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Sample records for slum clearance

  1. Land Right Registration and Property Development for Poverty Eradication and Slum Clearance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Olaopin Olanrele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to unfold the implication of non-registration of land rights on the achievement of the poverty eradication and slum clearance targets of the United Nation's Millennium development goals in Nigeria. The paper is based on empirical survey of land holding in the outskirts of Ibadan city and the rural areas in Oyo State, of Nigeria. A case study research method was adopted and data were collected with the use of questionnaire survey and secondary data was also extracted from the state land registry office in respect of total cost of documentation of subsequent transaction on titled/registered land. The study found that ignorance and government insensitivity in addition to high cost and delay are among major constraints to land titling. Only a few opportune people can afford the land right formalization process and they do so when it becomes necessary. These unequivocally militate against the achievement of the poverty and slum eradication goals of the UN. The paper suggested simplification of the titling procedure, cost reduction, computerization and public enlightenment on the benefits of registered land right to facilitate efficient land right registration towards adequate housing for the citizenry.

  2. Touring the Demolished Slum?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Tore Elias Harsløf Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    slum tourism, the article attempts to answer this question by analyzing the case of the NGO, Salaam Baalak Trust. This NGO conducted slum tours for tourists from the global North in the interstitial spaces around New Delhi Railway Station until 2010, when the slum they used as an example of their work......What are the limits of the knowledge it is ethically viable to articulate about “slums,” in a political environment where slum demolitions are a weekly occurrence? By cross-reading Partha Chatterjee's theoretical discussion of the conditions of subaltern (self)representation with studies of global...... was suddenly demolished. To the NGO staff, this posed two mutually exclusive ethical demands: a) to represent slums so that the plight of their (sometimes displaced) inhabitants might be publicized and discussed and b) to hide slums from view so the state would have no incentive to remove them as a part...

  3. From Slum Clearance to Urban Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen; Jensen, Ole B.

    2002-01-01

    the physical and social living conditions in the cities, as well as discussing the actors and their interests behind these approaches. Thus the aim is to use the theory of planning dosctrine to investigate how Danish urban policy has changed historically, under different rationales and on behalf of different......The article explores the societal conditions under which the various approaches to Danish housing improvement and urban renewal have been exercised since the early part of the 20th century. In doing, so, the article analyses the specific approaches used by the Danish state in order to improve...... stakeholder interests and powers....

  4. Inspired by the Slum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratapchandran, Sarat

    2009-01-01

    An innovative learning technique that originated in a slum in India's capital, New Delhi, sets the stage for "Q&A" that is now the Oscar winning movie, "Slumdog Millionaire". In an interview, Dr. Sugata Mitra, the creator of this new educational pedagogy termed Minimally Invasive Education (MIE), explains how it can help…

  5. Urbanization and Slum Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Kai Hong

    2007-01-01

    The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

  6. Slum Upgrading and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Sverdlik, Alice

    2017-03-24

    Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.

  7. Children's health in slum settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Alon

    2013-10-01

    Rapid urbanisation in the 20th century has been accompanied by the development of slums. Nearly one-third of the world's population and more than 60% of urban populations in the least developed countries live in slums, including hundreds of millions of children. Slums are areas of broad social and health disadvantage to children and their families due to extreme poverty, overcrowding, poor water and sanitation, substandard housing, limited access to basic health and education services, and other hardships (eg, high unemployment, violence). Despite the magnitude of this problem, very little is known about the potential impact of slum life on the health of children and adolescents. Statistics that show improved mortality and health outcomes in cities are based on aggregated data and may miss important intraurban disparities. Limited but consistent evidence suggests higher infant and under-five years mortality for children residing in slums compared with non-slum areas. Children suffer from higher rates of diarrhoeal and respiratory illness, malnutrition and have lower vaccination rates. Mothers residing in slums are more poorly educated and less likely to receive antenatal care and skilled birth assistance. Adolescents have earlier sexual debut and higher rates of HIV, and adopt risky behaviours influenced by their social environment. We also know little about the consequences of this form of early childhood on long-term health-related behaviour (eg, diet and exercise) and non-communicable disease outcomes, such as obesity, heart disease and mental illness. Further attention to understanding and addressing child health in slum settings is an important priority for paediatricians and those committed to child health worldwide.

  8. Urban slum structure: Integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, KP; Seto, KC; Costa, F; Corburn, J; Reis, MG; Ko, AI; Diuk-Wasser, MA

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. ...

  9. Mucociliary clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Mortensen, Jann

    2014-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance has long been known to be a significant innate defence mechanism against inhaled microbes and irritants. Important knowledge has been gathered regarding the anatomy and physiology of this system, and in recent years, extensive studies of the pathophysiology related to lung...... pharmacological interventions on clearance rate, to study the importance of defective mucus clearance in different lung diseases or as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with recurrent airway diseases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology...

  10. Slums from Space—15 Years of Slum Mapping Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kuffer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The body of scientific literature on slum mapping employing remote sensing methods has increased since the availability of more very-high-resolution (VHR sensors. This improves the ability to produce information for pro-poor policy development and to build methods capable of supporting systematic global slum monitoring required for international policy development such as the Sustainable Development Goals. This review provides an overview of slum mapping-related remote sensing publications over the period of 2000–2015 regarding four dimensions: contextual factors, physical slum characteristics, data and requirements, and slum extraction methods. The review has shown the following results. First, our contextual knowledge on the diversity of slums across the globe is limited, and slum dynamics are not well captured. Second, a more systematic exploration of physical slum characteristics is required for the development of robust image-based proxies. Third, although the latest commercial sensor technologies provide image data of less than 0.5 m spatial resolution, thereby improving object recognition in slums, the complex and diverse morphology of slums makes extraction through standard methods difficult. Fourth, successful approaches show diversity in terms of extracted information levels (area or object based, implemented indicator sets (single or large sets and methods employed (e.g., object-based image analysis (OBIA or machine learning. In the context of a global slum inventory, texture-based methods show good robustness across cities and imagery. Machine-learning algorithms have the highest reported accuracies and allow working with large indicator sets in a computationally efficient manner, while the upscaling of pixel-level information requires further research. For local slum mapping, OBIA approaches show good capabilities of extracting both area- and object-based information. Ultimately, establishing a more systematic relationship between

  11. Creatinine clearance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum creatinine clearance; Kidney function - creatinine clearance; Renal function - creatinine clearance ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply ...

  12. Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain; Khan, Aklimunnessa; Kraemer, Alexander; Mori, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major cities. Therefore this study reported prevalences of cigarette and bidi smoking and their correlates separately by urban slums and non-slums in Bangladesh. Methods We used secondary data which was collected by the 2006 Urban Health Survey. The data were representative for the urban areas in Bangladesh. Both slums and non-slums located in the six City Corporations were considered. Slums in the cities were identified by two steps, first by using the satellite images and secondly by ground truthing. At the next stage, several clusters of households were selected by using proportional sampling. Then from each of the selected clusters, about 25 households were randomly selected. Information of a total of 12,155 adult men, aged 15–59 years, was analyzed by stratifying them into slum (= 6,488) and non-slum (= 5,667) groups. Simple frequency, bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. Results Overall smoking prevalence for the total sample was 53.6% with significantly higher prevalences among men in slums (59.8%) than non-slums (46.4%). Respondents living in slums reported a significantly (P slums (44.6%). A similar pattern was found for bidis (slums = 11.4% and non-slums = 3.2%, P slums as compared to those living in non-slums when controlled for age, division, education, marital status, religion, birth place and types of work. Division, education and types of work were the common significant correlates for both cigarette and bidi smoking in slums and non-slums by multivariable logistic regressions. Other significant correlates of

  13. General morbidity prevalence in the Delhi slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the sickness prevalence in the slums of a metropolitan city? Objectives: To estimate the morbidity prevalence with reference to a socio-economic and demographic perspective of the slum population of Delhi. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected by a two-stage random sampling method. In the first stage, slum locations were selected and in the second stage households were selected. Participants: Data were collected from 1049 households consisting of 5358 individuals′ information. Results: The overall morbidity prevalence is 15.4%. It is 14.7 and 16.3% for males and females, respectively but the differences are not statistically significant. The reported higher morbidity prevalence and the illiteracy status are significantly associated. Diseases of the respiratory system appear to be very high among slum dwellers. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the number of years of staying in the slum area, presence of a separate kitchen, type of house, it being Pucca or Kuccha, types of toilet pits or open defecation are the important environmental factors for the reports of higher morbidity patterns from the slum area.

  14. Slums from Space: 15 Years of Slum Mapping Using Remote Sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuffer, M.; Pfeffer, K.; Sliuzas, R.

    2016-01-01

    The body of scientific literature on slum mapping employing remote sensing methods has increased since the availability of more very-high-resolution (VHR) sensors. This improves the ability to produce capable of supporting systematic global slum monitoring required for international policy

  15. Contraceptive method choice among women in slum and non-slum communities in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochako, Rhoune; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Okal, Jerry; Askew, Ian; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-07-12

    Understanding women's contraceptive method choices is key to enhancing family planning services provision and programming. Currently however, very little research has addressed inter and intra-regional disparities in women's contraceptive method choice. Using data from slum and non-slum contexts in Nairobi, Kenya, the current study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with contraceptive method choice among women. Data were from a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among a random sample of 1,873 women (aged 15-49 years) in two non-slum and two slum settlement areas in Nairobi, Kenya. The study locations were purposively sampled by virtue of being part of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the association between the outcome variable, contraceptive method choice, and explanatory variables. The prevalence of contraceptive method choice was relatively similar across slum and non-slum settlements. 34.3 % of women in slum communities and 28.1 % of women in non-slum communities reported using short-term methods. Slightly more women living in the non-slum settlements reported use of long-term methods, 9.2 %, compared to 3.6 % in slum communities. Older women were less likely to use short-term methods than their younger counterparts but more likely to use long-term methods. Currently married women were more likely than never married women to use short-term and long-term methods. Compared to those with no children, women with three or more children were more likely to report using long term methods. Women working outside the home or those in formal employment also used modern methods of contraception more than those in self-employment or unemployed. Use of short-term and long-term methods is generally low among women living in slum and non-slum contexts in Nairobi. Investments in increasing women's access to various contraceptive options are urgently

  16. The Affective Negotiation of Slum Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Tore Elias Harsløf Mukherjee

    , India. Slum tours are typically framed as both tourist performances , bought as commodities for a price on the market, and as appeals for aid that tourists encounter within an altruistic discourse of charity. This book enriches the tourism debate by interpreting tourist performances as affective...... economies, identifying tour guides as emotional labourers and raising questions on the long-term impacts of economically unbalanced encounters with representatives of the Global North, including the researcher. This book studies the ‘feeling rules’ governing a slum tour and how they shape interactions. When...... the space of comfortable affective negotiation constituted by the guides? This book will be essential reading for undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers working within the fields of human geography, slum tourism research, subaltern studies and development studies....

  17. Slum, Development in Yogyakarta City 1970-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Slum, a dwelling that is statutorily unfit for human habitation, is still the big problem in, especially, cities of developing countries. This article highlights the development of slums in Yogyakarta City along 1970-2000, and it’s merely focused on spatial and socio-ecological development. The aims of the study is to analyze the distribution and development process of slum dwellings. Distribution of slum area is taken from interpretation of time-series aerial photos. The change of extent and distribution of slum is analyzed using Geographic Information System. To obtain the socio-economic characteristics of slum dwellers, the survey method is chosen. The respondent are selected randomly among head of household that represent each settlement units. Quality of settlement are determined by total score of 15 selected variables. The result shows that the first category of slum was increased 74.4 hectares from year 1970 to 2000, the second category was increased 47.6 hectares, and the third was 131.1 hectares. Nevertheless, the process of slum development in Yogyakarta City includes in "continuous" type, which slowly and long period of creation. Densification and aging process is two of the main causes of slum expansion. Distribution of slum unit were driven by rivers that next to city center. According to this research, it’s found out that the slum dwellers are characterized by the new migrant who had low income and education, working in the informal sector, and renting the house.

  18. Urban slum structure: integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Kathryn P; Seto, Karen C; Costa, Federico; Corburn, Jason; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2013-10-20

    The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading.

  19. All slums are not equal: Maternal health conditions among two urban slum dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfia Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women inhabiting urban slums are a "high risk" group with limited access to health facilities. Hazardous maternal health practices are rampant in slum areas. Barriers to utilization of health services are well documented. Slums in the same city may differ from one another in their health indicators and service utilization rates. The study examines whether hazardous maternal care practices exist in and whether there are differences in the utilization rates of health services in two different slums. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two urban slums of Aligarh city (Uttar Pradesh, India. House-to-house survey was conducted and 200 mothers having live births in the study period were interviewed. The outcome measures were utilization of antenatal care, natal care, postnatal care, and early infant feeding practices. Rates of hazardous health practices and reasons for these practices were elicited. Results: Hazardous maternal health practices were common. At least one antenatal visit was accepted by a little more than half the mothers, but delivery was predominantly home based carried out under unsafe conditions. Important barriers to utilization included family tradition, financial constraints, and rude behavior of health personnel in hospitals. Significant differences existed between the two slums. Conclusion: The fact that barriers to utilization at a local level may differ significantly between slums must be recognized, identified, and addressed in the district level planning for health. Empowerment of slum communities as one of the stakeholders can lend them a stronger voice and help improve access to services.

  20. Hypertension in a Brazilian urban slum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Alon; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Snyder, Robert E; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Mohr, Sharif; Costa, Vinícius B A; Melendez, Astrid X T O; Reis, Renato B; Santana, Francisco S; Riley, Lee W; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2015-06-01

    Low- and middle-income countries account for the majority of hypertension disease burden. However, little is known about the distribution of this illness within subpopulations of these countries, particularly among those who live in urban informal settlements. A cross-sectional hypertension survey was conducted in 2003 among 5649 adult residents of a slum settlement in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Hypertension was defined as either an elevated arterial systolic (≥140 mmHg) or diastolic (≥90 mmHg) blood pressure. Sex-specific multivariable models of systolic blood pressure were constructed to identify factors associated with elevated blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in the population 18 years and older was 21% (1162/5649). Men had 1.2 times the risk of hypertension compared with women (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.05, 1.36). Increasing age and lack of any schooling, particularly for women, were also significantly associated with elevated blood pressure (p slum community was lower than reported frequencies in the non-slum population of Brazil and Salvador, yet both disease awareness and treatment frequency were low. Further research on hypertension and other chronic non-communicable diseases in slum populations is urgently needed to guide prevention and treatment efforts in this growing population.

  1. Effect of modelling slum populations on influenza spread in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangzhuo; Chu, Shuyu; Chungbaek, Youngyun; Khan, Maleq; Kuhlman, Christopher; Marathe, Achla; Mortveit, Henning; Vullikanti, Anil; Xie, Dawen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research studies the impact of influenza epidemic in the slum and non-slum areas of Delhi, the National Capital Territory of India, by taking proper account of slum demographics and residents’ activities, using a highly resolved social contact network of the 13.8 million residents of Delhi. Methods An SEIR model is used to simulate the spread of influenza on two different synthetic social contact networks of Delhi, one where slums and non-slums are treated the same in terms of their demographics and daily sets of activities and the other, where slum and non-slum regions have different attributes. Results Differences between the epidemic outcomes on the two networks are large. Time-to-peak infection is overestimated by several weeks, and the cumulative infection rate and peak infection rate are underestimated by 10–50%, when slum attributes are ignored. Conclusions Slum populations have a significant effect on influenza transmission in urban areas. Improper specification of slums in large urban regions results in underestimation of infections in the entire population and hence will lead to misguided interventions by policy planners. PMID:27687898

  2. The Impact of Growth and Development of Slums on the Health Status and Health Awareness of Slum Dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabrez Uz Zaman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To understand and describe how the growth and development of slums in Guwahati, Assam influence the living conditions affect the health status of slum dwellers. Methods: A comprehensive literature review of 44 articles published during 1993 to 2016 in various databases computerized databases, hand searches, and authoritative texts was undertaken to reveal the inter-disciplinary character of the topic. The inclusion criteria for this study were to select items having scientific quality and were aligned with the objective of the study. Items were excluded if they were irrelevant to the slum areas, redundant and lacked scientific quality. Results: It is equally necessary to make sure that the health policies consider the importance of equity and social justice in slum areas. The nutritional condition of school going slum children and prevalence of diarrhea are issues to be taken care of. It was noted that the level of health awareness in Assam was less compared to the national level and the slum dwellers didn’t know how to avail these healthcare facilities. This was a barrier in improving their health status. Conclusion: We should nurture the aim to create a slum free society by providing proper housing, sanitation, safe drinking water, and affordable healthcare services. Special focus on the nutritional condition of slum children; maternal and child health in the slum areas of Assam is urgently required. Health and education must go hand in hand to uplift the lives of these slum dwellers.

  3. Slum population in India: Extent and policy response

    OpenAIRE

    Upinder Sawhney

    2013-01-01

    An increasing pace of urbanization and the absence of affordable housing has resulted in growth of slums in urban India. The Government of India (GOI) has been incorporating certain programmes to alleviate poverty , create employment opportunities and encourage planned urban development in its public policy , yet there has been a fast emergence of slums in the Indian cities due to a number of factors. The present paper aims to analyze certain demographic attributes of the slum population in I...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast ... Facebook Twitter ...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall ...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage ... LEGACY GIFT Sponsor a Participant CF Climb CF Cycle for Life Great Strides Xtreme Hike Participate In ...

  10. Lung mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, J.; Lange, P.; Nyboe, J.; Groth, S.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mucociliary clearance and mucociliary clearance reserve capacity as determined by β 2 -adrenergic agonist-induced increase in mucociliary clearance. We studied 62 healthy females (n=33) and males (n=29). Their ages ranged evenly between 18 and 84 years. Fifty-three of the subjects were life-long non-smokers, while nine were ex-smokers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that mucociliary clearance was significantly faster when the radioaerosol was deposited in the central airways than when it was deposited in the peripheral airways, and faster in life-long non-smokers than in ex-smokers. There was no influence of age, and no convincing association with sex. The variation was less within than between subjects. Mean mucociliary clearance reserve capacity was 21.3% (SD: 10.0%, P 2 agonist-induced increase in lung mucociliary clearance was significantly larger (P<0.05) than the stimulation which has previously been reported in patients with asthma, bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis. The signal-to-noise ratio of the mucociliary clearance reserve capacity in relation to measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance indicates that measurement of mucociliary clearance reserve capacity may be a more efficient means of distinguishing between ''normal'' and ''abnormal'' mucociliary clearance than single measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance. (orig.)

  11. Survey-based socio-economic data from slums in Bangalore, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Debraj; Palavalli, B.; Menon, Niveditha; King, Robin; Pfeffer, K.; Lees, Michael Harold; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    In 2010, an estimated 860 million people were living in slums worldwide, with around 60 million added to the slum population between 2000 and 2010. In 2011, 200 million people in urban Indian households were considered to live in slums. In order to address and create slum development programmes and

  12. Slum upgrading in developing countries: lessons from Ghana and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper identifies common elements in the upgrading programmes in the literature. It assesses two slum upgrading projects from Ghana and Kenya to determine how the elements were factored into the projects' implementation. The article concludes that stakeholders involved in slum upgrading in Africa should consider ...

  13. Rapid urbanisation and slum upgrading : what can land surveyors do?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at understanding the domain of rapid urbanisation and slum upgrading. Therefore it collects facts in order to clarify the status quo. The paper highlights relevant aspects, such as development of new forms of spatial planning, modern slum upgrading methods, provision of security to

  14. Maximising on Strategic Partnerships for Eradicating Slums and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To mitigate the growth of slums in the country, there is a need to implement and practice urban innovative approaches and strategies based on sustainability thinking. This paper proposes and recommends the collaboration of all urban development stakeholders in the national urban development process to eradicate slums ...

  15. A participatory GIS approach to spatial modeling for slum upgrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most prominent problem of rapid urbanism in Harare is the development of slums and Epworth is a notable example. The quality of planning and decision making in the participatory slum upgrading initiative can be sustainably improved by well managed processes of spatial and socio-economic data collection. More so ...

  16. Theorizing slum tourism: performing, negotiating and transforming inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.

    2012-01-01

    This Exploration focuses on the emerging field of slum tourism research, which has the poten- tial to connect Latin American and Caribbean studies on tourism and urban inequality. Slum tourism involves transforming poverty, squalor and violence into a tourism product. Drawing on both altruism and

  17. Slum upgrading in developing countries: lessons from Ghana and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proliferation of slums in many cities of the developing countries has ... slum upgrading in Ghana and Kenya as model examples to make a case for .... improvement in housing, and still others, infrastructural development. ..... Class Summer Research Report), City and Regional Planning: International and Area Studies.

  18. Analyzing sanitation characteristics in the urban slums of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.C.; Tukahirwa, J.; Mgana, S.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban slums in East Africa exhibit deplorable sanitary conditions. Despite (inter)national efforts, slum sanitation provision remains inadequate and the projected population growth forecasts a worsening of this crisis. The core of the problem is that available knowledge about the local feasibility

  19. Circular migration patterns and determinants in Nairobi slum settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien Beguy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures migration flows and determinants in two slum settlements in Nairobi City between 2003 and 2007. The results confirm the high intensity of migration with a quarter of the total slum population and a third of those aged 15-30 being renewed annually. A circular migration system is at play whereby the majority of slum dwellers are short-term migrants spending on average less than 3 years in the area. Migration is more intense during early adulthood (20-24, and despite very similar determinants across gender, mobility is more intense among women compared to men. The increasing feminization of migration is likely to change the face of slum settlements, resulting in more balanced sex ratios, in line with city-wide trends in Nairobi over the past half century. The high population turnover is due to the insecurity of livelihoods, tenure, and poor basic amenities and social services in slum settlements.

  20. Comparative prevalence of otitis media in children living in urban slums, non-slum urban and rural areas of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Shelly K; Gulati, Kriti; Garg, Suneela; Agarwal, Arun K

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence and profile of otitis media in different parts of a city, i.e. non-slum urban areas, urban slums and rural areas. A door to door survey was conducted in identified areas of Delhi. A total of 3000 children (0-15 years) were randomly selected and examined for presence of otitis media. These children were equally distributed in the three areas under consideration. Data was analyzed to establish the prevalence of different types of otitis media. Chi-square test was then applied to compare disease prevalence among the three areas. 7.1% of the study population was identified with otitis media, which includes CSOM (4.26%), OME (2.5%) and ASOM (0.4%). In the non-slum urban parts of the city, 4.6% children had otitis media. This was significantly lower compared to 7% children in rural parts of Delhi and 9.9% in urban slums of the city. The prevalence of CSOM was considerably higher in slum areas (7.2%) as compared with rural (3%) and non-slum urban areas (2.6%). Ear infections are significantly more common in urban slums as compared to non-slum city areas and rural parts of Delhi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Slum Tourism: Developments in a young field of interdisciplinary tourism research

    OpenAIRE

    Frenzel, F.; Koens, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Special Issue on slum tourism with a reflection on the state of the art on this new area of tourism research. After a review of the literature we discuss the breadth of research that was presented at the conference 'Destination Slum', the first international conference on slum tourism. Identifying various dimensions, as well as similarities and differences, in slum tourism in different parts of the world, we contest that slum tourism has evolved from being practised ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Therapeutics Development Network TDN Coordinating Center Study Services Working With the TDN Tools and Resources ...

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    Full Text Available ... 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Therapeutics Development Network TDN Coordinating Center ...

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    Full Text Available ... Research Consortia CF Biomarker Consortium CFTR 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ...

  5. Security Clearance Tracking System

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    National Archives and Records Administration — SCTS supports the adjudication process of private background investigations and clearances for potential employees, contractors, interns and student workers.

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Team Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

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    Full Text Available ... and Their Families When There's More Than One Person With CF in the Same School Daily Life ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  8. Environmental assessment in slum improvement programs: Some evidence from a study on infrastructure projects in two Dhaka slums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Farhat Jahan; Amin, A.T.M. Nurul

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study on slum improvement projects to show the difference that environmental assessment (EA) can make in such interventions and to suggest mechanisms for its integration into such projects. The findings are based on a field survey that was carried out in two slums of Dhaka where infrastructure projects were implemented. In one slum, the EA process was considered in designing and locating infrastructure and in the other it was not. The survey results traced the severe problems that existed in both slums before the implementation of infrastructure improvement projects and reveal that after the intervention the situation has considerably improved in the slum where EA was conducted. In contrast, some problems still persist in the other slum where EA was not considered. To make it worse, the newly built infrastructures have even given rise to a set of new problems. In order to avoid such negative outcomes from development interventions, the paper finally develops the mechanism for integration of EA into slum improvement project

  9. Urbanization and Condition of Urban Slums in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digambar Abaji Chimankar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempted to study the urbanization in India and condition of urban slums in terms of water, sanitation, electricity, garbage collection and health care, and education which are supposed to be basic minimum needs for the slum dwellers. India is going through the process of rapid urbanization because of industrialization like other third world countries.  The percent of urbanization increase from 27.8 percent in 2001 to 31.1 percent in 2011 census. The increase in the percentage of population in urban areas is because of natural growth, rural to urban migration and the reclassification of village and towns. The share of the slum population in the total urban population of the country was 18.3 percent in 2001 while in 2011 it was 17.4 percent. The condition of urban slums in India is to be improved so as to make them better for living.

  10. Challenges in managing and sustaining urban slum health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in managing and sustaining urban slum health programmes in Kenya. ... These were hardly implemented in the projects, according to the data gathered. ... Conclusion: Land and income were big issues according to the responses.

  11. Migration and labour characteristics of slum dwellers in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, V

    1994-03-01

    This article presents a description of the migration and labor force characteristics of a sample of Bombay households in three slum areas. Interviews were conducted among 135 households in 1989. Slum areas were both similar and different from one another. Wadala slum had a large migrant population and a more integrated community structure. Slum dwellers tended to retain assets at their place of origin and were from agricultural areas in south Maharashtra. A greater proportion had close kin living in Wadala. Slum dwellers tended to be better-educated, formal-sector workers. Worli slum was less affluent and less close-knit. Migrants were mostly external migrants from Uttar and Andhra Pradesh. Kurla slum was the oldest slum area and had mixed traits. Kin interaction was voluntary and selective and flexible. The decision to return was unrelated to years spent in Bombay. Survey findings indicate that all areas had roughly equal proportions of internal and external migrants. Villagers migrated to cities due to unemployment in villages and the opportunity for social mobility and better employment. This analysis indicates that community-based politics were more influenced by state concerns than by the attributes of settlers or settlement types. State policies and market forces constrained poor people's housing options. The cost of urban housing and amenities rises as population density increases. The demand in urban areas for public services, housing, and infrastructure increases due to expanding populations, inadequate and deteriorating facilities, and social pressures. Governments are constrained by high debt levels and inadequate revenues. National agencies may be inefficient in the provision of services and infrastructure. There is growing pressure on international donors and developing country governments to reexamine the role of the private sector in financing and providing services and infrastructure.

  12. Survey-based socio-economic data from slums in Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debraj; Palavalli, Bharath; Menon, Niveditha; King, Robin; Pfeffer, Karin; Lees, Michael; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2018-01-01

    In 2010, an estimated 860 million people were living in slums worldwide, with around 60 million added to the slum population between 2000 and 2010. In 2011, 200 million people in urban Indian households were considered to live in slums. In order to address and create slum development programmes and poverty alleviation methods, it is necessary to understand the needs of these communities. Therefore, we require data with high granularity in the Indian context. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of highly granular data at the level of individual slums. We collected the data presented in this paper in partnership with the slum dwellers in order to overcome the challenges such as validity and efficacy of self reported data. Our survey of Bangalore covered 36 slums across the city. The slums were chosen based on stratification criteria, which included geographical location of the slum, whether the slum was resettled or rehabilitated, notification status of the slum, the size of the slum and the religious profile. This paper describes the relational model of the slum dataset, the variables in the dataset, the variables constructed for analysis and the issues identified with the dataset. The data collected includes around 267,894 data points spread over 242 questions for 1,107 households. The dataset can facilitate interdisciplinary research on spatial and temporal dynamics of urban poverty and well-being in the context of rapid urbanization of cities in developing countries.

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway ... on their own. Share Facebook Twitter Email More options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ...

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  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  13. Household transmission of leptospira infection in urban slum communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elves A P Maciel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonotic disease, is the cause of epidemics associated with high mortality in urban slum communities. Infection with pathogenic Leptospira occurs during environmental exposures and is traditionally associated with occupational risk activities. However, slum inhabitants reside in close proximity to environmental sources of contamination, suggesting that transmission during urban epidemics occurs in the household environment.A survey was performed to determine whether Leptospira infection clustered within households located in slum communities in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Hospital-based surveillance identified 89 confirmed cases of leptospirosis during an outbreak. Serum samples were obtained from members of 22 households with index cases of leptospirosis and 52 control households located in the same slum communities. The presence of anti-Leptospira agglutinating antibodies was used as a marker for previous infection. In households with index cases, 22 (30% of 74 members had anti-Leptospira antibodies, whereas 16 (8% of 195 members from control households had anti-Leptospira antibodies. Highest titres were directed against L. interrogans serovars of the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup in 95% and 100% of the subjects with agglutinating antibodies from case and control households, respectively. Residence in a household with an index case of leptospirosis was associated with increased risk (OR 5.29, 95% CI 2.13-13.12 of having had a Leptospira infection. Increased infection risk was found for all age groups who resided in a household with an index case, including children <15 years of age (P = 0.008.This study identified significant household clustering of Leptospira infection in slum communities where recurrent epidemics of leptospirosis occur. The findings support the hypothesis that the household environment is an important transmission determinant in the urban slum setting. Prevention therefore needs to target

  14. Health status of people of slums in Nairobi, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, Gabriel; Mulumba, J.A.A.; Juma, Olivia; Kakosova, Beatrica

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the health status of people living in the slums of Nairobi. It was designed as a cross-sectional study based on data from visitors at a clinic at Trnava University located in Mukuru slum in Nairobi. There were about 16,000 visits registered at Mary Immaculate Clinic of Trnava University in Nairobi during 2 years of operation. A random 5% sample was drawn from the paper-card database of this clinic to assess basic characteristics and health complaints of visitors. Both self-reported health complaints and diagnoses written by physicians were used to assess health status of participants. More females with average age (by slum) ranging from 20.46 to 21.30 years than males with average age ranging from (by slum) 15.86 to 19.49 years are the visitors of the clinic. The major self-reported health complaints of visitors were cough, abdominal pain, and headache for both sexes. The most frequent diagnoses were consequently virosis, acute respiratory infections, and bronchitis. Differences in health complaints by slums were observed and are described herein. The major health complaints and diagnoses in addition to the differences in health complaints and diagnoses by slum show that environmental conditions can have major influences on health status. Therefore, environmental improvements are important in the improvement of health status. A very high prevalence of respiratory complaints and gastrointestinal problems signify that improvements in air pollution reduction, drinking water provision, and waste management in slums can lead to more significant and sustainable improvements in health status than just simple treatment. This fact should be taken into account when planning future relief programs

  15. A Critical Evaluation of the Ogui Slum in Enugu, Nigeria | Nwachi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high rental value of core city areas has always influenced the formation of slums at the peripheries or outskirts of towns and cities of the developing world. However, a peculiar inner-city slum that has persisted over the years is the Ogui slum in Enugu, Nigeria. This paper tried to identify the factors that has made this ...

  16. The Other Side of Life in Slums | Iwuagwu | Journal of History and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of obvious social and infrastructural inadequacies in terms of lack of sufficient housing facilities, good roads, schools etc., there is ample evidence to suggest that a significant number of slum dwellers, may never contemplate life outside the slums. This perhaps not only explains the rising number of slums but also ...

  17. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  18. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  19. Study on clearance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yuko; Miura, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports NISA on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In reactor facilities, the bulk measurement technique or the statistical sampling measurement technique may be applied to large scale objects or concrete walls. In this study, the criteria of those techniques were examined. In uranium processing facilities, it is important to confirm surface state of the object in case of detecting alpha rays. The result of the examination about the influence of the surface rust in the uranium clearance measurement by the alpha ray measurement showed that the pollution was distributed in rust layer uniformly. This result will be reflected to the revision of the Ministerial Ordinance on Clearance in 2011FY. To develop a manual for unexpected incidents, the response procedure for an unexpected incident was prepared, including a response system. (author)

  20. Slum residence and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Günther, Isabel; Hill, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    Continued population growth and increasing urbanization have led to the formation of large informal urban settlements in many developing countries in recent decades. The high prevalence of poverty, overcrowding, and poor sanitation observed in these settlements-commonly referred to as "slums"-suggests that slum residence constitutes a major health risk for children. In this article, we use data from 191 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 73 developing countries to investigate this concern empirically. Our results indicate that children in slums have better health outcomes than children living in rural areas yet fare worse than children in better-off neighborhoods of the same urban settlements. A large fraction of the observed health differences appears to be explained by pronounced differences in maternal education, household wealth, and access to health services across residential areas. After we control for these characteristics, children growing up in the slums and better-off neighborhoods of towns show levels of morbidity and mortality that are not statistically different from those of children living in rural areas. Compared with rural children, children living in cities (irrespective of slum or formal residence) fare better with respect to mortality and stunting but not with respect to recent illness episodes.

  1. Automated detection of slum area change in Hyderabad, India using multitemporal satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to automated identification of slum area change patterns in Hyderabad, India, using multi-year and multi-sensor very high resolution satellite imagery. It relies upon a lacunarity-based slum detection algorithm, combined with Canny- and LSD-based imagery pre-processing routines. This method outputs plausible and spatially explicit slum locations for the whole urban agglomeration of Hyderabad in years 2003 and 2010. The results indicate a considerable growth of area occupied by slums between these years and allow identification of trends in slum development in this urban agglomeration.

  2. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban Slums: The Aditya Jyot Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban Mumbai Slums Study-Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunita, Mohan; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Rogye, Ashwini; Sonawane, Manish; Gaonkar, Ravina; Srinivasan, Radhika; Natarajan, Sundaram; Stevens, Fred C J; Scherpbier, A J J A; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; McCarty, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and enumerate history-based risk factors in the urban slums of Western India. The population-based study was conducted in seven wards of Mumbai urban slums, where we screened 6569 subjects of ≥ 40 years age, with a response rate of 98.4%, for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on American Diabetes Association criteria. All subjects with T2DM underwent dilated 30° seven-field stereo-fundus-photography for DR severity grading based on modified Airlie House classification. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the correlation of DR with the history-based risk factors. The prevalence of DR in the general population of Mumbai urban slums was 1.41% (95% CI 0.59-2.23) and in the T2DM population it was 15.37% (95% CI 8.87-21.87). The positive associations with DR were the longer duration of DM (≥ 11 years: OR, 12.77; 95% CI 2.93-55.61) and male gender (OR, 2.05; 95% CI 1.08-3.89); increasing severity of retinopathy was also significantly associated with longer duration of DM (p Mumbai urban slums. Duration of DM and male gender were significantly associated with DR. The slums in Western India show the trends of urban lifestyle influences similar to the rest of urban India.

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  5. Study on clearance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports Nuclear Regulatory Agency on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In uranium processing facilities, simulation sources emitting alpha-rays is used in a validity confirmation examination of the measuring equipment. In this study, these sources were examined by measuring alpha and beta spectra to evaluate the applicability and problem of these sources. In addition, the measuring method detecting gamma-rays was examined. This method can be applied to complicated objects. As a part to develop a manual for unexpected incidents in clearance system, a quick method for measurement of Strontium 90 was examined. In addition, the measuring methods for the judgment of the influence of fallout and for NR (Non-Radioactive) confirmation were examined. (author)

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  8. Transferability of Object-Oriented Image Analysis Methods for Slum Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Stein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Updated spatial information on the dynamics of slums can be helpful to measure and evaluate progress of policies. Earlier studies have shown that semi-automatic detection of slums using remote sensing can be challenging considering the large variability in definition and appearance. In this study, we explored the potential of an object-oriented image analysis (OOA method to detect slums, using very high resolution (VHR imagery. This method integrated expert knowledge in the form of a local slum ontology. A set of image-based parameters was identified that was used for differentiating slums from non-slum areas in an OOA environment. The method was implemented on three subsets of the city of Ahmedabad, India. Results show that textural features such as entropy and contrast derived from a grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM and the size of image segments are stable parameters for classification of built-up areas and the identification of slums. Relation with classified slum objects, in terms of enclosed by slums and relative border with slums was used to refine classification. The analysis on three different subsets showed final accuracies ranging from 47% to 68%. We conclude that our method produces useful results as it allows including location specific adaptation, whereas generically applicable rulesets for slums are still to be developed.

  9. THE ETHICAL BORDERS OF SLUM TOURISM IN THE MOBILE CAPITALISM: A CONCEPTUAL DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E KORSTANJE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Though modern nation states appealed to slum-tourism as a valid mechanism towards pacification of slums or violent ghettos, less attention is given to detractors who observe contradictory results. This chapter critically explores the anthropology of poverty to expand the current understanding of slum tourism, the connection of capitalism and poverty as well as problems of policy makers to delineate sustainable programs of development in slums. Far from being a solution for the trouble, slum tourism not only aggravates the situation of exploitation slum-dwellers daily live, but falls in a deep-seated paradox. If poverty turns in the commodity this segment needs or looks, it is almost impossible to reduce the main resource of profits. At time community gains further profits from slum tourism, poverty tends to be replicated

  10. Toward "Age-Friendly Slums"? Health Challenges of Older Slum Dwellers in Nairobi and the Applicability of the Age-Friendly City Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboderin, Isabella; Kano, Megumi; Owii, Hilda Akinyi

    2017-10-20

    A majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and other developing regions live in informal settlements, or slums. Much of the discourse on slum health centres on younger generations, while an intensifying agenda on healthy ageing as yet lacks a systematic focus on slums. Similarly, the global age-friendly cities (AFC) movement does not, thus far, extend to slums. This paper examines the particular challenges that a slum-focused age-friendly initiative in SSA may need to address, and the relevance of present AFC indicators and domains for initiatives to advance the health and well-being of older slum dwellers. The analysis builds on the case of two slum communities in Nairobi, Kenya. It analyzes two bodies of relevant evidence from these settlements, namely on the health and social circumstances of older residents, and on the local application and measurement of AFC indicators. The findings point to a set of unsurprising, but also less obvious, core health and social adversities that an age-friendly initiative in such settlements would need to consider. The findings show, further, that the current AFC domains and indicators framework only partly capture these adversities, but that there is potential for adapting the framework to be meaningful for slum settings. The paper concludes by underscoring the need for, and opportunities inherent in, the pursuit of an "age-friendly slums" initiative going forward.

  11. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality outcomes. They bear a disproportionately

  12. Isotope determinations of renal clearance equivalent with physiological clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junges, R.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of renal clearance in nuclear medicine describes the tubular secretion and glomerular filtration of a substance being removed from the blood plasma. The concept of clearance as used physiologically is rather wider and includes consideration of the outflow of the substances remained back in the kidneys. The present paper discusses clearance measurements as seen from a thermodynamic point of view, in which isotope clearances become equivalent with the physiological concept of clearance. In addition, it is possible to quantify each single step of the excretory function of each kidney separately. (orig.) [de

  13. Clearance of labelled creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberstadt, P.; Liverant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Creatinine, extensively used in clinical work to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (G.F.R.) has caused controversy. Using simultaneously on dogs a gamma emitting agent measuring G.F.R., creatinine clearance proved to be higher. Aided by quantitative determinations and compartmental analysis fortunately the respective dilution spaces can be calculated. In the majority of these animals creatinine spaces are larger but in some equal to the ones of inulin

  14. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among urban adult men in India: a comparison of slum dwellers vs non-slum dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooban, T; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use is reported to be rampant in urban slums in developing countries. Demographical variations in tobacco use between males living in urban slums vs those living in non-slum areas in India has not been reported, and this study was undertaken to address this issue. Secondary data analysis of National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) was undertaken to study demographical variations in tobacco use between urban slum dwellers and non-slum dwellers in eight Indian cities. Demographic determinants for use of smoking and chewing forms of tobacco in the two groups were analyzed. SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. The study population comprised 6887 (41.8%) males from slum areas and 9588 (58.2%) from non-slum areas of eight urban cities. Cigarette/beedi smoking was the commonest form of tobacco use among the study population. Pan masala use was the least common form of smokeless tobacco use, next only to snuff. There was a high statistical significance observed within the various demographic parameter studied in both the slum and non-slum dwelling males in study population. However, on studying the differences between the two groups, it was observed that statistical significance of P≤.001 was observed with age (15-49), secondary education, religion, household structure and marital status. The difference between the two groups in the mean number of cigarettes/beedis smoked was not statistically significant (P=.598). Male slum dwellers are a distinct urban population, whose health needs assessment requires a different approach than that for non-slum dwellers who often can afford the services that an urban Indian city can offer.

  15. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality

  16. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing U. Mberu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to

  17. Menstruation: Experiences of Adolescent Slum Dwelling Girls of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    Bengal and cluster sampling was used to select 798 post menarcheal adolescent girls residing in the slums. Data on .... From separate lists of the adolescent girls in the age ... back of the paper and the numbers of a currency note were used to ...

  18. Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

  19. Digesting urban space: dietary wellbeing in Mumbai slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilmore, B.; Pouw, N.

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers and industrial developers in Mumbai face the mounting social and spatial needs of a constantly increasing urban population. Slum dwellers account for up to half of the city’s inhabitants, and are the socioeconomic group most vulnerable to deficient and exclusive governance practices.

  20. Maternal health service utilization in urban slums of selected towns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal health service utilization in urban slums of selected towns in Ethiopia: Qualitative study. ... Reasons were found to be attributed to individual characteristics, perceived capacities of health facilities and friendliness of service providers and socio-cultural factors including socially sanctioned expectations at community ...

  1. Social determinants of urban slums - perception of health status with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... question will lead to improvements in outcomes e.g. improving nutrition is likely to reduce the incidence of diseases. These problems though important are numerous, and it is unlikely that piecemeal solutions will be amply cost effective to achieve health of women in slums; rather these problems require parallel attention.

  2. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yvonne

    should include geo-physical characterization of soil and drainage of pit latrine sites so as ... Key words: Faecal, sludge accumulation rates, slum areas, lined pit latrines. .... Value and its unit Source .... overall quality of the models had to be assessed by validation on ..... Sanitation partnership series: Bringing pit emptying out.

  3. Double burden of disease in the slums of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to provide evidence of a double burden of disease in the slums of Nairobi and to make a case for an integrated health systems approach to tackling this situation. A double burden of disease refers to the coexistence of a high burden of communicable and non-communicable

  4. The emergence of slums: A contemporary view on simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, D.; Lees, M.H.; Palavalli, B.; Pfeffer, K.; Sloot, M.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    The existence of slums or informal settlements is common to most cities of developing countries. Its role as single housing delivery mechanism has seriously challenged the popular notion held by policy makers, planners and architects. Today informality is a paradigm of city making and economic

  5. Urban slums and youth criminality in Calabar Municipality of Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the diagnosis of contemporary threat to state stability, urbanization is inevitably included among the litany of emerging challenges. This study sets out to examine the relationship between urban slums and youth criminality in Calabar urban area of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve this objective, 400 respondents ...

  6. Child Morbidity and Mortality in Slum Environments along Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem that guided this study was that child mortality and morbidity disparities continue to be observed in the era of improved expansion of the provision of health care services. Some areas have low mortality and morbidity while others such as the slums of Nairobi have high. Various factors may account for this ...

  7. Avoidable visual impairment among elderly people in a Slum of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A survey was conducted between November and December 1997, in the slum of central Addis Ababa. Five hundred seventy one people above the age of 50 years underwent detailed eye examinations including visual acuity test and intra-ocular pressure measurements. Results: About 9% were blind [visual acuity ...

  8. Policy Influence and Urban Slums in Latin America : Ecohealth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will do so by funding an exploration of urban slums and human health in the region; a study of Ecohealth policy influence in Ecuador and Mexico; and an international ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  9. Extraction of slum areas from VHR imagery using GLCM variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuffer, M.; Pfeffer, K.; Sliuzas, R.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Many cities in the global South are facing the emergence and growth of highly dynamic slum areas, but often lack detailed information on these developments. Available statistical data are commonly aggregated to large, heterogeneous administrative units that are geographically meaningless for

  10. Participatory slum upgrading as a disjunctive process in Recife, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the coproduction of urban space by focusing on a slum upgrading project in Recife, Brazil. It argues that the urban situation is essentially inconsistent, unpredictable and unstable. It documents the history of urban planning in Recife, paying special attention to the

  11. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH

    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men

  12. Theorizing Slum Tourism: Performing, Negotiating and Transforming Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Dürr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This Exploration focuses on the emerging field of slum tourism research, which has the potential to connect Latin American and Caribbean studies on tourism and urban inequality. Slum tourism involves transforming poverty, squalor and violence into a tourism product. Drawing on both altruism and voyeurism, this form of tourism is a complex phenomenon that raises various questions concerning power, inequality and subjectivity. This essay seeks to advance the theoretical debate on slum tourism research and to stimulate comparative studies. Introducing brief examples of slum tourism in Mexico and Jamaica, this contribution moves towards an initial theorization of the performance, negotiation and transformation of inequality in a framework of tourism and global mobilities.Resumen: Teorizar el Turismo en las zonas marginadas: Construcción, negociación y transformación de la desigualdadEsta Exploración se centra en el campo emergente del turismo en zonas marginadas, que tiene como potencial conectar a América Latina y el Caribe en los estudios sobre el turismo y la desigualdad urbana. Turismo 'Slum' implica la transformación de la pobreza, la miseria y la violencia en un producto turístico. Basándose tanto en el altruismo como en el voyerismo, esta forma de turismo es un fenómeno complejo que plantea diversas cuestiones relativas al poder, la desigualdad y la subjetividad. Con este ensayo se pretende avanzar en el debate teórico sobre la investigación de turismo en zonas marginadas y estimular estudios comparativos. Presentando ejemplos breves de turismo en barrios pobres en la ciudad de México y de Jamaica, esta contribución se mueve hacia una teorización inicial de la construcción, la negociación y la transformación de la desigualdad en el marco del turismo y la movilidad global.

  13. Overview of migration, poverty and health dynamics in Nairobi City's slum settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Eliya M; Beguy, Donatien; Ezeh, Alex C; Bocquier, Philippe; Madise, Nyovani J; Cleland, John; Falkingham, Jane

    2011-06-01

    The Urbanization, Poverty, and Health Dynamics research program was designed to generate and provide the evidence base that would help governments, development partners, and other stakeholders understand how the urban slum context affects health outcomes in order to stimulate policy and action for uplifting the wellbeing of slum residents. The program was nested into the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, a uniquely rich longitudinal research platform, set up in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements in Nairobi city, Kenya. Findings provide rich insights on the context in which slum dwellers live and how poverty and migration status interacts with health issues over the life course. Contrary to popular opinions and beliefs that see slums as homogenous residential entities, the findings paint a picture of a highly dynamic and heterogeneous setting. While slum populations are highly mobile, about half of the population comprises relatively well doing long-term dwellers who have lived in slum settlements for over 10 years. The poor health outcomes that slum residents exhibit at all stages of the life course are rooted in three key characteristics of slum settlements: poor environmental conditions and infrastructure; limited access to services due to lack of income to pay for treatment and preventive services; and reliance on poor quality and mostly informal and unregulated health services that are not well suited to meeting the unique realities and health needs of slum dwellers. Consequently, policies and programs aimed at improving the wellbeing of slum dwellers should address comprehensively the underlying structural, economic, behavioral, and service-oriented barriers to good health and productive lives among slum residents.

  14. No land in sight : impact of caste on slum communities' access to land in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of caste on slum communities’ access to urban land in Bangalore, India. Historically, pattern of land ownership in India was inextricably melded together with caste wherein the dominant castes owned land and excluded Dalits from land access. Slums can be seen as primarily an urban land access issue. A majority of slum residents in Bangalore are Dalits though they form a minority in the overall population. The study adopts a Social Exclusion paradigm to understan...

  15. Are Slum Children at High Risk of Under Nutrition, Anemia and Childhood Morbidity? Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natrajan Kavitha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urban population growth in developing countries especially in India is at a rapid pace in the past few decades. Growth of urban population is always accompanied by the growth of population in urban slums, which poses threat to the health of urban population, particularly, the health of the children. Objective: The present study aims to study whether the slum dwelling affects the child morbidity, low weight at birth, infant mortality, child malnutrition and anemia.  Methods: Until NFHS-3, there was paucity of data on slums to analyze for a larger area and compare it with non-slum population. However, NFHS-3 provides data from slums in eight cities and is used for the present study. The child health aspects considered here are: prevalence of diarrhea among children, prevalence of fever among children, prevalence of cough among children, infant death, low birth weight, malnutrition among children and anemia among children. Results: Slum children belong to lower socioeconomic strata than children from non-slum areas. Children living in slum areas are 1.3 times, 1.5 times and 1.2 times more likely to suffer from diarrhea, cough and fever respectively than children living in non-slum areas. Multivariate results also showed that slum children have higher odds for low weight at birth (1.4 times and child anemia (1.2 times compared to non-slum children. Conclusion: Slum dwelling children are at a disadvantageous side in terms of child morbidity, anemia and weight at the time of birth. 

  16. Women's reproductive health in slum populations in India: evidence from NFHS-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Indrajit

    2010-03-01

    The urban population in India is one of the largest in the world. Its unprecedented growth has resulted in a large section of the population living in abject poverty in overcrowded slums. There have been limited efforts to capture the health of people in urban slums. In the present study, we have used data collected during the National Family Health Survey-3 to provide a national representation of women's reproductive health in the slum population in India. We examined a sample of 4,827 women in the age group of 15-49 years to assess the association of the variable slum with selected reproductive health services. We have also tried to identify the sociodemographic factors that influence the utilization of these services among women in the slum communities. All analyses were stratified by slum/non-slum residence, and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the strength of association between key reproductive health services and relevant sociodemographic factors. We found that less than half of the women from the slum areas were currently using any contraceptive methods, and discontinuation rate was higher among these women. Sterilization was the most common method of contraception (25%). Use of contraceptives depended on the age, level of education, parity, and the knowledge of contraceptive methods (p women, the proportion of deliveries conducted by skilled attendants was low, and the percentage of home deliveries was high. The use of skilled delivery care was found to be significantly associated with age, level of education, economic status, parity, and prior antenatal visits (p women from slum areas depended on the government facilities for reproductive health services. Our findings suggest that significant differences in reproductive health outcomes exist among women from slum and non-slum communities in India. Efforts to progress towards the health MDGs and other national or international health targets may not be achieved without a focus on the

  17. Mental health in the slums of Dhaka - a geoepidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruebner Oliver

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (≥ 15 years. All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS. Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that

  18. Diarrhoea in slum children: observation from a large diarrhoeal disease hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Farzana; Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Das, Jui; Latham, Jonathan Ross; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer

    2014-10-01

    To determine and compare socio-demographic, nutritional and clinical characteristics of children under five with diarrhoea living in slums with those of children who do not live in slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. From 1993 to 2012, a total of 28 948 under fives children with diarrhoea attended the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b. Data were extracted from the hospital-based Diarrhoea Disease Surveillance System, which comprised 17 548 under fives children from slum and non-slum areas of the city. Maternal illiteracy [aOR = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (1.36, 1.81), P-value slum-dwelling children after controlling for co-variates. Measles immunisation [0.52 (0.47, 0.59) P slum dwellers than other children in univarate analysis only. Slum-dwelling children are more malnourished, have lower immunisation rates (measles vaccination and vitamin A supplementation) and higher rates of measles, are more susceptible to diarrhoeal illness due to V. cholerae and suffer from severe dehydration more often than children from non-slum areas. Improved health and nutrition strategies should give priority to children living in urban slums. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Urban Slums and Children's Health in Less-Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Jorgenson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We utilize first-difference panel regression analysis to assess the direct effect of urban slumprevalence on national level measures of under-5 mortality rates over the period 1990 to 2005.Utilizing data on 80 less developed countries, the results illustrate increasing urban slumprevalence over the period is a robust predictor of increasing child mortality rates. This effectobtains net the statistically significant influence of gross domestic product per capita, fertilityrate, and educational enrollment. Cross-sectional analyses for 2005 that include additionalcontrols provide further evidence of the mortality / urban slum relationship. The results confirmurban slum prevalence growth is an important contextual dynamic whereby the socialproduction of child mortality is enacted in the less developed countries.

  20. Stds Amongst slum dwellers of lucknow "a kap study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D S Martolia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available To know knowledge, attitude and practices regarding STDs amongst slum dwellers. To find out problems in implementation of STD control programme and to suggest solutions. Study Design : Cross sectional. Period of Study : September 1997 - August 1998. Study universe : 1500 males and females in the age group 15 to 49 yrs. Study variable : Age, sex, education, marital status, occupation, social class. Statistical test : X: and Z test

  1. Catastrophic health expenditure and its determinants in Kenya slum communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buigut, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Amendah, Djesika D

    2015-05-14

    In Kenya, where 60 to 80% of the urban residents live in informal settlements (frequently referred to as slums), out-of-pocket (OOP) payments account for more than a third of national health expenditures. However, little is known on the extent to which these OOP payments are associated with personal or household financial catastrophe in the slums. This paper seeks to examine the incidence and determinants of catastrophic health expenditure among urban slum communities in Kenya. We use a unique dataset on informal settlement residents in Kenya and various approaches that relate households OOP payments for healthcare to total expenditures adjusted for subsistence, or income. We classified households whose OOP was in excess of a predefined threshold as facing catastrophic health expenditures (CHE), and identified the determinants of CHE using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The results indicate that the proportion of households facing CHE varies widely between 1.52% and 28.38% depending on the method and the threshold used. A core set of variables were found to be key determinants of CHE. The number of working adults in a household and membership in a social safety net appear to reduce the risk of catastrophic expenditure. Conversely, seeking care in a public or private hospital increases the risk of CHE. This study suggests that a substantial proportion of residents of informal settlements in Kenya face CHE and would likely forgo health care they need but cannot afford. Mechanisms that pool risk and cost (insurance) are needed to protect slum residents from CHE and improve equity in health care access and payment.

  2. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  3. Contextualizing mental health: gendered experiences in a Mumbai slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkar, Shubhangi R; Fernandes, Johnson; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2003-12-01

    Urban mental health programmes in developing countries remain in their infancy. To serve low-income communities, research needs to consider the impact of common life experience in slums, including poverty, bad living conditions, unemployment, and crowding. Our study in the Malavani slum of Mumbai examines afflictions of the city affecting the emotional well-being and mental health of women and men with respect to gender. This is a topic for which mental health studies have been lacking, and for which psychiatric assumptions based on middle-class clinical experience may be most tenuous. This study employs ethnographic methods to show how environmental and social contexts interact in shaping local experience with reference to common mental health problems. Focusing on the social and environmental context of the mental health of communities, rather than psychiatric disorders affecting individuals, findings are broadly applicable and sorely needed to guide the development of locally appropriate community mental health programmes. Identified afflictions affecting mental health include not only access to health care, but also sanitation, addictions, criminality, domestic violence, and the so-called bar-girl culture. Although effective clinical interventions are required for mental health services to treat psychiatric disorders, they cannot directly affect the conditions of urban slums that impair mental health.

  4. Whether and where to Enrol? Choosing a Primary School in the Slums of Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Slums account for around a third of the population of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and are thought to be growing rapidly. But there is little in the research literature about education of children who live in slums and it is doubtful whether they are covered in official statistics such as those on enrolment rates. This paper addresses this gap with…

  5. In fear of abandonment : slum life, community leaders and politics in Recife, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.

    2009-01-01

    This book sets out to contribute to the pursuit of ‘making nonpersons full human beings’
    (Boff & Boff:1987:8). It provides insights in the lives of residents of the slum of “Chão de
    Estrelas” in Recife, Brazil. I argue that slum dwellers should not be mystified and

  6. DEFINING SLUMS USING MULTIDIMENSIONAL AND RELATIONAL PROPERTIES: A DYNAMIC FRAMEWORK FOR INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Abubakar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon as old as cities themselves, slums - in their many permutations - have been part of city management for a long time. Descriptions and definitions have gone through trends and so have the strategies to address their conditions and relationship to cities. Summarising various trends, definitions and approaches to solutions of slums, this paper critically analyses more recent and structured approaches that attempt to grasp the complexity of all realities constituting the slum as a key to their management. Then, from a detailed review of properties of slums from literature, it proposes  a rational framework – the Slum Property Map – that organises such properties (cultural, social, economic, environmental into a relationship map where reciprocal links between properties are highlighted and used both to develop narratives of the slum – how it originates, develops and functions for its inhabitants, and in relation to the city- and thus eventually to guide intervention through investment in and management of local assets. The paper presents the Slum Property Map as a comprehensive and dynamic way to understand slums as holding potential for their immediate and future prosperity.

  7. Exploring the potential of machine learning for automatic slum identification from VHR imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duque, J.C.; Patino, J.E.; Betancourt, A.

    2017-01-01

    Slum identification in urban settlements is a crucial step in the process of formulation of pro-poor policies. However, the use of conventional methods for slum detection such as field surveys can be time-consuming and costly. This paper explores the possibility of implementing a low-cost

  8. Use of Agent Based Modelling to Investigate the Dynamics of Slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban planners and policy makers face challenges in effective management of slum ... slum characteristics using various remote sensing and artificial intelligence ... an empirically informed agent based prototype that can simulate future patterns ... The study incorporates physical, environmental, social and economic factors ...

  9. Fuzzy B-spline optimization for urban slum three-dimensional reconstruction using ENVISAT satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghany, Maged

    2014-01-01

    A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data

  10. Correlates of HIV-status awareness among adults in Nairobi slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of HIV in the adult population in slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya, is higher than for residents in the city as a whole. This disparity suggests that the characteristics of slum areas may adversely influence the HIV-prevention strategies directed at reducing the national prevalence of HIV. The objective of the study ...

  11. Marital status and risk of HIV infection in slum settlements of Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the association between marital status and risk of HIV infection in urban slums of Nairobi. Data were derived from a cross-sectional population-based survey nested in an ongoing Demographic Surveillance System in two urban slums in Nairobi. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression ...

  12. Chang'aa Drinking in Kibera Slum: The Harmful Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chang'aa Drinking in Kibera Slum: The Harmful Effects of Contemporary Changes in the Production and Consumption of Traditional Spirits. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... This article examines the harmful effects of drinking chang'aa, an illegal spirit produced locally, in Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya.

  13. Fuzzy B-spline optimization for urban slum three-dimensional reconstruction using ENVISAT satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged

    2014-06-01

    A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.

  14. Three-dimensional slum urban reconstruction in Envisat and Google Earth Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, M.; Genderen, J. v.

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to aim to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed country such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slam. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.

  15. Three-dimensional slum urban reconstruction in Envisat and Google Earth Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghany, M; Genderen, J v

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to aim to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed country such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slam. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data

  16. Empowering change: The effects of energy provision on individual aspirations in slum communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Priti; Chaturvedi, Sankalp; George, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of energy provision in influencing the social aspirations of people living in slums. We examine factors that influence the shift in aspirations in five slum settlements using data from 500 interviews conducted in serviced and non-serviced slums from the state of Gujarat in India. The non-serviced slums did not have access to basic services namely water, sanitation, energy, roads, solid waste and rainwater management. We find empirical evidence which suggests that when basic infrastructure provisions are met, slum dwellers shift their focus from lower order aspirations to the higher order aspirations like health, education, housing and land ownership. We argue that energy provision enhances productivity and enables slum dwellers to shift their aspirations upwards. Furthermore, we test the effect of work days lost due to illness on the relationship between higher order aspirations and aspirations for energy provision. When provision of energy is low, higher work day loss dampens higher order aspirations. For policy makers, this study highlights the critical link between the infrastructure services preferred by slum dwellers and their social aspirations for growth. - Highlights: ► We examine the role of energy provision in influencing social aspirations of people living in slums. ► 500 household interviews conducted in five Indian slum settlements used for the analysis. ► Shift in slum dwellers aspirations from non-serviced to serviced conditions examined using Herzberg’s theory. ► Link between energy provision and higher order aspirations established through a regression model. ► Policy recommendation is to encourage investment in infrastructure services as a driver for development.

  17. Typology of Slum Management in Coastal Settlement as a Reference of Neighborhood Planning in Konawe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi; Bachrun, Ratna; Ornam, Kurniati

    2017-05-01

    Handling slum area actually needs to be done not only in slum areas that are part of a metropolitan city or a large town, but it also need to be conducted in the slum areas in the middle city, small town, and coastal areas. A slum generally includes physical condition, socio-economic conditions of cultural communities who live in the settlements, and the impact of both of these conditions. Environmental coastal settlements in Konawe located in the riverside that lead to loss of quality due to environmental stress of the condition of settlement that are not habitable, can be seen from the problems that exist, namely the existence of housing that goes into river body which causes malfunction of watershed river (DAS), and that is prone to flooding. The purpose of this study is to identify slums in coastal settlements in an effort to improve the quality of structured settlements to obtain a picture of the slum in Konawe, to know the problems regarding the existence of slums and future recommendation of the slum settlement in Konawe. Normative analysis was carried out in this research together with quantitative and qualitative description, as well as methods of spatial analysis (spatial). Identification of slum areas was analyzed based on indicators and parameters issued by the Directorate General of Human Settlements. Problems in some districts in Konawe located in the coastal rivers and coastal areas, consist of drainage, disposal of waste water, waste, and the settlement which is not in accordance with the Spatial Konawe. Among those, there are settlements categorized as slums and some are recommended for refurbishment.

  18. A Spatial Approach to Identify Slum Areas in East Wara Sub-Districts, South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anurogo, W.; Lubis, M. Z.; Pamungkas, D. S.; Hartono; Ibrahim, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial approach is one of the main approaches of geography, its analysis emphasizes the existence of space that serves to accommodate human activities. The dynamic development of the city area brings many impacts to the urban community’s own life patterns. The development of the city center which is the center of economic activity becomes the attraction for the community that can bring influence to the high flow of labor both from within the city itself and from outside the city area, thus causing the high flow of urbanization. Urbanization has caused an explosion in urban population and one implication is the occurrence of labor-clumping in major cities in Indonesia. Another impact of the high urbanization flow of cities is the problem of urban settlements. The more populations that come in the city, the worse the quality of the existing settlements in the city if not managed properly. This study aims to determine the location of slum areas in East Wara Sub-Districts using remote sensing technology tools and Geographic Information System (GIS). Parameters used to identify slum areas partially extracted using remote sensing data and for parameters that cannot be extracted using remote sensing data, information obtained from field surveys with information retrieval based on reference data. Analysis results for slum settlements taken from the parameters indicate that the East Wara Sub-District has the largest slum areas located in Pontap village. The village of Pontap has two classes of slums that are very shabby and slums. Slum classes are also in Surutangga Village. The result of the analysis shows that the slum settlement area has 46,324 Ha, which is only located in Pontap Village, whereas for the slum class are found in some villages of Pontap and Surutangga Urban Village, there are 37.797 Ha area. The class of slum settlement areas has the largest proportion of the area among other classes in East Wara Subdistrict. The class of slum settlement areas has an

  19. Determinants of School Enrolment of Children in Slums of Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Nayak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education plays a vital role to developing a nation. In India, urban slums constituting about 22.6% of the urban population are the poor and socially disadvantaged. This slum community is least concerned for school enrolment of their children inspite of the fact that primary education is compulsory and is free in public schools. In urban areas schools available are mostly of private sector that are not free and beyond affordability to slums; government and corporation schools are few, but beyond reach. Motive of the parents is to involve children in income generating activities and the girls are more deprived of school enrolment in poorer society. Objectives: 1 assess the enrolment status of slum children and 2 determine the factors influencing school enrolment.Methodology: The data was collected during 2011-12 from 15 randomly selected slums out of 227 in which a total of 893 families were contacted and mothers with children aged 5-15 years interrogated. In addition to child history on age, sex and school enrolment, the family background characteristics were e.g. religion, caste, and family size as well as age, education and occupation of both mother & father were recorded.Results: Out of 1145 children, male and female equal represented; mostly (90.9% were Hindus and half were SC/ST class. About 30% father and 57.2% mothers were illiterate; about half fathers were unskilled-worker and 96.0% mother’s house wife. Overall 31.3% children were not enrolled and were decreasing from 49.2% to 24.3% to 21.4% in the age groups 5-6, 7-9 and 10-15 years respectively. Enrolment was poor in Muslims (50.0% compared to Hindus (29.4%; enrolment was similar irrespective of child sex among Hindus, but in Muslims 62.5% male and 35.4% female children were only enrolled. Similar was the situation as one move from SC/ST (67.6% to OBC (73.4% and general caste (77.9%. Education of father and mother had significant role to enrolment but not the age and

  20. Improving the Slum Planning Through Geospatial Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, S.

    2014-11-01

    In India, a number of schemes and programmes have been launched from time to time in order to promote integrated city development and to enable the slum dwellers to gain access to the basic services. Despite the use of geospatial technologies in planning, the local, state and central governments have only been partially successful in dealing with these problems. The study on existing policies and programmes also proved that when the government is the sole provider or mediator, GIS can become a tool of coercion rather than participatory decision-making. It has also been observed that local level administrators who have adopted Geospatial technology for local planning continue to base decision-making on existing political processes. In this juncture, geospatial decision support system (GSDSS) can provide a framework for integrating database management systems with analytical models, graphical display, tabular reporting capabilities and the expert knowledge of decision makers. This assists decision-makers to generate and evaluate alternative solutions to spatial problems. During this process, decision-makers undertake a process of decision research - producing a large number of possible decision alternatives and provide opportunities to involve the community in decision making. The objective is to help decision makers and planners to find solutions through a quantitative spatial evaluation and verification process. The study investigates the options for slum development in a formal framework of RAY (Rajiv Awas Yojana), an ambitious program of Indian Government for slum development. The software modules for realizing the GSDSS were developed using the ArcGIS and Community -VIZ software for Gulbarga city.

  1. Morbidity Status Of Slum Dwelling Children Of Lucknow City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Khanna

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The presen study was carried out to find out the level of morbidity among slum childreni aged 5-14 years, It was found tha t46.4% of children were ill at the lime of study. The prevalence of various illnesses hcu studied. An aiuilysis of morbidity with social variables mi not found to be significant. 19.3% children has dental disorders and 45.8% children has parasites infestation of llieG I Tract. 57.6% of children vere having one or the other be­havioural problems.

  2. Grey water characterisation and pollutant loads in an urban slum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katukiza, A. Y.; Ronteltap, M.; Niwagaba, C. B.; Kansiime, F.; Lens, P. N. L.

    2015-01-01

    On-site sanitation provisions in urban slums rarely prioritise grey water management, yet it forms the largest fraction of wastewater. This study was carried out to characterise grey water and quantify its pollutant loads in Bwaise III (Uganda) and to provide data for grey water management in urban slums of developing countries. Samples were collected for analysis from ten representative households as well as from four tertiary drains and the main drainage channel for 7 months in two dry seasons. Grey water production was found to comprise 85 % of the domestic water consumption. The chemical oxygen demand concentration in the grey water generated by laundry, in the kitchen and in the bathroom was 9,225 ± 1,200 mg L-1, 71,250 ± 1,011 mg L-1 and 4,675 ± 750 mg L-1, while the BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) to COD ratio was 0.24 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.07, respectively. The maximum concentration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms was 2.05 9 107 cfu (100 mL)-1 and 1.75 9 108 cfu (100 mL)-1, respectively, in grey water from the bathroom, while that of Salmonella spp. was 7.32 9 106 cfu (100 mL)-1 from laundry. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference in the concentration of COD, total suspended solids, total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, sodium adsorption ratio, oil and grease, and Salmonella spp. in grey water from laundry, bathroom and kitchen (p/0.05). The high loads of COD ([500 kg day-1), total suspended solids ([200 kg day-1), nutrients (8.3 kg TKN day-1 and 1.4 kg total phosphorus day-1) and microorganisms (106 to 109 cfu c-1 day-1) originating from grey water in Bwaise III show that grey water poses a threat to the environment and a risk to human health in urban slums. Therefore, there is a need to prioritise grey water treatment in urban slums of developing countries to achieve adequate sanitation.

  3. Girls and Young Women Living in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and correlates of victimization among girls and young women in Kampala. The study population, a convenience sample of youth living in the slums, were 14 to 24 years of age, and participants in community-based drop-in centers (N = 313. Overall, the prevalence of physical fights (37%, being threatened or injured with a weapon (28%, and being raped (30% was high and increased with age. Multivariate analyses revealed that sadness, drunkenness, and hunger were associated with multiple forms of victimization. Findings suggest that additional services are needed to address the cumulative impact of victimizations, depression, and living conditions.

  4. Slum Definitions in Urban India: Implications for the Measurement of Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Half the population of low- and middle-income countries will live in urban areas by 2030, and poverty and inequality in these contexts is rising. Slum dwelling is one way in which to conceptualize and characterize urban deprivation but there are many definitions of what constitutes a slum. This paper presents four different slum definitions used in India alone, demonstrating that assessments of both the distribution and extent of urban deprivation depends on the way in which it is characterized, as does slum dwelling’s association with common child health indicators. Using data from India’s National Family and Health Survey from 2005–2006, two indictors of slum dwelling embedded in the survey and two constructed from the household questionnaire are compared using descriptive statistics and linear regression models of height- and weight-for-age z-scores. The results highlight a tension between international and local slum definitions, and underscore the importance of improving empirical representations of the dynamism of slum and city residents. PMID:26877568

  5. Detecting Slums from Quick Bird Data in Pune Using AN Object Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, S.

    2012-07-01

    We have been witnessing a gradual and steady transformation from a pre dominantly rural society to an urban society in India and by 2030, it will have more people living in urban than rural areas. Slums formed an integral part of Indian urbanisation as most of the Indian cities lack in basic needs of an acceptable life. Many efforts are being taken to improve their conditions. To carry out slum renewal programs and monitor its implementation, slum settlements should be recorded to obtain an adequate spatial data base. This can be only achieved through the analysis of remote sensing data with very high spatial resolution. Regarding the occurrences of settlement areas in the remote sensing data pixel-based approach on a high resolution image is unable to represent the heterogeneity of complex urban environments. Hence there is a need for sophisticated method and data for slum analysis. An attempt has been made to detect and discriminate the slums of Pune city by describing typical characteristics of these settlements, by using eCognition software from quick bird data on the basis of object oriented approach. Based on multi resolution segmentation, initial objects were created and further depend on texture, geometry and contextual characteristics of the image objects, they were classified into slums and non-slums. The developed rule base allowed the description of knowledge about phenomena clearly and easily using fuzzy membership functions and the described knowledge stored in the classification rule base led to the best classification with more than 80% accuracy.

  6. Knowledge and Practice of Personal Hygiene and Sanitation: A Study in Selected Slums of Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayela Farah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: : Slum dwellers are likely to be among the most deprived people in urban areas. Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major roles in the increased burden of communicable diseases within developing countries like ours. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice about personal hygiene and environmental sanitation in selected slums of Dhaka city. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was conducted in purposively selected urban slum areas of Moghbazar slum, Bashabo slum and T&T slum of Dhaka city during February 2014 to April 2014. Convenient sampling technique was applied. Semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used and face to face interview was conducted. Total 475 subjects, irrespective of age and sex, were included in this study. Results: Out of 475 respondents, more than fifty percent slum dwellers resided in tin shaded room while 21.7% in ‘kacha’ houses. Sixty six percent of the respondents used to drink water from tube-well and 24% used supplied water provided by the city corporation. The study revealed that near 59% of the respondents used sanitary latrine. About 67% slum dwellers regularly practiced hand washing before taking meal and 59.2% respondents used soap after defecation. About fifty percent respondents brushed their teeth regularly with tooth paste. Regarding personal cleanliness, 81% subjects took bath regularly while 78% washed clothes irregularly. A statistically significant relation was found between washing of hands before meal (p=0.001, washing of hands after defecation (p=0.02, tooth brushing (p=0.001, bathing (p=0.009, washing of cloths (p=0.001, use of footwear (p=0.63 with knowledge of personal hygiene of the slum dwellers. Conclusion: Continuous community hygiene education along with adequate access to water supply and sanitation improves hygiene behaviour and policy makers and health care providers should have definite strategy and implementation.

  7. Non-communicable diseases in Indian slums: re-framing the Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumagbas, Lily Beth; Coleman, Harry Laurence Selby; Bunders, Joske; Pariente, Antoine; Belonje, Anne; de Cock Buning, Tjard

    2018-01-01

    The epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in slums has pushed its residents to heightened vulnerability. The Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework has been used to understand the social dynamics and impact of NCDs, especially in poorly resourced communities. Whilst the SDH has helped to discredit the characterisation of NCDs as diseases of affluence, its impact on policy has been less definite. Given the multitude of factors that interact in the presentation of NCDs, operationalising the SDH for policies and programmes that account for the contextual complexity of slums has stalled. To organise the complex networks of relations between SDH in slums so as to identify options for Indian municipal policy that are feasible to implement in the short term. The study reviews the literature describing SDH in Indian slums, specifically those that establish causal relations between SDH and NCDs. Root cause analysis was then used to organise the identified relations of SDH and NCDs. Although poverty remains the largest structural determinant of health in slums, the multi-dimensional relations between SDH and NCDs are structured around four themes that describe the dynamics of slums, namely scarce clean water, low education, physical (in)activity and transportation. From the reviewed literature, four logic trees visualising the relations between SDH in slums and NCDs were constructed. The logic trees separate symptomatic problems from their more distal causes, and recommendations were formulated based on features of these relationships that are amenable to policy intervention. Root cause analysis provides a means to focus the lens of examination of SDH, as evidenced here for Indian slums. It provides a guide for the development of policies that are grounded in the actual health concerns of people in slums, and takes account of the complex pathways through which diseases are socially constituted.

  8. Policy directions in urban health in developing countries--the slum improvement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, T; Stephens, C

    1992-07-01

    The urban development, or housing, sector has a longer experience of addressing the problems of the urban poor in developing countries than the health sector. In recent years the policy of 'slum improvement', which involves both sectors, has attracted the support of international donors. This article documents the development of the slum improvement approach and addresses key issues of the approach which have implications for health planning: covering the poorest dwellers; relocation; land tenure; gentrification; debt burdens and the impact on women. Questions about the approach which still need answering are defined and a summary of the constraints in slum improvement and potential solutions is presented.

  9. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  10. [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance and endogenous creatinine clearance in advanced renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, U.G.; Munck, O.; Czartoryski, A.; Stafanger, G.

    1978-01-01

    Comparison of [ 51 Cr]EDTA plasma clearance corrected for extrarenal elimination with 24 h endogenous creatinine clearance in patients with advanced renal failure showed that the corrected [ 51 Cr]EDTA clearance was lower than creatinine clearance, and thus might be a better approximation to the glomerular filtration rate in uraemic patients. The corrections cannot be used on [ 51 Cr]EDTA clearance values below the mean extrarenal clearance, averaging 3.7 ml/min. (Auth.)

  11. Refrigeration system with clearance seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    In a refrigeration system such as a split Stirling system, fluid seals associated with the reciprocating displacer are virtually dragless clearance seals. Movement of the displacer relative to the pressure variations in the working volume of gas is retarded by a discrete braking element. Because it is not necessary that the brake providing any sealing action, the brake can be designed for greater durability and less dependence on ambient and operating temperatures. Similarly, the clearance seal can be formed of elements having low thermal expansion such that the seal is not temperature dependent. In the primary embodiments the braking element is a split friction brake

  12. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  13. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  14. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    OpenAIRE

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  15. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  16. Siim Nestor soovitab : Viimane Teenage Kicks. Popidioti esitlusshow. Slum Village / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Üritustest: "Teenage Kicks" 17. veebr. Tallinnas Kinomajas, ansambli Popidiot heliplaadi "1111" esitlusest 17. veebr. Tartus restoran-klubis Maailm, ameerika ansambli Slum Village uue albumi "Detroit Deli" esitlusest 19. veebr. Tallinnas klubis Privé

  17. Reaching the underserved: Active tuberculosis case finding in urban slums in southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidubem L Ogbudebe

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: There is high prevalence of TB in Nigeria slum population. Targeted screening of out-patients, TB contacts, and HIV-infected patients should be optimized for active TB case finding in Nigeria.

  18. The psychological toll of slum living in Mumbai, India: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ramnath; Nolan, Laura; Shitole, Tejal; Sawant, Kiran; Shitole, Shrutika; Sood, Kunal; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Ghannam, Jess; Betancourt, Theresa S; Bloom, David E; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita

    2014-10-01

    In India, "non-notified" slums are not officially recognized by city governments; they suffer from insecure tenure and poorer access to basic services than "notified" (government-recognized) slums. We conducted a study in a non-notified slum of about 12,000 people in Mumbai to determine the prevalence of individuals at high risk for having a common mental disorder (i.e., depression and anxiety), to ascertain the impact of mental health on the burden of functional impairment, and to assess the influence of the slum environment on mental health. We gathered qualitative data (six focus group discussions and 40 individual interviews in July-November 2011), with purposively sampled participants, and quantitative data (521 structured surveys in February 2012), with respondents selected using community-level random sampling. For the surveys, we administered the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ) to screen for common mental disorders (CMDs), the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHO DAS) to screen for functional impairment, and a slum adversity questionnaire, which we used to create a composite Slum Adversity Index (SAI) score. Twenty-three percent of individuals have a GHQ score≥5, suggesting they are at high risk for having a CMD. Psychological distress is a major contributor to the slum's overall burden of functional impairment. In a multivariable logistic regression model, household income, poverty-related factors, and the SAI score all have strong independent associations with CMD risk. The qualitative findings suggest that non-notified status plays a central role in creating psychological distress-by creating and exacerbating deprivations that serve as sources of stress, by placing slum residents in an inherently antagonistic relationship with the government through the criminalization of basic needs, and by shaping a community identity built on a feeling of social exclusion from the rest of the city. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  19. Changes to indoor air quality as a result of relocating families from slums to public housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Soledad; Ruiz, Pablo; Koifman, Rosalina

    2013-05-01

    One largely unstudied benefit of relocating families from slums to public housing is the potential improvement in indoor air quality (IAQ). We compared families that moved from slums to public housing with those that remained living in slums in Santiago, Chile in terms of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as main indicator of change. A cross-sectional study of 98 relocated families and 71 still living in slums was carried out, obtaining indoor and outdoor samples by a Personal Environmental Monitor. Home characteristics, including indoor air pollution sources were collected through questionnaires. Multivariate regression models included the intervention (public housing or slum), indoor pollution sources, outdoor PM2.5 and family characteristics as predictors. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were higher in slums (77.8 μg m-3 [SD = 35.7 μg m-3]) than in public housing (55.7 μg m-3 [SD = 34.6 μg m-3], p slum houses. The multivariate analysis showed that housing intervention significantly decreased indoor PM2.5 (10.4 μg m-3) after adjusting by the other predictors. Outdoor PM2.5 was the main predictor of indoor PM2.5. Other significant factors were water heating fuels and indoor smoking. Having infants 1-23 months was associated with a lowering of indoor PM2.5. Our results suggest that a public housing program that moves families from slums to public housing improves indoor air quality directly and also indirectly through air pollution sources.

  20. Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Carolina Santos; Tahan, Soraia; Melli, Lígia Cristina F L; Rodrigues, Mirian Silva do Carmo; de Mello, Ricardo Martin Pereira; Scaletsky, Isabel Cristina Affonso; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2012-11-07

    To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests. This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school, all aged between 6 and 10 years, in Osasco, Brazil. For characterization of the groups, data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected. Anthropometric data was obtained in children from both groups. All children completed the hydrogen (H(2)) and methane (CH(4)) breath test in order to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO was diagnosed when there was an increase in H(2) ≥ 20 ppm or CH(4) ≥ 10 ppm with regard to the fasting value until 60 min after lactulose ingestion. Children from the slum group had worse living conditions and lower nutritional indices than children from the private school. SIBO was found in 30.9% (26/84) of the children from the slum group and in 2.4% (1/41) from the private school group (P = 0.0007). Greater hydrogen production in the small intestine was observed in children from the slum group when compared to children from the private school (P = 0.007). A higher concentration of hydrogen in the small intestine (P slum group with SIBO when compared to children from the slum group without SIBO. Methane production was observed in 63.1% (53/84) of the children from the slum group and in 19.5% (8/41) of the children from the private school group (P slum. Colonic production of hydrogen was lower in methane-producing children (P = 0.017). Children who live in inadequate environmental conditions are at risk of bacterial overgrowth and methane production. Hydrogen is a substrate for methane production in the colon.

  1. Determinants of undernutrition among primary school children residing in slum areas of a Nigerian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwu, C I; Egbuonu, I; Ulasi, T O; Ebenebe, J C

    2013-01-01

    Undernutrition remains the largest contributor to the global disease burden. Different factors affecting the nutritional status of children need to be studied to determine those to be targeted in a country like Nigeria, characterized by widespread poverty and inequitable distribution of wealth. This study was aimed at ascertaining the relationship between prevailing socioeconomic and environmental factors, and the nutritional status of children residing in a typical urban slum. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 788 children aged 6-12 years selected by stratified, multistage random sampling method from public primary schools in slum and non-slum areas of Onitsha was carried out. Their nutritional status was determined using anthropometric measures. The socioeconomic and environmental variables of interest were analyzed to determine their relationship with undernutrition in the children. Socioeconomic status was the major determinant of nutritional status in this study. Poor housing also affected the nutritional status of the slum children who were significantly from poorer families than those residing in non-slum areas (χ2 = 66.69, P = 0.000). This study highlights the need for an effective nutrition program targeted at school children in urban slums surrounded by factors predisposing them to undernutrition.

  2. Slum Conditions in Haryana and Pro-poor Housing Initiatives in Faridabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization forces urban poor to live in slums and squatter settlement. In neo-liberal development approach, participatory planning and collaborative actions are becoming popular in slum upgrading programmes. This paper discusses the slum scenario in state of Haryana along with detailed pro-poor housing attempts in industrial city of Haryana i.e. Faridabad. The paper reviews the three projects that aimed to improve the living conditions and lives of urban poor communities in Faridabad. The study examines in detail BSUP projects at Dabua Colony and Bapu Nagar taken up under India’s first urban renewal mission i.e. JNNURM within the context of community participation. Results reveal that contrary to the state’s rhetoric of inclusive governance, the urban poor are completely excluded from settlement planning, leading to a lack of understanding of their needs by the state. BSUP housing scheme has failed to mobilize slum dwellers. Drawing on the experience of these projects, the paper seeks to answer the question: why the stated objectives were not achieved and makes recommendation that community led initiatives and slum mapping should be at the core of slum improvement strategy so that qualitatively superior areas can be planned for the unprivileged.

  3. How do slums change the relationship between urbanization and the carbon intensity of well-being?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Alexander McGee

    Full Text Available This study examines how the relationship between urbanization (measured as the percentage of total population living in urban areas and the carbon intensity of well-being (CIWB (measured as a ratio of carbon dioxide emissions and life expectancy in most nations from 1960-2013 varies based on the economic context and whereabouts of a substantial portion of a nation's urban population. To accomplish this, we use the United Nations' (UN definition of slum households to identify developing countries that have substantial slum populations, and estimate a Prais-Winsten regression model with panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE, allowing for disturbances that are heteroskedastic and contemporaneously correlated across panels. Our findings indicate that the rate of increase in CIWB for countries without substantial slum populations begins to slow down at higher levels of urbanization, however, the association between urbanization and CIWB is much smaller in countries with substantial slum populations. Overall, while urbanization is associated with increases in CIWB, the relationship between urban development and CIWB is vastly different in developed nations without slums than in under-developed nations with slums.

  4. Social determinants of health in selected slum areas in Jordan: challenges and policy directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlouni, Musa T

    2016-01-01

    The unplanned urbanization in Jordan has over time created many informal settlements "slums" around big cities as Amman, Zerka and Aqaba. The purpose of this study was to highlight the most common challenges related to social determinants of health in two selected slum areas in Amman and Aqaba and suggest policy directions and interventions to meet these challenges. In addition to a prestructured interview with all household heads living in the two slum sites, focus group meetings with a purposefully selected sample of 12 slum dwellers in each site were used to assess the structural and intermediary determinants of health as perceived by slum residents in the two study locations. The study found that slum residents in the two locations suffer from many challenges as severe poverty; unemployment; illiteracy and low education attainments; gender discrimination; insufficient and poor diet; social and official exclusion; unhealthy environment; lack of water supply, electricity and basic sanitation facilities; high prevalence of diseases; and insufficient and inappropriate health services. Specific policy directions to meet these challenges were recommended and grouped into three main clusters: social protection, social inclusion and empowerment. New plans and tools should be developed by local authorities in Jordan to understand, protect, include and empower those vulnerable people who are forced to live in these unhealthy and inhuman environments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Vegetation in Bangalore's Slums: Composition, Species Distribution, Density, Diversity, and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Divya; Nagendra, Harini; Manthey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There is widespread acknowledgement of the need for biodiversity and greening to be part of urban sustainability efforts. Yet we know little about greenery in the context of urban poverty, particularly in slums, which constitute a significant challenge for inclusive development in many rapidly growing cities. We assessed the composition, density, diversity, and species distribution of vegetation in 44 slums of Bangalore, India, comparing these to published studies on vegetation diversity in other land-use categories. Most trees were native to the region, as compared to other land-use categories such as parks and streets which are dominated by introduced species. Of the most frequently encountered tree species, Moringa oleifera and Cocos nucifera are important for food, while Ficus religiosa plays a critical cultural and religious role. Tree density and diversity were much lower in slums compared to richer residential neighborhoods. There are also differences in species preferences, with most plant (herb, shrub and vines) species in slums having economic, food, medicinal, or cultural use, while the species planted in richer residential areas are largely ornamental. Historic development has had an impact on species distribution, with older slums having larger sized tree species, while recent slums were dominated by smaller sized tree species with greater economic and food use. Extensive focus on planting trees and plant species with utility value is required in these congested neighborhoods, to provide livelihood support.

  6. Analysing the Great Urban Divide: Turning the Lens to Rural to Understand Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Dhanda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Instead of looking at slums as strictly ‘urban problems’ requiring ‘urban solutions’, this paper attempts to build a structural link between growth of slums in urban areas and, what can be called, the ‘decay’ of the rural in India. It contends that uneven development of Indian cities with great spatial disparities – made evident by increasing number of slums – is related to uneven development between rural and urban areas. Thus, in order to grapple with the ‘enigma’ of slums, the political economy of rural areas – from where the migrants living in slums ‘originally’ belong – becomes the essential site to engage with. The paper foregrounds the need to study transformations in the rural domain in order to make sense of the growth of slums in cities. In a nutshell, the argument is that the ‘decay’ of the rural and the ‘swelling’ of the city are to be visualised in hyphenated terms since the rural-urban divide is at the heart of the ‘great urban divide’.

  7. Life in a landfill slum, children's health, and the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James L; Watson, Lindsey M; Nikitin, Ivan V; Ansariadi; La Ane, Ruslan; Maidin, Alimin

    2015-12-01

    People living in slums can be considered left behind with regard to national successes in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the living and working conditions of waste pickers and their children in a landfill slum located in the largest city in eastern Indonesia. A total of 113 people from the landfill slum and 1184 people from the general population participated in face-to-face interviews. Municipal solid waste (MSW) was analyzed for metals, metalloids and fecal indicator bacteria. Ambient air quality including particulate matter was measured in the landfill. Households in the landfill slum were 5.73 (p=0.04) times more likely to be below the international poverty line (MDG 1: Poverty) and 15.6 times (pIndonesia. Young children living in the landfill slum were 2.87 times (p=0.02) more likely to develop diarrhea than their general population counterparts. Other survey results and environmental measurements suggest that landfill slum children have additional adverse health effects (e.g. infections and poisoning). Poverty underlies several MDG issues that directly or indirectly affect child health. Therefore, eradicating extreme poverty will continue to be the most critical challenge for the MDGs beyond 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing urban sustainability of slum settlements in Bangladesh: Evidence from Chittagong city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Uddin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the sustainability of urban development through the livelihood conditions of slum dwellers in Bangladesh. The empirical data were collected through interview schedule and FGD from 97 respondents in two slum areas of Bangladesh. The respondents were selected purposively from the second largest city of Bangladesh namely, Chittagong. The results clearly indicate that there exist significant diversity and differences of sustainability indicators, particularly household and housing characteristics, health, drinking water, waste disposal system and security. More specifically, the finding shows that slum dwellers have been experiencing with a wide range of substandard, overcrowded and unhealthy housing conditions in one hand. On the other hand, they have scarce and insufficient health, sanitation, water and waste disposal services which are unswervingly impeding to sustainable development in urban areas. Although the majority of slum dwellers have access to electricity, they are still threatened by the insecurities of women, drug dealing, eviction and natural disaster. Therefore, the findings suggest a holistic approach to address the multi-faceted sustainability issues that affect the livelihoods of slum dwellers within the framework of context-driven development policy of the country. Keywords: Sustainability, Urban slum, Sustainable development, Chittagong city, Bangladesh

  9. In their own words: assessment of satisfaction with residential location among migrants in Nairobi slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudege, Netsayi Noris; Zulu, Eliya M

    2011-06-01

    Using qualitative data collected from a sample of rural-urban migrants over the age of 15 in two Nairobi slums interviewed in 2008, this paper discusses the migrants' extent of satisfaction with their residential location and decision to migrate. The study sheds light on why people continue to migrate to, and stay in, the rapidly growing slum settlements despite the high levels of poverty and poor health conditions in these areas. Tenure status is related to satisfaction for all ages. Environmental factors were frequently mentioned as a source of dissatisfaction. Life cycle and 'age-cohort effects' may also affect satisfaction for different age groups in terms of who is satisfied as well as the issues that are considered for satisfaction. High levels of dissatisfaction with slum life may be responsible for high out-migration in slum areas, although it does not mean that those who remain do so because they are satisfied. At the same time, challenges associated with slum life do not automatically signify dissatisfaction. Perceived success, as well as conditions in the area of origin can be used to explain and understand satisfaction/dissatisfaction with slum life. Satisfaction with migration and residential location may be related not only to the destination place, but also to events in the area of origin.

  10. Disparities in spread and control of influenza in slums of Delhi: findings from an agent-based modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Abhijin; Chu, Shuyu; Eubank, Stephen; Kuhlman, Christopher J; Lewis, Bryan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav; Nordberg, Eric K; Swarup, Samarth; Vullikanti, Anil; Wilson, Mandy L

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This research studies the role of slums in the spread and control of infectious diseases in the National Capital Territory of India, Delhi, using detailed social contact networks of its residents. Methods We use an agent-based model to study the spread of influenza in Delhi through person-to-person contact. Two different networks are used: one in which slum and non-slum regions are treated the same, and the other in which 298 slum zones are identified. In the second network, slum-specific demographics and activities are assigned to the individuals whose homes reside inside these zones. The main effects of integrating slums are that the network has more home-related contacts due to larger family sizes and more outside contacts due to more daily activities outside home. Various vaccination and social distancing interventions are applied to control the spread of influenza. Results Simulation-based results show that when slum attributes are ignored, the effectiveness of vaccination can be overestimated by 30%–55%, in terms of reducing the peak number of infections and the size of the epidemic, and in delaying the time to peak infection. The slum population sustains greater infection rates under all intervention scenarios in the network that treats slums differently. Vaccination strategy performs better than social distancing strategies in slums. Conclusions Unique characteristics of slums play a significant role in the spread of infectious diseases. Modelling slums and estimating their impact on epidemics will help policy makers and regulators more accurately prioritise allocation of scarce medical resources and implement public health policies. PMID:29358419

  11. Disparities in spread and control of influenza in slums of Delhi: findings from an agent-based modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Abhijin; Chu, Shuyu; Eubank, Stephen; Kuhlman, Christopher J; Lewis, Bryan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav; Nordberg, Eric K; Swarup, Samarth; Vullikanti, Anil; Wilson, Mandy L

    2018-01-21

    This research studies the role of slums in the spread and control of infectious diseases in the National Capital Territory of India, Delhi, using detailed social contact networks of its residents. We use an agent-based model to study the spread of influenza in Delhi through person-to-person contact. Two different networks are used: one in which slum and non-slum regions are treated the same, and the other in which 298 slum zones are identified. In the second network, slum-specific demographics and activities are assigned to the individuals whose homes reside inside these zones. The main effects of integrating slums are that the network has more home-related contacts due to larger family sizes and more outside contacts due to more daily activities outside home. Various vaccination and social distancing interventions are applied to control the spread of influenza. Simulation-based results show that when slum attributes are ignored, the effectiveness of vaccination can be overestimated by 30%-55%, in terms of reducing the peak number of infections and the size of the epidemic, and in delaying the time to peak infection. The slum population sustains greater infection rates under all intervention scenarios in the network that treats slums differently. Vaccination strategy performs better than social distancing strategies in slums. Unique characteristics of slums play a significant role in the spread of infectious diseases. Modelling slums and estimating their impact on epidemics will help policy makers and regulators more accurately prioritise allocation of scarce medical resources and implement public health policies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Situation in Kenya's Urban Slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Njoroge; Njiru, Haron

    2018-01-01

    Kenya has undergone rapid urbanization as people migrate to the cities in search of economic opportunities. This has given rise to informal settlements characterized by overcrowding, poor infrastructure, and inadequate social amenities. A cross-sectional study on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) status was carried out in Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi. A random sample of 380 households was used. The average household size was five people, and 26% of the household heads had completed secondary or higher level of education. The main source of income (70%) was self-employment with 41% of the households living on less than 1.5 USD per day. The WASH situation in the urban slums is below the minimum standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). There is need to improve the situation by improving and installing basic infrastructure including water, sanitation, and solid waste collection.

  13. Risk factors for differential outcome following directly observed treatment (DOT) of slum and non-slum tuberculosis patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robert E; Marlow, Mariel A; Phuphanich, Melissa E; Riley, Lee W; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2016-09-20

    Brazil's National Tuberculosis Control Program seeks to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment in vulnerable populations. Slum residents are more vulnerable to TB due to a variety of factors, including their overcrowded living conditions, substandard infrastructure, and limited access to healthcare compared to their non-slum dwelling counterparts. Directly observed treatment (DOT) has been suggested to improve TB treatment outcomes among vulnerable populations, but the program's differential effectiveness among urban slum and non-slum residents is not known. We retrospectively compared the impact of DOT on TB treatment outcome in residents of slum and non-slum census tracts in Rio de Janeiro reported to the Brazilian Notifiable Disease Database in 2010. Patient residential addresses were geocoded to census tracts from the 2010 Brazilian Census, which were identified as slum (aglomerados subnormais -AGSN) and non-slum (non-AGSN) by the Census Bureau. Homeless and incarcerated cases as well as those geocoded outside the city's limits were excluded from analysis. In 2010, 6,601 TB cases were geocoded within Rio de Janeiro; 1,874 (27.4 %) were residents of AGSN, and 4,794 (72.6 %) did not reside in an AGSN area. DOT coverage among AGSN cases was 35.2 % (n = 638), while the coverage in non-AGSN cases was 26.2 % (n = 1,234). Clinical characteristics, treatment, follow-up, cure, death and abandonment were similar in both AGSN and non-AGSN TB patients. After adjusting for covariates, AGSN TB cases on DOT had 1.67 (95 % CI: 1.17, 2.4) times the risk of cure, 0.61 (95 % CI: 0.41, 0.90) times the risk of abandonment, and 0.1 (95 % CI: 0.01, 0.77) times the risk of death from TB compared to non-AGSN TB cases not on DOT. While DOT coverage was low among TB cases in both AGSN and non-AGSN communities, it had a greater impact on TB cure rate in AGSN than in non-AGSN populations in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  14. Relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nakai, K.; Itoh, C.; Horikiri, J.; Sera, K.; Sato, M.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon levels in dialysis patients are markedly increasing. Using PIXE we determined the relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance in 30 samples. Urine silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.001). And also serum silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.0001). (author)

  15. Comparison of the endogenous creatinine clearance, the creatinin clearance calculated without urine collection and the isotope clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohacsi, Gabor; Lang, Jenoe; Csernay, Laszlo; Sonkodi, Sandor; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported relating to the endogenous creatinine clearance, the Tc-99m-EDTA-complex clearance and the creatinine clearance estimated via a selected mathematical formula, with special regard to the problems of renal insufficiency and the nephrotic syndrome. The activity applied was in the range of 3.7-7.4 MBq. It was observed that measurement of the isotope clearance can also be applied to determine the endogeneous creatinine clearance in otherwise less suitable patients. A reliable result is obtained even if the renal function is restricted, but the accuracy of the method may be reduced in nephrotic syndrome cases. (author) 24 refs

  16. Tuberculosis DALY-Gap: Spatial and Quantitative Comparison of Disease Burden Across Urban Slum and Non-slum Census Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Mariel A; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Sales, Carolina Maia Martins; Gomes, Teresa; Snyder, Robert E; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Riley, Lee W

    2015-08-01

    To quantitatively assess disease burden due to tuberculosis between populations residing in and outside of urban informal settlements in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we compared disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), or "DALY-gap." Using the 2010 Brazilian census definition of informal settlements as aglomerados subnormais (AGSN), we allocated tuberculosis (TB) DALYs to AGSN vs non-AGSN census tracts based on geocoded addresses of TB cases reported to the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases in 2005 and 2010. DALYs were calculated based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease methodology. DALY-gap was calculated as the difference between age-adjusted DALYs/100,000 population between AGSN and non-AGSN. Total TB DALY in Rio in 2010 was 16,731 (266 DALYs/100,000). DALYs were higher in AGSN census tracts (306 vs 236 DALYs/100,000), yielding a DALY-gap of 70 DALYs/100,000. Attributable DALY fraction for living in an AGSN was 25.4%. DALY-gap was highest for males 40-59 years of age (501 DALYs/100,000) and in census tracts with <60% electricity (12,327 DALYs/100,000). DALY-gap comparison revealed spatial and quantitative differences in TB burden between slum vs non-slum census tracts that were not apparent using traditional measures of incidence and mortality. This metric could be applied to compare TB burden or burden for other diseases in mega-cities with large informal settlements for more targeted resource allocation and evaluation of intervention programs.

  17. Newborn care practices among slum dwellers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a quantitative and qualitative exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Allisyn C; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Uz Zaman Khan, Nazib; Ahsan Karar, Zunaid; Wahed, Tasnuva; Faiz Rashid, Sabina; Alam, M Ashraful

    2009-11-17

    Urbanization is occurring at a rapid pace, especially in low-income countries. Dhaka, Bangladesh, is estimated to grow to 50 million by 2015, with 21 million living in urban slums. Although health services are available, neonatal mortality is higher in slum areas than in urban non-slum areas. The Manoshi program works to improve maternal, newborn, and child health in urban slums in Bangladesh. This paper describes newborn care practices in urban slums in Dhaka and provides program recommendations. A quantitative baseline survey was conducted in six urban slum areas to measure newborn care practices among recently delivered women (n = 1,256). Thirty-six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore newborn care practices among currently pregnant women (n = 18) and women who had at least one delivery (n = 18). In the baseline survey, the majority of women gave birth at home (84%). Most women reported having knowledge about drying the baby (64%), wrapping the baby after birth (59%), and cord care (46%). In the in-depth interviews, almost all women reported using sterilized instruments to cut the cord. Babies are typically bathed soon after birth to purify them from the birth process. There was extensive care given to the umbilical cord including massage and/or applying substances, as well as a variety of practices to keep the baby warm. Exclusive breastfeeding was rare; most women reported first giving their babies sweet water, honey and/or other foods. These reported newborn care practices are similar to those in rural areas of Bangladesh and to urban and rural areas in the South Asia region. There are several program implications. Educational messages to promote providing newborn care immediately after birth, using sterile thread, delaying bathing, and ensuring dry cord care and exclusive breastfeeding are needed. Programs in urban slum areas should also consider interventions to improve social support for women, especially first time mothers. These

  18. Contemporary Slums of India from a Geographic Perspective: A Three-Day College Unit. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orf, Thomas M.

    This paper contains a course outline for a teaching and learning unit to examine India's slums from a geographic perspective. Students in a college freshman and sophomore Human Geography class will discuss the problems and prospects of these slums. The unit is divided into three parts: (1) background information examining the slums from a…

  19. TIPOLOGI DAN POLA PENANGANAN PERMUKIMAN KUMUH DI KOTA BONTANG (The Typology and Patterns of Slum Improvement Management in Bontang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Setiadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Started as a fishing settlement area in Bontang Kuala Village, the City of Bontang has been growing very rapidly. However, despite this growth people's standard of living has been decreasing in terms of environmental quality, income as well as sheltering with the emergence of slum areas. These conditions greatly affect the physical, social, cultural and economic aspects of life. The management of slum areas in Bontang City becomes strategic because slums are integrated with the rest of the city including the downtown area and urban growth centers, as well as with the other areas in the vicinity, such as industrial, commercial, warehousing, and office areas. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the characteristics of the slum areas. The identification methods do not discriminate the distribution of slum areas. The criteria used include non-economic vitality, regional economic vitality, land ownership status, infrastructure and facility conditions, local government’s commitment, and handling priorities. Environmental assessment of the slums was done by assigning a weighting system to each of the above criteria. The determination of the weights of the criteria is relative and depends on the individual and group preferences in looking at the influence of each criterion. The improvement or treatment patterns appropriate to be applied in Bontang City should be in accordance with the site characteristics. Locations with high-scale slum category (HS requires the curative pattern while those with moderate category (MS should take reductive treatment, and slum areas with low-scale category (LS will require preventive treatment.

  20. Development of the clearance level verification evaluation system. 2. Construction of the clearance data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shintaro; Usui, Hideo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Clearance is defined as the removal of radioactive materials or radioactive objects within authorized practices from any further regulatory control by the regulatory body. In Japan, clearance level and a procedure for its verification has been introduced under the Laws and Regulations, and solid clearance wastes inspected by the national authority can be handled and recycled as normal wastes. The most prevalent type of wastes have generated from the dismantling of nuclear facilities, so the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the Clearance Level Verification Evaluation System (CLEVES) as a convenient tool. The Clearance Data Management System (CDMS), which is a part of CLEVES, has been developed to support measurement, evaluation, making and recording documents with clearance level verification. In addition, validation of the evaluation result of the CDMS was carried out by inputting the data of actual clearance activities in the JAEA. Clearance level verification is easily applied by using the CDMS for the clearance activities. (author)

  1. Model of slums rejuvenation in Telaga Tujuh village: the case of Langsa city, Aceh, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwansyah, Mirza; Caisarina, Irin; Solehati, Dini

    2018-05-01

    Telaga Tujuh village is the only island inhabited compared to other islands in Langsa City, Aceh. Most of the houses are on stilts with very limited infrastructure such as lack of road facilities, local drainage, drinking water, wastewater, and garbage disposals. In determining the model of the slum settlements arrangement of Telaga Tujuh Village, there are some things to know that the characteristics of slums themselves and the causes of slum settlement. The aim of this study is to determine model of slum settlement arrangement that is suitable to be applied in the location. The method used is qualitative with sampling technique and qualitative analysis. To obtain the primary data used observation method, questionnaires, and interview. Secondary data obtained from agencies related to slum settlement arrangement. Based on characteristic analysis found that 365 residential buildings are irregular with the percentage of 100%, 365 residential buildings do not have safe drinking water supply, 365 residential buildings do not have waste water management. From the analysis shows that the appropriate model to be applied to Telaga Tujuh village is the rejuvenation model with the land consolidation system through the re-arrangement divided by two, 60% for the existing residential development and 40% for commercial development.

  2. Do slums matter? Location and early childhood preventive care choices among urban residents of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Lauren R

    2013-10-01

    Upward trends in the relative proportions of slum residents in developing countries have led to widespread concern regarding the impact of slum residency on health behaviors. Measurement of these impacts requires recognizing that unobservable household characteristics that affect the location decision may also affect health care choices and outcomes. To address the potential for bias, this paper models the location decision and the household's demand for maternal and child health services simultaneously using a flexible, semi-parametric approach. It uses a unique urban data set from Bangladesh that incorporates sophisticated geographical mapping techniques to carefully delineate between slum and non-slum areas at a particular point in time. The results suggest that accounting for the endogenous location decision of a family substantially reduces bias in estimated marginal effects of slum residence on preventive care demand. While community infrastructure variables appear correlated with preventive care demand, the causal effect of the availability of primary health care facilities is indistinguishable from zero when unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account. The findings suggest that improvements in community infrastructure in urban areas of developing countries are a more favorable health policy solution at the margin than the construction of additional health care facilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of Gingivitis, Plaque accumulation and Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth among slum population in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Chowdhury, M T H; Khan, M A I; Chowdhury, A F M A; Shahidullah, K M; Saha, A K; Anjum, A

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional survey, using cluster sampling technique, of slum population, was done to explore the oral health status and the prevalence of common oral diseases. A close ended questionnaire comprising Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index, Gingival Index (Löe and Silness) and Plaque Index was applied to evaluate and record oral diseases, in both male and female population, covering a wide range of age groups. Clinical examination was carried out in different shum set ups, including slum schools by trained and calibrated examiners. Three thousand nine hundred and four (3904) slum dwellers participated in the survey. Prevalence of Caries was expressed in mean DMFT, recording of gingival status followed the method of Löe and Silness, oral hygiene status was evaluated using Plaque index. Mean decayed component, of the DMFT, was significantly higher than filling and missing component. Both decayed and missing components showed increasing trend, and filling components decreased as the age progressed. Prevalence of gingivitis and plaque accumulation was remarkably high among slum dwellers. Significantly high level of common oral diseases was found among Tongi slum dwellers.

  4. Changes in socio-economic and health condition of rehabilitated slum dwellers in Kolkata, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Askari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cancerous spread of slum has been a rampant problem in urban areas worldwide. The acute shortage of housing facilities compels the poor to live in slums. Proper rehabilitation is considered as a very essential remedial measure to provide better living environment to slum peoples. This study is an essential attempt to gauge the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program, which studies the changes in socio-economic and health condition of rehabilitated slum dwellers since they got rehabilitated. In order to do so, a household survey was carried comprising 240 households in two rehabilitated sites in the city of Kolkata (ward no. 107 and 114 during the month of July, 2014. The results conforms a strand of a belief that in-situ rehabilitation or rehabilitation within short distance is more effective. A rehabilitation too far away area disrupts the existing social, economic and political ties of neighborhoods. Measures have also been proposed to overcome such problems and to make the slum dwellers an integral part of urban society.

  5. Gender differentials and old age survival in the Nairobi slums, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Unintended pregnancy and subsequent use of modern contraceptive among slum and non-slum women in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Jean Christophe; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Saliku, Teresa; Ochako, Rhoune

    2014-07-10

    In spite of major gains in contraceptive prevalence over the last few decades, many women in most parts of the developing world who would like to delay or avoid pregnancy do not use any method of contraception. This paper seeks to: a) examine whether experiencing an unintended pregnancy is associated with future use of contraception controlling for a number factors including poverty at the household and community levels; and b) investigate the mechanisms through which experiencing an unintended pregnancy leads to uptake of contraception. Quantitative and qualitative data from a cross-sectional research project conducted in 2009/10 in two slum settlements and two non-slum settings of Nairobi, Kenya are used. The quantitative component of the project was based on a random sample of 1,259 women aged 15-49 years. Logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of unintended pregnancy on future contraceptive use. The qualitative component of the project successfully interviewed a total of 80 women randomly selected from survey participants who had reported having at least one unintended pregnancy. Women whose last pregnancy was unintended were more likely to be using a modern method of contraception, compared to their peers whose last pregnancy was intended, especially among the wealthier group as shown in the interaction model. Among poor women, unintended pregnancy was not associated with subsequent use of contraception. The qualitative investigation with women who had an unplanned pregnancy reveals that experiencing an unintended pregnancy seems to have served as a "wake-up call", resulting in greater attention to personal risks, including increased interest in pregnancy prevention. For some women, unintended pregnancy was a consequence of strong opposition by their partners to family planning, while others reported they started using contraceptives following their unintended pregnancy, but discontinued after experiencing side effects. This study provides

  7. Food Store Choice Among Urban Slum Women Is Associated With Consumption of Energy-Dense Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet. © 2016 APJPH.

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Leptospirosis among Urban Slum Residents in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navegantes de Araújo, Wildo; Finkmoore, Brooke; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Reis, Renato B.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Hagan, José E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Costa, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis disproportionately affects residents of urban slums. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding leptospirosis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among residents of an urban slum community in Salvador, Brazil. Of the 257 residents who were interviewed, 225 (90%) were aware of leptospirosis and more than two-thirds of respondents correctly identified the modes of disease transmission and ways to reduce exposure. However, study participants who performed risk activities such as cleaning open sewers had limited access to protective clothing such as boots (33%) or gloves (35%). Almost all respondents performed at least one activity to prevent household rat infestation, which often included use of an illegal poison. Our findings support the need for interventions targeted at the individual and household levels to reduce risk of leptospirosis until large-scale structural interventions are available to residents of urban slum communities. PMID:23269657

  9. America's Other Half: Slum Journalism and the War of 1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Patrick Leary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This article treats the links between the 1890s literature of urban reform in the United States, which focused on the downtown "other half" of New York, and the war literature of 1898, when American troops intervened in Cuba's war of independence. The article focuses on the work of Stephen Crane, who worked as a New York police reporter, slum novelist, and Cuba war correspondent in this turbulent decade. Leary shows how, in the martial culture of the American 1890s, the rhetoric of militarism informed the practice of urban reform, while the rhetoric of urban reform informed the military campaign in Cuba. This article argues that the United States' urban underdevelopment, represented famously by the Lower East Side of Manhattan, was imaginatively displaced onto Cuba. The War of 1898 was therefore an important landmark in the creation of a Third World imaginary in the United States, when "underdevelopment" would become a distinctly Latin American condition. In the twentieth century, the gap between modernity and underdevelopment would not be found in the sprawling tenement cities, but in "other Americas" to the south, below the Mason-Dixon line and in Cuba. After 1898, Cuba, once so close to the United States as to be nearly a state in the union, now belonged to another time—indeed, almost another world.

  10. America's Other Half: Slum Journalism and the War of 1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Patrick Leary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article treats the links between the 1890s literature of urban reform in the United States, which focused on the downtown "other half" of New York, and the war literature of 1898, when American troops intervened in Cuba's war of independence. The article focuses on the work of Stephen Crane, who worked as a New York police reporter, slum novelist, and Cuba war correspondent in this turbulent decade. Leary shows how, in the martial culture of the American 1890s, the rhetoric of militarism informed the practice of urban reform, while the rhetoric of urban reform informed the military campaign in Cuba. This article argues that the United States' urban underdevelopment, represented famously by the Lower East Side of Manhattan, was imaginatively displaced onto Cuba. The War of 1898 was therefore an important landmark in the creation of a Third World imaginary in the United States, when "underdevelopment" would become a distinctly Latin American condition. In the twentieth century, the gap between modernity and underdevelopment would not be found in the sprawling tenement cities, but in "other Americas" to the south, below the Mason-Dixon line and in Cuba. After 1898, Cuba, once so close to the United States as to be nearly a state in the union, now belonged to another time—indeed, almost another world.

  11. Delivery practices of traditional birth attendants in Dhaka slums, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, N; Arifeen, S E; Moran, A C; Caulfield, L E; Baqui, A H

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993-May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related complications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home-based birth attendants, and audits in 20 facilities where the women from this study gave birth. Associations among maternal characteristics, birth practices, delivery-location, and early postpartum morbidity were specifically explored. Self-reported postpartum morbidity was associated with maternal characteristics, delivery-related complications, and some birthing practices. Dais with more experience were more likely to use potentially-harmful birthing practices which increased the risk of postpartum morbidity among women with births at home. Postpartum morbidity did not differ by birth-location. Safe motherhood programmes must develop effective strategies to discourage potentially-harmful home-based delivery practices demonstrated to contribute to morbidity.

  12. Emergency Contraception in Women of Slums in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Puri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the utilization of the emergency contraception and to evaluate the impact of intervention on acceptability and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills. Materials and Methods: This community based cross sectional study was carried out by the department of community medicine in the slums of Chandigarh. The study sample was chosen by two stage systematic sampling. Participants were assessed regarding emergency contraception utilization and its various aspects and was also imparted correct knowledge regarding this mode of contraception. The women were reassessed again after six months to see the impact of the knowledge imparted to them on utilization of emergency contraception. Results: The study comprised of 1448, females and maximum were in the age group 26-35 years i.e. 717 (49.5% followed by those in age group 19-25 yr i.e. 485 (33.5%. Considering their education, 674 (46.5% women were illiterate. Only, 1.4% respondents had ever used emergency contraception. Sources of information so enumerated of emergency contraception were, health workers (0.8%, friends (0.6%, doctors/ health physicians (0.4% media (0.3% and books (0.1%. None of the respondent knew about the correct time span during which they should be used. The increase in utilization of emergency contraception from 1.4% to 4.2% was noticed in reassessment after 6months. Conclusion: Correct knowledge and awareness regarding emergency contraception can increase the utilization of it.

  13. Ensuring childhood vaccination among slums dwellers under the National Immunization Program in India - Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeev; Sahu, Damodar; Agrawal, Ashish; Vashi, Meeta Dhaval

    2018-04-04

    Almost, one third of the world's urban population resides in slums and the number would double by 2030. Slums denotes collection of people from various communities having a meagre income and living in unhygienic conditions thus making themselves most vulnerable for outbreaks of communicable diseases. India contributes substantially to the global disease burden and under-five mortality rates i.e. 20% attributable to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization plays a crucial role in combating high childhood mortality rates attributable to vaccine preventable diseases across the globe. This systematic review, provides insights on immunization status in slums, identifies various factors influencing it thus, exploring opportunities that may be available to improve vaccination coverage under the National Immunization Program. Taking into account the above aspects, a review of literature was undertaken in various databases that included studies published between 2006 and 2017. In India, ~33% of the urban population lives in slums with suboptimal vaccination coverage ranging from 14% to upto 90%. Few of the important causes for low coverage included socioeconomic factors such as poor community participation, lack of awareness, frequent migration, and loss of daily income. Hence, mere presence of vaccines in the National Immunization Program doesn't do the job, there is a definite unmet need to emphasize upon the importance of immunization among slums dwellers and take necessary steps. For instance, delivering immunization services at the doorstep (e.g. pulse polio program), community-based education, text messaging as reminders and incentivized immunization services are some of the opportunities that can be explored and implemented to improve immunization status in the slums. Thus, in addition to inclusion of more and more vaccines in the National Immunization Program, there is a definite need to focus on people living in high risk areas in order to improve coverage and

  14. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part. The Director, Washington Headquarters Services (WHS) will initiate the required investigation... clearance, as appropriate. The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Legislative Affairs) will be notified by WHS...

  15. Evaluation of Maternal Health Service Indicators in Urban Slum of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Saira Parveen; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Afsana, Kaosar; Yunus, Fakir Md; Chowdhury, Ahmed M R

    2016-01-01

    A continuous influx of poor people to urban slums poses a challenge to Bangladesh's health system as it has failed to tackle maternal morbidity and mortality. BRAC is the largest non-governmental organisation in Bangladesh. BRAC has been working to reduce maternal, neonatal and under-five children morbidity and mortality of slum dwellers in cities. BRAC has been doing this work for a decade through a programme called MANOSHI. This programme provides door-to-door services to its beneficiaries through community health workers (CHWs) and normal delivery service through its delivery and maternity centres. BRAC started the 'MANOSHI' programme in Narayanganj City Corporation during 2011 to address maternal, neonatal and child health problems facing slum dwellers. We investigated the existing maternal health-service indicators in the slums of Narayanganj City Corporation and compared the findings with a non-intervention area. This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012, in 47 slums of Narayanganj City Corporation as intervention and 10 slums of Narsingdi Sadar Municipality as comparison area. A total of 1206 married women, aged 15-49 years, with a pregnancy outcome in the previous year were included for interview. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive and maternal health-care practices like use of contraceptive methods, antenatal care (ANC), delivery care, postnatal care (PNC) were collected through a structured questionnaire. The chi-square test, Student t test, Mann Whitney U-test, factor analysis and log-binominal test were performed by using STATA statistical software for analysing data. The activities of BRAC CHWs significantly improved four or more ANC (47% vs. 21%; pslums compared to comparison slums. Still, about half of the deliveries in both areas were attended at home by unskilled birth attendants, of which a very few received PNC within 48 hours after delivery. The poorest and illiterate women received fewer maternal health services

  16. Land security and the challenges of realizing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Sharmila L

    2012-12-15

    Addressing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India requires disentangling the provision of basic services from a more complicated set of questions around land security and land ownership. Millions of slum-dwellers in Mumbai lack adequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation, which places them at risk for waterborne diseases. Many slums are located in hazardous areas such as flood plains, increasing their susceptibility to climate change-related weather patterns. Access to water and sanitation in slums generally hinges on whether a dwelling was created prior to January 1, 1995, because those constructed created prior to that date have greater land security. Although the so-called "1995 cut-off rule" looms large in Mumbai slum policy, a closer reading of the relevant laws and regulations suggests that access to water and sanitation could be expanded to slums created after January 1, 1995. State and municipal governments already have the authority to expand access to water services; they just need to exercise their discretion. However, slums located on central government land are in a more difficult position. Central government agencies in Mumbai have often refused to allow the state and municipal governments to rehabilitate or improve access to services for slums located on their land. As a result, an argument could be made that by interfering with the efforts of sub-national actors to extend water and sanitation to services to slum-dwellers, the central government of India is violating its obligations to respect the human right to water and sanitation under international and national jurisprudence. Copyright © 2012 Murthy. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are

  17. 2015 Annual Report on Security Clearance Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    only have delegated investigative authority over their civilian employee population and therefore, can only report the overall timeliness for that...completed or pending security clearance determinations for government employees and contractors during the preceding fiscal year that have taken longer...Clearance Determinations to Congress. The IAA directs this report to include the number of United States Government (USG) employees who held a

  18. Green technology; only Forest Clearance is needed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was land in Murmurwadi still under litigation made available? How was ...

  19. Clearance of materials from accelerator facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokni Sayed H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Technical Standard that supports the clearance of materials and equipment (personal property from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE accelerator facilities has been developed. The Standard focuses on personal property that has the potential to be radiologically impacted by accelerator operations. It addresses material clearance programs and protocols for off-site releases without restriction on use. Common metals with potential volumetric activation are of main interest with technical bases provided in Appendices of the Standard. The clearance protocols in the Standard include three elements: 1 clearance criteria, 2 process knowledge, and 3 measurement methods. This paper presents the technical aspects of the new Standard, discusses operational experience gained in clearance of materials and equipment from several accelerator facilities at SLAC and examples as to how this Standard can be applied to benefit the entirety of the DOE Accelerator Complex.

  20. Effect of maternal factors on nutritional status of 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal A; Ahluwalia S; Singh J

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of various maternal factors on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three urban slums of Tripuri Town, Patiala. All 1-5-year children living in these slums were included, whose mother′s demographic profile, weight and height were recorded. Results: Out of 482 children who participated in the study, 185 (38.38�...

  1. Strategies to reduce exclusion among populations living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2009-08-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4-5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak.

  2. Water and Sanitation in Urban Slum: A Case from Bandung Municipality, West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastiti, A.; Primasuri, W.A.; Setiani, B.; Sudradjat, A.; Latifah, I.; Roosmini, D.; Smits, A.J.M.; Meijerink, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    Providing equal access among urban quintiles is the main challenge in urban water and sanitation sector. This paper tries to depict the choice and behavior regarding drinking water and sanitation of 127 slum households in Bandung Municipality. Issues explored using close-ended questionnaires are

  3. Strategies to Reduce Exclusion among Populations Living in Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090

  4. Sleep and quality of life in urban poverty: the effect of a slum housing upgrading program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Guido; Leanza, Yvan; Boilard, Alexandra; Hyland, Martín; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Cardinali, Daniel P; Vallières, Annie; Pérez-Chada, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of a housing transition on sleep quality and quality of life in slum dwellers, participating in a slum housing upgrading program. Observational before-and-after study with a convergent-parallel mixed method design. Five slums located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. A total of 150 slum dwellers benefited by a housing program of the nonprofit organization TECHO (spanish word for "roof"). Participants moved from their very low-quality house to a basic prefabricated 18 m(2) modular house provided by TECHO. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and World Health Organization Quality of Life brief scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered before and after housing upgrading. Data about housing conditions, income, education, sleeping conditions, and cardiovascular risk were also collected. Semistructured interviews were used to expand and nuance quantitative data obtained from a poorly educated sample. Results showed that sleep quality significantly increased after the housing program (z = -6.57, P urban settlements could help to define what kind of low-cost intervention may improve sleep quality, quality of life, and reduce existent sleep disparity.

  5. Personal hygiene among primary school children living in a slum of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M

    2013-09-01

    For children, maintenance of personal hygiene helps to improve the quality of life and longevity. This is of particular importance in a slum community with compromised living situation. This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge and practice of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in a slum area, to identify any misconception among them regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene, to find out their morbidity pattern, and also to elicit the relationship between practice of personal hygiene among the children and the literacy status of their mother. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 104 primary school children of a primary school situated in the slum area of Chetla, Kolkata, India with the help of a predesigned, pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance. It was found that the female students were more knowledgeable than the male students regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene. There was a wide gap between practice and knowledge of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in the slum area. Even, misconceptions do exist on certain indicators of personal hygiene among the students. Statistically significant association was observed between practices of personal hygiene among the primary school children and the literacy status of their mother. Future of a society depends considerably on the health of its children. The parents and the school teachers, as constructive shapers of children's health behaviors, should play a responsible role in early education of children on personal hygiene.

  6. Transforming the slum: The case of Mumbai's M-Ward | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... Mumbai, India's largest and wealthiest city, is a study in contrasts: it is rich and ... of state corruption and collusion with private sector developers. ... the Slum through Creation of Property Market: A Case Study of M-Ward in ...

  7. Growing Up at the "Margins": Concerns, Aspirations, and Expectations of Young People Living in Nairobi's Slums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Mojola, Sanyu A.; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

    2013-01-01

    We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4,033 12-22-year-olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with…

  8. Coupling Uncertainties with Accuracy Assessment in Object-Based Slum Detections, Case Study: Jakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratomo, J.; Kuffer, M.; Martinez, Javier; Kohli, D.

    2017-01-01

    Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) has been successfully used to map slums. In general, the occurrence of uncertainties in producing geographic data is inevitable. However, most studies concentrated solely on assessing the classification accuracy and neglecting the inherent uncertainties. Our

  9. Partner and Relationship Factors in Domestic Violence: Perspectives of Women from a Slum in Calcutta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. K.; Dutt, Debashis; Banerjee, Bratati

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 751 women, living in slums, examined their perspectives on partner and relationship factors of domestic violence. More than 17% of women experienced physical violence in the past year. Individual factors related to the husband--namely, poor socioeconomic status, use of alcohol, extramarital…

  10. The Work of Teachers and Others in and around a Birmingham Slum School 1891-1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Susannah

    2009-01-01

    The "Floodgate Street area" was a notorious slum district in the city of Birmingham in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This article presents a case study, drawing on the rich archival sources available for this area, to examine the language that local authority and voluntary workers used to describe the local area, and…

  11. A Passion for Success: Beating the Odds in a New Delhi Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Penny

    2002-01-01

    A private alternative school in the slums of New Delhi (India) is committed to ending female child labor and ensuring that its students don't grow up poor. The school was able to enroll girls in its all-female afternoon classes by getting their mothers involved in income-generating cooperatives. The students often outperform their peers in state…

  12. "Making It": Understanding Adolescent Resilience in Two Informal Settlements (Slums) in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Beguy, Donatien; Ndugwa, Robert P.; Zulu, Eliya M.; Jessor, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Many adolescents living in contexts characterized by adversity achieve positive outcomes. We adopt a protection-risk conceptual framework to examine resilience (academic achievement, civic participation, and avoidance of risk behaviors) among 1,722 never-married 12-19 year olds living in two Kenyan urban slums. We find stronger associations…

  13. Factors that Prevent Children from Gaining Access to Schooling: A Study of Delhi Slum Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5-14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend…

  14. The Rise of Urban Slum in Nigeria: Implications on the Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... defacement of the urban landscape in Nigeria. It recommends that Government and city planners should provide affordable land and low cost housing for the urban dwellers. This will enable people to own their property or rent as the case may be. Keywords: Urban Slum, Urban Landscape, Implication, Population, Growth

  15. Community perception regarding rabies prevention and stray dog control in urban slums in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Mrudu; Riyaz Basha, S; Thangaraj, Selvi

    2012-12-01

    The lack of community awareness about rabies control is a major issue that thwarts efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess community knowledge and attitudes about rabies, rabies prevention and stray dog control in an urban slum community and (2) to determine the factors that influence rabies awareness in urban slums. Using a systematic random sampling strategy, 185 participants were selected from 8 urban slums. The data were collected by direct interview using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. In the study population, 74.1% of the participants had heard about rabies, and 54.1% knew that rabies is a fatal disease. Only 33.5% of the interviewees felt that people in the community had a role to play in controlling the stray dog population. Gender, age and educational status were significantly associated with rabies awareness. Our study indicates that there are gaps in the knowledge and attitudes of individuals living in urban slums regarding rabies prevention and control. Efforts to promote awareness should be targeted at men, older people and uneducated individuals. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HIV/AIDS KNOWLEDGE AND PATTERNS OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AMONG ADULT SLUM DWELLERS IN MUMBAI, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Syed, Sukhdas Gangam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, currently 2.1 million people are living with HIV. Prevention is the mainstay of the strategic response to HIV/AIDS in India. Awareness rising brings behaviour change. People inhabiting slums have low awareness and are more vulnerable to RTI/STIs and HIV/AIDS. Aims: To assess HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexual behaviour, reported symptoms of STI/RTI’s along with the socio demographic profile of adult population of urban slum dwellers. Methods: A cross sectional, qualitative study. The study area, chosen by convenience sampling was an urban slum located in M East Ward of Greater Mumbai. The study was finally conducted with 104 participants. Results: The mean age of surveyed participants was 23.5yrs and nearly 38(40% of participants were illiterate Age at first sexual intercourse among the study participants was between 12-16 years for 23(22.10% participants. Among study participants; 30(29% of participants do not have any knowledge about prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS. Conclusions: Urban slum residents in Mumbai have knowledge gap regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention. Initiation of sexual intercourse is at an early age, a high percentage report symptoms of STI/RTIs.

  17. The Nubis of Kibera : a social history of the Nubians and Kibera slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedt, Johan Victor Adriaan de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is based on research conducted in Kibera slums in Nairobi, Kenya, from 2004 to 2008; it focuses on the Nubi ‘tribe’, an ethnic group that developed from an Islamised mix of Sudanese, Ugandan and Congolese people, many of them former soldiers of the Egyptian army in southern Sudan. When

  18. Future Discounting by Slum-Dwelling Youth versus University Students in Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Dandara; Victor, Tania; Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Daly, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We compared Future Discounting (FD, preference for smaller, sooner rewards over larger, later ones) by 160 Brazilian youth (16-30 years old; 71 women and 89 men). University students and slum-dwelling (favela) youth were compared. Participants completed a monetary FD task, a scale of youngsters' view of their neighborhood, and self-reported…

  19. Permanent Transiency, Tele-visual Spectacle, and the Slum as Postcolonial Monument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasgupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    With their makeshift structures and seemingly itinerant inhabitants, slums suggest transiency. Yet, like monuments, they acquire a paradoxical permanency in the context of continual social upheaval, the historical ebbs and flows of the nation-state, and the economic transformations engendered by

  20. Growth pattern of preterm and IUGR babies in an urban slum of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to analyze the growth pattern of preterm and IUGR infants from birth up to nine months of age. A longitudinal study was conducted in an urban slum of Chetla, Kolkata, India. Study population comprised of 36 low birth weight babies, out of which 13 were preterms and rest 23 were IUGR ...

  1. Risk factor analysis for oral precancer among slum dwellers in Delhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An outfall of urbanization in developing countries has been the mushrooming of slums where dwellers live in pitiable environmental conditions representing the lowest rung of social strata. This group is more vulnerable to practicing deleterious social habits, including tobacco and alcohol abuse. Aim: The ...

  2. Antenatal Care Seeking Behaviour among Slum Mothers: A Study of Rajshahi City Corporation, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahfuzar; Islam, Rafiqul; Rahman, Mosfequr

    2010-04-01

    The study aimed to identify the important effects of some selected variables in antenatal care (ANC) seeking behaviour among slum mothers. The data for the study were collected in 2006 from 700 mothers in the slum areas of Rajshahi City Corporation (RCC), Bangladesh. The results indicate that tetanus toxoid (TT) is relatively widespread in slum areas of RCC. Serious health implications were observed for the mothers and their children who lived in the study areas because more than half of the respondents (56.1%) were not assisted at their last childbirth by any health professional. The respondents were too poor to buy iron tablets/syrup and vitamin tablets/syrup during their last pregnancy. The application of a logistic regression model suggested that demographic and socio-economic factors were associated with ANC seeking behaviour among slum mothers. Respondents' education, place of treatment, husband's occupation, family's income, and exposure to mass media had highly significant effects on mothers seeking medical checkups during their last pregnancy.

  3. Health Problems of the Under-Five Children in an Urban Slum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the health problems common among under-five children in a typical urban slum in Nigeria and assess the treatment patterns commonly offered to these children. Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in May-July 2010. A cluster sampling technique was used to select ...

  4. Using formative research to develop MNCH programme in urban slums in Bangladesh: experiences from MANOSHI, BRAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin Tamanna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MANOSHI, an integrated community-based package of essential Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH services is being implemented by BRAC in the urban slums of Bangladesh since 2007. The objective of the formative research done during the inception phase was to understand the context and existing resources available in the slums, to reduce uncertainty about anticipated effects, and develop and refine the intervention components. Methods Data were collected during Jan-Sept 2007 in one of the earliest sites of programme intervention in the Dhaka metropolitan area. A conceptual framework guided data collection at different stages. Besides exploring slum characteristics, studies were done to map existing MNCH service providing facilities and providers, explore existing MNCH-related practices, and make an inventory of community networks/groups with a stake in MNCH service provision. Also, initial perception and expectations regarding the community delivery centres launched by the programme was explored. Transect walk, observation, pile sorting, informal and focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, case studies, network analysis and small quantitative surveys were done to collect data. Results Findings reveal that though there are various MNCH services and providers available in the slums, their capacity to provide rational and quality services is questionable. Community has superficial knowledge of MNCH care and services, but this is inadequate to facilitate the optimal survival of mothers and neonates. Due to economic hardships, the slum community mainly relies on cheap informal sector for health care. Cultural beliefs and practices also reinforce this behaviour including home delivery without skilled assistance. Men and women differed in their perception of pregnancy and delivery: men were more concerned with expenses while women expressed fear of the whole process, including delivering at hospitals. People expected 'one

  5. Life in a landfill slum, children's health, and the Millennium Development Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James L.; Watson, Lindsey M.; Nikitin, Ivan V.; Ansariadi; La Ane, Ruslan; Maidin, Alimin

    2015-01-01

    People living in slums can be considered left behind with regard to national successes in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the living and working conditions of waste pickers and their children in a landfill slum located in the largest city in eastern Indonesia. A total of 113 people from the landfill slum and 1184 people from the general population participated in face-to-face interviews. Municipal solid waste (MSW) was analyzed for metals, metalloids and fecal indicator bacteria. Ambient air quality including particulate matter was measured in the landfill. Households in the landfill slum were 5.73 (p = 0.04) times more likely to be below the international poverty line (MDG 1: Poverty) and 15.6 times (p < 0.01) more likely to have no one in the household possessing a primary education (MDG 2: Universal Education), and 107 times (p < 0.01) more likely not to have improved sanitation facilities (MDG 7: Environmental Sustainability) when compared to the general population. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under five in Indonesia. Young children living in the landfill slum were 2.87 times (p = 0.02) more likely to develop diarrhea than their general population counterparts. Other survey results and environmental measurements suggest that landfill slum children have additional adverse health effects (e.g. infections and poisoning). Poverty underlies several MDG issues that directly or indirectly affect child health. Therefore, eradicating extreme poverty will continue to be the most critical challenge for the MDGs beyond 2015. - Highlights: • Waste-pickers and the health and well-being of their children are examined • Landfill slum (LS) residents do not have a share in improving economies • LSs illustrate the interrelationship of Millennium Development Goals • LS mothers and children are exposed to toxic chemicals and pathogens • MDGs directly and indirectly addresses issues

  6. The ethical and local resident perspectives of slum tourism in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiannah M. Kieti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Slum   tourism  is  relatively  a  new  phenomenon which  has  generated   a  considerable  body  of reactions  from  many  commentators.   Nevertheless,  there  are  numerous research  gaps within  the   existing   literature, especially   on   slum   residents’   attitudes   towards   its   development,   its  ethical  acceptability  and   the  level  of  benefits  accrued.   This paper examines the  attitudes  of  Kibera  slum  residents  towards  the  development  of  slum  tourism.  Semi-­structured interviews and   questionnaires were   used to   collect   data   from   13   key   informants   and   200 heads   of  households respectively. The  research  findings  reveal that  the  residents  of  Kibera  slums  hold  negative   attitudes   towards   slum   tourism   as evidenced  by  low rating   of   the  positive  impact  statements   (Overall   mean=2.43   and   higher   rating   of negative   impact   statements   (Overall  mean=3.413.  Both  intrinsic   factors   and   external   factors,  including   the  level   of   benefits   and   social  impacts  of  slum  tourism  were  found  to  shape  the  attitudes  of  the  residents.

  7. Life in a landfill slum, children's health, and the Millennium Development Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki, E-mail: tshibata@niu.edu [Public Health Program, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Institute of the Study for Environment, Sustainability, and Energy, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi (Indonesia); Wilson, James L. [Institute of the Study for Environment, Sustainability, and Energy, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Department of Geography, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Watson, Lindsey M.; Nikitin, Ivan V. [Public Health Program, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Ansariadi; La Ane, Ruslan; Maidin, Alimin [Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    2015-12-01

    People living in slums can be considered left behind with regard to national successes in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the living and working conditions of waste pickers and their children in a landfill slum located in the largest city in eastern Indonesia. A total of 113 people from the landfill slum and 1184 people from the general population participated in face-to-face interviews. Municipal solid waste (MSW) was analyzed for metals, metalloids and fecal indicator bacteria. Ambient air quality including particulate matter was measured in the landfill. Households in the landfill slum were 5.73 (p = 0.04) times more likely to be below the international poverty line (MDG 1: Poverty) and 15.6 times (p < 0.01) more likely to have no one in the household possessing a primary education (MDG 2: Universal Education), and 107 times (p < 0.01) more likely not to have improved sanitation facilities (MDG 7: Environmental Sustainability) when compared to the general population. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under five in Indonesia. Young children living in the landfill slum were 2.87 times (p = 0.02) more likely to develop diarrhea than their general population counterparts. Other survey results and environmental measurements suggest that landfill slum children have additional adverse health effects (e.g. infections and poisoning). Poverty underlies several MDG issues that directly or indirectly affect child health. Therefore, eradicating extreme poverty will continue to be the most critical challenge for the MDGs beyond 2015. - Highlights: • Waste-pickers and the health and well-being of their children are examined • Landfill slum (LS) residents do not have a share in improving economies • LSs illustrate the interrelationship of Millennium Development Goals • LS mothers and children are exposed to toxic chemicals and pathogens • MDGs directly and indirectly addresses issues

  8. Impact of environment and social gradient on Leptospira infection in urban slums.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B Reis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis has become an urban health problem as slum settlements have expanded worldwide. Efforts to identify interventions for urban leptospirosis have been hampered by the lack of population-based information on Leptospira transmission determinants. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of Leptospira infection and identify risk factors for infection in the urban slum setting.We performed a community-based survey of 3,171 slum residents from Salvador, Brazil. Leptospira agglutinating antibodies were measured as a marker for prior infection. Poisson regression models evaluated the association between the presence of Leptospira antibodies and environmental attributes obtained from Geographical Information System surveys and indicators of socioeconomic status and exposures for individuals. Overall prevalence of Leptospira antibodies was 15.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.0-16.8. Households of subjects with Leptospira antibodies clustered in squatter areas at the bottom of valleys. The risk of acquiring Leptospira antibodies was associated with household environmental factors such as residence in flood-risk regions with open sewers (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.75 and proximity to accumulated refuse (1.43, 1.04-1.88, sighting rats (1.32, 1.10-1.58, and the presence of chickens (1.26, 1.05-1.51. Furthermore, low income and black race (1.25, 1.03-1.50 were independent risk factors. An increase of US$1 per day in per capita household income was associated with an 11% (95% CI 5%-18% decrease in infection risk.Deficiencies in the sanitation infrastructure where slum inhabitants reside were found to be environmental sources of Leptospira transmission. Even after controlling for environmental factors, differences in socioeconomic status contributed to the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that effective prevention of leptospirosis may need to address the social factors that produce unequal health outcomes among

  9. Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnath Subbaraman

    Full Text Available A focus on bacterial contamination has limited many studies of water service delivery in slums, with diarrheal illness being the presumed outcome of interest. We conducted a mixed methods study in a slum of 12,000 people in Mumbai, India to measure deficiencies in a broader array of water service delivery indicators and their adverse life impacts on the slum's residents.Six focus group discussions and 40 individual qualitative interviews were conducted using purposeful sampling. Quantitative data on water indicators-quantity, access, price, reliability, and equity-were collected via a structured survey of 521 households selected using population-based random sampling.In addition to negatively affecting health, the qualitative findings reveal that water service delivery failures have a constellation of other adverse life impacts-on household economy, employment, education, quality of life, social cohesion, and people's sense of political inclusion. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, price of water is the factor most strongly associated with use of inadequate water quantity (≤20 liters per capita per day. Water service delivery failures and their adverse impacts vary based on whether households fetch water or have informal water vendors deliver it to their homes.Deficiencies in water service delivery are associated with many non-health-related adverse impacts on slum households. Failure to evaluate non-health outcomes may underestimate the deprivation resulting from inadequate water service delivery. Based on these findings, we outline a multidimensional definition of household "water poverty" that encourages policymakers and researchers to look beyond evaluation of water quality and health. Use of multidimensional water metrics by governments, slum communities, and researchers may help to ensure that water supplies are designed to advance a broad array of health, economic, and social outcomes for the urban poor.

  10. Access to health in city slum dwellers: The case of Sodom and Gomorrah in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E. Owusu-Ansah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid rural-urban migration of people to cities is a reality around the globe that has increased city slum dwellers. Sodom and Gomorrah is a city slum located in the heart of Accra, Ghana. Like other slums, it lacks basic amenities necessary for dwellers’ quality of life. This study describes residents’ access to health and factors associated with the use of healthcarefacilities. Methods: Questionnaires were administered in systematically selected shacks across the entire slum. Data on demographic characteristics, existent health facilities and number of users, health-insured residents and knowledge of common diseases were collected. Results: Majority of the residents were from the northern parts of Ghana, relative to the south and a few of them come from other parts of West Africa. Seventy-one percent of residents had never visited a health facility in the last 5 years. When necessary, they access health care from drug stores (61.1% or hospitals (33.1%. Residents’ age, educational status, income, health knowledge and membership of National Health Insurance Scheme were significantly (p < 0.05 associated with the use of healthcare facilities. Younger residents and those without National Health Insurance Scheme membership, formal education, no knowledge of common illnesses and regular income were significantly less likely to use a healthcare facility. For most residents, neither distance (73.2% nor transportation to health facilities was a problem (74.1%. Conclusion: Conditions of profound environmental hazards, overcrowding, poor-quality housing and lack of health care in Sodom and Gomorrah pose grave threats to the health of the inhabitants. Multisectoral interventions and resource mobilisation championed by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development are needed to alter the trend. Keywords: Slum dwellers, health, access, Sodom and Gomorra, Ghana

  11. Barriers and facilitators to Electronic Medical Record (EMR) use in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawhari, Badeia; Keenan, Louanne; Zakus, David; Ludwick, Dave; Isaac, Abraam; Saleh, Abdullah; Hayward, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Rapid urbanization has led to the growth of urban slums and increased healthcare burdens for vulnerable populations. Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have the potential to improve continuity of care for slum residents, but their implementation is complicated by technical and non-technical limitations. This study sought practical insights about facilitators and barriers to EMR implementation in urban slum environments. Descriptive qualitative method was used to explore staff perceptions about a recent open-source EMR deployment in two primary care clinics in Kibera, Nairobi. Participants were interviewed using open-ended, semi-structured questions. Content analysis was used when exploring transcribed data. Three major themes - systems, software, and social considerations - emerged from content analysis, with sustainability concerns prevailing. Although participants reported many systems (e.g., power, network, Internet, hardware, interoperability) and software (e.g., data integrity, confidentiality, function) challenges, social factors (e.g., identity management, training, use incentives) appeared the most important impediments to sustainability. These findings are consistent with what others have reported, especially the importance of practical barriers to EMR deployments in resource-constrained settings. Other findings contribute unique insights about social determinants of EMR impact in slum settings, including the challenge of multiple-identity management and development of meaningful incentives to staff compliance. This study exposes front-line experiences with opportunities and shortcomings of EMR implementations in urban slum primary care clinics. Although the promise is great, there are a number of unique system, software and social challenges that EMR advocates should address before expecting sustainable EMR use in resource-constrained settings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors influencing substance use among adolescent slum dwellers of Guwahati City, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanusri Bardhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Humans have been using substances in one form or the other for centuries. Adolescents seem to be the most vulnerable group, and the slum dwellers are particularly at risk because of the prevailing environment. Objectives: The objective of this study is to study the prevalence of substance use among adolescents of slums of Guwahati city and to find out various factors influencing substance use among them. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adolescents living in slums of Guwahati, Assam, from February to May 2014. Using cluster sampling method, 23 slums were selected, and desired clusters were obtained by applying probability proportionate to size method. From each slum, equal number of boys and girls were interviewed to get a total of 414 study subjects. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression were used. Results: The prevalence of ever users was 37.68% and 35.02% were current users. Gutkha was the most common substance used. The mean age of initiation of abusive substances was around 12 years for both boys and girls. Age, sex, religion, caste, schooling status, occupation, living status of parents and respondents, peer usage, and relationship with the family members showed significant association with substance use. Binary logistic regression concluded that age group, sex, and peer usage were the most significant factors influencing substance use behavior. Conclusion: As increasing age and peer usage influenced the substance usage, peer group counseling, recreational activities, and skill development programs in the early years hold promising in curbing the problem.

  13. A spatial epidemiological analysis of self-rated mental health in the slums of Dhaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deprived physical environments present in slums are well-known to have adverse health effects on their residents. However, little is known about the health effects of the social environments in slums. Moreover, neighbourhood quantitative spatial analyses of the mental health status of slum residents are still rare. The aim of this paper is to study self-rated mental health data in several slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh, by accounting for neighbourhood social and physical associations using spatial statistics. We hypothesised that mental health would show a significant spatial pattern in different population groups, and that the spatial patterns would relate to spatially-correlated health-determining factors (HDF. Methods We applied a spatial epidemiological approach, including non-spatial ANOVA/ANCOVA, as well as global and local univariate and bivariate Moran's I statistics. The WHO-5 Well-being Index was used as a measure of self-rated mental health. Results We found that poor mental health (WHO-5 scores Conclusions Spatial patterns of mental health were detected and could be partly explained by spatially correlated HDF. We thereby showed that the socio-physical neighbourhood was significantly associated with health status, i.e., mental health at one location was spatially dependent on the mental health and HDF prevalent at neighbouring locations. Furthermore, the spatial patterns point to severe health disparities both within and between the slums. In addition to examining health outcomes, the methodology used here is also applicable to residuals of regression models, such as helping to avoid violating the assumption of data independence that underlies many statistical approaches. We assume that similar spatial structures can be found in other studies focussing on neighbourhood effects on health, and therefore argue for a more widespread incorporation of spatial statistics in epidemiological studies.

  14. Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ramnath; Nolan, Laura; Sawant, Kiran; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita; Bloom, David E

    2015-01-01

    A focus on bacterial contamination has limited many studies of water service delivery in slums, with diarrheal illness being the presumed outcome of interest. We conducted a mixed methods study in a slum of 12,000 people in Mumbai, India to measure deficiencies in a broader array of water service delivery indicators and their adverse life impacts on the slum's residents. Six focus group discussions and 40 individual qualitative interviews were conducted using purposeful sampling. Quantitative data on water indicators-quantity, access, price, reliability, and equity-were collected via a structured survey of 521 households selected using population-based random sampling. In addition to negatively affecting health, the qualitative findings reveal that water service delivery failures have a constellation of other adverse life impacts-on household economy, employment, education, quality of life, social cohesion, and people's sense of political inclusion. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, price of water is the factor most strongly associated with use of inadequate water quantity (≤20 liters per capita per day). Water service delivery failures and their adverse impacts vary based on whether households fetch water or have informal water vendors deliver it to their homes. Deficiencies in water service delivery are associated with many non-health-related adverse impacts on slum households. Failure to evaluate non-health outcomes may underestimate the deprivation resulting from inadequate water service delivery. Based on these findings, we outline a multidimensional definition of household "water poverty" that encourages policymakers and researchers to look beyond evaluation of water quality and health. Use of multidimensional water metrics by governments, slum communities, and researchers may help to ensure that water supplies are designed to advance a broad array of health, economic, and social outcomes for the urban poor.

  15. A community kitchen in the Kamanves slum, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, E R; Holkar, V M

    1978-01-01

    The Kamanves slum in the town of Mijar (Maharashtra State) is an impoverished area of about 2500 people, most living in 1-room mud-walled houses. About 70% have either no or only nominal education, and more than half are only informally or temporarily employed. The average income amounts to less than $0.85 per day for an average family of 5. In 1974 a group of Kamanves residents formed a committee, backed by the Director of the Department of Community Health of the Miraj Medical Center, to try to alleviate some of the area's problems. Through community discussions, the 1st priority of the committee was held to be to provide for the nutritional needs of the children (about 35% of the population). The group tried to raise money internally, but when this was seen to be impossible, funds were sought from outside (Terre des Hommes in Germany, and the National Committee for People's Self Development of the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.). Steps were taken to build an extension of the local school, and the local school board was used as the legal base for the organization of a public trust, with its own bank account and constitution (later revised to cover additional projects). The 1st projects were provision of a morning meal for some 150 children under 5, and an evening meal for older children, with special supplementary foods for those suffering from nutritional diseases. The meal includes rice and meat twice a week and fruit 3 times a week. Health care is provided through monitoring of weight, regular medical examinations, treatment of worms and minor ailments. Personal hygiene is taught. A very small fee is charged for each child weekly. Additional projects later included a communal meal for the very poorest adults and expansion of the kitchen (run on a rotating basis by community mothers under management of specially trained women) to help feed the poorer patients at the Miraj Medical Center (this project will undergo evaluation by the community to see if

  16. Multifunctional spaces in slum settlements and their relation to activity pattern case study of Kampung Sangkrah, Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobirin, Abyzhar; Ramadhanty, Almira Husna; Hardiana, Ana

    2018-02-01

    Surakarta is a rapidly urbanized city and it causes the limitation of the availability of land within its urban area. This entangled problem is resulting in the development of slum settlements that spread across the city. One of the slum concentration areas is located on Pepe riverbanks downstream area that belongs to Kampung Sangkrah administrative boundaries. Slum settlements are characterized as a densely-populated area lacking of, or absence of, open space. This condition forces slum inhabitants to effectively use their available spaces, even multi-functionally. This research aims to observe how slum inhabitants multi-functionally use the spaces around their houses and determine the typology of multifunctional space and also the factors that influence it. To understand this phenomenon, this research used activity pattern perspectives. The scope of observation covers in-house (internal) space utilizations and neighborhood-level (external) space utilization. The data used for this research were collected primarily through site observations and interviews, using sampling to conduct data collection for in-house activities and space utilization. The analysis was conducted using descriptive method qualitatively. The research concluded that there are three types of multifunctional space utilization within slum settlements, and the utilization of spaces, whether internal or external utilization also varies depending on the inhabitants' economic-related activities.

  17. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  18. Low ground clearance vehicle detection and warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A Low Ground Clearance Vehicle Detection : System (LGCVDS) determines if a commercial : motor vehicle can successfully clear a highwayrail : grade crossing and notifies the driver when : his or her vehicle cannot safely traverse the : crossing. That ...

  19. Exclusion, exemption, clearance European Union approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation overviews the following issues: Euratom Basic Safety Standards; administrative requirements; radiation protection of the population. Scope of the Standards: natural radiation sources; exclusion. Exemption; Clearance; Import of radioactive scrap metal

  20. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  1. Noninvasive determination of individual renal clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, J.; Brunois, J.P.; Ruiz, J.C.; Assailly, J.

    1980-01-01

    A noninvasive method for measurement of individual renal clearance is presented, based on analysis of the early rise of the kidneys' time-activity curves after injection of an appropriate tracer ( 131 I-ortho-iodohippurate for tubular function or 111 In DTPA for glomerular clearance). The analysis is based on the assumption that an insignificant amount of tracer leaves the kidney during the first few moments following injection. Therefore, the kidney activity during this period is directly proportional to the integral of the blood (heart) activity. After blood background subtraction, the linear correlation between the early part of the renogram and the corresponding blood integral activity curve allows calculation of an angular coefficient. The ratio of these coefficients calculated for each kidney is proportional to the ratio of the individual clearances. The latter are calculated from the total clearance simultaneously measured using a simplified method without urine collection. In control subjects with normal renal function individual renal clearances were not significantly different. In uninephrectomized patients a precision of 5% in calculating individual clearance was estimated from data recorded at the level of the remaining kidney. In patients with functional asymmetry, results were compared with 197 HgCl 2 quantitative renal fixation. A linear correlation was found (r = 0.95). The method we propose seems valuable for clinical investigation and allows sequential measurements. (orig.)

  2. Musculoskeletal health conditions among older populations in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboderin, Isabella; Nanyonjo, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Debate on the burden of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in lower and middle income countries is intensifying; yet, little knowledge so far exists on patterns and impacts of such conditions among general or older adult populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The objectives of this study are to examine the prevalence, potential predictors, and sequelae of MSK among older adults residing in two low resource informal urban settlements or "slums" in Nairobi Kenya. Data on older adults aged 60 years and over from two unrelated cross-sectional surveys on the older slum populations are used: a 2006/7 survey on the social, health, and overall well-being of older people (sample N = 831), and a 2016 survey on realities and impacts of long-term care and social protection for older adults (sample n = 1026). Uni and multivariate regressions on the 2006/7 data are employed to examine relationships of back pain and symptoms of arthritis with sex, age, wealth, unemployment, diagnoses of hypertension, and diabetes; and with indicators of subjective well-being and functional ability. Descriptive frequencies and chi-squared tests of association are used on 2016 data to identify the overall prevalence and locations of activity limiting MSK pain, and sex differences in these. Prevalence of past month back pain and past 2 week symptoms of arthritis was 44% and 42.6%, respectively. Respective prevalence of past month activity limiting back pain and joint pain was 13.9% and 22.7%. A total of 42.6% of slum residents with a current health problem report MSK as the most severe problem. In multivariate regressions, female sex, unemployment, and diagnosis of hypertension are predictive of back pain and symptoms of arthritis. Both conditions are associated with raised odds of having lower quality of life, poorer life satisfaction, and depressive symptoms, and with mobility impairments and self-care difficulties. MSK conditions are salient, and a likely key cause of impaired subjective well

  3. Soil Ingestion is Associated with Child Diarrhea in an Urban Slum of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauza, Valerie; Ocharo, R M; Nguyen, Thanh H; Guest, Jeremy S

    2017-03-01

    AbstractDiarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 54 children aged 3 months to 5 years old in Kibera, an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya, to assess the relationship between caregiver-reported soil ingestion and child diarrhea. Diarrhea was significantly associated with soil ingestion (adjusted odds ratio = 9.9, 95% confidence interval = 2.1-47.5). Soil samples from locations near each household were also collected and analyzed for Escherichia coli and a human-associated Bacteroides fecal marker (HF183). Escherichia coli was detected in 100% of soil samples (mean 5.5 log colony forming units E. coli per gram of dry soil) and the Bacteroides fecal marker HF183 was detected in 93% of soil samples. These findings suggest that soil ingestion may be an important transmission pathway for diarrheal disease in urban slum settings.

  4. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study

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    Caroline Ferraz Ignacio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  5. Maternal Health Care Practices among Mothers of a Selected Slum in Dhaka City

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    Mohoshina Karim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is a small South Asian country which became independent in 1971 after a bloody war. Rapid urbanisation in Bangladesh (26% of the 147.1 million inhabitants live in urban areas is fuelling a growth in urban poverty, particularly in the urban slums where the quality of life is extremely poor. The average population density in slums was reported in 2005 as 831 persons per acre or 205,415 people per square kilometre.1 Early commencement of antenatal care by pregnant women as well as regular visits has the potential to affect maternal and foetal outcome. Objective: To assess the status of ANC service used by the pregnant mothers and their socio-demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Moghbazar slum area in Dhaka district of Bangladesh, during January to June 2014. A total of 161 slum dwellers were enrolled in the study. Information regarding education, occupation, monthly family income, antenatal care was gathered using a pretested structured questionnnare and data were analysed. Results: The majority respondents had knowledge about antenatal care and of them 89 (55.2% completed ≥3 visits. Forty five (47.8% pregnant women received ANC from government hospitals. Nearly 72% mothers received ANC service from doctors and 16.9% received from family welfare visitors (FWV. Half of mothers were satisfied with the overall care provided to them. About 86.2% mothers said that they had to wait for more than two hours for check-ups. More than 50% received information about exercise and 36% were reassured about discussing fear and anxiety about pregnancy. Conclusion: This study reveals that antenatal care provided was not up to the mark of standard care and measures should be taken to improve it.

  6. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Among Elderly Persons in an Urban Slum of Delhi

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    Arvind Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The increasing proportion of elderly persons is contributing to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. The residents of urban slums are more vulnerable due to poverty and lack of access to health care. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes in elderly persons in an urban slum and to assess their awareness, treatment and control of this condition. Materials and Methods : All persons aged 60 years and above, residing in an urban slum of Delhi, were included in this cross-sectional community- based study. Data were collected on sociodemographic variables. The participants′ awareness and treatment of diabetes was recorded. Their fasting blood sugar was estimated using an automated glucometer. Diabetes was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was ≥126 mg/dL, or if the participant was taking treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting blood glucose was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was 110-125 mg/dL. Results: Among the 474 participants studied, the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 18.8% (95% CI 15.3-21.5. It decreased with increasing age, and was higher among women. The prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 19.8% (95% CI 16.3-23.7. It was higher among women. One-third of the diabetic participants were aware of their condition; two-thirds of these were on treatment and three-fourths of those on treatment had controlled fasting blood sugar level. The awareness, treatment and control were better among women. Conclusions : Diabetes is common among elderly persons in urban slums. Its magnitude and low awareness warrant effective public health interventions for their treatment and control.

  7. The adequacy of antenatal care services among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayou, Yibeltal T; Mashalla, Yohana S; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2016-06-15

    There are recent efforts made to eliminate inequalities in the utilisation of basic health care services. More emphasis is given for improvement of health in developing countries including maternal and child health. However, disparities for the fast-growing population of urban poor are masked by the urban averages. The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of antenatal care adequacy among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This was a quantitative and cross-sectional community based study design which employed a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique to determine the sample. Data was collected using structured questionnaire administered to 870 women aged 15-49 years. Weighted 'backward selection' logistic regression models were employed to identify predictors of adequacy of antenatal care. Majority of slum residents did not have adequate antenatal care services with only 50.3, 20.2 and 11.0 % of the slum resident women initiated antenatal care early, received adequate antenatal care service contents and had overall adequate antenatal care services respectively. Educational status and place of ANC visits were important determinant factors for adequacy of ANC in the study area. Women with secondary and above educational status were 2.7 times more likely to receive overall adequate care compared to those with no formal education. Similarly, clients of private healthcare facilities were 2.2 times respectively more likely to receive overall adequate antenatal care compared to those clients of public healthcare facilities. In order to improve ANC adequacy in the study area, the policy-making, planning, and implementation processes should address the poor adequacy of ANC among the disadvantaged groups in particular and the slum residents in general.

  8. A Study On Utilisation Of Health Services In A Muslim Slum Community Of Calcutta

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    Bhattacharya S.K

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross- sectional survey of utilization of child immunization and family planning services was carried out in a systematic random sample of 100 families from a Muslim slum community of Calcutta. 15.6% of children (1-4 years were fully immunized (DPT, OPV & BCG. Couple protection rate was 28.4%. But interestingly, the proportion of protected eligible couples in single families (32.8% was significantly higher than in joint families (11.6%.

  9. Genomic copy concentrations of selected waterborne viruses in a slum environment in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Temanu, H; Chung, J W; Foppen, J W A; Lens, P N L

    2013-06-01

    The presence of viruses in a slum environment where sanitation is poor is a major concern. However, little is known of their occurrence and genomic copy concentration in the slum environment. The main objective of this study was to determine the genomic copy concentrations of human adenoviruses F and G, Rotavirus (RV), Hepatitis A virus (HAV), Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and human adenovirus species A,C,D,E, and F (HAdV-ACDEF) in Bwaise III, a typical slum in Kampala, Uganda. Forty-one samples from surface water, grey water and ground water were collected from 30 sampling locations. The virus particles were recovered by glass wool filtration with elution using beef extract. DNA and RNA viruses were detected by the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR), respectively. HAdV-F and G were detected in 70.7% of the samples with concentrations up to 2.65 × 10(1) genomic copies per mL (gc mL(-1)). RV and HAV were detected in 60.9% and 17.1% of the samples, respectively. The maximum concentration of RV was 1.87 × 10(2)gc mL(-1). In addition, 78% of the samples tested positive for the HAdV-ACDEF, but all samples tested negative for HEV. These new data are essential for quantitative microbial risk assessment, and for understanding the effects of environmental pollution in slums.

  10. Access to health in city slum dwellers: The case of Sodom and Gomorrah in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Frances E; Tagbor, Harry; Togbe, Mabel Afi

    2016-03-29

    Rapid rural-urban migration of people to cities is a reality around the globe that has increased city slum dwellers. Sodom and Gomorrah is a city slum located in the heart of Accra, Ghana. Like other slums, it lacks basic amenities necessary for dwellers' quality of life. This study describes residents' access to health and factors associated with the use of healthcarefacilities. Questionnaires were administered in systematically selected shacks across the entire slum. Data on demographic characteristics, existent health facilities and number of users, health-insured residents and knowledge of common diseases were collected. Majority of the residents were from the northern parts of Ghana, relative to the south and a few of them come from other parts of West Africa. Seventy-one percent of residents had never visited a health facility in the last 5 years. When necessary, they access health care from drug stores (61.1%) or hospitals (33.1%). Residents' age, educational status, income, health knowledge and membership of National Health Insurance Scheme were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the use of healthcare facilities. Younger residents and those without National Health Insurance Scheme membership, formal education, no knowledge of common illnesses and regular income were significantly less likely to use a healthcare facility. For most residents, neither distance (73.2%) nor transportation to health facilities was a problem (74.1%). Conditions of profound environmental hazards, overcrowding, poor-quality housing and lack of health care in Sodom and Gomorrah pose grave threats to the health of the inhabitants. Multisectoral interventions and resource mobilisation championed by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development are needed to alter the trend.

  11. Immunization, urbanization and slums - a systematic review of factors and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker-Buque, Tim; Mindra, Godwin; Duncan, Richard; Mounier-Jack, Sandra

    2017-06-08

    In 2014, over half (54%) of the world's population lived in urban areas and this proportion will increase to 66% by 2050. This urbanizing trend has been accompanied by an increasing number of people living in urban poor communities and slums. Lower immunization coverage is found in poorer urban dwellers in many contexts. This study aims to identify factors associated with immunization coverage in poor urban areas and slums, and to identify interventions to improve coverage. We conducted a systematic review, searching Medline, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science and The Cochrane Database with broad search terms for studies published between 2000 and 2016. Of 4872 unique articles, 327 abstracts were screened, leading to 63 included studies: 44 considering factors and 20 evaluating interventions (one in both categories) in 16 low or middle-income countries. A wide range of socio-economic characteristics were associated with coverage in different contexts. Recent rural-urban migration had a universally negative effect. Parents commonly reported lack of awareness of immunization importance and difficulty accessing services as reasons for under-immunization of their children. Physical distance to clinics and aspects of service quality also impacted uptake. We found evidence of effectiveness for interventions involving multiple components, especially if they have been designed with community involvement. Outreach programmes were effective where physical distance was identified as a barrier. Some evidence was found for the effective use of SMS (text) messaging services, community-based education programmes and financial incentives, which warrant further evaluation. No interventions were identified that provided services to migrants from rural areas. Different factors affect immunization coverage in different urban poor and slum contexts. Immunization services should be designed in collaboration with slum-dwelling communities, considering the local context

  12. Risk Factors of Diarrhea in Children Under Five Years in Urban Slums

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    Balakrishna Kalakheti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries and the condition is worse in slums. In order to provide effective preventive and management strategies, it is important to identify factors associated with the disease. This study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of diarrhea in  children under five years of age in urban slums. Methods: Parents of all children under five years from the urban slums of Tansen municipality, Palpa, Nepal were interviewed using a standardized pretested questionnaire and proforma. Parental variables, environmental factors, and presence of diarrhea in those children in past three months were collected by trained enumerators and the data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS-10. Results: A total of 450 under five years children were enrolled in the study. There were 216 (48% male and 234 (52% female children with F:M ratio of 1.08:1. Occurrence of diarrhea was lower if the children were breast-fed for more than six months, well-nourished, used fountain water for drinking, or used boiled or treated water. Similarly, diarrhea prevalence was lower if father had a regular job, daily income in the family was more than one US dollar, there was a toilet in the house, practice of hand washing was followed before feeding or preparing food, or there was no child suffering from diarrhea in the neighborhood. Conclusion: There are a few variables that are significantly related to diarrhea in children under five years of age. In order to decrease the diarrheal episodes in children in the slums of the developing countries, priority could be given in the improvement of those variables.

  13. AIDS awareness in an Indian metropolitan slum dweller : A KAP (knowledge, attitude, practice study

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    Kalasagar M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To assess the awareness and attitude towards AIDS and PLHA in slum dwellers of Chennai, an Indian metropolis by KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, Practice study. METHODS : A cross sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 650 subjects (400 females and 250 females, aged 15-45 years, by means of a questionnaire in the local dialect Tamil. RESULTS : The overall literacy rate was 64%, with males being 70% and females being 60% literate. 20% of males and 11% of females do not know about a disease called AIDS. Only 67% of males and 55% of females are aware of the sexual mode of transmission. 34% of males and 50% females opine that AIDS is also a hereditary disease. Also 45% of males and 62% of females feel that AIDS also spreads by air, fomites, or mosquito-bite. Only 30% of males and 22% females know about the possible symptoms of AIDS. 30% of males and 45% of females never ask for a new syringe if not provided, as they are totally unaware of its significance. 43% of males and 78% of females do not know about the risk of a barber′s blade. 56% of males and 71% of females feel that AIDS can be treated at least by a traditional medicine. Lastly, 48% of males and 60% females prefer outcasting an AIDS patient from the slum. CONCLUSIONS : AIDS awareness in the slum dwellers of Chennai is very poor. Corresponding awareness in suburbs and rural areas will be much worse. Conventional IEC methods targeting general population via mass media are not reaching the slum dwellers, even in a metropolitan city. A specially designed targeted intervention is needed.

  14. Status of iodized salt coverage in urban slums of Cuttack City, Orissa

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    Panigrahi Ansuman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD, it is necessary to consume adequately iodized salt on a regular basis and optimal iodine nutrition can be achieved through universal salt iodization. Objective: To assess the extent of use of adequately iodized salt in the urban slums of Cuttack. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random multi-stage cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional study involving 336 households and 33 retail shops selected randomly from 11 slums of Cuttack was conducted in 2005. A predesigned pretested schedule was used to obtain relevant information and salt iodine was estimated qualitatively by using a spot testing kit and quantitatively using the iodometric titration method. Statistical Analysis: Proportion, Chi-square test. Results: Only 60.1% of the households in urban slums of Cuttack were using adequately iodized salt i.e., the iodine level in the salt was ≥15 ppm. Iodine deficiency was significantly marked in sample salts collected from katcha houses as compared with salts collected from pucca houses. Households with low financial status were using noniodized/inadequately-iodized salt. Both crystalline and refined salts were sold at all retail shops. Crystalline salts collected from all retailers had an iodine content < 15 ppm and refined salts collected from one retailer had iodine content < 15 ppm. About 48.5% of salt samples collected from retail shops were adequately iodized. Conclusion: In the urban slums of Cuttack, retailers were selling crystalline salts, which were inadequately iodized- this would be a setback in the progress towards eliminating IDD.

  15. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

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    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  16. Psychiatric morbidity among rural and slum female population: A comparative study

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    Jhunu Shamsun Nahar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among women than men worldwide. The lifetime risk of depres­sion and dysthymia are twice as common in women as men. Rural women usually undergoes more stressful situations and also scores more on stress scale than that of urban and slum population. Objectives: The research objectives of this study are: 1 To find out the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among the study population. 2 To compare the disorders among the rural and slum female population. 3 To find out the influence of existing socio-demographic factors on psychiatric disorders. Method: This is a community-based study, which is also cross sectional and descriptive in nature. The sample for the main study constituted 366 randomly selected respondents. A two-staged screening procedure was carried in the study. First, the total population was studied by screening test-Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ to divide the sample into 'screen positive' and 'screen negative' subjects. In the second stage, full assessment of a mixture of all 'screen positive' and 25% 'screen negative' was carried out by structured clinical interview for diagnosis (SCID-NP. Later SCID filled by the respondents was assessed by consultant psychiatrists by using DSMIV in order to put exact clinical diagnosis. Stress was scored according to Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLE. The total duration of the study was from July 2010 to June 2011. Results: Higher prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was found among rural sample (22.8% than slum (10.90% population. Regarding pattern of psychiatric disorders among rural sample (22.8% than slum (10.9% population.See the PDF for the rest of the abstract.

  17. UNMET NEED OF SEX EDUCATION AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN URBAN SLUM AREA: AN INTERVENTIONAL STUDY

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    Tamboli Kshitij S, Avachat Subhada S, Tamboli Suchit S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescents comprise one-fifth of India’s total population. There is widespread ignorance associated with unprotected sex, contraceptives, among young people. As majority adolescents in slum areas have illiterate and ignorant family backgrounds; they are misguided by the myths. Hence providing sex education for them is the need of the hour. Aims: 1 To assess the knowledge and awareness of adolescents in an urban slum area regarding some aspects of reproductive health. 2 To assess the need of sex education among them. 3 To study the impact of sex education on their knowledge Material and Methods: An interventional study was done on 132 adolescents of urban slum area, selected by simple random sampling. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire prepared by literature search. Response of adolescents was recorded through questionnaires. A sensitization workshop was organized as intervention. The same questionnaire was given to them and the effect of intervention was assessed. Statistical analysis of data was done using percentage, proportion and appropriate tests of significance. Result and Conclusions: Only 31.06% adolescents had discussed the topic of reproductive health with some or other person and out of them friends were the major sources (39.2% of information. Only 38.63% knew the hazards of teenage pregnancy which significantly rose to 89.4% after intervention workshop. The study concludes that the slum adolescents profoundly lack adequate knowledge of sexuality related matters. Even before intervention workshop, unmet need of reproductive health education was 59.1% and 93.93% was the felt need in the post test.

  18. Interventions to tackle malnutrition and its risk factors in children living in slums: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, Sophie; Griffiths, Paula; Bogin, Barry; Madise, Nyovani

    2017-02-01

    Children living in slums are at high risk of being malnourished. There are no published reviews on existing interventions promoting better nutrition for children living in slums and the risk factors for children's malnutrition. Improved understanding of the risk factors for malnutrition in slums communities and the impact of interventions on children's health can provide guidance to practitioners and decision-makers. The present review is designed to provide this information. The search included 30 electronic bibliographic databases and relevant eligible studies published up to December 2013. The search located 1512 citations. Full text relevance screening was conducted on 226 studies and on abstracts for 16 studies. The final 58 unique studies included 22 on interventions and 38 on risk. All of the interventions were nutrition-specific, with nutritional intervention being the most dominant type. Seventy-three per cent of the interventions were assessed effective. The findings stressed the gaps in knowledge in terms of quality assessment and programmatic recommendations to identify children who are the most at risk of malnutrition to appropriately target interventions. Finally, the review helped to inform a systematic review (Cochrane Systematic review protocol 2015) that will examine the impact of interventions on outcome measures.

  19. Evaluation of Active Case Finding (ACF of Tuberculosis in Slums Population in North of Iran

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    Reza Hoseinpoor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background At present of the limitation of the current case finding strategies and the global urgency to improve tuberculosis (TB case finding, a renewed interest in active case finding (ACF has risen. World Health Organization (WHO calls for research on TB screening among low-income countries because of the limitation of the passive case finding strategies. We aimed to evaluated Active Case Finding strategy for TB among the slums population in North of Iran (Gorgan city and comprise this procedure to Passive Case Finding. Materials and Methods We conducted a house-to-house survey from April 2016 to July 2016 by trained health volunteers for TB in ten urban slums of Gorgan. Individuals with TB symptoms were identified through targeted screening using a standardized questionnaire and investigated further for TB. Descriptive analyses were performed using Stata-12. Results During study period, of 22,741 individuals screened for TB, 112 (0.49% were identified as TB suspects; 95 suspects were evaluated for TB. TB was diagnosed in four individuals, representing 4.2% of those evaluated for TB as suspected cases. The incidence rate of tuberculosis was 17.5 in 100.000 people in slums population of Gorgan. Of the four detected cases, three individuals had pulmonary TB that among them two cases had new smear-positive TB. Conclusion ACF could supplement current strategies to yield additional TB cases, lead to early diagnosis and better treatment.

  20. Vegetation in Bangalore’s Slums: Boosting Livelihoods, Well-Being and Social Capital

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    Divya Gopal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban greenery provides ecosystem services that play an important role in the challenging context of urban deprivation and poverty. This study assesses the social importance of vegetation through empirical assessment of 44 urban slums in the rapidly developing southern city of Bangalore, India. Vegetation played a major role in supporting nutrition by its role in food consumption, and in promoting health through the planting of species with medicinal use. Trees in slums also formed nodes for social activities including conversing and playing, domestic activities such as cooking and washing dishes, and livelihood activities such as the manufacture of broomsticks and tyre repair. Innovative methods of gardening were widely adopted, with kitchen gardens found planted in plastic bags, paint cans, old kitchen utensils and buckets, indicating the importance given to planting in environments with limited finances. Short and narrow trunked trees with medium-sized canopies and high economic value, such as Pongamia, were preferred. A greater focus on greening in slums is needed, and can provide an invaluable, inexpensive and sustainable approach to improve lives in these congested, deprived environments.

  1. Emerging changes in reproductive behaviour among married adolescent girls in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2006-05-01

    Structural and social inequalities, a harsh political economy and neglect on the part of the state have made married adolescent girls an extremely vulnerable group in the urban slum environment in Bangladesh. The importance placed on newly married girls' fertility results in high fertility rates and low rates of contraceptive use. Ethnographic fieldwork among married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, was carried out in a Dhaka slum from December 2001-January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies from among 153 married adolescent girls, and observations and discussions with family and community members. Cultural and social expectations meant that 128 of the girls had borne children before they were emotionally or physically ready. Twenty-seven had terminated their pregnancies, of whom 11 reported they were forced to do so by family members. Poverty, economic conditions, marital insecurity, politics in the household, absence of dowry and rivalry among family, co-wives and in-laws made these young women acquiesce to decisions made by others in order to survive. Young married women's status is changing in urban slum conditions. When their economical productivity takes priority over their reproductive role, the effects on reproductive decision-making within families may be considerable. This paper highlights the vulnerability of young women as they pragmatically make choices within the social and structural constraints in their lives.

  2. How Insecurity impacts on school attendance and school drop out among urban slum children in Nairobi

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    Chimaraoke Izugbara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how perceptions of personal security can impact on school enrolment and attendance. It mainly focuses on threats of physical harm, crime, and community and domestic violence. These security fears can include insecurity that children suffer from as they go to school, maybe through the use of unsafe routes; insecurity that children feel at school; and the insecurity they suffer from in their homes. Although poverty can be a source and/or an indicator of insecurity, this paper does not focus solely on poverty as it is well covered elsewhere in the literature. The paper relies on qualitative data col- lected in Korogocho and Viwandani slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya between October and November 2004. The paper analyses data from individual interviews and focus group interviews and focuses on the narrative of slum dwellers on how insecurity impacts on educational attainment. The conclusion in this paper is that insecure neighbourhoods may have a negative impact on schooling. As a result policies that address insecurity in slum neighbourhoods can also improve school attendance and performance.

  3. Recent activities on clearance in IAEA and clearance automatic laser inspection system (CLALIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Takatoshi; Sasaki, Michiya

    2005-01-01

    Exemption levels for bulk amounts of materials have been described in RS-G-1.7 published as a safety guide in IAEA on August 2004. In Japan, the Nuclear Safety Commission adopted the RS-G-1.7 values as Japanese clearance levels after the careful review of dose assessment results. After completing revises of regulatory laws in relation to clearance level, solid wastes from decommissioning and operating nuclear power plants will be targets of clearance inspection. In CRIEPI, Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed, which can give high reliability and objectivity to the measurement data. The CLALIS is a new monitoring system coupling with 3D laser shape measurement, Monte-Carlo calculation and gamma measurement techniques, which can keep a high accuracy in the measurement data using an automatic correction technique for self-shielding effects of metal waste itself and is expected to apply as a practical use in actual clearance inspections. (author)

  4. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari [Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, LUT School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Engeda, Abraham [Turbomachinery Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease.

  5. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari; Engeda, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease

  6. Influence of household rat infestation on leptospira transmission in the urban slum environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2014-12-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13-11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06-7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28-6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21-6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71-0.84). Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may therefore be an effective risk stratification strategy for targeting control

  7. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-09-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  8. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-08-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  9. Toward “Age-Friendly Slums”? Health Challenges of Older Slum Dwellers in Nairobi and the Applicability of the Age-Friendly City Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboderin, Isabella; Owii, Hilda Akinyi

    2017-01-01

    A majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and other developing regions live in informal settlements, or slums. Much of the discourse on slum health centres on younger generations, while an intensifying agenda on healthy ageing as yet lacks a systematic focus on slums. Similarly, the global age-friendly cities (AFC) movement does not, thus far, extend to slums. This paper examines the particular challenges that a slum-focused age-friendly initiative in SSA may need to address, and the relevance of present AFC indicators and domains for initiatives to advance the health and well-being of older slum dwellers. The analysis builds on the case of two slum communities in Nairobi, Kenya. It analyzes two bodies of relevant evidence from these settlements, namely on the health and social circumstances of older residents, and on the local application and measurement of AFC indicators. The findings point to a set of unsurprising, but also less obvious, core health and social adversities that an age-friendly initiative in such settlements would need to consider. The findings show, further, that the current AFC domains and indicators framework only partly capture these adversities, but that there is potential for adapting the framework to be meaningful for slum settings. The paper concludes by underscoring the need for, and opportunities inherent in, the pursuit of an “age-friendly slums” initiative going forward. PMID:29053576

  10. Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    Tear clearance/turnover provides a global assessment of the function of the lacrimal functional unit and of tear exchange on the ocular surface. It is an indirect measure of dry eye induced inflammation on the ocular surface. It shows better correlation with the severity of ocular irritation symptoms and corneal epithelial disease in dry eye than the Schirmer 1 test. Delayed tear clearance may prove to be the best measure for identifying patients with tear film disorders who may respond to anti-inflammatory therapy.

  11. Alternative use of space in slum settlements case study: Kampong Gandekan Kampung Baru in Kali Pepe river Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmastuti, Amalia Ji; Wardana, Agustinus Wisnu; Eng, Ir. Maya Andria Nirawati M.

    2018-02-01

    Slum areas are heavily populated urban informal settlements characterized by substandard housing and illegal land usage (squatting). Surakarta is one of many Indonesian cities that are still entangled by this problem. One of the slum concentrations in Surakarta is the slum settlement (kampong) alongside Kali Pepe riverbank. Within these slum settlements, people survive in substandard housing by effectively using the limited space. This research aims to discover the typologies of the alternative use of space. This research takes a case study approach in a few kampongs alongside Kali Pepe riverbank, based on the types and sizes of small houses within this area, considering the number of occupants and the space required. The data for this research is categorized as primary data which was collected through a series of site observations and focus group discussions. The data will be analysed, compared, and classified to find out the typology of the alternative solutions of space requirements. This research uses mixed-method analysis to define how Kali Pepe's slum residents alternatively use the spaces within their kampongs. Based on the typologies found through multiple analyses, this research concludes that the use of space in substandard housing cannot be bound by limited spaces. Furthermore, the main strategy to solve the problem of limited space is by using alternative spaces.

  12. Undernutrition and Its Correlates among Children of 3–9 Years of Age Residing in Slum Areas of Bhubaneswar, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sai Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition among children is a major public health concern worldwide, more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It manifests itself in various forms such as wasting or stunting or underweight and retards physical and mental development, increases susceptibility to infection, and reduces educational attainment and productivity. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of wasting, stunting, and underweight and determine its associates among slum children of 3–9 years of age, residing in Bhubaneswar city, India. After obtaining informed consent, a total of 249 children from 249 households were studied and their parents/guardians were interviewed to collect all relevant information. 23.3%, 57.4%, and 45.4% of children were found to have wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Variables like birth order of child, period of initiation of breastfeeding and mother's education were found to be strong predictors of wasting, whereas toilet facility in household and practice of drinking water storage were significantly associated with stunting among slum children as revealed in multiple regression analysis. Thus, a multipronged approach is needed such as giving priority to improve education for slum community especially for women, creating awareness regarding benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, small family size, and proper storage of drinking water, and providing toilet facility in slum households which could improve the nutritional status of slum children. PMID:25580460

  13. Undernutrition and its correlates among children of 3-9 years of age residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Ansuman; Das, Sai Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition among children is a major public health concern worldwide, more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It manifests itself in various forms such as wasting or stunting or underweight and retards physical and mental development, increases susceptibility to infection, and reduces educational attainment and productivity. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of wasting, stunting, and underweight and determine its associates among slum children of 3-9 years of age, residing in Bhubaneswar city, India. After obtaining informed consent, a total of 249 children from 249 households were studied and their parents/guardians were interviewed to collect all relevant information. 23.3%, 57.4%, and 45.4% of children were found to have wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Variables like birth order of child, period of initiation of breastfeeding and mother's education were found to be strong predictors of wasting, whereas toilet facility in household and practice of drinking water storage were significantly associated with stunting among slum children as revealed in multiple regression analysis. Thus, a multipronged approach is needed such as giving priority to improve education for slum community especially for women, creating awareness regarding benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, small family size, and proper storage of drinking water, and providing toilet facility in slum households which could improve the nutritional status of slum children.

  14. Association of urban slum residency with infant mortality and child stunting in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Shannon, Harry S; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) examine the contextual influences of urban slum residency on infant mortality and child stunting over and above individual and household characteristics and (ii) identify factors that might modify any adverse effects. We obtained data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 45 countries between 2000 and 2009. The respondents were women (15-49 years) and their children (0-59 months). Results showed that living in a slum neighborhood was associated with infant mortality (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.15-1.57) irrespective of individual and household characteristics and this risk was attenuated among children born to women who had received antenatal care from a health professional (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-0.99). Results also indicated that increasing child age exacerbated the risk for stunting associated with slum residency (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.16-1.23). The findings suggest that improving material circumstances in urban slums at the neighborhood level as well as increasing antenatal care coverage among women living in these neighborhoods could help reduce infant mortality and stunted child growth. The cumulative impact of long-term exposure to slum neighborhoods on child stunting should be corroborated by future studies.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE OF CONTRACEPTIVES AND ITS PRACTICE AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN URBAN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andleeb Rizvi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Not many studies have been conducted regarding contraceptive practices in the slums of Lucknow. This study will be helpful in the assessing the current scenario of prevalence of contraceptive use and various bio-social characteristics that can affect the contraceptive use by the women residing in urban slums of Lucknow. Objectives: To assess the knowledge of contraceptives and its practices among married women in urban slums of Lucknow district. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Based on thirty cluster sampling technique, thirty urban slums were selected. Total 600 married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years were interviewed in the period of one year from August 2010 to August 2011. Data was collected through preformed and pretested schedule and analysis was done using chi squared test and multiple logistic regression through SPSS 17.0 software. Results: It was found that 99.2 percent married women had the knowledge of contraceptives but its use was only 46.7 percent. Most commonly used contraceptive was condom. Among women who had ever used contraceptives, about 56.3 percent women were current users. Fear of side effects/ health concern was the main reason for discontinuing contraceptive use. Conclusions: Though knowledge of contraceptives among women residing in urban slums of Lucknow was good but contraceptive use was far lagging behind.

  16. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the rate of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stones in adult patients with renal insufficiency. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 117 adult patients who underwent ESWL. The indications for ESWL were determined by the ...

  17. Bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, C.F.; Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.

    1968-01-01

    Liver function in ageing rats was studied, using the bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance test. The test was done on ultramicro scale. This made it possible to repeat the test several times in the same animal and to start a longitudinal study. In 3-month-old rats the BSP retentions, measured 15, 30 and 45

  18. Sustained high incidence of injuries from burns in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya: an emerging public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua M; Nyachieo, Dhillon O; Benzekri, Noelle A; Cosmas, Leonard; Ondari, Daniel; Yekta, Shahla; Montgomery, Joel M; Williamson, John M; Breiman, Robert F

    2014-09-01

    Ninety-five percent of burn deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); however, longitudinal household-level studies have not been done in urban slum settings, where overcrowding and unsafe cook stoves may increase likelihood of injury. Using a prospective, population-based disease surveillance system in the urban slum of Kibera in Kenya, we examined the incidence of household-level burns of all severities from 2006-2011. Of approximately 28,500 enrolled individuals (6000 households), we identified 3072 burns. The overall incidence was 27.9/1000 person-years-of-observation. Children slums rapidly increases in many African countries, characterizing and addressing the rising burden of burns is likely to become a public health priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatic drug clearance following traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, R L; Hassett, J M

    1985-11-01

    Trauma is a complex disease state associated with physiologic changes that have the potential to alter hepatic drug clearance mechanisms. These responses include alterations in hepatic blood flow, reduction in hepatic microsomal activity, reduction in hepatic excretion processes, and changes in protein binding. Hepatic blood flow is influenced by sympathomimetic activity. Both animal and human studies demonstrate an initial reduction and subsequent increase in hepatic blood flow, which coincides with an observed increase and subsequent return to normal in serum catecholamine concentrations. Unfortunately, there are no human studies that address the importance these findings may have to the clearance processes of high intrinsic clearance compounds. Animal studies of trauma indicate that hepatic microsomal activity is depressed during the post-traumatic period. Reduction in the hepatic clearance of antipyrine, a model low intrinsic compound, has also been demonstrated in animal models of trauma. In addition to these effects, hepatic excretion of substances such as indocyanine green and bilirubin have been demonstrated to be impaired in both traumatized animals and humans. Finally, substantial increases in the serum concentration of the binding protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occur in trauma patients. This has been reported to be associated with subsequent decreases in the free fraction of lidocaine and quinidine. In addition to changing serum drug concentration/response relationships, the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein should also change. Preliminary observations in our laboratory in a dog model of surgically-induced trauma have shown a reduction in the total clearance of lidocaine and reduction in free lidocaine concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. DOD PERSONNEL CLEARANCES: Additional OMB Actions Are Needed to Improve the Security Clearance Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    Our independent analysis of timeliness data showed that industry personnel contracted to work for the federal government waited more than one year on average to receive top secret clearances, longer...

  1. Non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and diabetes among adults living in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Biswas, Tuhin; Khandker, Nusrat Nausheen; Saha, Shekhar Ranjan; Bidat Chowdhury, Mohammed Mahiul; Khan, Abdullah Nurus Salam; Chowdhury, Enamul Hasib; Renzaho, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Despite one-third of the urban population in Bangladesh living in urban slums and at increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), little is known about the NCD risk profile of this at-risk population. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of the NCD risk factors and the association of NCD risk factors with socio-demographic factors among the adults of urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult slum dwellers (aged 25 and above) residing in three purposively selected urban slums of Dhaka for at least six months preceding the survey. The risk factors assessed were- currently smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, hypertension and body mass index (BMI). Information on self-reported diabetes was also taken. A total of 507 participants (252 females; 49.7%) were interviewed and their physical measures were taken using the WHO NCD STEPS instrument. The overall prevalence of NCD risk factors was: 36.0% (95% CI: 31.82-40.41) for smoking; 95.60% (95% CI: 93.60-97.40) for insufficient fruit and vegetable intake; 15.30% (95% CI:12.12-18.71) for low physical activity;13.70% (95% CI: 10.71-16.92) for hypertension; 22.70% (95% CI: 19.31-26.02) for overweight or obesity; and 5.00% (95%: 3.20-7.00) for self-reported diabetes. In the logistic regression model, the clustering of three or more NCD risk factors was positively associated with younger age groups (p = 0.02), no formal education (p slum adults. These findings are important to support the formulation and implementation of NCD-related polices and plan of actions that recognize urban slum populations in Bangladesh as a priority sub-population.

  2. A preliminary investigation of the barriers to clean water access in the urban slums of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Anne Beistline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe drinking water is scarce in Kolkata. Inadequate knowledge and poor practices of storing and cleaning drinking water can cause severe effects on the health of the population. There is a need to understand the current trend of attitudes and practices of individuals living in urban slums to reduce water-borne diseases and mortality. This limited convenience sample study attempted to explore and identify areas for further study regarding the barriers of clean water access in urban slums of Kolkata, India. Methods: This pilot cross-sectional study was conducted in Kolkata, India during July 2014. Five urban slums were selected based on proximity and cooperation from the community. A sample of 50 women was taken, representing the five slums, with a sample of 10 women taken from each slum. Results: The majority (80% of the participants said they regularly have enough water available to meet the needs of their household. Fifty-two percent of subjects received their water for drinking from a tap, hand pump, or time pump. Thirty percent had water pumped into their homes, and 18% purchased their water from a water truck. Fourteen percent said they did not treat their water because it was too time consuming, 40% said it was too much work, and 34% said it was not needed. Ninety percent said they felt it was important to clean their water, almost half (48% thought their water was not clean, but only 42% used some method to clean their water. Many subjects (68% stated they knew how to clean their water, but 66% were unaware that visible dirt is not an indicator of illness-causing bacteria in water. Conclusions: More focus should be directed towards improving awareness and knowledge and changing attitudes, motivation, and perceived susceptibility to disease from water within slum communities in Kolkata, India.

  3. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone...

  4. Low-Cost Mapping and Publishing Methods for Landscape Architectural Analysis and Design in Slum-Upgrading Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Rekittke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The research project “Grassroots GIS” focuses on the development of low-cost mapping and publishing methods for slums and slum-upgrading projects in Manila. In this project smartphones, collaborative mapping and 3D visualization applications are systematically employed to support landscape architectural analysis and design work in the context of urban poverty and urban informal settlements. In this paper we focus on the description of the developed methods and present preliminary results of this work-in-progress.

  5. A million dollar exit from the anarchic slum-world: Slumdog Millionaire's hollow idioms of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mitu

    2010-01-01

    This article contests the characterisation of the popular and acclaimed film, Slumdog Millionaire, as a realistic portrayal of India's urban poverty that will ultimately serve as a tool of advocacy for India's urban poor. It argues that the film's reductive view of slum-spaces will more probably reinforce negative attitudes towards slum-dwellers, lending credibility to the sorts of policies that have historically dispossessed them of power and dignity. By drawing attention to the film's celebration of characters and spaces that symbolise Western culture and Northern trajectories of 'development', the article also critically engages with some of the issues raised by the film's enormous success.

  6. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis infections among people living in a slum area in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachan, Balkrishna; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadhur; Tandukar, Sarmila; Dhoubhadel, Bhim Gopal; Gauchan, Leesa; Rai, Ganesh

    2017-09-07

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium parvum infections among people living a slum in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Ten different parasites were detected in the stool samples; the prevalence of any parasite was in 27.1% (71/262). The prevalence of C. cayetanensis and C. parvum were 14.1% (10/71) and 5.6% (4/71), respectively. This study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections along with the coccidian parasites in the slum area of Kathmandu Valley.

  7. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  8. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a...

  9. 7 CFR 1927.55 - Title clearance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.55 Title clearance services. (a) Responsibilities of closing agents. Services to be provided to the agency and the borrower by a closing agent in connection with the transaction vary depending on whether a title insurance...

  10. 48 CFR 2452.237-75 - Clearance of contractor personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Clearance of contractor... Clauses 2452.237-75 Clearance of contractor personnel. As prescribed in 2437.110(e), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts. Clearance of Contractor Personnel (OCT 1999) (a) General. This...

  11. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas (For...

  12. Burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in a semi-urban slum in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has seen rapid unorganized urbanization in the past few decades. However, the burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in such populations is difficult to quantify. The morbidity experience of children living in semi-urban slums of a southern Indian city is described. Methods A total of 176 children were recruited pre-weaning from four geographically adjacent, semi-urban slums located in the western outskirts of Vellore, Tamil Nadu for a study on water safety and enteric infections and received either bottled or municipal drinking water based on their area of residence. Children were visited weekly at home and had anthropometry measured monthly until their second birthday. Results A total of 3932 episodes of illness were recorded during the follow-up period, resulting in an incidence of 12.5 illnesses/child-year, with more illness during infancy than in the second year of life. Respiratory, mostly upper respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal illnesses were most common. Approximately one-third of children were stunted at two years of age, and two-thirds had at least one episode of growth failure during the two years of follow up. No differences in morbidity were seen between children who received bottled and municipal water. Conclusions Our study found a high burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition among urban slum dwellers in southern India. Frequent illnesses may adversely impact children’s health and development, besides placing an additional burden on families who need to seek healthcare and find resources to manage illness.

  13. Proportion and factors associated with depressive symptoms among elderly in an urban slum in Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirthahalli, Chethana; Suryanarayana, S P; Sukumar, Gautham Melur; Bharath, Srikala; Rao, Girish N; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa

    2014-12-01

    Depression among elderly is emerging as an important public health issue in developing countries like India. Published evidence regarding the magnitude and determinants of depression among elderly hailing from urban slum is currently limited. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess magnitude of the problem and identify factors associated with depression among the elderly in an urban slum. A cross-sectional study was done to cover total of 473 elderly persons from an urban slum in Bangalore, India. They were assessed for depression using Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 37.8 (95% CI = 33.43-42.16). Multivariate analysis revealed that unemployment (self or children) (odds ratio (OR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-4.72), illness of self (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.45-3.21), female gender (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.19-2.89), conflicts in family (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.03-2.43), and marriage of children or grandchildren (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.02-2.68) as independent risk factors. Depression among elderly is an important health issue of this area. Psychological intervention need to be provided for all elderly persons especially at the time of being diagnosed with any kind of illness. Strategies should be targeted to the females. The stressful life events need to be identified and remedial actions taken. This facility should be made available to them at the primary level of health care. There is a need to include screening of depression in our national health programs.

  14. Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-08-01

    The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.

  15. Socio-demographic determinants and prevalence of Tuberculosis knowledge in three slum populations of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of tuberculosis has been shown to influence health seeking behaviour; and urban slum dwellers are at a higher risk of acquiring tuberculosis than the general population. The study aim was to assess knowledge of tuberculosis and identify the associated socio-demographic determinants, in order to inform tailored interventions for advocacy, communication and social mobilisation in three urban-slum communities of Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1361 adults between April and October 2011. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of potential determinants of tuberculosis (TB) knowledge were estimated by multivariable ordinal logistic regression using Stata 11.2 software. Results We found low knowledge of TB cause (26.7%); symptoms (46.8%), transmission (54.3%), prevention (34%) and free treatment (35%). Knowledge about TB treatment (69.4) and cure (85.1) was relatively high. Independent determinants of poor knowledge of TB in the multivariable analysis included (aOR, 95% CI) lack of formal education (0.56; 0.38 – 0.83, P = 0.004), unemployment (0.67; 0.49 – 0.90, P = 0.010) and never testing for HIV (0.69; 0.51 – 0.92, P slum dwellers in Uganda. Tuberculosis control programmes in similar settings should consider innovative strategies for TB education, advocacy, communication and social mobilisation to reach the youth, unemployed and less-educated; as well as those who have never tested for HIV. PMID:22824498

  16. Socio-demographic factors associated with domestic violence in urban slums, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahina; Donta, Balaiah; Nair, Saritha; Prakasam, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98)] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96)] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence. PMID:26205021

  17. Determinants of Post - partum contraception practices in urban slums of central Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Davalagi B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The largest proportion of women with an unmet need for contraception is found among those in their first year after childbirth; concentrating efforts to reduce unmet need among these women could have additionally bigger impact on increasing contraceptive use than concentrating on any other group. Aims & Objectives: To know the knowledge & practices of post – partum contraception among mothers in urban slums. Material & Methods: Cross sectional study conducted in urban slums for duration of six months. Study population included mothers in extended post – partum period residing in urban slums. Mothers were interviewed using pre – tested, semi – structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS v 22.0 and, chi square test and logistic regression analysis was employed. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the mothers in our study were in the age group of 20-24 years (46%. Mean age was 21.6 ± 3.1years. Majority of the mothers (56% were Hindus. Mean age of marriage observed was 18.2±2.1years. In the present study, majority (76% had knowledge of post – partum contraceptive methods, but only 17% of the mothers were using contraception. Unmet need for post – partum contraception was found among 49% of mothers. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware, the practice of family planning was very low among post-partum mothers. The study highlights the impact of socio cultural factors like religion, caste, number of living children, duration of marriage and ANC service utilization on post – partum contraception usage among mothers.

  18. Socio-demographic factors associated with domestic violence in urban slums, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahina Begum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence.

  19. DETERMINANTS OF UNMET NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING IN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to estimate unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15 - 49 years in urban slums of Lucknow and to determine the various factors that influence the unmet need. METHODS: A community based cross - sectional study was conducted in slums of Lucknow City from February 2014 to September 2014. A total 452 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre - designed, pre - tested and semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The total unmet need for family planning was 69.0%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed socioeconomic status upper lower and below (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5 - 5.1; p = 0.00; duration of marriage less than 1 year (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.01; less number of live issues (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.5; p = 0.00; working status of women (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.03; social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1 - 4.6; p = 0.02 were found to be independent predictors of unmet need of family planning. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that unmet need for family planning was quite high among women belonging to social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST, with low socioeconomic status, duration of marriage less than one year less number of live issues and working status of the women.

  20. Socio-demographic determinants and prevalence of Tuberculosis knowledge in three slum populations of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuku Ekwaro A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of tuberculosis has been shown to influence health seeking behaviour; and urban slum dwellers are at a higher risk of acquiring tuberculosis than the general population. The study aim was to assess knowledge of tuberculosis and identify the associated socio-demographic determinants, in order to inform tailored interventions for advocacy, communication and social mobilisation in three urban-slum communities of Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1361 adults between April and October 2011. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of potential determinants of tuberculosis (TB knowledge were estimated by multivariable ordinal logistic regression using Stata 11.2 software. Results We found low knowledge of TB cause (26.7%; symptoms (46.8%, transmission (54.3%, prevention (34% and free treatment (35%. Knowledge about TB treatment (69.4 and cure (85.1 was relatively high. Independent determinants of poor knowledge of TB in the multivariable analysis included (aOR, 95% CI lack of formal education (0.56; 0.38 – 0.83, P = 0.004, unemployment (0.67; 0.49 – 0.90, P = 0.010 and never testing for HIV (0.69; 0.51 – 0.92, P  Conclusion This study revealed deficiencies in the public health knowledge about TB symptoms, diagnosis and treatment among urban-slum dwellers in Uganda. Tuberculosis control programmes in similar settings should consider innovative strategies for TB education, advocacy, communication and social mobilisation to reach the youth, unemployed and less-educated; as well as those who have never tested for HIV.

  1. Effect of mother's education on child's nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A; Ciera, James; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth

    2012-06-21

    Malnutrition continues to be a critical public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, in East Africa, 48 % of children under-five are stunted while 36 % are underweight. Poor health and poor nutrition are now more a characteristic of children living in the urban areas than of children in the rural areas. This is because the protective mechanism offered by the urban advantage in the past; that is, the health benefits that historically accrued to residents of cities as compared to residents in rural settings is being eroded due to increasing proportion of urban residents living in slum settings. This study sought to determine effect of mother's education on child nutritional status of children living in slum settings. Data are from a maternal and child health project nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). The study involves 5156 children aged 0-42 months. Data on nutritional status used were collected between October 2009 and January 2010. We used binomial and multiple logistic regression to estimate the effect of education in the univariable and multivariable models respectively. Results show that close to 40 % of children in the study are stunted. Maternal education is a strong predictor of child stunting with some minimal attenuation of the association by other factors at maternal, household and community level. Other factors including at child level: child birth weight and gender; maternal level: marital status, parity, pregnancy intentions, and health seeking behaviour; and household level: social economic status are also independently significantly associated with stunting. Overall, mothers' education persists as a strong predictor of child's nutritional status in urban slum settings, even after controlling for other factors. Given that stunting is a strong predictor of human capital, emphasis on girl-child education may contribute to breaking the poverty cycle in urban poor settings.

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Adults in an Urban Slum, Tirupati, A.P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among adults aged 20-60 years residing years residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati town, A.P.? Objective : To study the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors as well as its extent of diagnosis and management among adults aged 20-60 years residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati. Study design : Cross sectional. Study setting : Channa Reddy Colony (Urban slum area in Tirupati town, A.P. Study subjects : 1000 adults in the age group of 20-60 years (Males-500; Females-500 residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati town, A.P. Study variables : Age, sex, occupation, family history of hypertension, history of cerebrovascular/cardiovascular events, diabetes mellitus, saturated fat intake, intake of excess salt, smoking, alcohol intake and regular physical exercise. Outcome Variables : Number of hypertensives and mean blood pressure level estimations. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi--square tests, ′F′ ratios, ′t′ tests, Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results : The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 8.6%. Out of the 86 hypertensives, 72 (83.7% were aware of their hypertension; all of those aware were under treatment; among the treated, only 30 (41.7% had satisfactory control of their hypertension. Higher prevalence of hypertension was found with history of cerbrovascular/cardiovascular events (50.0%, diabetes mellitus (33.3%, family history of hypertension (23.3%, smoking (22.4%, age more than 50 years (22.2%, alcohol intake (20.0%, lack of physical exercise (15.8%, B.M.I.>25 (14.9%, male sex (9.6, non-vegetarian diet (8.8% and saturated fat intake (8.8%. The mean systolic as well as diastolic blood pressures were found to be higher among men, higher age groups, and in business occupation of the respondents. Conclusions : Despite treatment, most of the hypertensives had not achieved satisfactory control of blood

  3. A Prevalence Study Of Pediculus Humanus Capitis Infestation Among Children In A Slum Area Of Pune.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyamoorthy T.S

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross â€" sectional study among 512 children in age group 0-15 years was carried out in an urban slum of Pune during Aug.84 to Feb. 85. The prevalence rate of Pediculus humanus capitis among the study population was found to be 35.15 percent. The prevalence was found to increase with age. Girls were affected more than boys. Living in nuclear families, schooling and possession of long hair were found to have significant association with the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis. The quality of personal hygiene per se did not alter the prevalence of head louse infestation.

  4. Parenting in Urban Slum Areas : Families with Children in a Shantytown of Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Kejerfors, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of parenting and child development in a slum area in a developing part of the world. The aims of the study were threefold. The first aim was to explore the physical and social contexts for parenting in a shantytown in Rio de Janeiro using an ecological perspective. The second aim was to examine parenting and subsequent child outcomes among a sample of families living in the shantytown. The third aim was to explore what factors contribute to differences among parents in how the...

  5. CO2 clearance by membrane lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Kaesler, Andreas; Fernando, Piyumindri; Thompson, Alex J; Toomasian, John M; Bartlett, Robert H

    2018-05-01

    Commercial membrane lungs are designed to transfer a specific amount of oxygen per unit of venous blood flow. Membrane lungs are much more efficient at removing CO 2 than adding oxygen, but the range of CO 2 transfer is rarely reported. Commercial membrane lungs were studied with the goal of evaluating CO 2 removal capacity. CO 2 removal was measured in 4 commercial membrane lungs under standardized conditions. CO 2 clearance can be greater than 4 times that of oxygen at a given blood flow when the gas to blood flow ratio is elevated to 4:1 or 8:1. The CO 2 clearance was less dependent on surface area and configuration than oxygen transfer. Any ECMO system can be used for selective CO 2 removal.

  6. Clearance Kinetics and Clearance Routes of Molecules From the Suprachoroidal Space After Microneedle Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Bryce; Wang, Ke; Ethier, C Ross; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    To determine clearance kinetics and routes of clearance of molecules from the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of live New Zealand White rabbits. Suprachoroidal space collapse rate and pressure changes after microneedle injection into SCS were determined. Fluorescent fundus images were acquired to determine clearance rates of molecules ranging in size from 332 Da to 2 MDa. Microneedle injections of fluorescein were performed, and samples were taken from various sites over time to determine amount of fluorescein exiting the eye. Clearance transport was modeled theoretically and compared with experimental data. After injection, pressures in SCS and vitreous humor spiked and returned to baseline within 20 minutes; there was no difference between these two pressures. Suprachoroidal space collapse occurred within 40 minutes. One hour after fluorescein injection, 46% of fluorescein was still present in the eye, 15% had transported across sclera, 6% had been cleared by choroidal vasculature, and 4% had exited via leakage pathways. Characteristic clearance time increased in proportion with molecular radius, but total clearance of 2 MDa FITC-dextran was significantly slower (21 days) than smaller molecules. These data generally agreed with predictions from a theoretical model of molecular transport. Guided by experimental data in the context of model predictions, molecular clearance from SCS occurred in three regimes: (1) on a time scale of approximately 10 minutes, fluid and molecules exited SCS by diffusion into sclera and choroid, and by pressure-driven reflux via transscleral leakage sites; (2) in approximately 1 hour, molecules cleared from choroid by blood flow; and (3) in 1 to 10 hours, molecules cleared from sclera by diffusion and convection.

  7. Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1980-12-01

    The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author) [pt

  8. Tip Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators 4 posed by Denton (1993). A number of investigators have used partial shrouds, or " winglet " designs to...SDBD actuator Plasma enhanced aerodynamics has been demonstrated in a range of applications involving sepa- ration control, lift enhancement, drag... aerodynamic benefits of a squealer tip geometry. Specifically, the squealer tip is known to reduce the discharge coefficient of the tip gap, thereby

  9. Clearance level and industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Toichi

    1999-01-01

    Defining the clearance level enables the radioactive waste with lower radioactivity than a certain level to be the general industrial waste and therefore consideration for public acceptance is essential. For this, it is necessary to understand laws concerning not only atomic power and radioactivity but also disposal and cleaning of general waste. It is also necessary that the waste below the clearance level should be as much as possible handled in the modern common concept of recycling of resources. In 1996, the weight of industrial waste was about 400 million tons, of which 40% was disposed by burning and dehydration, 39% was re-used and 21% was subjected to the final disposal like reclamation. Reduction, re-use and recycling of the generated waste are required for making the society with recycling of resources. Scrap concrete materials below the clearance level of 0.6 million tons are estimated to be generated by dismantling the light water reactor of 1 million kW output and profitable technology for recycling the scrap is under investigation. (K.H.)

  10. Establishing exemption and clearance criteria by the regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, A.E.A.

    2012-04-01

    This Project work discusses the relationship between the concepts of exemption and clearance, and their practical use in the overall scheme of regulatory control of practices. It also discusses how exemptions and clearance is established and the scope of its applications for regulatory control. The concept of general clearance levels for any type of material and any possible pathway of disposal is also introduced in this work. Guidance of the Group of Experts establishing scenarios for general clearance, parameter values, and a nuclide-specific list of calculated clearance levels is also presented. Regulatory authorities are required to develop guidance on exemption and clearance levels to assist licensees and registrants to know which practices and sources within practices are exempted from regulatory control and those to be cleared from further controls. Exemption and clearance levels are tools for assisting the Regulatory Authority to optimize the use of resources. (author)

  11. The mobile internet in the wild and every day: Digital leisure in the slums of urban India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Rangaswamy (Nimmi); P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe wild and the everyday point at once to twinned aspects of life and, in this article, to a technological imaginary drawing upon the use of the mobile internet in urban slums of India. The article responds to the rather untethered way, from the point of view of state regulation, in

  12. Moderated Effects of Risky Behavior on Academic Performance among Adolescent Girls Living in Urban Slums of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngware, Moses W.; Mahuro, Gerald M.; Hungi, Njora; Abuya, Benta; Nyariro, Milka P.; Mutisya, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines effects of life-skills, mentoring, and counseling education intervention implemented among primary school attending girls aged between 10 and 19 years, living in Nairobi slums. We hypothesized that interaction between the intervention and aspiration, self-confidence and interest in schooling, mediates the impact of risky…

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Spousal Violence against Women in Slum and Nonslum Areas of Urban Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…

  14. Helwan University Project Developing Primary School Pupils' Abilities and Skills at Some Egyptian Underprivileged Areas (Slums). (Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…

  15. Community-Based Health Programmes: Role Perceptions and Experiences of Female Peer Facilitators in Mumbai's Urban Slums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Glyn A.; More, Neena Shah; Patil, Sarita; Porel, Maya; Vaidya, Leena; Osrin, David

    2009-01-01

    Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using…

  16. Educating the Urban Poor: A Case Study of Running Preschools in Non-Notified Slums of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaijayanti, K.; Subramanian, Mathangi

    2015-01-01

    United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recently reported that the world's population is shifting to its cities. India is no exception. Throughout the country, an increasing number of migrants are leaving agricultural lifestyles in search of economic and educational opportunities, often relocating to non-notified slums. Despite the fact that many…

  17. Access to and Exclusion from Primary Education in Slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Bangladesh's urban population is rising fast. In the capital, Dhaka, some 4 million people live in slums. They are lacking in wealth, power and social connections; probably under-counted in national surveys; and under-served by both government and non-government organisations, many of whom still see poverty as a rural issue or see the urban poor…

  18. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musoke, David; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Carpenter, David O.; Ssempebwa, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. Methods. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Results. Food remains (38%) and plastics (37%) formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9%) disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6%) and compost (54.9%) solid wastes. Conclusion. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices. PMID:27066081

  19. Effect of a School Feeding Programme on Nutritional Status and Anaemia in an Urban Slum: A Preliminary Evaluation in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neervoort, F.; Von Rosenstiel, I.; Bongers, K.; Demetriades, M.; Shacola, M.; Wolffers, I.N.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding

  20. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musoke, David; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Carpenter, David O; Ssempebwa, John C

    2016-01-01

    Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Food remains (38%) and plastics (37%) formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9%) disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6%) and compost (54.9%) solid wastes. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices.

  1. Outcomes and costs of implementing a community-based intervention for hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, Samuel Oji; van de Vijver, Steven; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Agyemang, Charles; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    To describe the processes, outcomes and costs of implementing a multi-component, community-based intervention for hypertension among adults aged > 35 years in a large slum in Nairobi, Kenya. The intervention in 2012-2013 was based on four components: awareness-raising; improved access to screening;

  2. Epidemiological patterns of mental disorders and stigma in a community household survey in urban slum and rural settings in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutiso, Victoria N.; Musyimi, Christine W.; Tomita, Andrew; Loeffen, Lianne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Ndetei, David M.

    Purpose: This study investigated the epidemiological patterns of mental illness and stigma in community households in Kenya using a cross-sectional community household survey among 846 participants. Methods: A cross-sectional community household survey was conducted around urban slum (Kangemi) and

  3. Fate and Transport of Nutrients in Groundwater and Surface Water in an Urban Slum Catchment Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyenje, P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the generation, transport and fate of sanitation-related nutrients in groundwater and surface water in an urban slum area in sub-Saharan Africa. In excess, nutrients can cause eutrophication of downstream water bodies. The study argues that nitrogen-containing rains and

  4. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF OLD AGE PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN & URBAN SLUM AREAS IN MAHARASHTRA, KARAD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Leena Rahul Salunkhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government

  5. Comments on Nijman's 'A study of Space in Mumbai's Slums' From Slumdog to Mumbaikar: a Space Odyssey? : A SPACE ODYSSEY?

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    Druijven, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Following a brief sketch of the shift within development geography from rural to urban themes, this paper examines Nijman's description and analysis of Mumbai's slums. This is characterised by a historical and geographical stratification, with an emphasis on the congruence of economic and social

  6. Acceptability of the rainwater harvesting system to the slum dwellers of Dhaka City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Chou, F N-F; Kabir, M R

    2010-01-01

    Urban area like Dhaka City, in Bangladesh, has scarcity of safe drinking water which is one of the prominent basic needs for human kind. This study explored the acceptability of harvested rainwater in a densely populated city like Dhaka, using a simple and low cost technology. A total of 200 random people from four slums of water-scarce Dhaka City were surveyed to determine the dwellers' perception on rainwater and its acceptability as a source of drinking water. The questionnaire was aimed at finding the socio-economic condition and the information on family housing, sanitation, health, existing water supply condition, knowledge about rainwater, willingness to accept rainwater as a drinking source etc. A Yield before Spillage (YBS) model was developed to know the actual rainwater availability and storage conditions which were used to justify the effective tank size. Cost-benefit analysis and feasibility analysis were performed using the survey results and the research findings. The survey result and overall study found that the low cost rainwater harvesting technique was acceptable to the slum dwellers as only the potential alternative source of safe drinking water.

  7. Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; van de Vijver, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people’s response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people’ perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were lowamong the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks. PMID:24157509

  8. CARE SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF MOTHERS DURING ILLNESS OF NEWBORN IN URBAN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW CITY

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    P Gupta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge of mothers about recognition of danger signs and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn child in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP. Methods : A cross- sectional study in Urban slums of Lucknow city, UP included 524 women who had a live birth during last one year preceding data collection. The data was tabulated on Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using the software SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results : Study findings showed that Majority (76.9% of the mothers said that if the baby was very cold to touch or running temperature is a danger sign during newborn period followed by absence of sucking (68.9% in previously sucking newborn as danger sign. Majority (71.9% of the mothers consulted local doctor for any problem during neonatal period. Only 12 percent of the mothers approached Govt. doctor for the treatment . It was observed that Hing was given by 86.2 percent mothers in case of stomachache. 82.8 percent mothers had given salt and sugar solutions in the case of diarrhoea . Conclusion: In majority of cases correct knowledge and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn were lacking among mothers and this should be promoted through improved coverage with existing health services.

  9. KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, PRACTICE AMONG ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN URBAN SLUMS

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    Tushar Rai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases?  Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel.  Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted.

  10. CARE SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF MOTHERS DURING ILLNESS OF NEWBORN IN URBAN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW CITY.

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    P Gupta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge of mothers about recognition of danger signs and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn child in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP. Methods : A cross- sectional study in Urban slums of Lucknow city, UP included 524 women who had a live birth during last one year preceding data collection. The data was tabulated on Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using the software SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results : Study findings showed that Majority (76.9% of the mothers said that if the baby was very cold to touch or running temperature is a danger sign during newborn period followed by absence of sucking (68.9% in previously sucking newborn as danger sign. Majority (71.9% of the mothers consulted local doctor for any problem during neonatal period. Only 12 percent of the mothers approached Govt. doctor for the treatment . It was observed that Hing was given by 86.2 percent mothers in case of stomachache. 82.8 percent mothers had given salt and sugar solutions in the case of diarrhoea\t. Conclusion: In majority of cases correct knowledge and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn were lacking among mothers and this should be promoted through improved coverage with existing health services.

  11. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Culbreth, Rachel; Salazar, Laura F; Kasirye, Rogers; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134) of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590). Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590), 13.7% (n = 81) reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81) and 22.5% (n = 18) among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4), being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4), ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0), and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5). Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.

  12. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women's Health in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Hildebrand, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women's health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women's health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls' health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%), respiratory illness/cough (46%), diabetes (33%), and diarrhea (30%) as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements.

  13. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women’s Health in Nairobi, Kenya

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    Jason Corburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women’s health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women’s health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls’ health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%, respiratory illness/cough (46%, diabetes (33%, and diarrhea (30% as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements.

  14. NEWBORN CARE PRACTICES AMONG SLUM DWELLERS IN ALIGARH CITY, UTTAR PRADESH

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    Mohd. Haroon Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The newborn health challenge faced by India is more formidable than that experienced by any other country in the world. The current neonatal mortality rate (NMR of 44 per 1,000 live births, accounts for nearly two-thirds of all infant mortality and translates into at least two newborn deaths every minute. Methods: The present community based study was conducted in the field practice area of the Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC, Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Purposive sampling i.e. nonrandom sampling to include subjects that serve the specific purpose was used. Two hundred pregnant women were chosen for the study. The study was carried out from one year. Data were analyzed with Epi Info version 3.5.1. Percentages, and Chi Square Test used. Objective was to study the knowledge and practices related to newborn care among slum dwellers in Aligarh, UP. Results: Majority of pregnant women (75% had more than one live issue. Majority of pregnant women 91.5% delivered at home by untrained dais. Unhygienic delivery practices were common. There were low level of breastfeeding practices, practices to prevent hypothermia and knowledge of danger signs in newborns requiring medical consultation, among pregnant women in periurban area of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh India. Conclusion: It was concluded that there was a poor newborn care practices among slum dwellers in Aligarh.

  15. Is Leprosy Control In Urban Slums Possible ? - A Study In Bombay

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    Ganapati R

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of community-based leprosy control operations spanning almost a decade in two locations, a small self settled leprosy colony (I of about 800 subjects as well as a large slum (II with a population of about 20,000 in the metropolitan city of Bombay are compared. New case detection through survey in location I and voluntary reporting in location II during the period 1982-86 is taken as an index of the impact of the intervention, which consisted of field based administration of multi-drug therapy. Though the leprosy colony concentrates an abnormal reservoir of infectious cases in a small population, it was relatively easier to achieve success in reducing the transmission rate through field-based chemotherapy programme. The same degree of success however, could not be achieved in a normal slum. Health care delivery system in relation to leprosy eradication at the grass-root levels has to be planned giving maximum importance to cost-effective methods of identification of multi-bacillary leprosy patients and monitoring their movements carefully during the treatment phase.

  16. A Study Of Protein Calorie Malnutrition Amongst Under Six Children In Slum Area Of Kanpur

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    S C Saxena

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the nutritional profile amongst under six children in slum area of Kanpur. Study Design Door to door survey by collecting relevent information from head of household on a pretested questionaire. Study UnitEach of household having any child in the age group less than 6 years. Study Area The study was conducted in Katari slum area of Kalyanpur, Kanpur. Study Variable Grades of PCM as per recommendation of nutrition sub-committee of paediatrics (ICMR-1972 Statistical analysis:- By chi-square test of significance. Results The highest percentage of PCM was observed amongst 0-1 year and boys of single families whose parents were illiterate and unemployed or labourers belonging mainly to lower socio-economic class. Conclusions:- To reduce childhood mortality with reference to PCM, die literacy status of parents especially of mothers should be increased and social reform measures to be taken for engaging them in some income generating jobs/business, agriculture etc.

  17. A Study Of Protein Calorie Malnutrition Amongst Under Six Children In Slum Area Of Kanpur

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    S C Saxena

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the nutritional profile amongst under six children in slum area of Kanpur.Study Design Door to door survey by collecting relevent information from head of household on a pretested questionaire. Study UnitEach of household having any child in the age group less than 6 years.Study Area The study was conducted in Katari slum area of Kalyanpur, Kanpur.Study Variable Grades of PCM as per recommendation of nutrition sub-committee of paediatrics (ICMR-1972 Statistical analysis:- By chi-square test of significance.Results The highest percentage of PCM was observed amongst 0-1 year and boys of single families whose parents were illiterate and unemployed or labourers belonging mainly to lower socio-economic class.Conclusions:- To reduce childhood mortality with reference to PCM, die literacy status of parents especially of mothers should be increased and social reform measures to be taken for engaging them in some income generating jobs/business, agriculture etc.

  18. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala

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    Monica H. Swahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134 of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590. Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590, 13.7% (n = 81 reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81 and 22.5% (n = 18 among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4, being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4, ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0, and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5. Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.

  19. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E.; Ko, Albert I.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure, and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from 9 sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighborhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographic distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

  20. Correlates of domestic violence experience among recently-married women residing in slums in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokhe, Ameeta S; Iyer, Sandhya R; Kolhe, Ambika R; Dhayarkar, Sampada; Paranjape, Anuradha; Del Rio, Carlos; Stephenson, Rob; Sahay, Seema

    2018-01-01

    The high risk of experiencing domestic violence (DV) among married women in India who reside in slum communities underscores the need for effective, evidence-based, and culturally-tailored primary prevention. To inform such DV primary prevention strategies for this population, we herein aimed to identify correlates of DV experience in early marriage. Utilizing a cross-sectional design, potential correlates of DV experience were explored among a geographically-clustered random sample of 100 recently-married women residing in slums in Pune, India. In multivariable regression, DV experience was associated with less educational attainment by the participant's spouse (standardized β = -0.281, p = 0.004), less satisfaction of the spouse's family with the maanpaan (wedding-related gifts provided by the bride's family) they received at the time of marriage (standardized β = -0.298, p<0.001), poorer conflict negotiation skills (standardized β = -0.308, p<0.001), and greater acknowledgement of DV occurrence in family and friends (standardized β = 0.436, p<0.001). These correlates suggest strategies that could be incorporated into future DV primary prevention interventions for this vulnerable population (i.e. promoting completion of formal education of boys alongside girls, mitigating causes of familial dowry harassment, improving conflict negotiation skills, and challenging norms surrounding DV).

  1. Water and sanitation hygiene knowledge attitude practice in urban slum settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; Prasad, Satish; Kasav, Jyoti B; Segan, Mehak; Singh, Awnish K

    2013-11-18

    Access to improved drinking water, sanitation and hygiene is one of the prime concerns around the globe. This study aimed at assessing water and sanitation hygiene-related attitude and practices, and quality of water in urban slums of south Delhi, India. This pilot cross sectional study was performed during July 2013 across four urban slums of South Delhi. A convenient sample of 40 participants was enrolled. A modified version of previously validated questionnaire was used to gather information on socio-demographics, existing water and sanitation facilities and water treatment practices. Water quality testing was additionally performed using hydrogen sulphide (H2S) vials. Average age of participants was 36 years (SD=10). 83% of the participants perceived gastrointestinal tract infection as the most important health problem. 75% of the participants did not use any method for drinking water treatment. 45% of the participants consumed water from privately-owned tube well/ bore well. Water shortage lasted two days or more (50%) at a stretch with severe scarcity occurring twice a year (40%). Females aged 15 years and above were largely responsible (93%) for fetching water from water source. 45% of the participants had toilets within their households. 53% of drinking water samples collected from storage containers showed positive bacteriological contamination. There is an urgent need to develop family centered educational programs that would enhance awareness about water treatment methods that are cost effective and easily accessible.

  2. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

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    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  3. Utilization of maternal health care services in slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh

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    Housne Ara Begum

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has one of the highest maternal mortality rates (MMR in the world. The estimated lifetime risk of dying from pregnancy and childbirth related causes in Bangladesh is about 100 times higher compare to developed countries. However, utilization of maternal health care services (MHCS is notably low. This study examines the socio-economic determinants of utilization of MHCS in some slum areas of Dhaka city. The overall utilization was 86.3% of women; however, utilization of different sorts of MHCS was very low, i.e., the mean utilization was found to be 2.25 out of 5 MHCS. Indicator wise, ANC, TT, institutional delivery, delivery assistance by health professional and PNC were received by 61.3%, 80.4%, 12.6%, 33.2% and 55.4% of women respectively. Variation was observed with different socio-economic variables. Multiple regression model could explain 38% of variance (P<0.001. Among the significant determinants, order of last birth negatively explained the most variance (15.2%. Similarly, distance between home and clinic was found to affect the utilization negatively. Besides, some respondents’ socio economic variables had a significant positive effect on MHCS utilization. To reduce maternal mortality in disadvantaged women in slum areas, this study might suggest a few pointers while considering formulation of policies and planning. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2010; 4(2: 44-48

  4. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are

  5. Awareness About Anti-Smoking Related Laws and Legislation Among General Population in Slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandini; Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Mongjam M; Ingle, Gopal K

    2018-04-02

    Almost 40% of Delhi's population lives in slums and is vulnerable to tobacco use. It is therefore important to assess their opinion and ensure compliance to antismoking legislation. The present study was undertaken to assess the awareness of the general public residing in slums in Delhi regarding the smoke-free initiative of 2009, 3 years after intensive implementation. It was a cross-sectional study conducted among participants selected by cluster sampling from the slums in six districts of Delhi using a pretested semistructured questionnaire. A total of 708 slum dwellers were interviewed. Out of the total, only 16.1% (n = 114) of the participants had heard of The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COTPA), though, they were aware about some of the provisions of the COTPA. Majority (n = 529; 74.7%) perceived the smoke-free zones as the places where smoking forms of tobacco are banned. Regarding the awareness about the places designated as smoke-free zones, 82.1% (n = 581) of the respondents named educational institutions. About 61% of the people interviewed reported to have seen people smoking at public places on the day of interview while only 21.5% reported to have seen any one getting punished for smoking. Awareness about COTPA was low. The study respondents perceived that no action was being taken against persons acting in violation of the law. Thus, there is a need for stricter implementation of COTPA and increased spreading of awareness among the general public. While awareness about antismoking legislation among general population (particularly slums) has been studied world over, this has not been the case in India. The study depicts opinion of one of the susceptible populations regarding tobacco control legislation, which has hitherto not been studied in the Indian context. This study has an important implication as it highlights the need

  6. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Sabina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on

  7. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2011-12-16

    In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women's human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on 'universal human rights' are often removed from the reality of adolescent women's everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women's understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and 'rights' exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married

  8. Clearance and release from control - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper tries to give an overview of the clearance, or release from regulatory control, on an international scale, including some of those countries where clearance has become or is about to become vital for D and D. The emphasis lies on the impact of clearance, and in particular of differences between clearance levels of various countries, on D and D. Relevance of clearance for D and D of nuclear installations Clearance is an essential part of waste management (or more general, material management) in nuclear installations, and in particular during the decommissioning phase where waste streams continues to arise. Of course, the relevance of clearance in a particular country depends on a number of factors, like: availability of a final repository and its price; prevailing decommissioning strategy; number of nuclear installations reaching decommissioning phase. This small selection of reasons why clearance may be of varying importance for different countries may already suffice to illustrate why up to now clearance has been developed and implemented in quite different ways. If one thinks of additional reasons that may influence clearance, like politics, the public opinion, availability of funds etc., the situation becomes even more complex. It is, however safe to draw the conclusion that countries with a certain number of nuclear installations which have been or will soon be shut down or which are already in the decommissioning phase will need to implement provisions for clearance. This has indeed been the case with countries like the UK, Germany, the USA, Sweden, and a number of others. It is not essential for clearance levels to be exactly equal between various countries. They may differ as long as the difference is not too large, e.g. the values fall into the same order of magnitude. This is the reason why for example Germany has no problems with clearance levels which differ from the EU recommendation RP 122 partially adopted in a number of EU countries

  9. Investigations of renal clearance in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1981-01-01

    Comparative investigations of PAH- and inulin-clearance and results of investigations with J-131-hippurate and Cr-51-EDTA, which were performed by a partly screened whole body counter including measurements of activity retention of blood samples, are showing good correlation. If the radio-isotope nephrography is worked out together with the decreased retention curve, separate results of the function of both kidneys can be given. Modifications which were tried to analyze a small part of the retention curve instead of the whole body are inaccurate, if they are below 300 ml/min. (orig.) [de

  10. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of neuronal signalling is the increased concentration of K(+) in the extracellular space. The K(+) concentration is restored to its original basal level primarily by uptake into nearby glial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which K(+) is transferred from the extracellular...... space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...

  11. Slum upgrading strategies involving physical environment and infrastructure interventions and their effects on health and socio-economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Ruth; Saith, Ruhi; Bhan, Nandita; Rehfuess, Eva; Carter, Ben

    2013-01-31

    Slums are densely populated, neglected parts of cities where housing and living conditions are exceptionally poor. In situ slum upgrading, at its basic level, involves improving the physical environment of the existing area, such as improving and installing basic infrastructure like water, sanitation, solid waste collection, electricity, storm water drainage, access roads and footpaths, and street lighting, as well as home improvements and securing land tenure. To explore the effects of slum upgrading strategies involving physical environment and infrastructure interventions on the health, quality of life and socio-economic wellbeing of urban slum dwellers in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Where reported, data were collected on the perspectives of slum dwellers regarding their needs, preferences for and satisfaction with interventions received. We searched for published and unpublished studies in 28 bibliographic databases including multidisciplinary (for example Scopus) and specialist databases covering health, social science, urban planning, environment and LMIC topics. Snowballing techniques included searching websites, journal handsearching, contacting authors and reference list checking. Searches were not restricted by language or publication date. We included studies examining the impact of slum upgrading strategies involving physical environment or infrastructure improvements (with or without additional co-interventions) on the health, quality of life and socio-economic wellbeing of LMIC urban slum dwellers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) were eligible for the main analysis. Controlled studies with only post-intervention data (CPI) and uncontrolled before and after (UBA) studies were included in a separate narrative to examine consistency of results and to supplement evidence gaps in the main analysis. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias

  12. The Veterans Affairs Saint Louis University mental status exam (SLUMS exam) and the Mini-mental status exam as predictors of mortality and institutionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Oliver, D M; Malmstrom, T K; Allen, C M; Tumosa, N; Morley, J E

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate predictive validity of cognitive dysfunction of the Saint Louis University mental status (SLUMS) exam or mini-mental state exam (MMSE) for institutionalization and mortality after 7.5-years. Longitudinal study. Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center Veterans Affairs Hospital St. Louis, MO. Patients (N=705) were screened for cognitive dysfunction in 2003 using the SLUMS exam and MMSE, and mortality and institutionalization up to 7.5-years later were evaluated as outcome measures. The associations between outcome measures and MMSE and SLUMS exam total scores, and cognitive status were examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression. Five hundred thirty-three charts were reviewed, 176/533(33%) patients had died and 31/526 (6%) were institutionalized during 7.5-year follow-up period. All subjects were male with a mean age of 75 years and most had high school education or greater (71%). MMSE dementia, SLUMS dementia (ps<.001) and MCI (p<.05) groups had significantly lower survival rates than normal cognition group in the Kaplan-Meier curves. Scores classified as dementia on SLUMS (HR=2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.7; p <.001) or MMSE (HR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.6; p <.001) both predicted mortality and, also, institutionalization (SLUMS: HR=3.5, 95% CI 1.3-9.1; p <.01; MMSE: HR=3.8, 95% CI 1.6-9.0; p <.001) after adjustment for covariates. Unadjusted SLUMS exam MCI predicted morality (HR=1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2; p <.019) but not institutionalization. The SLUMS exam and MMSE both predict mortality and institutionalization for male patients screened as positive for dementia.

  13. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Feng, J. J.; Wu, G. K.; Luo, X. Q.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  14. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H; Feng, J J; Wu, G K; Luo, X Q

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  15. Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is

  16. KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS REGARDING DIABETES MELLITUS IN URBAN SLUM OF MEERUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartaj Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes was described more than 2000 years ago. For the past 250 years, it has featured in the history of medicine. Since the discovery of insulin, work on diabetes at both cellular and clinical levels has expanded. The worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen dramatically in the developing countries over the past two decades. India with the highest absolute number of cases has become the diabetic capital of the world. Research question: What is the level of knowledge and awareness among adults regarding diabetes mellitus ? Objective: To study the level of knowledge and awareness regarding diabetes in adults of urban slum in Meerut. Study Design: Cross-sectional, Community-based study. Settings and Participants: Adults belonging to families of urban slum area of Multan nagar which also happens to be the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Subharti Medical College, Meerut. Sample Size: 400 young people aged above 25years, 220 respondents were males and 180 were females. Study Period: Feb 2011 to July 2011 Study Variables: A pre- designed, pre-tested, questionnaire was used after taking verbal consent. Questions consisted of age, sex, knowledge and awareness of diabetes i.e. whether ever heard of diabetes, causes, signs and symptoms, mode of diagnosis, complications, risk factors, mode of treatment, source of information regarding diabetes. Statistical Analysis: Data was entered and analyzed in MS Excel. For Socio-economic status, Modified Kuppuswamy classification was used. Results: 75% of the respondents had heard of diabetes. Half of the respondents were aware that it is a sugar disease. 35% of the respondents had the misconception that sugar (table sugar is a risk factor for diabetes. 90% of the respondents were not having any knowledge of signs or symptoms of diabetes. Friends and relatives were the highest sources of information followed by doctors. Conclusion: Knowledge and awareness among adults

  17. Common Menstrual Problems among Slum Adolescent Girls of Western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganganahalli P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation, an important part of female reproductive cycle but menstrual dysfunction in adolescent girls may affect normal life of adolescent and young adult women.Objectives: To assess the percentage of common menstrual problems among adolescent girls from urban slums and to determine the correlation between common menstrual problems with nutritional status of these girls. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among adolescent girls residing in urban slum area under the field practice area of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Karad of Western Maharashtra, India during the month of November - December 2011. 237 adolescent girls,age between 12-19 years were interviewed and examined using pretested semistructured questionnaire. Data was collected by researchers with the help of Medical Officer and Medical Social Worker of Urban Health Training Center by personal interview and clinical examination method. Data was compiled and presented into frequency percentage distribution. Chisquare test was applied to determine the association between common menstrual problem swith body mass index and anemia. Results: Out of total 237 adolescent girls, 230 (97.04% had attained menarche of which, 147 girls(63.91% had regular and 83(36.08% had irregular menstrual cycle with mean age at menarche by recall method was 12.8 yrs. The percentage of common menstrual problems such as oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia,hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were 16.08%, 17.82%, 27.39%,59.56%, 49.13% and 46.52% respectively,however amenorrhea ( primary was seen in 3(0.01% girls. Prevalence of under nutrition and anemia was 40.86% and 60.43%. Health seeking behavior for common menstrual problem was seen in only 25.75% girls. Oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were significantly associated with anemia; however BMI was significantly associated with dysmenorrhea

  18. Quantification of pathogenic Leptospira in the soils of a Brazilian urban slum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Schneider

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that causes considerable morbidity and mortality globally, primarily in residents of urban slums. While contact with contaminated water plays a critical role in the transmission of leptospirosis, little is known about the distribution and abundance of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in soil and the potential contribution of this source to human infection.We collected soil samples (n = 70 from three sites within an urban slum community endemic for leptospirosis in Salvador, Brazil. Using qPCR of Leptospira genes lipl32 and 16S rRNA, we quantified the pathogenic Leptospira load in each soil sample. lipl32 qPCR detected pathogenic Leptospira in 22 (31% of 70 samples, though the median concentration among positive samples was low (median = 6 GEq/g; range: 4-4.31×102 GEq/g. We also observed heterogeneity in the distribution of pathogenic Leptospira at the fine spatial scale. However, when using 16S rRNA qPCR, we detected a higher proportion of Leptospira-positive samples (86% and higher bacterial concentrations (median: 4.16×102 GEq/g; range: 4-2.58×104 GEq/g. Sequencing of the qPCR amplicons and qPCR analysis with all type Leptospira species revealed that the 16S rRNA qPCR detected not only pathogenic Leptospira but also intermediate species, although both methods excluded saprophytic Leptospira. No significant associations were identified between the presence of pathogenic Leptospira DNA and environmental characteristics (vegetation, rat activity, distance to an open sewer or a house, or soil clay content, though samples with higher soil moisture content showed higher prevalences.This is the first study to successfully quantify the burden of pathogenic Leptospira in soil from an endemic region. Our results support the hypothesis that soil may be an under-recognized environmental reservoir contributing to transmission of pathogenic Leptospira in urban slums. Consequently, the role of soil should be

  19. Evaluation of serum iohexol clearance for use in predicting carboplatin clearance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Dennis B; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Prey, Joshua D; Dykes, Nathan L

    2009-09-01

    To determine whether a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) assay based on serum iohexol clearance can be used to predict carboplatin clearance in cats. 10 cats with tumors. GFR was measured concurrently by use of plasma clearance of technetium Tc 99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) to yield GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and serum clearance of iohexol to yield GFR(Iohexol). A single dose of carboplatin was administered IV as a bolus. Dose was calculated by use of a target value for the area under the plasma platinum concentration-versus-time curve (AUC(Target)) and estimation of platinum clearance (CL(PT)) derived from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x 2.6 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA) x body weight, where AUC(Target) is 2.75 min.mg.mL(-1). Plasma platinum concentrations were measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Values for GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were compared by use of least-squares regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Least-squares regression was used to determine whether CL(PT) could be predicted from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) or GFR(Iohexol) (or both). GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were strongly correlated (r = 0.90), but GFR(Iohexol) values were significantly larger by a factor of approximately 1.4. Platinum clearance had a significant linear relationship to GFR(99mTc-DTPA) (CL(PT) = 2.5 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA)) and to GFR(Iohexol) (CL(PT) = [1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4). In cats, serum iohexol clearance was an accurate predictor of CL(PT) and can be used to calculate the carboplatin dose as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x ([1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4) x body weight.

  20. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with [3H]choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day

  1. Improved drainage with active chest tube clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiose, Akira; Takaseya, Tohru; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Arakawa, Yoko; Horai, Tetsuya; Boyle, Edward M; Gillinov, A Marc; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2010-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel chest drainage system. This system employs guide wire-based active chest tube clearance to improve drainage and maintain patency. A 32 Fr chest tube was inserted into pleural cavities of five pigs. On the left, a tube was connected to the chest canister, and on the right, the new system was inserted between the chest tube and chest canister. Acute bleeding was mimicked by periodic infusion of blood. The amount of blood drained from each chest cavity was recorded every 15 min for 2 h. After completion of the procedure, all residual blood and clots in each chest cavity were assessed. The new system remained widely patent, and the amount of drainage achieved with this system (670+/-105 ml) was significantly (P=0.01) higher than that with the standard tube (239+/-131 ml). The amount of retained pleural blood and clots with this system (150+/-107 ml) was significantly (P=0.04) lower than that with the standard tube (571+/-248 ml). In conclusion, a novel chest drainage system with active tube clearance significantly improved drainage without tube manipulations. 2010 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. Poverty, housing, and the rural slum: policies and the production of inequities, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sarah M; Villarejo, Don

    2012-09-01

    We studied historical materials to examine the conditions that gave rise to California's rural slums, the consequences of their emergence, and how interpretations of housing, health, and welfare policies by government officials, and public health officials in particular, produced health inequities for residents of these communities. For more than a century, successive groups of immigrants and domestic migrant laborers have worked on California's farms and faced numerous challenges, among them a lack of safe and affordable housing, poor working conditions, and denial of public services. Although these experiences are not new, nor are they unique to agricultural workers, they illustrate a longer history in which inequities and injustices have been rooted in the exploitation and disposability of labor. Ameliorating or even redressing inequities will require understanding the social determinants of health through ecological approaches that can overcome the historical, social, and political causes of inequity.

  3. The Sound of Stigmatization: Sonic Habitus, Sonic Styles, and Boundary Work in an Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ori

    2015-07-01

    Based on focus groups and interviews with student renters in an Israeli slum, the article explores the contributions of differences in sonic styles and sensibilities to boundary work, social categorization, and evaluation. Alongside visual cues such as broken windows, bad neighborhoods are characterized by sonic cues, such as shouts from windows. Students understand "being ghetto" as being loud in a particular way and use loudness as a central resource in their boundary work. Loudness is read as a performative index of class and ethnicity, and the performance of middle-class studentship entails being appalled by stigmatized sonic practices and participating in their exoticization. However, the sonic is not merely yet another resource of boundary work. Paying sociological attention to senses other than vision reveals complex interactions between structures anchored in the body, structures anchored in language, and actors' identification strategies, which may refine theorizations of the body and the senses in social theory.

  4. Incidence of diarrhea in children living in urban slums in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clotildes N. de Melo

    Full Text Available Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children,each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea.

  5. Epidemiological study of ocular trauma in an urban slum population in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, S; Chandra, M; Gupta, S K; Vashist, P; Gogoi, M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7) Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant (P < 0.001), when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%). Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028). Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4%) were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001), and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041) and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028) of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78), between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81), and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170). Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority. PMID:18579991

  6. Epidemiological study of ocular trauma in an urban slum population in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vats S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7 Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant ( P < 0.001, when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%. Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028. Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4% were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001, and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041 and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028 of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78, between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81, and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170. Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority.

  7. Building for the future: influence of housing on intelligence quotients of children in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R; Sharma, Abhinav; Agarwal, Kishore S; Kumar, Amod; Sreenivas, V; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2002-12-01

    Interventions on behalf of the marginalized in society can assume many formats. In an urban slum the Government of Delhi built one-room houses for some of the residents in what is termed a 'plot area'. Not all residents could be accommodated in the project and the remainder continued to live next door in shanty houses of the slum. Nineteen years later, young children who had migrated with their parents, have grown up and have children of their own. We looked at the development of the children living in the two types of accommodation. A total of 373 children were studied. All children (n = 200) between the ages of 3.5 and 5.5 years in a cluster of five residential blocks in the plot area were studied. As a control, children in two large clusters of shanty houses (n = 173) were also studied. For development assessment the Central Institute of Education (CIE) Test was performed. This is an Indian adaptation of the Standford-Binet Test. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to determine the factors that influenced IQ most. The mean IQ of the children in the plot area was 92.5 (s.d. 13.38) and in the shanty houses 89.5 (s.d. 12.9) (p = 0.05). Analysis showed that the most significant factors affecting IQ were malnutrition in the first 6 months of life and attendance of the child at pre-school. For nutrition in the first 6 months, there was no difference between the groups. For attendance at pre-school, 110 of 200 in the plot area and 47 of 173 in the shanty houses were attending pre-school (p < 0.01). We find that children living in the permanent houses had a significantly better IQ than those in shanty houses. A review of the literature did not reveal a comparable study.

  8. Managing Ebola from rural to urban slum settings: experiences from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okware, Sam I; Omaswa, Francis; Talisuna, Ambrose; Amandua, Jacinto; Amone, Jackson; Onek, Paul; Opio, Alex; Wamala, Joseph; Lubwama, Julius; Luswa, Lukwago; Kagwa, Paul; Tylleskar, Thorkild

    2015-03-01

    Five outbreaks of ebola occurred in Uganda between 2000-2012. The outbreaks were quickly contained in rural areas. However, the Gulu outbreak in 2000 was the largest and complex due to insurgency. It invaded Gulu municipality and the slum- like camps of the internally displaced persons (IDPs). The Bundigugyo district outbreak followed but was detected late as a new virus. The subsequent outbreaks in the districts of Luwero district (2011, 2012) and Kibaale (2012) were limited to rural areas. Detailed records of the outbreak presentation, cases, and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. Each outbreak was described and the outcomes examined for the different scenarios. Early detection and action provided the best outcomes and results. The ideal scenario occurred in the Luwero outbreak during which only a single case was observed. Rural outbreaks were easier to contain. The community imposed quarantine prevented the spread of ebola following introduction into Masindi district. The outbreak was confined to the extended family of the index case and only one case developed in the general population. However, the outbreak invasion of the town slum areas escalated the spread of infection in Gulu municipality. Community mobilization and leadership was vital in supporting early case detection and isolations well as contact tracing and public education. Palliative care improved survival. Focusing on treatment and not just quarantine should be emphasized as it also enhanced public trust and health seeking behavior. Early detection and action provided the best scenario for outbreak containment. Community mobilization and leadership was vital in supporting outbreak control. International collaboration was essential in supporting and augmenting the national efforts.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AND INTENDED FAMILY SIZE AMONG MEN OF URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohan Dixit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  10. Poor perinatal care practices in urban slums: Possible role of social mobilization networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zulfia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Making perinatal care accessible to women in marginalized periurban areas poses a public health problem. Many women do not utilize institutional care in spite of physical accessibility. Home-based care by traditional birth attendants (TBA is hazardous. Inappropriate early neonatal feeding practices are common. Many barriers to perinatal care can be overcome by social mobilization and capacity building at the community level. Objectives: To determine the existing perinatal practices in an urban slum and to identify barriers to utilization of health services by mothers. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting and Participants: The high-risk periurban areas of Nabi Nagar, Aligarh has a population of 40,000 living in 5,480 households. Mothers delivering babies in September 2007 were identified from records of social mobilization workers (Community Mobilization Coordinators or CMCs already working in an NGO in the area. A total of 92 mothers were interviewed at home. Current perinatal practices and reasons for utilizing or not utilizing health services were the topics of inquiry. Statistical Analysis: Data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS 12. Results: Analyses revealed that 80.4% of mothers had received antenatal care. However, this did not translate into safe delivery practices as more than 60% of the women had home deliveries conducted by traditional untrained or trained birth attendants. Reasons for preferring home deliveries were mostly tradition (41.9% or related to economics (30.7%. A total of 56% of the deliveries were conducted in the squatting position and in 25% of the cases, the umbilical cord was cut using the edge of a broken cup. Although breast-feeding was universal, inappropriate early neonatal feeding practices were common. Prelacteal feeds were given to nearly 50% of the babies and feeding was delayed beyond 24 hours in 8% of the cases. Several mothers had breastfeeding problems

  11. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Design Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. Participants A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Results Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Conclusions Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. PMID:24852297

  12. Prevalence of reproductive morbidity amongst males in an urban slum of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6% of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2% study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3% reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%, scabies (3.5% and congenital anomalies (3.5%. Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2% amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.

  13. Induced Abortion Practices in an Urban Indian Slum: Exploring Reasons, Pathways and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Deepanjali; Bharat, Shalini; Chandrakant Gawde, Nilesh

    2015-09-01

    To explore the context, experiences and pathways of seeking abortion care among married women in a minority dominated urban slum community in Mumbai city of India. A mixed-method study was conducted using a systematic random sampling method to select 282 respondents from the slum community. One fifth of these womenreported undergoing at least one induced abortion over past five years. A quantitative survey was conducted among these women (n = 57) using structured face-to-face interviews. Additionally, in-depths interviews involving 11 respondents, 2 community health workers and 2 key informants from the community were conducted for further exploration of qualitative data. The rate of induced abortion was 115.6 per 1000 pregnancies in the study area with an abortion ratio of 162.79 per 1000 live births. Frequent pregnancies with low birth spacing and abortions were reported among the women due to restricted contraception use based on religious beliefs. Limited supportfrom husband and family compelled the women to seek abortion services, mostly secretly, from private, unskilled providers and unregistered health facilities. Friends and neighbors were main sources of advice and link to abortion services. Lack of safe abortion facilities within accessible distance furtherintensifies the risk of unsafe abortions. Low contraception usage based on rigid cultural beliefs and scarcely accessible abortion services were the root causes of extensive unsafe abortions.Contraception awareness and counseling with involvement of influential community leaders as well as safe abortion services need to be strengthened to protect these deprived women from risks of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions.

  14. Environmental impacts of wastewater from urban slums: case study - Old Fadama, Accra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monney, I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The burgeoning of slums in the developing world poses an urgent environmental threat due to insanitary conditions and rampant disposal of wastewater. To assess the potential environmental impacts, domestic wastewater from Ghana's biggest urban slum - Old Fadama was characterised throughout the dry and wet seasons. The study drew on a comprehensive assessment of the general sanitary conditions in the community to determine the sources of pollution and water quality monitoring. BOD5 levels of wastewater from the study area were 545.63±99.88mg/L and 645.94±331.43mg/L in the dry and wet seasons respectively whereas COD levels were 1100.45±167.16mg/L and 1415.12±722.83mg/L in the dry and wet seasons respectively. E-coli levels were 4±1x106CFU/100mL and 4200±2400 x106CFU/100mL in the dry and wet seasons respectively whereas total coliform levels also showed the same trend with 9±2106CFU/100mL and 16800±5100106CFU/100mL in the dry and wet seasons respectively. The study identifies that wastewater from this community has potential deleterious environmental implications due to high levels of nutrients, oxygen-demanding substances and faecal coliforms. Pollutants were identified to be emanating predominantly from open defecation and indiscriminate waste disposal. Efforts should thus be directed towards improving sanitary conditions viz. access to toilet facilities, waste disposal mechanisms and best management practices for wastewater.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AND INTENDED FAMILY SIZE AMONG MEN OF URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohan Dixit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  16. An epidemiological study of emotional and behavioral disorders among children in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Samir D; Bodhare, Trupti N; Valsangkar, Sameer; Saraf, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Although mental health research in India has gained momentum in recent years and several epidemiological studies have begun to quantify psychiatric morbidities, there are few community-based epidemiological studies focusing specifically on prevalence and associated risk factors of emotional and behavioral disorders among children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh among 370 children selected by simple random sampling. Strength and difficulty questionnaire (SDQ) was used to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorder. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the social predictors of the condition, health-seeking behavior, and its impact on educational status of the children. Maternal depression was evaluated using patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9). Eighty-three (22.43%) children had an abnormal score on at least one domain of SDQ. Logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender (odds ration (OR) = 5.51), under-nutrition (OR = 2.74), low socioeconomic status (OR = 3.73), nuclear family (OR = 1.89), working status of the mother (OR = 2.71), younger age of the mother at the birth of the child (OR = 3.09), disciplinary method (OR = 2.31), financial problem at home (OR = 13.32), alcoholic father (OR = 11.65), conflicts in family (OR = 7.29), and depression among mother (OR = 3.95) were significant predictors. There was a significant impact on educational performance (p = 0.008) and parents had little awareness regarding the condition. The high frequency of emotional and behavioral problems, its impact on educational performance of the children, associated adverse social factors, poor knowledge, and treatment-seeking behavior of the parents in an urban slum warrants immediate attention. The interrelation of all these factors can be utilized to plan a continuum of comprehensive services that focus on prevention, early identification, and effective intervention strategies with

  17. Induced Abortion Practices in an Urban Indian Slum: Exploring Reasons, Pathways and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Behera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the context, experiences and pathways of seeking abortion care among married women in a minority dominated urban slum community in Mumbai city of India.Materials and methods:A mixed-method study was conducted using a systematic random sampling method to select 282 respondents from the slum community. One fifth of these womenreported undergoing at least one induced abortion over past five years. A quantitative survey was conducted among these women (n=57 using structured face-to-face interviews. Additionally, in-depths interviews involving 11 respondents, 2 community health workers and 2 key informants from the community were conducted for further exploration of qualitative data.Results:The rate of induced abortion was 115.6 per 1000 pregnancies in the study area with an abortion ratio of 162.79 per 1000 live births. Frequent pregnancies with low birth spacing and abortions were reported among the women due to restricted contraception use based on religious beliefs. Limited supportfrom husband and family compelled the women to seek abortion services, mostly secretly, from private, unskilled providers and unregistered health facilities. Friends and neighbors were main sources of advice and link to abortion services. Lack of safe abortion facilities within accessible distance furtherintensifies the risk of unsafe abortions.Conclusion:Low contraception usage based on rigid cultural beliefs and scarcely accessible abortion services were the root causes of extensive unsafe abortions.Contraception awareness and counseling with involvement of influential community leaders as well as safe abortion services need to be strengthened to protect these deprived women from risks of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions.

  18. Preferred Healthcare Destination for Tuberculosis Care among the Slum Dwellers in Chhattisgarh: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmejaya Samal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health seeking behavior for tuberculosis (TB among Indian population varies greatly with different indicators like habitation, gender, socioeconomic status, and literacy. Studies reveal that a substantial portion of Indian population seeks medical care at private health facilities, despite TB being a centrally sponsored program. Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the health seeking behavior for TB among the slum dwellers in Chhattisgarh, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a structured questionnaire to collect information regarding the preference of health facilities and reasons for not approaching government health facility for TB care among 100 households in a slum area in Chhattisgarh. Results: Of the 100 families, 25, 69, 01, and 05% of the families reported to approach private practitioners, government health facilities, traditional practitioners, and adopt self-medication, respectively, for common health problems. Similarly, of 100 families, 44, 54, 01, and 01% families reported to approach private practitioners, government health facilities, traditional practitioners, and adopt self-medication, respectively, for TB care. In addition, several factors were identified for not approaching the government health facilities for TB care. Of 100 households, 13, 01, 20, 19, and 25% households, respectively, reported the following factors “there is long queue in govt. hospital, the Govt. medicines are not of good quality, in Govt. hospital nobody takes care of us, there is no communication facility, my home is far away from Govt. health facility.” In addition, 21% households reported to accept government health facility for TB care. Conclusion: As a centrally sponsored program, TB care in India is free of cost and quality in diagnosis, and treatment is assured. Thus, communities should be mobilized to access TB care at public health facilities to prevent poverty trap, and

  19. Cerebrospinal Fluid Clearance in Alzheimer Disease Measured with Dynamic PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Mony J; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tsui, Wai H; Saint-Louis, Les A; Glodzik, Lidia; Osorio, Ricardo S; Fortea, Juan; Butler, Tracy; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Fossati, Silvia; Kim, Hee-Jin; Carare, Roxana O; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Rusinek, Henry

    2017-09-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Dynamic PET with 18 F-THK5117, a tracer for tau pathology, was used to estimate the ventricular CSF time-activity as a biomarker for CSF clearance. We tested 3 hypotheses: extracranial CSF is detected at the superior turbinates; CSF clearance is reduced in AD; and CSF clearance is inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 8 with AD and 7 normal control volunteers, were examined with 18 F-THK5117. Ten subjects additionally underwent 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B ( 11 C-PiB) PET scanning, and 8 were 11 C-PiB-positive. Ventricular time-activity curves of 18 F-THK5117 were used to identify highly correlated time-activity curves from extracranial voxels. Results: For all subjects, the greatest density of CSF-positive extracranial voxels was in the nasal turbinates. Tracer concentration analyses validated the superior nasal turbinate CSF signal intensity. AD patients showed ventricular tracer clearance reduced by 23% and 66% fewer superior turbinate CSF egress sites. Ventricular CSF clearance was inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Conclusion: The human nasal turbinate is part of the CSF clearance system. Lateral ventricle and superior nasal turbinate CSF clearance abnormalities are found in AD. Ventricular CSF clearance reductions are associated with increased brain amyloid depositions. These data suggest that PET-measured CSF clearance is a biomarker of potential interest in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  20. Validation of Dose Calculation Codes for Clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, S.; Wirendal, B.; Bjerler, J.; Studsvik; Teunckens, L.

    2003-01-01

    Various international and national bodies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Commission, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have put forward proposals or guidance documents to regulate the ''clearance'' from regulatory control of very low level radioactive material, in order to allow its recycling as a material management practice. All these proposals are based on predicted scenarios for subsequent utilization of the released materials. The calculation models used in these scenarios tend to utilize conservative data regarding exposure times and dose uptake as well as other assumptions as a safeguard against uncertainties. None of these models has ever been validated by comparison with the actual real life practice of recycling. An international project was organized in order to validate some of the assumptions made in these calculation models, and, thereby, better assess the radiological consequences of recycling on a practical large scale

  1. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  2. Clearance of building structures for conventional non-nuclear reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, K.; Boehringer, S.

    1998-01-01

    At the example of a fuel assembly plant the strategy of control measurements on building surfaces, which shall be conventionally reused after their clearance, is regarded. Based on the given clearance levels the used measuring methods, especially with regard of possibly covered or intruded uranium contamination, are shown. The possibility of using the in-situ-γ-spectroscopy is discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Discrepancy between circadian rhythms of inulin and creatinine clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the disparity between circadian rhythmicity of inulin and creatinine clearance, we simultaneously measured inulin and creatinine clearances every 3 hours during 1 day in 14 normal subjects and in 8 patients with nephrotic syndrome. All patients and normal subjects had a circadian rhythm

  4. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  5. 78 FR 77027 - Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... No. USCG-2013-0466] Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... clearance (air-draft) accidents. In its petition, which calls for vessel masters to be provided with... accidents that it says were avoidable and that resulted in damage to or destruction of waterway...

  6. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to taking...

  7. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance office...

  8. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking the...

  9. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Séverine H.; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Lacroix, Marlène Z.; Puel, Sylvie; Viguié, Catherine; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Gayrard, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min

  10. Clearance systems in the brain—implications for Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M.; Carare, Roxana O.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates—amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles—is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood–brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ. PMID:26195256

  11. Clearance systems in the brain-implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M; Carare, Roxana O; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates-amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles-is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood-brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ.

  12. Intercalibration of mussel Mytilus edulis clearance rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjerulf Petersen, J.; Bougrier, S.; Smaal, A.C.; Garen, P.; Robert, S.; Larsen, J.E.N.; Brummelhuis, E.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Clearance rate (CR) was measured in blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Aiguillon Bay and the Oosterschelde using 3 different methods: the flow-through method, the bio-deposition method and the indirect or clearance method. CR differed significantly as a function of the method used and of the origin

  13. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation or...

  14. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    have been identified [1,3]. These include stone characteristics, the type of lithotripter used, LPC anatomy and body habitus. For iso- lated LPC stones, the pelvicalyceal angle, infundibulum length and width are considered important determinants for stone clearance. The impact of body habitus on stone clearance has so far ...

  15. Cost and sustainability of a successful package of interventions to improve vaccination coverage for children in urban slums of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, K; Uddin, M J; Koehlmoos, T P; Bishai, D M

    2014-04-25

    To estimate the incremental economic costs and explore satisfaction with a highly effective intervention for improving immunization coverage among slum populations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A package of interventions based on extended clinic hours, vaccinator training, active surveillance, and community participation was piloted in two slum areas of Dhaka, and resulted in an increase in valid fully immunized children (FIC) from 43% pre-intervention to 99% post-intervention. Cost data and stakeholder perspectives were collected January-February 2010 via document review and 10 key stakeholders interviews to estimate the financial and opportunity costs of the intervention, including uncompensated time, training and supervision costs. The total economic cost of the 1-year intervention was $18,300, comprised of external management and supervision (73%), training (11%), coordination costs (1%), uncompensated staff time and clinic costs (2%), and communications, supplies and other costs (13%). An estimated 874 additional children were correctly and fully immunized due to the intervention, at an average cost of $20.95 per valid FIC. Key stakeholders ranked extended clinic hours and vaccinator training as the most important components of the intervention. External supervision was viewed as the most important factor for the intervention's success but also the costliest. All stakeholders would like to reinstate the intervention because it was effective, but additional funding would be needed to make the intervention sustainable. Targeting slum populations with an intensive immunization intervention was highly effective but would nearly triple the amount spent on immunization per FIC in slum areas. Those committed to increasing vaccination coverage for hard-to-reach children need to be prepared for substantially higher costs to achieve results. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Maternal common mental disorders and associated factors: a cross-sectional study in an urban slum area of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Ahad Mahmud; Flora, Meerjady Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor maternal mental health has a negative impact on child growth and development. The objective of the study was to find out the associated factors of maternal common mental disorders (CMD) in an urban slum area of Bangladesh. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from September to November 2013 among conveniently selected 264 mothers having under-five children at Kamrangirchar area of Dhaka. A structured questionnaire based on Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20)...

  17. Public Health Risks in Urban Slums: Findings of the Qualitative 'Healthy Kitchens Healthy Cities' Study in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Elsey

    Full Text Available Communities in urban slums face multiple risks to their health. These are shaped by intermediary and structural determinants. Gaining a clear understanding of these determinants is a prerequisite for developing interventions to reduce the health consequences of urban poverty. With 828 million people living in slum conditions, the need to find ways to reduce risks to health has never been greater. In many low income settings, the kitchen is the epicentre of activities and behaviours which either undermine or enhance health.We used qualitative methods of semi-structured interviews, observation and participatory workshops in two slum areas in Kathmandu, Nepal to gain women's perspectives on the health risks they faced in and around their kitchens. Twenty one women were interviewed and four participatory workshops with a total of 69 women were held. The women took photographs of their kitchens to trigger discussions.The main health conditions identified by the women were respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease and burn injuries. Women clearly understood intermediary (psychosocial, material and behavioural determinants to these health conditions such as poor ventilation, cooking on open fires, over-crowding, lack of adequate child supervision. Women articulated the stress they experienced and clearly linked this to health conditions such as heart disease and uptake of smoking. They were also able to identify protective factors, particularly social capital. Subsequent analysis highlighted how female headed-households and those with disabilities had to contend with greater risks to health.Women living in slums are very aware of the intermediary determinants-material, behavioural and psycho-social, that increase their vulnerability to ill health. They are also able to identify protective factors, particularly social capital. It is only by understanding the determinants at all levels, not just the behavioural, that we will be able to identify

  18. Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors of common non-communicable diseases among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Oti, Samuel; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The four common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 80% of NCD-related deaths worldwide. The four NCDs share four common risk factors. As most of the existing evidence on the common NCD risk factors is based on analysis of a single factor at a time, there is a need to investigate the co-occurrence of the common NCD risk factors, particularly in an urban slum setting in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine the prevalence of co-occurrence of the four common NCDs risk factors among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya. This analysis was based on the data collected as part of a cross-sectional survey to assess linkages among socio-economic status, perceived personal risk, and risk factors for cardiovascular and NCDs in a population of slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2008-2009. A total of 5,190 study subjects were included in the analysis. After selecting relevant variables for common NCD risk factors, we computed the prevalence of all possible combinations of the four common NCD risk factors. The analysis was disaggregated by relevant background variables. The weighted prevalences of unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity, harmful use of alcohol, and tobacco use were found to be 57.2, 14.4, 10.1, and 12.4%, respectively. Nearly 72% of the study participants had at least one of the four NCD risk factors. About 52% of the study population had any one of the four NCD risk factors. About one-fifth (19.8%) had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Close to one in six individuals (17.6%) had two NCD risk factors, while only 2.2% had three or four NCD risk factors. One out of five of people in the urban slum settings of Nairobi had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Both comprehensive and differentiated approaches are needed for effective NCD prevention and control in these settings.

  19. On Garbage and Ice: Ethics of the Slums in Katherine Boo’s Behind the Beautiful Forevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogobete Daniela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper dwells on the complex representation of the Indian slums in Katherine Boo’s 2012 novel Behind the Beautiful Forevers. Leaving behind the conventional oversentimentalised and over-optimistic literary and cinematographic depictions, the writer places her text on the boundary between fiction and journalism, discussing poverty, inequality, hope and despair in one of the most surprising cities of the globalised world, from a new perspective.

  20. Estimation of 131I hippuran clearance during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, R.; Stoll, W.; Zenner, I.; Arndt, J.; Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena

    1979-01-01

    Changes in 131 I hippuran clearance were estimated by a non-catheter method, as well as total clearance and clearance of each kidney, in 43 women at various stages of pregnancy and in 13 non-pregnant women who were not using hormonal contraceptives. The results are demonstrated in graph form. The methods used are described in detail. The procedure for determining clearance in separate kidneys is indicated. It was found that clearance values increased up to the 35th and 26th weeks of pregnancy. The difference between the sides that were found corresponds with the previously known difference in the function of the right and left kidneys and ureters. (orig.) [de

  1. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...

  2. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  3. Factors influencing feeding practices of extreme poor infants and young children in families of working mothers in Dhaka slums: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ashraful; Maitrot, Mathilde Rose Louise

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional status differs between infants and young children living in slum and non-slum conditions-infants and young children living in City Corporation slums are likely to have worse nutritional status compared to those from non-slums. Furthermore, families in slums tend to engage female labor in cash-earning activities as a survival strategy; hence, a higher percentage of mothers stay at work. However, little is known about feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers in slums. This study aims to understand the factors that determine feeding practices for infants and young children living in families with working mothers in Dhaka slums. This study adopted a qualitative approach. Sixteen In-depth Interviews, five Key Informant Interviews, and Focused Group Discussions were conducted with family members, community leaders, and program staff. Method triangulation and thematic analyses were conducted. Feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers are broadly determined by mothers' occupation, basis civic facilities, and limited family buying capacity. Although mothers have good nutritional knowledge, they negotiate between work and feeding their infants and young children. Household composition, access to cooking facilities, and poverty level were also found to be significant determining factors. The results suggest a trade-off between mothers' work and childcare. The absence of alternative care support in homes and/or work places along with societal factors outweighs full benefits of project interventions. Improving alternative childcare support could reduce the burden of feeding practice experienced by working mothers and may improve nutritional outcomes.

  4. Common mental disorder and its socio-demographic correlates among married women residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Ansuman; Panigrahi, Madhulita; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Das, Sai Chandan

    2017-01-01

    The mental health of women residing in slum areas is a neglected and important public health concern. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken during 2012-2013 to assess frequently occurring mental disorders and associated factors among married women 15-45 years of age, residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar, India. A multistage, cluster, random sampling design was applied to select the study areas. The presence of a mental disorder was determined using a validated, self-reported questionnaire, developed by the World Health Organization. Using a predesigned, pretested schedule, relevant data were collected from 362 eligible, willing women respondents. Eighty women (22.1%) had a mental disorder, 56 (70.0%) of whom never consulted a health-care provider. Results of multiple logistic regression indicated that presence of a mental disorder was positively associated with not being satisfied with managing household financial affairs, not having time to attend social obligations, attending religious services less than four times per month, addiction of a family member to alcohol or drugs, and misunderstandings or quarrels in the family. Policy makers should be encouraged to incorporate such determinants in schemes or programs intended to promote the mental health of married slum women.

  5. Urban Slums Are New and Important Areas for Inequalities in Maternal and Newborn Health in Many Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Patel

    2014-06-01

    RESULTS: Coverage and utilization for most of the antenatal care variables like minimum three antenatal visits, antenatal card availability, Tetanus Toxoid immunization and Iron Folic Acid consumption; intranatal care variables like accompanying of pregnant mothers for deliveries to institute by peripheral workers (RR [Relative Risk]=10.01; CI [Confidence Interval]=5.4-18 ; postnatal care variables like post-natal check-ups (RR=1.77; CI=1.54-2.03, and family planning (FP advices (RR=1.65; CI=1.47-1.86; and newborn care indicators like newborn check-ups (RR=1.86; CI=1.61-2.14, early breastfeeding initiation and birth registration were higher in rural areas compared to urban slums; but institutional delivery rate (RR=0.76; CI=0.68-0.84, use of FP methods (RR=0.58; CI=0.42-0.78 and prelacteal feed were better in urban slums. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights that maternal and newborn care services utilization are poorer in urban slums compared to rural areas in Gujarat requiring attention to strategize policies toward reducing these gaps. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 217-224

  6. Factors influencing the decision to drop out of health insurance enrolment among urban slum dwellers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinga, Roger A; Abiiro, Gilbert Abotisem; Kuganab-Lem, Robert Bella

    2015-03-01

    To identify the factors influencing dropout from Ghana's health insurance scheme among populations living in slum communities. Cross-sectional data were collected from residents of 22 slums in the Accra Metropolitan Assembly. Cluster and systematic random sampling techniques were used to select and interview 600 individuals who had dropped out from the scheme 6 months prior to the study. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models were computed to account for sample characteristics and reasons associated with the decision to dropout. The proportion of dropouts in the sample increased from the range of 6.8% in 2008 to 34.8% in 2012. Non-affordability of premium was the predominant reason followed by rare illness episodes, limited benefits of the scheme and poor service quality. Low-income earners and those with low education were significantly more likely to report premium non-affordability. Rare illness was a common reason among younger respondents, informal sector workers and respondents with higher education. All subgroups of age, education, occupation and income reported nominal benefits of the scheme as a reason for dropout. Interventions targeted at removing bottlenecks to health insurance enrolment are salient to maximising the size of the insurance pool. Strengthening service quality and extending the premium exemption to cover low-income families in slum communities is a valuable strategy to achieve universal health coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Serological Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Apparently Healthy People from Rural and Slum Communities in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Muñoz-Zanzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease in America has been recognizable because of its rapid progression in clinical cases, occurrence in previously healthy young adults, and high case fatality rate. Hantavirus disease has been proposed now to define the diversity of clinical manifestations. Since 1995, a total of 902 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported in Chile, caused by Andes virus (ANDV, with overall fatality of 32%. This report describes the sero-epidemiology of hantavirus in apparently healthy people in rural and urban slum communities from southern Chile. Ten of 934 samples yielded a positive result resulting in a seroprevalence of 1.07% (95% confidence intervals: 0.05%–2.0%. A higher proportion of positive samples was found among individuals from rural villages (1.3% and slums (1.5% compared with farms (0.5%. Seropositivity was associated with age (p = 0.011, low education level (p = 0.006 and occupations linked to the household (homemaker, retired, or student (p = 0.016. No evidence of infection was found in 38 sigmodontinae rodents trapped in the peri-domestic environment. Our findings highlight that exposure risk was associated with less documented risk factors, such as women in slum and rural villages, and the occurrence of infection that may have presented as flu-like illness that did not require medical attention or was misdiagnosed.

  8. Effect of maternal factors on nutritional status of 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of various maternal factors on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three urban slums of Tripuri Town, Patiala. All 1-5-year children living in these slums were included, whose mother′s demographic profile, weight and height were recorded. Results: Out of 482 children who participated in the study, 185 (38.38% had low weight for age whereas 222 (46.06% had low height for age. Both kinds of malnutrition were common in females than in males. Prevalence of malnutrition was more where mother′s age was less than 20 years. Children of educated mothers were better nourished as compared to illiterate ones. Conclusion: Maternal factors significantly affect a child′s nutritional status, thus encouraging the improvement in the social status of women so as to have healthy children and thereby a healthy future.

  9. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces.

  10. Analysis of conservativity analysis for clearance levels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckert, A.; Thierfeldt, S.

    1997-07-01

    When deriving clearance levels for material from nuclear installations it is necessary to proceed with a certain degree of conservativity. This can, however, differ between various sets of clearance levels leading to inconsistencies between clearance pathways. The aim of the work therefore is to compare levels of conservativity for the following two sets of clearance levels: clearance levels for disposal as conventional waste and for metallic materials for recycling/reuse. A method was developed to quantify the degree of conservativity and make it comparable. The actual and future situation for disposal of (conventional) wastes in Germany was analysed. In addition, the masses, nuclide vectors, geographical distribution etc. for slightly radioactive material being cleared for conventional disposal was analysed and modelled and the resulting dose distributions were calculated. The values for the clearance levels were taken from the 1995 recommendation by the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK). By using realistic scenarios, the exposure was calculated for the personnel on the landfills and for persons of the general public being exposed via groundwater pathways. It could be shown that the trivial dose range will not be exceeded even if the masses of cleared material per landfill site exceed 100 Mg/a. Because of the types and distribution of nuclear installations in Germany and because of the nuclide vectors it is therefore not necessary to limit the masses per landfill sites. Clearance levels that are determined by the exposure pathways external exposure to and the inhalation of dust by the landfill personnel show a similar level of conservativity as those for metal scrap. This means that the clearance levels for gamma emitting nuclides are not overly restrictive. Although radiologically justified, raising the clearance levels would not lead to an increase of the material quantities because other nuclides of the respective nuclide vectors are limiting. In

  11. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  12. Creatinine clearance during cimetidine administration for measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; de Waart, D. R.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    Creatinine clearance inaccurately estimates true glomerular filtration rate (GFR) because of tubular secretion of creatinine. We studied the ability of oral cimetidine, a blocker of tubular creatinine secretion, to improve the accuracy of measuring creatinine clearance. Clearances of inulin and

  13. 76 FR 59379 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...-XXXX. Type of Review: Generic Clearance Request. Title: Generic Clearance for Research in Development... information collected through qualitative evaluation methods will inform the disclosure form's design and... Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development of...

  14. Nuclear regulation. NRC's security clearance program can be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Kruslicky, Mary Ann; Bagnulo, John E.

    1988-12-01

    Because of the national security implications of its programs, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) investigates the background of its employees and consultants as well as others to ensure that they are reliable and trustworthy. If the investigation indicates that an employee will not endanger national security, NRC grants a security clearance that allows access to classified information, material, and facilities. NRC also requires periodic checks for some clearance holders to ensure their continued clearance eligibility. The Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources, House Committee on Government Operations, asked GAO to review NRC's personnel security clearance program and assess the procedures that NRC uses to ensure that those who operate nuclear power plants do not pose a threat to the public. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 requires NRC to conduct background investigations of its employees and consultants as well as others who have access to classified information, material, or facilities. To do this, NRC established a personnel security clearance program. Under NRC policies, a security clearance is granted after the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) or the Federal Bureau of Investigation checks the background of those applying for an NRC clearance. NRC also periodically reassesses the integrity of those holding the highest level clearance. NRC employees, consultants, contractors, and licensees as well as other federal employees hold approximately 10,600 NRC clearances. NRC does not grant clearances to commercial nuclear utility employees unless they require access to classified information or special nuclear material. However, the utilities have voluntarily established screening programs to ensure that their employees do not pose a threat to nuclear plants. NRC faces a dilemma when it hires new employees. Although its policy calls for new hires to be cleared before they start work, the security clearance process takes so long

  15. Spatiotemporal Determinants of Urban Leptospirosis Transmission: Four-Year Prospective Cohort Study of Slum Residents in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E Hagan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat-borne leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease in urban slum settlements for which there are no adequate control measures. The challenge in elucidating risk factors and informing approaches for prevention is the complex and heterogeneous environment within slums, which vary at fine spatial scales and influence transmission of the bacterial agent.We performed a prospective study of 2,003 slum residents in the city of Salvador, Brazil during a four-year period (2003-2007 and used a spatiotemporal modelling approach to delineate the dynamics of leptospiral transmission. Household interviews and Geographical Information System surveys were performed annually to evaluate risk exposures and environmental transmission sources. We completed annual serosurveys to ascertain leptospiral infection based on serological evidence. Among the 1,730 (86% individuals who completed at least one year of follow-up, the infection rate was 35.4 (95% CI, 30.7-40.6 per 1,000 annual follow-up events. Male gender, illiteracy, and age were independently associated with infection risk. Environmental risk factors included rat infestation (OR 1.46, 95% CI, 1.00-2.16, contact with mud (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.17-2.17 and lower household elevation (OR 0.92 per 10m increase in elevation, 95% CI 0.82-1.04. The spatial distribution of infection risk was highly heterogeneous and varied across small scales. Fixed effects in the spatiotemporal model accounted for the majority of the spatial variation in risk, but there was a significant residual component that was best explained by the spatial random effect. Although infection risk varied between years, the spatial distribution of risk associated with fixed and random effects did not vary temporally. Specific "hot-spots" consistently had higher transmission risk during study years.The risk for leptospiral infection in urban slums is determined in large part by structural features, both social and environmental. Our findings

  16. Experience of intimate partner violence among young pregnant women in urban slums of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuba, Keshab; Mainali, Anustha; Alvesson, Helle M; Karki, Deepak K

    2016-03-05

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an urgent public health priority. It is a neglected issue in women's health, especially in urban slums in Nepal and globally. This study was designed to better understand the IPV experienced by young pregnant women in urban slums of the Kathmandu Valley, as well as to identify their coping strategies, care and support seeking behaviours. Womens' views on ways to prevent IPV were also addressed. 20 young pregnant women from 13 urban slums in the Kathmandu valley were recruited purposively for this qualitative study, based on pre-defined criteria. In-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed, with qualitative content analysis used to analyse the transcripts. 14 respondents were survivors of violence in urban slums. Their intimate partner(s) committed most of the violent acts. These young pregnant women were more likely to experience different forms of violence (psychological, physical and sexual) if they refused to have sex, gave birth to a girl, or if their husband had alcohol use disorder. The identification of foetal gender also increased the experience of physical violence at the prenatal stage. Interference from in-laws prevented further escalation of physical abuse. The most common coping strategy adopted to avoid violence among these women was to tolerate and accept the husbands' abuse because of economic dependence. Violence survivors sought informal support from their close family members. Women suggested multiple short and long term actions to reduce intimate partner violence such as female education, economic independence of young women, banning identification of foetal gender during pregnancy and establishing separate institutions within their community to handle violence against young pregnant women. Diversity in the design and implementation of culturally and socially acceptable interventions might be effective in addressing violence against young pregnant women in humanitarian settings such as urban slums. These

  17. Quantification of microbial risks to human health caused by waterborne viruses and bacteria in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; van der Steen, P; Foppen, J W A; Lens, P N L

    2014-02-01

    To determine the magnitude of microbial risks from waterborne viruses and bacteria in Bwaise III in Kampala (Uganda), a typical slum in Sub-Saharan Africa. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was carried out to determine the magnitude of microbial risks from waterborne pathogens through various exposure pathways in Bwaise III in Kampala (Uganda). This was based on the concentration of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., rotavirus (RV) and human adenoviruses F and G (HAdV) in spring water, tap water, surface water, grey water and contaminated soil samples. The total disease burden was 680 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 1000 persons per year. The highest disease burden contribution was caused by exposure to surface water open drainage channels (39%) followed by exposure to grey water in tertiary drains (24%), storage containers (22%), unprotected springs (8%), contaminated soil (7%) and tap water (0.02%). The highest percentage of the mean estimated infections was caused by E. coli O157:H7 (41%) followed by HAdV (32%), RV (20%) and Salmonella spp. (7%). In addition, the highest infection risk was 1 caused by HAdV in surface water at the slum outlet, while the lowest infection risk was 2.71 × 10(-6) caused by E. coli O157:H7 in tap water. The results show that the slum environment is polluted, and the disease burden from each of the exposure routes in Bwaise III slum, with the exception of tap water, was much higher than the WHO reference level of tolerable risk of 1 × 10(-6) DALYs per person per year. The findings of this study provide guidance to governments, local authorities and nongovernment organizations in making decisions on measures to reduce infection risk and the disease burden by 10(2) to 10(5) depending on the source of exposure to achieve the desired health impacts. The infection risk may be reduced by sustainable management of human excreta and grey water, coupled with risk communication during hygiene awareness

  18. Spatiotemporal Determinants of Urban Leptospirosis Transmission: Four-Year Prospective Cohort Study of Slum Residents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, José E; Moraga, Paula; Costa, Federico; Capian, Nicolas; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Wunder, Elsio A; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Reis, Renato B; Nery, Nivison; Santana, Francisco S; Fraga, Deborah; Dos Santos, Balbino L; Santos, Andréia C; Queiroz, Adriano; Tassinari, Wagner; Carvalho, Marilia S; Reis, Mitermayer G; Diggle, Peter J; Ko, Albert I

    2016-01-01

    Rat-borne leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease in urban slum settlements for which there are no adequate control measures. The challenge in elucidating risk factors and informing approaches for prevention is the complex and heterogeneous environment within slums, which vary at fine spatial scales and influence transmission of the bacterial agent. We performed a prospective study of 2,003 slum residents in the city of Salvador, Brazil during a four-year period (2003-2007) and used a spatiotemporal modelling approach to delineate the dynamics of leptospiral transmission. Household interviews and Geographical Information System surveys were performed annually to evaluate risk exposures and environmental transmission sources. We completed annual serosurveys to ascertain leptospiral infection based on serological evidence. Among the 1,730 (86%) individuals who completed at least one year of follow-up, the infection rate was 35.4 (95% CI, 30.7-40.6) per 1,000 annual follow-up events. Male gender, illiteracy, and age were independently associated with infection risk. Environmental risk factors included rat infestation (OR 1.46, 95% CI, 1.00-2.16), contact with mud (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.17-2.17) and lower household elevation (OR 0.92 per 10m increase in elevation, 95% CI 0.82-1.04). The spatial distribution of infection risk was highly heterogeneous and varied across small scales. Fixed effects in the spatiotemporal model accounted for the majority of the spatial variation in risk, but there was a significant residual component that was best explained by the spatial random effect. Although infection risk varied between years, the spatial distribution of risk associated with fixed and random effects did not vary temporally. Specific "hot-spots" consistently had higher transmission risk during study years. The risk for leptospiral infection in urban slums is determined in large part by structural features, both social and environmental. Our findings indicate that

  19. Secretin enhances [14C]erythritol clearance in unanesthetized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.H.; Baker, A.L.; Dhorajiwala, J.; Moossa, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the effect of secretin infusion on clearance of inert markers into bile, unanesthetized dogs fitted with Thomas cannulas received continuous infusions of [ 14 C]erythritol and [ 3 H]inulin throughout study. Taurocholic acid administered sequentially at 9.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mumol/min enhanced [ 14 C]erythritol clearance, and GIH secretin (3 units/min) administered along with TCA (40.0 mumol/min) increased [ 14 C]erythritol clearance from 4.9 +/- 1.2 ml/10 min to 6.8 +/- 1.3 ml/10 min (P less than 0.001), but simultaneously measured [ 3 H]inulin clearance was unaltered. Secretin alone also increased [ 14 C]erythritol clearance but did not alter [ 3 H]inulin clearance. The increase in [ 14 C]erythritol clearance per unit increase in bile flow was less during secretin infusion than TCA. Thus, secretin increases [ 14 C]erythritol transport through restricted channels, probably distal to the canaliculi. [ 14 C]Erythritol may not be an accurate marker for canalicular bile flow in dogs during secretin infusion

  20. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B; Jin, W; Han, L; He, Z

    2012-01-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  1. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Jin, W.; Han, L.; He, Z.

    2012-05-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  2. Are slum dwellers at heightened risk of HIV infection than other urban residents? Evidence from population-based HIV prevalence surveys in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madise, Nyovani J; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Inungu, Joseph; Khamadi, Samoel A; Ezeh, Alex; Zulu, Eliya M; Kebaso, John; Okoth, Vincent; Mwau, Matilu

    2012-09-01

    In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in Kenya between 2006 and 2007, where respondents were tested for HIV status. In addition, data from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to compare HIV prevalence between slum residents and those living in other urban and rural areas. The results showed strong intra-urban differences. HIV was 12% among slum residents compared with 5% and 6% among non-slum urban and rural residents, respectively. Generally, men had lower HIV prevalence than women although in the slums the gap was narrower. Among women, sexual experience before the age of 15 compared with after 19 years was associated with 62% higher odds of being HIV positive. There was ethnic variation in patterns of HIV infection although the effect depended on the current place of residence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative evaluation of iohexol and inulin clearance for glomerular filtration rate determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, H.G.; Berg, U.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have evaluated iohexol as a filtration marker in 150 children. The clearance of iohexol was compared with that of inulin or with a formula clearance. The single-sample clearance of iohexol showed a good correlation with the clearance of inulin. The clearance of iohexol correlated well with the formula clearance. The optimal blood sampling time for iohexol clearance determinations appears to be between 120 and 180 min after injection, at least in patient with relatively normal filtration rates. It is concluded that iohexol clearance is an accurate method of determining the glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. 25 refs., 5 figs

  4. Wind Power and Fault Clearance. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikesjoe, Johnny; Messing, Lars (Gothia Power (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    The increased penetration of wind power will increase the impact of wind power on the grid and thereby increase the importance of a clear guidance concerning the requirements on the protection system of the wind power units and the grid protection in connection to wind power units. The protection system should be able to satisfy the grid connection requirements, set by the TSO (Transmission System Operator) and the grid owners, as well as the general safety and security requirements, such as; personal safety, operational security and economic insurance, i.e. an insurance against economic losses. Vindforsk has appointed Gothia Power AB to perform a study concerning the fault clearance function in connection to wind power installations. The study is divided into two parts; Part 1: The first stage of the project handled the present praxis for the protection, including investigation of legal requirements, operational requirement and personal safety requirement applicable to wind power applications. Proposals for protection requirement for wind power units and the connecting grid are given. Basically 'normal' fault clearance requirements regarding speed, selectivity and redundancy can be used also in applications in connection to wind power. Part 2: The second part of the project results in a guideline for design of protection systems in connection to wind power. In this report mainly part 2 is covered. The main focus is given to clearance of faults in the grid connecting the wind power plants. Regarding internal faults and critical operation states within the wind power plant, a short discussion of feasible protection functions is given. Some critical fault cases in the grid have been identified and discussed: - Undetected islanding and failure of reclosing. There can be a risk of undetected island operation. In such cases it is recommended to use controlled autoreclosing in the vicinity of wind power generation. - Unwanted disconnection of a healthy feeder

  5. UGT polymorphisms and lamotrigine clearance during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenaite, Vaiva; Öhman, Inger; Ekström, Lena

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of maternal UGT1A4 and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms and sex of foetus on gestation-induced changes in lamotrigine (LTG) clearance during pregnancy and post-partum (PP). METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms UGT1A4 142T > G, L48V (*3), UGT1A4 70C > A, P24T (*2......), and post-partum (PP) as well as the sex of the foetus. RESULTS: Reductions in the LTG concentration-to-dose ratio (C/D ratio) during pregnancy were seen in all genotype panels and varied between -53% and -74% in T3. Genetic polymorphism of UGT1A4 T142G (*3) and UGT2B7 C802T (*2) had the most pronounced.......015) as well as in T3 compared to the heterozygous carriers (802CT) (p = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that women who carried a female foetus had a significantly higher reductions in the LTG C/D ratio from T0 to the end of pregnancy than those with a male foetus (p = 0...

  6. Prospective study of determinants and costs of home births in Mumbai slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sushmita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 86% of births in Mumbai, India, occur in healthcare institutions, but this aggregate figure hides substantial variation and little is known about urban home births. We aimed to explore factors influencing the choice of home delivery, care practices and costs, and to identify characteristics of women, households and the environment which might increase the likelihood of home birth. Methods As part of the City Initiative for Newborn Health, we used a key informant surveillance system to identify births prospectively in 48 slum communities in six wards of Mumbai, covering a population of 280 000. Births and outcomes were documented prospectively by local women and mothers were interviewed in detail at six weeks after delivery. We examined the prevalence of home births and their associations with potential determinants using regression models. Results We described 1708 (16% home deliveries among 10 754 births over two years, 2005-2007. The proportion varied from 6% to 24%, depending on area. The most commonly cited reasons for home birth were custom and lack of time to reach a healthcare facility during labour. Seventy percent of home deliveries were assisted by a traditional birth attendant (dai, and 6% by skilled health personnel. The median cost of a home delivery was US$ 21, of institutional delivery in the public sector US$ 32, and in the private sector US$ 118. In an adjusted multivariable regression model, the odds of home delivery increased with illiteracy, parity, socioeconomic poverty, poorer housing, lack of water supply, population transience, and hazardous location. Conclusions We estimate 32 000 annual home births to residents of Mumbai's slums. These are unevenly distributed and cluster with other markers of vulnerability. Since cost does not appear to be a dominant disincentive to institutional delivery, efforts are needed to improve the client experience at public sector institutions. It might also be

  7. Impact of dropout of female volunteer community health workers: An exploration in Dhaka urban slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Khurshid

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The model of volunteer community health workers (CHWs is a common approach to serving the poor communities in developing countries. BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, is a pioneer in this area, has been using female CHWs as core workers in its community-based health programs since 1977. After 25 years of implementing of the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through a community-based maternal health intervention. However, BRAC experiences high dropout rates among CHWs suggesting a need to better understand the impact of their dropout which would help to reduce dropout and increase program sustainability. The main objective of the study was to estimate impact of dropout of volunteer CHWs from both BRAC and community perspectives. Also, we estimated cost of possible strategies to reduce dropout and compared whether these costs were more or less than the costs borne by BRAC and the community. Methods We used the ‘ingredient approach’ to estimate the cost of recruiting and training of CHWs and the so-called ‘friction cost approach’ to estimate the cost of replacement of CHWs after adapting. Finally, we estimated forgone services in the community due to CHW dropout applying the concept of the friction period. Results In 2009, average cost per regular CHW was US$ 59.28 which was US$ 60.04 for an ad-hoc CHW if a CHW participated a three-week basic training, a one-day refresher training, one incentive day and worked for a month in the community after recruitment. One month absence of a CHW with standard performance in the community meant substantial forgone health services like health education, antenatal visits, deliveries, referrals of complicated cases, and distribution of drugs and health commodities. However, with an additional investment of US$ 121 yearly per CHW BRAC could save another US$ 60 invested an ad-hoc CHW plus forgone services in the community. Conclusion Although CHWs

  8. Grey water treatment in urban slums by a filtration system: optimisation of the filtration medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-12-15

    Two uPVC columns (outer diameter 160 cm, internal diameter 14.6 cm and length 100 cm) were operated in parallel and in series to simulate grey water treatment by media based filtration at unsaturated conditions and constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR). Grey water from bathroom, laundry and kitchen activities was collected from 10 households in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala (Uganda) in separate containers, mixed in equal proportions followed by settling, prior to transferring the influent to the tanks. Column 1 was packed with lava rock to a depth of 60 cm, while column 2 was packed with lava rock (bottom 30 cm) and silica sand, which was later replaced by granular activated carbon (top 30 cm) to further investigate nutrient removal from grey water. Operating the two filter columns in series at a HLR of 20 cm/day resulted in a better effluent quality than at a higher (40 cm/day) HLR. The COD removal efficiencies by filter columns 1 and 2 in series amounted to 90% and 84% at HLR of 20 cm/day and 40 cm/day, respectively. TOC and DOC removal efficiency amounted to 77% and 71% at a HLR of 20 cm/day, but decreased to 72% and 67% at a HLR of 40 cm/day, respectively. The highest log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and total coliforms amounted to 3.68, 3.50 and 3.95 at a HLR of 20 cm/day respectively. The overall removal of pollutants increased with infiltration depth, with the highest pollutant removal efficiency occurring in the top 15 cm layer. Grey water pre-treatment followed by double filtration using coarse and fine media has the potential to reduce the grey water pollution load in slum areas by more than 60%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The health and well-being of older people in Nairobi's slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kyobutungi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, it is estimated that people aged 60 and over constitute more than 11% of the population, with the corresponding proportion in developing countries being 8%. Rapid urbanisation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, fuelled in part by rural–urban migration and a devastating HIV/AIDS epidemic, has altered the status of older people in many SSA societies. Few studies have, however, looked at the health of older people in SSA. This study aims to describe the health and well-being of older people in two Nairobi slums. Methods: Data were collected from residents of the areas covered by the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS aged 50 years and over by 1 October 2006. Health status was assessed using the short SAGE (Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health form. Mean WHO Quality of Life (WHOQoL and a composite health score were computed and binary variables generated using the median as the cut-off. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with poor quality of life (QoL and poor health status. Results: Out of 2,696 older people resident in the NUHDSS surveillance area during the study period, data were collected on 2,072. The majority of respondents were male, aged 50–60 years. The mean WHOQoL score was 71.3 (SD 6.7 and mean composite health score was 70.6 (SD 13.9. Males had significantly better QoL and health status than females and older respondents had worse outcomes than younger ones. Sex, age, education level and marital status were significantly associated with QoL, while slum of residence was significantly associated with health status. Conclusion: The study adds to the literature on health and well-being of older people in SSA, especially those in urban informal settlements. Further studies are needed to validate the methods used for assessing health status and to provide comparisons from other settings. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the potential to conduct such

  10. Maternal and neonatal health expenditure in mumbai slums (India: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Wasundhara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost of maternity care can be a barrier to access that may increase maternal and neonatal mortality risk. We analyzed spending on maternity care in urban slum communities in Mumbai to better understand the equity of spending and the impact of spending on household poverty. Methods We used expenditure data for maternal and neonatal care, collected during post-partum interviews. Interviews were conducted in 2005-2006, with a sample of 1200 slum residents in Mumbai (India. We analysed expenditure by socio-economic status (SES, calculating a Kakwani Index for a range of spending categories. We also calculated catastrophic health spending both with and without adjustment for coping strategies. This identified the level of catastrophic payments incurred by a household and the prevalence of catastrophic payments in this population. The analysis also gave an understanding of the protection from medical poverty afforded by coping strategies (for example saving and borrowing. Results A high proportion of respondents spent catastrophically on care. Lower SES was associated with a higher proportion of informal payments. Indirect health expenditure was found to be (weakly regressive as the poorest were more likely to use wage income to meet health expenses, while the less poor were more likely to use savings. Overall, the incidence of catastrophic maternity expenditure was 41%, or 15% when controlling for coping strategies. We found no significant difference in the incidence of catastrophic spending across wealth quintiles, nor could we conclude that total expenditure is regressive. Conclusions High expenditure as a proportion of household resources should alert policymakers to the burden of maternal spending in this context. Differences in informal payments, significantly regressive indirect spending and the use of savings versus wages to finance spending, all highlight the heavier burden borne by the most poor. If a policy objective

  11. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-05-22

    Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  12. Prospective study of determinants and costs of home births in Mumbai slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sushmita; Bapat, Ujwala; More, Neena Shah; Chordhekar, Latika; Joshi, Wasundhara; Osrin, David

    2010-07-30

    Around 86% of births in Mumbai, India, occur in healthcare institutions, but this aggregate figure hides substantial variation and little is known about urban home births. We aimed to explore factors influencing the choice of home delivery, care practices and costs, and to identify characteristics of women, households and the environment which might increase the likelihood of home birth. As part of the City Initiative for Newborn Health, we used a key informant surveillance system to identify births prospectively in 48 slum communities in six wards of Mumbai, covering a population of 280,000. Births and outcomes were documented prospectively by local women and mothers were interviewed in detail at six weeks after delivery. We examined the prevalence of home births and their associations with potential determinants using regression models. We described 1708 (16%) home deliveries among 10,754 births over two years, 2005-2007. The proportion varied from 6% to 24%, depending on area. The most commonly cited reasons for home birth were custom and lack of time to reach a healthcare facility during labour. Seventy percent of home deliveries were assisted by a traditional birth attendant (dai), and 6% by skilled health personnel. The median cost of a home delivery was US$ 21, of institutional delivery in the public sector US$ 32, and in the private sector US$ 118. In an adjusted multivariable regression model, the odds of home delivery increased with illiteracy, parity, socioeconomic poverty, poorer housing, lack of water supply, population transience, and hazardous location. We estimate 32,000 annual home births to residents of Mumbai's slums. These are unevenly distributed and cluster with other markers of vulnerability. Since cost does not appear to be a dominant disincentive to institutional delivery, efforts are needed to improve the client experience at public sector institutions. It might also be productive to concentrate on intensive outreach in vulnerable areas by

  13. Correlates of suicide ideation and attempt among youth living in the slums of Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Palmier, Jane B; Kasirye, Rogers; Yao, Huang

    2012-02-01

    While suicidal behavior is recognized as a growing public health problem world-wide, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviors among street and slum youth in Africa, and in Uganda, specifically. The number of youth who live on the streets and in the slums of Kampala appears to be growing rapidly, but their mental health needs have not been documented, which has hampered resource allocation and service implementation. This study of youth, ages 14-24, was conducted in May and June of 2011, to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior. Participants (N = 457) were recruited for a 30-minute interviewer-administered survey through eight drop-in centers operated by the Uganda Youth Development Link for youth in need of services. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine associations between psychosocial correlates and suicide ideation and suicide attempt. Reporting both parents deceased Adj.OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.23-4.52), parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.16-3.77), trading sex for food, shelter or money (Adj.OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.09-3.51), sadnesss (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.20-4.89), loneliness (Adj.OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.12-6.40) and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.53-4.23) were significantly associated with suicide ideation in multivariate analyses. Parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.11-3.76), sadness (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.30-7.87), and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.25-3.79) were significantly associated with suicide attempt in multivariate analyses. Given the dire circumstances of this vulnerable population, increased services and primary prevention efforts to address the risk factors for suicidal behavior are urgently needed.

  14. Correlates of Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Kasirye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While suicidal behavior is recognized as a growing public health problem world-wide, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviors among street and slum youth in Africa, and in Uganda, specifically. The number of youth who live on the streets and in the slums of Kampala appears to be growing rapidly, but their mental health needs have not been documented, which has hampered resource allocation and service implementation. This study of youth, ages 14–24, was conducted in May and June of 2011, to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior. Participants (N = 457 were recruited for a 30-minute interviewer-administered survey through eight drop-in centers operated by the Uganda Youth Development Link for youth in need of services. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine associations between psychosocial correlates and suicide ideation and suicide attempt. Reporting both parents deceased Adj.OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.23–4.52, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.16–3.77, trading sex for food, shelter or money (Adj.OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.09–3.51, sadnesss (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.20–4.89, loneliness (Adj.OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.12–6.40 and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.53–4.23 were significantly associated with suicide ideation in multivariate analyses. Parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.11–3.76, sadness (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.30–7.87, and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.25–3.79 were significantly associated with suicide attempt in multivariate analyses. Given the dire circumstances of this vulnerable population, increased services and primary prevention efforts to address the risk factors for suicidal behavior are urgently needed.

  15. Clearance from the anterior chamber of RBCs from human diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.A.; Hatchell, D.L.; Collier, B.D.; Knobel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Erythrocytes from diabetic patients manifest decreased deformability and increased adherence. These abnormal membrane properties may diminish the ability of erythrocytes (RBCs) from diabetics to undergo deformation in passage through the trabecular meshwork. Using sodium chromate Cr 51-labeled RBCs from type I diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy and normal control subjects, we studied RBC clearance from the rabbit anterior chamber. The mean time for 50% clearance (T50) of RBCs from diabetics (76 hours) was significantly longer than that for RBCs from normal subjects (19.5 hours). In this model, RBCs from diabetics have a slower clearance from the anterior chamber than do RBCs from normal subjects

  16. Applicability of Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System to Clearance Measurement of Concrete Segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.; Ogino, H.; Hattori, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, large amounts of metal scrap and concrete segments require disposal when dismantling the nuclear reactor and surrounding facilities. When their activity level is negligible or sufficiently small, they can be regarded as general industrial waste. To distinguish between radioactive and nonradioactive materials, the clearance level for each radionuclide has been determined in units of activity concentration. These clearance levels are indicated in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.7. The Japanese regulatory authority decided in 2005 to adopt the values given in RS-G-1.7 as clearance levels in legislation. Recently, a Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed utilizing gamma-ray measurement, automatic laser shape measurement and Monte Carlo calculation. CLALIS comprises four laser scanners and eight large plastic scintillation detectors surrounded by a 5-cm-thick lead shield. Using three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, a measurement target, which is placed on the measuring tray, is represented as a dot image. The dot image is converted into voxels after noise removal, and is written in MCNP (A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System) input files. When the gamma-ray measurement is carried out, the MCNP calculations are also carried out to obtain the calibration factor and background (BG) correction factors. For the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the effect of gamma-rays from natural radionuclides in the measurement target, such as K-40 and the radioactive decay products of Th-232 and U-238, should be taken into account to ensure adequate waste management. Since NE102A plastic scintillation detectors are used for gamma-ray measurement in CLALIS, it is impossible to distinguish between the count rates of natural radionuclides and contaminants on the basis of gamma-ray energy information. To overcome this problem, the

  17. Metabolic clearance rate and urinary clearance of purified beta-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehmann, R.E.; Blithe, D.L.; Flack, M.R.; Nisula, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    We injected a highly purified preparation of the beta-core molecule, a fragment of hCG beta excreted in pregnancy urine, into five men and three women to determine its kinetic parameters, MCR, and urinary clearance. The beta-core molecule was distributed in an initial volume [1950 +/- 156 (mean +/- SEM) mL/m2 body surface area] approximately equal to the estimated plasma volume. Its disappearance was multiexponential on a semilogarithmic plot, with a rapid phase t1/2 of 3.5 +/- 0.7 min and a slow phase t1/2 of 22.4 +/- 4.2 min. The transit time (the mean time spent by a molecule of beta-core in transit) was 20.6 +/- 2.1 min. The MCR was 192.0 +/- 8.0 mL/min.m2 body surface area. About 5% of the injected dose of beta-core was excreted into the urine in the first 30 min after injection, and low levels of excretion persisted for up to 7 days. The urinary clearance rate of beta-core was 13.7 +/- 1.4 mL/min.m2, accounting for about 8% of the elimination of beta-core from the plasma. The beta-core immunoreactivity in serum and urine was characterized by gel filtration and three independent RIA systems to show that its properties were indistinguishable from those of the injected beta-core. Serum levels of beta-core in pregnant women were less than 0.2 ng/mL, while the amounts excreted in their urine were as much as 5 mg/day. Based on these clearance parameters of beta-core in normal subjects, less than 0.2% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived by urinary clearance of plasma beta-core. Therefore, more than 99% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived from beta-core in a compartment separate from plasma. In particular, these data indicate that there is relatively little placental secretion of beta-core into plasma and that placental secretion does not account for the vast majority of beta-core in pregnancy urine

  18. Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA) addresses the future safety need for Real-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (RSSA) in aviation and progressively...

  19. Determination of renal clearance of 131I-hippuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzon, S.

    1982-01-01

    The author presents his own method for the determination of total renal clearance of 131 I-hippuran under conditions of its diminishing plasma concentration following single intravenous administration. Total renal clearance is determined as the ratio of the amount of activity excreted into the urine over a certain time interval and of the area limited by the curve of activity decrease in plasma and by the time axis in the corresponding interval. The results are demonstrated in five investigated healthy subjects, and very good agreement of the calculated values of total renal clearance for different time intervals in the same subject is pointed out. When isotope nephrography is simultaneously performed, the method allows to determine also the values of isolated renal clearance for each kidney separately. (author)

  20. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  1. Non-destructive clearance measuring in closed joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucelance, C.; Manaranche, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Two methods for clearance measuring in closed joints are described. The first one is based on the mechanical impedance concept, while the other one requires a shock test on shaker. Both are illustrated with an example of application [fr

  2. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    .... DHS Sector Specialists or Protective Security Advisors email the form to the individual who then... clearance request form is signed by both the Federal official who nominated the applicant and the Assistant...

  3. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions

  4. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11 and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28. The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100% and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  5. SMALL INTESTINAL ENTEROPATHY IN UNDERNOURISHED CHILDREN IN THREE URBAN SLUMS IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praburam P. M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growth faltering is a common health issue in the developing countries. At times we are unable to attribute this growth faltering to lack of adequate nutrients in food or ongoing disease conditions alone. With this study we aim to assess the possibility of the existence of subclinical malabsorption in children with undernutrition. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on a sample of 161 children from a birth cohort of 377 children who were under follow up from birth for health and disease in three of the urban slums of Vellore. The prevalence of small intestinal enteropathy, as assessed by a 5 hour urinary d-xylose excretion test, was compared between undernourished and well-nourished children. Correlation between undernutrition, d-xylose malabsorption and previous documented illnesses including viral, bacterial or parasitic infections/ infestations was also studied. Results: Xylose test result was abnormal in 41% (25 of 61 of undernourished children as against 26% (26 of 100 of well-nourished children, with p value of 0.047 and Odds ratio of 1.976 with 95% confidence interval between 1.003 and 3.895. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant association between undernutrition and small intestinal enteropathy.

  6. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Abuga, Kennedy O; Kibwage, Isaac O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-10-17

    Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits ( n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ' chang'aa' , ( n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8-85.8% vol and 28.3-56.7% vol for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3-4.2 and 4.4-4.8 for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  7. Quality of diabetic care in an urban slum area of Mysore: A community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, B; Srinath, K M; Chandresh, Swathi; Ashok, N C; Basavanagowdappa, H; Rama, H V

    2016-01-01

    Community based cross sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Mysore. Data was collected between July and August 2011. Known diabetics residing in this area were included in the study. Socio-demographic information of diabetic patients, history, physicians advice and the extent of compliance of patients towards treatment were assessed. Descriptive statistics, like percentages were calculated. Study comprised of 104 patients. Mean fasting and post prandial blood glucose was 163±70mg/dl and 239±89mg/dl respectively. Common co-morbid conditions were hypertension and obesity. Key process indicators of care, indicated that adherence to medication advice was maximum and less than one fourth of them had an annual Hba1c and lipid profile examinations. To prevent long term complications associated with diabetes, doctors must adhere to the guidelines. There is a need to improve the health system, in terms of developing facilities to provide annual eye examination, annual lipid profile, urea, creatinine testing for diabetic patient. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adherence to antihypertensive treatment and its determinants among urban slum dwellers in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Subhasis; Sarma, P Sankara; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu R

    2015-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and predictors of adherence to modern antihypertensive pharmacotherapy among slum dwellers in Kolkata, India. Prevalence of adherence based on patient self-reports of consuming ≥80% of the prescribed medications over a recall period of 1 week was found to be 73% (95% confidence interval = 68%-78%). Compared with their counterparts, the following patients were more likely to be adherent to treatment: patients hypertensive for ≥5 years (2.98 times), those whose hypertension was detected during checkups for conditions related to hypertension (2.35 times), those living with ≤4 family members (2.01 times), those with family income of ≥3000 rupees (2.56 times), those who were getting free drugs (4.16 times), patients perceiving current blood pressure to be under control (2.23 times), and those satisfied with current treatment (3.77). Those adherent to their prescribed medications were 1.71 times more likely to achieve adequate control of hypertension compared with those who were not adherent. © 2011 APJPH.

  9. Study of protein calorie malnutrition amongst under six children In a slum area of kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Rresearch Problem: What is the prevalence of PCM amongst under six children in slum area of Kanpur? Objectives: 1 To study the prevalence of PCM.2 To apply health educational interventions. Study Design: Cross - sectional study. Setting: All the households in the study area having under six children. Participants: Under - six children showing signs of PCM. Sample Size: 1260 children in the age group ofO - 6 years. Study Variables: Age - group, sex, education of mother, occupation of father, social class, type of family. Outcome Variables: Children with signs of PCM. Statistical Analysis: By chi - square test. Result: The occurrence of PCM was the highest in the 0 - 1 year age group. Boys suffered from overall PCM and grade I PCM more than the girls in whom grade III PCM was more common. Overall as well as grade I and II PCM was seen more in children of illiterate mothers and unemployed fathers. Majority of the children belonged to social class IV and were from unitary families. Conclusion: Mother's education plays an important role in the health and nutrition of children.

  10. Citizenship culture: psychosocial approach to the law in the context of a Rio de Janeiro slum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgie Alexánder Echeverri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper, we approach the citizenship culture as it was developed in Colombia by the former mayor of Bogotá, Antanas Mockus, taking into account both the conceptual structure and the methodological principles of implementation, namely, the internalization of the rule and the creation of communication strategies aimed at achieving willingly cooperation. After making a psychosocial approach of the citizenship culture in the light of the theory of the social representations, we present the results of a prototypical analysis based on free association data from a sample of 156 teenagers who live at Mangueira slum, in Rio de Janeiro, exercise that enabled us to make a socio-cultural and political reading from the fulfillment or failure of the law. Finally, as an educational proposal, we hand in the results of a participatory action research —Aventureiros—, a program of education for citizenship focused on children, based on the very Colombian methodological principles of the citizenship culture and adapted to the Rio de Janeiro favela environment.

  11. Influenza vaccine acceptance among pregnant women in urban slum areas, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Afshin Alaf; Varan, Aiden Kennedy; Esteves-Jaramillo, Alejandra; Siddiqui, Mariam; Sultana, Shazia; Ali, Asad S; Zaidi, Anita K M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-09-22

    Facilitators and barriers to influenza vaccination among pregnant women in the developing world are poorly understood, particularly in South Asia. We assessed intention to accept influenza vaccine among ethnically diverse low-income pregnant women in Pakistan. From May to August 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women who visited health centers in urban slums in Karachi city. We assessed intention to accept influenza vaccine against socio-demographic factors, vaccination history, vaccine recommendation sources, and other factors. In an unvaccinated study population of 283 respondents, 87% were willing to accept the vaccine, if offered. All except two participants were aware of symptoms typically associated with influenza. Perceived vaccine safety, efficacy, and disease susceptibility were significantly associated with intention to accept influenza vaccine (p<0.05). Regardless of intention to accept influenza vaccine, 96% rated healthcare providers as highly reliable source of vaccine information. While a recommendation from a physician was critical for influenza vaccine acceptance, parents-in-law and husbands were often considered the primary decision-makers for pregnant women seeking healthcare including vaccination. Maternal influenza vaccination initiatives in South Asia should strongly consider counseling of key familial decision-makers and inclusion of healthcare providers to help implement new vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Explaining suicide in an urban slum of Mumbai, India: a sociocultural autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkar, Shubhangi R; Nagarsekar, Balkrishna; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2009-01-01

    Health demographic mortality studies use verbal autopsies to identify suicide as a cause of death. Psychological autopsies focus almost exclusively on associated high-risk psychiatric disorders. New approaches considering contextual factors are needed for preventing suicide and promoting mental health. This study examined explanations of suicide reported by surviving family members or close friends with reference to social, cultural, and environmental conditions as well as the challenges of life in the Malavani slum of Mumbai. An EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalog) interview based on a cultural epidemiological framework considered underlying problems, perceived causes, and sociocultural contexts. It was administered to survivors of 76 people who had died by suicide (56.6% women). Accounts of underlying problems typically referred to various aspects of tension (73.7%). Perceived causes often identified multiple factors. The sociocultural contexts of suicide included the victimization of women, the personal and social impact of problem drinking, marital problems, physical health problems, mental tension, possession and sorcery. Women were particularly vulnerable to the impact of problem drinking by a spouse or father. This study demonstrates the value of an approach to sociocultural autopsy examining local contexts and explanations of suicide. Findings highlight needs for both mental health services and culturally sensitive social interventions.

  13. Community participation to refine measures of socio-economic status in urban slum settings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongo, Carrie Jane; Mathingau, Florence Alice; Burke, Heather; Brieger, William; Frick, Kevin; Chapman, Kimberly; Breiman, Robert

    Ownership of household durable assets can be a useful proxy for determining relative socio-economic status in a community, but the assets that should be measured are not always unambiguous. Often the selection of asset variables has been ad hoc or not well explained in the literature. Although the benefits of conducting focus groups to design surveys are widely recognized, the use of focus groups to adapt community-specific asset indices has not previously been reported in Kenya. This article describes how focus group discussions can allow communities to express how residents value assets and distinguish relative wealth. Focus group discussions were conducted within the informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants identified assets that distinguish between the poorest and the least poor in their community. They considered whether they would move away from the slum if they had the opportunity, and many would not, citing reasons ranging from loyalty to the community to greater living expenses on the outside. Local perceptions of relative poverty and mobility provide insight into how quality of life in this setting can be assessed and potentially improved. Moreover, a qualitative approach can lead to the adaptation of a community asset index for use in further research.

  14. Health Status of Padia Workers in Slums of a Taluka Headquarters in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar D

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Padia’ is cup or plate made from paper. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 3 slum areas of Petlad town of Anand district in Gujarat state to describe the socio-economic and health status of the Padia workers using a pretested questionnaire. Results: 68.5% of the study participants were male. Only 27.6 % persons were educated upto higher secondary school and none beyond. There was no worker below 14 years of age.74 % work at their residence. Most of them spend about eight hours for the ‘Padia’ making work over and above their household job. Addictions were present in more than 1/3rd of workers. Musculoskeletal problem was commonest health problem. 18(12.1% had experienced work place related injuries accidents. None of the workers used any protective devices. Conclusion: Padia workers have several health issues including occupation related health hazards. Need exists for a participatory occupational health programme for this working population.

  15. KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG THE ELIGIBLE COUPLES IN AN URBAN SLUM OF SAMBALPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatarani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In spite of implementation of various programs and policies to curb the population of India, the population growth of India continues to be high in the count of large size of population (58% of total population in the reproductive age group and high fertilit y rate due to unmet need for contraception. OBJECTIVES: To know the knowledge and practice of various contraceptives among the eligible couples. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A cross sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of UHTC, Gaudapali whic h is an urban slum, Sambalpur. The data was collected by interview of the female partners of the eligible couple by house to house visit using a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: Total of 212 marries women of the reproductive age group participated in th e study, most of the couples (96% had knowledge about some contraceptive. Majority of them (69% considered those methods to be quite safe & effective and easy to use. Major source of information (39% was from health care workers. Only 62% of the couples had practiced the contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The increased use of contraceptive requires IEC activity and continuous motivation among the male partner of the couple

  16. A STUDY ON FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICES AND METHODS AMONG WOMEN OF URBAN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjit Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Utilization of family planning methods, their side effects and the factors influencing their uses. Aims: To study the family planning practices/methods among the married women of reproductive age (15- 45yrs. Study Design: Community-based study. Study Subjects: The Women of reproductive age groups (15-45yrs adopting family planning methods & those residing in urban slums of, Lucknow. Sample size: 540, Study Period : July 2009 to July 2011. Sampling Technique: thirty cluster sampling. Result: The acceptance of family planning methods both temporary and permanent methods increased with level of literacy of women. About 53.40 % adopted I.U.C.D, 38.83% O.C pills & only 7.77% of their partners used condoms. 66.6% have undergone laparoscopic & 33.4% mini-lap sterilization. Vasectomy was not done for even a single partner. More number of illiterate and primary educated accepted permanent method after 3 or more children than higher educated who accepted it after 1 or 2 children. Among acceptors of permanent methods, total 70.27 % were experiencing side effects and among temporary method users, it accounted 23.30%. Conclusions: Acceptance in family planning is associated with increasing age, nuclear family & level of literacy. IUCD is the most accepted one among all the temporary methods. Vasectomy and newer contraceptives were not at all used.

  17. Nutritional status of young children in Mumbai slums: a follow-up anthropometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sushmita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic childhood malnutrition remains common in India. As part of an initiative to improve maternal and child health in urban slums, we collected anthropometric data from a sample of children followed up from birth. We described the proportions of underweight, stunting, and wasting in young children, and examined their relationships with age. Methods We used two linked datasets: one based on institutional birth weight records for 17 318 infants, collected prospectively, and one based on follow-up of a subsample of 1941 children under five, collected in early 2010. Results Mean birth weight was 2736 g (SD 530 g, with a low birth weight ( Discussion Our data support the idea that much of growth faltering was explained by faltering in height for age, rather than by wasting. Stunting appeared to be established early and the subsequent decline in height for age was limited. Our findings suggest a focus on a younger age-group than the children over the age of three who are prioritized by existing support systems. Funding The trial during which the birth weight data were collected was funded by the ICICI Foundation for Inclusive Growth (Centre for Child Health and Nutrition, and The Wellcome Trust (081052/Z/06/Z. Subsequent collection, analysis and development of the manuscript was funded by a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award: Population Science of Maternal and Child Survival (085417ma/Z/08/Z. D Osrin is funded by The Wellcome Trust (091561/Z/10/Z.

  18. Perinatal and infant mortality in urban slums under I.C.D.S. scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thora, S; Awadhiya, S; Chansoriya, M; Kaul, K K

    1986-08-01

    Perinatal and infant mortality during the year 1985 was analyzed through a prospective study conducted in 12 Anganwadis (total population of 13,054) located in slum areas of India's Jabalpur city. Overall, the infant mortality rate was 128.7/1000 live births and the perinatal mortality rate was 88.5/1000 live births. 58.5% of deaths occurred in the neonatal period. Causes of neonatal deaths included prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome, birth asphyxia, septicemia, and neonatal tetanus. Postneonatal deaths were largely attributable to dehydration from diarrhea, bronchopneumonia, malnutrition, and infectious diseases. All mortality rates were significantly higher in Muslims than among Hindus. Muslims accounted for 28% of the study population, but contributed 63% of stillbirths and 55% of total infant deaths. This phenomenon appears attributable to the large family size among Muslims coupled with inadequate maternal-child health care. The national neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates are 88/1000 and 52/1000, respectively. The fact that the neonatal mortality rate in the study area was slightly lower than the national average may reflect the impact of ICDS services.

  19. Study Of Social Problems And Correlates Of Child Labourers In Slums Of Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambadekar Nitin N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the social and work related problems of child labourers? Objectives:1.To study social problems of child labourers. 2. To study some work related problems of child labourers. 3. To study some factors associated with child labourers. Study design: cross sectional study with comparison group. Setting: shivankarnagar & Hasanbagh slums under field practice area of PSM deptt., Govt. Medical College, Nagapur. Participants: 223 child labourers and 223 randomly selected controls from same area aged upto 15 years, sex matched and group matched for age. Results: Prevalence of child labourers in study areas was 21.3%, 43(19.3 females and 180 (80.7% males. Lower socio-economic status, large family size(>6, parental illiteracy and single parenthood were significantly associated with child labour. They were working in varied occupations â€" majority (32.7% being in garage and workshops. Inadequate family income (74.4% and parental compulsion (20.6% were the common reasons cited by child labourers for their jobs â€" school drop â€" outs 173(78.3%, bad habits 56(25.1%, prolonged working hours (mean-8.5+4.5, no holidays and rest hours, inadequate daily wages, verbal (29% & physical abuse (2.7% were the common problems of child labourers, observed in the present study.

  20. Occupational health and the environment in an urban slum in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A; Kumar, S; Ory, F G

    1991-01-01

    The Indo-Dutch Environmental & Sanitary Engineering Project under the Ganga action Plan in Kanpur and Mirzapur is being executed within the Indo-Dutch bilateral development cooperation framework. The project aims to integrate physical, social and health related improvements. It is expected that the development approach and methodology can be replicated in other urban settlements in India. The project is being supplemented by a training and institutional strengthening programme to facilitate the transfer of new technologies and improvement of operation and maintenance of the new facilities. The project is also aimed at the improvement of the living conditions of the population, by installing drinking water and drainage systems. A socio-economic unit in the project supports the technical interventions by enhancing the community to participate in project activities. The Occupational Health Programme in Jajmau, an industrial slum of Kanpur, aims to improve the working conditions of tannery workers. Four hundred and ninety-seven tannery workers and 80 employees not engaged in leather work, from 20 tanneries, were interviewed and underwent physical examination. The mean age of tannery workers was 32 years, about half of them recently migrated to Kanpur. The majority of the workers are illiterate, have temporary jobs and 85% have a monthly income between 300 and 600 Rs. Occupational morbidity was 28.2%. Regular meetings with tannery owners, the training of tannery workers in first aid, and support for the installation of safety and health councils in tanneries are the main programme activities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  2. Experience and lessons learnt from clearance in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Clearance is an important corner-stone of waste management in nuclear installations in Germany. It has been practised successfully for around two decades. The importance of clearance can also be judged from the fact that it has been included detailedly in the new German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Currently, there are 19 NPPs and a number of fuel cycle installations in operation in Germany. The main waste quantities, however, arise from the dismantling of NPPs and fuel cycle installations which are currently in decommissioning. As most of the decommissioning projects are targeted for early dismantling instead of safe enclosure, there is already considerable experience with the application of clearance procedures and verification of clearance levels. The German waste management strategy is governed by two options: Clearance of the material (after decontamination and release measurement). After clearance, the material is no longer regarded as radioactive in a legal sense. Final disposal of the material as radioactive waste in a deep geological repository (no near-surface disposal facilities exist or are planned in Germany). A deep geological repository is planned to be operable around 2030. Stefan Thierfeldt described German clearance requirements and lessons learned from their application to decommissioning of power reactors. The great majority of the waste was in fact recycled, although the costs were dominated by the small fraction that had to be disposed of as radioactive waste. Among the lessons learned from the German experience were some revealing insights into the public perception of both clearance and of recycling of material from decommissioning of a nuclear installation

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid clearance in Alzheimer disease measured with dynamic PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Leon, Mony J.; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribrif......Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing...

  4. Clearance of insoluble dust from the lower respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, P E; Gibb, F R; Johnson, L

    1964-01-01

    Clearance of tagged heavy metal aerosols (Fe, Hg, Mn, Ba, and U) in female beagles by in vivo counting was assessed. Fecal excretion paralleled lower respiratory tract clearance of Fe. No Fe was found in blood, indicating its biological insolubility. Ultrafiltration tests (an indication of biological solubility) ranked the heavy metals as: Hg, Mn, Fe, and U in order of decreasing solubility. The solubility ratios were remarkably similar to the ratios of inverse biological half-times.

  5. A review and comparison of international exemption and clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.; Mobbs, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    The publication of new European Basic Safety Standards by the European Commission and of new International Basic Safety Standards by the IAEA together with other international agencies, has led to increased interest in the application of the concepts of exemption and clearance. This paper discusses the derivation of radionuclide-specific exemption and clearance values for application in various areas of the regulation of radioactive materials. (author)

  6. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Jann

    1998-01-01

    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by β 2 -agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au)

  7. Dynamic characteristics analysis of deployable space structures considering joint clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuanjie; Guo, Jian; Cao, Yuyan

    2011-04-01

    The clearance in joints influences the dynamic stability and the performance of deployable space structures (DSS). A virtual experimental modal analysis (VEMA) method is proposed to deal with the effects of joint clearance and link flexibility on the dynamic characteristics of the DSS in this paper. The focus is on the finite element modeling of the clearance joint, VEMA and the modal parameters identification of the DSS. The finite element models (FEM) of the clearance joint and the deployable structure are established in ANSYS. The transient dynamic analysis is conducted to provide the time history data of excitation and response for the VEMA. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique is used to transform the data from time domain to frequency domain. The frequency response function is calculated to identify the modal parameters of the deployable structure. Experimental verification is provided to indicate the VEMA method is both a cost and time efficient approach to obtain the dynamic characteristics of the DSS. Finally, we analyze the effects of clearance size and gravity on the dynamic characteristics of the DSS. The analysis results indicate that the joint clearance and gravity strongly influence the dynamic characteristics of the DSS.

  8. The tear turnover and tear clearance tests - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Montes Mico, Robert; Iskander, D Robert; Expósito, Alejandro Cerviño

    2018-03-01

    The aim is to provide a summary of methods available for the assessment of tear turnover and tear clearance rates. The review defines tear clearance and tear turnover and describes their implication for ocular surface health. Additionally, it describes main types of techniques for measuring tear turnover, including fluorescein tear clearance tests, techniques utilizing electromagnetic spectrum and tracer molecule and novel experimental techniques utilizing optical coherence tomography and fluorescein profilometry. Areas covered: Internet databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar) and most frequently cited references were used as a principal resource of information on tear turnover rate and tear clearance rate, presenting methodologies and equipment, as well as their definition and implications for the anterior eye surface health and function. Keywords used for data-search were as follows: tear turnover, tear clearance, fluorescein clearance, scintigraphy, fluorophotometry, tear flow, drainage, tear meniscus dynamics, Krehbiel flow and lacrimal functional unit. Expert commentary: After decades, the topic of tear turnover assessment has been reintroduced. Recently, new techniques have been developed to propose less invasive, less time consuming and simpler methodologies for the assessment of tear dynamics that have the potential to be utilized in clinical practice.

  9. Depressed reticuloendothelial clearance of platelets in rats after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J E; Moon, D G; Minnear, F L; Saba, T M

    1984-02-01

    Platelet microembolization may contribute to microcirculatory and organ damage following trauma and shock. It is hypothesized that posttraumatic reticuloendothelial depression predisposes to such microembolization by failure to clear altered platelets from the circulation. The present study evaluated the short-term (1 h) clearance and organ localization of radiolabeled homologous damaged platelets in normal rats and in rats following sublethal Noble-Collip drum trauma. Platelets were collected in citrated platelet-rich plasma from normal rats and labeled with 51Cr in citrated saline. Platelets were altered by repeated centrifugation in protein-free medium. These platelets differed functionally and morphologically from normal platelets. Disappearance of iv injected damaged platelets conformed to a two-compartment exponential clearance. Velocity of clearance in the rapid compartment correlated with hepatic platelet localization, whereas velocity of clearance in the second compartment correlated with splenic platelet localization. Clearance rate of the rapid compartment was depressed at 1 h after trauma and elevated at 24 h. These changes were associated with a decrease in hepatic platelet localization at 1 h and an increase above normal at 24 h. Splenic platelet localization was decreased by 3 h following trauma. Pulmonary platelet localization was increased at all times following trauma. It is concluded that the posttrauma state is associated with a defect in the reticuloendothelial system clearance of altered platelets, which may augment embolization of platelets in the lung.

  10. Domiciliary humidification improves lung mucociliary clearance in patients with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, A; Chapman, T H; McCool, D; Smith, R E; Dilworth, J P; Agnew, J E

    2008-01-01

    Inspired air humidification has been reported to show some benefit in bronchiectatic patients. We have investigated the possibility that one effect might be to enhance mucociliary clearance. Such enhancement might, if it occurs, help to lessen the risks of recurrent infective episodes. Using a radioaerosol technique, we measured lung mucociliary clearance before and after 7 days of domiciliary humidification. Patients inhaled high flow saturated air at 37 degrees C via a patient-operated humidification nasal inhalation system for 3 h per day. We assessed tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance from the retention of (99m)Tc-labelled polystyrene tracer particles monitored for 6 h, with a follow-up 24-h reading. Ten out of 14 initially recruited patients (age 37-75 years; seven females) completed the study (two withdrew after their initial screening and two prior to the initial clearance test). Seven patients studied were non-smokers; three were ex-smokers (1-9 pack-years). Initial tracer radioaerosol distribution was closely similar between pre- and post-treatment. Following humidification, lung mucociliary clearance significantly improved, the area under the tracheobronchial retention curve decreased from 319 +/- 50 to 271 +/- 46%h (p humidification treatment improved lung mucociliary clearance in our bronchiectatic patients. Given this finding plus increasing laboratory and clinical interest in humidification mechanisms and effects, we believe further clinical trials of humidification therapy are desirable, coupled with analysis of humidification effects on mucus properties and transport.

  11. Modified Augmented Renal Clearance Score Predicts Rapid Piperacillin and Tazobactam Clearance in Critically Ill Surgery and Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    collision; VAP , ventilator-associated pneumonia. TABLE 2. PK Parameter Estimates for Free Piperacillin and Tazobactam in Patients Stratified by ARC Score...SOFA score are typically generated during routine care of the most severely ill patients . Positive screening test results (high ARC scores) can be...Modified Augmented Renal Clearance score predicts rapid piperacillin and tazobactam clearance in critically ill surgery and trauma patients Kevin S

  12. Effect of mother’s education on child’s nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuya Benta A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition continues to be a critical public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, in East Africa, 48 % of children under-five are stunted while 36 % are underweight. Poor health and poor nutrition are now more a characteristic of children living in the urban areas than of children in the rural areas. This is because the protective mechanism offered by the urban advantage in the past; that is, the health benefits that historically accrued to residents of cities as compared to residents in rural settings is being eroded due to increasing proportion of urban residents living in slum settings. This study sought to determine effect of mother’s education on child nutritional status of children living in slum settings. Methods Data are from a maternal and child health project nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS. The study involves 5156 children aged 0–42 months. Data on nutritional status used were collected between October 2009 and January 2010. We used binomial and multiple logistic regression to estimate the effect of education in the univariable and multivariable models respectively. Results Results show that close to 40 % of children in the study are stunted. Maternal education is a strong predictor of child stunting with some minimal attenuation of the association by other factors at maternal, household and community level. Other factors including at child level: child birth weight and gender; maternal level: marital status, parity, pregnancy intentions, and health seeking behaviour; and household level: social economic status are also independently significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion Overall, mothers’ education persists as a strong predictor of child’s nutritional status in urban slum settings, even after controlling for other factors. Given that stunting is a strong predictor of human capital, emphasis on girl-child education may

  13. Gender variations in access, choice to use and cleaning of shared latrines; experiences from Kampala Slums, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiringira, Japheth; Atekyereza, Peter; Niwagaba, Charles; Günther, Isabel

    2014-11-19

    Sanitation is one of the most intimate issues that affect women, especially in slums of developing countries. There are few studies that have paid attention to the gender variations in access, choice to use and cleaning of shared latrines in slums. This paper draws on qualitative data from a cross sectional study conducted between 2012 and 2013 in six slums of Kampala City, Uganda. The study involved both women and men. Data were collected from 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), 15 Key informant interviews; community transects and photographs of shared latrines. Location of a shared latrine facility, distance, filthy, narrow and irregular paths; the time when a facility is visited (day or night), privacy and steep inclines were gender 'filters' to accessing shared latrines. A full latrine pit was more likely to inhibit access to and choice of a facility for women than men. Results indicate that the available coping mechanisms turned out to be gendered, with fewer options available for women than men. On the whole, women sought for privacy, easy reach, self-respect and esteem, cleanliness and privacy than men. While men like women also wanted clean facilities for use; they (men) were not keen on cleaning these facilities. The cleaning of shared latrines was seen by both women and men as a role for women. The presence of sanitation facilities as the first step in the access, choice, use, and cleaning by both women and men has distinct motivations and limitations along gender lines. The study confirms that the use and cleaning of latrines is regulated by gender in daily living. Using a latrine for women was much more than relieving oneself: it involved security, intimacy and health concerns.

  14. Domestic Violence against Women – An Unsolved Issue: A Community Based Study in an Urban Slum of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayita Pal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Domestic Violence against women is still an unsolved issue in India, though, it is an important public health problem contributing to physical, mental illness and low quality of life. Aim: The study was undertaken with the aim to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence against ever married women in an urban slum and the associated factors contributing to it. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study had been conducted among 430 ever married women of reproductive age group, selected using a systematic random sampling technique in an urban slum of Kolkata. Interviews were conducted using pre-designed, pre-tested semi structured schedule regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, violence experienced by the subjects in their lifetime, type of violence (physical, emotional and sexual violence and the person responsible for the same. Data were entered and analysed using SPSS 20.0 version. Results: The overall prevalence of any form of violence in the study population as a whole was (59.3%. The prevalence of physical, emotional, sexual violence was 61.6%, 84.3%and 58.8%, respectively. The occurrence of the event was reported by only 33.1% of the victims. Multivariate analysis revealed violence was higher among women belonging to families with low per capita income (6 years, low educational background of husband, not able to bear a male child, unemployment amongst both the spouses, leave the household on any pretext without prior permission from husband and where the wives did not attend household activities properly. Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic violence in urban slum of Kolkata was high which is an alarming public health problem which needs to be addressed at the earliest through awareness programmes and empowerment of women.

  15. Predictors of incompletion of immunization among children residing in the slums of Kathmandu valley, Nepal: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumina Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunization is one of the most effective health interventions averting an estimated 2–3 million deaths every year. In Nepal, as in most low-income countries, infants are immunized with standard WHO recommended vaccines. However, 16.4 % of children did not receive complete immunization by 12 months of age in Nepal in 2011. Studies from different parts of the world showed that incomplete immunization is even higher in slums. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of incompletion of immunization among children aged 12–23 months living in the slums of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Methods The unmatched case-control study was conducted in 22 randomly selected slums of Kathmandu Valley. The sampling frame was first identified by complete enumeration of entire households of the study area from which 59 incompletely immunized children as cases and 177 completely immunized children as controls were chosen randomly in 1:3 ratio. Data were collected from the primary caretakers of the children. Backward logistic regression with 95 % confidence interval and adjusted odds ratio (AOR were applied to assess the factors independently associated with incomplete immunization. Result Twenty-six percent of the children were incompletely vaccinated. The coverage of BCG vaccine was 95.0 % while it was 80.5 % for measles vaccine. The significant predictors of incomplete immunization were the home delivery of a child, the family residing on rent, a primary caretaker with poor knowledge about the schedule of vaccination and negative perception towards vaccinating a sick child, conflicting priorities, and development of abscess following immunization. Conclusion Reduction of abscess formation rate can be a potential way to improve immunization rates. Community health volunteers should increase their follow-up on children born at home and those living in rent. Health institutions and volunteers should be influential in creating

  16. Effect of mother’s education on child’s nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Malnutrition continues to be a critical public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, in East Africa, 48 % of children under-five are stunted while 36 % are underweight. Poor health and poor nutrition are now more a characteristic of children living in the urban areas than of children in the rural areas. This is because the protective mechanism offered by the urban advantage in the past; that is, the health benefits that historically accrued to residents of cities as compared to residents in rural settings is being eroded due to increasing proportion of urban residents living in slum settings. This study sought to determine effect of mother’s education on child nutritional status of children living in slum settings. Methods Data are from a maternal and child health project nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). The study involves 5156 children aged 0–42 months. Data on nutritional status used were collected between October 2009 and January 2010. We used binomial and multiple logistic regression to estimate the effect of education in the univariable and multivariable models respectively. Results Results show that close to 40 % of children in the study are stunted. Maternal education is a strong predictor of child stunting with some minimal attenuation of the association by other factors at maternal, household and community level. Other factors including at child level: child birth weight and gender; maternal level: marital status, parity, pregnancy intentions, and health seeking behaviour; and household level: social economic status are also independently significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion Overall, mothers’ education persists as a strong predictor of child’s nutritional status in urban slum settings, even after controlling for other factors. Given that stunting is a strong predictor of human capital, emphasis on girl-child education may contribute to breaking the

  17. Spatial Distribution of Dengue in a Brazilian Urban Slum Setting: Role of Socioeconomic Gradient in Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuti, Mariana; Cunha, Geraldo M; Paploski, Igor A D; Kasper, Amelia M; Silva, Monaise M O; Tavares, Aline S; Cruz, Jaqueline S; Queiroz, Tássia L; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Santana, Perla M; Lima, Helena C A V; Calcagno, Juan; Takahashi, Daniele; Gonçalves, André H O; Araújo, Josélio M G; Gauthier, Kristine; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Kitron, Uriel; Ko, Albert I; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ribeiro, Guilherme S

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of dengue have shown group-level associations between demographic, socioeconomic, or geographic characteristics and the spatial distribution of dengue within small urban areas. This study aimed to examine whether specific characteristics of an urban slum community were associated with the risk of dengue disease. From 01/2009 to 12/2010, we conducted enhanced, community-based surveillance in the only public emergency unit in a slum in Salvador, Brazil to identify acute febrile illness (AFI) patients with laboratory evidence of dengue infection. Patient households were geocoded within census tracts (CTs). Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographical data were obtained from the 2010 national census. Associations between CTs characteristics and the spatial risk of both dengue and non-dengue AFI were assessed by Poisson log-normal and conditional auto-regressive models (CAR). We identified 651 (22.0%) dengue cases among 2,962 AFI patients. Estimated risk of symptomatic dengue was 21.3 and 70.2 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in 2009 and 2010, respectively. All the four dengue serotypes were identified, but DENV2 predominated (DENV1: 8.1%; DENV2: 90.7%; DENV3: 0.4%; DENV4: 0.8%). Multivariable CAR regression analysis showed increased dengue risk in CTs with poorer inhabitants (RR: 1.02 for each percent increase in the frequency of families earning ≤1 times the minimum wage; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and decreased risk in CTs located farther from the health unit (RR: 0.87 for each 100 meter increase; 95% CI: 0.80-0.94). The same CTs characteristics were also associated with non-dengue AFI risk. This study highlights the large burden of symptomatic dengue on individuals living in urban slums in Brazil. Lower neighborhood socioeconomic status was independently associated with increased risk of dengue, indicating that within slum communities with high levels of absolute poverty, factors associated with the social gradient influence dengue transmission. In addition, poor

  18. Understanding the fate of sanitation-related nutrients in a shallow sandy aquifer below an urban slum area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J. C. N.; Foppen, J. W.; Muwanga, A.; Kulabako, R.

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that wastewater leaching from on-site sanitation systems to alluvial aquifers underlying informal settlements (or slums) may end up contributing to high nutrient loads to surface water upon groundwater exfiltration. Hence, we conducted a hydro-geochemical study in a shallow sandy aquifer in Bwaise III parish, an urban slum area in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the geochemical processes controlling the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients (NO3, NH4 and PO4) released from on-site sanitation systems to groundwater. Groundwater was collected from 26 observation wells. The samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cl and SO4) and nutrients (o-PO4, NO3 and NH4). Data was also collected on soil characteristics, aquifer conductivity and hydraulic heads. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC was used to determine the level of o-PO4 control by mineral solubility and sorption. Groundwater below the slum area was anoxic and had near neutral pH values, high values of EC (average of 1619 μS/cm) and high concentrations of Cl (3.2 mmol/L), HCO3 (11 mmol/L) and nutrients indicating the influence from wastewater leachates especially from pit latrines. Nutrients were predominantly present as NH4 (1-3 mmol/L; average of 2.23 mmol/L). The concentrations of NO3 and o-PO4 were, however, low: average of 0.2 mmol/L and 6 μmol/L respectively. We observed a contaminant plume along the direction of groundwater flow (NE-SW) characterized by decreasing values of EC and Cl, and distinct redox zones. The redox zones transited from NO3-reducing in upper flow areas to Fe-reducing in the lower flow areas. Consequently, the concentrations of NO3 decreased downgradient of the flow path due to denitrification. Ammonium leached directly into the alluvial aquifer was also partially removed because the measured concentrations were less than the potential input from pit latrines (3.2 mmol/L). We attributed this removal (about 30%) to anaerobic ammonium oxidation

  19. Risk factors of hypertension among adults aged 35-64 years living in an urban slum Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olack, Beatrice; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Smeeth, Liam; Montgomery, Joel M; Kiwanuka, Noah; Breiman, Robert F

    2015-12-17

    Hypertension is an emerging public health problem in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and urbanization is considered to favor its emergence. Given a paucity of information on hypertension and associated risk factors among urban slum dwellers in SSA, we aimed to characterize the distribution of risk factors for hypertension and investigate their association with hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya. We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey among adults 35 years and older living in Kibera slum Nairobi, Kenya. Trained interviewers collected data on socio demographic characteristics and self reported health behaviours using modified World Health Organization stepwise surveillance questionnaire for chronic disease risk factors. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed following standard procedures. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis and odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to identify risk factors associated with hypertension. A total of 1528 adults were surveyed with a mean age of 46.7 years. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 29.4 % (95 % CI 27.0-31.7). Among the 418 participants classified as hypertensive, over one third (39.0 %) were unaware they had hypertension. Prevalence of current smoking and alcohol consumption was 8.5 and 13.1 % respectively. Over one quarter 26.2 % participants were classified as overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥25 to ≤29.9 kg/m(2)), and 17 % classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Overweight, obesity, current smoking, some level of education, highest wealth index, moderate physical activity, older age and being widowed were each independently associated with hypertension. When fit in a multivariable logistic regression model, being a widow [AOR = 1.7; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.6)], belonging to the highest wealth index [AOR = 1.6; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.5)], obesity [AOR = 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.1)] and moderate physical activity [AOR = 1.9; (95 % CI

  20. A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayah, Richard; Joshi, Mark D; Wanjiru, Rosemary; Njau, Elijah K; Otieno, C Fredrick; Njeru, Erastus K; Mutai, Kenneth K

    2013-04-20

    Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi's largest slum. We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18 years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8 hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of  ≥ 11.1 mmol/l and a FBS of  ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45-54 year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women.Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high levels of physical activity were also reported. Findings

  1. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit for grey water treatment at household level in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-01-15

    Decentralised grey water treatment in urban slums using low-cost and robust technologies offers opportunities to minimise public health risks and to reduce environmental pollution caused by the highly polluted grey water i.e. with a COD and N concentration of 3000-6000 mg L(-1) and 30-40 mg L(-1), respectively. However, there has been very limited action research to reduce the pollution load from uncontrolled grey water discharge by households in urban slums. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the potential of a two-step filtration process to reduce the grey water pollution load in an urban slum using a crushed lava rock filter, to determine the main filter design and operation parameters and the effect of intermittent flow on the grey water effluent quality. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit was designed and implemented for use by a household in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala city (Uganda). It was monitored at a varying hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.5-1.1 m d(-1) as well as at a constant HLR of 0.39 m d(-1). The removal efficiencies of COD, TP and TKN were, respectively, 85.9%, 58% and 65.5% under a varying HLR and 90.5%, 59.5% and 69%, when operating at a constant HLR regime. In addition, the log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and total coliforms was, respectively, 3.8, 3.2 and 3.9 under the varying HLR and 3.9, 3.5 and 3.9 at a constant HLR. The results show that the use of a two-step filtration process as well as a lower constant HLR increased the pollutant removal efficiencies. Further research is needed to investigate the feasibility of adding a tertiary treatment step to increase the nutrients and microorganisms removal from grey water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among women of reproductive age in the slums of Delhi and Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jayati; Wadhwa, Vandana; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

    2009-02-01

    This report explores how vulnerability to HIV/AIDS applies to women in the reproductive age range living in the slum areas of Delhi and Hyderabad. The paper is based on a qualitative study of AIDS awareness levels conducted during the summer of 2006. It offers insightful narratives from a sample of 32 women, providing an in depth view of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS due to their precarious socioeconomic conditions and low AIDS awareness. The women cited lack of education, low empowerment in expressing and accessing information related to sexual matters, and poverty as key factors to vulnerability.

  3. Respiratory clearance of aerosolized radioactive solutes of varying molecular weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the influence of varying molecular weight (mol wt) on respiratory clearance of aerosolized solutes, we studied eight radiopharmaceuticals, each administered to four dogs: sodium /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate (TcO4), /sup 99m/Tc glucoheptonate ([/sup 99m/Tc]GH), 51Cr-ethylenedinitrotetraacetate ([51Cr]EDTA), /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ([99mTc] DTPA), 111 In diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ([ 111 In]DTPA), 67 Ga desferoxaminemesylate ([ 67 Ga]DFOM), /sup 99m/Tc dextran ([/sup 99m/Tc]DX) and 111 In transferrin ([ 111 In]TF). After aerosolization (0.8 m MMD, 2.4 GSD), clearance was determined for 30 min and then corrected by intravenous injection for nonairspace radioactivity. In-TF clearance (0.11 +/- 0.10%/min) was lower than TcO4 (6.32 +/- 0.62%/min), [/sup 99m/Tc]GH (1.50 +/- 0.37%/min), [ 51 Cr]EDTA (2.38 +/- 1.02%/min), [/sup 99m/Tc]DTPA (3.51 +/- 0.40%/min), [ 111 In]DTPA (2.35 +/- 0.42%/min), [ 67 Ga] DFOM (1.99 +/- 0.49%/min) and [/sup 99m/Tc]DX (1.81 +/- 0.75%/min) clearances (p less than 0.001). TcO4 clearance was higher than others (p less than 0.001). Technetium binding to DX was unsatisfactory; aerosolization caused unbinding from DTPA. We conclude that respiratory clearance of large mol wt solutes within 30 min is negligible and, that clearance of molecules between 347-5099 daltons differs greatly, suggesting that binding and/or intrapulmonary retention affect transfer

  4. Unmet need of contraceptives among eligible couples of urban slum dwellers in Dhaka

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    Shamsun Nahar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted on married women residing in urban slums of Kamrangirchar in Dhaka to determine the magnitude of unmet need for family planning. A total of 265 married women of reproductive age who were fecund and living with husband were the sample of the study. The mean age of the respondents was 26.8±6.7 years. A little above 14% of the women were in the age group of 15–19 years. Almost equal proportion of respondents and their husbands were found to be illiterate. Nearly one-tenth of the respondents have not had ever experienced pregnancy, while 23% experienced pregnancy once, 18.1% twice and 33.6% three-four times, 17% more than four times. Among the respondents, 51.3% were currently using a contraceptive method. Around 5% were pregnant, which was intended. Another 3% wanted to conceive. The rest 41.1% wanted to use a contraceptive but certain barriers did not allow them to use the same suggesting that their family planning need was unmet. This need included limiting (21.5% and spacing (19.6%. Lactational amenorrhea, no specific reasons, side effect of past contraceptive use, lack of support from husband or other family members, lack of proper knowledge of contraceptive and difficulties in obtaining contraceptive supplies were the cited reasons. Unmet need of contraceptive is high despite an extensive family planning programme in Bangladesh. Mean age at marriage is still below the legal age and gender discrimination plays a vital role in this unmet need. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2009; 3(1: 24-28

  5. Study of Sexual Behaviour of Bar-girls Residing in an Urban Slum Area of Mumbai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirgude, Abhay; Solanki, Mridula J; Shinde, Ratnendra R; Naik, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bar girls are unorganized, difficult to reach high-risk group, and an urban phenomenon. Objectives: To study the demographic profile and sexual behavior of bar girls. Materials and Methods: Study setting is an urban slum area situated in the northwest part of Mumbai. Study design is a community-based cross-sectional study. Study duration was from January 2003 to January 2005. Phase I: Identification of key informants was done. Phase II: Mapping of bar girls in the study area was done with the help of key informants. Sampling: Out of the estimated 800-1200 bar girls, 120 bar girls who were willing to participate in the study were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. Confidentiality of names and locations was assured to both key informants and study subjects. Information was gathered about demographic profile, educational status, and their sexual behavior by conducting one to one interview with the use of predesigned, pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Most of the bar girls were in the age group of 21–25 years 52 (43.3%). None of them were educated above secondary level. Most of the subjects belong to West Bengal state 58 (48.4%). Majority of the subjects 88 (73.3%) reported that they have ever practiced commercial sex, and money was the criteria of selection of customers 53 (60.22%). Condom usage was reported less with regular customer as compared with that of nonregular customers (χ2 = 6.02, P < 0.02). Conclusions: Need to emphasize condom use with each and every sexual act irrespective of type of customers. PMID:21687378

  6. Association of Domestic Violence From Husband and Women Empowerment in Slum Community, Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, Balaiah; Nair, Saritha; Begum, Shahina; Prakasam, C P

    2016-07-01

    Prevalence of violence by husband against wife is an indicator of women's status at household level. The objective of the study is to understand the relationship between domestic violence and women's empowerment in a slum community in Mumbai, India. Data were collected from a sample of 1,136 married women aged 18 to 39 years having at least one child and reporting of unmet need for family planning. Domestic violence by husband against wife was measured in terms of either physical, sexual, or emotional violence. Three logit regression analyses were carried out using decision-making power, freedom of movement, and justified wife beating as dependent variables separately and socio-demographic and economic variables as independent variables. Furthermore, the relationship between domestic violence and women's decision-making power, freedom of movement, and justified wife-beating index has been explored. About 21% of women had ever experienced violence, and 38% of women had decision-making power with respect to own health care, household purchase, or visiting family and relatives. A little more than one fifth of the women reported freedom of movement to market, health facilities, or places outside the community. Women who justified wife beating were 2.29 (95% CI [1.59, 3.29]) times at risk of experiencing violence than women who disagreed with the wife-beating statements. Women not empowered in decision making were 1.15 (95% CI [0.91, 1.46]) times at risk of experiencing domestic violence than women who were empowered in decision making. Women who are empowered are less likely to be at risk of domestic violence. Programs aimed at empowering women must address socio-cultural norms relating to justification of violence in marriage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AND RTI AMONG EVER-MARRIED WOMEN IN RURAL SLUM

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    Sadhana Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Considering huge burden of RTI across community based study settings- either iatrogenic or endogenous and not necessarily sexually transmitted, menstrual hygiene practices by reproductive age group women have documented evidence of being a key determinant/ predictor of RTI and bear causal association with key Socio-demographic attributes. This is more so in view of vulnerability to health risk, access to treatment and reduced economical choice for a marginal & disadvantaged population like the ‘in-migrants/itinerants. Objectives: 1. To study menstrual hygiene practices of ever-married ‘in-migrant’ women from Dehradun as a key determinant of reproductive health needs. 2. To establish causal association between menstrual hygiene practices and (i key socio-demographic attributes & (ii RTI. Methodology: An observational (cross-sectional study was designed with a probability sample from 5033 ever-married women from 06 ‘make-shift settlements’/slums along immediate precincts i.e 50 meters into the mainland from the banks of rivers ‘Chandrabhaga’, ‘Ganga’, ‘Song’ and ‘Rispana’- all in the district of Dehradun. Result& Conclusion: The present study findings revealed that as key determinant of reproductive health needs, menstrual hygiene practices of the study population bore significant statistical association with their (i literacy status or education (ii religion (iii key reproductive tract infection symptoms and (iv socio-economic status. The findings reinforced the felt need to address knowledge, attitude and practices of the disadvantaged study population by appropriate behaviour change communication, build community & provider capacity and strategies to deliver services at such resource - poor setting keeping in view the four A’s of primary health care.

  8. Approaches towards establishing of clearance levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitani, N.; Watanabe, I.; Okoshi, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to establish necessary regulatory systems for decommissioning waste management, especially to establish clearance levels from regulatory control. To establish the regulatory systems, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) has been discussing the unconditional clearance levels for materials from nuclear reactors since May 1997. The NSC tries to derive unconditional clearance levels for the materials such as concrete and ferrous metal, arising from nuclear reactor decommissioning. In the derivation, both disposal and recycle/reuse of the materials are considered. Typical scenarios and parameter values for dose estimation are selected considering the Japanese natural and social conditions. Preliminary clearance levels were derived from 10 μSv/yr of individual dose criterion and deterministic analysis. For most radionuclides, the preliminary results are the same order of magnitude recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. Some radionuclides such as β emitters, however, are different order of magnitude from those recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. It is necessary that international organizations lead the discussions on the clearance levels to conclude final consensus. (author)

  9. Predicting Human Clearance of OATP substrates using Cynomolgus monkey: In vitro-in vivo scaling of hepatic uptake clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Tom; Ufuk, Ayse; Cantrill, Carina; Kosa, Rachel E; Bi, Yi-An; Niosi, Mark; Modi, Sweta; Rodrigues, A David; Tremaine, Larry M; Varma, Manthena Vs; Galetin, Aleksandra; Houston, J Brian

    2018-05-02

    This work explores the utility of the cynomolgus monkey as a preclinical model to predict hepatic uptake clearance mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters. Nine OATP substrates (rosuvastatin, pravastatin, repaglinide, fexofenadine, cerivastatin, telmisartan, pitavastatin, bosentan and valsartan) were investigated in plated cynomolgus monkey and human hepatocytes. Total uptake clearance and passive diffusion were measured in vitro from initial rates in the absence and presence of the OATP inhibitor rifamycin SV, respectively. Total uptake clearance values in plated hepatocytes ranged over three orders of magnitude in both species with a similar rank order and good agreement in the relative contribution of active transport to total uptake between cynomolgus monkey and human. In vivo hepatic clearance for these nine drugs was determined in cynomolgus monkey after intravenous dosing. Hepatic clearances showed a similar range to human parameters and good predictions from respective hepatocyte parameters (with 2.7 and 3.8-fold bias on average, respectively). The use of cross species empirical scaling factors (based on either dataset average or individual drug scaling factor from cynomolgus monkey data) improved prediction (less bias, better concordance) of human hepatic clearance from human hepatocyte data alone. In vitro intracellular binding in hepatocytes also correlated well between species. It is concluded that the minimal species differences observed for the current dataset between cynomolgus monkey and human hepatocyte uptake, both in vitro and in vivo, support future use of this preclinical model to delineate drug hepatic uptake and enable prediction of human in vivo intrinsic hepatic clearance. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Factors associated with body mass index among slum dwelling women in India: an analysis of the 2005–2006 Indian National Family Health Survey

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    Patel ML

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Maya Laxmi Patel, Raywat Deonandan Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Background: Urbanization is increasing around the world, and in India, this trend has translated into an increase in the size of slum dwellings whose environments are suspected of being associated with poor health outcomes, particularly those relating to women’s nutritional status. With this study, we sought to determine the factors associated with Indian women’s body mass index (BMI in slum environments, with special attention paid to women with tribal status.Methods: A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on data from the Indian National Family Health Survey (2005–2006, modeling demographic and behavioral factors suspected of being associated with BMI, with additional focus on the measures of social class, specifically caste and tribal status.Results: Increasing BMI is significantly and positively associated with frequency of watching television, having diabetes, age, wealth index, and residency status in the areas of New Delhi, Andhra Pradesh, or Tamil Nadu.Conclusion: Although belonging to a scheduled tribe was not associated with changes in BMI, unadjusted rates suggest that tribal status may be worthy of deeper investigation. Among slum dwellers, there is a double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition. Therefore, a diverse set of interventions may be required to improve the health outcomes of these women. Keywords: slums, India, BMI, women, caste, obesity, poverty

  11. Economic Context and HIV Vulnerability in Adolescents and Young Adults Living in Urban Slums in Kenya: A Qualitative Analysis Based on Scarcity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Mathai, Muthoni; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Trujillo, Antonio; Mak'anyengo, Margaret; Montgomery, Brooke E E; Kerrigan, Deanna L

    2017-09-01

    Urban slum adolescents and young adults have disproportionately high rates of HIV compared to rural and non-slum urban youth. Yet, few studies have examined youth's perceptions of the economic drivers of HIV. Informed by traditional and behavioral economics, we applied a scarcity theoretical framework to qualitatively examine how poverty influences sexual risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Focus group discussions with one hundred twenty youth in Kenyan's urban slums were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Results indicated that slum youth made many sexual decisions considered rational from a traditional economics perspective, such as acquiring more sex when resources were available, maximizing wealth through sex, being price-sensitive to costs of condoms or testing services, and taking more risks when protected from adverse sexual consequences. Youth's engagement in sexual risk behaviors was also motivated by scarcity phenomena explained by behavioral economics, such as compensating for sex lost during scarce periods (risk-seeking), valuing economic gains over HIV risks (tunneling, bandwidth tax), and transacting sex as an investment strategy (internal referencing). When scarcity was alleviated, young women additionally described reducing the number of sex partners to account for non-economic preferences (slack). Prevention strategies should address the traditional and behavioral economics of the HIV epidemic.

  12. The magnitude of diabetes and its association with obesity in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, Samuel O.; van de Vijver, Steven J. M.; Agyemang, Charles; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes and to examine the relationship of obesity with raised blood glucose in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya. We used data from a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted in 2008-2009, involving a random sample of 5190 (2794 men

  13. Assessment of an Integrated Nutrition Communication Approach to Educate the School-Going Adolescent Girls Living in Urban Slums of Hyderabad, Telangana State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. Raghunatha; Vijayapushpam, T.; Rao, N. Amulya; Dube, Anilkumar; Venkaiah, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Consumption of right diet during the adolescent phase is a critical issue among the adolescent population as their eating behavior is significantly influenced by the peers. Therefore, a study was carried out to educate the school-going adolescent girls living in urban slums of Hyderabad, Telangana, India on right nutrition. Methods: The…

  14. Of voyeuristic safari tours and responsible tourism with educational value: Observing moral communication in slum and township tourism in Cape Town and Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgold. Julia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sightseeing in the poorest quarters of southern hemisphere cities has been observed occurring in Cape Town, Rio de Janeiro, Mumbai and many other cities. The increasing global interest in touring poor urban environments is accompanied by a strong morally charged debate; so far, this debate has not been critically addressed. This article avoids asking if slum tourism is good or bad, but instead seeks a second-order observation, i.e. to investigate under what conditions the social praxis of slum tourism is considered as good or bad, by processing information on esteem or disesteem among tourists and tour providers. Special attention is given to any relation between morality and place, and the thesis posited is that the moral charging of slum tourism is dependent on the presence of specific preconceived notions of slums and poverty. This shall be clarified by means of references to two empirical case studies carried out in (1 Cape Town in 2007 and 2008 and (2 Mumbai in 2009.

  15. Detection of Entamoeba sp. and Helmith Eggs From Water Sources in Urban Slum Area in Bandung Municipality

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    Sri Yusnita Irda Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a waterborne disease due to consumption of contaminated food/water. People in urban slum area have highest risk to get diarrhea because of poor hygiene and sanitation as well as limited access to uncontaminated water. This study aimed to identify conta­mination in watersources by Entamoeba Sp and helmint eggs (Anchylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuria in one of urban slum area in Bandung municipality. Samples were taken from 123 watersources (74 tap water, 21 borehole, 22 dugwell and 6 spring water which was randomly selected in 10 RW along the Cikapundung river basin in Tamansari subdistrict during period of July-September 2015. Water samples were examined by PCR to detect Entamoeba Sp and microscopic identification for helminth eggs. 90 out of 123 samples were positive for Entamoeba Sp (59 tap water, 16 dugwell, 11 borehole and 4 spring water. Helminth egg of Ascaris lumbricoides was detected from unimproved common dugwell which had very high risk of contamination. Appropriate of water treatment prior to consumption is vastly important. Physical improvement to construct improved dugwell should be done to prevent contamination from helminth eggs in watersources.

  16. Problem Drinking, Alcohol-Related Violence, and Homelessness among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

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    Monica H. Swahn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines problem drinking, alcohol-related violence, and homelessness among youth living in the slums of Kampala—an understudied population at high-risk for both alcohol use and violence. This study is based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014 with youth living in the slums and streets of Kampala, Uganda (n = 1134, who were attending Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in centers. The analyses for this paper were restricted to youth who reported current alcohol consumption (n = 346. Problem drinking patterns were assessed among youth involved in alcohol-related violence. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine the impact of homelessness on alcohol-related violence through different measures of problem drinking. Nearly 46% of youth who consumed alcohol were involved in alcohol-related violence. Problem drinkers were more likely to report getting in an accident (χ2 = 6.8, df = 1, p = 0.009, having serious problems with parents (χ2 = 21.1, df = 1, p < 0.0001 and friends (χ2 = 18.2, df = 1, p < 0.0001, being a victim of robbery (χ2 = 8.8, df = 1, p = 0.003, and going to a hospital (χ2 = 15.6, df = 1, p < 0.0001. For the mediation analyses, statistically significant models were observed for frequent drinking, heavy drinking, and drunkenness. Interventions should focus on delaying and reducing alcohol use in this high-risk population.

  17. Population-based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in an urban slum in Enugu, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeala-Adikaibe, B A; Orjioke, C; Ekenze, O S; Ijoma, U; Onodugo, O; Okudo, G; Okwara, C; Chime, P; Mbadiwe, N; Eddy, A; Onyekonwu, C; Onyebueke, G; Ulasi, I; Mba, A U

    2016-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle have modified the profile and pattern of various medical disorders. Apart from high prevalence rates, recent trends with regard to hypertension in Africa include: low levels of awareness, treatment and control. Although a large number of studies provide data about hypertension in SSA, few studies focused on special populations such as urban slum dwellers. The WHO STEP-wise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable diseases was used to access the prevalence of hypertension among adults in one of the urban slums in Enugu. Out of the 811 individuals aged 20 years and above surveyed, 774 (95.4%) cases were analyzed. About 4.7% and 2.7% reported a past history of diabetes and stroke, respectively, whereas 15% had a positive family history of hypertension. The mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) body mass index (BMI) was 23.7 (23.2-24.2) kg m(-2) among males and 26.6 (25.7-26.7) kg m(-2) among females (Pslums is very high and a cause for concern, and calls for urgent attention.

  18. Predictors and outcome of tetanus in newborns in slum areas of Karachi City: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaila, Arjumand; Shafiq, Yasir; Azim, Shazia; Baloch, Benazir; Akhtar, Ali Syed Muhammad; Tikmani, Shiyam Sunder; Brown, Nick

    2015-08-07

    Tetanus in newborns, is an under-reported public health problem and a major cause of mortality in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the predictors and outcome of tetanus in newborn infants in the slums of Bin-Qasim town, Karachi, Pakistan. We conducted a case-control study at primary health care centers of slums of Bin-Qasim town, area located adjacent to Bin Qasim seaport in Karachi, from January 2003 to December 2013. Cases were infants aged ≤30 days with tetanus, as defined by the World Health Organization. Controls were newborn infants aged ≤30 days without Tetanus, who were referred for a checkup or minor illnesses. The case to control ratio was 1:2. We analyzed 26 cases and 52 controls. The case fatality was 70.8%. We identified four independent predictors of Tetanus in newborns: maternal education (only religious education with no formal education OR 51.95; 95% CI 3.69-731), maternal non-vaccination (OR 24.55; 95% CI 1.01-131.77), lack of a skilled birth attendant (OR 44.00; 95% CI 2.30-840.99), and delivery at home (OR 11.54; 95% CI 1.01-131.77). We identified several potentially modifiable socio-demographic risk factors for Tetanus in newborns, including maternal education and immunization status, birth site, and lack of a skilled birth attendant. Prioritization of these risk factors could be useful for planning preventive and cost-effective measures.

  19. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  20. Knowledge and practices related to sexually transmitted infections among women of reproductive age living in Katanga slum, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawagi, Faith; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Mukisa, John; Serwadda, Patrick; Kyalema, Samuel; Kizza, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) still stand as one of the commonest health problems affecting women of reproductive age. The knowledge and practices of STIs, among susceptible populations such as women of reproductive age, living in slums like Katanga in Kampala Uganda need to be established. This was a cross-sectional study with 339 participants in Katanga slum. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire, entered and analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Data was summarized using frequencies for categorical data and medians for continuous data. Majority of the participants (71.9%) were ≥25years with a mean age of 28.0(SD ±7.0) years. The commonest symptoms known to the participants were genital itching (60%) and genital rash (14.5%). Most mentioned multiple partners (63.7%) and unprotected sex (50.7%) as predisposing factors to STIs. Knowledge on methods of prevention was high (92.3%) however, 18.8% were found positive for STIs using the syndromic approach and 82% mentioned having suffered from STIs in the past 6 months more than once. Most participants did not know about the systemic effects of STIs to their health and didnot follow the appropriate behavior patterns despite being knowledgeable about the various methods of prevention of STIs.