduced defect gradient and its decay with time using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The generated surface potential gradients were found to have a diameter of up to 1 μm, which is explained by the local ionization of defect associates by the applied high electric field......Single crystalline ceria samples with the composition Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ were pre-polarized with ±5 V for up to 300 s using a Pt coated AFM tip as working electrode. The direct contact zone had a diameter of potential of the samples....... Measurements were performed at room temperature and 50°C. The polarization behavior of the Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ single crystals was compared to cyclovoltammetry and polarization-relaxation experiments at T ≤ 350°C and in dry air or nitrogen which were performed using a specially suited AFM (Controlled Atmosphere...

  10. Preparation of high magneto-optical performance and crystalline quality Ce{sub 1}Gd{sub 2}Fe{sub 5−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} films on CLNGG substrate crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Qiu-ping; Zheng, Ze-yuan; Lin, Nan-xi; Liu, Xiao-feng; Hong, Can-huang; Hu, Xiao-lin, E-mail: linamethyst@fzu.edu.cn; Zhuang, Nai-feng; Chen, Jian-zhong, E-mail: j.z.chen@fzu.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    Thin films of Ce{sub 1}Gd{sub 2}Fe{sub 5−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} (Ce,Ga:GIG) were prepared on Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} (GGG) and Ca{sub 2.90}Li{sub 0.30}Nb{sub 1.93}Ga{sub 2.76}O{sub 12} (CLNGG) substrates by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The phase, grain orientation, surface morphology, transmittance, magnetism and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) properties of films were analyzed. And the effects of lattice mismatch and non-magnetic Ga{sup 3+}-doping were discussed. The results show that the films with higher crystallized quality and lower stress can be obtained by growing on CLNGG than on GGG. Moreover, the coercive force, magnetization, magneto-optical effect intensity and orientation of film can be effectively regulated by adjusting Ga{sup 3+}-doped concentration. - Highlights: • With excellent magneto-optical performance, Ce,Ga:GIG film has a good application prospect. • Ce,Ga:GIG film with high quality were prepared on CLNGG by RF magnetron sputtering. • Crystalline quality and morphology of films are intently related to the substrate. • Ga{sup 3+} doping obviously affect on magnetism and magneto-optical property of Ce:GIG film.

  11. Detailed crystallization study of co-precipitated Y{sub 1.47} Gd{sub 1.53} Fe{sub 5} O{sub 12} and relevant magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Rogerio Arving [Instituto de Criminalistica Carlos Eboli (ICCE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ogasawara, Tsuneharu; Ogasawara, Angelica Soares [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mail: ogasawat@metalmat.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The crystallization process of co-precipitated Y{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} powder heated up to 1000 deg C at rate of 5 deg C min{sup -1} was investigated. Above 810 deg C crystalline Y{sub 1.47}Gd{sub 1.53}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was obtained with a lattice parameter of 12.41 A and a theoretical density of 5.84 g cm{sup -3}. Dry pressed rings were sintered at 1270 and 1320 deg C, increasing the grain-size from 3.1 to 6.5 {mu}m, the theoretical density by 87.6 to 95.3% and decreasing H{sub c} from 2.9725 to 1.4005 Oe. Additionally, Hc increased when the frequency of the hysteresis graph varied from 60 Hz to 10 kHz, the curie temperature was 282.4 deg C and Ms equalled 9.25 emu g{sup -1} (0.17 kG) agreeing well with the B{sub s}-value of the hysteresis graph and literature values. (author)

  12. Crystal structures and some physical properties of perovskite type vanadites of lanthanide-series elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinike, T [Osaka Dental Coll., Hirakata (Japan); Adachi, G; Shiokawa, J

    1980-04-01

    Crystal structures and some physical properties of the perovskite type vanadites of the lanthanide-series elements were studied. LaVO/sub 3/ and CeVO/sub 3/ had a tetragonal unit cell and other compounds studied were isostructural with orthorhombic GdFeO/sub 3/. The conductivity of all compounds showed semiconductive behavior with an activation energy about 0.1 eV. Electrical conductivity at room temperature decreased along the series from LaVO/sub 3/ to GdVO/sub 3/, and quasiconstant values were observed from TbVO/sub 3/ to LuVO/sub 3/. All the compounds studied, with the exception of LaVO/sub 3/, SmVO/sub 3/ and GdVO/sub 3/, were antiferromagnets with a weak ferromagnetism because of antisymmetric exchange interaction at low temperatures. At high temperature, all the compounds showed paragnetism.

  13. Generating a 2.4-W cw Green Laser by Intra-Cavity Frequency Doubling of a Diode-Pumped Nd:GdVO4 Laser with a MgO:PPLN Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jun; Liu Yan-Hua; Zhao Gang; Hu Xiao-Peng; Zhu Shi-Ning

    2012-01-01

    High-power cw green laser radiation is generated by intra-cavity frequency doubling of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 laser with a MgO-doped periodically-poled LiNbO 3 (MgO:PPLN) crystal at room temperature. An average power of 2.4 W at 0.53 μm is obtained under the pump 15 W at 808 nm, corresponding to an overall optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 16%. The M 2 factor of the green beam is 3.90 and 1.34 for the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. In addition, the power fluctuation is measured to be about ±5%

  14. Cooperative down-conversion of UV light in disordered scheelitelike Yb-doped NaGd(MoO4)2 and NaLa(MoO4)2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, K. A.; Osipova, Yu. N.; Lis, D. A.; Smirnov, V. A.; Zharikov, E. V.; Shcherbakov, I. A.

    2017-07-01

    Concentration series of disordered scheelitelike Yb:NaGd(MoO4)2 and Yb:NaLa(MoO4)2 single crystals are grown by the Czochralski method. The actual concentrations of Yb3+ ions in the crystals are determined by optical-absorption spectroscopy. The luminescence of Yb3+ ions in these crystals in the region of 1 μm is studied under UV and IR excitation. In the case of UV excitation, this luminescence appears as a result of nonradiative excited state energy transfer from donor centers of unknown nature to ytterbium. The character of the concentration dependence of Yb3+ luminescence indicates that the energy transfer at high Yb concentrations occurs with active participation of a cooperative mechanism, according to which the excitation energy of one donor center is transferred simultaneously to two Yb3+ ions. In other words, the quantum yield of this transfer exceeds unity, which can be used to increase the efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells.

  15. Optical and crystal chemistry studies of Na3Ln(PO4)2-K3Ln(PO4)2 (Ln=Eu, Gd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesnaoui, M.; Maazaz, M.

    1987-01-01

    In these systems, large single phase domains are separated by two phase regions. The structural evolution as a function of composition is analysed both by X-ray diffraction and by using Eu 3+ and Gd 3+ as luminescent local structural probes. Due to layer type structure of the K 3 Ln(PO 4 ) 2 phases an exchange reaction resulting in total substitution of sodium for potassium can be carried out with formation of metastable Na 3 Ln(PO 4 ) 2 phases, the structure of which is close to those of the potassium compounds. 10 refs.; 18 figs [fr

  16. The magnetic anisotropy of Gd-Y alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu Thuy, Nguyen; Verdonk, H. J.; Menovsky, A.; Franse, J. J. M.; Gersdorf, R.

    1983-02-01

    Magnetic torque curves on single crystals of Gd 1- xY x ( x ⩽ 0.1) show a reduction of the anomalous contribution that was observed in pure Gd, with increasing Y-content. Several explanations of this phenomenon are indicated in this paper.

  17. Effects of Zn doping on crystal structure, Raman spectra and superconductivity of SmBa2Cu3O7−δ systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Renzhong; Dai, Haiyang; Chen, Zhenping; Li, Tao; Xue, Yuncai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zn ions affect significantly the lattice parameter of the SmBa 2 Cu 3−x Zn x O 7−δ (SBCZO) ceramic. ► Raman spectra of SBCZO samples obviously change with increasing Zn doping content. ► The superconducting transition temperature decreases with increasing Zn content. ► Induced lattice disorder and local magnetic moment in CuO 2 planes are related to suppression of T c . -- Abstract: Polycrystalline SmBa 2 Cu 3−x Zn x O 7−δ (SBCZO) (x = 0.0–0.4) samples are prepared by the usual solid-state reaction technique. The effects of Zn doping on the structure, the grain morphology, Raman spectra and electronic transport properties of SBCZO systems have been investigated. The orthorhombic structure of the samples does not change remarkably. The samples become denser and grain boundary becomes unclear with the increase of Zn content. Raman spectra exhibit different features with increasing Zn content which shows that Zn ions act as strong scattering centers to the charge carriers in the CuO 2 planes, enhance the disorder of the CuO 2 planes and increase oxygen depletion in Cu-O chains. The measurements of the resistivity show that the superconducting transition temperature T c decreases rapidly and the superconducting transition width increases gradually with increasing Zn contents. Furthermore, the changes of the samples’ normal state resistivity from metallic to semi-conducting behavior show the increase of heterogeneities with increasing Zn content which causes inter-grain or intra-grain disorders. All the results suggest that lattice disorder in the CuO 2 planes, the oxygen content change in Cu-O chains and local weak superconductivity regions due to the substitution of Zn for Cu are related to the suppression of T c in the SBCZO systems

  18. Nanocrystallization in Cu-Zr-Al-Sm Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikan, Fatih; Yasar, Bengisu; Kalay, Ilkay

    2018-04-01

    The effect of rare-earth element (Sm) microalloying on the thermal stability and crystallization kinetics of melt-spun ribbons and suction-cast rods of Zr48Cu38.4Al9.6Sm4 alloy were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atom probe tomography (APT). The XRD results of constant heating rate annealing indicated that amorphous Zr48Cu38.4Al9.6Sm4 melt-spun ribbons devitrifies into Cu2Sm at 673 K (400 °C). The sequence continues with the precipitation of Cu10Zr7 and then these two phases coexist. XRD and TEM studies on 1 mm diameter as suction-cast rods indicated the precipitation of 30-nm-mean size Cu2Sm crystals during solidification. TEM investigation of the isothermal crystallization sequence of melt-spun ribbons and 1-mm-diameter suction-cast rods revealed the precipitation of Cu2Sm nanocrystals at the onset of crystallization and the restriction of the growth of these nanocrystals up to 10 nm diameter with further annealing. APT analysis of 1-mm-diameter suction-cast rods showed that the limited growth of Cu2Sm nanocrystals is due to sluggish diffusion of Sm and Al-Zr pile up at the interface.

  19. Luminescence rise time in self-activated PbWO4 and Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 scintillation crystals

    CERN Document Server

    E. Auffray; A. Borisevich; V. Gulbinas; A. Fedorov; M. Korjik; M.T. Lucchini; V. Mechinsky; S. Nargelas; E. Songaila; G. Tamulaitis; A. Vaitkevičius; S. Zazubovich

    2016-01-01

    The time resolution of scintillation detectors of ionizing radiation is one of the key parameters sought for in the current and future high-energy physics experiments. This study is encouraged by the necessity to find novel detection methods enabling a sub-10-ps time resolution in scintillation detectors and is focused on the exploitation of fast luminescence rise front. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques have been used to study two promising scintillators: self-activated lead tungstate (PWO, PbWO4) and Ce-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG, Gd3Al2Ga3O12). A sub-picosecond PL rise time is observed in PWO, while longer processes in the PL response in GAGG:Ce are detected and studied. The mechanisms responsible for the PL rise time in self-activated and doped scintillators are under discussion.

  20. Structural trends in a series of isostructural lanthanide-copper metallacrown sulfates (Ln(III) = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho): hexaaquapentakis[μ3-glycinehydroxamato(2-)]sulfatopentacopper(II)lanthanide(III) heptaaquapentakis[μ3-glycinehydroxamato(2-)]sulfatopentacopper(II)lanthanide(III) sulfate hexahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlishchuk, Anna V; Kolotilov, Sergey V; Fritsky, Igor O; Zeller, Matthias; Addison, Anthony W; Hunter, Allen D

    2011-07-01

    The seven isostructural complexes, [Cu(5)Ln(C(2)H(4)N(2)O(2))(5)(SO(4))(H(2)O)(6.5)](2)(SO(4))·6H(2)O, where Ln(III) = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy and Ho, are representatives of the 15-metallacrown-5 family. Each dianion of glycinehydroxamic acid (GlyHA) links two Cu(II) cations forming a cyclic [CuGlyHA](5) frame. The Ln(III) cations are located at the centre of the [CuGlyHA](5) rings and are bound by the five hydroxamate O atoms in the equatorial plane. Five water molecules are coordinated to Cu(II) cations, and one further water molecule, located close to an inversion centre between two adjacent [Cu(5)Ln(GlyHA)(5)](2+) cations, is disordered around this inversion centre and coordinated to a Cu(II) cation of either the first or second metallacrown ether. Another water molecule and one of the two crystallographically independent sulfate anions are coordinated, the latter in a bidentate fashion, to the Ln(III) cation in the axial positions. The second sulfate anion is not coordinated to the cation, but is located in an interstitial position on a crystallographic inversion centre, thus leading to disorder of the O atoms around the centre of inversion. The Ln-O bond distances follow the trend of the lanthanide contraction. The apical Ln-O bond distances are very close to the sums of the ionic radii. However, the Ln-O distances within the metallacrown units are slightly compressed and the Ln(III) cations protrude significantly from the plane of the otherwise flat metallacrown ligand, thus indicating that the cavity is somewhat too small to accommodate the Ln(III) ions comfortably. This effect decreases with the size of the lanthanide cation from complex (I) (Ln(III) = Pr; 0.459) to complex (VII) (Ln(III) = Ho; 0.422), which indicates that the smaller lanthanide cations fit the cavity of the pentacopper metallacrown ring better than the larger ones. The diminished contraction of Ln-O distances within the metallacrown planes leads to an aniostropic contraction of the unit

  1. Strongly coupled band in {sup 140}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in {sup 128}Xe, {sup 130}Ba, {sup 132}Ce, {sup 134}Nd, {sup 136}Sm, and {sup 138}Gd[. In {sup 140}Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an I{pi} = 8{sup -} state. This could be the first case of a K{pi} = 8{sup -} state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The {sup 140}Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in {sup 140}Gd.

  2. Glass-ceramic nuclear waste forms obtained by crystallization of SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th): Study of the crystallization from the surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, P.; Caurant, D.

    2010-07-01

    Glass-ceramic materials containing zirconolite (nominally CaZrTi 2O 7) crystals in their bulk can be envisaged as potential waste forms for minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and Pu immobilization. In this study such matrices are synthesized by crystallization of SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th) as surrogates. A thin partially crystallized layer containing titanite and anorthite (nominally CaTiSiO 5 and CaAl 2Si 2O 8, respectively) growing from glass surface is also observed. The effect of the nature and concentration of surrogates on the structure, the microstructure and the composition of the crystals formed in the surface layer is presented in this paper. Titanite is the only crystalline phase able to significantly incorporate trivalent lanthanides whereas ThO 2 precipitates in the layer. The crystal growth thermal treatment duration (2-300 h) at high temperature (1050-1200 °C) is shown to strongly affect glass-ceramics microstructure. For the system studied in this paper, it appears that zirconolite is not thermodynamically stable in comparison with titanite growing form glass surface. Nevertheless, for kinetic reasons, such transformation (i.e. zirconolite disappearance to the benefit of titanite) is not expected to occur during interim storage and disposal of the glass-ceramic waste forms because their temperature will never exceed a few hundred degrees.

  3. Effect of Al{sub 2}Gd on microstructure and properties of laser clad Mg–Al–Gd coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Ke; Yao, Chengwu [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Dong, Jie [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Emmelmann, Claus [Institute of Laser and System Technologies, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, 21073 (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • Mg–Al–Gd coatings with different Gd contents were fabricated by fiber laser cladding. • Chemical compositions and crystal structures of the second phases were characterized. • Dispersion of Al{sub 2}Gd led to further grain refining and elevated mechanical properties. • Al{sub 2}Gd improved high-temperature performances by preventing tiny liquation. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effects of Gd addition on the microstructures and properties of magnesium coatings, the Mg–7.5Al–xGd (x = 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt.%) coatings on cast magnesium alloy were fabricated by laser cladding with wire feeding. The results indicated that the gadolinium (Gd) addition led to the formation of a cubic Al{sub 2}Gd phase as well as suppressed the precipitation of eutectic Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase. The laser clad coating containing nominally 7.5 wt.% Gd presented the highest microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and yield strength at both room temperature and high temperatures. The enhancement of heat resistant capacities was chiefly attributed to the existence of thermally stable Al{sub 2}Gd particles, which prevented tiny liquation of eutectic phases along the grain boundaries and made great contributions on maintaining high yield ratio during high-temperature deformation.

  4. Effect of Al2Gd on microstructure and properties of laser clad Mg–Al–Gd coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Ke; Yao, Chengwu; Dong, Jie; Li, Zhuguo; Emmelmann, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mg–Al–Gd coatings with different Gd contents were fabricated by fiber laser cladding. • Chemical compositions and crystal structures of the second phases were characterized. • Dispersion of Al 2 Gd led to further grain refining and elevated mechanical properties. • Al 2 Gd improved high-temperature performances by preventing tiny liquation. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effects of Gd addition on the microstructures and properties of magnesium coatings, the Mg–7.5Al–xGd (x = 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt.%) coatings on cast magnesium alloy were fabricated by laser cladding with wire feeding. The results indicated that the gadolinium (Gd) addition led to the formation of a cubic Al 2 Gd phase as well as suppressed the precipitation of eutectic Mg 17 Al 12 phase. The laser clad coating containing nominally 7.5 wt.% Gd presented the highest microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and yield strength at both room temperature and high temperatures. The enhancement of heat resistant capacities was chiefly attributed to the existence of thermally stable Al 2 Gd particles, which prevented tiny liquation of eutectic phases along the grain boundaries and made great contributions on maintaining high yield ratio during high-temperature deformation

  5. Anomalies of temperature dependence of the upper critical magnetic field of GdBa2Cu3O7-x and their relation with layered crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshukova, N.V.; Veselago, V.G.; Golovashkin, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature dependence of upper critical field H c2 (T) near T c was investigated on polycrystal GdBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . The resistive superconductive transitions were measured in magnetic fields up to 15 T. We observed a magnetic-field induced broadening of transition and an appearance of H c2 (T) nonlinearity near T c and explained such effects by the influence of individual grains H c2 anisotropy on the base of the percolation model. Estimated are slopes: for magnetic field along superconductive layers -dH c2 parallel /dT≅ 7T/K and for field across layers -dH c2 tr /dT=0.2 T/K. It was found that H c2 (T)-curves display anomalies in a break form, which were not explained in the percolation model. The across coherence length ξ tr (T) obtained from values of the slopes was comparable with distance d between two superconductive layers. So we think that in this situation a fracture on the H c2 (T)-curves may be explained by the appearance of electronic density nonuniformity and it is precursor of crossover to two-dimensional superconductivity

  6. Dielectric spectroscopy of the SmQ* phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkowski, P.; Bubnov, A.; Piecek, W.; Ogrodnik, K.; Hamplová, V.; Kašpar, M.

    2011-11-01

    Liquid crystal possessing two biphenyl moieties in the molecular core and lateral chlorine substitution far from the chiral chain has been studied by dielectric spectroscopy. On cooling from the isotropic phase, the material possesses the frustrated smectic Q* (SmQ*) and SmCA* phases. It has been confirmed by dielectric spectroscopy that the SmQ* phase can be related to the SmCA* anti-ferroelectric phase. However, only one relaxation process has been observed in the SmQ* phase, while in the SmCA*, two relaxations are clearly detectable. It seems that the mode found in the SmQ* can be connected with high-frequency anti-phase mode observed in the SmCA* phase. Its relaxation frequency is similar to PH relaxation frequency, but is weaker. The same relaxation has been observed even a few degrees above the SmQ*-Iso phase transition. Another explanation for the mode detected in SmQ* and isotropic phases can be molecular motions around short molecular axis.

  7. Growth and scintillation properties of praseodymium doped (Lu,Gd).sub.3./sub.(Ga,Al).sub.5./sub.O.sub.12./sub. single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamada, K.; Nikl, Martin; Kurosawa, S.; Shoji, Y.; Pejchal, Jan; Ohashi, Y.; Yokota, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 169, Jan (2016), s. 811-815 ISSN 0022-2313. [International Conference on Luminescence and Optical Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter /17./. Wroclaw, 13.07.2014-18.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14266 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316906 - LUMINET Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single crystal growth * oxides * scintillators * praseodymium * garnet Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2016

  8. Crystal structure of the compounds R8Ga3Co (R=Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grin', Yu.N.; Sichevich, O.M.; Gladyshevskij, R.E.; Yarmolyuk, Ya.P.

    1984-01-01

    The crystal structure of Pr 8 Ga 3 Co compounds is studied by the method of monocrystal (autodiffractometer, MoKsub(α)): space group P6 3 mc, a=10.489, c=6.910 A, Z=2. Coordination numbers of atoms are 11-14 for Pr, 11 for Ga, 7 for Co. The shortest interatomic distances are 3.365 for Pr-Pr, 3.047 for Pr-Ga, 2.75 A for Pr-Co. Pr 3 Ga 3 Co structure is akin to structures of R 2 In compounds (Ni 2 In type) and R 2 Ga (Cl 2 Pb type). Isostructural compounds form in systems of other rare earth metals with gallium and cobalt

  9. Prism inside. Spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the lanthanide(III) chloride oxidotungstates(VI) Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[WO{sub 6}] (Ln = La - Nd, Sm - Tb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Katharina V.; Blaschkowski, Bjoern; Hartenbach, Ingo [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Foerg, Katharina; Netzsch, Philip; Hoeppe, Henning A. [Institute for Physics, University of Augsburg (Germany)

    2017-11-17

    The lanthanide(III) chloride oxidotungstates(VI) with the formula Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[WO{sub 6}] for Ln = La - Nd, Sm - Tb were synthesized by solid-state reactions utilizing the respective lanthanide trichloride, lanthanide sesquioxide (where available), and tungsten trioxide together with lithium chloride as flux. The title compounds crystallize hexagonally in space group P6{sub 3}/m (no. 176, a = 941-909, c = 543-525 pm, Z = 2). The structures comprise crystallographically unique Ln{sup 3+} cations surrounded by six O{sup 2-} and four Cl{sup -} anions (C.N. = 10) forming distorted tetracapped trigonal prisms as well as rather uncommon trigonal prismatic [WO{sub 6}]{sup 6-} units, whose edges are coordinated by nine Ln{sup 3+} cations. Thus, a {sup 3}{sub ∞}{([WO_6]Ln"e_9_/_3)"3"+} framework (e = edge-sharing) is created, which contains tube-shaped channels along [001] lined with chloride anions. To elucidate the spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the obtained pure phase samples, single-crystal Raman (for Ln = La - Nd, Sm-Tb), diffuse reflectance (for Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Gd), and luminescence spectroscopy (for bulk Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[WO{sub 6}] (Ln = La, Eu, Gd, Tb) and Eu{sup 3+}- or Tb{sup 3+}-doped derivatives of La{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[WO{sub 6}] and Gd{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[WO{sub 6}], respectively) were performed and their temperature-dependent magnetic moments (for Ln = Pr, Nd, Gd) were determined. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Magnetic short-range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic short-range order in a ferromagnetic, isotopically enriched 160 Gd metal single crystal has been investigated by quasielastic scattering of 81-meV neutrons. Since Gd behaves as an S-state ion in the metal, little anisotropy is expected in its magnetic behavior. However, the data show that there is anisotropic short-range order present over a large temperature interval both above and below T/sub C/. The data have been analyzed in terms of an Ornstein-Zernike Lorentzian form with anisotropic correlation ranges. These correlation ranges as deduced from the observed data behave normally above T/sub C/ but seem to remain constant over a fairly large interval below T/sub C/ before becoming unobservable at lower temperatures. These observations suggest that the magnetic ordering in Gd may be a more complicated phenomenon than first believed

  11. Rare-Earth Calcium Oxyborate Piezoelectric Crystals ReCa4O(BO33: Growth and Piezoelectric Characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapeng Yu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth calcium oxyborate crystals, ReCa4O(BO33 (ReCOB, Re = Er, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd, Pr, and La , are potential piezoelectric materials for ultrahigh temperature sensor applications, due to their high electrical resistivity at elevated temperature, high piezoelectric sensitivity and temperature stability. In this paper, different techniques for ReCOB single-crystal growth are introduced, including the Bridgman and Czochralski pulling methods. Crystal orientations and the relationships between the crystallographic and physical axes of the monoclinic ReCOB crystals are discussed. The procedures for dielectric, elastic, electromechanical and piezoelectric property characterization, taking advantage of the impedance method, are presented. In addition, the maximum piezoelectric coefficients for different piezoelectric vibration modes are explored, and the optimized crystal cuts free of piezoelectric cross-talk are obtained by rotation calculations.

  12. Study on the thermoluminescent properties of K{sub 2}YF{sub 5} and K{sub 2}GdF{sub 5} crystals doped with optically active trivalent ions for gamma and neutrons dosimetry; Estudo das propriedades termoluminescentes de cristais de K{sub 2}YF{sub 5} e K{sub 2}GdF{sub 5} dopados com ions trivalentes opticamente ativos para dosimetria gama e de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edna Carla da

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the thermoluminescent (TL) properties of both double potassium yttrium fluoride (K{sub 2}YF{sub 5}) and double potassium gadolinium fluoride (K{sub 2}GdF{sub 5}) crystals doped with optically active rare earth ions were investigated from the point of view of gamma and neutron dosimetry. Crystalline platelets with thickness of about 1 mm, synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, were irradiated in order to study TL sensitivity, as well as dose and energy response, reproducibility and fading, in terms of Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, e Pr{sup 3+} concentrations. The K{sub 2}YF{sub 5} crystals doped with 1.0 at por cent Dy{sup 3+} have been found to have an excellent linear TL response to X and gamma photons, in the range of 0.01 to 10 mGy. The TL output is comparable to that of CaS0{sub 4}:Mn dosemeters. The main peak at 130 deg C has been found to have a TL response for 41.1 keV X-ray energy 32 times higher than that for 662 keV gamma rays. This fact points out that the K{sub 2}Y{sub 0.99}Dy{sub 0.01}F{sub 5} crystals have great potential for X-rays diagnostic and/or industrial radiography. On the other hand, the K{sub 2}GdF{sub 5} crystals doped with 5.0 at por cent Dy{sup 3+} have been found to have the better TL response for gamma and fast neutron radiation, among the dopants studied. For gamma fields the TL response was linear for doses ranging from 0.1 to 200 mGy. The TL peak around 200 deg C can be deconvoluted into four individual peaks, all of them with linear behavior. For fast neutron radiation produced by an {sup 241}Am{sub B}e source, the TL responses for doses ranging from 0.6 to 12 mSv were also linear and comparable to that of commercial TLD-600, irradiated at same conditions. The TL emission due to neutrons was in the high temperature range, above 200 deg C. These results points out that K{sub 2}Gd{sub 0.95}Dy{sub 0.05}F{sub 5} crystals are good candidates for use in neutron dosimetry applications. (author)

  13. Luminescence rise time in self-activated PbWO{sub 4} and Ce-doped Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12} scintillation crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffray, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Augulis, R. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių av. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Borisevich, A. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Bobruiskaya str. 11, Minsk (Belarus); Gulbinas, V. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių av. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Bobruiskaya str. 11, Minsk (Belarus); Lucchini, M.T. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Mechinsky, V. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Bobruiskaya str. 11, Minsk (Belarus); Nargelas, S. [Vilnius University, Universiteto str. 3, Vilnius (Lithuania); Songaila, E. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių av. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Tamulaitis, G. [Vilnius University, Universiteto str. 3, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vaitkevičius, A., E-mail: augustas.vaitkevicius@ff.vu.lt [Vilnius University, Universiteto str. 3, Vilnius (Lithuania); Zazubovich, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str. 1, Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-10-15

    The time resolution of scintillation detectors of ionizing radiation is one of the key parameters sought for in the current and future high-energy physics experiments. This study is encouraged by the necessity to find novel detection methods enabling a sub-10-ps time resolution in scintillation detectors and is focused on the exploitation of fast luminescence rise front. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques have been used to study two promising scintillators: self-activated lead tungstate (PWO, PbWO{sub 4}) and Ce-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG, Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12}). A sub-picosecond PL rise time is observed in PWO, while longer processes in the PL response in GAGG:Ce are detected and studied. The mechanisms responsible for the PL rise time in self-activated and doped scintillators are under discussion. - Highlights: • Photoluminescence rise time is studied in two scintillators: PWO and GAGG:Ce. • Sub-picosecond photoluminescence rise time in PWO is observed for the first time. • A multicomponent luminescence rise edge is observed in GAGG:Ce. • The mechanisms behind luminescence kinetics in the crystals are under discussion.

  14. Crystal-field analysis for RE3+ ions in laser materials: II. Absorption spectra and energy levels calculations for Nd3+ ions doped into SrLaGa3O7 and BaLaGa3O7 crystals and Tm3+ ions in SrGdGa3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbowiak, M.; Gnutek, P.; Rudowicz, C.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper we report a detailed analysis of spectroscopic data obtained from low temperature absorption spectra, which enabled assignment of energy levels, and subsequently their analysis in terms of the free-ion and crystal field (CF) parameters. Highlights: → Polarized absorption spectra measured for Nd 3+ and Tm 3+ ions in ABC 3 O 7 crystals. → Energy levels analyzed in terms of the free-ion and crystal-field (CF) parameters. → The combined ADS/SPM procedure have been successfully applied. → The B-bar k parameters and the power law exponents t k of SPM model are determined. → The energies of levels are important for evaluation of the emission cross-section. - Abstract: Low temperature polarized absorption spectra are analyzed to achieve assignments of energy levels for Nd 3+ and Tm 3+ ions at monoclinic C s site symmetry in ABC 3 O 7 crystals. Based on the concept of average optical center, the experimental energy levels for single crystals of SrLaGa 3 O 7 :Nd 3+ (SLG:Nd), BaLaGa 3 O 7 :Nd 3+ (BLG:Nd), and SrGdGa 3 O 7 :Tm 3+ (SGG:Tm) were analyzed in terms of the free-ion parameters and the crystal field (CF) ones, B kq . Assignments of the energy levels resolved in the spectra were done in stages applying the ascent/descent in symmetry method in CF analysis. The actual monoclinic C s site symmetry at the metal centers in ABC 3 O 7 crystals and the approximated orthorhombic C 2v and tetragonal C 4v symmetry were considered. The starting values of B kq 's for SLG:Nd and BLG:Nd crystals were obtained from superposition model (SPM) analysis. The final fitted crystal field parameters show high compatibility with the existing data for structurally similar ion-host systems. The obtained values of the intrinsic parameters provide basis for SPM analysis of CF parameters for rare earth ions in other similar systems, especially those exhibiting low-symmetry sites. The SPM parameters derived for SLG:Nd are used for simulation and

  15. Magnetic ordering of GdMn2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouladdiaf, B.; Ritter, C.; Ballou, R.; Deportes, J.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. GdMn 2 crystallizes in the C15 cubic Laves phase structure. Within this structure Mn atoms lie at the vertices of regular tetrahedra stacked in the diamond arrangement connected by sharing vertices, leading to a strong geometric frustration. An antiferromagnetic magnetic order sets in below T N ∼ 105 K. It gives rise to a large magnetovolume effect (ΔV/V ∼ 1%). Thermal expansion data show two anomalies at 105 K and 35 K. The second anomaly was often interpreted as the ferromagnetic ordering of Gd sublattice. Moessbauer data indicate however, that Gd sublattice orders at T N ∼ 105 K as the Mn moments. Elastic neutron scattering measurements were performed using short wavelength neutron beam (λ = 0.5 A) on D9 at ILL. No magnetic contribution to the nuclear peaks was found excluding thereby any K = [0 0 0] component. However antiferromagnetic peaks indexed by a propagation vector [2/3 2/3 0] were observed leading to a non collinear magnetic arrangement of both Mn and Gd sublattices. The results are discussed by invoking the geometric frustration associated with the Mn atomic packing and the singlet state of the Gd ions. (author)

  16. Positron annihilation study on the superconductivity of Gd-doped YBCO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenping; Su Yuling; Xue Yuncai; Liu Haizeng; Gong Shicheng; Zhao Jingxun; Li Xigui

    2006-01-01

    To make clear the influence of magnetic rare-earth ion Gd 3+ doping in the Y site on crystal structure and localized electron structure of YBCO system, the Gd-doped Y 1-x Gd x Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (x=0-1.0) systems were studied systematically by the positron annihilation technique and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analysis reveals that Gd 3+ with bigger radius doping in Y site makes the crystal parameters and crystal volume increase, while all the samples remain the single orthorhombic phase as YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) system does. The temperature dependence of resistance measurement shows that T c is above 90 K for all samples, and T c increases with increasing Gd 3+ content. The positron experiment indicates that the localized electronic density n e decreases with increasing Gd 3+ content. (authors)

  17. Crystallization of 21.25Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-63.75MoO{sub 3}-15B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass induced by femtosecond laser at the repetition rate of 250 kHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, M.J.; Han, Y.M. [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, L.P. [Hunan Biological and Electromechanical Polytechnic, Changsha 410126 (China); Zhou, P.; Du, Y.Y.; Guo, Q.T. [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ma, H.L., E-mail: mahl@staff.shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China); Dai, Y. [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2010-12-01

    We report the formation of {beta}'-Gd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} (GMO) crystal on the surface of the 21.25Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-63.75MoO{sub 3}-15B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass, induced by 250 kHz, 800 nm femtosecond laser irradiation. The morphology of the modified region in the glass was clearly examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By micro-Raman spectra, the laser-induced crystals were confirmed to be GMO phases and it is found that these crystals have a strong dependence on the number and power of the femtosecond laser pulses. When the irradiation laser power was 900 mW, not only the Raman peaks of GMO crystals but also some new peaks at 214 cm{sup -1}, 240 cm{sup -1}, 466 cm{sup -1}, 664 cm{sup -1} and 994 cm{sup -1}which belong to the MoO{sub 3} crystals were observed. The possible mechanisms are proposed to explain these phenomena.

  18. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  19. Interaction of phonons with intraband electronic excitations and crystal field transitions in Raman spectra of (Nd,Eu,Gd)Ba.sub.2./sub.Cu.sub.3./sub.O.sub.y./sub. crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rameš, Michal; Železný, Vladimír; Gregora, Ivan; Wolf, T.; Jirsa, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 197, Jul (2015), 10-17 ISSN 0921-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cuprate superconductors * phonons * crystal field * vortex pinning Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.331, year: 2015

  20. Gd-Ni-Si system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodak, O.I.; Shvets, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    By X-ray phase analysis method isothermal cross section of phase diagram of the Gd-Ni-Si system at 870 K is studied. The existence of nine previously known compounds (GdNisub(6.72)Sisub(6.28), GdNi 10 Si 2 , GdNi 5 Si 3 , GdNi 4 Si, GdNi 2 Si 2 , GdNiSi 3 , GdNiSi 2 , Gd 3 Ni 6 Si 2 and GdNiSi) is confirmed and three new compounds (GdNisub(0.2)Sisub(1.8), Gdsub(2)Nisub(1-0.8)Sisub(1-1.2), Gd 5 NiSi 4 ) are found. On the base of Gd 2 Si 3 compound up to 0.15 at. Ni fractions, an interstitial solid solution is formed up to 0.25 at Ni fractions dissolution continues of substitution type. The Gd-Ni-Si system is similar to the Y-Ni-Si system

  1. Scintillation timing characteristics of (La,Gd).sub.2./sub.Si.sub.2./sub.O.sub.7./sub.:Ce and Gd.sub.2./sub.SiO.sub.5./sub.:Ce single crystal scintillators: A comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chewpraditkul, W.; Sakthong, O.; Chewpraditkul, Wa.; Yawai, N.; Szczesniak, T.; Swiderski, L.; Moszynski, M.; Kurosawa, S.; Murakami, R.; Horiai, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Nikl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, Sep (2016), s. 49-53 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14266 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : coincidence time resolution * energy resolution * (La,Gd) 2 Si 2 O 7 :Ce * Gd 2 SiO 5 :Ce * scintillation decays Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2016

  2. Single-crystal growth of ceria-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In this work it could be shown that Skull-Melting is a suitable method for growing ceria single crystals. Twenty different ceria-based single crystals could be manufactured. It was possible to dope ceria single crystals with Gd, Sm, Y, Zr, Ti, Ta, and Pr in different concentrations. Also co-doping with the named metals was realized. However, there remain some problems for growing ceria-based single crystals by Skull-Melting. As ignition metal zirconium was used because no ceria-based material works well. For that reason all single crystals show small zirconium contamination. Another problem is the formation of oxygen by the heat-induced reduction of ceria during the melting process. Because of that the skull of sintered material is often destroyed by gas pressure. This problem had to be solved individually for every single crystal. The obtained single crystals were characterized using different methods. To ensure the single crystal character the y were examined by Laue diffraction. All manufactured crystals are single crystals. Also powder diffraction patterns of the milled and oxidized samples were measured. For the determination of symmetry and metric the structural parameters were analyzed by the Rietveld method. All synthesized materials crystallize in space group Fm-3m known from calcium fluoride. The cubic lattice parameter a was determined for all crystals. In the case of series with different cerium and zirconium concentrations a linear correlation between cerium content and cubic lattice parameter was detected. The elemental composition was determined by WDX. All crystals show a homogeneous elemental distribution. The oxygen content was calculated because the WDX method isn't useful for determination.

  3. Investigation of spectroscopic properties and energy transfer between Ce and Dy in (Lu0.2Gd0.8−x−yCexDyy)2SiO5 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzęp, A.; Martin, I.R.; Głowacki, M.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Berkowski, M.; Pérez-Rodríguez, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present results of spectroscopic investigations of single crystals with general formula (Lu 0.2 Gd 0.8−x−y ) 2 SiO 5 codoped with x% of Ce 3+ and y% of Dy 3+ ions. Investigated materials exhibit strong optical anisotropy what can be easily observed in polarized absorption and emission spectra. Based on room temperature polarized absorption spectra calculations in framework of phenomenological Judd–Ofelt model was carried out. Intensity parameters Ω t were evaluated to be Ω 2 =7.08 (±0.39), Ω 4 =2.76 (±0.44), and Ω 6 =3.36 (±0.21) [10 −20 cm 2 ] for sample doped with 1% of cerium and Ω 2 =10.72 (±0.33), Ω 4 =1.98 (±0.37), and Ω 6 =2.11 (±0.18) [10 −20 cm 2 ] for sample doped with 3% of cerium. Influence of cerium admixture on Judd Ofelt intensity parameters is discussed. Value of experimental lifetime of 4 F 9/2 multiplet of Dy 3+ ion in sample doped with 1 at% Ce is 0.5 ms (τ rad =0.45 ms), while for sample doped with 3 at% of Ce, experimental lifetime is 0.45 ms (τ rad =0.43 ms). Absorption bands located between 440 and 460 nm, can be utilized for optical pumping of material by GaN laser diodes. Intense and broad emission bands at 465–495 and 560–590 nm, with experimental branching ratio strongly depending on polarization, give high chance for obtaining white luminophore, due to appropiate mixing of blue and yellow luminescence. By means of a pump and probe experiment optical amplification was demonstrated in the codoped sample with 1 at% of Ce and 1 at% Dy at 575 nm corresponding to the emission of Dy 3+ with a high net gain coefficient of 34 cm −1 . Such high amplification was obtained under 359 nm excitation (at the maximum of intense absorption band of Ce 3+ ions). - Highlights: • Influence of anisotropy on properties of LGSO: Ce, Dy crystals was investigated. • ET between Ce 3+ and Dy 3+ ions enhanced luminous properties of material investigated. • High optical amplification net gain in yellow

  4. Crystal growth and characterization of Ce:Gd.sub.3./sub.(Ga,Al).sub.5./sub.O.sub.12./sub. single crystal using floating zone method in different O.sub.2./sub. partial pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yoshikawa, A.; Fujimoto, Y.; Yamaji, A.; Kurosawa, S.; Pejchal, Jan; Sugiyama, M.; Wakahara, S.; Futami, Y.; Yokota, Y.; Kamada, K.; Yubuta, K.; Shishido, T.; Nikl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 11 (2013), s. 1882-1886 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Ce:GAGG * scintillator * single crystal * floating zone method * growth atmosphere * combinatorial Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.075, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925346713001523

  5. Superconductivity and magnetism in Ir-doped GdFeAsO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Y.J.; Chen, Y.L.; Cheng, C.H.; Yang, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, Y.Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The 5d-transition metal, Ir has successfully been doped at Fe site and induced superconductivity in GdFeAsO at T c = 18.9 K and ∼20 atom%. The Ir-doping shortened the c-axis length and stretched the a-axis one, which led to enhance the coupling between the FeAs- and SmO-layer, and to weaken the bonding between Fe and As atom. Paramagnetism was observed in all of the samples, which was resulted from the magnetic Gd ion as in the F-doped GdFeAsO. An upper critical field of GdFe 0.8 Ir 0.2 AsO was extrapolated to around 24 T, much smaller than that of F-doped GdFeAsO owing to a relatively low T c and small value of dH c2 /dT.

  6. The volumetric and thermochemical properties of YCl{sub 3}(aq), YbCl{sub 3}(aq), DyCl{sub 3}(aq), SmCl{sub 3}(aq), and GdCl{sub 3}(aq) at T=(288.15, 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15) K and p=0.1 MPa[Trivalent metal chlorides; Densities; Heat capacities; Single ion properties; Calorimetry; Densimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakin, Andrew W. E-mail: hakin@uleth.ca; Lukacs, Michael J.; Liu, Jin Lian; Erickson, Kristy

    2003-11-01

    Relative densities and massic heat capacities have been measured for acidified aqueous solutions of YCl{sub 3}(aq), YbCl{sub 3}(aq), DyCl{sub 3}(aq), SmCl{sub 3}(aq), and GdCl{sub 3}(aq) at T=(288.15, 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15) K and p=0.1 MPa. These measurements have been used to calculate experimental apparent molar volumes and heat capacities which, when used in conjunction with Young's rule, were used to calculate the apparent molar properties of the aqueous chloride salt solutions. The latter calculations required the use of volumetric and thermochemical data for aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid that have been previously reported in the literature. The concentration dependences of the apparent molar properties have been modeled using Pitzer ion interaction equations to yield apparent molar volumes and heat capacities at infinite dilution. The temperature and concentration dependences of the apparent molar volumes and heat capacities of each trivalent salt system were modeled using modified Pitzer ion interaction equations. These equations utilized the revised Helgeson, Kirkham, and Flowers equations of state to model the temperature dependences of apparent molar volumes and heat capacities at infinite dilution. Calculated apparent molar volumes and heat capacities at infinite dilution have been used to calculate single ion properties for the investigated trivalent metal cations. These values have been compared to those previously reported in the literature. The differences between single ion values calculated in this study and those values calculated from thermodynamic data for aqueous perchlorate salts are also discussed.

  7. Electrochemical preparation of Al–Sm intermetallic compound whisker in LiCl–KCl Eutectic Melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, De−Bin; Yan, Yong−De; Zhang, Mi−Lin; Li, Xing; Jing, Xiao−Yan; Han, Wei; Xue, Yun; Zhang, Zhi−Jian; Hartmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The reduction process of Sm(III) was investigated in LiCl–KCl melt on an aluminum electrode at 773 K. • Al–Sm alloy with different phase structure (Al 2 Sm and Al 3 Sm) was prepared by potentiostatic electrolysis on an aluminum electrode with the change of electrolytic potentials and time in LiCl–KCl–SmCl 3 melts. • Al − Sm alloy containing whiskers (Al 4 Sm) was obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis (−2.10 V) on an aluminum electrode for 7 hours with the change of electrolytic temperature and cooling rate in LiCl–KCl–SmCl 3 (16.5 wt. %) melts. The results from micro–hardness test and potentiodynamic polarization test show the micro hardness and corrosion property are remarkably improved with the help of Al–Sm intermetallic compound whiskers. - Abstract: This work presents the electrochemical study of Sm(III) on an aluminum electrode in LiCl–KCl melts at 773 K by different electrochemical methods. Three electrochemical signals in cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, open circuit chronopotentiometry, and cathode polarization curve are attributed to different kinds of Al–Sm intermetallic compounds, Al 2 Sm, Al 3 Sm, and Al 4 Sm, respectively. Al–Sm alloy with different phase structure (Al 2 Sm and Al 3 Sm) could be obtained by the potentiostatic electrolysis with the change of electrolytic potentials and time. Al–Sm alloy containing whiskers (Al 4 Sm) was obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis (−2.10 V) on an aluminum electrode for 7 hours with the change of electrolytic temperature and cooling rate in LiCl–KCl–SmCl 3 (16.5 wt. %) melts. The XRD and SEM&EDS were employed to investigate the phase composition and microstructure of Al–Sm alloy. SEM analysis shows that lots of needle−like precipitates formed in Al–Sm alloy, and their ratios of length to diameter are found to be greater than 10 to 1. The TEM and electron diffraction pattern were performed to investigate the crystal structure of the

  8. Charge Carrier Trapping Processes in RE2O2S (RE = La, Gd, Y, and Lu)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, H.; Bos, A.J.J.; Dorenbos, P.

    2017-01-01

    Two different charge carrier trapping processes have been investigated in RE2O2S:Ln3+ (RE = La, Gd, Y, and Lu; Ln = Ce, Pr, and Tb) and RE2O2S:M (M = Ti4+ and Eu3+). Cerium, praseodymium and terbium act as recombination centers and hole trapping centers while host intrinsic defects provide the

  9. Preparation and structure characterization of SmCo5(0001) epitaxial thin films grown on Cu(111) underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    SmCo 5 (0001) epitaxial films were prepared on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers formed on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates at 500 deg. C. The nucleation and growth mechanism of (0001)-oriented SmCo 5 crystal on Cu(111) underlayer is investigated and a method to control the nucleation is proposed. The SmCo 5 epitaxial thin film formed directly on Cu underlayer consists of two types of domains whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 30 deg. each other. By introducing a thin Co seed layer on the Cu underlayer, a SmCo 5 (0001) single-crystal thin film is successfully obtained. Nucleation of SmCo 5 crystal on Cu underlayer seems controllable by varying the interaction between the Cu underlayer and the SmCo 5 layer

  10. Polymorphous GdScO3 as high permittivity dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, A.; Rahmanizadeh, K.; Bihlmayer, G.; Luysberg, M.; Wendt, F.; Besmehn, A.; Fox, A.

    2015-01-01

    Four different polymorphs of GdScO 3 are assessed theoretically and experimentally with respect to their suitability as a dielectric. The calculations carried out by density functional theory reveal lattice constants, band gaps and the energies of formation of three crystal phases. Experimentally all three crystal phases and the amorphous phase can be realized as thin films by pulsed laser deposition using various growth templates. Their respective crystal structures are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reflecting the calculated lattice constants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy unveils the band gaps of the different polymorphs of GdScO 3 which are above 5 eV for all films demonstrating good insulating properties. From capacitance voltage measurements, high permittivities of up to 27 for hexagonal GdScO 3 are deduced. - Highlights: • Different epitaxial polymorph phases of GdScO 3 were grown by pulsed laser deposition. • The cubic phase of GdScO 3 is reported for the first time. • All phases are proven to be useful for the use in silicon based and III–V based microelectronic devices.

  11. Gd_2O_3 nanoparticles stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose for positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Gd_2O_3 nanoparticles of a few nm in size and their agglomerates dispersed in dextrose derived polymer template were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The produced nanosized material was investigated by TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, SQUID measurements and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by crystal violet and MTT assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities of water diluted Gd_2O_3 nanoparticle dispersions measured at the magnetic field of 1.5 T, estimated to be r_1(Gd_2O_3)=9.6 s"−"1 mM"−"1 in the Gd concentration range 0.1–30 mM and r_2(Gd_2O_3)=17.7 s"−"1 mM"−"1 in the lower concentration range 0.1–0.8 mM, are significantly higher than the corresponding relaxivities measured for the standard contrast agent r_1(Gd-DTPA)=4.1 s"−"1 mM"−"1 and r_2(Gd-DTPA)=5.1 s"−"1 mM"−"1. The ratio of the two relaxivities for Gd_2O_3 nanoparticles r_2/r_1=1.8 is suitable for T_1-weighted imaging. Good MRI signal intensities of the water diluted Gd_2O_3 nanoparticle dispersions were recorded at lower Gd concentrations 0.2–0.8 mM. The Gd_2O_3 samples did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects at Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below. These properties of the produced Gd_2O_3 nanoparticles in hydrothermally modified dextrose make them promising for potential application in MRI for the design of a positive MRI contrast agent. - Highlights: • Gd_2O_3 nanoparticles (NPs) were stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose. • Magnetic moment per Gd"3"+ ion in the Gd_2O_3 NPs is much lower than that in the bulk. • The ratio r_2/r_1=1.8 for Gd_2O_3 NPs dispersions is favorable for T_1-weighted MRI. • Gd_2O_3 NPs dispersions had good MRI signal intensity just at lower Gd concentrations. • Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below in the Gd_2O_3 NPs dispersions were not toxic.

  12. Photoluminescence and scintillation properties of Ce-doped Sr2(Gd1-xLux)8(SiO4)6O2 (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6) crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igashira, Takuya; Kawano, Naoki; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Apatite crystals with chemical compositions of 0.5% Ce-doped Sr2(Gd1-xLux)8(SiO4)6O2 (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6) were synthesized by the Floating Zone method, and then we evaluated their photoluminescence (PL) and scintillation properties. All the Ce-doped samples exhibited PL and scintillation with an intense broad emission in 400-550 nm in which the origin was attributed to the 5d-4f transition of Ce3+, and the emission peak became broader with increasing the concentration of Lu3+. Both PL and scintillation decay time profiles were best-approximated by a sum of two exponential decay functions, and the origin of slower component was attributed to the 5d-4f transition of Ce3+. In the X-ray induced afterglow measurements, the Ce-doped Sr2(Gd0.4Lu0.6)8(SiO4)6O2 sample exhibited the lowest afterglow level. Furthermore, the Ce-doped Sr2(Gd0.5Lu0.5)8(SiO4)6O2 and Sr2(Gd0.4Lu0.6)8(SiO4)6O2 samples showed a clear full energy deposited peak under 5.5 MeV 241Am α-ray irradiation, and the estimated absolute scintillation light yields were around 290 and 1300 ph/5.5 MeV-α, respectively.

  13. Crystal structure study of new lanthanide silicates with silico-carnotite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinelli, F.; Lausi, A.; Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structures of new rare earth-based silicate compounds (Ca 3 Eu 2 Si 3 O 12 , Ca 3 Gd 2 Si 3 O 12 , Ca 3 Dy 2 Si 3 O 12 , Ca 3 Er 2 Si 3 O 12 and Ca 3 Lu 2 Si 3 O 12 ) have been determined using powder X-ray diffraction. From Rietveld refinement calculations on the collected powder patterns we observe a different distribution of the rare earth ions on the three available crystal sites characterized by different coordination numbers, depending on the ionic radius of the rare earth ion. The reasons of the instability of the silico-carnotite structure for lanthanide ions larger than Eu 3+ have been deduced. In addition, in order to detect crystal phase transitions, the powder patterns of Ca 3 Eu 2 Si 3 O 12 and Ca 3 Sm 2 Si 3 O 12 samples have been collected as a function of the temperature (RT-1000 °C range), but no phase transitions have been observed. - Graphical abstract: Synchrotron X-ray diffraction allows us the accurate determination of the RE 3+ ions distribution on the three available crystal sites of the silico-carnotite structure. Highlights: ► The structure of the Ca 3 M 2 Si 3 O 12 (M=Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Lu) was determined. ► Different distribution of RE 3+ ions on the three available crystal sites was observed. ► The instability of the silico-carnotite structure for RE=La→Sm was discussed.

  14. Electronically- and crystal-structure-driven magnetic structures and physical properties of RScSb (R = rare earth) compounds. A neutron diffraction, magnetization and heat capacity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, C [Institut Lauer-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Dhar, S K [TIFR, Mumbai (India); Kulkarni, R [TIFR, Mumbai (India); Provino, A [Inst. SPIN-CNR, Genova (Italy); Univ. of Genova (Italy); Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Paudyal, Durga [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Manfrinetti, Pietro [Inst. SPIN-CNR, Genova (Italy); Univ. of Genova (Italy); Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Gschneidner, Karl A [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The synthesis of the new equiatomic RScSb ( R = La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu, Y) compounds has been recently reported. These rare earth compounds crystallize in two different crystal structures, adopting the CeScSi-type ( I 4/ mmm) for the lighter R (La-Nd, Sm) and the CeFeSi-type (P4 /nmm) structure for the heavier R ( R = Gd-Tm, Lu, Y). Here we report the results of neutron diffraction, magnetization and heat capacity measurements on some of these compounds ( R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd and Tb). Band structure calculations have also been performed on CeScSb and GdScGe (CeScSi-type), and on GdScSb and TbScSb (CeFeSi-type) to compare and understand the exchange interactions in CeScSi and CeFeSi structure types. The neutron diffraction investigation shows that all five compounds order magnetically, with the highest transition temperature of 66 K in TbScSb and the lowest of about 9 K in CeScSb. The magnetic ground state is simple ferromagnetic (τ = [0 0 0]) in CeScSb, as well in NdScSb for 32 >T > 22 K. Below 22 K a second magnetic transition, with propagation vector τ = [¼ ¼ 0], appears in NdScSb. PrScSb has a magnetic structure within, determined by mostly ferromagnetic interactions and antiferromagnetic alignment of the Pr-sites connected through the I-centering ( τ = [1 0 0]). A cycloidal spiral structure with a temperature dependent propagation vector τ = [δ δ ½] is found in TbScSb. The results of magnetization and heat capacity lend support to the main conclusions derived from neutron diffraction. As inferred from a sharp peak in magnetization, GdScSb orders antiferromagnetically at 56 K. First principles calculations show lateral shift of spin split bands towards lower energy from the Fermi level as the CeScSi-type structure changes to the CeFeSi-type structure. This rigid shift may force the system to transform from exchange split ferromagnetic state to the antiferromagnetic state in RScSb compounds (as seen for example in GdScSb and TbScSb) and is proposed to

  15. SM18 Visits and Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

      VISITS The rules and conditions to be followed for visits in the SM18 Hall are laid out in the EDMS 1205328 document. No visit is allowed without prior reservation.   ACCESS Special access right is needed ONLY from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. and during week-ends. From 1 December, the current SM18 access database will be closed and a new one “SM18-OWH outside normal hours” started from scratch. Requests, via EDH SM18-OWH, will have to be duly justified.   For further information, please contact Evelyne Delucinge.

  16. Chemical bonding and magnetic properties of gadolinium (Gd) substituted cobalt ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas; Adireddy, Shiva; Ramana, C.V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Room temperature Raman spectra of CoFe 2−x Gd x O 4 (CFGO, x = 0.0–0.3) compounds as a function of wavenumber (cm −1 ). - Highlights: • Gd substituted ferrites were synthesized under controlled concentration. • Gd ion induced lattice dynamical changes are significant. • Enhanced magnetization is observed upon Gd-incorporation in cobalt ferrite. • A correlation between lattice dynamics and magnetic properties is established. - Abstract: Polycrystalline gadolinium (Gd) substituted cobalt ferrites (CoFe 2−x Gd x O 4 ; x = 0–0.3, referred to CFGO) ceramics have been synthesized by solid state reaction method. Chemical bonding, crystal structure and magnetic properties of CFGO compounds have been evaluated as a function of Gd-content. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic analyses confirmed the formation of inverse spinel cubic structure. However, a secondary ortho-ferrite phase (GdFeO 3 ) nucleates for higher values of Gd-content. A considerable increase in the saturation magnetization has been observed upon the initial substitution of Gd (x = 0.1). The saturation magnetization drastically decreases at higher Gd content (x ⩾ 0.3). No contribution from ortho-ferrite GdFeO 3 phase is noted to the magnetic properties. The increase in the magnetic saturation magnetization is attributed to the higher magnetic moment of Gd 3+ (4f 7 ) residing in octahedral sites is higher when compared to that of Fe 3+ (3d 5 ) and as well due to the migration of Co 2+ (3d 7 ) ions from the octahedral to the tetrahedral sites with a magnetic moment aligned anti-parallel to those of rare earth (RE 3+ ) ions in the spinel lattice. Increase in coercivity with increase in Gd 3+ is content is attributed to magnetic anisotropy in the ceramics

  17. Radiation damage in CaF2: Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, L.

    1979-01-01

    Calcium fluoride crystals doped with Gd 3+ at four different concentrations were irradiated at room temperature. The damage produced by radiation and the primary and secondary effects as well were studied by optical spectroscopy. The increase in optical absorption (with loss of transparency) varied from sample as a function of concentration and dose. The coloration curves showed an evolution from two to three radiation damage steps when going from a pure to the most Gd 3+ concentrated sample. The obtained spectra were analysed at characteristic wave lenghts of electronic defects (photochromic centers, F and its aggregates) and of Gd 3+ and Gd 2+ defects. As a result of the radiation damage the valence change (Gd 3+ →Gd 2+ ) and its reversible character under thermal activation were directly observed. These effects were correlated with other observed effects such as the room temperature luminescence after the irradiation ceased. The non radiative F centers formation from the interaction of holes and photochromic centers was also observed and analysed. A thermal activation study of the several defects responsible for the different absorption bands was made. Values of activation energies were obtained as expected for the kind of defects involved in these processes [pt

  18. Specific features of the domain structure of (Gd sub 1-x Nd sub x ) sub 2 (MoO sub 4 ) sub 3 crystals. Osobennosti domennoj struktury kristallov (Gd sub 1-x Nd sub x ) sub 2 (MoO sub 4 ) sub 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryzgalov, A N; Slepchenko, B M; Virachev, B P [Cherepovetskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogicheskij Inst., Cherepovets (USSR)

    1989-11-01

    Formation of the domain structures by sample transfer into thermodynamically metastable state using a simultaneous effect of electric field and temperature change is investigated in Gd{sub 1.7}Nd{sub 0.3}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} monocrystals (GMO). Some new results obtained under investigations into GMO domain structure using neodymium by means of hydrothermal etching and polarization-optical method are presented.

  19. Ultraviolet photoluminescence in Gd-doped silica and phosphosilicate fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber lasers operating in the near infrared and visible spectral regions have relied on the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions such as Yb3+, Er3+, Tm3+, Nd3+, and Sm3+. Here, we investigate Gd3+ doping in phosphosilicate and pure silica fibers using solution doping and sol-gel techniques, respectively, for potential applications in the ultraviolet. Photoluminescence spectra for optical fiber bundles and fiber preforms were recorded and compared. Emissions at 312 nm (phosphosilicate and 314 nm (pure silica were observed when pumping to the Gd3+ 6DJ, 6IJ, and 6PJ = 5/2, 3/2 energy levels. Oxygen deficient center was observed in solution doping sample with a wide absorption band centered at around 248 nm not affecting pumping to 6IJ states.

  20. Study of Gd lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovsky, I.; Kereszturi, A.

    1991-11-01

    The results of experiments and calculations on Gd lattices are presented, and a comparison of experimental and calculational data is given. This latter can be divided into four groups. The first belongs to the comparison of criticality parameters, the second group is related with the comparison of 2D distributions, the third one relates the comparison of intra-macrocell distributions, whereas the fourth group is devoted for the comparison of spectral parameters. For comparison, the computer code RFIT based on strict statistical criteria has been used. The calculated and measured results agree, in most cases, sufficiently. (R.P.) 11 refs.; 13 figs.; 9 tabs

  1. 24/7 SM slavery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, Peter L; Kleinplatz, Peggy J; Moser, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the nature of 24/7 SM slavery as practiced within the SM (sadomasochistic) community. These SM participants, who attempt to live full-time in owner-slave roles, represent a small proportion of those with SM interests. SM slaves have not been studied systematically to determine if and how they differ from other SM practitioners. An online questionnaire was used to obtain responses from individuals who self-identified as slaves. A total of 146 respondents participated, 53% female and 47% male, ranging in age from 18 to 72. We explored the depth of their relationships, how well they approximated "slavery," and how their relationships were structured to maintain distinct roles. Data showed that in long-term SM slave relationships, a power differential exists which extends beyond time-limited SM or sexual interactions. Owners and slaves often use common, daily life experiences or situations, such as the completion of household chores, money management, and morning or evening routines, to distinguish and maintain their respective roles. In addition, contrary to the perception of total submission, results revealed that slaves exercise free will when it is in their best interests to do so. These relationships were long-lasting and satisfying to the respondents.

  2. Scintillation characteristics of nonstoichiometric phases formed in MF sub 2 -GdF sub 3 -CeF sub 3 systems Part III. Dense Gd sub 1 sub - sub x sub - sub y M sub x Ce sub y F sub 3 sub - sub x tysonite-related crystals (M=Ca, Sr)

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, M; Sobolev, B P; Zhmurova, Z I; Krivandina, E A; Nikl, M

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the scintillation characteristics and the radiation hardness of Gd sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x F sub 3 sub - sub x and Gd sub 1 sub - sub x Sr sub x F sub 3 sub - sub x tysonite-type solid solutions (close to 6.6 g/cm sup 3 in density) doped with Ce which were grown from the congruent melt. As the Ce concentration increased, the Ce sup 3 sup + emission at 345 nm increased to a level comparable with the Gd sup 3 sup + emission at 310 nm. Both emissions, however, were slow with the decay constant in the order of ms. The radiation hardness, which was roughly 10 sup 4 rad, tends to degrade as the wavelength decreases and/or the Ce concentration increases. Both spontaneous recovery and UV annealing of the radiation damages were significant. The intensity of the gamma-ray excited luminescence, integrated over time, was as large as 50% of that in BaF sub 2 (12% of that in CdWO sub 4). When the Ce concentration is nil or only small, the yellow-green luminescence for UV excitation was as intense as in CdWO...

  3. A comparative study on the luminescence properties of Ce3+/Tb3+ doped Gd-based host nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Charushila Vasant; Rani, Barkha; Sahu, Niroj Kumar

    2018-04-01

    A comparative study on the crystal phases and their respective luminescence behaviour of Gd3+ based host materials such as GdPO4, GdF3, GdVO4 and Gd2O3 sensitized with 7at.% Ce3+ and activated with 5 at.% Tb3+ have been reported. The nanomaterials were prepared by polyol method using ethylene glycol as solvent and found to have different crystal structures such as monoclinic, orthorhombic, tetragonal and cubic phase. Clear characteristics emission from Tb3+ has been observed in all the samples when excited in the absorption wavelength of Ce3+ and Gd3+ (˜280 nm). Among all the above materials, intense emission of Tb3+ is found in GdPO4 followed by GdF3, Gd2O3 and GdVO4 respectively. The Tb3+ emission is strongly influenced by the energy transfer process and crystal structure of the host materials and hence this study will be important for choosing suitable materials for display devices and biomedical applications.

  4. Magnetism and Hyperfine Parameters in Iron Rich Gd_2Fe_{17-x}Si_x Intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, K.; Bartoli, T.; Chrobak, A.; Moscovici, J.; Bessais, L.

    2018-04-01

    Gd_2Fe_{17-x}Si_x (x = 0.25 , 0.5 and 1) samples were synthesized by arc melting and annealed at 1073 K for 1 week. X-ray diffraction analysis by the Rietveld method has shown that these materials crystallize in the rhombohedral Th_2Zn_{17} -type structure (space group R\\bar{3}m ). The Curie temperature increases with Si content x, whereas the unit-cell parameters decrease slightly. The temperature dependence of magnetization data revealed that Gd_2Fe_{17-x}Si_x exhibits a second-order ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition in the vicinity of the Curie temperature. Exchange coupling parameters of R-R, M-M and R-M (R—rare earth, M—transition metal) have been determined from M(T) magnetization curves based on the mean field theory calculation. The magnetic entropy change Δ S_M and the relative cooling power were estimated from isothermal magnetization curves for all samples. In the proximity of {T}_C and in an applied field of 1.56 T, Δ S_M reached a maximum values of 1.38, 1.67 and 3.07 J/kg K for x = 0.25, 0.5 and 1, respectively. We have calculated the magnetic moment per Fe atom from magnetization measurements at 293 K up to 17 kOe, and it decreases with Si content. These results are verified by the Mössbauer spectrometry measurements obtained at the same temperature. The Mössbauer spectra analysis is based on the correlation between the Wigner-Seitz volume and the isomer-shift evolution of each specific site 6c, 9d, 18f, and 18h of the R\\bar{3} m structure. For all Si concentrations, the magnitude of the hyperfine fields are {H_HF}{6c} > {H_HF}{9d} > {H_HF}{18f} > {H_HF}{18h} . The mean hyperfine field decreases with the Si content.

  5. Investigation of the oxidative processes in intermetallic Sm Co5 powder during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talijan, Nadezda M.; Milutinovic-Nikolic, Aleksandra; Stajic-Trosic, Jasna T.; Jovanovic, Zarko D.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding of the thermal stability of intermetallic Sm Co 5 powder is essential for designing the working atmosphere in all phases of the technological procedure in the production of sintered Sm Co 5 magnets to obtain maximal magnetic properties. The thermal stability of the Sm Co 5 powder with defined chemical composition and particle size was investigated in the interval from 20 to 900 deg C. Commercial Sm Co 5 powder was used in this experiment. The powder was milled in anhydrous toluene in an agate mortar to fine powder of quality used in the production of sintered magnets. All the experiments were carried out with powder of an average particle size of 7.23μm, established by SEM. THe thermal stability of the Sm Co 5 powder in static air atmosphere was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) using a DuPont Thermal Analyzer. Investigation of the behaviour of Sm Co 5 powder during heating was carried out using new samples of Sm Co 5 powder for each of the investigated temperature cycles. It was found by TGA that up to 200 deg C, the oxidation of Sm Co 5 was negligible. X-ray diffraction of the thermogravimetric experimental residue of the Sm Co 5 powder, heated at 240 deg C, yielded only the presence of the Sm Co 5 phase. By X-ray diffraction different crystal forms were identified depending on the maximal heating temperature. The following phases were identified: Sm 2 O 3 , Co, Co O, Co 3 O 4 and Sm Co O 3 . According to TG and X-ray results, for each of the investigated temperatures, the corresponding chemical reactions were established. The experimental data from both the thermal and X-ray investigations confirm that the phases of pressing and aligning the Sm Co 5 powder, in the process of producing sintered Sm Co 5 magnets, may be performed without a protective atmosphere. (author)

  6. Gadolinium scandium germanide, Gd2Sc3Ge4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumohan Misra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Gd2Sc3Ge4 adopts the orthorhombic Pu5Rh4-type structure. The crystal structure contains six sites in the asymmetric unit: two sites are statistically occupied by rare-earth atoms with Gd:Sc ratios of 0.967 (4:0.033 (4 and 0.031 (3:0.969 (3, one site (.m. symmetry is occupied by Sc atoms, and three distinct sites (two of which with .m. symmetry are occupied by Ge atoms. The rare-earth atoms form two-dimensional slabs with Ge atoms occupying the trigonal-prismatic voids.

  7. Low temperature features of the local structure of Sm1-xYxS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menushenkov, A. P.; Chernikov, R. V.; Sidorov, V. V.; Klementiev, K. V.; Alekseev, P. A.; Rybina, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The particular features of the local electronic and local crystal structures of the mixed-valence compound Sm 1-x Y x S are studied by the XAFS spectroscopy methods in the temperature range 20-300 K for the yttrium concentration x = 0.17, 0.25, 0.33, and 0.45. The temperature behavior of the valence of Sm, as well as of the lengths and the Debye-Waller factors of the bonds Sm-S, Sm-Sm(Y), Y-S, and Y-Sm(Y), has been determined. The violation of the Vegard law has been observed. A model for the estimation of the energy width of the 4f level and of its position with respect to the Fermi level is proposed

  8. Luminescence and light yield of (Gd.sub.2./sub.Y)(Ga.sub.3./sub.Al.sub.2./sub.)O.sub.12./sub.:Pr.sup.3+./sup. single crystal scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lertloypanyachai, P.; Pathumrangsan, N.; Sreebunpeng, K.; Pattanaboonmee, N.; Chewpraditkul, W.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kamada, K.; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 468, Jun (2017), s. 369-372 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-15569S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : (Gd 2 Y)(Ga 3 Al 2 )O 12 :Pr 3+ * photoelectron yield * luminescence * scintillation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  9. Magnetic properties of GdMnO3 nanoparticles embedded in mesoporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Takayuki; Mito, Masaki; Deguchi, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Atsushi

    2018-05-01

    Perovskite manganite GdMnO3 nanoparticles were synthesized using mesoporous silica as a template, and their magnetic properties and crystal structure were investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction data indicated successful synthesis of the GdMnO3 nanoparticles, with mean particle sizes of 13.9 and 20.9 nm. The lattice constants for the nanoparticles were slightly different from those for the bulk material and varied with the particle size. The magnetic transition temperatures for the nanoparticles were higher than those of the bulk crystal. The synthesized GdMnO3 nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behaviors: The blocking temperature, coercive field, and transition temperature depended on the particle size. Magnetic measurements and crystal structure analysis suggest that the changes in the magnetic properties for GdMnO3 nanoparticles can be attributed to the modulation of the crystallographic structure.

  10. Gd2O3 nanoparticles stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose for positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2016-04-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles of a few nm in size and their agglomerates dispersed in dextrose derived polymer template were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The produced nanosized material was investigated by TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, SQUID measurements and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by crystal violet and MTT assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities of water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions measured at the magnetic field of 1.5 T, estimated to be r1(Gd2O3)=9.6 s-1 mM-1 in the Gd concentration range 0.1-30 mM and r2(Gd2O3)=17.7 s-1 mM-1 in the lower concentration range 0.1-0.8 mM, are significantly higher than the corresponding relaxivities measured for the standard contrast agent r1(Gd-DTPA)=4.1 s-1 mM-1 and r2(Gd-DTPA)=5.1 s-1 mM-1. The ratio of the two relaxivities for Gd2O3 nanoparticles r2/r1=1.8 is suitable for T1-weighted imaging. Good MRI signal intensities of the water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions were recorded at lower Gd concentrations 0.2-0.8 mM. The Gd2O3 samples did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects at Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below. These properties of the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hydrothermally modified dextrose make them promising for potential application in MRI for the design of a positive MRI contrast agent.

  11. Synchrotron topography of grow defects in GdCa4O(BO3)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbicka, E.; Lefeld-Sosnowska, M.; Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Graeff, W.

    2005-01-01

    Gadolinium calcium oxyborane (GdCOB) is a perspective material, especially in the optoelectronics. GdCOB exhibits excellent nonlinear optical parameters and can be easily doped with Nd 3+ , Yb 3+ or Er 3+ ions. To be applied in the optoelectronics it is necessary to obtain crystals with small number of defects, which cause unwanted tensions changing optical properties of the material. The aim of the work was analysis of the defects distribution in the GdCOB and finding its dependence on the crystal growing conditions. Crystals were grown in the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME) using Czochralski method. Analyses of the crystal quality are the first studies performed using the synchrotron beam reflection topography in the white beam, monochromatic and projecting transmission topography and the Lang reflections. It has been shown, that the main observed defects are the dislocations, which occur in all crystals of different density depending on the grown parameters [pl

  12. Structure-function analysis and genetic interactions of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits of the yeast Sm protein ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwer, Beate; Kruchten, Joshua; Shuman, Stewart

    2016-09-01

    A seven-subunit Sm protein ring forms a core scaffold of the U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs that direct pre-mRNA splicing. Using human snRNP structures to guide mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we gained new insights into structure-function relationships of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits. An alanine scan of 19 conserved amino acids of these three proteins, comprising the Sm RNA binding sites or inter-subunit interfaces, revealed that, with the exception of Arg74 in SmF, none are essential for yeast growth. Yet, for SmG, SmE, and SmF, as for many components of the yeast spliceosome, the effects of perturbing protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions are masked by built-in functional redundancies of the splicing machine. For example, tests for genetic interactions with non-Sm splicing factors showed that many benign mutations of SmG, SmE, and SmF (and of SmB and SmD3) were synthetically lethal with null alleles of U2 snRNP subunits Lea1 and Msl1. Tests of pairwise combinations of SmG, SmE, SmF, SmB, and SmD3 alleles highlighted the inherent redundancies within the Sm ring, whereby simultaneous mutations of the RNA binding sites of any two of the Sm subunits are lethal. Our results suggest that six intact RNA binding sites in the Sm ring suffice for function but five sites may not. © 2016 Schwer et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. Structure–function analysis and genetic interactions of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits of the yeast Sm protein ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwer, Beate; Kruchten, Joshua; Shuman, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    A seven-subunit Sm protein ring forms a core scaffold of the U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs that direct pre-mRNA splicing. Using human snRNP structures to guide mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we gained new insights into structure–function relationships of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits. An alanine scan of 19 conserved amino acids of these three proteins, comprising the Sm RNA binding sites or inter-subunit interfaces, revealed that, with the exception of Arg74 in SmF, none are essential for yeast growth. Yet, for SmG, SmE, and SmF, as for many components of the yeast spliceosome, the effects of perturbing protein–RNA and protein–protein interactions are masked by built-in functional redundancies of the splicing machine. For example, tests for genetic interactions with non-Sm splicing factors showed that many benign mutations of SmG, SmE, and SmF (and of SmB and SmD3) were synthetically lethal with null alleles of U2 snRNP subunits Lea1 and Msl1. Tests of pairwise combinations of SmG, SmE, SmF, SmB, and SmD3 alleles highlighted the inherent redundancies within the Sm ring, whereby simultaneous mutations of the RNA binding sites of any two of the Sm subunits are lethal. Our results suggest that six intact RNA binding sites in the Sm ring suffice for function but five sites may not. PMID:27417296

  14. Optical isotype shifts of 146Sm and 151Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; England, J.G.; Grant, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the optical isotope shifts of 146 Sm and 151 Sm by laser resonance fluorescence. From these measurements the changes in the mean square nuclear radii are: delta 2 > (A=144 to 146)=0.266(10) fm 2 , and delta 2 > (A=151 to 152)=0.262(10) fm 2 . These results, together with those of the stable isotopes, show that the average nuclear expansion of samarium can be accounted for by the liquid drop model with deformations. (orig.)

  15. Magnetocaloric effect and refrigeration cooling power in amorphous Gd7Ru3 alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar; Rachana Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the magnetic, heat capacity and magneto-caloric effect (MCE) of amorphous Gd7Ru3 compound. Both, temperature dependent magnetization and heat capacity data reveals that two transitions at 58 K and 34 K. MCE has been calculated in terms of isothermal entropy change (ΔSM) and adiabatic temperature change (ΔTad) using the heat capacity data in different fields. The maximum values of ΔSM and ΔTad are 21 Jmol−1K−1 and 5 K respectively, for field change of 50 kOe whereas re...

  16. Lifetime measurement in 144Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.J.; Gast, W.; Georgiev, A.; Jaeger, H.M.; Lieder, R.M.; Utzelmann, S.; Gierlik, M.; Morek, T.; Przestrzelska, K.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Dewald, A.; Kuehn, R.; Meier, C.; Ender, C.; Haertlein, T.

    1996-01-01

    The lifetime measurements of excited states in 144 Gd were carried out using the Koeln RDM-plunger together with the 2 x 3 CLUSTER detector setup in Heidelberg. The nucleus was populated in the 100 Mo( 48 Ti,4n) 144 Gd reaction at a beam energy of 205 MeV giving a recoil velocity of v/c = 2.6 %. Three and higher fold γ-ray coincidences were measured at 12 target-stopper distances ranged from 0 to 400 μm. Both the dipole and quadrupole bands in 144 Gd have been observed. The analysis is in progress

  17. Solid-solid synthesis and structural phase transition process of SmF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi-Cao; Guo, Xing-Min

    2018-04-01

    Mazes of contradictory conclusions have been obtained by previous researches about structural phase transition process of SmF3. In this paper, the single crystals of SmF3 (hexagonal and orthorhombic) were prepared by solid-solid synthesis, which have shown gradual changes in crystal growth modes with the increase temperature and holding time. Furthermore, we propose the phase transition process of in SmF3. Hexagonal symmetry of SmF3 (space group Pnma) was prepared firstly by heating Sm2O3 and NH4HF2 over 40 min at 270 °C. And then orthorhombic symmetry of SmF3 (space group P63mc) was obtained by heating hexagonal symmetry over 10 h at 650 °C. The reaction of SmF3 (hexagonal) = SmF3 (orthorhombic) is extremely sluggish at a low temperature (less than 650 °C), which was seen as a Mixed Grown Region.

  18. Structure determination of KScS.sub.2./sub., RbScS.sub.2./sub. and KLnS.sub.2./sub. (Ln = Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) and crystal-chemical discussion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlák, Lubomír; Fábry, Jan; Henriques, Margarida Isabel Sousa; Dušek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, Jul (2015), 623-630 ISSN 2053-2296 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0809; GA TA ČR TA04010135 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alkali rare earth sulfides * X-ray single-crystal structure determination * crystal chemistry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2015

  19. Analysis on the energetics, magnetism and electronic properties in a 45° ZnO grain boundary doped with Gd

    KAUST Repository

    Devi, Assa Aravindh Sasikala

    2018-04-13

    The structural stability and magnetic properties of a grain boundary (GB) formed by aligning two ZnO single crystals oriented at an angle of 45° is investigated by density functional theory, using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and taking the U parameter into consideration for the 4f impurity states. We found that the GB is stable with no dangling bonds and inter-granular structures. The stability of defects such as Gd substituted to the Zn site (Gd), Zn vacancy (V) and O vacancy (V) as well as defect complexes Gd-Gd, Gd-V, and Gd-V are analyzed using formation energy calculations. It is found that Gd-Gd clusters prefers to form at the GB. The spin polarization at the Gd sites is too localized and the exchange coupling energy is insufficient to overcome the thermal fluctuations. However, we show that the presence of V increases the hybridization between p orbitals of O as well as d orbitals of Zn, which can assist in increasing the magnetic polarization of the system. This work advances the understanding of the ferromagnetism in Gd-doped ZnO, indicating that Gd clustering at the GB is not likely to contribute to the ferromagnetism.

  20. Single-crystal growth of ceria-based materials; Einkristallzuechtung von Materialien auf der Basis von Cerdioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbrich, Gregor

    2015-07-23

    In this work it could be shown that Skull-Melting is a suitable method for growing ceria single crystals. Twenty different ceria-based single crystals could be manufactured. It was possible to dope ceria single crystals with Gd, Sm, Y, Zr, Ti, Ta, and Pr in different concentrations. Also co-doping with the named metals was realized. However, there remain some problems for growing ceria-based single crystals by Skull-Melting. As ignition metal zirconium was used because no ceria-based material works well. For that reason all single crystals show small zirconium contamination. Another problem is the formation of oxygen by the heat-induced reduction of ceria during the melting process. Because of that the skull of sintered material is often destroyed by gas pressure. This problem had to be solved individually for every single crystal. The obtained single crystals were characterized using different methods. To ensure the single crystal character the y were examined by Laue diffraction. All manufactured crystals are single crystals. Also powder diffraction patterns of the milled and oxidized samples were measured. For the determination of symmetry and metric the structural parameters were analyzed by the Rietveld method. All synthesized materials crystallize in space group Fm-3m known from calcium fluoride. The cubic lattice parameter a was determined for all crystals. In the case of series with different cerium and zirconium concentrations a linear correlation between cerium content and cubic lattice parameter was detected. The elemental composition was determined by WDX. All crystals show a homogeneous elemental distribution. The oxygen content was calculated because the WDX method isn't useful for determination.

  1. Low temperature preparation and superconductivity of F-doped SmFeAsO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.L.; Cui, Y.J. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Yang, Y.; Wang, L.; Li, Y.C.; Zhang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2010-11-01

    A low temperature (1100 deg. C) process of preparing F-doped SmFeAsO samples has been developed using SmF{sub 3} with nanometer scale as the source of fluorine. A series of the SmFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3) samples have been prepared using the present method. Compared with previous reports, the present SmF{sub 3} is more effective to introduce F into SmFeAsO system in which a transition temperature of 39 K can be observed when x = 0.05. The superconductivity is definitely enhanced with the increasing F-doping level. All the samples presented to be layered structure and the crystal particle size is about three times larger with sintering time increasing from 36 h to 48 h. Except for the nanometer scale of SmF{sub 3}, the flux effect of SmF{sub 3} is recognized to be another reason for the decrease of the sintering temperature. Further more, a relatively large amount of SmF{sub 3} was also employed in the raw materials to introduce excessive F and this has induced higher T{sub c} (55 K) in SmFeAsO{sub 0.8}F{sub 0.2+{delta}}system.

  2. Thickness dependent formation and properties of GdSi2/Si(100) interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peto, G.; Molnar, G.; Dozsa, L.; Horvath, Z.E.; Horvath, Zs.J.; Zsoldos, E.; Dimitriadis, C.A.; Papadimitriou, L.

    2005-01-01

    Epitaxial and polycrystalline orthorhombic GdSi 2 films were grown on Si(100) substrates by solid phase reaction between Si and Gd films at different thicknesses of the Gd film. The most important property of these GdSi 2 /Si interfaces was defect formation. This was investigated by studying the properties of the Schottky barriers by means of current voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics, deep level transient spectroscopy by double crystal X-ray diffractometry, and transmission electron microscopy. Epitaxial growth of the silicide layer ensured a relatively low interface defect density (about 10 10 cm -2 ), while the non-epitaxial growth induced defects of a much higher density (about 10 12 cm -2 ). The defects generated during the silicide formation are located within a depth of about 10 nm from the GdSi 2 /Si interface. (orig.)

  3. Komatiites of the Onverwacht Group, S. Africa: REE geochemistry, Sm/Nd age and mantle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Bor-Ming; Gruau, G.; Glikson, A. Y.

    1982-08-01

    Komatiites of the Tjakastad Subgroup of the Onverwacht Group (S. Africa) were dated by the Sm/Nd method. A whole-rock isochron yields an age of 3.56±0.24 (2 σ) AE, with initial 143Nd/144Nd ratio of 0.50818±23 (2 σ), corresponding to ɛ Nd( T)= + 1.9±4.5. This age is interpreted as the time of initial Onverwacht volcanism. This result agrees with earlier Sm/Nd data of Hamilton et al. (1979) and is consistent with the Rb-Sr result of Jahn and Shih (1974). Komatiites may be divided into 3 groups based on the typology of heavy REE distributions (Jahn and Gruau 1981). According to this scheme, the Onverwacht komatiites of the present study belong to two groups: the predominant Group II rocks showing (Gd/Yb)N≃1.4, CaO/Al2O3 = 1.33, Al2O3/TiO2≃10.6; and the subordinate Group III rocks with (Gd/Yb)Nconnotation of the chemical parameters, such as CaO/Al2O3, (Gd/Yb)N or Al2O3/TiO2 ratio has not been firmly established. The characteristic “high” CaO/Al2O3 or (Gd/Yb)N ratios in many Onverwacht Group rocks can also be explained as a result of local short-term mantle heterogeneity.

  4. R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) and RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd): Crystal structures with nets of Ir atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarema, Maksym [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla i Mefodiya Str, 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Ueberlandstr. 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Zaremba, Oksana; Gladyshevskii, Roman [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla i Mefodiya Str, 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Hlukhyy, Viktor, E-mail: viktor.hlukhyy@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Faessler, Thomas F. [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The crystal structures of the new ternary compounds Sm{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} and LaIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} were determined and refined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. They belong to the Ho{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} (oP52, Pmmn) and CeCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} (hP5, P6/mmm) structure types, respectively. The formation of isotypic compounds R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} with R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} with R=Ce, Pr, Nd, was established by powder X-ray diffraction. The RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds exist only in as-cast samples and decompose during annealing at 800 Degree-Sign C with the formation of R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9}. The structure of Sm{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} contains intersecting, slightly puckered nets of Ir atoms (4{sup 4})(4{sup 3}.6){sub 2}(4.6{sup 2}){sub 2} and (4{sup 4}){sub 2}(4{sup 3}.6){sub 4}(4.6{sup 2}){sub 2} that are perpendicular to [0 1 1] as well as to [0 -1 1] and [0 0 1]. The Ir atoms are surrounded by Ge atoms that form tetrahedra or square pyramids (where the layers intersect). The Sm and additional Ir atoms (in trigonal-planar coordination) are situated in channels along [1 0 0] (short translation vector). In the structure of LaIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} the Ir atoms form planar Kagome nets (3.6.3.6) perpendicular to [0 0 1]. These nets alternate along the short translation vector with layers of La and Ge atoms. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures contain the nets of Ir atoms as main structural motif: R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} contains intersecting slightly puckered nets of Ir atoms, whereas in the structure of RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} the Ir atoms form planar Kagome nets. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ir-rich ternary germanides R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) and RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd) have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} compounds exist only in as-cast samples and decompose during annealing at 800

  5. Effect of smectic A temperature width on the soft mode in ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A.; Kaur, S.; Prakash, J.; Sreenivas, K.; Bawa, S. S.; Biradar, A. M.

    2008-08-01

    The behavior of soft mode range with respect to the temperature width of smectic A (Sm A) phase has been studied in four different ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) materials in the frequency range 10Hz-10MHz. The studies have been carried out in a planarly well aligned cells at different temperatures and different bias fields in Sm C* and Sm A phases. Dielectric studies of these FLCs near Sm C*-Sm A phase transition show that the temperature range of soft mode relaxation frequency phenomenon varies with the temperature width of Sm A phase. The dependence of tilt angle on temperature shows the nature of the order of transition at Sm C*-Sm A phase. The coupling between order parameters of Sm C* and Sm A phase influences the soft mode and phase transition in Sm C* and Sm A phases.

  6. Monte Carlo study of the magnetic properties of GdSb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Sidi Bouzid, Safi, BP, 46000 63 (Morocco); LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Bahmad, L. [LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Layers and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Layers and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2014-03-15

    The magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic GdSb layers have been studied using Monte Carlo simulations within the Ising model framework. The considered Hamiltonian includes first nearest-neighbor, an external magnetic field and a crystal field. The thermal magnetizations and magnetic susceptibilities are computed for a fixed size. In addition, the Néel temperature is deduced. The magnetization versus the exchange interactions and crystal field are studied for a fixed system size, N=5, 7 and 9 sites. The magnetic hysteresis cycle versus temperature is also established. - Highlights: • Determination of the Néel temperature of GdSb by MC simulations. • Magnetic hysteresis cycle of GdSb. • Determination of saturation magnetization and field coercive in GdSb.

  7. The Gd14Ag51 structure type and its relation to some complex amalgam structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambornino, Frank; Sappl, Jonathan; Hoch, Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type has been revisited on the basis of single crystal diffraction data. • Symmetry analysis from electron density and TEM shows the space group P6/m to be true. • Gd 14 Ag 51 shows good metallic behaviour. • Structure relations to alkali, alkaline-earth and rare-earth metal amalgams can be established. • Complexity values for the RE 14 Ag 51 structure family were calculated. - Abstract: A plethora of binary and ternary intermetallic compounds has been assigned to the Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type, crystallising in the hexagonal system (space group P6/m, a = 1264.30(18) pm, c = 933.58(11) pm for Gd 14 Ag 51 ). Starting in the late 1960s, much work has been invested in the structural elucidation of these crystal structures. However, reliable single crystal data are scarce, and most structure type assignments have been performed merely on the basis of powder data. We have redetermined four representatives of the binary RE 14 Ag 51 structure type (RE = Y, Ce, Gd, Tb) with modern high-precision single crystal X-ray methods. The assignment of the Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type to space group P6/m was additionally verified by careful analysis of high resolution transmission electron micrographs. We emphasise the close relation of the Gd 14 Ag 51 structure type to the structures of some recently described amalgams of similar composition focussing on disorder phenomena and structural complexity. Furthermore, we provide detailed information on synthesis as well as electrical and magnetic properties for Gd 14 Ag 51 , the parent compound of this structure family

  8. The ternary systems Sc-Sm(Dy)-Si at 870 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Mokra, I.Ya.; Toporinskij, A.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal cross sections of the ternary systems Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si at 870 K have been plotted. Investigation of scandium and disprosium in ternary systems have been examined by X-ray diffraction and microstructure analysis. Besides literary data on binary systems Sc-Si, Sm-Si, Dy-Si have been used. Formation of limited (Sc-Sm-Si, Sc-Dy-Si) and continuous (Sc-Dy-Si) solid solutions based on bisilicides of Sc and Sm(Dy) is discovered. Two and five ternary compounds in Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si systems have been determined and their crystal structure has been established. When investigating of Sc-(rare earth element)-Si ternary systems and should take into account the specific interaction of scandium and samarium with REE

  9. Structure and magnetic transport properties of GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qiang; Guo, Yongquan, E-mail: yqguo@ncepu.edu.cn; Liu, Hanyuan

    2016-03-01

    The crystal structures and magneto-transport properties of GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} have been investigated using X-ray diffraction and magnetic and electric measurements. GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} crystallize in cubic structure, and their lattice parameters tend to decrease with increasing Mn content due to the size effect at In site by Mn substitution for In. Mn doped GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} order antiferromagnetically at low temperature. However, Mn doping into GdIn{sub 3} causes the decrease of Néel temperature due to the distortion of Gd(In,Mn){sub 3} tetrahedron formed by Gd at corners and (In,Mn) at face centers in unit cell. The resistivities of GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} are going up with increasing Mn content. The electric phase transition is associated with the magnetic transition, and the magneto-transport follows electron–magnon scattering model in low temperature region and the Stoner spin fluctuation model in high temperature region, respectively. - Highlights: • Novel GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} intermetallic compounds have been successfully prepared. • The lattice parameters tend to decrease with increasing Mn content. • GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} orders antiferromagnetically at low temperature. • The strong correlation between the electric transport and magnetic state is observed.

  10. Crystal structure, magnetization, {sup 125}Te NMR, and Seebeck coefficient of Ge{sub 49}Te{sub 50}R{sub 1} (R = La, Pr, Gd, Dy, and Yb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, E.M., E-mail: levin@iastate.edu [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US Department of Energy Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Cooling, C. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US Department of Energy Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Bud’ko, S.L. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US Department of Energy Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Straszheim, W.E. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US Department of Energy Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lograsso, T.A. [Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, US Department of Energy Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    GeTe, a self-doping semiconductor, is a well-known base compound for thermoelectric and phase-change materials. It is known, that replacement of Ge in Ag{sub 6.5}Sb{sub 6.5}Ge{sub 37}Te{sub 50} (TAGS-85) material by rare earth Dy significantly enhances both the power factor and thermoelectric figure of merit. Here we demonstrate how replacement of Ge in GeTe by rare earths with different atomic size and localized magnetic moments affect XRD patterns, magnetization, {sup 125}Te NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation, and the Seebeck coefficient of the alloys with a nominal composition of Ge{sub 49}Te{sub 50}R{sub 1} (R = La, Pr, Gd, Dy, and Yb). SEM, EDS and WDS data show that rare earth atoms in the matrix are present at smaller extent compared to a nominal composition, whereas rare earth also is present in inclusions. Rare earths affect the Seebeck coefficient, which is a result of interplay between the reduction due to higher carrier concentration and enhancement due to magnetic contribution. The effect of replacement of Ge in GeTe by Dy on the Seebeck coefficient is smaller than that observed in Ag{sub 6.5}Sb{sub 6.5}Ge{sub 36} Te{sub 50}Dy{sub 1}. This can be explained by larger amount of rare earth, which can be embedded into the lattice of materials containing [Ag + Sb] atomic pairs and possible effect from these pairs. - Highlights: • The effects of rare earth in Ge{sub 49}Te{sub 50}R{sub 1} (R = La, Pr, Gd, Dy, and Yb) are studied. • Rare earth atoms in the matrix are present at smaller extent compared to a nominal composition. • The effect on the Seebeck coefficient is a result from carrier concentration and magnetic contribution.

  11. Structure and properties of SmCu6−xIn6+x (x = 0,1,2)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical resistivity measurements show that all compounds are of metallic nature. Keywords. Rare earth ... electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrum. (EDS). We also report ... SEM image of a typical single crystal of. SmCu6In6.

  12. Crystallographic and 119Sn and 155Gd Moessbauer analyses of Gd5Ge2(Si1-xSnx)2 (x = 0.23 and x = 0.40)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoy, J. C. P.; Santos, A. O. dos; Cardoso, L. P.; Paesano, A.; Raposo, M. T.; Fabris, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    We report the structural characterization of Gd 5 Ge 2 (Si 1-x Sn x ) 2 (x = 0.23 and x = 0.40) compounds by means of 100 and 298 K-X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and 4 K- 155 Gd and 298 K- 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. These compounds order ferromagnetically at 218.4 and 172.7 K, respectively. At ∼100 K, it was identified the Gd 5 Si 4 -orthorhombic phase (type I) for both samples. At ∼298 K, it was identified a Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 -monoclinic phase, for x = 0.23 and a Sm 5 Sn 4 -orthorhombic phase (type II), for x 0.40. The Rietveld analysis of XRD data suggests a first order magneto-structural transition at Curie temperature for both compositions. Moessbauer results are well consistent with the proposed crystallographic models for these systems.

  13. Autoclave growth, magnetic, and optical properties of GdB6 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Li, Qidong; Liu, Huatao; Fan, Qinghua; Dong, Youzhong; Kuang, Quan; Zhao, Yanming

    2017-12-01

    High-quality single crystalline gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanowires have been successfully prepared at very low temperatures of 200-240 °C by a high pressure solid state (HPSS) method in an autoclave with a new chemical reaction route, where Gd, H3BO3, Mg and I2 were used as raw materials. The crystal structure, morphology, valence, magnetic and optical absorption properties were investigated using XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, XPS, SQUID magnetometry and optical measurements. HRTEM images and SAED patterns reveal that the GdB6 nanowires are single crystalline with a preferred growth direction along [001]. The XPS spectrum suggests that the valence of Gd ion in GdB6 is trivalent. The effective magnetic momentum per Gd3+ in GdB6 is about 6.26 μB. The optical properties exhibit weak absorption in the visible light range, but relatively strong absorbance in the NIR and UV range. Low work function and high NIR absorption can make GdB6 nanowires a potential solar radiation shielding material for solar cells or other NIR blocking applications.

  14. NMR relaxometric properties and cytotoxicity of Gd2O3 nanoparticle suspensions in an organic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2014-10-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles and their agglomerates from approximately 10 to 80 nm in size suspended in an organic liquid were synthesized via polyol route. The reaction between diethylene glycol and added acetic acid, which occurred simultaneously with the synthesis of Gd2O3 nanoparticles, was catalyzed by sodium bisulfate to transform as much as possible diethylene glycol in corresponding ester at the end of complete reaction. The produced nanosized material of gadolinium oxide was investigated by TEM, DLS, FTIR spectroscopy, and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by MTT and crystal violet assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse relaxivities of water-diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle suspensions estimated to be r 1 = 13.6 and r 2 = 14.7 s-1 mM-1 are about three times higher compared to the relaxivities obtained for standard contrast agent Gd-DTPA (Magnevist). Good MRI signal intensities of the water-diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle suspensions were recorded in the Gd concentration range 0.2-0.3 mM for which the suspensions were not toxic exhibiting simultaneously higher signal intensities than those for Magnevist in the Gd concentration range 0.4-1 mM for which this standard contrast agent was not toxic. These properties make the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticle material promising for potential application as MRI contrast agent.

  15. Magnetic anisotropies in SmCo thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A systemic study of the deposition processes and magnetic properties for the Sm-Co film system has been carried out. Films of Sm-Co system with various magnetic anisotropies have been synthesized through sputter deposition in both crystalline and amorphous phases. The origins of various anisotropies have been studied. Thermalized sputter deposition process control was used to synthesize Fe enriched Sm-Co films with rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 type structure. The film exhibited unusually strong textures with the crystallographic c axes of the crystallites aligned in the film plane. A large anisotropy was resulted with easy axis in the film plane. A well defined and large in-the-film-plane anisotropy of exceptionally high value of 3.3 x 10 6 erg/cm 3 has been obtained in the amorphous SmCo films by applying a magnetic field in the film plane during deposition. It was found that the in-the-film-plane anisotropy depended essentially on the applied field and Sm concentration. For films not synthesized through thermallized sputtering, the easy axis of the film could reoriented. A perpendicular anisotropy was also presented in the film synthesized through thermallized sputtering deposition. A large in-plane anisotropy was obtained in films deposited above ambient temperatures. It was concluded that the surface induced short range ordering was the origin of the in-the-film-phase anisotropy observed in amorphous film deposited in the presence of a magnetic field. The formation mechanism was different from that of the short range ordering induced by field annealing. The perpendicular anisotropy was shown to be growth induced. Large in-plane anisotropy in amorphous films was resulted form partial crystallization in the film. Both the formation of growth induced structure and partial crystallization in the film prevented the formation of the pair ordering and decreased in-the-film-plane anisotropy

  16. Radiation damage in SmS, SmSsub(1-x)Psub(x) and SmB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morillo, J.; Bordier, G.; de Novion, C.H.; Senateur, J.P.; Jun, J.

    1984-08-01

    Large conductivity increases under 21 K electron or neutron irradiations are observed in SmS and SmSsub(1-x)Psub(x). It is shown that they are related to Sm defects. A possible mechanism is 4f electron delocalization around radiation defects. In SmB 6 , the low temperature resistivity increase desappears under 21 K irradiation. The thermal stability of the defects is also investigated up to room temperature

  17. Standard Missile-6 (SM-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    attack or Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles in flight. The SM-6 ERAM program is an evolutionary, capabilities based acquisition program that will use spiral ...Prior SAR Total O&S Estimates - Dec 2014 SAR 460.3 Programmatic/Planning Factors 0.0 Cost Estimating Methodology 0.0 Cost Data Update 0.0 Labor Rate

  18. Growth and scintillation properties of 3 in. diameter Ce doped Gd.sub.3./sub.Ga.sub.3./sub.Al.sub.2./sub.O.sub.12./sub. scintillation single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamada, K.; Shoji, Y.; Kochurikhin, V.V.; Okumura, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Nagura, A.; Yeom, J.Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Yokota, Y.; Ohashi, Y.; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 452, Oct (2016), s. 81-84 ISSN 0022-0248. [American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy /20./ (ACCGE) / 17th Biennial Workshop on Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE) / 2nd 2D Electronic Materials Symposium. Big Sky, MT, 02.08.2015-07.08.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14266; GA ČR GJ15-18300Y EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 644260 - INTELUM Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single crystal growth * oxides * scintillator materials * scintillators Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  19. Effect of the addition of Sm2O3 on the microstructure of laser cladding alloy coating layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi Hong; Li, Ming Xi; Cho, Tong Yul; Yoon, Jae Hong; Fang, Wei; Joo, Yun Kon; Kang, Jin Ho; Lee, Chan Gyu

    2008-06-01

    The effects on the microstructures and phases of coating layers by the addition of micron-sized (m) and nano-sized (n) (m&n) Sm2O3 powders were investigated. The coating materials, which were prepared by means of 2.0 kW CO2 laser cladding, consist of a powder mixture of m Ni-based alloy (NBA) powders comprising 1.5 wt.% m Sm2O3 and 3.0% n Sm2O3 powders. The results indicate that γ-Ni, Cr23C6 and Ni3B are the primary phases of the NBA coatings. The Fe7Sm and Ni3Si phases are highlighted by the addition of m&n Sm2O3 powders. From the substrate, planar crystal layers are first grown in all NBA and m&n Sm2O3/NBA coatings. The dendrite growth then occurs as a result of the addition of the m Sm2O3 powder, and the equiaxed dendrite growth occurs as a result of the addition of the n Sm2O3. With the addition of a rare earth oxide such as Sm2O3 powder, the width of the planar crystal becomes smaller than that of the NBA coating.

  20. Investigation of BaMoO4-Ln2(MoO4)3 systems (Ln = Nd, Sm, Yb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulyuk, V.V.; Evdokimov, A.A.; Khomchenko, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    Using the methods of X-ray phase and differential-thermal analyses phase ratios in the systems BaMoO 4 -Ln 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 (Ln=Nd, Sm, Yb); BaNd 2 (MoO 4 ) 4 -MaGd 2 (MoO 4 ) are studied. Unit cell parameters and the character of melting of the compounds BaLn 2 (MoO 4 ) 4 are specified. Effect of growth conditions on laminated nature of BaGd 2 (MoO 4 ) 4 monocrystals is studied

  1. Luminescence characteristics of the Ce.sup.3+./sup.-doped pyrosilicates: the case of La-admixed Gd.sub.2./sub.Si.sub.2./sub.O.sub.7./sub. single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarý, Vítězslav; Nikl, Martin; Kurosawa, S.; Shoji, Y.; Mihóková, Eva; Beitlerová, Alena; Pazzi, G.P.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 46 (2014), s. 26521-26529 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14266 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : lutetium silicate sci ntillators * floating-zone growth * electronic-structure * yttrium content * lyso crystals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.772, year: 2014

  2. Scintillation properties of Ce doped Gd.sub.2./sub.Lu.sub.1./sub.(Ga,Al).sub.5./sub.O.sub.12./sub. single crystal grown by the micro-pulling-down method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamada, K.; Yanagida, T.; Pejchal, Jan; Nikl, Martin; Endo, T.; Tsutumi, K.; Usuki, Y.; Fujimoto, Y.; Fukabori, A.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 352, č. 1 (2012), s. 35-38 ISSN 0022-0248 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100100910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : single crystal growth * oxides * scintillator materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.552, year: 2012

  3. Crystal growth and luminescence properties of Yb-doped Gd.sub.3./sub.Al.sub.2./sub.Ga.sub.3./sub.O.sub.12./sub. infra-red scintillator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzuki, A.; Kurosawa, S.; Nagata, S.; Yamamura, T.; Pejchal, Jan; Yamaji, A.; Yokota, Y.; Shirasaki, K.; Homma, Y.; Aoki, D.; Shikama, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 9 (2014), s. 1484-1487 ISSN 0925-3467 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : infra-red scintillator * radiation therapy * Yb:GAGG * bulk crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2014

  4. Excited states in 146Sm and 147Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kownacki, J.; Sujkowski, Z.; Hammaren, E.; Liukkonen, E.; Piiparinen, M.; Lindblad, Th.; Ryde, H.

    1979-10-01

    The sup(144,146)Nd(α,xn) and sup(146,148)Nd( 3 He,xn) reactions with Esub(α) = 20 - 43 MeV and E 3 sub(He) = 19 - 27 MeV are used to investigate excited states in the isotopes 146 Sm and 147 Sm. The experiments involve measurements of singles γ-ray spectra and conversion electron spectra, γ-ray angular distributions and three parameter (E sub(γ)E sub(γ) time) coincidences. From these experiments information is obtained for states with spin up to I = 13 + and I = 27/2 - , respectively, These states are interpeted within the framework of the cluster-vibration model (CVM) as well as the shell model. (author)

  5. Småhuse: Indretning og funktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Sigbrand, Lone; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine

    Denne anvisning omhandler generelle krav og anbefalinger til indretning og funktion af nybyggede småhuse i henhold til bestemmelserne i Bygningsreglement 2010 (BR10). Småhuse - Indretning og funktionSmåhuse omfatter fritliggende og sammenbyggede enfamiliehuse med lodret lejlighedsskel i indtil...

  6. Orientational and structural properties of ferroelectric liquid crystal with broad temperature range of the SmC* phase by .sup.13./sup.C NMR, x-ray scattering and dielectric spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubnov, Alexej M.; Domenici, V.; Hamplová, Věra; Kašpar, Miroslav; Veracini, C.A.; Glogarová, Milada

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2009), 035102/1-035102/8 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047; GA ČR GA202/05/0431; GA MŠk OC 175; GA AV ČR IAA100100710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric liquid crystal * high spontaneous polarization * 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance * x-ray scattering * dielectric spectroscopy * viscosity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2009

  7. Chemical bonding and magnetic properties of gadolinium (Gd) substituted cobalt ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas, E-mail: vspuli@utep.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Adireddy, Shiva [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Ramana, C.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2015-09-25

    Graphical abstract: Room temperature Raman spectra of CoFe{sub 2−x}Gd{sub x}O{sub 4} (CFGO, x = 0.0–0.3) compounds as a function of wavenumber (cm{sup −1}). - Highlights: • Gd substituted ferrites were synthesized under controlled concentration. • Gd ion induced lattice dynamical changes are significant. • Enhanced magnetization is observed upon Gd-incorporation in cobalt ferrite. • A correlation between lattice dynamics and magnetic properties is established. - Abstract: Polycrystalline gadolinium (Gd) substituted cobalt ferrites (CoFe{sub 2−x}Gd{sub x}O{sub 4}; x = 0–0.3, referred to CFGO) ceramics have been synthesized by solid state reaction method. Chemical bonding, crystal structure and magnetic properties of CFGO compounds have been evaluated as a function of Gd-content. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic analyses confirmed the formation of inverse spinel cubic structure. However, a secondary ortho-ferrite phase (GdFeO{sub 3}) nucleates for higher values of Gd-content. A considerable increase in the saturation magnetization has been observed upon the initial substitution of Gd (x = 0.1). The saturation magnetization drastically decreases at higher Gd content (x ⩾ 0.3). No contribution from ortho-ferrite GdFeO{sub 3} phase is noted to the magnetic properties. The increase in the magnetic saturation magnetization is attributed to the higher magnetic moment of Gd{sup 3+} (4f{sup 7}) residing in octahedral sites is higher when compared to that of Fe{sup 3+} (3d{sup 5}) and as well due to the migration of Co{sup 2+} (3d{sup 7}) ions from the octahedral to the tetrahedral sites with a magnetic moment aligned anti-parallel to those of rare earth (RE{sup 3+}) ions in the spinel lattice. Increase in coercivity with increase in Gd{sup 3+} is content is attributed to magnetic anisotropy in the ceramics.

  8. Superconductivity and magnetism in Ir-doped GdFeAsO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Y.J.; Chen, Y.L. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 NSW (Australia); Yang, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, Y.Z.; Zhang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2010-11-01

    The 5d-transition metal, Ir has successfully been doped at Fe site and induced superconductivity in GdFeAsO at T{sub c} = 18.9 K and {approx}20 atom%. The Ir-doping shortened the c-axis length and stretched the a-axis one, which led to enhance the coupling between the FeAs- and SmO-layer, and to weaken the bonding between Fe and As atom. Paramagnetism was observed in all of the samples, which was resulted from the magnetic Gd ion as in the F-doped GdFeAsO. An upper critical field of GdFe{sub 0.8}Ir{sub 0.2}AsO was extrapolated to around 24 T, much smaller than that of F-doped GdFeAsO owing to a relatively low T{sub c} and small value of dH{sub c2}/dT.

  9. Luminescent properties of Cr-doped (Gd.sub.x./sub., Y.sub.1-x./sub.).sub.3./sub.Al.sub.5./sub.O.sub.12./sub. infra-red scintillator crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzuki, A.; Kurosawa, S.; Yamaji, A.; Shoji, Y.; Pejchal, Jan; Kamada, K.; Yokota, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 12 (2014), s. 1938-1941 ISSN 0925-3467. [International Symposium on Laser, Scintillator and Non Linear Optical Materials (ISLNOM) /6./. Shanghai, 20.10.2013-23.10.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : infra-red scintillator * patient dosimetry * Cr-doped oxide garnet * bulk crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2014

  10. External electric field effects on Schottky barrier at Gd3N@C80/Au interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Koichi; Nakashima, Fumihiro; Jin, Ge; Eto, Daichi; Hattori, Hayami; Miyoshi, Noriko; Kirimoto, Kenta; Sun, Yong

    2017-08-01

    The effects of the external electric field on the height of the Schottky barrier at the Gd3N@C80/Au interface were studied by measuring current-voltage characteristics at various temperatures from 200 K to 450 K. The Gd3N@C80 sample with the conduction/forbidden/valence energy band structure had a face-centered cubic crystal structure with the average grain size of several nanometers. The height of the Gd3N@C80/Au Schottky barrier was confirmed to be 400 meV at a low electric field at room temperature. Moreover, the height decreases with the increasing external electric field through a change of permittivity in the Gd3N@C80 sample due to a polarization of the [Gd3] 9 +-[N3 -+("separators="|C80 ) 6 -] dipoles in the Gd3N@C80 molecule. The field-dependence of the barrier height can be described using a power math function of the electric field strength. The results of the field-dependent barrier height indicate that the reduction in the Schottky barrier is due to an image force effect of the transport charge carrier at the Gd3N@C80/Au interface.

  11. Solution growth of the Gd-Cu-Al systems in the low-gadolinium concentration range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlirova, Klara; Sechovsky, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Solution growth of Gd-Cu-Al resulted in the formation of single crystals of GdCu 4 Al 8 with tetragonal ThMn 12 -type structure (a = 8.751 Aa, c = 5.148 Aa), Gd 2 Cu 9.4-6.7 Al 7.6-10.3 with hexagonal Th 2 Zn 17 -type structure (a = 8.83 Aa c = 1.28 Aa), and Gd(Cu, Al) 4 with orthorhombic CeNi 2+x Sb 2-x -type structure. An antiferromagnetic ordering of GdCu 4 Al 8 was found below 35 K, which is in agreement with the previously reported T N = 35 K and T N = 32 K measured on polycrystalline samples. In the temperature range 50-320 K the magnetic susceptibility χ follows the Curie-Weiss law with μ eff = 7.8 μ B /f.u. and θ p = -17 K for B parallel c, μ eff = 7.9 μ B /f.u. and θ p = - 18 K for B perpendicular to c. The a-axis is the easy magnetization direction. The Gd(Cu, Al) 4 and Gd(Cu, Al) 4 compounds order antiferromagnetically below T N = 35 K and T N = 31 K, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Morphological stability of Sm123 superconductor during peritectic solidification from Sm211 + L mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Masaki; Shiohara, Yuh; Umeda, Takateru

    2000-01-01

    The interface stability of the Sm 123 superconductor was analyzed in accordance with the constitutional undercooling criterion. As the single-crystal growth of the 123 phase is largely dependent on the growth-interface stability, a quantitative analysis was very much required. From this analysis, it was clarified that the constitutional undercooling must exist in the liquid when the 123 growth interface comes close to a 211 particle during the peritectic solidification. It was also predicted that the larger 211 particle radius, smaller volume fraction of the 211 particles, larger growth rate, or smaller imposed temperature gradient would cause easy occurrence of the constitutional undercooling ahead of the 123 growth interface. Taking into account the nucleation at the L/211 interface just ahead of the 123 growth front due to the constitutional undercooling, the transition of 123 growth from a planar-interface morphology to an equiaxed blocky morphology was investigated quantitatively and qualitatively

  13. Characterisation of magnetron sputtered SmCo5 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Sood, D.K.; Kothari

    1999-01-01

    SmCo 5 thin films were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering on single crystal silicon substrate with chromium and SiO 2 top layers. Deposition was carried out at three different substrate temperatures: room temperature, 400 deg C and 600 deg C. Films were characterised by using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and SQUID magnetometer. RBS analysis indicated that the films have excellent stoichiometry with the Sm to Co ratio of 1:5. This analysis also showed that the films deposited or annealed at high temperatures (≥600 deg C) indicated significant inter-diffusion at the interface between the barrier layer and the film. Oxygen was found to be the major impurity in the films. XRD data indicated that the films formed 1:5 and 2:17 phases under different deposition conditions. The preliminary studies of these films using magnetic force microscopy revealed the presence of magnetic domains

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of novel 2D kagome materials RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} (RE = La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho): Comparison to RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14} family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.B.; Baroudi, K.M.; Krizan, J.W.; Mukadam, O.A.; Cava, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The crystal structures and magnetic properties of RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} (RE = La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho) with a perfect kagome lattice are presented and compared to RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}. Rietveld structure refinements were performed using X-ray diffraction data, indicating that the layered compounds are fully structurally ordered. The compounds crystallize in a rhombohedral supercell of the cubic pyrochlore structure, in the space group R-3m. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show no signs of magnetic ordering above 2 K. The RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} family is similar to that of RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}; however, the series reported here features a fully ordered distribution of cations in both the nonmagnetic antimony and magnetic rare earth kagome lattices. Unlike the offsite disorder that Zn{sup 2+} experiences in RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}, the magnesium sites in RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} are completely ordered. Here we compare the magnetic properties in both series of kagome compounds to determine how significant Zn{sup 2+}'s positional ordering is within this structure type. The compounds reported here appear to be relatively defect-free and are therefore model systems for investigating magnetic frustration on an ideal 2D rare earth kagome lattice. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Critical end point of the first-order ferromagnetic transition in a Sm{sub 0.55}(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}){sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radheep, D. Mohan [Centre for High Pressure Research, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024 (India); Sarkar, P. [Department of Physics, Serampore College, Serampore 712 201 (India); Arumugam, S. [Centre for High Pressure Research, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024 (India); Suryanarayanan, R. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Etat Solide, ICMMO, CNRS, UMR8182, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Mandal, P., E-mail: prabhat.mandal@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India)

    2014-09-01

    We report on the magnetic field (H) and hydrostatic pressure (P) dependence of the order of the ferromagnetic (FM) to paramagnetic phase transition in a Sm{sub 0.55}(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}){sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3} single crystal. At ambient condition, the system exhibits a first-order FM transition at T{sub C}≈82K (in heating cycle) with strong thermal hysteresis (∼13 K). The application of external H and P increases T{sub C}, suppresses the hysteresis width, and thus weakens the first-order nature of the transition. Our analysis reveals that the hysteresis vanishes and the first-order FM transition becomes a crossover above a critical magnetic field H{sub cr}≈11.5T. The value of H{sub cr} is highest among the manganite family, although the first-order nature of the FM transition is believed to be strongest in Eu{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}(x≈0.45). - Highlights: • System shows a strong first-order ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition. • Extremely sharp metal–insulator transition at around 82 K. • The value of critical magnetic field at which first-order transition becomes a crossover is highest among manganites. • The nature of transition is sensitive to external perturbations such as magnetic field and pressure.

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of Gd1-xPrxMn2Si2 silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, A.; Kervan, S.; Gencer, A.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction, AC susceptibility and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were performed on the polycrystalline Gd 1-x Pr x Mn 2 Si 2 (0≤x≤1) compounds. All compounds investigated crystallize in the body-centred tetragonal ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure with the space group I4/mmm. Substitution of Pr for Gd leads to a linear increase of the lattice constants and the unit cell volume. The lattice constants and the unit cell volume obey Vegard's law. At the Curie temperature T C (Gd), the Gd sublattice orders and reconfigures the ordering in the Mn sublattice. This temperature becomes depressed and disappears with increasing Pr content x. The Neel temperature T N (Mn) determined by DSC technique decreases linearly with increasing Pr content x. The results are summarized in the x-T magnetic phase diagram

  17. The Effects of Gd-Free Impurity Phase on the Aging Behavior for the Microwave Surface Resistance of Ag-coated GdBa2Cu3O7-δ at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungho; Yang, Woo Il; Jung, Ho Sang; Oh, Won-Jae; Jang, Jiyeong; Lee, Jae-Hun; Kang, Kihyeok; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Yoo, Sang-Im; Lee, Sang Young

    2018-05-01

    High-T C GdBa2Cu3O7-δ (GdBCO) superconductor has been popular for making superconductive tapes that have much potential for various fields of large-scale applications. We investigated aging effects on the microwave surface resistance (R S) of Ag-coated GdBCO layer on Hastelloy substrate, so called GdBCO coated conductors (CCs), and Ag-coated GdBCO films on LaAlO3 (LAO) single-crystal substrates at cryogenic temperatures and compared them with each other. Unlike the R S of Ag-coated GdBCO films showing significant degradation in 4 weeks, no significant aging effects were found in our Ag-coated GdBCO CCs aged 85 weeks. The reactive co-evaporation deposition and reaction (RCE-DR) method was used for preparing the Ag-coated GdBCO CCs. Such durability of the Ag-coated GdBCO CCs in terms of the R S could be explained by existence of a protective impurity phase, i.e., Gd-free Ba-Cu-O phase as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy study combined with the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. Although the scope of this study is limited to the Ag-coated GdBCO CCs prepared by using the RCE-DR method, our results suggest that a solution for preventing the aging effects on transport properties of other kinds of Ag-coated GdBCO CCs could be realized by means of an artificially-grown protective impurity layer.

  18. Applied strain dependence of critical current and internal lattice strain for BaHfO_3-doped GdBa_2Cu_3O_y coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Takashi; Yoshida, Yutaka; Ichino, Yusuke; Sugano, Michinaka; Machiya, Shutaro; Ibi, Akira; Izumi, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    The strain effect of REBa_2Cu_3O_y (REBCO: RE = Y, Gd, Sm)-coated conductors (CCs) on critical current (I_c) is one of the most fundamental factors for superconducting coil applications. In this study, we aim to clarify the effect of artificial pinning center shapes on the strain effect in BHO-doped GdBCO CCs. To achieve this, we fabricated a Pure-GdBCO CC, a BHO nanorod-doped GdBCO CC and a multilayered-GdBCO (ML-GdBCO) CC, and carried out bending tests. As the result, the strain dependence of I_c for each CC showed an upward convex and the peak strain of the BHO-doped GdBCO CC shifts towards the compressive strain independent of the BHO shapes. In addition, the strain sensitivity of I_c in the GdBCO CCs including BHO becomes smaller. To clarify the difference between the strain sensitivity of I_c and the peak strain among the CCs, we evaluated the residual strain and the slopes of the internal lattice strains against the applied tensile strain (β). From this measurement, the residual strains for the Pure-GdBCO CC and the ML-GdBCO CC were almost the same. In addition, there was no change in the β value between the Pure-GdBCO and ML-GdBCO CCs. These results suggest that the changes in peak strain and strain sensitivity were not related to the internal lattice strain. (author)

  19. Effects of substrate temperature and Cu underlayer thickness on the formation of SmCo5(0001) epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    SmCo 5 (0001) epitaxial thin films were prepared on Cu(111) underlayers heteroepitaxially grown on Al 2 O 3 (0001) single-crystal substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The effects of substrate temperature and Cu underlayer thickness on the crystallographic properties of SmCo 5 (0001) epitaxial films were investigated. The Cu atoms of underlayer diffuse into the SmCo 5 film and substitute the Co sites in SmCo 5 structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Co,Cu) 5 . The ordered phase formation is enhanced with increasing the substrate temperature and with increasing the Cu underlayer thickness. The Cu atom diffusion into the SmCo 5 film is assisting the formation of Sm(Co,Cu) 5 ordered phase.

  20. Implantation sites of Ce and Gd in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Bharuth-Ram, K; Hofsäss, H C; Ronning, C; Dietrich, M

    2002-01-01

    The implantation sites of rare earth (RE) probes /sup 141/Ce (t/sub 1 /2/=32 d) and /sup 149/Gd (t/sub 1/2/=9.28 d) in diamond have been investigated using the emission channeling (EC) technique. Parent isotopes /sup 141/Cs and /sup 149/Dy were implanted into type IIa, diamond samples at an energy of 60 keV at the online isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. /sup 141/Cs decays through the chain /sup 141/Cs-/sup 141/Ba-/sup 141/La-/sup 141/Ce-/sup 141/ Pr. EC measurements were made on the 102 keV conversion electrons emitted in the decay of /sup 141/Pr to its ground state. The decay of /sup 149 /Dy follows the chain /sup 149/Dy-/sup 149/Tb-/sup 149/Gd-/sup 149 /Eu-/sup 149/Sm. EC measurements were made on the 101 keV electrons emitted in the decay of /sup 149/Eu. Two-dimensional channeling patterns of the conversion electrons were obtained along and axial directions by raster scans with a Si surface barrier detector. Comparison of the observed patterns with simulated spectra show that in diamond 45-50% of the RE...

  1. Temperature effects on separation of Gd3+ from Gd-DTPA-folate using nanofiltration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, I.; Indraneli, R. P.; Yuliyati, Y. B.; Anggraeni, A.; Soedjanaatmadja, U. M. S.; Bahti, H. H.

    2018-05-01

    MRI is one of the best techniques in medical diagnostics. Contrast agents are used to improve the visual of organs that are difficult to distinguish through MRI. Gd-DTPA-folate is one of the specific contrast agents against cancer diagnosis, because it has a high affinity to folate receptors. In the complexing Gd-DTPA-folate, does not rule out the complexity step runs imperfectly, so there is still Gd3+ in the Gd-DTPA-folate complex. The separation of Gd3+ from the Gd-DTPA-folate complex is important to eliminate toxic effects on the contrast agent. This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on the separation of Gd-DTPA-folate from Gd3+ with nanofiltration. The method are preparation Gd-DTPA-folate from GdCl3.6H2O and DTPA-folate by reflux method, then separated Gd-DTPA-folate complex from Gd3+ with nanofiltration at variation temperature (40, 41, 42, 43, 44oC ). Then, the values of flux and rejection coefficients were analyzed. The results showed that the optimum temperature for the separation of Gd3+ from Gd-DTPA-folate was achieved at 42.6°C with the rejection coefficient of 24% and the permeate flux of 403 L.m-2.h-1.

  2. Sierra/SM theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, Nathan Karl

    2013-07-01

    Presented in this document are the theoretical aspects of capabilities contained in the Sierra/SM code. This manuscript serves as an ideal starting point for understanding the theoretical foundations of the code. For a comprehensive study of these capabilities, the reader is encouraged to explore the many references to scientific articles and textbooks contained in this manual. It is important to point out that some capabilities are still in development and may not be presented in this document. Further updates to this manuscript will be made as these capabilites come closer to production level.

  3. A comprehensive investigation of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO{sub 4} with enhanced photocatalytic performance under sun-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yangyang; Tan, Guoqiang, E-mail: tan3114@163.com; Dong, Guohua; Ren, Huijun; Xia, Ao

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4} with enhanced photocatalytic activity was synthesized. • Gd doping can induce the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal BiVO{sub 4}. • GdVO{sub 4} seeds as crystal nucleus dominate the formation of tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4}. • Tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4} exhibits the excellent separation of electrons and holes. • The contribution of high photocatalytic activity under sun-light is from UV-light. - Abstract: Tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO{sub 4} having enhanced photocatalytic activity have been synthesized by a facile microwave hydrothermal method. The structural analysis indicates that Gd doping can induce the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal BiVO{sub 4}. The reaction results in precursor solutions imply that tetragonal GdVO{sub 4} seeds as crystal nucleus are the original and determined incentives to force the formation of tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4}. The influences of the surface defect, band structure, and BET surface area on the improved photocatalytic activities of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO{sub 4} are investigated systematically. The results demonstrate that the more surface oxygen deficiencies as active sites and the excellent mobility and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes are beneficial to the enhancement of the photocatalytic performance of tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4}. The RhB photodegradation experiments indicate that the contribution of high photocatalytic activities under simulated sun-light is mainly from UV-light region due to the tetragonal structure feature. The best photocatalytic performance is obtained for tetragonal 10 at% Gd-BiVO{sub 4}, of which the RhB degradation rate can reach to 96% after 120 min simulated sun-light irradiation. The stable tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4} with efficient mineralization will be a promising photocatalytic material applied in water purification.

  4. Pr and Gd co-doped bismuth ferrite thin films with enhanced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in Pr content, the crystal structures of BPGFO thin films retain rhombohedral (R3c) symmetry accompanied by structure distortion. ... Pr and Gd co-modified BiFeO3 thin film; ferroelectric properties; sol-gel. 1. Introduction. In recent years, great attention has been paid to single- phase BiFeO3 (BFO) multiferroic materials ...

  5. Anomalous electrical resistance and magnetoresistance in Gd{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, R; Sampathkumaran, E V [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India)

    1997-12-31

    The results of the investigations of electrical resistance (p) in zero field as well as in the presence of magnetic field (up to 70 kOe) and of heat capacity (C) in a new compound, Gd{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3} having AlB{sub 2} type crystal structure are reported. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  6. Thermal expansion of the magnetorefrigerant Gd5(Si,Ge)4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brück, E.H.; Nazih, M.; de Visser, A.; Zhang, L.; Tegus, O.

    2003-01-01

    We report thermal expansion measurements carried out on a single-crystal of the giant magnetocaloric effect material Gd5(Si0.43Ge0.57)4. At the magneto-structural phase transition at T0~240 K, large steps in the relative length change ÄL/L along the principle crystallographic axes are observed. The

  7. Diode-end-pumped Tm:GdVO4 laser operating at 1818 and 1915 nm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available wavelengths. We therefore embarked on ac- curately measuring absorption spectra of Tm:GdVO4 laser crystals at both 0.8 (pump band) and at 1.9 µm (emission band). The measurements were conducted with a Cary 5000 spectrometer with resolution set to 1 nm...

  8. Gd3+-ESR and magnetic susceptibility of GdCu4Al8 and GdMn4Al8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldea, R.; Coldea, M.; Pop, I.

    1994-01-01

    Gd ESR of GdCu 4 Al 8 and GdMn 4 Al 8 and magnetic susceptibility of GdCu 4 Al 8 , GdMn 4 Al 8 , and YMn 4 Al 8 were measured in the temperature range of 290K--460K and 90K--1050K, respectively. The occurrence of the Mn moment in YMn 4 Al 8 and GdMn 4 Al 8 is strongly correlated with the critical value of d∼2.6 angstrom of the Mn-Mn distance below which the Mn moment is not stable. The experimental data for GdMn 4 Al 8 , compared with the data for the isostructural compounds GdCu 4 Al 8 and YMn 4 Al 8 , show that near the critical value of d, the existence of Mn moment depends not only on the value of d, but also on the local magnetic surroundings. It has been revealed that the magnetic character of Mn moment in YMn 4 Al 8 and GdMn 4 Al 8 changes from an itinerant electron type to a local-moment type with increasing temperature

  9. Solid-state amorphization of SmFe{sub 3} by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.H.; Kubis, M.; Handstein, A.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2000-05-10

    Hydrogen-induced amorphization (HIA) has received much attention as a method for the preparation of amorphous compounds since its discovery by Yeh et al. Meanwhile it has been observed for a large number of intermetallic compounds with C15, C23, B8{sub 2}, DO{sub 19} and L1{sub 2} structures. E.G. the C15 Laves-type compounds (MgCu{sub 2}-type structure) of rare earth (R) - transition metal (T) compounds RT{sub 2} show HIA for R = Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er. Aoki et al. postulated that new amorphizing compounds can be expected at high hydrogen pressures. In this work, the structural changes of SmFe{sub 3} (PuNi{sub 3}-type structure) during heating in high hydrogen pressures are reported.

  10. Solid-state amorphization of SmFe3 by hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.; Kubis, M.; Handstein, A.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen-induced amorphization (HIA) has received much attention as a method for the preparation of amorphous compounds since its discovery by Yeh et al. Meanwhile it has been observed for a large number of intermetallic compounds with C15, C23, B8 2 , DO 19 and L1 2 structures. E.G. the C15 Laves-type compounds (MgCu 2 -type structure) of rare earth (R) - transition metal (T) compounds RT 2 show HIA for R = Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er. Aoki et al. postulated that new amorphizing compounds can be expected at high hydrogen pressures. In this work, the structural changes of SmFe 3 (PuNi 3 -type structure) during heating in high hydrogen pressures are reported

  11. The Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type and its relation to some complex amalgam structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambornino, Frank; Sappl, Jonathan; Hoch, Constantin, E-mail: constantin.hoch@cup.uni-muenchen.de

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type has been revisited on the basis of single crystal diffraction data. • Symmetry analysis from electron density and TEM shows the space group P6/m to be true. • Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} shows good metallic behaviour. • Structure relations to alkali, alkaline-earth and rare-earth metal amalgams can be established. • Complexity values for the RE{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure family were calculated. - Abstract: A plethora of binary and ternary intermetallic compounds has been assigned to the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type, crystallising in the hexagonal system (space group P6/m, a = 1264.30(18) pm, c = 933.58(11) pm for Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51}). Starting in the late 1960s, much work has been invested in the structural elucidation of these crystal structures. However, reliable single crystal data are scarce, and most structure type assignments have been performed merely on the basis of powder data. We have redetermined four representatives of the binary RE{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type (RE = Y, Ce, Gd, Tb) with modern high-precision single crystal X-ray methods. The assignment of the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type to space group P6/m was additionally verified by careful analysis of high resolution transmission electron micrographs. We emphasise the close relation of the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type to the structures of some recently described amalgams of similar composition focussing on disorder phenomena and structural complexity. Furthermore, we provide detailed information on synthesis as well as electrical and magnetic properties for Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51}, the parent compound of this structure family.

  12. Preparation of MAl O : Eu2+, Sm3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) Phosphors by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2007-10-15

    Oct 15, 2007 ... clearly show that most peaks are assigned to those of the MAl2O4 structure. Moreover, their structures change with change of M. Samples A and B exhibit monoclinic crystal systems and sample. C a hexagonal structure. The doping Eu2+ and co-doping Sm3+ have very little influence on the structure of the ...

  13. Preparation of MAl 2 O 4 : Eu 2+ , Sm 3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) Phosphors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of MAl2O4: Eu2+, Sm3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors was prepared by the combustion method, and the influence of these alkaline earth metals on the structure and luminescent performances for these phosphors was investigated. A relationship was established between their composition, crystallization capacity and ...

  14. Growth and scintillation properties of gadolinium and yttrium orthovanadate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, O.V.; Baumer, V.N.; Bondar, V.G.; Kurtsev, D.A.; Gorbacheva, T.E.; Zenya, I.M.; Zhukov, A.V.; Sidletskiy, O.Ts.

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to explore the possibility of using the undoped rare-earth orthovanadates as scintillation materials, we developed the procedure for growth of gadolinium (GdVO 4 ) and yttrium (YVO 4 ) orthovanadate single crystals by Czochralski method, and determined the optimal conditions of their after-growth annealing. Optical, luminescent, and scintillation properties of YVO 4 and GdVO 4 were discussed versus known literature data. Scintillation characteristics of GdVO 4 were determined for the first time.

  15. GD 358 - the demise of rotational splitting?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of GD 358 were obtained at the McDonald Observatory in 1982 and 1985 in order to determine its periods, stability, and rates of period change. The period structure could not be resolved, and the results indicate that GD 358 does not fit the rotational splitting model. It is suggested that if the changes in the amplitude spectra of GD 358 are due to beating of stable modes, then the number of modes must be large. 7 references

  16. Distinguishing a SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from SM Higgs boson ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson via Higgs boson pair production at future muon collider. We study the behavior of the production cross-section in SM and MSSM with Higgs boson mass for various MSSM parameters tan and A. We observe that at fixed ...

  17. Radiation characteristics of GD-2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.

    2008-01-01

    The assembly WWER-440 type Gd-2 has radial profile of enrichment and has 6 pins with Gd 2 O 3 . The maximal enrichment is 4.4%. Some analyses are done for assembly with flat enrichment (4.4%) and without Gd 2 O 3 . In this article are compared some characteristics (decay heat, some nuclide concentration, photon and gamma sources) for real Gd-2 assembly and for flat 4.4% assembly. The TRITON module (in SCALE 5.1) was used. (Author)

  18. Identification of 162Gd and a new type of identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E. F.; Gore, P. M.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Dodder, R. S.; Beyer, C. J.; Hwang, J. K.; Zhang, X. Q.; Kormicki, J.; Zhu, S. J.; Lima, A. P. de; Cole, J. D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Ma, W. C.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Daniel, A. V.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Asztalos, S. J.; Lee, I. Y.

    1998-01-01

    From γ-γ-γ coincidence measurements in spontaneous fission of 252 Cf, level energies were established to spins 14 + to 20 + in many neutron-rich nuclei. New isotope 162 Gd was identified. Yrast bands of 152,154,156 Nd, 156,158,160 Sm, and 160,162 Gd exhibit near-identical transition energies and moments of inertia (MOI) shifted by the same constant amounts for every spin state from 2 + to 12 + or 14 + for nuclei differing by 2n, 4n, 2p, 4p, α, α+2p, and α+2n. These shifted identical bands (SIB) are a new phenomenon. Analysis of all known even-even proton- to neutron-rich nuclei from Ba(Z=56) to Os(Z=76) reveal no SIB for proton-rich nuclei and few cases of SIB for the most neutron-rich pairs around N=98-102 separated by 2n and 2p

  19. Recent experiments at Brookhaven: level structure of N = 86 isotones 156Yb and 150Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyar, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    States of the N = 86 isotones 156 Yb and 150 Gd have been studied by means of the 144 Sm( 16 O,4n) 156 Yb, 113 In( 46 Ti,p2n) 156 Yb, and 124 Sn( 30 Si,4n) 150 Gd reactions. Levels have been established to spin 36 h-bar and over 12.5 MeV in excitation in 150 Gd and to beyond spin 25 h-bar in 156 Yb. The systematics of levels in the N = 86 isotones from 150 Gd to 156 Yb are described, and the near-spherical shell model description for states in this region to near spin 30 h-bar is discussed. A T/sub 1/2/ = 6 ns, 72-keV isomeric transition in 156 Yb has been discovered, and an E1 multipolarity is assigned to this transition. The spin-parity of the isomeric state is established as 11 - . 6 figures

  20. Magnetic and thermodynamic properties of GdCu4Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Aiman K; Tchokonté, Moise B Tchoula; Britz, Douglas; Sondezi, B M; Strydom, André M

    2015-01-01

    The results of magnetic susceptibility, χ(T), magnetization, σ(μ 0 H), and specific heat, C P (T), for GdCu 4 Au are presented. The room temperature powder X-ray diffraction studies indicate a cubic MgCu 4 Sn – type crystal structure with space group F4-bar 3m (No.216). The low field dc χ(T) data shows an antiferromagnetic – like (AFM) anomaly associated with a Néel temperature T N = 10.8 K for GdCu 4 Au. In the paramagnetic region above T N , χ(T) data follows the Curies – Weiss law with an effective magnetic moment μ eff = 7.444(1) μ B and paramagnetic Weiss temperature θ P = -15.01(2) K. The experimental value of is close to the calculated value of 7.94 μ B expected for the free Gd 3+ -ion. The field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) χ(T) data provide evidence for the formation of spin-glass state with a freezing temperature T f = 15 K. σ(μ 0 H) measured in the ordering region (below TN) shows that GdCu 4 Au undergoes metamagnetic transition above 0.7 T, characterized by a slight upward curvature above this field. Measurement of σ(μ 0 H) in the paramagnetic regions show a linear behaviour up to 0.7 T and a downward curvature at high fields. C P (T) data shows an AFM – like phase transition at T N = 10.4 K close to the phase transition observed in χ(T) results. The 4f-electron entropy reaches the value of Rln2 close to T N at 9.02 K and reaches the value of Rln(2J + 1) at T = 180 K

  1. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: Sm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moiety formula C59 H45 N2 O6 Sm. Sm (C14 H12 N2) ... 4.0 Ratio. PLAT234_ALERT_4_C Large Hirshfeld Difference O4 -- C24 .. 0.16 Ang. ... outliers and unusual parameters, but every test has its limitations and alerts that are not important.

  2. Structure of smAKAP and its regulation by PKA-mediated phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Pepijn P.; Bruystens, Jessica; Burnley, Rebecca J.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Keshwani, Malik; Wu, Jian; Janssen, Bert J. C.; Taylor, Susan S.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Scholten, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    The A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) smAKAP has three extraordinary features; it is very small, it is anchored directly to membranes by acyl motifs, and it interacts almost exclusively with the type I regulatory subunits (RI) of cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA). Here, we determined the crystal structure of smAKAP’s A-kinase binding domain (smAKAP-AKB) in complex with the dimerization/docking (D/D) domain of RIα which reveals an extended hydrophobic interface with unique interaction pockets that drive smAKAP’s high specificity for RI subunits. We also identify a conserved PKA phosphorylation site at Ser66 in the AKB domain which we predict would cause steric clashes and disrupt binding. This correlates with in vivo colocalization and fluorescence polarization studies, where Ser66 AKB phosphorylation ablates RI binding. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies confirm that the AKB helix is accessible and dynamic. Furthermore, full-length smAKAP as well as the unbound AKB is predicted to contain a break at the phosphorylation site, and circular dichroism measurements confirm that the AKB domain loses its helicity following phosphorylation. As the active site of PKA’s catalytic subunit does not accommodate α-helices, we predict that the inherent flexibility of the AKB domain enables its phosphorylation by PKA. This represents a novel mechanism, whereby activation of anchored PKA can terminate its binding to smAKAP affecting the regulation of localized cAMP signaling events. PMID:27028580

  3. Brillouin spectroscopy with surface acoustic waves on intermediate valent, doped SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, U.; Jung, A.; Wachter, P.

    1998-01-01

    Brillouin scattering on surface acoustic waves is a very powerful tool to determine the elastic constants of intermediate valent crystals, since the method is non-destructive and no mechanical contact is needed. A strong evidence for intermediate valence is a negative value of Poisson's ratio, which describes the behavior of the volume under uniaxial pressure. SmS by itself makes a semiconductor-metal transition at a pressure of more than 6.5 kbar. When substituting the divalent Sm by a trivalent cation, like Y, La or Tm, SmS can become - depending on the doping concentration - intermediate valent without any applied, external pressure. In this work, we will present measurements of the velocities of the surface acoustic waves and the calculation of the elastic constants of La- and Tm-doped SmS compounds. We found a clear dependence of Poisson's ratio on the doping concentration and on the valence of the materials. Furthermore, we will discuss the mechanism leading to intermediate valence when substituting Sm. Besides the internal, chemical pressure, which is produced by the built in trivalent cations with their smaller ionic radii, we have clear evidence, that the free electrons in the 5d band, induced by the substituting atoms, also play an important role in making doped SmS intermediate valent. (orig.)

  4. Preparation of Sm3H7 nanoparticles and their application in ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tong; Zhang Yaohua; Li Xingguo

    2006-01-01

    Sm 3 H 7 nanoparticles have been successfully produced by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction (HPMR) method, and then used to synthesize ammonia at 298 K and 1 atm. The morphologies of the Sm 3 H 7 nanoparticles before and after reaction were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, and the crystal structures at different steps by X-ray diffraction. Nessler's test was adopted to detect ammonia. It was found that the passivated Sm 3 H 7 nanoparticles possess polyhedron shape and smooth surface, with the average size of about 50 nm and the specific surface area 11.2 m 2 g -1 . It was proposed that Sm 3 H 7 nanoparticles react with oxygen and nitrogen to form ammonia, but ammonia production is not observable in the case of coarse particles. After ammonia synthesis, the morphology of Sm 3 H 7 nanoparticles changes into spongy surface and the mean particle size and specific surface area increase to 100 nm and 28.6 m 2 g -1 , respectively, due to the release of hydrogen. The hydrogen conversion percentage from samarium hydride is estimated to be 1.5%. Without O 2 , Sm 3 H 7 nanoparticles cannot react with N 2 or N 2 + H 2 at 298 K and 1 atm

  5. Evaluation of Radioisotope Production Process of 153Sm and 153Sm-EDTMP Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadarisman; Sri Hastini; Yayan Tahyan; Abidin; Dadang Hafid; Enny Lestari

    2007-01-01

    Experiments on the process of 153 Sm radioisotope and labeling of 153 Sm-EDTMP radiopharmaceuticals were carried out. This experiments included preparation of Sm 2 O 3 target, dissolution of post irradiation, determination of radioactivity concentration of 153 Sm radioisotope, radionuclide purity, EDTMP labeling, determination of radiochemical purity and pH. In these experiments the total radioactivity 153 Sm product is round about 2845.83 mCi to 36963.31 mCi, or with the radioactivity concentration between 474 mCi/ml to 6160.55 mCi/ml in the SmCl 3 solution form, each its volume is 6.0 ml, and the samarium content is 5.76 mg/ml, and the radionuclide purity of 153 Sm is 100 %. All of the 153 Sm- EDTMP radiopharmaceuticals product are fulfilled requirements the radioactivity concentration, Sm content, radiochemical purity and pH. The radioactivity concentration of 153 Sm-EDTMP radiopharmaceuticals is 37.50 mCi/ml (minimum) to 283.50 mCi/ml (highest). The pH 7.5 were 8 products, and the rest are pH 8.5. Radiochemical purity of 153 Sm-EDTMP are round about 90.00 % to 99.44 %. (author)

  6. Distinguishing a SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from SM Higgs boson at muon collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, Jai Kumar; Singh, Sardar; Nagawat, Ashok K.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson via Higgs boson pair production at future muon collider. We study the behavior of the production cross-section in SM and MSSM with Higgs boson mass for various MSSM parameters tanβ and m A . We observe that at fixed CM energy, in the SM, the total cross-section increases with the increase in Higgs boson mass whereas this trend is reversed for the MSSM. The changes that occur for the MSSM in comparison to the SM predictions are quantified in terms of the relative percentage deviation in cross-section. The observed deviations in cross-section for different choices of Higgs boson masses suggest that the measurements of the cross-section could possibly distinguish the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson. (author)

  7. Electron microscopic study on SrGdMnO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hiromi; Ishizawa, Nobuo; Kamegashira, Naoki; Zulhadjri; Shishido, Toetsu

    2006-01-01

    Single crystals of SrGdMnO 4 have been synthesized by the floating zone method. The structure was characterized as the K 2 NiF 4 -type, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Presence of weak reflections breaking the archetypal tetragonal symmetry was observed from the selected area diffraction (SAD). The compound was found to have an orthorhombic unit cell of a ≅ b = 0.532(4) nm, c = 1.271(6) nm, by taking the a and b axes along the diagonal directions on the basal plane of the tetragonal archetype. Structural change occurred around 1018 K. The weak reflections disappeared in the SAD pattern, suggesting that crystal is of the archetype above 1018 K

  8. Favored neutron excitations in superdeformed Gd-147

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theisen, C; Khadiri, N; Vivien, JP; Ragnarsson, J; Beausang, CW; Beck, FA; Belier, G; Byrski, T; Curien, D; deFrance, G; Disdier, D; Duchene, G; Finck, C; Flibotte, S; Gall, B; Haas, B; Hanine, H; Herskind, B; Kharraja, B; Merdinger, JC; Nourreddine, A; Nyako, BM; Perez, GE; Prevost, D; Stezowski, O; Rauch, I; Rigollet, C; Savajols, H; SharpeySchafer, J; Twin, PJ; Wei, L; Zuber, K

    1996-01-01

    Four new superdeformed (SD) bands have been observed in Gd-147 using the EUROGAM II spectrometer. By comparison with (146,148,149),Gd SD bands, we use the effective alignment to assign excited band configurations, with the support of the Nilsson-Strutinsky cranking formalism. The effect of the

  9. Modified chemical synthesis of porous α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbhar, V.S.; Jagadale, A.D. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, (M.S.) 416004 (India); Gaikwad, N.S. [Rayat Shikshan Sanstha, Satara, (M.S.) 415 001 (India); Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, (M.S.) 416004 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel chemical route to prepare α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films. • A porous honeycomb like morphology of the α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film. • An application of α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film toward its supercapacitive behaviour. - Abstract: The paper reports synthesis of porous α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films using modified chemical synthesis, also known as successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), wettability and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) techniques are used for the study of structural, elemental, morphological and optical properties of α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. An orthorhombic crystal structure of α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} is resulted from XRD study. The SEM and AFM observations showed highly porous α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} film surface. An optical band gap of 2.50 eV is estimated from optical absorption spectrum. The porous α-Sm{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film tuned for supercapacitive behaviour using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge discharge showed a specific capacitance and energy density of 294 Fg{sup –1} and 48.9 kW kg{sup –1}, respectively in 1 M LiClO{sub 4}–propylene carbonate electrolyte.

  10. Phase evolution and its effects on the magnetic performance of nanocrystalline SmCo7 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhexu; Song Xiaoyan; Xu Wenwu

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the phase constitution and the microstructure, as well as their effects on magnetic performance, were investigated systematically using a prepared nanocrystalline single-phase SmCo 7 alloy as the starting material for a series of annealing processes. The SmCo 7 (1:7 H) phase was discovered to have a good single-phase stability from room temperature up to 600 deg. C. The destabilization of the SmCo 7 phase results in the formation of the Sm 2 Co 17 (2:17 R) and SmCo 5 (1:5 H) phases, which exist as phase-transformation twins and particulate precipitates, respectively, with a completely coherent relationship with the 1:7 H parent phase. For the first time the formation mechanism of the 2:17 R phase-transformation twins has been proposed, in which the ordered substitution of 1/3 of the Sm atoms by Co-Co dumbbell pairs along two particular crystal directions was demonstrated. The characteristic width values of the 2:17 R phase-transformation twins, as deduced from this model of the mechanism, were unambiguously verified by the experimental results. Among the SmCo 7 alloys with various phase constitutions and microstructures, the best magnetic properties were obtained in the nanocrystalline 1:7 H single-phase alloys. The present work may promote a new understanding of nanoscale-stabilized single-phase SmCo 7 and its potential applications as unique high-temperature permanent magnets.

  11. Investigation of Gd compounds using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyszka, B.; Szade, J.; Burian, W.; Skorek, G.; Deniszczyk, J.; Sikora, M.; Zajac, D.; Kapusta, Cz.; Matteucci, M.; Bondino, F.; Zacchigna, M.; Zangrando, M.

    2005-01-01

    The electronic structure of ferromagnetic compound GdTiGe has been investigated using element sensitive methods-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). Additionally, another ferromagnet GdTiSi has been studied using XMCD. XMCD revealed a strong dichroic signal at Gd L 2 and L 3 edges, which can be related to polarisation of Gd 5d band. XAS at Ti L 2,3 edges has exhibited a structure which appeared to be in general agreement with the LAPW calculations. RIXS spectra have shown some resonance features for photon energies close to Ti L 2 and Gd M 5 edges

  12. Magnetism at the V/Gd interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouketo, L; M'Passi-Mabiala, B; Binggeli, N

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations into the magnetic properties of V/Gd bilayers have shown that vanadium, which is nonmagnetic in the bulk, can acquire a magnetic moment in such systems. We have performed ab initio pseudopotential calculations to examine the magnetic behavior of V(110)/Gd(0001) bilayers for V layers with thicknesses up to 4 monolayers (ML). We considered both abrupt and atomic intermixed V/Gd interfaces. In both cases, the magnetic moment of the V layer is found to align antiparallel to the moment of the Gd layer, consistent with the experimental observation. However, the magnitude of the V moment at the abrupt interface is considerably smaller than the moments reported experimentally. In the presence of atomic intermixing, instead, substantially larger V moments are found, closer to the experimentally reported moments. On the basis of the calculated atomic and spin resolved density of states, we discuss the possible mechanism responsible for the observed Gd-V antiferromagnetic coupling.

  13. Coercivity in SmCo hard magnetic films for MEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E.; Palomares, F.J.; Garcia, M.A.; Cebollada, F.; Hoyos, A. de; Romero, J.J.; Hernando, A.; Gonzalez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we have investigated the thermal dependence of coercivity in 1.5 μm thick SmCo 5 films fabricated by sputtering technique. Samples were deposited onto Si substrates kept at different temperatures. Samples grown below 450 deg. C are amorphous, present low coercivity and require further crystallization processes in order to obtain the 1:5 SmCo hard phase. Samples grown at 450 deg. C are nanocrystalline in the as-deposited state and exhibit high room temperature in-plane coercivity. Correlation between the thermal dependence of coercivity and the nanostructure has been analyzed in the frame of the so-called micromagnetic model

  14. Effect of Sr doping on structural and magnetic behavior of SmBa1-xSrxCo2O5+δ (x = 0 and 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Dhanasekhar, C.; Das, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    Layered double perovskite, SmBa1-xSrxCo2O5+δ (x = 0, δ = 0.5 and x = 1, δ = 1) samples were prepared by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction studies show that the SmBaCo2O5.5 sample crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal structure with Pmmm space group, whereas SmSrCo2O6 sample crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal structure with Pnma space group. The temperature dependent magnetization of the SmBaCo2O5.5 sample shows a paramagnetic (PM)-ferromagnetic (FM) and a FM-antiferromagnetic (AFM) transitions at TC = 267 K and TN = 221 K, respectively. In contrast, the SmSrCo2O6 sample shows a PM-FM transition at TC = 175 K. According to Goodenough-Kanamori-Anderson rules, the ferromagnetic behavior in SmSrCo2O6 can be understood from the super exchange interaction between the intermediate spin Co3+ and low spin Co4+ via O2- (IS Co3+ -O2- - LS Co4+). The change in magnetic entropy (ΔSMmax) is found to be maximum for the SmSrCo2O6 sample.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of SmCo-based magnetic films grown by electron-beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, P., E-mail: psdrdo@gmail.com [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Vinod, V.T.P.; Černík, Miroslav [Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovation, Department of Natural Sciences, Technical University of Liberec, Studentská 1402/2, Liberec 1, 461 17 (Czech Republic); Vishnuraj, R.; Arout Chelvane, J.; Kamat, S.V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Hsu, Jen-Hwa, E-mail: jhhsu@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-01

    Sub-micron thick Sm–Co films (200 and 300 nm) with selective phase composition are grown on Si (100) substrates by electron-beam evaporation using Sm-lean alloy targets such as Sm{sub 4}Co{sub 96} and Sm{sub 8}Co{sub 92}. The structural and magnetic properties of Sm–Co films are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and super-conducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The Sm–Co films obtained with the Sm{sub 4}Co{sub 96} target exhibit Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} as a prominent phase; while the films produced with the Sm{sub 8}Co{sub 92} target show Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 7} as a major phase. Both the Sm–Co films reveal granular morphology; however, the estimated grain size values are slightly lower in the case of Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 7} films, irrespective of their thicknesses. Coercivity (H{sub c}) values of 1.48 and 0.9 kOe are achieved for the as-grown 200-nm thick Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} and Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 7}-films. Temperature-dependent magnetization studies confirm that the demagnetization behaviors of these films are consistent with respect to the identified phase composition. Upon rapid thermal annealing, maximum H{sub c} value of 8.4 kOe is achieved for the 200 nm thick Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}-films. As far as e-beam evaporated Sm–Co films are concerned, this H{sub c} value is one of the best values reported so far. - Highlights: • Electron-beam evaporation was exploited to grow sub-μm thick Sm–Co films. • Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 7} and Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} magnetic phases were crystallized using Sm-lean alloy targets. • Both 200 and 300-nm thick Sm–Co films revealed distinct granular morphology. • Sm–Co films of lower thickness exhibited high H{sub c} and low M{sub s} and vice-versa. • Coercivity value of 8.4 kOe achieved for the 200-nm thick Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}-films after RTA.

  16. Characterization on the coatings of Ni-base alloy with nano- and micron-size Sm2O3 addition prepared by laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shihong; Li Mingxi; Yoon, Jae Hong; Cho, Tong Yul

    2008-01-01

    The coating materials are the powder mixture of micron-size Ni-base alloy powders with both 1.5 wt.% micron-size and nano-size Sm 2 O 3 powders, which are prepared on Q235 steel plate by 2.0 kW CO 2 laser deposition. The results indicate that with rare earth oxide Sm 2 O 3 addition, the width of planar crystallization is smaller than that of the Ni-base alloy coatings. Micron- and nano-Sm 2 O 3 /Ni-base alloy coatings have similar microstructure showing the primary phase of γ-Ni dendrite and eutectic containing γ-Ni and Cr 23 C 6 phases. However, compared to micron-Sm 2 O 3 /Ni-base alloy, preferred orientation of γ-Ni dendrite of nano-Sm 2 O 3 /Ni-base alloy is weakened. Planar crystal of several-μm thickness is first grown and then dendrite growth is observed at 1.5% micron-Sm 2 O 3 /Ni-base alloy coating whereas equiaxed dendrite is grown at 1.5% nano-Sm 2 O 3 /Ni-base alloy coating. Hardness and wear resistance of the coating improves with decreasing Sm 2 O 3 size from micron to nano. The improvement on tribological property of nano-Sm 2 O 3 /Ni-base alloy over micron-Sm 2 O 3 /Ni-base alloy coatings can be attributed to the better resistance of equiaxed dendrite to adhesion interactions during the wear process. In 6 M HNO 3 solution, the corrosion resistance is greatly improved with nano-Sm 2 O 3 addition since the decrease of corrosion ratio along grain-boundary in nano-Sm 2 O 3 /Ni-base alloy coating contributes to harmonization of corrosion potential

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of Gd{sup 3+} ion substituted magnesium ferrite nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkady, Ashraf S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Reactor Physics, NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Hussein, Shaban I. [Department of Reactor Physics, NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Rashad, Mohamed M., E-mail: rashad133@yahoo.com [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Helwan, Cairo 11421 (Egypt)

    2015-07-01

    Nanocrystalline MgGd{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} powders (where x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3) have been synthesized by the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-based sol–gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied in order to study the effect of variation of Gd{sup 3+} ion substitution and its impact on crystal structure, crystallite size, lattice parameters, nanostructure and magnetic properties of the formed powders. XRD indicated that, after doping and calcination at 400 °C for 2 h, all samples have two spinel ferrite structures namely cubic and tetragonal phases, which are dependent on Gd{sup 3+} ion concentration. The cubic phase is found to increase with increasing the Gd{sup 3+} ion molar ratio up to 0.1, compared to pure MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and higher Gd{sup 3+} content samples. Indeed, with increasing Gd{sup 3+} ion, the crystallite size was almost unchanged whereas the lattice parameter was found to increase. FT-IR spectrum showed broadening of the ν{sub 2} band and the presence of another band in the range (465–470 cm{sup −1}) upon adding Gd{sup 3+} ion, which confirm the presence of Gd{sup 3+} ion in addition to Fe{sup 3+} ion at octahedral site. Besides, these bands were assigned to the formation of (Gd{sup 3+}–O{sup 2−}) complexes at B-sites. HRTEM images showed that the studied samples consist of nanocrystallites having average particle sizes around 9 nm for pure MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} up to 27 and 42 nm for the Gd{sup 3+} ion substituted MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} of molar ratio 0.05 and 0.30, respectively. An examination of the magnetic properties revealed an increase in saturation magnetization with increasing Gd concentration incorporation up to x=0.1, as a result of the change of cubic and tetragonal spinel ratio and lattice parameters. Meanwhile, the formed powders exhibited

  18. SM-1 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenjun; Wang Jianzhen

    1987-01-01

    The working principle and characteristics of SM-1 Negative Ion Source is mainly introduced. In the instrument, there is a device to remove O 3 . This instrument can keep high density of negative ions which is generated by the electrical coronas setting out electricity at negative high voltage and can remove the O 3 component which is harmful to the human body. The density of negative ions is higher than 2.5 x 10 6 p./cm 3 while that of O 3 components is less than 1 ppb at the distance of 50 cm from the panel of the instrument. The instrument sprays negative ions automatically without the help of electric fan, so it works noiselessly. It is widely used in national defence, industry, agriculture, forestry, stock raising, sidelines and in the places with an equipment of low density of negative ion or high concentration of O 3 components. Besides, the instrument may also be used to treat diseases, to prevent against rot, to arrest bacteria, to purify air and so on

  19. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose for positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka, E-mail: babic@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Požek, Miroslav [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Jagličić, Zvonko [Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Makovec, Darko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica [Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-04-01

    Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of a few nm in size and their agglomerates dispersed in dextrose derived polymer template were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The produced nanosized material was investigated by TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, SQUID measurements and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by crystal violet and MTT assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities of water diluted Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle dispersions measured at the magnetic field of 1.5 T, estimated to be r{sub 1}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3})=9.6 s{sup −1} mM{sup −1} in the Gd concentration range 0.1–30 mM and r{sub 2}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3})=17.7 s{sup −1} mM{sup −1} in the lower concentration range 0.1–0.8 mM, are significantly higher than the corresponding relaxivities measured for the standard contrast agent r{sub 1}(Gd-DTPA)=4.1 s{sup −1} mM{sup −1} and r{sub 2}(Gd-DTPA)=5.1 s{sup −1} mM{sup −1}. The ratio of the two relaxivities for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles r{sub 2}/r{sub 1}=1.8 is suitable for T{sub 1}-weighted imaging. Good MRI signal intensities of the water diluted Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle dispersions were recorded at lower Gd concentrations 0.2–0.8 mM. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects at Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below. These properties of the produced Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in hydrothermally modified dextrose make them promising for potential application in MRI for the design of a positive MRI contrast agent. - Highlights: • Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose. • Magnetic moment per Gd{sup 3+} ion in the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs is much lower than that in the bulk. • The ratio r{sub 2}/r{sub 1}=1.8 for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs dispersions is favorable for T{sub 1}-weighted MRI. • Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs dispersions had good MRI signal intensity just at lower Gd concentrations

  20. Sm isotope composition and Sm/Eu ratio determination in an irradiated 153Eu sample by ion exchange chromatography-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with double spike isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.; Isnard, H.; Gourgiotis, A.; Stadelmann, G.; Gautier, C.; Mialle, S.; Nonell, A.; Chartier, F.

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of the research undertaken by the French Atomic Energy Commission on transmutation of long-lived radionuclides, targets of highly enriched actinides and fission products were irradiated in the fast neutron reactor Phenix. Precise and accurate measurements of the isotopic and elemental composition of the enriched elements are therefore required. In order to obtain the uncertainties of several per mil and to reduce handling time and exposure to analyst on radioactive material, the on-line coupling of ion exchange chromatography with quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been associated with the technique of the double spike isotope dilution. We present in this paper the results obtained on an irradiated sample of Europium oxide powder (enriched at 99.13% in 153 Eu). After irradiation of around 5 mg of Eu 2 O 3 powder the theoretical calculations predict the formation of several micrograms of gadolinium and samarium isotopes. In relation to the very high activity of the sample after irradiation and the very low quantity of Sm formed, the on-line ion exchange chromatography separation of Gd, Sm and Eu before Sm isotope ratio measurements has been developed for the quantification of the 152 Sm/ 153 Eu ratio. These on-line measurements were associated with the double spike isotope dilution technique after calibration of a 147 Sm/ 151 Eu spike solution. The external reproducibility of Sm isotopic ratios was determined to be around 0.5% (2 σ) resulting in a final uncertainty on the 152 Sm/ 153 Eu ratio of around 1% (2 σ). These on-line measurements present therefore a robust and high-throughput alternative to the thermal-ionisation mass spectrometry technique used so far in combination with off-line chromatographic separation, particularly in nuclear applications where characterisation of high activity sample solutions is required. (authors)

  1. Deep and shallow acceptor levels in solid solutions Pb0.98Sm0.02S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanov, H.A.; Rahimov, R.Sh.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the metal vacancies the energy levels of which take place between permitted energies of valency band, are the main acceptor centers in the led salts and solid solutions on their base. The aim of the given paper is founding of character of acceptor levels in single crystals Pb 0 .98Sm 0 .02S with low concentrations of charge carrier. The deep and shallow acceptor levels are found at investigation of Hall effect in Pb 0 .98Sm 0 .02S solid solution with character of low concentrations of charge carriers in crystals

  2. NMR measurements in milled GdCo2 and GdFe2 intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribuzy, C.V.B.; Guimaraes, A.P.; Biondo, A.; Larica, C.; Alves, K.M.B.

    1998-12-01

    We have used the nuclear magnetic resonance technique to study the magnetic and structural properties of the Gd-Co and Gd-Fe metallic systems, starting with the C15 laves phase intermetallic compounds, and submitting them to a high energy milling process. This leads to the amorphization of the samples, as determined by the X-ray diffraction spectra. For the Gd-Co system the NMR study used the 59 Co nucleus; in the Gd-Fe system, 155,157 Gd and 57 Fe were used. Both systems showed segregation of the pure elements, after a few hours of milling. In the Gd-Co system, a single line, of increasing width, was observed in the 59 Co spectrum. In the Gd-Fe system, the 155 Gd and 157 Gd resonances show three lines, arising from electrical quadrupole interaction. With increasing milling time, the lines broaden, and extra lines appear attributed to a cubic phase of Gd; this interpretation is supported by the X-ray analysis of the samples. The 57 Fe NMR spectrum of this system also informs on the direction of magnetization of the samples in the early stages of milling. From 1 h to 7 h of milling, a spectrum of α-Fe was observed. The study of the NMR line intensity as a function of radio frequency (r.f.) power in Gd Co 2 suggests the existence of regions of the samples with different degrees of disorder. We have observed the persistence of NMR signals from the original intermetallic compounds in the samples with up to 10 h and 7 h of milling, respectively, for Gd Co 2 and Gd Fe 2 . (author)

  3. Recent developments in melt processed Gd-123 and MgB2 materials at RTRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, M.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Suzuki, K.; Tomita, M.; Koblischka, M.R.; Yamamoto, A.; Kishio, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Large size Gd-123 bulk material grown in air, using novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. •Quality and uniformity of the Gd-123 materials are excellent. •Batch processed Gd-123 material was used for construction of chilled Maglev vehicle. •MgB 2 bulks can be utilized around 20 K similarly to the Gd-123 material at 77 K. -- Abstract: In this contribution we will report on the current status, recent developments in GdBa 2 Cu 3 O y “Gd-123” and MgB 2 material processing, characterization, and applications at the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI). Batch-processing of Gd-123 bulk material grown in air was performed using novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. In this way, we are able to fabricate materials with good quality, and uniform performance. We examined the technology of the uniform performance of the large 45 mm diameter, single grain Gd-123 bulks for use in application of NMR. For this purpose, four 5 mm thick pieces are cut vertically from a single grain Gd-123 material and the magnetic field distribution is measured using a scanning hall sensor. We found that all four pieces are single domain and exhibit a quite uniform field distribution. Furthermore, the batch-processed bulk materials are used for the construction of a chilled Maglev vehicle. On the other hand, to optimize the trapped field performance of bulk MgB 2 material, several samples were prepared by solid state reaction at different temperatures ranging from 750 to 950 °C in pure argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction results indicated that single phase and homogenous MgB 2 bulks are produced when sintering them around 775 °C. Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that an uniform grain size results by controlling the processing temperature. So, higher trapped fields can be achieved in sintered MgB 2 material

  4. Recent developments in melt processed Gd-123 and MgB{sub 2} materials at RTRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, M., E-mail: miryala1@rtri.or.jp [Railway Technology Research Institute (RTRI), Applied Superconductivity, Materials Technology Division, 2-8-38 Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Suzuki, K.; Tomita, M. [Railway Technology Research Institute (RTRI), Applied Superconductivity, Materials Technology Division, 2-8-38 Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Koblischka, M.R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, P.O. Box 151150, D-66041 Saarbrucken (Germany); Yamamoto, A.; Kishio, K. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-656 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Large size Gd-123 bulk material grown in air, using novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. •Quality and uniformity of the Gd-123 materials are excellent. •Batch processed Gd-123 material was used for construction of chilled Maglev vehicle. •MgB{sub 2} bulks can be utilized around 20 K similarly to the Gd-123 material at 77 K. -- Abstract: In this contribution we will report on the current status, recent developments in GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} “Gd-123” and MgB{sub 2} material processing, characterization, and applications at the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI). Batch-processing of Gd-123 bulk material grown in air was performed using novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. In this way, we are able to fabricate materials with good quality, and uniform performance. We examined the technology of the uniform performance of the large 45 mm diameter, single grain Gd-123 bulks for use in application of NMR. For this purpose, four 5 mm thick pieces are cut vertically from a single grain Gd-123 material and the magnetic field distribution is measured using a scanning hall sensor. We found that all four pieces are single domain and exhibit a quite uniform field distribution. Furthermore, the batch-processed bulk materials are used for the construction of a chilled Maglev vehicle. On the other hand, to optimize the trapped field performance of bulk MgB{sub 2} material, several samples were prepared by solid state reaction at different temperatures ranging from 750 to 950 °C in pure argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction results indicated that single phase and homogenous MgB{sub 2} bulks are produced when sintering them around 775 °C. Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that an uniform grain size results by controlling the processing temperature. So, higher trapped fields can be achieved in sintered MgB{sub 2} material.

  5. Structural evolution and electrical properties of BaTiO{sub 3} doped with Gd{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Lara, Juan Pablo; Perez Labra, Miguel; Barrientos Hernandez, Francisco Raul, E-mail: miguelabra@hotmail.com [Autonomous University of Hidalgo (Mexico); Romero Serrano, Jose Antonio; Hernandez Ramirez, Aurelio [Metallurgy and Materials Department, ESIQIE-IPN, UPALM, Zacatenco (Mexico); Avila Davila, Erika Osiris [Mechanical Engineering Department, Technological Institute of Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Thangarasu, Pandiyan [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2017-03-15

    BaTiO{sub 3} doped with Gd{sup 3+} (Ba{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x/4}O{sub 3}) was synthesized using the solid-state reaction method with x = 0.001, 0.003, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, and 0.35 Gd{sup 3+} (wt. %). The powders were decarbonated at 900 °C and sintered at 1400 °C for 8 hours. The tetragonality of the synthesized Gd{sup 3+}-doped BaTiO{sub 3} particles was analyzed. XRD patterns and Raman spectra revealed that the crystal phase of the obtained particles was predominately tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3}; the intensity of the Raman bands at 205 cm{sup -1}, 265 cm{sup -1}, and 304 cm{sup -1} decreased when Gd'3{sup +} was increased. A secondary phase (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}) was found when the Gd{sup 3+} content was higher than 0.15 wt. %. The capacitance of the sintering pellets was measured at 1 kHz; these values were used to calculate the relative permittivity, the maximum permittivity values were recorded for the samples with x = 0.001, 0.005, and 0.1. (author)

  6. The isotopic dating of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, G.; Cheilletz, A.

    1995-01-01

    The first part of this work deals with the answer to the question : why are the crystals dated ? Then, some isotopic dating methods are described : U-Th-Pb, K-Ar, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, fission traces, carbon 14 methods. Examples concerning emeralds and diamonds are given. (O.L.). 12 refs., 2 figs

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Chiral Dendrimer-Triamine-Coordinated Gd-MRI Contrast Agents Evaluated by in Vivo MRI and Estimated by in Vitro QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Miyake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we developed novel chiral dendrimer-triamine-coordinated Gd-MRI contrast agents (Gd-MRI CAs, which showed longitudinal relaxivity (r1 values about four times higher than that of clinically used Gd-DTPA (Magnevist®, Bayer. In our continuing study of pharmacokinetic differences derived from both the chirality and generation of Gd-MRI CAs, we found that the ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to circulate within the body can be directly evaluated by in vitro MRI (7 T. In this study, the association constants (Ka of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to bovine serum albumin (BSA, measured and calculated with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM in vitro, were found to be an extremely easy means for evaluating the body-circulation ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs. The Ka values of S-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs were generally greater than those of R-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs, which is consistent with the results of our previous MRI study in vivo.

  8. Polyethylene glycol-covered ultra-small Gd2O3 nanoparticles for positive contrast at 1.5 T magnetic resonance clinical scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Marc-André; Petoral, Rodrigo M., Jr.; Söderlind, Fredrik; Klasson, A.; Engström, Maria; Veres, Teodor; Käll, Per-Olof; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2007-10-01

    The size distribution and magnetic properties of ultra-small gadolinium oxide crystals (US-Gd2O3) were studied, and the impact of polyethylene glycol capping on the relaxivity constants (r1, r2) and signal intensity with this contrast agent was investigated. Size distribution and magnetic properties of US-Gd2O3 nanocrystals were measured with a TEM and PPMS magnetometer. For relaxation studies, diethylene glycol (DEG)-capped US-Gd2O3 nanocrystals were reacted with PEG-silane (MW 5000). Suspensions were adequately dialyzed in water to eliminate traces of Gd3+ and surfactants. The particle hydrodynamic radius was measured with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the proton relaxation times were measured with a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Parallel studies were performed with DEG-Gd2O3 and PEG-silane-SPGO (Gd2O3,DTPA and the r2/r1 ratio was 1.4. PEG-silane-SPGO gave low r1 relaxivities and high r2/r1 ratios, less compatible with positive contrast agent requirements. Higher r1 were obtained with PEG-silane in comparison to DEG-Gd2O3. Treatment of DEG-US-Gd2O3 with PEG-silane provides enhanced relaxivity while preventing aggregation of the oxide cores. This study confirms that PEG-covered Gd2O3 nanoparticles can be used for positively contrasted MR applications requiring stability, biocompatible coatings and nanocrystal functionalization.

  9. Electrochemical properties of composite cathodes using Sm doped layered perovskite for intermediate temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Wook; Azad, Abul K.; Irvine, John T. S.; Choi, Won Seok; Kang, Hyunil; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2018-02-01

    SmBaCo2O5+d (SBCO) showed the lowest observed Area Specific Resistance (ASR) value in the LnBaCo2O5+d (Ln: Pr, Nd, Sm, and Gd) oxide system for the overall temperature ranges tested. The ASR of a composite cathode (mixture of SBCO and Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-d) on a Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-d (CGO91) electrolyte decreased with respect to the CGO91 content; the percolation limit was also achieved for a 50 wt% SBCO and 50 wt% CGO91 (SBCO50) composite cathode. The ASRs of SBCO50 on the dense CGO91 electrolyte in the overall temperature range of 500-750 °C were relatively lower than those of SBCO50 on the CGO91 coated dense 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) electrolyte for the same temperature range. From 750 °C and for all higher temperatures tested, however, the ASRs of SBCO50 on the CGO91 coated dense 8YSZ electrolyte were lower than those of the CGO91 electrolyte. The maximum power densities of SBCO50 on the Ni-8YSZ/8YSZ/CGO91 buffer layer were 1.034 W cm-2 and 0.611 W cm-2 at 800 °C and 700 °C.

  10. Observation of dipole bands in 144Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, R.; Ganguly, S.; Kshetri, R.; Banerjee, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Mukherjee, A.; Sahasarkar, M.; Goswami, A.; Basu, S.K.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Mukherjee, G.; Chakraborty, A.; Ghughre, S.S.; Krishichayan; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Gangopadhyay, G.; Singh, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The nucleus 144 Sm (Z=62, N=82), with its proximity to the shell closure and possibilities of particles and holes occupying high j orbitals, following appropriate excitations, is a suitable system for observation of dipole (MR) bands

  11. Electrical characteristics of hybrid detector based Gd2O2S:Tb-Selenium for digital radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang-Sik; Park, Ji-Koon; Choi, Jang-Yong; Cha, Byung-Yul; Cho, Sung-Ho; Nam, Sang-Hee

    2005-01-01

    Fine Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb powders were synthesized by using a solution-combustion method for a high-resolution digital X-ray imaging detector. The PL spectrum showed that the phosphor was fully crystallized and that the Tb 3+ ions substituted well for the Gd 3+ sites. To investigate the X-ray response of the phosphor, a uniform Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb film was grown using a screen-printing method. The X-ray sensitivities of the 100 μm-Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb/30 μm -Se and 200 μm -Se detector were 470 and 420 pC/cm 2 /mR, respectively, at an electric field of 10 V/μm. The results of the study suggest that the hybrid detector has a significant potential in the application of digital radiography and fluoroscopy systems

  12. Air stability and magnetic properties of GdN, TiN, and (Gd,Ti)N nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Pingzhan; Choi, C. J.; Tegus, O.; Brueck, E.; Geng, D. Y.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2008-01-01

    GdN, TiN, and (Gd,Ti)N nanoparticles were prepared by arc evaporating Gd, Ti, and Gd-Ti alloys in N 2 , respectively. Most of these nanoparticles show narrow size distribution with average diameter of 20 nm. Shell/core structure was observed in the (Gd,Ti)N nanoparticles, in which the shell was formed by surface reaction with air. (Gd,Ti)N nanoparticles are more stable than GdN nanoparticles in air due partially to the formation of the protective shell. The Curie temperature of GdN nanoparticles is lower than that of the bulk GdN. Both GdN and (Gd, Ti)N nanoparticles are difficult to reach magnetic saturation and show zero coercivity

  13. Favored neutron excitations in superdeformed 147Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, C.; Khadiri, N.; Vivien, J.P.; Ragnarsson, I.; Beausang, C.W.; Beck, F.A.; Belier, G.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; de France, G.; Disdier, D.; Duchene, G.; Finck, C.; Flibotte, S.; Gall, B.; Haas, B.; Hanine, H.; Herskind, B.; Kharraja, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Nourreddine, A.; Nyako, B.M.; Perez, G.E.; Prevost, D.; Stezowski, O.; Rauch, V.; Rigollet, C.; Savajols, H.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.; Twin, P.J.; Wei, L.; Zuber, K.

    1996-01-01

    Four new superdeformed (SD) bands have been observed in 147 Gd using the EUROGAM II spectrometer. By comparison with 146,148,149 Gd SD bands, we use the effective alignment to assign excited band configurations, with the support of the Nilsson-Strutinsky cranking formalism. The effect of the crossing of the [642]5/2 and [651]1/2 neutron orbitals lying just below the magic N=86 SD shell gap has been investigated for the 146,147,148 Gd bands. Evidence for the [411]1/2 orbital is also given. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. The SM and MIR reactors operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuprienko, V.A.; Klinov, A.V.; Svyatkin, M.N.; Shamardin, V.K.

    1995-01-01

    The SM and MIR operation experience show that continuous work on the problem of ageing, in all its aspects, allows for prolongation of the research plant life cycle by several folds as compared to the initial project. The redesigned SM-3 reactor will operate for another 20 years. The similar result is expected from the MIR planned reconstruction which scope will be the topic of future presentations. (orig.)

  15. Formation of Gd coordination polymer with 1D chains mediated by Bronsted acidic ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Qianqian; Han, Ying [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Lin, Hechun, E-mail: hclin@ee.ecnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Yuanyuan; Duan, Chungang [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Peng, Hui, E-mail: hpeng@ee.ecnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China)

    2017-03-15

    One dimensional coordination polymer Gd[(SO{sub 4})(NO{sub 3})(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}SO){sub 2}] (1) is prepared through the mediation of Bronsted acid ionic liquid, which crystallized in the monoclinic space of C2/c. In this polymer, adjacent Gd atoms are linked by two SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions to generate a 1-D chain, and all oxygen atoms in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} groups are connected to three nearest Gd atoms in µ{sup 3}:η{sup 1}:η{sup 1}:η{sup 2} fashion. Gd, S and N from SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} are precisely coplanar. The planar is coordinated by a pair of DMSO molecules, which is parallel and linked by hydrogen bonding to form a three-dimensional supramolecular network. Magnetic susceptibility measurement of 1 reveals weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Gd (III) ions. It exhibits relatively large magneto-caloric effect with –ΔS{sub m}=28.8 J Kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for ΔH=7 T. - Graphical abstract: Coordination polymer Gd[(SO{sub 4})(NO{sub 3})(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}SO){sub 2}] was obtained mediated by Bronsted acid Ionic Liquid, which presents a 1-D chains collected by SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} groups. Magnetic susceptibility of the polymer reveals weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Gd(III) ions with the relatively large magneto-caloric effect of –ΔS{sub m}=28.8 J Kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for ΔH= 7T.

  16. Gamma ray irradiation characteristics of SM fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Ryuichi; Okano, Hiroaki; Hashiba, Keichi; Nakai, Hisanori

    1987-01-01

    1.3 μm range single mode (SM) optical fibers have been used for wide application of mainly long distance communication. At present, in order to realize the larger capacity and longer distance between relay points, the development of 1.5 μm range SM fibers of low dispersion and small loss has been actively promoted. As for the radiation withstanding property of SM fibers, report is scarce. The authors reported on the gamma ray irradiation characteristics of 1.3 μm range SM fibers, but since 1.5 μm range SM fibers are designed with the different structure from that of 1.3 μm fibers, it is necessary to evaluate from new viewpoint. In this report, mainly on the structure having triangular distribution, the effect that the manufacturing condition and the structural defects of glass exert on the gamma ray irradiation characteristics is described. The specimens were mainly dispersion shift type fibers (DSF), and for comparison, single window, double window and 1.3 μm SM fibers were examined. Co-60 gamma ray was irradiated, and the optical loss and electron spin resonance were measured. By low temperature and low speed drawing, the good result in the optical loss was obtained. The presence of oxygen at the time of sintering materials had no effect. The dependence of the ESR on the drawing condition was not very remarkable. (Kako, I.)

  17. Compensation scheme for online neutron detection using a Gd-covered CdZnTe sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumazert, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.dumazert@cea.fr; Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Boudergui, Karim

    2017-06-11

    The development of portable and personal neutron dosimeters requires compact and efficient radiation sensors. Gd-157, Gd-155 and Cd-113 nuclei present the highest cross-sections for thermal neutron capture among natural isotopes. In order to allow for the exploitation of the low and medium-energy radiative signature of the said captures, the contribution of gamma background radiation, falling into the same energy range, needs to be cancelled out. This paper introduces a thermal neutron detector based on a twin-dense semiconductor scheme. The neutron-sensitive channel takes the form of a Gd-covered CdZnTe crystal, a high density and effective atomic number detection medium. The background compensation will be carried out by means of an identical CdZnTe sensor with a Tb cover. The setting of a hypothesis test aims at discriminating the signal generated by the signature of thermal neutron captures in Gd from statistical fluctuations over the compensation of both independent channels. The measurement campaign conducted with an integrated single-channel chain and two metal Gd and Tb covers, under Cs-137 and Cf-252 irradiations, provides first quantitative results on gamma-rejection and neutron sensitivity. The described study of concept gives grounds for a portable, online-compatible device, operable in conventional to controlled environments.

  18. Inter-atomic bonding and dielectric polarization in Gd"3"+ incorporated Co-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, R.A.; Desai, S.S.; Patange, S.M.; Jadhav, S.S.; Jadhav, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    A series of ferrite with a chemical composition Co_0_._7Zn_0_._3Gd_xFe_2_−_xO_4 (where x=0.0 to x=0.1) were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern were used to determine the crystal structure and phase formation of the prepared samples. Scanning electron microscopy is used to study the surface morphology of the prepared samples. Elastic properties were determined from the infrared spectroscopy. Debye temperature, wave velocities, elastic constants found to increase with the increase in Gd"3"+ substitution. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of Gd"3"+ substitution and frequency. Dielectric constant decreased with the increase in frequency and Gd"3"+ substitution. Behavior of dielectric properties was explained on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization which in accordance with Koops phenomenological theory. Real and imaginary part of impedance was studied as a function of resistance and Gd"3"+ substitution. The behavior of impedance is systematically discussed on the basis of resistance-capacitance circuit.

  19. Time domain simulation of Gd3+-Gd3+ distance measurements by EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, Nurit; Feintuch, Akiva; Kuprov, Ilya; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2017-07-01

    Gd3+-based spin labels are useful as an alternative to nitroxides for intramolecular distance measurements at high fields in biological systems. However, double electron-electron resonance (DEER) measurements using model Gd3+ complexes featured a low modulation depth and an unexpected broadening of the distance distribution for short Gd3+-Gd3+ distances, when analysed using the software designed for S = 1/2 pairs. It appears that these effects result from the different spectroscopic characteristics of Gd3+—the high spin, the zero field splitting (ZFS), and the flip-flop terms in the dipolar Hamiltonian that are often ignored for spin-1/2 systems. An understanding of the factors affecting the modulation frequency and amplitude is essential for the correct analysis of Gd3+-Gd3+ DEER data and for the educated choice of experimental settings, such as Gd3+ spin label type and the pulse parameters. This work uses time-domain simulations of Gd3+-Gd3+ DEER by explicit density matrix propagation to elucidate the factors shaping Gd3+ DEER traces. The simulations show that mixing between the |+½, -½> and |-½, +½> states of the two spins, caused by the flip-flop term in the dipolar Hamiltonian, leads to dampening of the dipolar modulation. This effect may be mitigated by a large ZFS or by pulse frequency settings allowing for a decreased contribution of the central transition and the one adjacent to it. The simulations reproduce both the experimental line shapes of the Fourier-transforms of the DEER time domain traces and the trends in the behaviour of the modulation depth, thus enabling a more systematic design and analysis of Gd3+ DEER experiments.

  20. Thermal stability and magnetocaloric properties of GdDyAlCo bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, L. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Hui, X. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: huixd01@hotmail.com; Chen, G.L. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-01-25

    Gd{sub 56-x}Dy{sub x}Al{sub 24}Co{sub 20} (x = 16, 20 and 22) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) alloys with a diameter of 2, 3 and 3 mm, respectively, were prepared by using copper mold casting. These alloys exhibit higher values of the glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, and activation energy of the glass transition and crystallization, compared with those of other known rare-earth-based BMGs. A maximum magnetic entropy changes of 15.78 J/(kg K) is obtained in Gd{sub 40}Dy{sub 16}Al{sub 24}Co{sub 20}, which is the maximal among all the bulk metallic glasses, and is much larger than those of the known crystalline magnetic refrigerant compound Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 1.9}Fe{sub 0.1} and pure Gd metal. All the three BMG alloys have a broader temperature range of the entropy change peak, resulting in larger refrigerate capacities (RC) than those of conventional crystalline materials. The excellent magnetocaloric properties combining with high thermal stability make them an attractive candidate for magnetic refrigerants in the temperature range of 20-100 K.

  1. Development of a generic seed crystal for the fabrication of large grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y; Babu, N Hari; Cardwell, D A

    2005-01-01

    The critical current density, J c , irreversibility field, B irr , and magnetic field trapping ability of (LRE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors, where LRE is a light rare earth element such as Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd, are generally superior to those of the more common melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO). The lack of availability of a suitable seed crystal to grow large, single grain (LRE)-Ba-Cu-O superconductors with controlled orientation, however, has hindered severely the development of these materials for engineering applications over the past ten years. In this communication we report for the first time the development of a generic seed crystal that can be used to fabricate any rare earth (RE) based (RE)-Ba-Cu-O ((RE)BCO) superconductor in the form of a large single grain with controlled orientation. The new seed crystal will potentially enable large grain (LRE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors to be fabricated routinely, as is the case for YBCO. This will enable the field trapping and current-carrying characteristics of these materials to be explored in more detail than has been possible to date. (rapid communication)

  2. Influence of Sm{sup 3+} substitution on the mutiferroic effect in NdCrTiO{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, X.L., E-mail: xiaolongqian@shu.edu.cn [Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Fang, Y.F.; Kang, J.; Cao, S.X. [Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang, J.C., E-mail: jczhang@shu.edu.cn [Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The effects of Sm{sup 3+} substitution on the magnetic and electric properties of NdCrTiO{sub 5} are investigated by magnetization and polarization measurements. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that our samples are single phase with an orthorhombic crystal structure in the space group of Pbam. The DC magnetization study at an external field of 0.1 T reveals the variation of the anti-ferromagnetic transition temperature. The disappearance of the ferroelectricity–paraelectricity phase transition in Nd{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CrTiO{sub 5} indicates the suppression on the linear magnetoelectric coupling by Sm{sup 3+}. The disparate 3d−4f interactions between Sm and Cr potentially affect the mutiferroic effect in this system.

  3. Effects of Sm addition on electromagnetic interference shielding property of Mg-Zn-Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chubin [Chongqing University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Chongqing (China); Gannan Normal University, Jiangxi Provincial Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Ganzhou (China); Pan, Fusheng; Chen, Xianhua [Chongqing University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Chongqing (China); Luo, Ning [Gannan Normal University, Jiangxi Provincial Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Ganzhou (China)

    2017-06-15

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding of Sm-containing magnesium alloys in the 30-1500 MHz testing frequency range was investigated by coaxial cable method. The results demonstrated that Mg-3Zn alloys displayed the best electromagnetic shielding property. When 0.5 wt% of Zr was added for crystal grain refinement, the shielding effectiveness (SE) was apparently reduced. The addition of the rare earth element Sm in ZK magnesium alloys can improve the electromagnetic interference shielding of magnesium alloys. The main reason for the differences in electromagnetic interference shielding of magnesium alloys was the change in conductivity. The addition of Zr in Mg-Zn alloys can refine the grains and consequently improve the grain boundary area significantly. Therefore, the number of irregularly arranged atoms at the grain boundaries increased, decreasing the conductivity of magnesium alloys and leading to a decrease in the electromagnetic interference shielding. Following the Sm addition, the Mg-Zn-Sm phase was precipitated at the grain boundaries and in cores. The precipitation of Sm-containing rare earth phases could consume the solid-soluted Zn atoms within the Mg, resulting in an increase in electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding improvement. (orig.)

  4. Curie temperature rising by fluorination for Sm2Fe17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matahiro Komuro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine atoms can be introduced to Sm2Fe17 using XeF2 below 423 K. The resulting fluorinated Sm2Fe17 powders have ferromagnetic phases containing Sm2Fe17FY1(0Sm2Fe17FY2 (1Sm2Fe17, and α-Fe. The unit cell for Sm2Fe17 is elongated by the fluorination. The largest unit cell volume among the rhombohedral Sm2Fe17 compounds is 83.8 nm3, which is 5.8% larger than Sm2Fe17. The rhombohedral Sm2Fe17 with the largest unit cell volume is dissociated above 873 K, and fluorination increases Curie temperature from 403 K for Sm2Fe17 to 675 K. This increase can be explained by the magneto-volume effect.

  5. μ+ depolarization in AlGd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, S.; Brown, J.A.; Heffner, R.H.; Huang, C.Y.; Kitchens, T.A. Jr.; Leon, M.; Olsen, C.E.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The μ + depolarization rate in dilute AlGd alloys containing 50 and 450 atomic ppm Gd was measured in a transverse field of 80 Oe over the temperature range 6-300 K. For both alloys, Λ increased dramatically above 200 K, reaching values of 0.69 and 0.93 μs -1 , respectively, near room temperature. The results are interpreted as providing evidence for a thermally-activated trapping mechanism. (Auth.)

  6. X-ray diffraction studies on K3Gd5 (PO4) 6 between 20K to 1073 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevara, Samatha; Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Sastry, P.U.

    2016-01-01

    Complex inorganic phosphates have been of interest due to their diversified crystal chemistry depending on composition, preparation condition as well as external parameters like temperature and pressure. In addition varieties of complex phosphates have been considered as potential host matrices for immobilization of radioactive elements as well as for selective separation of ions from high level nuclear waste or heavy metal ion pollutants from environment. Temperature and/or pressure induced structural variations are often noticed in such type complex phosphates. In K 2 O-Gd 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 , a novel complex phosphate with K 3 Gd 5 (PO 4 ) 6 has been reported recently. In order to study the effect of temperature on crystal structure of K 3 Gd 5 (PO 4 ) 6 variable temperature XRD studies between 20 K to 1073 K were carried out and the results are presented herein

  7. Investigation on the elastic properties of Gd-Sc-Al garnet by the Mandelstam-Brillouin light scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharikov, E.V.; Zagumennyj, A.I.; Kitaeva, V.F.; Lutts, G.B.; Terskov, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Gd-Sc-Al garnet (GSAG) crystals grown from the melt with composition Gd 2.88 Sc 1.89 Al 3.23 O 12 , were investigated. The GSAG doped with chromium was also studied. The Mandelstam-Brillouin (MB) light scattering in the GSAG crystals was observed. The garnet elastic components were determined using the data on the MB component shifts, the products of the elastic constants by molar volume were calculated as well. The GSAG is elastically anisotropic. The doping addition introduction do not cause noticeable change in the elastic properties. The obtained values of elastic constants and their combinations for GSAG were compared with the data for aluminium and gallium garnets. The comparison has shown that the values of elastic constants for GSAG is closer to those for Gd-Sc-Ga garnet than to the corresponding values for the Y-Al one

  8. Influence of annealing and nitrogenation on structure and magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Sm-Fe powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresiak, A.; Kubis, M.; Mattern, N.; Wolf, M.; Mueller, K.-H.

    1998-01-01

    Sm-Fe-N compounds were prepared by mechanical alloying, subsequent annealing and nitrogenation. For crystal structure investigations of the non-equilibrium phases Sm 2 Fe 17+x and Sm 2 Fe 17+x N y , respectively, formed at the various annealing temperatures T A , XRD with following Rietveld analysis was used. For T A between 600 C and 750 C a modified hexagonal TbCu 7 structure (space group P6/mmm) was found in which the Fe(2c) site is replaced by the partially (1/3) and randomly occupied Fe(61) site. The approximated composition is SmFe 8.8-9.0 . The nitrogenated alloys crystallize in the same structure for 600 C A A ≤ 900 C a disordered modified Th 2 Zn 17 structure (space group R anti 3m) was found that is formed by introducing additional Fe (6c) and Sm(3a) positions. The degree of order of the Sm- and Fe-atoms in c-direction increases with increasing annealing temperature. The completely ordered stoichiometric Sm 2 Fe 17 structure could not be reached by annealing the ball milled elemental powders. The nitrided alloys already form this intermediate structure at T A = 750 C. The interstitial nitrogen occupies the 9e site. The estimated nitrogen content is higher in the hexagonal phases than in the rhombohedral phase. Optimum magnetic properties, in particular a coercitivity μ 01 H C = 3.7 T and a good squareness of the demagnetization curve, were obtained for T A = 750 C. Here we found a nitrogen content of y = 3 for Sm 2 Fe 17+x N y . (orig.)

  9. Investigation of spectroscopic properties and energy transfer between Ce and Dy in (Lu{sub 0.2}Gd{sub 0.8−x−y}Ce{sub x}Dy{sub y}){sub 2}SiO{sub 5} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzęp, A. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAS, Wroclaw (Poland); Martin, I.R. [Faculty of Physics, Universidad de La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Malta Consolider Team and Instituto de Materiales y Nanotecnología (IMN), Universidad de La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Głowacki, M. [Institute of Physics PAS, Warsaw (Poland); Ryba-Romanowski, W. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAS, Wroclaw (Poland); Berkowski, M. [Institute of Physics PAS, Warsaw (Poland); Pérez-Rodríguez, C. [Faculty of Physics, Universidad de La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Malta Consolider Team and Instituto de Materiales y Nanotecnología (IMN), Universidad de La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper we present results of spectroscopic investigations of single crystals with general formula (Lu{sub 0.2}Gd{sub 0.8−x−y}){sub 2}SiO{sub 5} codoped with x% of Ce{sup {sub 3}{sub +}} and y% of Dy{sup {sub 3}{sub +}} ions. Investigated materials exhibit strong optical anisotropy what can be easily observed in polarized absorption and emission spectra. Based on room temperature polarized absorption spectra calculations in framework of phenomenological Judd–Ofelt model was carried out. Intensity parameters Ω{sub t} were evaluated to be Ω{sub 2}=7.08 (±0.39), Ω{sub 4}=2.76 (±0.44), and Ω{sub 6}=3.36 (±0.21) [10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}] for sample doped with 1% of cerium and Ω{sub 2}=10.72 (±0.33), Ω{sub 4}=1.98 (±0.37), and Ω{sub 6}=2.11 (±0.18) [10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}] for sample doped with 3% of cerium. Influence of cerium admixture on Judd Ofelt intensity parameters is discussed. Value of experimental lifetime of {sub 4}F{sub 9/2} multiplet of Dy{sup 3+} ion in sample doped with 1 at% Ce is 0.5 ms (τ{sub rad}=0.45 ms), while for sample doped with 3 at% of Ce, experimental lifetime is 0.45 ms (τ{sub rad}=0.43 ms). Absorption bands located between 440 and 460 nm, can be utilized for optical pumping of material by GaN laser diodes. Intense and broad emission bands at 465–495 and 560–590 nm, with experimental branching ratio strongly depending on polarization, give high chance for obtaining white luminophore, due to appropiate mixing of blue and yellow luminescence. By means of a pump and probe experiment optical amplification was demonstrated in the codoped sample with 1 at% of Ce and 1 at% Dy at 575 nm corresponding to the emission of Dy{sup 3+} with a high net gain coefficient of 34 cm{sup −1}. Such high amplification was obtained under 359 nm excitation (at the maximum of intense absorption band of Ce{sup 3+} ions). - Highlights: • Influence of anisotropy on properties of LGSO: Ce, Dy crystals was investigated. • ET between Ce

  10. Diode-pumped thin-disk Nd:GdVO4 laser at 893 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y L; Fu, X H; Wang, A G

    2011-01-01

    We report for the first time a Nd:GdVO 4 laser operating in a continuous wave (CW) on the quasi-three-level laser at 893 nm, based on the 4 F 3/2 – 4 I 9/2 transition, generally used for a 912 nm emission. The use of a pump module with 16 passes through the crystal allowed the realization of a Nd:GdVO 4 thin-disk laser with 157 mW of CW output power at 893 nm. Moreover, intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) has also been achieved with a power of 23 mW at 447 nm by using a BiB 3 O 6 (BiBO) nonlinear crystal

  11. Evaluation of Gd and Gd{sup 159} as new approaches for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, I.; Neves, M.J., E-mail: nevesmj@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Grupo de Desenvolvimento de Radiofarmacos; Santos, R.G., E-mail: santosr@cdtn.br [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia em Medicina Molecular (INCT-MM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metal compounds have shown many biological activities and have been successfully used as anticancer agents such cisplatin. Actually gadolinium (Gd) complexed with a porphyrin Motexafin (MGd) has been investigated as redox-active compound for treatment of cancer. 1{sup 59G}d decays by beta emission with an energy of 970 keV and half-life of 18.59 hours. The de-excitation can be via gamma ray and internal conversion electron emission followed by auger electrons and x rays. Considering all of this 1{sup 59G}d could be a interesting radionuclide to be as a radio therapeutical agent. The aims of this works were to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Gd and 1{sup 59G}d on malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiform, the most frequent brain tumors which has a very poor prognosis. For this purpose, it was used human glioblastoma cell lines T98 (mutant p53) and U87 (wild-type p53) to investigate the cytotoxicity of gadolinium on cell metabolism by MTT assay and also morphological changes, chromatin condensation by DAPI assay and ROS generation. Gadolinium was able to decrease cell viability, the cells presented morphological changes like round shapes and blebs formation after cell treatment with 5x10{sup -6}M of Gd. Nuclear changing and ROS generation occurred in a dose dependent way indicating the cytotoxic effect of Gd. Treatment with 1{sup 59G}d increased all of changes observed with treatment with Gd. These results state for an additive effect of metal toxicity and radioactivity inducing ROS generation as the main mechanism of anti tumoral action of 1{sup 59G}d. The results obtained indicated that the radioactive analogues of Gd have increased cytotoxic effects and gadolinium can be a metal of choice for development of new drugs for cancer treatment. (author)

  12. Low-energy excitations of the correlation-gap insulator SmB6: A light-scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhus, P.; Cooper, S.L.; Fisk, Z.; Sarrao, J.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of Raman scattering studies of single-crystal SmB 6 for temperatures down to 4 K and in magnetic fields up to 8 T. At temperatures below T * ∼50K the electronic Raman continuum exhibits an abrupt redistribution of scattering intensity around a temperature-independent (open-quotes isobesticclose quotes) energy, Δ c ∼290cm -1 , reflecting the opening of a pseudogap which is larger than previously suggested by transport measurements. Additionally, the Raman response exhibits at least four well-defined excitations within the gap below T * . The field dependencies of some of these in-gap states are consistent with the expected g factor (g eff =2/7) for the Sm 3+ Γ 8 level, suggesting that these gap edge states are crystal-electric-field excitations of the Sm 3+ ion split by magnetoelastic coupling. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Magnetic anisotropy of (Sm, Y)2Fe17Ny compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.; Tegus, O.; Li, Q.A.; Tang, N.; Yu, M.J.; Zhao, R.W.; Kuang, J.P.; Yang, F.M.; Zhou, G.F.; Li, X.; Boer, F.R. de

    1992-01-01

    A study of the crystal structure and the magnetic properties, especially the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of (Sm 1-x Y x ) 2 Fe 17 N y compounds (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, 2 2 Zn 17 - or Th 2 Ni 17 -type structure as the original compounds. The Curie temperatures decrease from 750 to 700 K as x increases from 0 to 1. The anisotropy field decreases linearly with increasing yttrium content. The spin reorientation has been investigated by means of high field magnetization measurements, AC-susceptibility measurements and thermomagnetic analysis, combined with X-ray diffraction. The anisotropy constants K 1 , K 2 and K 3 were derived by a phenomenological analysis, using magnetization curves measured in high fields, applied perpendicular to the alignment direction of the powder samples. A tentative spin phase diagram of the series is presented. (orig.)

  14. Description and exploitation of benchmarks involving {sup 149}Sm, a fission product taking part of the burn up credit in spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anno, J.; Poullot, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Fouillaud, P.; Grivot, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    1995-12-31

    Up to now, there was no benchmark to validate the Fission Products (FPs) cross sections in criticality safety calculations. The protection and nuclear safety institute (IPSN) has begun an experimental program on 6 FPs ({sup 103}Rh, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 143}Nd, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 152}Sm, and {sup 155}Gd daughter of {sup 155}Eu) giving alone a decrease of reactivity equal to half the whole FPs in spent fuels (except Xe and I). Here are presented the experiments with the {sup 149}Sm and the results obtained with the APOLLO I-MORET III calculations codes. 11 experiments are carried out in a zircaloy tank of 3.5 1 containing slightly nitric acid solutions of Samarium (96,9% in weight of {sup 149S}m) at 0.1048 -0.2148 - 0.6262 g/l concentrations. It was placed in the middle of arrays of UO{sub 2} rods (4.742 % U5 weight %) at square pitch of 13 mm. The underwater height of the rods is the critical parameter. In addition, 7 experiments were performed with the same apparatus with water and boron proving a good experimental representativeness and a good accuracy of the calculations. As the reactivity worth of the Sm tank is between 2000 and 6000 10{sup -5}, the benchmarks are well representative and the cumulative absorption ratios show that {sup 149}Sm is well qualified under 1 eV. (authors). 8 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. High temperature-induced phase transitions in Sr2GdRuO6 complex perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana, C.A.; Corredor, L.T.; Landínez Téllez, D.A.; Roa-Rojas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Crystal structure, thermal expansion and phase transitions at high-temperature of Sr 2 GdRuO 6 perovskite has been investigated. ► X-ray diffraction pattern at 298 K of Sr 2 GdRuO 6 corresponds to monoclinic perovskite-type structure with P2 1 /n space group. ► Evolution of X-ray diffraction patterns at high-temperature shows that the Sr 2 GdRuO 6 perovskite suffers two-phase transitions. ► At 573 K the X-ray diffraction pattern of Sr 2 GdRuO 6 corresponds to monoclinic perovskite-type structure with I2/m space group. ► At 1273 K the Sr 2 GdRuO 6 perovskite suffers a complete phase-transition from monoclinic I2/m (no. 12) to tetragonal I4/m (no. 87). -- Abstract: The crystal structure behavior of the Sr 2 GdRuO 6 complex perovskite at high-temperature has been investigated over a wide temperature range between 298 K ≤ T ≤ 1273 K. Measurements of X-ray diffraction at room-temperature and Rietveld analysis of the experimental patterns show that this compound crystallizes in a monoclinic perovskite-like structure, which belongs to the P2 1 /n (no. 14) space group and 1:1 ordered arrangement of Ru 5+ and Gd 3+ cations over the six-coordinate M sites. Experimental lattice parameters were obtained to be a =5.8103(5) Å, b =5.8234(1) Å, c =8.2193(9) Å, V = 278.11(2) Å 3 and angle β = 90.310(5)°. The high-temperature analysis shows the occurrence of two-phase transitions on this material. First, at 573 K it adopts a monoclinic perovskite-type structure with I2/m (no. 12) space group with lattice parameters a = 5.8275(6) Å, b = 5.8326(3) Å, c = 8.2449(2) Å, V = 280.31(3) Å 3 and angle β = 90.251(3)°. Close to 1273 K it undergoes a complete phase-transition from monoclinic I2/m (no. 12) to tetragonal I4/m (no. 87), with lattice parameters a = 5.8726(1) Å, c = 8.3051(4) Å, V = 286.39(8) Å 3 and angle β = 90.0°. The high-temperature phase transition from monoclinic I2/m (no. 12) to tetragonal I4/m (no. 87) is characterized

  16. Nuclear magnetic relaxation and origins of RMN signals from GdAl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Oliveira Junior, I. dos.

    1988-12-01

    The intermetallic compound GdAl 2 crystallizes in the cubic Laves phase C15. It is a simple ferromagnet below 176K. The easy direction of magnetization in this compound is such that the Al ions are distributed among two magnetically inequivalent sites. The pulsed NMR technique was used to study the origin of the signals from these two sites and the nuclear magnetic relaxation. (author) [pt

  17. Superconductivity degradation in Gd-containing high temperature superconductors (HTSC) under thermal neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Kudrenitskis,