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Sample records for slow x-b mode

  1. Plasma heating due to X-B mode conversion in a cylindrical ECR plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, V.K.; Bora, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2004-07-01

    Extra Ordinary (X) mode conversion to Bernstein wave near Upper Hybrid Resonance (UHR) layer plays an important role in plasma heating through cyclotron resonance. Wave generation at UHR and parametric decay at high power has been observed during Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating experiments in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. A small linear system with ECR and UHR layer within the system has been used to conduct experiments on X-B conversion and parametric decay process as a function of system parameters. Direct probing in situ is conducted and plasma heating is evidenced by soft x-ray emission measurement. Experiments are performed with hydrogen plasma produced with 160-800 W microwave power at 2.45 GHz of operating frequency at 10{sup -3} mbar pressure. The axial magnetic field required for ECR is such that the resonant surface (B = 875 G) is situated at the geometrical axis of the plasma system. Experimental results will be presented in the paper. (authors)

  2. Kinetic slow mode-type solitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Baumgärtel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional hybrid code simulations are presented, carried out in order both to study solitary waves of the slow mode branch in an isotropic, collisionless, medium-β plasma (βi=0.25 and to test the fluid based soliton interpretation of Cluster observed strong magnetic depressions (Stasiewicz et al., 2003; Stasiewicz, 2004 against kinetic theory. In the simulations, a variety of strongly oblique, large amplitude, solitons are seen, including solitons with Alfvenic polarization, similar to those predicted by the Hall-MHD theory, and robust, almost non-propagating, solitary structures of slow magnetosonic type with strong magnetic field depressions and perpendicular ion heating, which have no counterpart in fluid theory. The results support the soliton-based interpretation of the Cluster observations, but reveal substantial deficiencies of Hall-MHD theory in describing slow mode-type solitons in a plasma of moderate beta.

  3. Searching for O-X-B mode-conversion window with monitoring of stray microwave radiation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igami, H.; Kubo, S.; Laqua, H. P.; Nagasaki, K.; Inagaki, S.; Notake, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Mutoh, T.; LHD Experimental Group

    2006-01-01

    In the Large Helical Device, the stray microwave radiation is monitored by using so-called sniffer probes during electron cyclotron heating. In monitoring the stray radiation, we changed the microwave beam injection angle and search the O-X-B mode-conversion window to excite electron Bernstein waves (EBWs). When the microwave beam is injected toward the vicinity of the predicted O-X-B mode-conversion window, the electron temperature rises in the central part of overdense plasmas. In that case, the stray radiation level near the injection antenna becomes low. These results indicate that monitoring the stray radiation near the injection antenna is helpful in confirming the effectiveness of excitation of EBWs simply without precise analysis

  4. On Kinetic Slow Modes, Fluid Slow Modes, and Pressure-balanced Structures in the Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verscharen, Daniel [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Chen, Christopher H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wicks, Robert T., E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu, E-mail: christopher.chen@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: r.wicks@ucl.ac.uk [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-10

    Observations in the solar wind suggest that the compressive component of inertial-range solar-wind turbulence is dominated by slow modes. The low collisionality of the solar wind allows for nonthermal features to survive, which suggests the requirement of a kinetic plasma description. The least-damped kinetic slow mode is associated with the ion-acoustic (IA) wave and a nonpropagating (NP) mode. We derive analytical expressions for the IA-wave dispersion relation in an anisotropic plasma in the framework of gyrokinetics and then compare them to fully kinetic numerical calculations, results from two-fluid theory, and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This comparison shows major discrepancies in the predicted wave phase speeds from MHD and kinetic theory at moderate to high β . MHD and kinetic theory also dictate that all plasma normal modes exhibit a unique signature in terms of their polarization. We quantify the relative amplitude of fluctuations in the three lowest particle velocity moments associated with IA and NP modes in the gyrokinetic limit and compare these predictions with MHD results and in situ observations of the solar-wind turbulence. The agreement between the observations of the wave polarization and our MHD predictions is better than the kinetic predictions, which suggests that the plasma behaves more like a fluid in the solar wind than expected.

  5. On Kinetic Slow Modes, Fluid Slow Modes, and Pressure-balanced Structures in the Solar Wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verscharen, Daniel; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Wicks, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Observations in the solar wind suggest that the compressive component of inertial-range solar-wind turbulence is dominated by slow modes. The low collisionality of the solar wind allows for nonthermal features to survive, which suggests the requirement of a kinetic plasma description. The least-damped kinetic slow mode is associated with the ion-acoustic (IA) wave and a nonpropagating (NP) mode. We derive analytical expressions for the IA-wave dispersion relation in an anisotropic plasma in the framework of gyrokinetics and then compare them to fully kinetic numerical calculations, results from two-fluid theory, and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This comparison shows major discrepancies in the predicted wave phase speeds from MHD and kinetic theory at moderate to high β . MHD and kinetic theory also dictate that all plasma normal modes exhibit a unique signature in terms of their polarization. We quantify the relative amplitude of fluctuations in the three lowest particle velocity moments associated with IA and NP modes in the gyrokinetic limit and compare these predictions with MHD results and in situ observations of the solar-wind turbulence. The agreement between the observations of the wave polarization and our MHD predictions is better than the kinetic predictions, which suggests that the plasma behaves more like a fluid in the solar wind than expected.

  6. Electron heating and current drive by mode converted slow waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    An approach to obtaining efficient single pass mode conversion at high parallel wave number from the fast magnetosonic wave to the slow ion Bernstein wave, in a two-ion species tokamak plasma, is described. The intent is to produce localized electron heating or current drive via the mode converted slow wave. In particular, this technique can be adapted to off-axis current drive for current profile control. Modeling for the case of deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR is presented

  7. Electron heating and current drive by mode converted slow waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    An approach to obtaining efficient single pass mode conversion at high parallel wavenumber from the fast magnetosonic wave to the slow ion Bernstein wave, in a two ion species tokamak plasma, is described. The intent is to produce localized electron heating or current drive via the mode converted slow wave. In particular, this technique can be adapted to off-axis current drive for current profile control. Modelling for the case of deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR is presented

  8. The O-X-B mode conversion scheme for ECRH of a high-density Tokamak plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. R.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1985-01-01

    A method to apply electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) to a Tokamak plasma with central density higher than the critical density for cut-off of the ordinary mode (O-mode) has been investigated. This method involves two mode conversions, from an O-mode via an extraordinary mode (X......-mode) into an electron Bernstein mode (B-mode). Radial profiles for the power deposition and the wave-drive current due to the B-waves are calculated for realistic antenna radiation patterns with parameters corresponding to the Danish DANTE Tokamak and to Princeton's PLT....

  9. Electron Bernstein wave heating and emission measurement through the very narrow O-X-B mode conversion window in the LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Nishiura, M.; Seki, T.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Kubo, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan and Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Ogasawara, S.; Makino, R. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Idei, H. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyusyu Univ., Kasuga (Japan); Nagasaki, K. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan)

    2014-02-12

    In the large helical device (LHD), the theoretically predicted width of the ordinary-extraordinary-electron Bernstein wave (O-X-B) mode conversion (MC) window is comparable to the beam width and the power deposition is located in the off-axis region if the 77GHz fundamental electron cyclotron (EC) wave of is launched from an existing horizontal port antenna. In the experiment, the actual MC window location was looked for with changing the aiming. The effective aiming with that the increase of the stored energy was observed was two degrees apart from the location of the theoretical MC window at a maximum. Measurement of the waves originated from the thermally emitted EBW and radiated via the B-X-O mode conversion process is effective to improve the accuracy of the theoretical prediction with comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results. The theoretical prediction suggests that the width of the MC window of the fundamental 77GHz EC wave can be expanded if the lower port antenna is used. On the other hand, the MC window of the second harmonic 154GHz EC wave is blocked by horizontal port wall if another horizontal port antenna is used. It is required to move the final mirror of the quasi-optical antenna toward the plasma surface. Focusing of the beam at the plasma cutoff is (PC) also necessary for the effective mode conversion.

  10. Slow-mode shocks in the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    The locations and structure of slow-mode shocks in the earth's magnetosphere are reviewed. To date, such shocks have only been identified along the high latitude portions of the lobe-plasma sheet boundary of the geomagnetic tail. Although their intrinsic thickness is of the order of the upstream ion inertial length, they affect the internal state of a relatively much larger volume of surrounding plasma. In particular, they support a well-developed foreshock very similar to that observed upstream of the earth's bow shock, and a turbulent, strongly convecting downstream flow. They also figure importantly in the energy budget of geomagnetic substorms and produce effects which are closely analogous to much of the phenomenology known from solar observations to be associated with two-ribbon flares. 74 refs., 14 figs

  11. Electron Bernstein wave heating of over-dense H-mode plasmas in the TCV tokamak via O-X-B double mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochelon, A.; Mueck, A.; Curchod, L.; Camenen, Y.; Coda, S.; Duval, B.P.; Goodman, T.P.; Klimanov, I.; Laqua, H.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Porte, L.; Sushkov, A.; Udintsev, V.S.; Volpe, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the first demonstration of electron Bernstein wave heating (EBWH) by double mode conversion from ordinary (O-) to Bernstein (B-) via the extraordinary (X-) mode in an over-dense tokamak plasma, using low field side launch, achieved in the TCV tokamak H-mode, making use of its naturally generated steep density gradient. This technique offers the possibility of overcoming the upper density limit of conventional EC microwave heating. The sensitive dependence of the O-X mode conversion on the microwave launching direction has been verified experimentally. Localized power deposition, consistent with theoretical predictions, has been observed at densities well above the conventional cut-off. Central heating has been achieved, at powers up to two megawatts. This demonstrates the potential of EBW in tokamak H-modes, the intended mode of operation for a reactor such as ITER

  12. Slow modes in spin hydrodynamics of 3He-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golo, V.L.; Kats, E.I.

    1986-01-01

    We study nonlinear interaction between sound and spin modes with the view of finding a means for detecting second sound pumped in a sample of 3 He-B. We find that the interaction could be tangible for second sound and spin-textual waves which are long wavelength spatial modulations of the WP mode of magnetic ringing. We show that within a thin layer close to the loudspeaker second sound generates the dephasing delta psi of the spin precession. We suggest that the mode of the w-oscillations could be detected with the technique for the propagating magnetic disturbance. Our numerical estimates indicate that in te temperature and pressure region 1 - T/Tsub(c) approximately equal to 0.01 and p=21.7 bar, and the frequency and power of second sound of order 100 Hz and 10 -3 erg/s, the dephasing of the spin precession may amount to 0.1 rad, and result in a swinging of the precession axis w

  13. Observaton of tunneling of slow and fast electromagnetic modes in coupled periodic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ha, Sangwoo; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of tunneling of slow and fast electromagnetic modes in coupled periodic waveguides shifted longitudinally by half of modulation period. According to the symmetry analysis, such a coupler supports two electromagnetic modes with exactly matched slow or fast...... group velocities but different phase velocities for frequencies close to the edge of the photonic band. We confirm the predicted properties of the modes by directly extracting their dispersion and group velocities from the near-field measurements using specialized Bloch-wave spectral analysis method....

  14. Ballooning mode instability due to slowed-down ALPHA -particles and associated transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae; Itoh, Kimitaka; Tuda, Takashi; Tokuda, Shinji.

    1982-01-01

    The microscopic stability of tokamak plasma, which contains slowed-down alpha-particles and the anomalous fluxes enhanced by the fluctuation, was studied. The local maxwellian distribution with the density inhomogeneity as the equilibrium distribution of electrons, ions and alpha-particles was closen. In the zero-beta limit, two branches of eigenmodes, which are electrostatic, were obtained. The electrostatic ballooning mode became unstable by the grad B drift of particles in the toroidal plasma. It should be noted that there was no critical alpha-particle density and no critical beta-value for the onset of the instability in toroidal plasma even in the presence of the magnetic shear. When the beta-value exceeded the critical beta-value of the MHD ballooning mode, the growth rate approached to that of the MHD mode, and the mode sturcture became very close to that of the MHD mode. The unstable mode in toroidal plasma was the ballooning mode, and was unstable for all plasma parameters. The associated cross-field transport by the ballooning mode is considered. It was found that if the distribution function was assumed to be the birth distribution, the loss rate was very slow and slower than the slowing down time. The effect of alpha-particles on the large scale MHD activity of plasma is discussed. (Kato, T.)

  15. Design of Slow and Fast Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides for Single-photon Emission Using a Bloch Mode Expansion Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Rigal, B.; Kapon, E.

    We design slow and fast light photonic crystal waveguides for single-photon emission using a Bloch mode expansion and scattering matrix technique. We propose slow light designs that increase the group index-waveguide mode volume ratio for larger Purcell enhancement, and address efficient slow-to-...

  16. The Optimization of Passengers’ Travel Time under Express-Slow Mode Based on Suburban Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The suburban line connects the suburbs and the city centre; it is of huge advantage to attempt the express-slow mode. The passengers’ average travel time is the key factor to reflect the level of rail transport services, especially under the express-slow mode. So it is important to study the passengers’ average travel time under express-slow, which can get benefit on the optimization of operation scheme. First analyze the main factor that affects passengers’ travel time and then mine the dynamic interactive relationship among the factors. Second, a new passengers’ travel time evolution algorithm is proposed after studying the stop schedule and the proportion of express/slow train, and then membrane computing theory algorithm is introduced to solve the model. Finally, Shanghai Metro Line 22 is set as an example to apply the optimization model to calculate the total passengers’ travel time; the result shows that the total average travel time under the express-slow mode can save 1 minute and 38 seconds; the social influence and value of it are very huge. The proposed calculation model is of great help for the decision of stop schedule and provides theoretical and methodological support to determine the proportion of express/slow trains, improves the service level, and enriches and complements the rail transit operation scheme optimization theory system.

  17. Slow relaxation mode in concentrated oil-in-water microemulsions consisting of repulsive droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Y.; Ushiki, H.; Courbin, L.; Panizza, P.

    2007-02-01

    The present contribution reports on the observation of two diffusive relaxation modes in a concentrated microemulsion made of repulsive droplets. These two modes can be interpreted in the frame of Weissman’s and Pusey’s theoretical pioneering works. The fast mode is associated to the collective diffusion of droplets whereas the slow one corresponds to the relaxation of droplet concentration fluctuations associated with composition and/or size. We show that (i) repulsive interactions considerably slow down the latter and (ii) a generalized Stokes Einstein relationship between its coefficient of diffusion and the Newtonian viscosity of the solutions, similar to the Walden’s rule for electrolytes, holds for concentrated microemulsion systems made of repulsive droplets.

  18. Vp x B acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Ryo.

    1987-05-01

    A unique particle acceleration by an electrostatic (ES) wave, a magnetosonic shock wave as well as an electromagnetic (EM) wave is reviewed. The principle of the acceleration is that when a charged particle is carried across an external magnetic field the charge feels a DC field (the Lorentz force) and is accelerated. The theory for the ES wave acceleration is experimentally verified thought it is semi-quantitative. The shock acceleration is extensively studied theoretically and in a particle simulation method and the application is extended to phenomena in interplanetary space. The EM wave acceleration is based on a trapping in a moving neutral sheet created by the wave magnetic field and the external magnetic field, and the particle can be accelerated indefinitely. A brief sketch on a slow-wave-structure for this acceleration will be given. (author)

  19. MODELING OF REFLECTIVE PROPAGATING SLOW-MODE WAVE IN A FLARING LOOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, X.; Yuan, D.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Keppens, R.; Xia, C. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-11-01

    Quasi-periodic propagating intensity disturbances have been observed in large coronal loops in extreme ultraviolet images over a decade, and are widely accepted to be slow magnetosonic waves. However, spectroscopic observations from Hinode/EIS revealed their association with persistent coronal upflows, making this interpretation debatable. We perform a 2.5D magnetohydrodynamic simulation to imitate the chromospheric evaporation and the following reflected patterns in a flare loop. Our model encompasses the corona, transition region, and chromosphere. We demonstrate that the quasi periodic propagating intensity variations captured by the synthesized Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 131, 94 Å emission images match the previous observations well. With particle tracers in the simulation, we confirm that these quasi periodic propagating intensity variations consist of reflected slow mode waves and mass flows with an average speed of 310 km s{sup −1} in an 80 Mm length loop with an average temperature of 9 MK. With the synthesized Doppler shift velocity and intensity maps of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation Fe xix line emission, we confirm that these reflected slow mode waves are propagating waves.

  20. Coronal Seismology of Flare-Excited Standing Slow-Mode Waves Observed by SDO/AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.

    2016-05-01

    Flare-excited longitudinal intensity oscillations in hot flaring loops have been recently detected by SDO/AIA in 94 and 131 Å bandpasses. Based on the interpretation in terms of a slow-mode wave, quantitative evidence of thermal conduction suppression in hot (>9 MK) loops has been obtained for the first time from measurements of the polytropic index and phase shift between the temperature and density perturbations (Wang et al. 2015, ApJL, 811, L13). This result has significant implications in two aspects. One is that the thermal conduction suppression suggests the need of greatly enhanced compressive viscosity to interpret the observed strong wave damping. The other is that the conduction suppression provides a reasonable mechanism for explaining the long-duration events where the thermal plasma is sustained well beyond the duration of impulsive hard X-ray bursts in many flares, for a time much longer than expected by the classical Spitzer conductive cooling. In this study, we model the observed standing slow-mode wave in Wang et al. (2015) using a 1D nonlinear MHD code. With the seismology-derived transport coefficients for thermal conduction and compressive viscosity, we successfully simulate the oscillation period and damping time of the observed waves. Based on the parametric study of the effect of thermal conduction suppression and viscosity enhancement on the observables, we discuss the inversion scheme for determining the energy transport coefficients by coronal seismology.

  1. Experimental study on slow flexural waves around the defect modes in a phononic crystal beam using fiber Bragg gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Kuo-Chih, E-mail: chuangkc@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Hua-Xin

    2016-12-09

    Highlights: • Slow waves around the defect modes in a phononic crystal beam are validated. • A fiber Bragg grating displacement sensing system can measure the defect mode. • The defect mode is analyzed by a transfer matrix method with a supercell technique. - Abstract: This work experimentally studies influences of the point defect modes on the group velocity of flexural waves in a phononic crystal Timoshenko beam. Using the transfer matrix method with a supercell technique, the band structures and the group velocities around the defect modes are theoretically obtained. Particularly, to demonstrate the existence of the localized defect modes inside the band gaps, a high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating sensing system is set up and the displacement transmittance is measured. Slow propagation of flexural waves via defect coupling in the phononic crystal beam is then experimentally demonstrated with Hanning windowed tone burst excitations.

  2. The Analysis and Calculation Method of Urban Rail Transit Carrying Capacity Based on Express-Slow Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban railway transport that connects suburbs and city areas is characterized by uneven temporal and spatial distribution in terms of passenger flow and underutilized carrying capacity. This paper aims to develop methodologies to measure the carrying capacity of the urban railway by introducing a concept of the express-slow mode. We first explore factors influencing the carrying capacity under the express-slow mode and the interactive relationships among these factors. Then we establish seven different scenarios to measure the carrying capacity by considering the ratio of the number of the express trains and the slow trains, the station where overtaking takes place, and the number of overtaking maneuvers. Taking Shanghai Metro Line 16 as an empirical study, the proposed methods to measure the carrying capacity under different express-slow mode are proved to be valid. This paper contributes to the literature by remodifying the traditional methods to measure the carrying capacity when different express-slow modes are applied to improve the carrying capacity of the suburban railway.

  3. Broad self-trapped and slow light bands based on negative refraction and interference of magnetic coupled modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; Ni, Zhi-yao; Zhu, Na; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism to achieve light localization and slow light. Through the study on the coupling of two magnetic surface modes, we find a special convex band that takes on a negative refraction effect. The negative refraction results in an energy flow concellation effect from two degenerated modes on the convex band. The energy flow concellation effect leads to forming of the self-trapped and slow light bands. In the self-trapped band light is localized around the source without reflection wall in the waveguide direction, whereas in the slow light band, light becomes the standing-waves and moving standing-waves at the center and the two sides of the waveguide, respectively. (paper)

  4. Broad self-trapped and slow light bands based on negative refraction and interference of magnetic coupled modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-Tuan; Ni, Zhi-Yao; Zhu, Na; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-13

    We propose a new mechanism to achieve light localization and slow light. Through the study on the coupling of two magnetic surface modes, we find a special convex band that takes on a negative refraction effect. The negative refraction results in an energy flow concellation effect from two degenerated modes on the convex band. The energy flow concellation effect leads to forming of the self-trapped and slow light bands. In the self-trapped band light is localized around the source without reflection wall in the waveguide direction, whereas in the slow light band, light becomes the standing-waves and moving standing-waves at the center and the two sides of the waveguide, respectively.

  5. Dynamics of the slow mode in the family of six-carbon monosaccharides monitored by dielectric spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, K; Kaminska, E; Wlodarczyk, P; Adrjanowicz, K; Wojnarowska, Z; Grzybowska, K; Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    Broadband dielectric measurements performed on D-glucose, L-sorbose, D-fructose and D-galactose revealed that, except for the structural relaxation process, one can detect in the liquid phase of these carbohydrates a much slower relaxation mode. Recently we have demonstrated that in D-glucose this relaxation mode might be related to the long range correlation of density fluctuations (LRCDF), also called Fischer clusters (FC). Based on the dielectric data obtained for the four monosaccharides we were able to make a more general conclusion about the characteristic dielectric features of the slow mode in the whole family of carbohydrates. We found out that the timescale separation between structural and considered relaxation reaches up to six decades at the glass transition temperature and the dielectric strength decreases significantly with lowering temperature. Another very interesting feature of the slow process is that it can be described by an almost exponential response function. We have found out that the fragility of the slow process lies within the range m = 44-50. Finally, we have also shown that there is a close link between structural and slow relaxation.

  6. First test experiment to produce the slowed-down RI beam with the momentum-compression mode at RIBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumikama, T., E-mail: sumikama@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ahn, D.S.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aoi, N. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Beaumel, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay (IPNO), CNRS/IN2P3, 91405 Orsay (France); Hasegawa, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ideguchi, E. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Imai, N. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Matsushita, M.; Michimasa, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Otsu, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimoura, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    The {sup 82}Ge beam has been produced by the in-flight fission reaction of the {sup 238}U primary beam with 345 MeV/u at the RIKEN RI beam factory, and slowed down to about 15 MeV/u using the energy degraders. The momentum-compression mode was applied to the second stage of the BigRIPS separator to reduce the momentum spread. The energy was successfully reduced down to 13 ± 2.5 MeV/u as expected. The focus was not optimized at the end of the second stage, therefore the beam size was larger than the expectation. The transmission of the second stage was half of the simulated value mainly due to out of focus. The two-stage separation worked very well for the slowed-down beam with the momentum-compression mode.

  7. Ions and electrons thermal effects on the fast-slow mode conversion process in a three components plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Gomberoff, L.

    1977-07-01

    Fast-slow mode conversion in a deuterium plasma with a small amount of hydrogen impurity, for frequencies close to the two-ion hybrid frequency, is investigated. It is shown that while electron thermal effects tend to inhibit the wave conversion process, ion thermal effects tend to restore, qualitatively, the cold plasma properties, favouring therefore, the energy exchange between the two modes. The aforementioned effects are competitive for zetasub(o)sup(e)=1/nsub(parall).vsub(e)>=1. For zetasub(o)sup(e)<=1, electron thermal effects, in particular Landau damping, dominate over ion Larmor radius effects, drastically diminishing the wave conversion efficacy. For zetasub(o)sup(e)<<1, the coupling between the modes disappears altogether

  8. Simulation of collective ion acceleration in a slow cyclotron beam mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.; Shanahan, W.R.; Godfrey, B.B.

    1979-01-01

    The use of slow cyclotron beam waves is examined as a means of accelerating ions in intense relativistic electron beams. Field magnitudes of between 10 5 -and 10 6 V/cm seem achievable in the near term, and while these will never reach the levels of beam front mechanisms, such as virtual cathodes, they will easily exceed conventional ion acceleration sources

  9. Slow-roll inflation and BB-mode angular power spectrum of CMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malsawmtluangi, N.; Suresh, P.K. [University of Hyderabad, School of Physics, Hyderabad (India)

    2016-05-15

    The BB-mode correlation angular power spectrum of CMB is obtained by considering the primordial gravitational waves in the squeezed vacuum state for various inflationary models and results are compared with the joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck 353 GHz data. The present results may constrain several models of inflation. (orig.)

  10. Dendritic slow dynamics enables localized cortical activity to switch between mobile and immobile modes with noisy background input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Kurashige

    Full Text Available Mounting lines of evidence suggest the significant computational ability of a single neuron empowered by active dendritic dynamics. This motivates us to study what functionality can be acquired by a network of such neurons. The present paper studies how such rich single-neuron dendritic dynamics affects the network dynamics, a question which has scarcely been specifically studied to date. We simulate neurons with active dendrites networked locally like cortical pyramidal neurons, and find that naturally arising localized activity--called a bump--can be in two distinct modes, mobile or immobile. The mode can be switched back and forth by transient input to the cortical network. Interestingly, this functionality arises only if each neuron is equipped with the observed slow dendritic dynamics and with in vivo-like noisy background input. If the bump activity is considered to indicate a point of attention in the sensory areas or to indicate a representation of memory in the storage areas of the cortex, this would imply that the flexible mode switching would be of great potential use for the brain as an information processing device. We derive these conclusions using a natural extension of the conventional field model, which is defined by combining two distinct fields, one representing the somatic population and the other representing the dendritic population. With this tool, we analyze the spatial distribution of the degree of after-spike adaptation and explain how we can understand the presence of the two distinct modes and switching between the modes. We also discuss the possible functional impact of this mode-switching ability.

  11. Slow-mode degradation mechanism and its control in new bright and long-lived ZnSe white LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Masahiro [Venture Business Laboratory, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan); Ando, Koshi; Abe, Tomoki; Inoue, Noboru; Urata, Akihiro; Tsutsumi, Sueyuki; Hashimoto, Yutaka; Kasada, Hirofumi [Electrical and Electronic Department, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan); Katayama, Koji; Nakamura, Takao [Semiconductor Technologies R and D Laboratories, Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., 1-1-1 Koyakita, Itami, Hyogo, 665-0016 (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    This paper presents slow-mode degradation mechanism of ZnSe-based white LEDs. A systematic study has been made from a viewpoint of microscopic point defect reaction such as generation and migration in both device active layer (ZnCdSe/ZnSe MQW) and p-type ZnMgSSe cladding layer utilizing DLTS/ ICTS, SSRM (scanning spreading resistance microscope), and EL (electroluminescence)-imaging techniques, coupled with device aging experiments. We have found two different degradation stages (1st and 2nd stages) in the slow-mode degradation, which are caused by quite different microscopic point defect species. The 1st stage is induced by the long-diffusion of H0-center (nitrogen-complex deep hole trap in p-cladding layer), forming high-density dark-spots in the MQW active layer. This active center is generated only in the stress-stimulated condition such as thermal or device fabrication process. After controlling the initial concentration of the H0 center, we have observed no detectable new dark-spots during device operation, leading to fairly long device-lifetime ({proportional_to}1000 h). This 2nd stage has appeared as a carrier (hole) reduction in the p-type cladding layer. This final degradation stage is found to take place by an increase of shallow compensating donor-like centers in p-type cladding layer (ZnMgSSe). Based on these insights on the microscopic point defect reaction, we have developed (new) double cladding i-ZnMgBeSe/p-ZnMgSSe white-LEDs, which has exhibited long device lifetime of over 10000 h. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. EVIDENCE OF THERMAL CONDUCTION SUPPRESSION IN A SOLAR FLARING LOOP BY CORONAL SEISMOLOGY OF SLOW-MODE WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Provornikova, Elena; Sun, Xudong; Davila, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of a longitudinal wave event observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory is presented. A time sequence of 131 Å images reveals that a C-class flare occurred at one footpoint of a large loop and triggered an intensity disturbance (enhancement) propagating along it. The spatial features and temporal evolution suggest that a fundamental standing slow-mode wave could be set up quickly after meeting of two initial disturbances from the opposite footpoints. The oscillations have a period of ∼12 minutes and a decay time of ∼9 minutes. The measured phase speed of 500 ± 50 km s −1 matches the sound speed in the heated loop of ∼10 MK, confirming that the observed waves are of slow mode. We derive the time-dependent temperature and electron density wave signals from six AIA extreme-ultraviolet channels, and find that they are nearly in phase. The measured polytropic index from the temperature and density perturbations is 1.64 ± 0.08 close to the adiabatic index of 5/3 for an ideal monatomic gas. The interpretation based on a 1D linear MHD model suggests that the thermal conductivity is suppressed by at least a factor of 3 in the hot flare loop at 9 MK and above. The viscosity coefficient is determined by coronal seismology from the observed wave when only considering the compressive viscosity dissipation. We find that to interpret the rapid wave damping, the classical compressive viscosity coefficient needs to be enhanced by a factor of 15 as the upper limit

  13. Design optimization of a compact photonic crystal microcavity based on slow light and dispersion engineering for the miniaturization of integrated mode-locked lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Kemiche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We exploit slow light (high ng modes in planar photonic crystals in order to design a compact cavity, which provides an attractive path towards the miniaturization of near-infrared integrated fast pulsed lasers. By applying dispersion engineering techniques, we can design structures with a low dispersion, as needed by mode-locking operation. Our basic InP SiO2 heterostructure is robust and well suited to integrated laser applications. We show that an optimized 30 μm long cavity design yields 9 frequency-equidistant modes with a FSR of 178 GHz within a 11.5 nm bandwidth, which could potentially sustain the generation of optical pulses shorter than 700 fs. In addition, the numerically calculated quality factors of these modes are all above 10,000, making them suitable for reaching laser operation. Thanks to the use of a high group index (28, this cavity design is almost one order of magnitude shorter than standard rib-waveguide based mode-locked lasers. The use of slow light modes in planar photonic crystal based cavities thus relaxes the usual constraints that tightly link the device size and the quality (peak power, repetition rate of the pulsed laser signal.

  14. Design optimization of a compact photonic crystal microcavity based on slow light and dispersion engineering for the miniaturization of integrated mode-locked lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemiche, Malik; Lhuillier, Jérémy; Callard, Ségolène; Monat, Christelle

    2018-01-01

    We exploit slow light (high ng) modes in planar photonic crystals in order to design a compact cavity, which provides an attractive path towards the miniaturization of near-infrared integrated fast pulsed lasers. By applying dispersion engineering techniques, we can design structures with a low dispersion, as needed by mode-locking operation. Our basic InP SiO2 heterostructure is robust and well suited to integrated laser applications. We show that an optimized 30 μm long cavity design yields 9 frequency-equidistant modes with a FSR of 178 GHz within a 11.5 nm bandwidth, which could potentially sustain the generation of optical pulses shorter than 700 fs. In addition, the numerically calculated quality factors of these modes are all above 10,000, making them suitable for reaching laser operation. Thanks to the use of a high group index (28), this cavity design is almost one order of magnitude shorter than standard rib-waveguide based mode-locked lasers. The use of slow light modes in planar photonic crystal based cavities thus relaxes the usual constraints that tightly link the device size and the quality (peak power, repetition rate) of the pulsed laser signal.

  15. Slow light effect with high group index and wideband by saddle-like mode in PC-CROW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yong; Jiang, Li-Jun; Xu, Sheng; Li, Meng-Xue; Liu, Meng-Nan; Jiang, Cheng-Yi; Yuan, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Slow light with high group index and wideband is achieved in photonic crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides (PC-CROWs). According to the eye-shaped scatterers and various microcavities, saddle-like curves between the normalized frequency f and wave number k can be obtained by adjusting the parameters of the scatterers, parameters of the coupling microcavities, and positions of the scatterers. Slow light with decent flat band and group index can then be achieved by optimizing the parameters. Simulations prove that the maximal value of the group index is > 104, and the normalized delay bandwidth product within a new varying range of n g > 102 or n g > 103 can be a new and effective criterion of evaluation for the slow light in PC-CROWs.

  16. E x B shearing rate in quasi-symmetric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    The suppression of turbulence by the E x B shear is studied in systems with quasi-symmetry using the nonlinear analysis of eddy decorrelation previously utilized in finite aspect ratio tokamak plasmas. The analytically derived E x B shearing rate which contains the relevant geometric dependence can be used for quantitative assessment of the fluctuation suppression in stellarators with quasi-symmetry

  17. Nonlinear saturation of E x B instability in a plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfsen, K.H.; Holter, Oe.

    1984-09-01

    The saturation of the E bar x B bar instability is investigated in the nonlinear regime. The governing equations are studied analytically and numerically by using a spectral method with mode truncation. The nonlinear stabilization is due to modifications of the background density- and potential profiles. In the time asymptotic limit a stationary solution, which is independent of the initial conditions is obtained. The asymptotic state is characterized by a splitting of the interacting modes into two almost non-interacting groups, where the modes with even mode number sum; i.e. the modes driven by the linearly most unstable mode, is found to dominate the system. For this group fixed point calculations are performed analytically with six interacting modes. Comparison with numerical calculations indicates excellent agreement far into the unstable region. (Auth.)

  18. Ancient tetraploidy and slow molecular evolution in Scaphiophryne: ecological correlates of speciation mode in Malagasy relict amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences, Miguel; Aprea, Gennaro; Capriglione, Teresa; Andreone, Franco; Odierna, Gaetano

    2002-01-01

    Karyotypes of three microhylid frog species of the Malagasy relict genus Scaphiophryne were studied: Scaphiophryne gottlebei, S. madagascariensis and S. spinosa. The latter two showed a plesiomorphic ranoid karyotype of 2n = 26. In contrast, tetraploidy was demonstrated in S. gottlebei, which constitutes an exceptional state among Malagasy amphibians. A combination of different banding techniques and of rDNA-FISH provided evidence for allopolyploidy in the species and for a completed subsequent functional and structural diploidization. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences revealed a significant deceleration of nucleotide substitution rates in Scaphiophryne. The tetraploidy of S. gottlebei probably occurred early in their radiation. Ecological and behavioural patterns of Scaphiophryne probably favoured intraspecific gene flow and hybridization events, thereby leading to slow molecular substitution rates and to allopolyploid chromosome speciation in S. gottlebei.

  19. Modes and implications of mantle and lower-crust denudation at slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Timothy John

    Slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges (Cann, 1993, Cannat, 1993). Extension at mid-ocean ridges is most commonly manifested by slip on high angle (˜60°) normal faults that dip into, and define the rift valley walls (Smith and Cann, 1993). Less commonly, extension occurs by long periods of slip along low-angle normal faults that penetrate to structurally deep levels of oceanic lithosphere and denude gabbro and/or pendotite to the seafloor in domal massifs termed "oceanic core complexes" (Dick et al., 1981; Dick et al., 1991; Tucholke et al., 1998; Mutter and Karson, 1992; Cann et al., 1997; MacLeod et al., 2002). This dissertation addresses processes and implications of tectonic extension at two oceanic core complexes. Atlantis Massif (30°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) is formed dominantly of serpentinized peridotite with lesser gabbro, and Atlantis Bank (57°E, Southwest Indian Ridge) is dominated by gabbro. Localization of brittle strain at Atlantis Massif occurred by reaction-softening processes associated with metasomatic alteration of peridotite and serpentmite to amphibole-, chlorite- and talc-bearing assemblages. Ductile strain at Atlantis Massif and Atlantis Bank is localized into intervals of highly-fractionated, oxide-rich gabbro. Two-oxide geothermometry of gabbro indicates that it was not penetratively deformed below ˜500°C. Denuded peridotite at Atlantis Massif is host to hydrothermal circulation driven in part by exothermic serpentinization reactions. Serpentinization decreases the seismic velocity of peridotite and leads to acquisition of a magnetic signature. Venting of highly-alkaline, methane- and hydrogen-rich serpentinization-derived fluids leads to lithification of seafloor carbonate ooze by precipitation of carbonate cement in a zone of mixing with "normal" seawater. This process may be the primary depositional mechanism of ophicalcite deposits and likely occurs wherever peridotite is exposed near the Earth's surface and is fractured to permit water

  20. Graphical user interface based computer simulation of self-similar modes of a paraxial slow self-focusing laser beam for saturating plasma nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Karuna; Mitra, Sugata; Subbarao, D.; Sharma, R.P.; Uma, R.

    2005-01-01

    The task for the present study is to make an investigation of self-similarity in a self-focusing laser beam both theoretically and numerically using graphical user interface based interactive computer simulation model in MATLAB (matrix laboratory) software in the presence of saturating ponderomotive force based and relativistic electron quiver based plasma nonlinearities. The corresponding eigenvalue problem is solved analytically using the standard eikonal formalism and the underlying dynamics of self-focusing is dictated by the corrected paraxial theory for slow self-focusing. The results are also compared with computer simulation of self-focusing by the direct fast Fourier transform based spectral methods. It is found that the self-similar solution obtained analytically oscillates around the true numerical solution equating it at regular intervals. The simulation results are the main ones although a feasible semianalytical theory under many assumptions is given to understand the process. The self-similar profiles are called as self-organized profiles (not in a strict sense), which are found to be close to Laguerre-Gaussian curves for all the modes, the shape being conserved. This terminology is chosen because it has already been shown from a phase space analysis that the width of an initially Gaussian beam undergoes periodic oscillations that are damped when any absorption is added in the model, i.e., the beam width converges to a constant value. The research paper also tabulates the specific values of the normalized phase shift for solutions decaying to zero at large transverse distances for first three modes which can, however, be extended to higher order modes

  1. The effect of a slow mode of BMP-2 delivery on the inflammatory response provoked by bone-defect-filling polymeric scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Liu, Yuelian; Iizuka, Tateyuki; Hunziker, Ernst Bruno

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the inflammatory response to, and the osteoinductive efficacies of, four polymers (collagen, Ethisorb, PLGA and Polyactive) that bore either an adsorbed (fast-release kinetics) or a calcium-phosphate-coating-incorporated (slow-release kinetics) depot of BMP-2. Titanium-plate-supported discs of each polymer (n = 6 per group) were implanted at an ectopic (subcutaneous) ossification site in rats (n = 48). Five weeks later, they were retrieved for a histomorphometric analysis of the volumes of ectopic bone and foreign-body giant cells (a gauge of inflammatory reactivity), and the degree of polymer degradation. For each polymer, the osteoinductive efficacy of BMP-2 was higher when it was incorporated into a coating than when it was directly adsorbed onto the material. This mode of BMP-2 carriage was consistently associated with an attenuation of the inflammatory response. For coated materials, the volume density of foreign-body giant cells was inversely correlated with the volume density of bone (r(2) = 0.96), and the volume density of bone was directly proportional to the surface-area density of the polymer (r(2) = 0.97). Following coating degradation, other competitive factors, such as the biocompatibility and the biodegradability of the polymer itself, came into play. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of E x B Shear and Magnetic Shear in the Formation of Transport Barriers in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    Development of the E x B shear stabilization model to explain the formation of transport barriers in magnetic confinement devices is a major achievement of fusion research. This concept has the universality needed to explain the H-mode edge transport barriers seen in limiter and divertor tokamaks, stellarators, and mirror machines; the broader edge transport barrier seen in VH-mode plasmas; and the core transport barriers formed in tokamaks with low or negative magnetic shear. These examples of confinement improvement are of considerable physical interest; it is not often that a system self-organizes to reduce transport when an additional source of free energy is applied to it. The transport decrease associated with E x B velocity shear is also of great practical benefit to fusion research. The fundamental physics involved in transport reduction is the effect of E x B shear on the growth, radial extent, and phase correlation of turbulent eddies in the plasma. The same basic transport reduction process can be operational in various portions of the plasma because there are a number of ways to change the radial electric field E r . An important theme in this area is the synergistic effect of E x B velocity shear and magnetic shear. Although the E x B velocity shear appears to have an effect on broader classes of microturbulence, magnetic shear can mitigate some potentially harmful effects of E x B velocity shear and facilitate turbulence stabilization. The experimental results on DIII-D and other devices are generally consistent with the basic theoretical models

  3. Slow briefs: slow food....slow architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Crotch, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    We are moving too fast…fast lives, fast cars, fast food…..and fast architecture. We are caught up in a world that allows no time to stop and think; to appreciate and enjoy all the really important things in our lives. Recent responses to this seemingly unstoppable trend are the growing movements of Slow Food and Cittaslow. Both initiatives are, within their own realms, attempting to reverse speed, homogeny, expediency and globalisation, considering the values of regionality, patience, craft, ...

  4. Effect of contraction mode of slow-speed resistance training on the maximum rate of force development in the human quadriceps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Horne, Sara; Cannavan, Dale

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slow-speed resistance training involving concentric (CON, n = 10) versus eccentric (ECC, n = 11) single-joint muscle contractions on contractile rate of force development (RFD) and neuromuscular activity (EMG), and its maintenance through detraining. Isokinetic...

  5. Evidence for modified transport due to sheared E x B flows in high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, R.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Austin, M.E.

    1994-11-01

    Sheared mass flows are generated in many fluids and are often important for the dynamics of instabilities in these fluids. Similarly, large values of the E x B velocity have been observed in magnetic confinement machines and there is theoretical and experimental evidence that sufficiently large shear in this velocity may stabilize important instabilities. Two examples of this phenomenon have been observed in the DIII-D tokamak. In the first example, sufficient heating power can lead to the L-H transition, a rapid improvement in confinement in the boundary layer of the plasma. For discharges with heating power close to the threshold required to get the transition, changes in the edge radial electric field are observed to occur prior to the transition itself. In the second example, certain classes of discharges with toroidal momentum input from neutral beam injection exhibit a further improvement of confinement in the plasma core leading to a regime called the VH-mode. In both examples, the region of improved confinement is characterized by an increase of shear in the radial electric field E r , reduced levels of turbulence and increases in gradients of temperatures and densities. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the improved confinement is caused by an increase in shear of the E x B velocity which leads to a reduction of turbulence. For the VH-mode, the dominant term controlling E r is the toroidal rotation v φ , indicating that the E r profile is controlled by the source and transport of toroidal momentum

  6. Slow Antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielse, G.; Speck, A.; Storry, C.H.; Le Sage, D.; Guise, N.; Larochelle, P.C.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Schepers, G.; Sefzick, T.; Pittner, H.; Herrmann, M.; Walz, J.; Haensch, T.W.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Slow antihydrogen is now produced by two different production methods. In Method I, large numbers of H atoms are produced during positron-cooling of antiprotons within a nested Penning trap. In a just-demonstrated Method II, lasers control the production of antihydrogen atoms via charge exchange collisions. Field ionization detection makes it possible to probe the internal structure of the antihydrogen atoms being produced - most recently revealing atoms that are too tightly bound to be well described by the guiding center atom approximation. The speed of antihydrogen atoms has recently been measured for the first time. After the requested overview, the recent developments are surveyed

  7. Numerical and Theoretical Studies of Turbulence and Transport with E x B Shear Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports: (1) substantial transport reduction by turbulence-driven E x B flows observed in 3D nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas; (2) analytical derivation of the effective shearing rate for the time-dependent E x B flow; (3) interpretation of experimental data using linear gyrokinetic microinstability rotation models of E x B shear; and (4) other developments in gyrokinetic theory and simulation

  8. Turbulence suppression by E x B shear in JET optimized shear pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, M.A.; Budny, R.V.; Challis, C.D.; Conway, G.

    2000-01-01

    The authors calculate microinstability growth rates in JET optimized shear plasmas with a comprehensive gyrofluid model, including sheared E x B flows, trapped electrons, and all dominant ion species in realistic magnetic geometry. They find good correlation between E x B shear suppression of microinstabilities and both the formation and collapse of the internal transport barrier

  9. Diatomic substitutionals in superconducting Nb(1-x)B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, H.H.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Lillo, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Using first-principles, density functional theory calculations, we have shown that the increase in superconducting critical temperature to above 9 K experimentally observed for B-rich, off-stoichiometry NbB 2 material is associated with the formation of B-dimers on Nb sites rather than with the formation of Nb vacancies, as previously proposed. Our calculations show that certain of these B-dimer configurations have lower binding energies than do the vacancy structures. This result is pressure independent in the range between 0 and 10 GPa, and above. Further, the dimer-containing materials have a higher electronic density of states at the Fermi level than do the vacancy structures. Finally, the presence of B-dimers results in the splitting off of phonon normal modes. These last two factors are relevant to the improved superconducting properties

  10. Experimental Investigation of Brazilian 14-X B Hypersonic Scramjet Aerospace Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felipe de Araujo Martos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle 14-X B is a technological demonstrator of a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on the supersonic combustion (scramjet to be tested in flight into the Earth’s atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km and Mach number 7. The 14-X B has been designed at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv, Brazil. The IEAv T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is a ground-test facility able to produce high Mach number and high enthalpy flows in the test section close to those encountered during the flight of the 14-X B into the Earth’s atmosphere at hypersonic flight speeds. A 1 m long stainless steel 14-X B model was experimentally investigated at T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel, for freestream Mach numbers ranging from 7 to 8. Static pressure measurements along the lower surface of the 14-X B, as well as high-speed Schlieren photographs taken from the 5.5° leading edge and the 14.5° deflection compression ramp, provided experimental data. Experimental data was compared to the analytical theoretical solutions and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations, showing good qualitative agreement and in consequence demonstrating the importance of these methods in the project of the 14-X B hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle.

  11. FROM SLOW FOOD TO SLOW TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bac Dorin Paul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the effects of globalization is the faster pace of our lives. This rhythm can be noticed in all aspects of life: travel, work, shopping, etc. and it has serious negative effects. It has become common knowledge that stress and speed generate serious medical issues. Food and eating habits in the modern world have taken their toll on our health. However, some people took a stand and argued for a new kind of lifestyle. It all started in the field of gastronomy, where a new movement emerged – Slow Food, based on the ideas and philosophy of Carlo Petrini. Slow Food represents an important adversary to the concept of fast food, and is promoting local products, enjoyable meals and healthy food. The philosophy of the Slow Food movement developed in several directions: Cittaslow, slow travel and tourism, slow religion and slow money etc. The present paper will account the evolution of the concept and its development during the most recent years. We will present how the philosophy of slow food was applied in all the other fields it reached and some critical points of view. Also we will focus on the presence of the slow movement in Romania, although it is in a very early stage of development. The main objectives of the present paper are: to present the chronological and ideological evolution of the slow movement; to establish a clear separation of slow travel and slow tourism, as many mistake on for the other; to review the presence of the slow movement in Romania. Regarding the research methodology, information was gathered from relevant academic papers and books and also from interviews and discussions with local entrepreneurs. The research is mostly theoretical and empirical, as slow food and slow tourism are emerging research themes in academic circles.

  12. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  13. Experimental Investigation of Brazilian 14-X B Hypersonic Scramjet Aerospace Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo Martos, João Felipe; da Silveira Rêgo, Israel; Pachon Laiton, Sergio Nicholas; Lima, Bruno Coelho; Costa, Felipe Jean; de Paula Toro, Paulo Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle 14-X B is a technological demonstrator of a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on the supersonic combustion (scramjet) to be tested in flight into the Earth’s atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km and Mach number 7. The 14-X B has been designed at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv), Brazil. The IEAv T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is a ground-test facility...

  14. Turbulent transport reduction by E x B velocity shear during edge plasma biasing in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oost, G. [Dept. of Applied Physics, Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium); Adamek, J.; Antoni, V.; Balan, P.; Boedo, J.A.; Devynck, P.; Duran, I.; Eliseev, L.; Gunn, J.P.; Hron, M.; Ionita, C.; Jachmich, S.; Kirnev, G.S.; Martines, E.; Melnikov, A.; Peleman, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Silva, C.; Stoeckel, J.; Tendler, M.; Varandas, C.; Van Schoor, M.; Vershkov, V.; Weynants, R.R.

    2004-07-01

    Experiments in the tokamaks TEXTOR, CASTOR, T-10 and ISTTOK have provided new and complementary evidence on the physics of the universal mechanism of E x B velocity shear stabilization of turbulence, concomitant transport barrier formation and radial conductivity by using various edge biasing techniques. (orig.)

  15. Tungsten melt layer erosion due to J x B force under conditions relevant to ITER ELMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bazylev, B.N. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bandura, A.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Byrka, O.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I.S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kulik, N.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Makhlaj, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Petrov, Yu.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Solyakov, D.G. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2007-06-15

    The behavior of tungsten under repetitive hydrogen plasma impacts causing surface melting in conditions of an applied J x B force of up to 20 MN/m{sup 3} is studied with the plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Tungsten samples of EU trademark have been exposed to up to 100 pulses simulating ITER ELMs of the energy load 0.7 MJ/m{sup 2} and the duration 0.25 ms. An electric current J flows across the magnetic field B of 1.4 T, and the resulting J x B force produces a displacement of the melt with formation of an erosion crater and an inclination of the surface profile along the force. Surface morphology and the damage by surface cracks are discussed. Comparisons of experimental results with numerical simulations of the code MEMOS-1.5D are presented.

  16. Too slow, for Milton

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, N.

    2011-01-01

    Too slow, for Milton was written in 2011, as part of a memorial project for Milton Babbitt. The piece borrows harmonies from Babbitt's Composition for 12 Instruments (harmonies which Babbitt had in turn borrowed from Schoenberg's Ode to Napoleon), but unfolds them as part of a musical texture characterised by repetition, resonance, and a slow rate of change. As Babbitt once told me that my music was 'too slow', this seemed an appropriately obstinate form of homage.

  17. Magnetic exchange coupling in amorphous Fe80-xDy xB20 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annouar, F.; Lassri, H.; Ayadi, M.; Omri, M.; Lassri, M.; Krishnan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous Fe 80-x Dy x B 20 alloys have been prepared by melt spinning and their magnetic properties have been studied. The mean field theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetization. The exchange interactions between Co-Co and Dy-Co atom pairs have been evaluated. High-field magnetization studies on samples with stoichiometry close to that of a compensated ferrimagnet show a magnetic behavior that is characteristic of a non-collinear magnetic structure of the Dy and Fe sublattices. The region of the canted moments can be described by a phase diagram in the H-T plane

  18. Momentum Transport Studies in High E x B Shear Plasmas in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, W.M.; Kaye, S.M.; Bell, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Menard, B.P.; Rewoldt, B.P.; Wang, W.; Levinton, F.M.; Yuh, H.; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted on NSTX to study both steady state and perturbative momentum transport. These studies are unique in their parameter space under investigation, where the low aspect ratio of NSTX results in rapid plasma rotation with E x B shearing rates high enough to suppress low-k turbulence. In some cases, the ratio of momentum to energy confinement time is found to exceed five. Momentum pinch velocities of order 10-40 m/s are inferred from the measured angular momentum flux evolution after non-resonant magnetic perturbations are applied to brake the plasma

  19. Mode-conversion process and overdense-plasma heating in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, S.; Abe, H.

    1988-01-01

    Through a particle-simulation investigation, a new mode-conversion process, through which an incident fast extraordinary mode (fast X mode) is converted into an electron Bernstein mode (B mode) via a (slow extraordinary mode slow X mode), is discovered in plasmas whose maximum density exceeds the cutoff density of the slow X mode. The converted B mode is found to heat the electrons efficiently in an overdense plasma region, when the plasma has the optimum density gradient at the plasma surface

  20. Slowing down bubbles with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Cedric; Dangla, Remie; Guinard, Marion

    2009-11-01

    We present experimental evidence that a bubble moving in a fluid in which a well-chosen acoustic noise is superimposed can be significantly slowed down even for moderate acoustic pressure. Through mean velocity measurements, we show that a condition for this effect to occur is for the acoustic noise spectrum to match or overlap the bubble's fundamental resonant mode. We render the bubble's oscillations and translational movements using high speed video. We show that radial oscillations (Rayleigh-Plesset type) have no effect on the mean velocity, while above a critical pressure, a parametric type instability (Faraday waves) is triggered and gives rise to nonlinear surface oscillations. We evidence that these surface waves are subharmonic and responsible for the bubble's drag increase. When the acoustic intensity is increased, Faraday modes interact and the strongly nonlinear oscillations behave randomly, leading to a random behavior of the bubble's trajectory and consequently to a higher slow down. Our observations may suggest new strategies for bubbly flow control, or two-phase microfluidic devices. It might also be applicable to other elastic objects, such as globules, cells or vesicles, for medical applications such as elasticity-based sorting.

  1. Full radius linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations for tokamaks and stellarators: Zonal flows, applied E x B flows, trapped electrons and finite beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Allfrey, S.J.; Bottino, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on recent advances made on global gyrokinetic simulations of Ion Temperature Gradient modes (ITG) and other microinstabilities. The nonlinear development and saturation of ITG modes and the role of E x B zonal flows are studied with a global nonlinear δ f formulation that retains parallel nonlinearity and thus allows for a check of the energy conservation property as a means to verify the quality of the numerical simulation. Due to an optimised loading technique the conservation property is satisfied with an unprecedented quality well into the nonlinear stage. The zonal component of the perturbation establishes a quasi-steady state with regions of ITG suppression, strongly reduced radial energy flux and steepened effective temperature profile alternating with regions of higher ITG mode amplitudes, larger radial energy flux and flattened effective temperature profile. A semi-Lagrangian approach free of statistical noise is proposed as an alternative to the nonlinear δf formulation. An ASDEX-Upgrade experiment with an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) is analysed with a global gyrokinetic code that includes trapped electron dynamics. The weakly destabilizing effect of trapped electron dynamics on ITG modes in an axisymmetric bumpy configuration modelling W7-X is shown in global linear simulations that retain the full electron dynamics. Finite β effects on microinstabilities are investigated with a linear global spectral electromagnetic gyrokinetic formulation. The radial global structure of electromagnetic modes shows a resonant behaviour with rational q values. (author)

  2. Very slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.

    1983-01-01

    The history is briefly presented of the research so far of very slow neutrons and their basic properties are explained. The methods are described of obtaining very slow neutrons and the problems of their preservation are discussed. The existence of very slow neutrons makes it possible to perform experiments which may deepen the knowledge of the fundamental properties of neutrons. Their wavelength approximates that of visible radiation. The possibilities and use are discussed of neutron optical systems (neutron microscope) which could be an effective instrument for the study of the detailed arrangement, especially of organic substances. (B.S.)

  3. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  4. Collinear factorization for deep inelastic scattering structure functions at large Bjorken xB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accardi, Alberto; Qiu, Jian-Wei

    2008-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/07/090 We examine the uncertainty of perturbative QCD factorization for hadron structure functions in deep inelastic scattering at a large value of the Bjorken variable xB. We analyze the target mass correction to the structure functions by using the collinear factorization approach in the momentum space. We express the long distance physics of structure functions and the leading target mass corrections in terms of parton distribution functions with the standard operator definition. We compare our result with existing work on the target mass correction. We also discuss the impact of a final-state jet function on the extraction of parton distributions at large fractional momentum x.

  5. SPS slow extraction septa

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    SPS long straight section (LSS) with a series of 5 septum tanks for slow extraction (view in the direction of the proton beam). There are 2 of these: in LSS2, towards the N-Area; in LSS6 towards the W-Area. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  6. AGS slow extraction improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, J.W.; Smith, G.A.; Sandberg, J.N.; Repeta, L.; Weisberg, H.

    1979-01-01

    Improvement of the straightness of the F5 copper septum increased the AGS slow extraction efficiency from approx. 80% to approx. 90%. Installation of an electrostatic septum at H2O, 24 betatron wavelengths upstream of F5, further improved the extraction efficiency to approx. 97%

  7. PF slow positron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, A.; Enomoto, A.; Kurihara, T.

    1993-01-01

    A new slow-positron source is under construction at the Photon Factory. Positrons are produced by bombarding a tantalum rod with high-energy electrons; they are moderated in multiple tungsten vanes. We report here the present status of this project. (author)

  8. Synthesis, thermionic emission and magnetic properties of (NdxGd1–x)B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Li-Hong; Zhang Jiu-Xing; Zhou Shen-Lin; Tegus

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline rare-earth hexaborides (Nd x Gd 1–x )B 6 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.6, 0.8, 1) were prepared by the reactive spark plasma sintering (SPS) method using mixed powder of GdH 2 , NdH 2 and B. The effects of Nd doping on the crystal structure, the grain orientation, the thermionic emission and the magnetic properties of the hexaboride were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron backscattered diffraction and magnetic measurements. It is found that all the samples sintered by the SPS method exhibit high densities (> 95%) and high values of Vickers hardness (2319 kg/mm 2 ). The values are much higher than those obtained in the traditional method. With the increase of Nd content, the thermionic emission current density increases from 11 to 16.30 A/cm 2 and the magnetic phase transition temperature increases from 5.85 to 7.95 K. Thus, the SPS technique is a suitable method to synthesize the dense rare-earth hexaborides with excellent properties. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. RKKY interaction between Ce ions in CexLa1-xB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    2000-01-01

    Ce ions in (Ce x La 1-x )B 6 have a Γ 8 ground multiplet, which is fourfold degenerate and has orbital and spin content. The interaction between Ce ions is of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) type, which competes with the Kondo screening. The conduction states of the compound are described by three approximately ellipsoidal pockets centered at the X points of the cubic lattice. The RKKY interaction is calculated considering the interference of the three pockets. The interaction strength strongly depends on the relative position of the ions, as well as on the relative orientation of the line joining two ions to the cubic crystalline field axis. The sixteen states of a pair of Ce ions are split by the RKKY interaction into a singlet, a triplet, and a twelvefold degenerate level. The ground state is always either a singlet or a triplet, depending on the sign of the interaction. Using the exact Bethe ansatz solution of a model for a pair of interacting impurities with Γ 8 ground multiplet, we calculate the occupation of the levels, the magnetic-field susceptibility, the specific-heat γ coefficient, and the Wilson ratio for the ground state as a function of the ratio of the RKKY coupling strength to the Kondo temperature along the main crystallographic directions. As a consequence of the RKKY splitting a pair of impurities always has a quadrupolar moment. The implication of the interactions on the quadrupolar order of CeB 6 is also discussed

  10. Slow wave cyclotron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, T.H.; Lin, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclotron masers such as Gyrotrons and the Autoresonance Masers, are fast wave devices: the electromagnetic wave's phase velocity v rho , is greater than the electron beam velocity, v b . To be able to convert the beam kinetic energy into radiation in these devices the beam must have an initial transverse momentum, usually obtained by propagating the beam through a transverse wiggler magnet, or along a nonuniform guide magnetic field before entry into the interaction region. Either process introduces a significant amount of thermal spread in the beam which degrades the performance of the maser. However, if the wave phase velocity v rho v b , the beam kinetic energy can be converted directly into radiation without the requirement of an initial transverse beam momentum, making a slow wave cyclotron maser a potentially simpler and more compact device. The authors present the linear and nonlinear physics of the slow wave cyclotron maser and examine its potential for practical application

  11. Slow-transit Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Philips, Sidney F.

    2001-08-01

    Idiopathic slow-transit constipation is a clinical syndrome predominantly affecting women, characterized by intractable constipation and delayed colonic transit. This syndrome is attributed to disordered colonic motor function. The disorder spans a spectrum of variable severity, ranging from patients who have relatively mild delays in transit but are otherwise indistinguishable from irritable bowel syndrome to patients with colonic inertia or chronic megacolon. The diagnosis is made after excluding colonic obstruction, metabolic disorders (hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia), drug-induced constipation, and pelvic floor dysfunction (as discussed by Wald ). Most patients are treated with one or more pharmacologic agents, including dietary fiber supplementation, saline laxatives (milk of magnesia), osmotic agents (lactulose, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 3350), and stimulant laxatives (bisacodyl and glycerol). A subtotal colectomy is effective and occasionally is indicated for patients with medically refractory, severe slow-transit constipation, provided pelvic floor dysfunction has been excluded or treated.

  12. Investigation of ELM [edge localized mode] Dynamics with the Resonant Magnetic Perturbation Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, Alexei Y.; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2011-07-19

    Topics covered are: anomalous transport and E x B flow shear effects in the H-mode pedestal; RMP (resonant magnetic perturbation) effects in NSTX discharges; development of a scaling of H-mode pedestal in tokamak plasmas with type I ELMs (edge localized modes); and divertor heat load studies.

  13. Longitudinal recording on FePt and FePtX (X = B, Ni) intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning

    1999-11-01

    Near field recording on high coercivity FePt intermetallic compound media using a high Bsat write element was investigated. Untextured FePt media were prepared by magnetron sputtering on ZrO2 disks at a substrate temperature of 450°C, with post annealing at 450°C for 8 hrs. Both multilayer and cosputtered precursors produced the ordered tetragonal L10 phase with high coercivity between 5kOe and 12kOe. To improve readback noise decrease magnetic domain size, FePtB media were subsequently prepared by cosputtering. Over-write, roll-off, signal to noise ratio and non-linear transition shift (NLTS) ere measured by both metal in gap (MIG) and merged MR heads. FePtB media showed similar NLTS to commercial CoCrPtTa longitudinal media, but 5dB lower signal to noise ratio. By operating recording transducers in near contact, reasonable values of (>30dB) could be obtained. VSM Rotational Transverse Magnetization has been used for measuring the anisotropy field of magnetic thin films. Magnetization reversal during rotation of a 2D isotropic an applied field is discussed. The relationship between the transverse magnetization My and the applied field H was numerically solved. An excellent approximation for the transverse magnetization is found to be: My/Ms=A(1- H/Hk) 2.5, where A = 1.1434, and Hk is the anisotropy field. For curve fitting to experimental data, both A and Hk were used as fitting parameters. Comparison between a constructed torque hysteresis method and this VSM RTM method have been made theoretically and experimentally. Both results showed that VSM RTM will give better extrapolation of the anisotropy field. The torque measurement will slightly overestimate the anisotropy field. The anisotropy fields of FePt and FePtX (X = B, Ni) films were characterized using this VSM RTM technique with comparison to a CoCrTaPt disk. Anisotropy energy was derived. Hc/Hk was used as an indicator for coherent rotation of a single domain. Interactions between magnetic domains were

  14. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2010-09-15

    We study the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit of lattice QCD simulations with Hybrid Monte Carlo type algorithms. In particular for the squared topological charge we find it to be very severe with an effective dynamical critical exponent of about 5 in pure gauge theory. We also consider Wilson loops which we can demonstrate to decouple from the modes which slow down the topological charge. Quenched observables are studied and a comparison to simulations of full QCD is made. In order to deal with the slow modes in the simulation, we propose a method to incorporate the information from slow observables into the error analysis of physical observables and arrive at safer error estimates. (orig.)

  15. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco

    2010-09-01

    We study the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit of lattice QCD simulations with Hybrid Monte Carlo type algorithms. In particular for the squared topological charge we find it to be very severe with an effective dynamical critical exponent of about 5 in pure gauge theory. We also consider Wilson loops which we can demonstrate to decouple from the modes which slow down the topological charge. Quenched observables are studied and a comparison to simulations of full QCD is made. In order to deal with the slow modes in the simulation, we propose a method to incorporate the information from slow observables into the error analysis of physical observables and arrive at safer error estimates. (orig.)

  16. Specific heat of Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}B{sub 6} in the low cerium concentration limit (x {<=} 0.03)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimov, M. A., E-mail: anisimov.m.a@gmail.com; Glushkov, V. V.; Bogach, A. V.; Demishev, S. V.; Samarin, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gavrilkin, S. Yu.; Mitsen, K. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Levchenko, A. V.; Filippov, V. B. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Problems of Materials Science (Ukraine); Gabani, S.; Flachbart, K. [IEP SAS, Centre of Low Temperature Physics (Slovakia); Sluchanko, N. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The specific heat of high-quality Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}B{sub 6} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03) single crystals is studied in the temperature range 0.4-300 K. LaB{sub 6} samples with various boron isotope compositions ({sup 10}B, {sup 11}B, {sup nat}B) are analyzed to estimate the effect of boron vacancies. The experimental data are used to take into account the electron component correctly under the renormalization of the density of states at T < 8 K, the contribution of the quasi-local vibrational mode of a rare-earth ion with the Einstein temperature {Theta}{sub E} Almost-Equal-To 152 K, the Debye contribution from the rigid cage of boron atoms with the Debye temperature {Theta}{sub D} Almost-Equal-To 1160 K, and the low-temperature Schottky contribution related to the presence of 1.5-2.3% boron vacancies in the rare-earth hexaborides. The detected low-temperature anomalies in the specific heat are shown to be interpreted in terms of the formation of two-level systems with an energy {Delta}E = 92-98 K caused by the displacement of rare-earth ions from their centrosymmetric positions. A scenario of heavy fermion formation that is alternative to the Kondo mechanism is proposed for the systems with a magnetic impurity.

  17. Diatomic substitutionals in superconducting Nb{sub (1-x)}B{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, H.H. [Idaho National Laboratory, Materials Science Department, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., MS-2211, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2211 (United States)]. E-mail: Helen.Farrell@inl.gov; LaViolette, Randall A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Materials Science Department, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., MS-2211, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2211 (United States); Lillo, T.M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Materials Science Department, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., MS-2211, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2211 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Using first-principles, density functional theory calculations, we have shown that the increase in superconducting critical temperature to above 9 K experimentally observed for B-rich, off-stoichiometry NbB{sub 2} material is associated with the formation of B-dimers on Nb sites rather than with the formation of Nb vacancies, as previously proposed. Our calculations show that certain of these B-dimer configurations have lower binding energies than do the vacancy structures. This result is pressure independent in the range between 0 and 10 GPa, and above. Further, the dimer-containing materials have a higher electronic density of states at the Fermi level than do the vacancy structures. Finally, the presence of B-dimers results in the splitting off of phonon normal modes. These last two factors are relevant to the improved superconducting properties.

  18. Limits of slow light in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2008-01-01

    in the group velocity acquiring a finite value above zero at the band-gap edges while attaining uperluminal values within the band gap. Simple scalings of the minimum and maximum group velocities with the imaginary part of the dielectric function or, equivalently, the linewidth of the broadened states......While ideal photonic crystals would support modes with a vanishing group velocity, state-of-the-art structures have still only provided a slow down by roughly two orders of magnitude. We find that the induced density of states caused by lifetime broadening of the electromagnetic modes results...... are presented. The results obtained are entirely general and may be applied to any effect which results in a broadening of the electromagnetic states, such as loss, disorder, and finite-size effects. This significantly limits the reduction in group velocity attainable via photonic crystals....

  19. Coaxial slow source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.D.; Jarboe, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    Field reversed configurations (FRCs) are a class of compact toroid with not toroidal field. The field reversed theta pinch technique has been successfully used for formation of FRCs since their inception in 1958. In this method an initial bias field is produced. After ionization of the fill gas, the current in the coil is rapidly reversed producing the radial implosion of a current sheath. At the ends of the coil the reversed field lines rapidly tear and reconnect with the bias field lines until no more bias flux remains. At this point, vacuum reversed field accumulates around the configuration which contracts axially until an equilibrium is reached. When extrapolating the use of such a technique to reactor size plasmas two main shortcomings are found. First, the initial bias field, and hence flux in a given device, which can be reconnected to form the configuration is limited from above by destructive axial dynamics. Second, the voltages required to produce rapid current reversal in the coil are very large. Clearly, a low voltage formation technique without limitations on flux addition is desirable. The Coaxial Slow Source (CSS) device was designed to meet this need. It has two coaxial theta pinch coils. Coaxial coil geometry allows for the addition of as much magnetic flux to the annular plasma between them as can be generated inside the inner coil. Furthermore the device can be operated at charging voltages less than 10 kV and on resistive diffusion, rather than implosive time scales. The inner coil is a novel, concentric, helical design so as to allow it to be cantilevered on one end to permit translation of the plasma. Following translation off the inner coil the Annular Field Reversed Configuration would be re-formed as a true FRC. In this paper we investigate the formation process in the new parallel configuration., CSSP, in which the inner and outer coils are connected in parallel to the main capacitor bank

  20. Scaling laws for the rotational velocity of a J x B driven rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kataoka, Tomohiro; Ikehata, Takashi; Sato, Naoyuki; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    Rapidly rotating plasmas of helium and argon have been extracted from a coaxial plasma gun operated in pulsed glow mode. The rotational velocity and its parametric dependence have been analyzed systematically by means of visible - emission spectroscopy. The plasma is observed to rotate rigidly inside the diameter of the gun anode while outside the velocity decreases rapidly ; furthermore, different ions are found to rotate at different angular frequencies as ω (Ar + ) = 0.5 x 10 6 rad/sec, ω (Ar 2+ ) = 1.1 x 10 6 rad/sec, ω (C 2+ ) = 1.8 x 10 6 rad/sec, ω (N + ) = 1.2 x 10 6 rad/sec. The plasma density and rotational velocity have been measured as a function of the discharge current and magnetic field to derive experimental scaling laws. They are summarized as : 1. Ion density is proportional to the square of discharge current. 2. Rotational and axial velocities are proportional to the driving force per ion. These results are confirmed to agree well with a theoretical prediction. (author)

  1. Slow Tourism: Exploring the discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guiver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Slow travel’ and ‘slow tourism’ are relatively new, but contested, concepts. This paper examines the meanings ascribed to them in the academic literature and websites targeted at potential tourists. It finds concurrence on aspects of savouring time at the destination and investing time to appreciate the locality, its people, history, culture and products, but detects different emphases. The academic literature stresses the benefits to the destination and global sustainability, while the websites focus on the personal benefits and ways of becoming a ‘slow tourist’. Food and drink epitomise the immersion in and absorption of the destination and the multi-dimensional tourism experience, contrasted with the superficiality of mainstream tourism. The paper discusses whether tourists practising slow tourism without using the label are slow tourists or not.

  2. Moessbauer spectroscopy on amorphous Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/B20 after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Miglierini, M.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/B 20 glassy alloys (x = 40, 50, 60, and 70) irradiated with fast neutrons in a fluence range of 10 14 to 10 19 cm -2 were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. There were some significant changes in the Moessbauer spectrum parameters of the 10 19 cm -2 irradiated samples except Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 . This corresponds to a change in the direction of the easy axis of magnetization. The measurements show that the resistance of the Fe-Ni-B system against neutron irradiation improves with increasing Ni content up to a certain point

  3. Divertor experiments in a toroidal plasma, with E x B drift due to an applied radial electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.

    1979-09-01

    It is proposed that the E x B drift arising from an externally applied electric field could be used in a tokamak or other toroidal magnetic plasma confinement device to remove plasma and impurities from the region near the wall and reduce the amount of plasma striking the wall. This could either augment or replace a conventional magnetic field divertor. Among the possible advantages of this scheme are easy external control over the rate of removal of plasma, more rapid removal than the naturally occurring rate in a magnetic divertor, and simplification of construction if the magnetic divertor is eliminated. Results of several related experiments performed in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole are presented

  4. Field-induced non-collinear magnetic structures in amorphous Co80-xDy xB20 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annouar, F.; Roky, K.; Lassri, H.; Elmoussaoui, A.; Driouch, L.; Ayadi, M.; Omri, M.; Krishnan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous Co 80-x Dy x B 20 alloys have been prepared by melt spinning technique and their magnetic properties have been studied. The mean field theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetization. High-field magnetization studies performed at 4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 38 T have revealed, for samples with stoichiometry close to that of a compensated ferrimagnet, a magnetic behavior that is characteristic of a non-collinear magnetic structure of the Dy and Co sublattices. From the non-collinear regime the exchange interactions between the Co and Dy magnetic sublattices and the magnetic anisotropy constants have been evaluated

  5. Group-index limitations in slow-light photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui

    2010-01-01

    radiation, and in-plane leakage. Often, the different mechanisms are playing in concert, leading to attenuation and scattering of electromagnetic modes. The very same broadening mechanisms also limit the attainable slow-down which we mimic by including a small imaginary part to the otherwise real...

  6. Slow light in moving media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, U.; Piwnicki, P.

    2001-06-01

    We review the theory of light propagation in moving media with extremely low group velocity. We intend to clarify the most elementary features of monochromatic slow light in a moving medium and, whenever possible, to give an instructive simplified picture.

  7. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  8. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Yohai Bar; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2011-01-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not comple...

  9. Brazil Geological Basic Survey Program - Espera River - Sheet SF.23-X-B-IV - Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, F.O.

    1991-01-01

    The present report refers to the Rio Espera sheet (SF.23.X-B-IV) systematic geological mapping, on the 1:100.000 scale. The sheet, which covers Zona da Mata region, includes the Southeastern bord of Minas Gerais Metallurgic Zone, SE of Quadrilatero Ferrifero, in the Sao Francisco craton bord, and Mantiqueira province. Since only one doubtful 2,5 thousand million year - Rb/Sr isochron was obtained in the sheet, Archacan and Proterozoic ages have been attributed to the metamorphic rocks by comparison to other ones elsewhere. An analysis of the crustal evolution pattern based on gravimetric survey data, aeromagnetometry and available geochronological data is given in the 6. Chapter, Part II of the text. Major elements oxides and rare-earths were analysed to establish parameters for the rocks environment elucidation. The geochemical survey was carried out with base on pan concentrated and stream sediments distributed throughout the sheet. (author)

  10. Analytic solutions of del x B = αB in a straight cylinder with α = α(r)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, K.M.; Baker, D.A.

    1985-06-01

    Analytic solutions of del x B = αB are presented for reversed field pinch (RFP) configurations in a straight cylinder with α = α(r) where r is the radial coordinate. The function α(r) is a smooth function of r vanishing at the wall (r = a). Closed form parametric formulas for a family of F-THETA curves are obtained from the analytic, cylindrically symmetric, force-free fields. These formulas can be used to fit experimental F-THETA curves and hence facilitate comparison between the various existing RFP experiments. The advantage of these formulas lies in the fact that they are expressed in terms of easily obtainable Bessel functions of the first kind, eliminating the need of mumerical integration. Results of the least-square fits of two typical ZT-40M shots are presented

  11. Turbulent transport and shear at the E x B velocity in wall plasma of the TF-2 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaev, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    Turbulence of near-the-wall plasma and potentialities of affecting the turbulence and periphery transport of the TF-2 tokamak by inducing radial electric fields and ergodization of periphery magnetic structure have been investigated, the results are presented. Essential role of the E x B velocity shear in suppression of the turbulence and turbulent transport in periphery has been pointed out. Decrease in transport losses stemming from effect of radial electric fields is brought about suppression of turbulence amplitude, decrease in correlations and decrease in the width of the wave numbers spectrum. Profiles of plasma density, electron temperature, turbulence level, electric fields over entire periphery of discharge change as a result. Ergodization of magnetic structure also results in the change of properties of periphery turbulence and turbulent transport [ru

  12. Moessbauer spectroscopy on amorphous Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/B/sub 20/ after neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, J.; Miglierini, M. (Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia))

    1985-05-16

    Amorphous Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/B/sub 20/ glassy alloys (x = 40, 50, 60, and 70) irradiated with fast neutrons in a fluence range of 10/sup 14/ to 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -2/ were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. There were some significant changes in the Moessbauer spectrum parameters of the 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -2/ irradiated samples except Fe/sub 40/Ni/sub 40/B/sub 20/. This corresponds to a change in the direction of the easy axis of magnetization. The measurements show that the resistance of the Fe-Ni-B system against neutron irradiation improves with increasing Ni content up to a certain point.

  13. NMR and Moessbauer studies of the amorphous system Fe79P/sub 21-x/B/sub x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amamou, A.; Durand, J.

    1977-05-01

    Combined NMR, spin-echo and Moessbauer experiments have been performed to obtain hyperfine field distributions of the transition metal and metalloid elements in splat-cooled amorphous Fe 79 P 21 /sub -x/B/sub x/ alloys. These distributions are related to the local environments of the elements. The NMR signals are observed in the low frequency range 20-60 MHz and all the nuclei, i.e. Fe, P and B, may contribute to the spectral distribution. The resolution of the spectra into that due to Fe and (P + B) nuclei was made possible by using samples prepared with an Fe 56 isotope. The Fe distribution thus obtaned shows general agreement with the Moessbauer field distribution. From a careful analysis of the NMR data, the hyperfine field at the B nuclei in these amorphous alloys is found to range from 24 to 26 KG increasing with B content. An upper limit of 8 KG for the half-width is attributed to this distribution. The Moessbauer spectra of the Fe 57 nuclei resemble those for the crystalline Fe 75 P 25 /sub -x/B/sub x/ alloys. A fit of the spectra shows a field distribution which suggests the presence of structure. Such a structure may correspond to various Fe sites, also seen in the crystalline alloys. The distributions generally lie between about 160 and 330 KG, with a maximum at about 260 KG. These spectra do not show the presence of Fe nuclei with essentially zero hyperfine field as was obtained for amorphous Fe-Pd-P by Sharon et al. and for amorphous Fe-P by Logan et al. With increasing B content the center of gravity of the Fe distribution shifts to higher values. From a systematic study of the NMR lines and other considerations it is concluded that the P field distribution is broad and its hyperfine field is between 20 and 35 KG for the higher P concentration alloys

  14. The Potential of/for 'Slow': Slow Tourists and Slow Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guiver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Slow tourism practices are nothing new; in fact, they were once the norm and still are for millions of people whose annual holiday is spent camping, staying in caravans, rented accommodation, with friends and relations or perhaps in a second home, who immerse themselves in their holiday environment, eat local food, drink local wine and walk or cycle around the area. So why a special edition about slow tourism? Like many aspects of life once considered normal (such as organic farming or free-range eggs, the emergence of new practices has highlighted differences and prompted a re-evaluation of once accepted practices and values. In this way, the concept of ‘slow tourism’ has recently appeared as a type of tourism that contrasts with many contemporary mainstream tourism practices. It has also been associated with similar trends already ‘branded’ slow: slow food and cittaslow (slow towns and concepts such as mindfulness, savouring and well-being.

  15. Enhanced Gain in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides with Embedded Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum dot photonic crystal waveguide slabs. These are promising results for future compact devices for terabit/s communication, such as compact optical amplifiers and mode-locked lasers.......We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum dot photonic crystal waveguide slabs. These are promising results for future compact devices for terabit/s communication, such as compact optical amplifiers and mode-locked lasers....

  16. Slow, stopped and stored light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.; Scully, M.

    2005-01-01

    Light that can been slowed to walking pace could have applications in telecommunications, optical storage and quantum computing. Whether we use it to estimate how far away a thunderstorm is, or simply take it for granted that we can have a conversation with someone on the other side of the world, we all know that light travels extremely fast. Indeed, special relativity teaches us that nothing in the universe can ever move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum: 299 792 458 ms sup - sup 1. However, there is no such limitation on how slowly light can travel. For the last few years, researchers have been routinely slowing light to just a few metres per second, and have recently even stopped it dead in its tracks so that it can be stored for future use. Slow-light has considerable popular appeal, deriving perhaps from the importance of the speed of light in relativity and cosmology. If everyday objects such as cars or people can travel faster than 'slow' light, for example, then it might appear that relativistic effects could be observed at very low speeds. Although this is not the case, slow light nonetheless promises to play an important role in optical technology because it allows light to be delayed for any period of time desired. This could lead to all-optical routers that would increase the bandwidth of the Internet, and applications in optical data storage, quantum information and even radar. (U.K.)

  17. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-02-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

  18. Acoustic slow waves and the consolidation transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.; Plona, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have investigated the ultrasonic properties of unconsolidated (loose) glass beads and of lightly fused (consolidated) glass beads when the pore space is saturated with water. At a frequency of 500 kHz we have observed a single compressional wave in the former whose speed is 1.79 km/s and two distinct compressional waves with speeds 2.81 km/s and 0.96 km/s in the latter. The Biot theory is shown to give an accurate description of this phenomenon. We also analyze the acoustics of low temperature He ii in packed powder superleaks; either the fast wave for unconsolidated systems or the slow wave in a highly consolidated (fused) frame may be considered to be the 4th sound mode. In all such systems, the acoustic properties can be very simply understood by considering the velocities of propagation as continuous functions of the elastic moduli of the solid skeletal frames

  19. Giant amplification in degenerate band edge slow-wave structures interacting with an electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Veysi, Mehdi; Capolino, Filippo [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Figotin, Alexander [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We propose a new amplification regime based on a synchronous operation of four degenerate electromagnetic (EM) modes in a slow-wave structure and the electron beam, referred to as super synchronization. These four EM modes arise in a Fabry-Pérot cavity when degenerate band edge (DBE) condition is satisfied. The modes interact constructively with the electron beam resulting in superior amplification. In particular, much larger gains are achieved for smaller beam currents compared to conventional structures based on synchronization with only a single EM mode. We demonstrate giant gain scaling with respect to the length of the slow-wave structure compared to conventional Pierce type single mode traveling wave tube amplifiers. We construct a coupled transmission line model for a loaded waveguide slow-wave structure exhibiting a DBE, and investigate the phenomenon of giant gain via super synchronization using the Pierce model generalized to multimode interaction.

  20. Slow Images and Entangled Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swordy, Simon

    2007-01-01

    I will discuss some recent experiments using slow light and entangled photons. We recently showed that it was possible to map a two dimensional image onto very low light level signals, slow them down in a hot atomic vapor while preserving the amplitude and phase of the images. If time remains, I will discuss some of our recent work with time-energy entangled photons for quantum cryptography. We were able to show that we could have a measurable state space of over 1000 states for a single pair of entangled photons in fiber.

  1. Pulsar slow-down epochs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintzmann, H.; Novello, M.

    1981-01-01

    The relative importance of magnetospheric currents and low frequency waves for pulsar braking is assessed and a model is developed which tries to account for the available pulsar timing data under the unifying aspect that all pulsars have equal masses and magnetic moments and are born as rapid rotators. Four epochs of slow-down are distinguished which are dominated by different braking mechanisms. According to the model no direct relationship exists between 'slow-down age' and true age of a pulsar and leads to a pulsar birth-rate of one event per hundred years. (Author) [pt

  2. Slow positron applications at slow positron facility of institute of materials structure science, KEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Toshio; Mochizuki, Izumi; Wada, Ken; Toge, Nobukazu; Shidara, Tetsuo

    2018-05-01

    Slow Positron Facility at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy-tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam created by a dedicated ˜ 50 MeV linac. It operates in a short pulse (width 1-12 ns, variable, 5×106 e+/s) and a long pulse (width 1.2 µs, 5×107 e+/s) modes of 50 Hz. High energy positrons from pair creation are moderated by reemission after thermalization in W foils. The reemitted positrons are then electrostatically accelerated to a desired energy up to 35 keV and magnetically transported. A pulse-stretching section (pulse stretcher) is installed in the middle of the beamline. It stretches the slow positron pulse for the experiments where too many positrons annihilating in the sample at the same time has to be avoided. Four experiment stations for TRHEPD (total-reflection high-energy positron diffraction), LEPD (low-energy positron diffraction), Ps- (positronium negative ion), and Ps-TOF (positronium time-of-flight) experiments are connected to the beamline branches, SPF-A3, SPF-A4, SPF-B1 and SPF-B2, respectively. Recent results of these stations are briefly described.

  3. A slowing-down problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlvik, I; Pershagen, B

    1958-06-15

    An infinitely long circular cylinder of radius a is surrounded by an infinite moderator. Both media are non-capturing. The cylinder emits neutrons of age zero with a constant source density of S. We assume that the ratios of the slowing-down powers and of the diffusion constants are independent of the neutron energy. The slowing-down density is calculated for two cases, a) when the slowing-down power of the cylinder medium is very small, and b) when the cylinder medium is identical with the moderator. The ratios of the slowing-down density at the age {tau} and the source density in the two cases are called {psi}{sub V}, and {psi}{sub M} respectively. {psi}{sub V} and {psi}{sub M} are functions of y=a{sup 2}/4{tau}. These two functions ({psi}{sub V} and {psi}{sub M}) are calculated and tabulated for y = 0-0.25.

  4. Numerical modeling of slow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews previous attempt and the present status of efforts to understand the structure of slow shocks by means of time dependent numerical calculations. Studies carried out using MHD or hybrid-kinetic codes have demonstrated qualitative agreement with theory. A number of unresolved issues related to hybrid simulations of the internal shock structure are discussed in some detail. 43 refs., 8 figs

  5. Competition and evolution of dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng-Nan; Fang, Yun-Tuan

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the coupling and evolution law of the waveguide mode and two plasmonic surface modes, we construct a line defect waveguide based on hexagonal honeycomb plasmonic photonic crystal. Through adjusting the radius of the edge dielectric rods, the competition and evolution behaviors occur between dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode. There are three status: only plasmonic waveguide modes occur for rA 0.25a; two kinds of modes coexist for 0.09a advantages in achieving slow light.

  6. Systematic design of loss-engineered slow-light waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    This paper employs topology optimization to systematically design free-topology loss-engineered slow-light waveguides with enlarged group index bandwidth product (GBP). The propagation losses of guided modes are evaluated by the imaginary part of eigenvalues in complex band structure calculations......, where the scattering losses due to manufacturing imperfections are represented by an edge-related effective dissipation. The loss engineering of slow-light waveguides is realized by minimizing the propagation losses of design modes. Numerical examples illustrate that the propagation losses of free......-topology dispersion-engineered waveguides can be significantly suppressed by loss engineering. Comparisons between fixed- and free-topology loss-engineered waveguides demonstrate that the GBP can be enhanced significantly by the free-topology loss-engineered waveguides with a small increase of the propagation losses....

  7. The unappreciated slowness of conventional tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Larsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most tourists are not consciously engaging in ‘slow travel’, but a number of travel behaviours displayed by conventional tourists can be interpreted as slow travel behaviour. Based on Danish tourists’ engagement with the distances they travel across to reach their holiday destination, this paper explores unintended slow travel behaviours displayed by these tourists. None of the tourists participating in this research were consciously doing ‘slow travel’, and yet some of their most valued holiday memories are linked to slow travel behaviours. Based on the analysis of these unintended slow travel behaviours, this paper will discuss the potential this insight might hold for promotion of slow travel. If unappreciated and unintentional slow travel behaviours could be utilised in the deliberate effort of encouraging more people to travel slow, ‘slow travel’ will be in a better position to become integrated into conventional travel behaviour.

  8. Contained Modes In Mirrors With Sheared Rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    In mirrors with E x B rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the lab frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and non-peaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency.

  9. Using Nonuniform Fiber to Generate Slow Light via SBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhai Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The data pulse delay based on slow light induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS in a nonuniform dispersion decreasing fiber (DDF is demonstrated experimentally, and the distortions of data pulses at different beat frequencies are studied. We found that a delay exceeding a pulse width can be achieved at particular beat frequency, and the DDF has larger delay versus gain slope coefficient with much better output pulse quality than single-mode fiber.

  10. Brazil Geological Basic Survey Program - Ponte Nova - Sheet SF.23-X-B-II - Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandalise, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The present report refers to the Ponte Nova Sheet (SF.23-X-B-II) systematic geological mapping, on the 1:100.000 scale. The Sheet covers the Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State, in the Mantiqueira Geotectonic Province, to the eastern part of Sao Francisco Geotectonic Province, as defined in the project. The high grade metamorphic rocks to low amphibolite, occurring in the area were affected by a marked low angle shearing transposition, and show diphtheritic effects. Archaean to Proterozoic ages are attributed to the metamorphites mostly by comparison to similar types of the region. Three deformed events were registered in the region. Analysis of the crustal evolution pattern based on geological mapping, laboratorial analyses, gravimetric and air magnetometry data, and available geochronologic data is given in the 6. Chapter, Part II, in the text. Major element oxides, trace-elements, and rare-earths elements were analysed to establish parameters for the rocks environment elucidation. Geochemical survey was carried out with base on pan concentrated and stream sediments distributed throughout the Sheet. Gneisses quarries (industrial rocks) in full exploration activity have been registered, as well as sand and clay deposits employed in construction industry. Metallogenetic/Provisional analysis points out the area as a favorable one for gold prospection. (author)

  11. Quantum percolation transition in Eu{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}B{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushkov, V.V. [A.M.Prokhorov General Physics Institute of RAS, 38, Vavilov str., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9, Institutskii per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Anisimov, M.A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9, Institutskii per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Bogach, A.V.; Demishev, S.V.; Sluchanko, N.E. [A.M.Prokhorov General Physics Institute of RAS, 38, Vavilov str., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Filipov, V.B.; Levchenko, A.V.; Shitsevalova, N.Yu. [Institute for Problems of Materials Science NAS, 3, Krzhyzhanovsky str., Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Flachbart, K. [Centre of Low Temperature Physics, IEP SAS and IPS FS UPJS, Kosice SK-04001 (Slovakia); Kuznetsov, A.V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 31, Kashirskoe Shosse, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2010-03-15

    The study of transport and magnetic properties performed on Eu{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}B{sub 6} single crystals with nominal Ca content 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.4 at temperatures 1.8-300 K in magnetic fields up to 80 kOe provides the direct experimental evidence of metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) earlier proposed for the system by V. M. Pereira et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 147202 (2004)]. A giant enhancement of magnetoresistance up to the values of ({rho}(0) - {rho}(H))/{rho}(H) {proportional_to} 7 x 10{sup 7}% was detected for x = 0.4 in the wide vicinity of the ferromagnetic insulating state. The field induced crossover from hole-like to electron-like regime of charge transport observed for the first time in the paramagnetic phase of Eu{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}B{sub 6} is discussed in terms of quantum percolation transition predicted for this low carrier density system within double exchange model. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. A Primer to Slow Light

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, U.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory-based optical analogs of astronomical objects such as black holes rely on the creation of light with an extremely low or even vanishing group velocity (slow light). These brief notes represent a pedagogical attempt towards elucidating this extraordinary form of light. This paper is a contribution to the book Artificial Black Holes edited by Mario Novello, Matt Visser and Grigori Volovik. The paper is intended as a primer, an introduction to the subject for non-experts, not as a det...

  13. Capillary waves in slow motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seydel, Tilo; Tolan, Metin; Press, Werner; Madsen, Anders; Gruebel, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Capillary wave dynamics on glycerol surfaces has been investigated by means of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy performed at grazing angles. The measurements show that thermally activated capillary wave motion is slowed down exponentially when the sample is cooled below 273 K. This finding directly reflects the freezing of the surface waves. The wave-number dependence of the measured time constants is in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for overdamped capillary waves

  14. The fast slow TDPAC spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekic, B.; Koicki, S.; Manasijevic, M.; Ivanovic, N.; Koteski, V.; Milosevic, Z.; Radisavljevic, I.; Cavor, J.; Novakovic, N.; Marjanovic, D.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-BaF 2 detector - fast slow time spectrometer for time differential perturbed angular correlations (TDPAC) experiments is described. This apparatus has been developed in the Group for Hyperfine Interactions in the Institute for Nuclear Sciences in VINCA. The excellent time resolution combined with high efficiency offered by these detectors enables one high counting rate performance and is operating in the wide temperature range 78-1200 K. (author)

  15. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  16. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  17. Rippling modes in the edge of a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Gaffney, P.W.; Hicks, H.R.; Callan, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    A promising resistive magnetohydrodynamic candidate for the underlying cause of turbulence in the edge of a tokamak plasma is the rippling instability. In this paper a computational model for these modes in the cylindrical tokamak approximation was developed and the linear growth and single-helicity quasi-linear saturation phases of the rippling modes for parameters appropriate to the edge of a tokamak plasma were explored. Large parallel heat conduction does not stabilize these modes; it only reduces their growth rate by a factor sacling as K/sup -4/3//sub parallel/. Nonlinearly, individual rippling modes are found to saturate by quasi-linear flattening of the resistivity profile. The saturated amplitude of the modes scales as m -1 , and the radial extent of these modes grows linearly with time due to radial E x B 0 convection. This evolution is found to be terminated by parallel heat conduction

  18. Broadband slow light in one-dimensional logically combined photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2015-01-28

    Here, we demonstrate the broadband slow light effects in a new family of one dimensional photonic crystals, which are obtained by logically combining two photonic crystals of slightly different periods. The logical combination slowly destroys the original translational symmetries of the individual photonic crystals. Consequently, the Bloch modes of the individual photonic crystals with different wavevectors couple with each other, creating a vast number of slow modes. Specifically, we describe a photonic crystal architecture that results from a logical "OR" mixture of two one dimensional photonic crystals with a periods ratio of r = R/(R - 1), where R > 2 is an integer. Such a logically combined architecture, exhibits a broad region of frequencies in which a dense number of slow modes with varnishing group velocities, appear naturally as Bloch modes.

  19. Structure and mechanical properties of as-cast (ZrTi){sub 100−x}B{sub x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, C.Q.; Jiang, X.J.; Wang, X.Y.; Zhou, Y.K.; Feng, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tan, C.L. [Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering, Beijing 100094 (China); Ma, M.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, R.P., E-mail: riping@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Trace boron additions result in significant grain refinement. • Large numbers of stacking faults are observed in ZrB{sub 2} and TiB intermetallics. • The tensile strength is enhanced by increasing the amount of B. • Intermetallics microcracking causes the failure of the alloys. - Abstract: The microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics of (Zr{sub 50}Ti{sub 50}){sub 100−x}B{sub x} alloys (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 2 at.%) obtained by casting were investigated. Trace additions of boron (B) to the Zr{sub 50}Ti{sub 50} alloys induced significant microstructural changes. Changes included the promotion of dendritic growth and refinement in prior-β grain and α′-lath size. Large numbers of stacking faults were also observed in ZrB{sub 2} and TiB intermetallics. The location of B atoms and the lattice mismatch energy between intermetallics and matrix were responsible for the stacking faults. (ZrTi)B alloys demonstrated higher tensile strength than matrix material. Both the intermetallics with high strength and modulus and the grain refinement played important roles in improving the mechanical properties of alloys. This result could be explained in terms of a shear-lag model based on the load transfer concept and Hall–Petch mechanism. The elongation-to-failure of (ZrTi)B alloys decreased with increased B concentration. The reduction in elongation-to-failure of (ZrTi)B alloys could be attributed to the presence of ZrB{sub 2} and TiB intermetallics and refinement of α′-laths.

  20. Slow waves in microchannel metal waveguides and application to particle acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    L. C. Steinhauer; W. D. Kimura

    2003-01-01

    Conventional metal-wall waveguides support waveguide modes with phase velocities exceeding the speed of light. However, for infrared frequencies and guide dimensions of a fraction of a millimeter, one of the waveguide modes can have a phase velocity equal to or less than the speed of light. Such a metal microchannel then acts as a slow-wave structure. Furthermore, if it is a transverse magnetic mode, the electric field has a component along the direction of propagation. Therefore, a strong ex...

  1. TRIP steel microstructure visualized by slow and very slow electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikmeková, Šárka; Yamada, K.; Noro, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2013), s. 589-596 ISSN 2050-5698 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SLEEM * SEM * crystallographic contrast * surface sensitivity * multi-phase steels * cathode lens mode Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. TaxHf1−xB2–SiC multiphase oxidation protective coating for SiC-coated carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Xuanru; Li, Hejun; Fu, Qiangang; Li, Kezhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ta x Hf 1−x B 2 –SiC coating was prepared on SiC coated C/C by in-situ reaction method. • TaB 2 and HfB 2 were introduced in the form of solid solution Ta x Hf 1−x B 2 . • The coating could protect C/C for 1480 h with only 0.57% mass loss at 1773 K in air. • Oxidation layer consists of out Ta–Si–O compound layer and inner SiO 2 glass layer. • Ta–Si–O compound silicate layer presents a better stability than SiO 2 glass layer. - Abstract: A Ta x Hf 1−x B 2 –SiC coating was prepared by in-situ reaction method on SiC coated C/C composites. Ta x Hf 1−x B 2 phase is the form of solid solution between TaB 2 and HfB 2 . Isothermal oxidation behavior at 1773 K and ablation behavior of the coated C/C were tested. Ta x Hf 1−x B 2 –SiC/SiC coating could protect the C/C from oxidation at 1773 K for 1480 h and ablation above 2200 K for 40 s. During oxidation, oxides of Ta and Hf atoms exist as “pinning phases” in the compound glass layer consisted of outer Ta–Si–O compound silicate layer and inner SiO 2 glass layer, which was responsible for the excellent oxidation resistance

  3. Slow electrons kill the ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.

    2001-01-01

    A new method and apparatus (Trochoidal electron monochromator) to study the interactions of electrons with atoms, molecules and clusters was developed. Two applications are briefly reported: a) the ozone destruction in the atmosphere is caused by different reasons, a new mechanism is proposed, that slow thermal electrons are self added to the ozone molecule (O 3 ) with a high frequency, then O 3 is destroyed ( O 3 + e - → O - + O 2 ); b) another application is the study of the binding energy of the football molecule C60. (nevyjel)

  4. The CUORE slow monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, L.; Biare, D.; Cappelli, L.; Cushman, J. S.; Del Corso, F.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Hickerson, K. P.; Moggi, N.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Schmidt, B.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Welliver, B.; Winslow, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    CUORE is a cryogenic experiment searching primarily for neutrinoless double decay in 130Te. It will begin data-taking operations in 2016. To monitor the cryostat and detector during commissioning and data taking, we have designed and developed Slow Monitoring systems. In addition to real-time systems using LabVIEW, we have an alarm, analysis, and archiving website that uses MongoDB, AngularJS, and Bootstrap software. These modern, state of the art software packages make the monitoring system transparent, easily maintainable, and accessible on many platforms including mobile devices.

  5. Blowup for flat slow manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a way of extending the blowup method, in the formulation of Krupa and Szmolyan, to flat slow manifolds that lose hyperbolicity beyond any algebraic order. Although these manifolds have infinite co-dimensions, they do appear naturally in certain settings; for example, in (a......) the regularization of piecewise smooth systems by tanh, (b) a particular aircraft landing dynamics model, and finally (c) in a model of earthquake faulting. We demonstrate the approach using a simple model system and the examples (a) and (b)....

  6. Blowup for flat slow manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, K. U.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a way of extending the blowup method, in the formulation of Krupa and Szmolyan, to flat slow manifolds that lose hyperbolicity beyond any algebraic order. Although these manifolds have infinite co-dimensions, they do appear naturally in certain settings; for example, in (a) the regularization of piecewise smooth systems by \\tanh , (b) a particular aircraft landing dynamics model, and finally (c) in a model of earthquake faulting. We demonstrate the approach using a simple model system and the examples (a) and (b).

  7. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a ω is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, Q/sub xy/, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  8. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a(ω) is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  9. Hydromagnetic quasi-geostrophic modes in rapidly rotating planetary cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canet, E.; Finlay, Chris; Fournier, A.

    2014-01-01

    The core of a terrestrial-type planet consists of a spherical shell of rapidly rotating, electrically conducting, fluid. Such a body supports two distinct classes of quasi-geostrophic (QG) eigenmodes: fast, primarily hydrodynamic, inertial modes with period related to the rotation time scale...... decreases toward the outer boundary in a spherical shell, QG modes tend to be compressed towards the outer boundary. Including magnetic dissipation, we find a continuous transition from diffusionless slow magnetic modes into quasi-free decay magnetic modes. During that transition (which is controlled......, or shorter than, their oscillation time scale.Based on our analysis, we expect Mercury to be in a regime where the slow magnetic modes are of quasi-free decay type. Earth and possibly Ganymede, with their larger Elsasser numbers, may possess slow modes that are in the transition regime of weak diffusion...

  10. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  11. Integrated Photonics Enabled by Slow Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Chen, Yuntian; Ek, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources.......In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources....

  12. Generation of compressible modes in MHD turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jungyeon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea); Lazarian, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Astrophysical turbulence is magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) in nature. We discuss fundamental properties of MHD turbulence and in particular the generation of compressible MHD waves by Alfvenic turbulence and show that this process is inefficient. This allows us to study the evolution of different types of MHD perturbations separately. We describe how to separate MHD fluctuations into three distinct families: Alfven, slow, and fast modes. We find that the degree of suppression of slow and fast modes production by Alfvenic turbulence depends on the strength of the mean field. We review the scaling relations of the modes in strong MHD turbulence. We show that Alfven modes in compressible regime exhibit scalings and anisotropy similar to those in incompressible regime. Slow modes passively mimic Alfven modes. However, fast modes exhibit isotropy and a scaling similar to that of acoustic turbulence both in high and low {beta} plasmas. We show that our findings entail important consequences for star formation theories, cosmic ray propagation, dust dynamics, and gamma ray bursts. We anticipate many more applications of the new insight to MHD turbulence and expect more revisions of the existing paradigms of astrophysical processes as the field matures. (orig.)

  13. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  14. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virotta, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this work we investigate the critical slowing down of lattice QCD simulations. We perform a preliminary study in the quenched approximation where we find that our estimate of the exponential auto-correlation time scales as τ exp (a)∝a -5 , where a is the lattice spacing. In unquenched simulations with O(a) improved Wilson fermions we do not obtain a scaling law but find results compatible with the behavior that we find in the pure gauge theory. The discussion is supported by a large set of ensembles both in pure gauge and in the theory with two degenerate sea quarks. We have moreover investigated the effect of slow algorithmic modes in the error analysis of the expectation value of typical lattice QCD observables (hadronic matrix elements and masses). In the context of simulations affected by slow modes we propose and test a method to obtain reliable estimates of statistical errors. The method is supposed to help in the typical algorithmic setup of lattice QCD, namely when the total statistics collected is of O(10)τ exp . This is the typical case when simulating close to the continuum limit where the computational costs for producing two independent data points can be extremely large. We finally discuss the scale setting in N f =2 simulations using the Kaon decay constant f K as physical input. The method is explained together with a thorough discussion of the error analysis employed. A description of the publicly available code used for the error analysis is included.

  15. Coupling between slow and fast degrees of freedom in systems with complex spectra: Driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgac, A.; Dang, G.D.; Kusnezov, D.

    1995-01-01

    We consider many-body systems which display slow modes and have complex spectra of intrinsic states, as atomic nuclei, atomic clusters, deformable cavities, and so forth. The effects of the coupling between the intrinsic and the slow degrees of freedom is analyzed, by assuming random matrix properties for the intrinsic degrees of freedom and the fact that the time evolution of the slow degree of freedom modifies the intrinsic configuration of the system. By neglecting the reaction of the intrinsic degrees of freedom on the slow modes, we derive evolution equations for intrinsic state population probabilities, the average excitation energy, and their fluctuations. These evolution equations are characterized by strong memory effects, and only in the long time limit does the dynamics become Markovian. Copyright copyright 1995 Academic Press, Inc

  16. A fast-slow logic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hideo.

    1977-01-01

    A fast-slow logic system has been made for use in multi-detector experiments in nuclear physics such as particle-gamma and particle-particle coincidence experiments. The system consists of a fast logic system and a slow logic system. The fast logic system has a function of fast coincidences and provides timing signals for the slow logic system. The slow logic system has a function of slow coincidences and a routing control of input analog signals to the ADCs. (auth.)

  17. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  18. Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apaydin-Varol, Esin; Putun, Ersan; Putun, Ayse E [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700{sup o}C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500-550{sup o}C with a yield of 20.5%. The liquid product obtained under this optimum temperature and solid products obtained at all temperatures were characterized. As well as proximate and elemental analysis for the products were the basic steps for characterization, column chromatography, FT-IR, GC/MS and SEM were used for further characterization. The results showed that liquid and solid products from pistachio shells show similarities with high value conventional fuels. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The TTI slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between the vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for a transversely isotropic media with titled symmetry axis {left parenthesis, less than bracket}TTI{right parenthesis, greater than bracket} requires solving a quartic polynomial, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the dispersion relation that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  20. Identifying Slow Molecular Motions in Complex Chemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, GiovanniMaria; Polino, Daniela; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-09-07

    We have studied the cyclization reaction of deprotonated 4-chloro-1-butanethiol to tetrahydrothiophene by means of well-tempered metadynamics. To properly select the collective variables, we used the recently proposed variational approach to conformational dynamics within the framework of metadyanmics. This allowed us to select the appropriate linear combinations from a set of collective variables representing the slow degrees of freedom that best describe the slow modes of the reaction. We performed our calculations at three different temperatures, namely, 300, 350, and 400 K. We show that the choice of such collective variables allows one to easily interpret the complex free-energy surface of such a reaction by univocal identification of the conformers belonging to reactants and product states playing a fundamental role in the reaction mechanism.

  1. Slow-light-enhanced upconversion for photovoltaic applications in one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig M; Reece, Peter J; Conibeer, Gavin J

    2011-10-15

    We present an approach to realizing enhanced upconversion efficiency in erbium (Er)-doped photonic crystals. Slow-light-mode pumping of the first Er excited state transition can result in enhanced emission from higher-energy levels that may lead to finite subbandgap external quantum efficiency in crystalline silicon solar cells. Using a straightforward electromagnetic model, we calculate potential field enhancements of more than 18× within he slow-light mode of a one-dimensional photonic crystal and discuss design trade-offs and considerations for photovoltaics.

  2. Gyrokinetic simulation of internal kink modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Kenji; Lee, W.W.; Sydora, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    Internal disruption in a tokamak has been simulated using a three-dimensional magneto-inductive gyrokinetic particle code. The code operates in both the standard gyrokinetic mode (total-f code) and the fully nonlinear characteristic mode (δf code). The latter, a recent addition, is a quiet low noise algorithm. The computational model represents a straight tokamak with periodic boundary conditions in the toroidal direction. The plasma is initially uniformly distributed in a square cross section with perfectly conducting walls. The linear mode structure of an unstable m = 1 (poloidal) and n = 1 (toroidal) kinetic internal kink mode is clearly observed, especially in the δf code. The width of the current layer around the x-point, where magnetic reconnection occurs, is found to be close to the collisionless electron skin depth. This is consistent with the theory in which electron inertia has a dominant role. The nonlinear behavior of the mode is found to be quite similar for both codes. Full reconnection in the Alfven time scale is observed along with the electrostatic potential structures created during the full reconnection phase. The E x B drift due to this electrostatic potential dominates the nonlinear phase of the development after the full reconnection

  3. Analysis of waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.J.; Kou, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the dispersion relation has been derived to characterize the propagation of the waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure. The plasma is confined by a quartz plate. Results indicate that there are two different waves in this structure. One is the plasma mode that originates from the plasma surface wave propagating along the interface between the plasma and the quartz plate, and the other is the guide mode that originally travels along the vane-type slow wave structure. In contrast to its original slow wave characteristics, the guide mode becomes a fast wave in the low-frequency portion of the passband, and there exists a cut-off frequency for the guide mode. The vane-type guiding structure has been shown to limit the upper frequency of the passband of the plasma mode, compared with that of the plasma surface wave. In addition, the passband of the plasma mode increases with the plasma density while it becomes narrower for the guide mode. The influences of the parameters of the guiding structure and plasma density on the propagation of waves are also presented

  4. Quasi-linear evolution of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.; Frey, M.; Tagger, M.

    1983-07-01

    The growth of a Tearing instability in Rutherford's nonlinear regime is investigated. Using a singular perturbation technique, lowest order Rutherford's result is recovered. To the following order it is shown that the mode generates a quasi-linear deformation of the equilibrium flux profile, whose resistive diffusion slows down the growth and shows the possibility of a saturation of the instability

  5. Spin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarde, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of spectra of (p,n) reactions showed that they were very selective in exciting spin modes. Charge exchange reactions at intermediate energies give important new understanding of the M1-type of excitations and of the spin structure of continuum p spectra in general. In this paper, the author discusses three charge exchange reactions: (p,n); ( 3 H,t); and (d,2p) at several targets. Low-lying states and the Δ region are discussed separately. Finally, the charge exchange reaction with heavy ion beams is briefly discussed. (G.J.P./Auth.)

  6. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.

    1990-01-01

    A serious degradation of confinement with additional heating is commonly observed on most tokamaks. The microtearing modes could provide an explanation for this experimental fact. They are driven linearly unstable by diamagnetism in collisional regimes, but it may be shown that the collisions in non linear regimes provide a small diffusion coefficient which can be only significant at the plasme edge. In the bulk of the plasma, the microtearing turbulence could play a basic role if it is unstable in the collisionless regime. While it is linearly stable without collisions, it could be driven unstable in realistic regimes by the radial diffusion it induces. To study this effect, we have used a model where the non linear action of the modes on a given helicity component is represented by a diffusion operator. They are found unstable for reasonable β p =2μ o nT/B 2 p , with a special radial profile of the potential vector A. The problem arises the validity of this model where non linearities in the trajectories behaviour are replaced by the diffusion which broadens resonances. To test this procedure, we calculate the actual electron distribution function when it is determined by the ergodicity of the field lines. We compute the correlations of the distribution function with the magnetic perturbation and compare them with the analytical expressions derived from the resonance broadening model. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs

  8. Applications of Slow Light in Telecommunications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyd, Robert W; Gauthier, Daniel J; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2006-01-01

    .... Now, optical scientists are turning their attention toward developing useful applications of slow light, including controllable optical delay lines, optical buffers and true time delay methods...

  9. Identification of slow magnetosonic wave trains and their evolution in 3-D compressible turbulence simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In solar wind, dissipation of slow-mode magnetosonic waves may play a significant role in heating the solar wind, and these modes contribute essentially to the solar wind compressible turbulence. Most previous identifications of slow waves utilized the characteristic negative correlation between δ|B| and δρ. However, that criterion does not well identify quasi-parallel slow waves, for which δ|B| is negligible compared to δρ. Here we present a new method of identification, which will be used in 3-D compressible simulation. It is based on two criteria: (1 that VpB0 (phase speed projected along B0 is around ± cs, and that (2 there exists a clear correlation of δv|| and δρ. Our research demonstrates that if vA > cs, slow waves possess correlation between δv|| and δρ, with δρ / δv|| ≈ ± ρ0 / cs. This method helps us to distinguish slow-mode waves from fast and Alfvén waves, both of which do not have this polarity relation. The criteria are insensitive to the propagation angle θk B, defined as the angle between wave vector k and B0; they can be applied with a wide range of β if only vA > cs. In our numerical simulation, we have identified four cases of slow wave trains with this method. The slow wave trains seem to deform, probably caused by interaction with other waves; as a result, fast or Alfvén waves may be produced during the interaction and seem to propagate bidirectionally away. Our identification and analysis of the wave trains provide useful methods for investigations of compressible turbulence in the solar wind or in similar environments, and will thus deepen understandings of slow waves in the turbulence.

  10. Nonlinear saturation of the trapped-ion mode by mode coupling in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Tang, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the nonlinear saturation by mode coupling of the dissipative trapped-ion mode is presented in which both radial and poloidal variations are considered. The saturation mechanism consists of the nonlinear coupling via E x B convection of energy from linearly unstable modes to stable modes. Stabilization is provided at short poloidal wavelengths by Landau damping from trapped and circulating ions, at short radial wavelengths by effects associated with the finite ion banana excursions and at long wavelengths by ion collisions. A one-dimensional, nonlinear partial differential equation for the electrostatic potential derived in earlier work is extended to two dimensions and to third order in amplitude. Included systematically are kinetic effects, e.g., Landau damping and its spatial dependence due to magnetic shear. The stability and accessibility of equilibria are considered in detail for cases far from as well as close to marginal stability. In the first case three-wave interactions are found to be important when the spectrum of unstable modes is sufficiently narrow. In the latter case, it is found that for a single unstable mode, a four-wave interaction can provide the dominant saturation mechanism. Cross-field transport is calculated, and the scaling of results is considered for tokamak parameters

  11. Response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, A.J.P.; Pela, C.A.; Zimmerman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons exposure is cited, mentioning the preparation and the irradiation of dosemeter with Am-Be source. Some theory considerations about the response of electret dosemeter to slow and fast neutrons are also presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  12. Tandem queue with server slow-down

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miretskiy, D.I.; Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2007-01-01

    We study how rare events happen in the standard two-node tandem Jackson queue and in a generalization, the socalled slow-down network, see [2]. In the latter model the service rate of the first server depends on the number of jobs in the second queue: the first server slows down if the amount of

  13. Slow-light pulses in moving media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiurasek, J.; Leonhardt, U.; Parentani, R.

    2002-01-01

    Slow light in moving media reaches a counterintuitive regime when the flow speed of the medium approaches the group velocity of light. Pulses can penetrate a region where a counterpropagating flow exceeds the group velocity. When the counterflow slows down, pulses are reflected

  14. Can fast and slow intelligence be differentiated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partchev, I.; de Boeck, P.

    2012-01-01

    Responses to items from an intelligence test may be fast or slow. The research issue dealt with in this paper is whether the intelligence involved in fast correct responses differs in nature from the intelligence involved in slow correct responses. There are two questions related to this issue: 1.

  15. Slow Movement/Slow University: Critical Engagements. Introduction to the Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie O'Neill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This thematic section emerged from two seminars that took place at Durham University in England in November 2013 and March 2014 on the possibilities for thinking through what a change movement towards slow might mean for the University. Slow movements have emerged in relation to a number of topics: Slow food, Citta slow and more recently, slow science. What motivated us in the seminars was to explore how far these movements could help us address the acceleration and intensification of work within our own and other universities, and indeed, what new learning, research, philosophies, practices, structures and governance might emerge. This editorial introduction presents the concept of the "slow university" and introduces our critical engagements with slow. The articles presented here interrogate the potentialities, challenges, problems and pitfalls of the slow university in an era of corporate culture and management rationality. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1403166

  16. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Enhanced stability of magic clusters: A case study of icosahedric Al12X, X=B, Al, Ga, C, Si, Ge, Ti, As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, X.G.; Kumar, V.

    1992-10-01

    We present results of the electronic structure and stability of some 40 valence electron icosahedric Al 12 X (X=B, Al, Ga, C, Si, Ge, Ti and As) clusters within the local spin density functional theory. It is shown that the stability of Al 13 cluster can be substantially enhanced by proper doping. For neutral clusters, substitution of C at the center of the icosahedron leads to the largest gain in energy. However, Al 12 B - is the most bounded in this family. These results are in agreement with the recent experiments which also find Al 12 B - to be highly abundant. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  18. $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation and Knight shift study of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$. Evidence for anisotropic Fermi surface

    OpenAIRE

    Papavassiliou, G.; Pissas, M.; Karayanni, M.; Fardis, M.; Koutandos, S.; Prassides, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a detailed study of $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates ($1/T_1$), as well as of $^{27}$Al Knight shift (K) of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$, $0\\leq x\\leq 1$. The obtained ($1/T_1T$) and K vs. x plots are in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. This asserts experimentally the prediction that the Fermi surface is highly anisotropic, consisting mainly of hole-type 2-D cylindrical sheets from bonding $2p_{x,y}$ boron orbitals. It is also shown that the density ...

  19. Superconducting properties of Zn and Al double-doped Mg1-x(Zn0.5Al0.5)xB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    (XRD), ac susceptibility, magnetization and resistivity. The double doping leads to decreases in both the lattice parameters a and c, and the T-c decreases with increasing dopant content. A systematical comparison with Al doped- and Li, Al double doped MgB2 of structure, superconducting transition......A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Zn0.5Al0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.8) were prepared by solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature (T-c) and transport properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction...

  20. Lattice distortion and spontaneous Γ5g ferro-quadrupole moment in phase IV of CexLa1-xB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Yuichi; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Goto, Terutaka; Suzuki, Osamu; Nakamura, Shintaro; Kunii, Satoru

    2005-01-01

    We have performed low-temperature thermal expansion measurements to investigate lattice effect of the phase IV in Ce x La 1-x B 6 , for x=0.75 and 0.70. In phase IV of both compounds, lattice length along the [111] direction shrinks notably, on the other hand length along the [001] direction expands. These results provide evidence that the spontaneous Γ 5g ferro-quadrupole moment yz >= zx >= xy > 0 is relevant in phase IV because the trigonal lattice distortion is described by the symmetry strain yz >= zx >= xy > 0 simultaneously

  1. Effect of Tm substitution on the magnetic properties and local magnetic anisotropy of amorphous Fe80-xTm xB20 ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayouty, E.H.; Annouar, F.; Lassri, H.; Randrianantoandro, N.; Greneche, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out magnetic and Moessbauer studies of amorphous Fe 80-x Tm x B 20 alloys (0 ≤ x ≤ 16). With an increasing Tm content, both the Curie temperature T C and the magnetic moment of Fe atom μ Fe decrease. We have extracted the value of exchange constant A from T C and that of the local magnetic anisotropy constant K L from the coercivity. Moessbauer studies were performed in a transmission geometry and also using the conversion electron spectroscopy. Both Moessbauer spectrometry techniques show that the average hyperfine field decreases linearly with the addition of rare-earth

  2. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virotta, Francesco

    2012-02-21

    In this work we investigate the critical slowing down of lattice QCD simulations. We perform a preliminary study in the quenched approximation where we find that our estimate of the exponential auto-correlation time scales as {tau}{sub exp}(a){proportional_to}a{sup -5}, where a is the lattice spacing. In unquenched simulations with O(a) improved Wilson fermions we do not obtain a scaling law but find results compatible with the behavior that we find in the pure gauge theory. The discussion is supported by a large set of ensembles both in pure gauge and in the theory with two degenerate sea quarks. We have moreover investigated the effect of slow algorithmic modes in the error analysis of the expectation value of typical lattice QCD observables (hadronic matrix elements and masses). In the context of simulations affected by slow modes we propose and test a method to obtain reliable estimates of statistical errors. The method is supposed to help in the typical algorithmic setup of lattice QCD, namely when the total statistics collected is of O(10){tau}{sub exp}. This is the typical case when simulating close to the continuum limit where the computational costs for producing two independent data points can be extremely large. We finally discuss the scale setting in N{sub f}=2 simulations using the Kaon decay constant f{sub K} as physical input. The method is explained together with a thorough discussion of the error analysis employed. A description of the publicly available code used for the error analysis is included.

  3. Slow-light enhancement of spontaneous emission in active photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal defect waveguides with embedded active layers containing single or multiple quantum wells or quantum dots have been fabricated. Spontaneous emission spectra are enhanced close to the bandedge, consistently with the enhancement of gain by slow light effects. These are promising...... results for future compact devices for terabit/s communication, such as miniaturised semiconductor optical amplifiers and mode-locked lasers....

  4. Stochastic dynamic modeling of regular and slow earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, N.; Ando, R.; Ide, S.

    2017-12-01

    Both regular and slow earthquakes are slip phenomena on plate boundaries and are simulated by a (quasi-)dynamic modeling [Liu and Rice, 2005]. In these numerical simulations, spatial heterogeneity is usually considered not only for explaining real physical properties but also for evaluating the stability of the calculations or the sensitivity of the results on the condition. However, even though we discretize the model space with small grids, heterogeneity at smaller scales than the grid size is not considered in the models with deterministic governing equations. To evaluate the effect of heterogeneity at the smaller scales we need to consider stochastic interactions between slip and stress in a dynamic modeling. Tidal stress is known to trigger or affect both regular and slow earthquakes [Yabe et al., 2015; Ide et al., 2016], and such an external force with fluctuation can also be considered as a stochastic external force. A healing process of faults may also be stochastic, so we introduce stochastic friction law. In the present study, we propose a stochastic dynamic model to explain both regular and slow earthquakes. We solve mode III problem, which corresponds to the rupture propagation along the strike direction. We use BIEM (boundary integral equation method) scheme to simulate slip evolution, but we add stochastic perturbations in the governing equations, which is usually written in a deterministic manner. As the simplest type of perturbations, we adopt Gaussian deviations in the formulation of the slip-stress kernel, external force, and friction. By increasing the amplitude of perturbations of the slip-stress kernel, we reproduce complicated rupture process of regular earthquakes including unilateral and bilateral ruptures. By perturbing external force, we reproduce slow rupture propagation at a scale of km/day. The slow propagation generated by a combination of fast interaction at S-wave velocity is analogous to the kinetic theory of gasses: thermal

  5. Active Enhancement of Slow Light Based on Plasmon-Induced Transparency with Gain Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojian; Yang, Junbo; He, Xin; Han, Yunxin; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Chen, Dingbo; Xu, Siyu

    2018-06-03

    As a plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) has drawn more attention due to its potential of realizing on-chip sensing, slow light and nonlinear effect enhancement. However, the performance of a plasmonic system is always limited by the metal ohmic loss. Here, we numerically report a PIT system with gain materials based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide. The corresponding phenomenon can be theoretically analyzed by coupled mode theory (CMT). After filling gain material into a disk cavity, the system intrinsic loss can be compensated by external pump beam, and the PIT can be greatly fueled to achieve a dramatic enhancement of slow light performance. Finally, a double-channel enhanced slow light is introduced by adding a second gain disk cavity. This work paves way for a potential new high-performance slow light device, which can have significant applications for high-compact plasmonic circuits and optical communication.

  6. KEK-IMSS Slow Positron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyodo, T; Wada, K; Yagishita, A; Kosuge, T; Saito, Y; Kurihara, T; Kikuchi, T; Shirakawa, A; Sanami, T; Ikeda, M; Ohsawa, S; Kakihara, K; Shidara, T, E-mail: toshio.hyodo@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    The Slow Positron Facility at the Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam produced by a dedicated 55MeV linac. The present beam line branches have been used for the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) measurements, the transmission positron microscope (TPM) and the photo-detachment of Ps negative ions (Ps{sup -}). During the year 2010, a reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) measurement station is going to be installed. The slow positron generator (converter/ moderator) system will be modified to get a higher slow positron intensity, and a new user-friendly beam line power-supply control and vacuum monitoring system is being developed. Another plan for this year is the transfer of a {sup 22}Na-based slow positron beam from RIKEN. This machine will be used for the continuous slow positron beam applications and for the orientation training of those who are interested in beginning researches with a slow positron beam.

  7. Structure and superconductivity of double-doped Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)xB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.6) were prepared by a solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature and magneto-transport properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffract......A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.6) were prepared by a solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature and magneto-transport properties were investigated by means of X......-ray diffraction (XRD), ac-susceptibility and resistance in varied magnetic fields. The double doping leads to decreases in both the lattice parameters a and c. The superconducting transition temperature (T-c) decreases with double doping, but the T-c is systematically higher than that of the single Al......-doped samples. It is suggested that the hole band filling has little effect on T-c at high doping level, while the disorder induced by doping plays an important role in suppressing T-c. A systematic comparison with Al-doped MgB2 of the structure, superconducting transition and irreversibility field is made. (C...

  8. The cryogenic source of slow monochromatic positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, I.N.; Pavlov, V.N.; Sidorin, A.O.; Yakovenko, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The cryogenic source of slow monochromatic positrons based on the 22 Na isotope has been designed and constructed at JINR. Positrons emitted from radioactive source 22 Na have a very broad energy spectrum up to 0.5 MeV. To generate monochromatic beam of slow positrons the solid neon is used as a moderator. The solid neon allows forming slow positron beam of the energy of 1.2 eV at the spectrum width of 1 eV. The efficiency of moderation is 1 % of total positron flux

  9. Dystonia Associated with Idiopathic Slow Orthostatic Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kobylecki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to characterize the clinical and electrophysiological features of patients with slow orthostatic tremor.Case Report: The clinical and neurophysiological data of patients referred for lower limb tremor on standing were reviewed. Patients with symptomatic or primary orthostatic tremor were excluded. Eight patients were identified with idiopathic slow 4–8 Hz orthostatic tremor, which was associated with tremor and dystonia in cervical and upper limb musculature. Coherence analysis in two patients showed findings different to those seen in primary orthostatic tremor.Discussion: Slow orthostatic tremor may be associated with dystonia and dystonic tremor.

  10. Revealing the cluster of slow transients behind a large slow slip event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, William B; Rousset, Baptiste; Lasserre, Cécile; Campillo, Michel

    2018-05-01

    Capable of reaching similar magnitudes to large megathrust earthquakes [ M w (moment magnitude) > 7], slow slip events play a major role in accommodating tectonic motion on plate boundaries through predominantly aseismic rupture. We demonstrate here that large slow slip events are a cluster of short-duration slow transients. Using a dense catalog of low-frequency earthquakes as a guide, we investigate the M w 7.5 slow slip event that occurred in 2006 along the subduction interface 40 km beneath Guerrero, Mexico. We show that while the long-period surface displacement, as recorded by Global Positioning System, suggests a 6-month duration, the motion in the direction of tectonic release only sporadically occurs over 55 days, and its surface signature is attenuated by rapid relocking of the plate interface. Our proposed description of slow slip as a cluster of slow transients forces us to re-evaluate our understanding of the physics and scaling of slow earthquakes.

  11. Zero-Dispersion Slow Light with Wide Bandwidth in Photonic Crystal Coupled Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Yu, Mao; Geng-Yan, Zhang; Yi-Dong, Huang; Wei, Zhang; Jiang-De, Peng

    2008-01-01

    By introducing an adjustment waveguide besides the incident waveguide, zero-dispersion slow light with wide bandwidth can be realized due to anticrossing of the incident waveguide mode and the adjustment waveguide mode. The width of the adjustment waveguide (W 2 ) and the hole radii of the coupling region (r') will change the dispersion of incident waveguide mode. Theoretical investigation reveals that zero dispersion at various low group velocity ν g in incident waveguide can be achieved. In particular, proper W 2 and r' can lead to the lowest ν g of 0.0085c at 1550 nm with wide bandwidth of 202 GHz for zero dispersion

  12. Development of p-type amorphous Cu{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} thin films and fabrication of pn hetero junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, K.C., E-mail: sanalcusat@gmail.com [Nanophotonic and Optoelectronic Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala 682022 (India); Inter University Center for Nanomaterials and Devices (IUCND), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala 682022 (India); Center for Advanced Materials, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala 682022 (India); Jayaraj, M.K., E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in [Nanophotonic and Optoelectronic Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala 682022 (India); Center for Advanced Materials, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala 682022 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Growth of p-type semiconducting amorphous Cu{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} thin films by co-sputtering. • Atomic percentage of Cu{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} thin films from the XPS analysis. • Variation of bandgap with boron concentration in Cu{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} thin films. • Demonstration of p–n hetero junctions fabricated in the structure n-Si/p-Cu{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 2−δ}/Au. - Abstract: Transparent conducting amorphous p type Cu{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} thin films were grown by RF magnetron co-sputtering at room temperature, using copper and boron targets in oxygen atmosphere. The structural, electrical as well as optical properties were studied. Composition of the films was analyzed by XPS. Amorphous structure of as deposited films was confirmed by GXRD. Surface morphology of the films was analyzed by AFM studies. p-Type nature and concentration of carriers were investigated by Hall effect measurement. Band gap of the films was found to increase with the atomic content of boron in the film. A p–n hetero junction using p-type Cu{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} and n-type silicon was fabricated in the structure n-Si/p-Cu{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 2−δ}/Au which showed rectifying behavior. As deposited amorphous Cu{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} thin films with lower carrier concentration can be used as a channel layer for thin film transistors.

  13. VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1984-09-01

    Sep 1, 1984 ... VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR by. L. A. Agu ... order as that of the screw-thread motor can be obtained. LIST OF .... The n stator have equal non- magnetic spacers .... induction motor. An.

  14. Slow and Fast Light, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program 2015 Phase I Solicitation S3.08: Slow and Fast Light, Torch Technologies in partnership...

  15. Experimental demonstration of spinor slow light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Jung; Ruseckas, Julius; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriašov, Viačeslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; JuzeliÅ«nas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade there has been a continuing interest in slow and stored light based on the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect, because of their potential applications in quantum information manipulation. However, previous experimental works all dealt with the single-component slow light which cannot be employed as a qubit. In this work, we report the first experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light (SSL) using a double tripod (DT) atom-light coupling scheme. The oscillations between the two components, similar to the Rabi oscillation of a two-level system or a qubit, were observed. Single-photon SSL can be considered as two-color qubits. We experimentally demonstrated a possible application of the DT scheme as quantum memory and quantum rotator for the two-color qubits. This work opens up a new direction in the slow light research.

  16. Elastic scattering of slow positrons by helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Cherepkov, N.A.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Shapiro, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    The s-, p-, d- and f-wave phaseshifts for elastic scattering of slow positrons by He are calculated using a simplified version of the random phase approximation with exchange, with virtual positronium formation effect taken into account. (author)

  17. A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement

  18. Reduced dynamics in spin-boson models: A method for both slow and fast bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golosov, Andrei A.; Friesner, Richard A.; Pechukas, Philip

    2000-01-01

    We study a model for treating dissipative systems, a one dimensional quantum system coupled to a harmonic bath. The dynamics of such a system can be described by Feynman's path integral expression for the reduced density matrix. In this formulation the interaction of the system with the environment is stored in the influence functional. Recently we showed that fast environmental modes that give rise to correlations in the influence functional which are short range in time can be treated efficiently by a memory equation algorithm, which is a discretized version of a master equation. In this work we extend this approach to treat slow environmental modes as well, thereby efficiently linking adiabatic and nonadiabatic regimes. In this extended method the long range correlations in the influence functional arising from slow bath modes are taken into account through Stock's semiclassical self-consistent-field approach. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. Nonlinear mode coupling in rotating stars and the r-mode instability in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, A.K.; Arras, P.; Flanagan, E.E.; Teukolsky, S.A.; Wasserman, I.

    2002-01-01

    entirely and the coupling of two r modes to one hybrid, or r-g rotational, mode vanishes to zeroth order in rotation frequency. The coupling of any three rotational modes vanishes to zeroth order in compressibility and in Ω. In nonzero-buoyancy stars, coupling of the r modes to each other vanishes to zeroth order in Ω. Couplings to regular modes (those modes whose frequencies are finite in the limit Ω→0), such as f modes, are not zero, but since the natural frequencies of these modes are relatively large in the slow rotation limit compared to those of the r modes, energy transfer to those modes is not expected to be efficient

  20. Frequency response of slow beam extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Takeshi; Sato, Hikaru; Marutsuka, Katsumi; Shirakata, Masashi.

    1994-01-01

    A servo control system has been incorporated into the practical slow extraction system in order to stabilize the spill structure less than a few kHz. Frequency responses of the components of the servo-spill control system and the open-loop frequency response were measured. The beam transfer function of the slow extraction process was derived from the measured data and approximated using a simple function. This is utilized to improve the performance of the servo-loop. (author)

  1. Slow potentials in a melody recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleger, R; Schellberg, D

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study, slow negative shifts were found in the EEG of subjects listening to well-known melodies. The two experiments reported here were designed to investigate the variables to which these slow potentials are related. In the first experiment, two opposite hypotheses were tested: The slow shifts might express subjects' acquaintance with the melodies or, on the contrary, the effort invested to identify them. To this end, some of the melodies were presented in the rhythms of other melodies to make recognition more difficult. Further, melodies rated as very well-known and as very unknown were analysed separately. However, the slow shifts were not affected by these experimental variations. Therefore in the second experiment, on the one hand the purely physical parameters intensity and duration were varied, but this variation had no impact on the slow shifts either. On the other hand, recognition was made more difficult by monotonously repeating the pitch of the 4th tone for the rest of some melodies. The slow negative shifts were enhanced with these monotonous melodies. This enhancement supports the "effort" hypothesis. Accordingly, the ofter shifts obtained in both experiments might likewise reflect effort. But since the task was not demanding, it is suggested that these constant shifts reflect the effort invested for coping with the entire underarousing situation rather than with the task. Frequently, slow eye movements occurred in the same time range as the slow potentials, resulting in EOG potentials spreading to the EEG recording sites. Yet results did not change substantially when the EEG recordings were corrected for the influence of EOG potentials.

  2. Nonlinear MHD and energetic particle modes in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    The M3D code has been applied to ideal, resistive, two fluid, and hybrid simulations of compact quasi axisymmetric stellarators. When beta exceeds a threshold, low poloidal mode number (m=6∼18) modes grow exponentially, clearly distinguishable from the equilibrium evolution. Simulations of NCSX have beta limits are significantly higher than the infinite mode number ballooning limits. In the presence of resistivity, these modes occur well below the ideal limit. Their growth rate scaling with resistivity is similar to tearing modes. With sufficient viscosity, the growth rate becomes slow enough to allow calculations of magnetic island evolution. Hybrid gyrokinetic simulations with energetic particles indicate that global shear Alfven TAE - like modes can be destabilized in stellarators. Computations in a two - period compact stellarator obtained a predominantly n=1 toroidal mode with about the expected TAE frequency. Work is in progress to study fast ion-driven Alfven modes in NCSX. (author)

  3. Inertial modes of rigidly rotating neutron stars in Cowling approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastaun, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we investigate inertial modes of rigidly rotating neutron stars, i.e. modes for which the Coriolis force is dominant. This is done using the assumption of a fixed spacetime (Cowling approximation). We present frequencies and eigenfunctions for a sequence of stars with a polytropic equation of state, covering a broad range of rotation rates. The modes were obtained with a nonlinear general relativistic hydrodynamic evolution code. We further show that the eigenequations for the oscillation modes can be written in a particularly simple form for the case of arbitrary fast but rigid rotation. Using these equations, we investigate some general characteristics of inertial modes, which are then compared to the numerically obtained eigenfunctions. In particular, we derive a rough analytical estimate for the frequency as a function of the number of nodes of the eigenfunction, and find that a similar empirical relation matches the numerical results with unexpected accuracy. We investigate the slow rotation limit of the eigenequations, obtaining two different sets of equations describing pressure and inertial modes. For the numerical computations we only considered axisymmetric modes, while the analytic part also covers nonaxisymmetric modes. The eigenfunctions suggest that the classification of inertial modes by the quantum numbers of the leading term of a spherical harmonic decomposition is artificial in the sense that the largest term is not strongly dominant, even in the slow rotation limit. The reason for the different structure of pressure and inertial modes is that the Coriolis force remains important in the slow rotation limit only for inertial modes. Accordingly, the scalar eigenequation we obtain in that limit is spherically symmetric for pressure modes, but not for inertial modes

  4. Structure, elastic stiffness, and hardness of Os 1- xRu xB 2 solid solution transition-metal diborides

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Hermet, Patrick; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of recent experiments, the solid solution transition-metal diborides were proposed to be new ultra-incompressible hard materials. We investigate using density functional theory based methods the structural and mechanical properties, electronic structure, and hardness of Os 1-xRu xB 2 solid solutions. A difference in chemical bonding occurs between OsB 2 and RuB 2 diborides, leading to significantly different elastic properties: a large bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Os-rich diborides and relatively small bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Ru-rich diborides. The electronic structure and bonding characterization are also analyzed as a function of Ru-dopant concentration in the OsB 2 lattice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Vortex phase diagram and vortex dynamics at low temperature in a thick a-Mg{sub x}B{sub 1-x} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S. [Research Center for Low Temperature Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ohokayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)], E-mail: sokuma@o.cc.titech.ac.jp; Kohara, M. [Research Center for Low Temperature Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ohokayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2007-09-01

    We report on the equilibrium vortex phase diagram and vortex dynamics at low temperature T in a thick amorphous (a-)Mg{sub x}B{sub 1-x} film based on the measurements of the dc resistivity {rho} and time (t)-dependent component of the flux-flow voltage, {delta}V(t), respectively. Both {rho}(T) in perpendicular fields and the vortex phase diagram are qualitatively similar to those for the a-Mo{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} films, in which evidence for the quantum-vortex-liquid (QVL) phase has been obtained. In either material system we observe anomalous vortex flow with the asymmetric distribution of {delta}V(t) in the QVL phase, suggesting that the anomalous flow is a universal phenomenon commonly observed for disordered amorphous films, independent of material.

  6. Study of the CdX-B2X3-X (X=S, Se), CdTe-B-Te systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odin, I.N.; Grin'ko, V.V.; Safronov, E.V.; Kozlovskij, V.F.

    2001-01-01

    Liquidus surfaces of the CdX-B 2 X 3 -X (X=S, Se), CdTe-B-Te systems are plotted for the first time. It is shown that in equilibrium solid solutions on the basis of ternary Cd 2 B 2 X 5 compounds and binary B 2 X 3 , CdX, BS 2 compounds take part with liquid phases. p gen -T and T-x projects of p-T-x phase diagram of B-S (59-100 at. % S), B-Se (59-100 at. % Se), B-Te systems are plotted . B 2 X 3 , BS 2 compounds are formed in that regions of compositions of B-X systems . In the B-Te system compounds are not formed. Ternary compounds are not formed in the CdTe-B-Te system [ru

  7. Structure, elastic stiffness, and hardness of Os 1- xRu xB 2 solid solution transition-metal diborides

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-31

    On the basis of recent experiments, the solid solution transition-metal diborides were proposed to be new ultra-incompressible hard materials. We investigate using density functional theory based methods the structural and mechanical properties, electronic structure, and hardness of Os 1-xRu xB 2 solid solutions. A difference in chemical bonding occurs between OsB 2 and RuB 2 diborides, leading to significantly different elastic properties: a large bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Os-rich diborides and relatively small bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Ru-rich diborides. The electronic structure and bonding characterization are also analyzed as a function of Ru-dopant concentration in the OsB 2 lattice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Geometrical Structures and Electronic Properties of Ga6 and Ga5X (X = B, C, N, O, F, Al, Si, P, S, Cl Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the unbiased CALYPSO (Crystal structure Analysis by Particle Swarm Optimization structure searching method in combination with density functional theory (DFT, the geometrical structures and electronic properties are investigated theoretically for Ga6 and Ga5X (X = B, C, N, O, F, Al, Si, P, S, Cl clusters. The PBE0 exchange-correlation functional and the 6-311G(d basis set is carried out to determine global minima on potential energy surfaces. The relative stabilities of the clusters are examined by the binding energies and substitution reaction. Following the predictions of the Jellium model, the Ga5B cluster with the 18 valence electrons is the most stable structure. At last, with the obtained lowest energy structures, some physical properties such as electrons transfer, molecular orbitals, and total and partial densities of states are discussed, respectively.

  9. Slow brushing reduces heat pain in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljencrantz, J; Strigo, I; Ellingsen, D M; Krämer, H H; Lundblad, L C; Nagi, S S; Leknes, S; Olausson, H

    2017-08-01

    C-tactile (CT) afferents are unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors optimized for signalling affective, gentle touch. In three separate psychophysical experiments, we examined the contribution of CT afferents to pain modulation. In total, 44 healthy volunteers experienced heat pain and CT optimal (slow brushing) and CT sub-optimal (fast brushing or vibration) stimuli. Three different experimental paradigms were used: Concurrent application of heat pain and tactile (slow brushing or vibration) stimulation; Slow brushing, applied for variable duration and intervals, preceding heat pain; Slow versus fast brushing preceding heat pain. Slow brushing was effective in reducing pain, whereas fast brushing or vibration was not. The reduction in pain was significant not only when the CT optimal touch was applied simultaneously with the painful stimulus but also when the two stimuli were separated in time. For subsequent stimulation, the pain reduction was more pronounced for a shorter time interval between brushing and pain. Likewise, the effect was more robust when pain was preceded by a longer duration of brush stimulation. Strong CT-related pain reduction was associated with low anxiety and high calmness scores obtained by a state anxiety questionnaire. Slow brushing - optimal for CT activation - is effective in reducing pain from cutaneous heating. The precise mechanisms for the pain relief are as yet unknown but possible mechanisms include inhibition of nociceptive projection neurons at the level of the dorsal horn as well as analgesia through cortical mechanisms. Slow brushing stimuli - optimal for activation of C-tactile fibres - can reduce pain from cutaneous heating. No such effect was seen with fast brushing or vibration. These observations indicate the role of C-tactile fibres in pain modulation. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  10. Linear mode conversion in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.

    1980-05-01

    Linear mode conversion at the perpendicular ion cyclotron resonance has been treated for an axially symmetric toroidal plasma. The mode conversion appears between a fast electromagnetic wave and a slow-quasi electrostatic wave, due to finite electron inertia. The problem reduces to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation where the coefficients determining the reflectron, transmission and conversion are functions of the arc length along a poloidal intersection of the resonance surface. These coefficients can be determined from eigenfunctions of an ordinary differential equation. (author)

  11. Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hao; Gu, Tingyi; McMillan, James F.; Wong, Chee Wei; Petrone, Nicholas; Zande, Arend van der; Hone, James C.; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Feng, Guoying; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the enhanced four-wave mixing of monolayer graphene on slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides. 200-μm interaction length, a four-wave mixing conversion efficiency of −23 dB is achieved in the graphene-silicon slow-light hybrid, with an enhanced 3-dB conversion bandwidth of about 17 nm. Our measurements match well with nonlinear coupled-mode theory simulations based on the measured waveguide dispersion, and provide an effective way for all-optical signal processing in chip-scale integrated optics.

  12. Slow electron contribution to inelastic reflection anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podsvirov, O.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.A.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is electron contribution with low energy (up to 1 keV) to the anisotropy of electron inelastic reflection (IRE) from silicon monocrystal (111) within 12-50 keV energy range of primary electrons. Experimental data on IRE anisotropy are presented: delay curves for silicon monocrystal, permitting to separate electrons with the energy up to 1 keV, dependences of IRE anisotropy on the energy of primary electrons for the systems - monocrystalline silicon-amorphous silicon film and delay curves for such systems (film thickness varies from 20 to 2000 A). Suggested is a phenomenologic model, permitting to take into account the contribution of slow electrons to IRE anisotropy: it is supposed, that three groups of electrons take part in the formation of the latter: elastic and inelastic reflected electrons, slow electrons, excited by primary electrons and slow electrons, generated by the reverse flow of the scattered electrons. Contribution of electrons, different by origin, to IRE anisotropy is evaluated in accordance with the experimental data on the basis of this model. It is stated, that slow electrons constitute approximately one half of the IRE anisotropy value, the contribution of both groups of slow electrons being approximately equal

  13. Human gamma oscillations during slow wave sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Valderrama

    Full Text Available Neocortical local field potentials have shown that gamma oscillations occur spontaneously during slow-wave sleep (SWS. At the macroscopic EEG level in the human brain, no evidences were reported so far. In this study, by using simultaneous scalp and intracranial EEG recordings in 20 epileptic subjects, we examined gamma oscillations in cerebral cortex during SWS. We report that gamma oscillations in low (30-50 Hz and high (60-120 Hz frequency bands recurrently emerged in all investigated regions and their amplitudes coincided with specific phases of the cortical slow wave. In most of the cases, multiple oscillatory bursts in different frequency bands from 30 to 120 Hz were correlated with positive peaks of scalp slow waves ("IN-phase" pattern, confirming previous animal findings. In addition, we report another gamma pattern that appears preferentially during the negative phase of the slow wave ("ANTI-phase" pattern. This new pattern presented dominant peaks in the high gamma range and was preferentially expressed in the temporal cortex. Finally, we found that the spatial coherence between cortical sites exhibiting gamma activities was local and fell off quickly when computed between distant sites. Overall, these results provide the first human evidences that gamma oscillations can be observed in macroscopic EEG recordings during sleep. They support the concept that these high-frequency activities might be associated with phasic increases of neural activity during slow oscillations. Such patterned activity in the sleeping brain could play a role in off-line processing of cortical networks.

  14. Magnon inflation: slow roll with steep potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Blas, Diego [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Burgess, C.P.; Hayman, Peter [Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University,Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Patil, Subodh P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva,24 Quai Ansermet, Geneva, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2016-11-04

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy G{sup ab}∂{sub a}V∂{sub b}V≪V{sup 2}/M{sub p}{sup 2} (where G{sub ab} is the target-space metric). They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on V because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides one particular example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for its background evolution. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization of the single-field Cuscuton models. The multi-field case introduces a new feature, however: the scalar kinetic terms define a target-space 2-form, F{sub ab}, whose antisymmetry gives new ways for slow roll to be achieved.

  15. Magnon Inflation: Slow Roll with Steep Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Adshead, Peter; Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P

    2016-01-01

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy the usual slow-roll condition (d V)^2 << V^2/Mp^2. They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on $V$ because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides an example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for the background evolution for Chromo-natural inflation. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization ...

  16. Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Cong, Longqing; Singh, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjans@ntu.edu.sg [Center for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Chiam, Sher-Yi [NUS High School of Math and Science, 20 Clementi Avenue 1, Singapore, Singapore 129957 (Singapore); Bettiol, Andrew A. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 3, Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Zhang, Weili [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 202 Engineering South, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2015-05-04

    We experimentally study the effect of near field coupling on the transmission of light in terahertz metasurfaces. Our results show that tailoring the coupling between the resonators modulates the amplitude of resulting electromagnetically induced transmission, probed under different types of asymmetries in the coupled system. Observed change in the transmission amplitude is attributed to the change in the amount of destructive interference between the resonators in the vicinity of strong near field coupling. We employ a two-particle model to theoretically study the influence of the coupling between bright and quasi-dark modes on the transmission properties of the system and we find an excellent agreement with our observed results. Adding to the enhanced transmission characteristics, our results provide a deeper insight into the metamaterial analogues of atomic electromagnetically induced transparency and offer an approach to engineer slow light devices, broadband filters, and attenuators at terahertz frequencies.

  17. Structural looseness investigation in slow rotating permanent magnet generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Mijatovic, Nenad; Sweeney, Christian Walsted

    2016-01-01

    Structural looseness in electric machines is a condition influencing the alignment of the machine and thus the overall bearing health. In this work, assessment of the above mentioned failure mode is tested on a slow rotating (running speed equal to 0.7Hz) permanent magnet generator (PMG), while...... collecting vibration and current data in order to cross-reference the indications from the two monitoring techniques. It is found that electric signature analysis shows no response even when two hold down bolts are untightened, whereas the analysis results from the vibration data exhibit superior performance....... The vibration-based condition indicators with the best response are the stator slot pass frequency, which can be directly related to the cogging torque in PMGs, and the 4th electric frequency harmonic, whose amplitudes increase due to the overall lower structure damping coefficient under looseness...

  18. Spinor Slow Light and Two-Color Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ite; Lee, Meng-Jung; Ruseckas, Julius; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriasov, Viaceslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A.

    2015-05-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light (SSL) using a double tripod (DT) atom-light coupling scheme. The scheme involves three atomic ground states coupled to two excited states by six light fields. The oscillation due to the interaction between the two components was observed. SSL can be used to achieve high conversion efficiencies in the sum frequency generation and is a better method than the widely-used double- Λ scheme. On the basis of the stored light, our data showed that the DT scheme behaves like the two outcomes of an interferometer enabling precision measurements of frequency detuning. Furthermore, the single-photon SSL can be considered as the qubit with the superposition state of two frequency modes or, simply, as the two-color qubit. We experimentally demonstrated a possible application of the DT scheme as quantum memory/rotator for the two-color qubit. This work opens up a new direction in the EIT/slow light research. yu@phys.nthu.edu.tw

  19. Slow waves in microchannel metal waveguides and application to particle acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Steinhauer

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional metal-wall waveguides support waveguide modes with phase velocities exceeding the speed of light. However, for infrared frequencies and guide dimensions of a fraction of a millimeter, one of the waveguide modes can have a phase velocity equal to or less than the speed of light. Such a metal microchannel then acts as a slow-wave structure. Furthermore, if it is a transverse magnetic mode, the electric field has a component along the direction of propagation. Therefore, a strong exchange of energy can occur between a beam of charged particles and this slow-waveguide mode. Moreover, the energy exchange can be sustained over a distance limited only by the natural damping of the wave. This makes the microchannel metal waveguide an attractive possibility for high-gradient electron laser acceleration because the wave can be directly energized by a long-wavelength laser. Indeed the frequency of CO_{2} lasers lies at a fortuitous wavelength that produces a strong laser-particle interaction in a channel of reasonable macroscopic size (e.g., ∼0.6  mm. The dispersion properties including phase velocity and damping for the slow wave are developed. The performance and other issues related to laser accelerator applications are discussed.

  20. Slow waves in microchannel metal waveguides and application to particle acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2003-06-01

    Conventional metal-wall waveguides support waveguide modes with phase velocities exceeding the speed of light. However, for infrared frequencies and guide dimensions of a fraction of a millimeter, one of the waveguide modes can have a phase velocity equal to or less than the speed of light. Such a metal microchannel then acts as a slow-wave structure. Furthermore, if it is a transverse magnetic mode, the electric field has a component along the direction of propagation. Therefore, a strong exchange of energy can occur between a beam of charged particles and this slow-waveguide mode. Moreover, the energy exchange can be sustained over a distance limited only by the natural damping of the wave. This makes the microchannel metal waveguide an attractive possibility for high-gradient electron laser acceleration because the wave can be directly energized by a long-wavelength laser. Indeed the frequency of CO2 lasers lies at a fortuitous wavelength that produces a strong laser-particle interaction in a channel of reasonable macroscopic size (e.g., ˜0.6 mm). The dispersion properties including phase velocity and damping for the slow wave are developed. The performance and other issues related to laser accelerator applications are discussed.

  1. How decoherence affects the probability of slow-roll eternal inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Kimberly K.; Carroll, Sean M.; Pollack, Jason

    2017-07-01

    Slow-roll inflation can become eternal if the quantum variance of the inflaton field around its slowly rolling classical trajectory is converted into a distribution of classical spacetimes inflating at different rates, and if the variance is large enough compared to the rate of classical rolling that the probability of an increased rate of expansion is sufficiently high. Both of these criteria depend sensitively on whether and how perturbation modes of the inflaton interact and decohere. Decoherence is inevitable as a result of gravitationally sourced interactions whose strength are proportional to the slow-roll parameters. However, the weakness of these interactions means that decoherence is typically delayed until several Hubble times after modes grow beyond the Hubble scale. We present perturbative evidence that decoherence of long-wavelength inflaton modes indeed leads to an ensemble of classical spacetimes with differing cosmological evolutions. We introduce the notion of per-branch observables—expectation values with respect to the different decohered branches of the wave function—and show that the evolution of modes on individual branches varies from branch to branch. Thus, single-field slow-roll inflation fulfills the quantum-mechanical criteria required for the validity of the standard picture of eternal inflation. For a given potential, the delayed decoherence can lead to slight quantitative adjustments to the regime in which the inflaton undergoes eternal inflation.

  2. Neutron slowing-down time in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabod, Sebastien P., E-mail: sebastien.chabod@lpsc.in2p3.fr [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2012-03-21

    We formulate the neutron slowing-down time through elastic collisions in a homogeneous, non-absorbing, infinite medium. Our approach allows taking into account for the first time the energy dependence of the scattering cross-section as well as the energy and temporal distribution of the source neutron population in the results. Starting from this development, we investigate the specific case of the propagation in matter of a mono-energetic neutron pulse. We then quantify the perturbation on the neutron slowing-down time induced by resonances in the scattering cross-section. We show that a resonance can induce a permanent reduction of the slowing-down time, preceded by two discontinuities: a first one at the resonance peak position and an echo one, appearing later. From this study, we suggest that a temperature increase of the propagating medium in presence of large resonances could modestly accelerate the neutron moderation.

  3. Physics of the L-mode to H-mode transition in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Kim, J.; Osborne, T.H.; St. John, H.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Doyle, E.J.; Moyer, R.A.; Rettig, C.L.; Peebles, W.A.; Rhodes, T.L.; Finkenthal, D.; Hillis, D.L.; Wade, M.R.; Matsumoto, H.; Watkins, J.G.

    1992-07-01

    Combined theoretical and experimental work has resulted in the creation of a paradigm which has allowed semi-quantitative understanding of the edge confinement improvement that occurs in the H-mode. Shear in the E x B flow of the fluctuations in the plasma edge can lead to decorrelation of the fluctuations, decreased radial correlation lengths and reduced turbulent transport. Changes in the radial electric field, the density fluctuations and the edge transport consistent with shear stabilization of turbulence have been seen in several tokamaks. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the most recent data in the light of the basic paradigm of electric field shear stabilization and to critically compare the experimental results with various theories

  4. Generalized slow roll for noncanonical kinetic terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    We show that the generalized slow roll approach for calculating the power spectrum where the inflationary slow roll parameters are neither small nor slowly varying can be readily extended to models with noncanonical kinetic terms in the inflaton action. For example, rapid sound speed variations can arise in Dirac-Born-Infeld models with features in the warp factor leading to features in the power spectrum. Nonetheless there remains a single source function for deviations that is simply related to the power spectrum. Empirical constraints on this source function can be readily interpreted in the context of features in the inflaton potential or sound speed.

  5. Fast and slow spindles during the sleep slow oscillation: disparate coalescence and engagement in memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Bergmann, Til O; Marshall, Lisa; Born, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Thalamo-cortical spindles driven by the up-state of neocortical slow (memory consolidation during sleep. We examined interactions between SOs and spindles in human slow wave sleep, focusing on the presumed existence of 2 kinds of spindles, i.e., slow frontocortical and fast centro-parietal spindles. Two experiments were performed in healthy humans (24.5 ± 0.9 y) investigating undisturbed sleep (Experiment I) and the effects of prior learning (word paired associates) vs. non-learning (Experiment II) on multichannel EEG recordings during sleep. Only fast spindles (12-15 Hz) were synchronized to the depolarizing SO up-state. Slow spindles (9-12 Hz) occurred preferentially at the transition into the SO down-state, i.e., during waning depolarization. Slow spindles also revealed a higher probability to follow rather than precede fast spindles. For sequences of individual SOs, fast spindle activity was largest for "initial" SOs, whereas SO amplitude and slow spindle activity were largest for succeeding SOs. Prior learning enhanced this pattern. The finding that fast and slow spindles occur at different times of the SO cycle points to disparate generating mechanisms for the 2 kinds of spindles. The reported temporal relationships during SO sequences suggest that fast spindles, driven by the SO up-state feed back to enhance the likelihood of succeeding SOs together with slow spindles. By enforcing such SO-spindle cycles, particularly after prior learning, fast spindles possibly play a key role in sleep-dependent memory processing.

  6. Spectrum of resistive MHD modes in cylindrical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.M.; Grimm, R.C.

    1983-07-01

    A numerical study of the normal modes of a compressible resistive MHD fluid in cylindrical geometry is presented. Resistivity resolves the shear Alfven and slow magnetosonic continua of ideal MHD into discrete spectra and gives rise to heavily damped modes whose frequencies lie on specific lines in the complex plane. Fast magnetosonic waves are less affected but are also damped. Overstable modes arise from the shear Alfven spectrum. The stabilizing effect of favorable average curvature is shown. Eigenfunctions illustrating the nature of typical normal modes are displayed

  7. Light storage via slow-light four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yun-Fei; Wang, Hai-Hua; Wei, Xiao-Gang; Li, Ai-Jun; Kang, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Jin-Hui; Zhang, Han-Zhuang; Xu, Huai-Liang; Gao, Jin-Yue

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a light storage via slow-light four-wave mixing in a solid-state medium with a four-level double lambda scheme. Using slow light based on electromagnetically induced transparency, we obtain a slowed four-wave mixing signal pulse together with the slowed probe pulse. During the propagation of light pulses, the storage and retrieval of both the slowed four-wave mixing pulse and the slowed probe pulse are studied by manipulating the intensities of the control fields. -- Highlights: ► A light storage via slow-light four-wave mixing is observed in a solid. ► The probe pulse is slowed under electromagnetically induced transparency. ► A slowed four-wave mixing pulse is obtained by slow light. ► The storage of slowed double pulses is studied.

  8. Slow evaporation method and enhancement in photoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nescence (PL) properties and decay time of phosphors were studied at room temperature. The YPO4 ... Keywords. Slow evaporation method; YPO4 : Eu3+, Bi3+; quenching effect; optical material. 1. ... intensity of Eu3+-doped compounds such as CaMoO4 : Bi3+, .... Figure 4 shows FESEM images of YPO4 : Eu3+ and Bi3+.

  9. Quick-Connect, Slow-Disconnect Bolt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Proposed bolt functions similarly to device described in article "Quick-Connect, Slow-Disconnect Nut" (MFS-28833). Bolt installed in standard threaded hole simply by pushing it into hole. Once inserted, bolt withdrawn only by turning it in conventional way.

  10. A slow component of classic Stroop interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phaf, R. Hans; Horsman, Hark H.; van der Moolen, Bas; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Schmand, Ben

    2010-01-01

    The interference in colour naming may extend beyond critical Stroop trials. This "slow'' effect was first discovered in emotional Stroop tasks, but is extended here to classical Stroop. In two experiments, meaningless coloured letter strings followed a colour word or neutral word. Student

  11. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  12. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  13. Response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, A.J.P.; Pela, C.A.; Zimmerman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The response of the electret dosemeter to exposition of slow neutrons is studied. Different external coatings are used on the dosemeter (polyethylene, alminium, polyethylene + boron, aluminium + boron) and exposure curves (with and without water) are compared. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Analysis of the neutron slowing down equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.; Karnick, H.

    1978-01-01

    The infinite series solution of the elementary neutron slowing down equation is studied using the theory of entire functions of exponential type and nonharmonic Fourier series. It is shown from Muntz--Szasz and Paley--Wiener theorems, that the set of exponentials ]exp(ilambda/sub n/u) ]/sup infinity//sub n/=-infinity, where ]lambda/sub n/]/sup infinity//sub n/=-infinity are the roots of the transcendental equation in slowing down theory, is complete and forms a basis in a lethargy interval epsilon. This distinctive role of the maximum lethargy change per collision is due to the Fredholm character of the slowing down operator which need not be quasinilpotent. The discontinuities in the derivatives of the collision density are examined by treating the slowing down equation in its differential-difference form. The solution (Hilbert) space is the union of a countable number of subspaces L 2 (-epsilon/2, epsilon/2) over each of which the exponential functions are complete

  15. Probabilistic Slow Features for Behavior Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Lazaros; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Nikitidis, Symeon; Pantic, Maja

    A recently introduced latent feature learning technique for time-varying dynamic phenomena analysis is the so-called slow feature analysis (SFA). SFA is a deterministic component analysis technique for multidimensional sequences that, by minimizing the variance of the first-order time derivative

  16. Learning slow features for behavior analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Lazaros; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Nikitids, Symeon; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    A recently introduced latent feature learning technique for time varying dynamic phenomena analysis is the socalled Slow Feature Analysis (SFA). SFA is a deterministic component analysis technique for multi-dimensional sequences that by minimizing the variance of the first order time derivative

  17. Proton energy dependence of slow neutron intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    The choice of the proton energy is an important issue for the design of an intense-pulsed-spallation source. The optimal proton beam energy is rather unique from a viewpoint of the leakage neutron intensity but no yet clear from the slow-neutron intensity view point. It also depends on an accelerator type. Since it is also important to know the proton energy dependence of slow-neutrons from the moderators in a realistic target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). We studied on the TMRA proposed for Japan Spallation Neutron Source. The slow-neutron intensities from the moderators per unit proton beam power (MW) exhibit the maximum at about 1-2 GeV. At higher proton energies the intensity per MW goes down; at 3 and 50 GeV about 0.91 and 0.47 times as low as that at 1 GeV. The proton energy dependence of slow-neutron intensities was found to be almost the same as that of total neutron yield (leakage neutrons) from the same bare target. It was also found that proton energy dependence was almost the same for the coupled and decoupled moderators, regardless the different moderator type, geometry and coupling scheme. (author)

  18. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  19. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPAQ

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... strains had a very slow growth rate in yeast malt (YM) agar medium, forming colonies less than 1 mm in ... dominant genus of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria ... Single colonies were picked up and checked for purity by.

  20. H-mode physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae.

    1991-06-01

    After the discovery of the H-mode in ASDEX ( a tokamak in Germany ) the transition between the L-mode ( Low confinement mode ) and H-mode ( High confinement mode ) has been observed in many tokamaks in the world. The H-mode has made a breakthrough in improving the plasma parameters and has been recognized to be a universal phenomena. Since its discovery, the extensive studies both in experiments and in theory have been made. The research on H-mode has been casting new problems of an anomalous transport across the magnetic surface. This series of lectures will provide a brief review of experiments for explaining H-mode and a model theory of H-mode transition based on the electric field bifurcation. If the time is available, a new theoretical model of the temporal evolution of the H-mode will be given. (author)

  1. Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monat, Christelle; Grillet, Christian; Corcoran, Bill; Moss, David J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; White, Thomas P; Krauss, Thomas F

    2010-03-29

    Using Fourier optics, we retrieve the wavevector dependence of the third-harmonic (green) light generated in a slow light silicon photonic crystal waveguide. We show that quasi-phase matching between the third-harmonic signal and the fundamental mode is provided in this geometry by coupling to the continuum of radiation modes above the light line. This process sustains third-harmonic generation with a relatively high efficiency and a substantial bandwidth limited only by the slow light window of the fundamental mode. The results give us insights into the physics of this nonlinear process in the presence of strong absorption and dispersion at visible wavelengths where bandstructure calculations are problematic. Since the characteristics (e.g. angular pattern) of the third-harmonic light primarily depend on the fundamental mode dispersion, they could be readily engineered.

  2. On the local theory of resonant inelastic collisions of slow electrons with carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, A.K.; Sergeeva, L.Yu.

    1994-01-01

    A method of calculating the cross sections of inelastic vibronic transitions in collisions of slow electrons with polyatomic molecules in the framework of the local theory (the 'boomerang' model) is proposed. The method is based on the study of the time evolution of the initial vibronic wavefunction; the evolution is governed by the (complex valued) Hamiltonian of the intermediate anion state. The method has been applied to the consideration of inelastic electron collisions with the CO 2 molecule in the two-mode approximation (symmetrical stretching and bending). The results obtained demonstrate the importance of the two-mode description for the system which can undergo the Renner transition. (Author)

  3. Competing anisotropies on 3d sub-lattice of YNi{sub 4–x}Co{sub x}B compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Rocco, D. L.; Reis, M. S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Costa Soares, T. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); IF Sudeste MG Campus de Juiz de Fora-Núcleo de Física, 36080-001 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Caldeira, L. [IF Sudeste MG Campus de Juiz de Fora-Núcleo de Física, 36080-001 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Coelho, A. A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas-Unicamp, Caixa postal 6165, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-14

    The magnetic anisotropy of 3d sub-lattices has an important rule on the overall magnetic properties of hard magnets. Intermetallics alloys with boron (R-Co/Ni-B, for instance) belong to those hard magnets family and are useful objects to help to understand the magnetic behavior of 3d sub-lattice, specially when the rare earth ions R do not have magnetic nature, like YCo{sub 4}B ferromagnetic material. Interestingly, YNi{sub 4}B is a paramagnetic material and Ni ions do not contribute to the magnetic anisotropy. We focused therefore our attention to YNi{sub 4–x}Co{sub x}B series, with x = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. The magnetic anisotropy of these compounds is deeper described using statistical and preferential models of Co occupation among the possible Wyckoff positions into the CeCo{sub 4}B type hexagonal structure. We found that the preferential model is the most suitable to explain the magnetization experimental data.

  4. Electronic structure, chemical bonding, phase stability, and ground-state properties of YNi2-x(Co/Cu)xB2C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, P.; Johansson, B.; Eriksson, O.

    1998-01-01

    In order to understand the role of Ni site substitution on the electronic structure and chemical bonding in YNi 2 B 2 C, we have made systematic electronic-structure studies on YNi 2 B 2 C as a function of Co and Cu substitution using the supercell approach within the local density approximation. The equilibrium volume, bulk modulus (B 0 ) and its pressure derivative (B 0 ' ), Grueneisen constant (γ G ), Debye temperature (Θ D ), cohesive energy (E c ), and heat of formation (ΔH) are calculated for YNi 2-x (Co/Cu) x B 2 C (x=0,0.5,1.0,1.5,2). From the total energy, electron-energy band structure, site decomposed density of states, and charge-density contour we have analyzed the structural stability and chemical bonding behavior of YNi 2 B 2 C as a function of Co/Cu substitution. We find that the simple rigid band model successfully explains the electronic structure and structural stability of Co/Cu substitution for Ni. In addition to studying the chemical bonding and electronic structure we present a somewhat speculative analysis of the general trends in the behavior of critical temperature for superconductivity as a function of alloying. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  5. Quantum mechanically guided design of Co43Fe20Ta5.5X31.5 (X=B, Si, P, S) metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostert, C; Music, D; Schneider, J M; Bednarcik, J; Keckes, J

    2012-01-01

    A systematic ab initio molecular dynamics study was carried out to identify valence electron concentration and size induced changes on structure, elastic and magnetic properties for Co 43 Fe 20 Ta 5.5 X 31.5 (X=B, Si, P, S). Short range order, charge transfer and the bonding nature are analyzed by means of density of states, Bader decomposition and pair distribution function analysis. A clear trend of a decrease in density and bulk modulus as well as a weaker cohesion was observed as the valence electron concentration is increased by replacing B with Si and further with P and S. These changes may be understood based on increased interatomic distances, variations in coordination numbers and the electronic structure changes; as the valence electron concentration of X is increased the X bonding becomes more ionic, which disrupts the overall metallic interactions, leading to lower cohesion and stiffness. The highest magnetic moments for the transition metals are identified for X=S, despite the fact that the presence of X generally reduces the magnetic moment of Co. Furthermore, this study reveals an extended diagonal relationship between B and P within these amorphous alloys. Based on quantum mechanical data we identify composition induced changes in short range order, charge transfer and bonding nature and link them to density, elasticity and magnetism. The interplay between transition metal d band filling and s-d hybridization was identified to be a key materials design criterion. (paper)

  6. Nonlinear Optical Properties of XPh4 (X = B-, C, N+, P+): A New Class of Molecules with a Negative Third-Order Polarizability

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2015-06-22

    Organic π-conjugated materials have been widely used for a variety of nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. Molecules with negative real components Re(γ) of the third-order polarizability, which leads to nonlinear refraction in macroscopic systems, have important benefits for several NLO applications. However, few organic systems studied to date have negative Re(γ) in the long wavelength limit, and all inorganic materials show positive nonlinear refraction in this limit. Here, we introduce a new class of molecules of the form X(C6H5)4, where X = B-, C, N+, and P+, that have negative Re(γ). The molecular mechanism for the NLO properties in these systems is very different from those in typical linear conjugated systems: these systems have a band of excited states involving single-electron excitations within the π-system, several of which have significant coupling to the ground state. Thus, Re(γ) cannot be understood in terms of a simplified essential-state model and must be analyzed in the context of the full sum-over-states expression. Although Re(γ) is significantly smaller than that of other commonly-studied NLO chromophores, the introduction of a new molecular architecture offering the potential for a negative Re(γ) introduces new avenues of molecular design for NLO applications.

  7. Facile approach to fabricate BCN/Fe x (B/C/N) y nano-architectures with enhanced electromagnetic wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Jian; Luo, Heng; Deng, Lianwen; Zhou, Pengyu; Wen, Guangwu; Xia, Long; Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Haibin

    2018-06-01

    Carbon-based materials have excited extensive interest for their remarkable electrical properties and low density for application in electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbents. However, the processing of heteroatoms doping in carbon nanostructures is an insuperable challenge for attaining effective reflection loss and EM matching. Herein, a facile method for large-scale synthesis of boron and nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes decorated by ferrites particles is proposed. The BCN nanotubes (50–100 nm in diameter) imbedded with nanosized Fe x (B/C/N) y (10–20 nm) are successfully constructed by two steps of polymerization and carbonthermic reduction. The product exhibits an outstanding reflection loss (RL) performance, in that the minimum RL is ‑47.97 dB at 11.44 GHz with a broad bandwidth 11.2 GHz (from 3.76 to 14.9 GHz) below ‑10 dB indicating a competitive absorbent in stealth materials. Crystalline and theoretical studies of the absorption mechanism indicate a unique dielectric dispersion effect in the absorbing bandwidth.

  8. Nonlinear Optical Properties of XPh4 (X = B-, C, N+, P+): A New Class of Molecules with a Negative Third-Order Polarizability

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.; Ensley, Trenton R.; Hu, Honghua; Hagan, David J.; Risko, Chad; Van Stryland, Eric W.; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Organic π-conjugated materials have been widely used for a variety of nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. Molecules with negative real components Re(γ) of the third-order polarizability, which leads to nonlinear refraction in macroscopic systems, have important benefits for several NLO applications. However, few organic systems studied to date have negative Re(γ) in the long wavelength limit, and all inorganic materials show positive nonlinear refraction in this limit. Here, we introduce a new class of molecules of the form X(C6H5)4, where X = B-, C, N+, and P+, that have negative Re(γ). The molecular mechanism for the NLO properties in these systems is very different from those in typical linear conjugated systems: these systems have a band of excited states involving single-electron excitations within the π-system, several of which have significant coupling to the ground state. Thus, Re(γ) cannot be understood in terms of a simplified essential-state model and must be analyzed in the context of the full sum-over-states expression. Although Re(γ) is significantly smaller than that of other commonly-studied NLO chromophores, the introduction of a new molecular architecture offering the potential for a negative Re(γ) introduces new avenues of molecular design for NLO applications.

  9. Short pulse generation in a passively mode-locked photonic crystal semiconductor laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties......We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties...

  10. High frequency single mode traveling wave structure for particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanyan, M.I.; Danielyan, V.A.; Grigoryan, B.A.; Grigoryan, A.H. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Tsakanian, A.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut TEMF, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Vardanyan, A.S.; Zakaryan, S.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2016-09-01

    The development of the new high frequency slow traveling wave structures is one of the promising directions in accomplishment of charged particles high acceleration gradient. The disc and dielectric loaded structures are the most known structures with slowly propagating modes. In this paper a large aperture high frequency metallic two-layer accelerating structure is studied. The electrodynamical properties of the slowly propagating TM{sub 01} mode in a metallic tube with internally coated low conductive thin layer are examined.

  11. Helicon normal modes in Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, P. A.; Caneses, J. F.; Green, D. L.; Goulding, R. H.; Lau, C.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Rapp, J.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2018-05-01

    The Proto-MPEX helicon source has been operating in a high electron density ‘helicon-mode’. Establishing plasma densities and magnetic field strengths under the antenna that allow for the formation of normal modes of the fast-wave are believed to be responsible for the ‘helicon-mode’. A 2D finite-element full-wave model of the helicon antenna on Proto-MPEX is used to identify the fast-wave normal modes responsible for the steady-state electron density profile produced by the source. We also show through the simulation that in the regions of operation in which core power deposition is maximum the slow-wave does not deposit significant power besides directly under the antenna. In the case of a simulation where a normal mode is not excited significant edge power is deposited in the mirror region. ).

  12. Polymeric membrane studied using slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, W.-S.; Lo, C.-H.; Cheng, M.-L.; Chen Hongmin; Liu Guang; Chakka, Lakshmi; Nanda, D.; Tung, K.-L.; Huang, S.-H.; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, J.-Y.; Sun Yiming; Yu Changcheng; Zhang Renwu; Jean, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    A radioisotope slow positron beam has been built at the Chung Yuan Christian University in Taiwan for the research and development in membrane science and technology. Doppler broadening energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime have been measured as a function of positron energy up to 30 keV in a polyamide membrane prepared by the interfacial polymerization between triethylenetetraamine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on modified porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) asymmetric membrane. The multilayer structures and free-volume depth profile for this asymmetric membrane system are obtained. Positron annihilation spectroscopy coupled with a slow beam could provide new information about size selectivity of transporting molecules and guidance for molecular designs in polymeric membranes

  13. A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2012-05-09

    The relation between vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI) requires solving a quartic polynomial equation, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of the perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for a small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  14. Slow and fast light in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Xue, Weiqi

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides entail interesting physics and point to a number of promising applications. In this review we give an overview of recent progress in the field, in particular focusing on the physical mechanisms of electromagnetically induced...... transparency and coherent population oscillations. While electromagnetically induced transparency has been the most important effect in realizing slowdown effects in atomic gasses, progress has been comparatively slow in semiconductors due to inherent problems of fast dephasing times and inhomogeneous...... broadening in quantum dots. The physics of electromagnetically induced transparency in semiconductors is discussed, emphasizing these limitations and recent suggestions for overcoming them. On the other hand, the mechanism of coherent population oscillations relies on wave mixing effects and is well suited...

  15. Slow Invariant Manifolds in Chemically Reactive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Samuel; Powers, Joseph M.

    2006-11-01

    The scientific design of practical gas phase combustion devices has come to rely on the use of mathematical models which include detailed chemical kinetics. Such models intrinsically admit a wide range of scales which renders their accurate numerical approximation difficult. Over the past decade, rational strategies, such as Intrinsic Low Dimensional Manifolds (ILDM) or Computational Singular Perturbations (CSP), for equilibrating fast time scale events have been successfully developed, though their computation can be challenging and their accuracy in most cases uncertain. Both are approximations to the preferable slow invariant manifold which best describes how the system evolves in the long time limit. Strategies for computing the slow invariant manifold are examined, and results are presented for practical combustion systems.

  16. Generation of microwaves by a slow wave electron cyclotron maser with axial injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michie, R.B.; Vomvoridis, J.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental measurements of microwave generation by a new electron beam wave interaction is presented. This slow wave electron cyclotron maser (ECM) has a continuous electron beam injected axially into a slow wave structure containing a circularly polarized HE, hybrid electric (HE) mode. A longitudinal magnetic field produces microwaves by maser action. The slow wave structure allows energy to be coupled out of an electron beam with no initial transverse momentum. This is similar to klystrons, traveling wave tubes, and Cherenkov masers, but there is no axial beam bunching. Therefore, ECM designs using relativistic electron beams are allowed. This ECM is similar to a gyrotron in that the electrons are coupled through their cyclotron motion to the wave, but there is no need for initial electron velocity perpendicular to the background magnetic field. Therefore, a narrower spread of electron beam energy about the ECM resonance is possible which gives higher theoretical efficiency. A nonlinear analysis of energy coupling of electrons to the slow wave in the ECM and the design of the slow wave ECM microwave amplifier at 10 GHz using a 200 KeV axial electron beam in 3 KG magnetic field is included

  17. Slowed demand ushers in summer season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This article is the June 1996 market summary in uranium market. During this reporting period, there were six deals in the U3O8 spot market and three long-term deals for U3O8. There were four deals for UF6 conversion, and the spot market for uranium separation services had no transactions. This was little change from the previous month's activities, and this slowness was reflected in the price trends of little or no increase

  18. Fundamental research with polarized slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupchitsky, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the last twenty years polarized beams of slow neutrons have been used effectively in fundamental research in nuclear physics. This book gives a thorough introduction to these experimental methods including the most recent techniques of generating and analyzing polarized neutron beams. It clearly shows the close relationship between elementary particle physics and nuclear physics. The book not only addresses specialists but also those interested in the foundations of elementary particle and nuclear physics. With 42 figs

  19. Testing algorithms for critical slowing down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cossu Guido

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the preliminary tests on two modifications of the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC algorithm. Both algorithms are designed to travel much farther in the Hamiltonian phase space for each trajectory and reduce the autocorrelations among physical observables thus tackling the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit. We present a comparison of costs of the new algorithms with the standard HMC evolution for pure gauge fields, studying the autocorrelation times for various quantities including the topological charge.

  20. SOFTWARE Manual for VMM3 Slow Control

    CERN Document Server

    Guth, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    For the New Small Wheel upgrade of the ATLAS detector a new readout chip, called VMM3(a), was developed. In order to provide this new technology to a larger community, the RD51 collaboration is integrating the VMM3 in their scalable readout system (SRS). For this purpose, a new slow control and calibration tool is necessary. This new software was developed and improved within a CERN Summer Student project.

  1. Theory of a slow-light catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    In diffraction catastrophes such as the rainbow, the wave nature of light resolves ray singularities and draws delicate interference patterns. In quantum catastrophes such as the black hole, the quantum nature of light resolves wave singularities and creates characteristic quantum effects related to Hawking radiation. This paper describes the theory behind a recent proposal [U. Leonhardt, Nature (London) 415, 406 (2002)] to generate a quantum catastrophe of slow light

  2. Theory of a slow-light catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2002-04-01

    In diffraction catastrophes such as the rainbow, the wave nature of light resolves ray singularities and draws delicate interference patterns. In quantum catastrophes such as the black hole, the quantum nature of light resolves wave singularities and creates characteristic quantum effects related to Hawking radiation. This paper describes the theory behind a recent proposal [U. Leonhardt, Nature (London) 415, 406 (2002)] to generate a quantum catastrophe of slow light.

  3. Theory of a Slow-Light Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2001-01-01

    In diffraction catastrophes such as the rainbow the wave nature of light resolves ray singularities and draws delicate interference patterns. In quantum catastrophes such as the black hole the quantum nature of light resolves wave singularities and creates characteristic quantum effects related to Hawking radiation. The paper describes the theory behind a recent proposal [U. Leonhardt, arXiv:physics/0111058, Nature (in press)] to generate a quantum catastrophe of slow light.

  4. Magnetic energy analyser for slow electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limberg, W.

    1974-08-01

    A differential spectrometer with high time and energy resolution has been developed using the principle of energy analysis with a longitudinal homogeneous magnetic field. This way it is possible to measure the energy distribution of low energy electrons (eV-range) in the presence of high energy electrons without distortions by secondary electrons. The functioning and application of the analyzer is demonstrated by measuring the energy distributions of slow electrons emitted by a filament. (orig.) [de

  5. γ-ray emission from slow pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.; Treves, A.

    1981-01-01

    The scope of this communication is to calculate the expected γ-ray flux from slow pulsars, neglecting the problem of the reliability of the observations. The key hypothesis is that since the γ-ray luminosity is a substantial fraction of Lsub(T) (the intrinsic energy loss), it should be produced in the vicinity of the speed of light radius. This comes from the well known argument of simultaneous conservation of energy and angular momentum. (Auth.)

  6. Slowing down modernity: A critique : A critique

    OpenAIRE

    Vostal , Filip

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The connection between modernization and social acceleration is now a prominent theme in critical social analysis. Taking a cue from these debates, I explore attempts that aim to 'slow down modernity' by resisting the dynamic tempo of various social processes and experiences. The issue of slowdown now accounts for a largely unquestioned measure, expected to deliver unhasty tempo conditioning good and ethical life, mental well-being and accountable democracy. In princip...

  7. Rotational modes of a simple Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Rochester, M. G.; Rogister, Y. J. G.

    2017-12-01

    We study the tilt-over mode (TOM), the spin-over mode (SOM), the free core nutation (FCN), and their relationships to each other using a simple Earth model with a homogeneous and incompressible liquid core and a rigid mantle. Analytical solutions for the periods of these modes as well as that of the Chandler wobble is found for the Earth model. We show that the FCN is the same mode as the SOM of a wobbling Earth. The reduced pressure, in terms of which the vector momentum equation is known to reduce to a scalar second order differential equation (the so called Poincaŕe equation), is used as the independent variable. Analytical solutions are then found for the displacement eigenfucntions in a meridional plane of the liquid core for the aforementioned modes. We show that the magnitude of motion in the mantle during the FCN is comparable to that in the liquid core, hence very small. The displacement eigenfunctions for these aforementioned modes as well as those for the free inner core nutation (FICN), computed numerically, are also given for a three layer Earth model which also includes a rigid but capable of wobbling inner core. We will discuss the slow convergence of the period of the FICN in terms of the characteristic surfaces of the Poincare equation.

  8. Improved H-mode access in connected DND in MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H; Carolan, P G; Conway, N J; Counsell, G F; Cunningham, G; Field, A R; Kirk, A; McClements, K G; Price, M; Taylor, D

    2005-01-01

    In the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak, MAST, the formation of the edge transport barrier leading to the high-confinement (H-mode) regime is greatly facilitated by operating in a double null diverted (DND) configuration where both X-points are practically on the same flux surface. Ohmic H-modes are presently only obtained in these connected double null diverted (CDND) configurations. The ease of H-mode access is lost if the two flux surfaces passing through the X-points are radially separated by more than one ion Larmor radius (ρ i ∼ 6 mm) at the low-field-side mid-plane. The change of the magnetic configuration from disconnected to CDND is accompanied by a change in the radial electric field of about ΔE ψ ∼ -1 kV m -1 and a reduction of the electron temperature decay length in the high-field-side scrape-off-layer. Other parameters at the plasma edge, in particular those affecting the H-mode access criteria of common L/H transition theories, are not affected by the slight changes to the magnetic configuration. It is believed that the observed change in E ψ , which may result from differences in ion orbit losses, leads to a higher initial E x B flow shear in CDND configurations which could lead to the easier H-mode access

  9. An emerging understanding of H-mode discharges in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    A remarkable degree of consistency of experimental results from tokamaks throughout the world has developed with regard to the phenomenology of the transition from L-mode to H-mode confinement in tokamaks. The transition is initiated in a narrow layer at the plasma periphery where density fluctuations are suppressed and steep gradients of temperature and density form in a region with large first and second radial derivatives in the υ E → = (E x B)/B 2 flow velocity. These results are qualitatively consistent with theories which predict suppression of fluctuations by shear or curvature in υE. The required υE flow is generated very rapidly when the magnitude of the heating power or of an externally imposed radial current exceed threshold values and several theoretical models have been developed to explain the observed changes in the υE flow. After the transition occurs, the altered boundary conditions enable the development of improved confinement in the plasma interior on a confinement time scale. The resulting H-mode discharge has typically twice the confinement of L-mode discharges and regimes of further improved confinement have been obtained in some H-mode scenarios

  10. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  11. Slow movement execution in event-related potentials (P300).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Kumi; Sakuma, Haruo; Hirai, Takane

    2002-02-01

    We examined whether slow movement execution has an effect on cognitive and information processing by measuring the P300 component. 8 subjects performed a continuous slow forearm rotational movement using 2 task speeds. Slow (a 30-50% decrease from the subject's Preferred speed) and Very Slow (a 60-80% decrease). The mean coefficient of variation for rotation speed under Very Slow was higher than that under Slow, showing that the subjects found it difficult to perform the Very Slow task smoothly. The EEG score of alpha-1 (8-10 Hz) under Slow Condition was increased significantly more than under the Preferred Condition; however, the increase under Very Slow was small when compared with Preferred. After performing the task. P300 latency under Very Slow increased significantly as compared to that at pretask. Further, P300 amplitude decreased tinder both speed conditions when compared to that at pretask, and a significant decrease was seen under the Slow Condition at Fz, whereas the decrease under the Very Slow Condition was small. These differences indicated that a more complicated neural composition and an increase in subjects' attention might have been involved when the task was performed under the Very Slow Condition. We concluded that slow movement execution may have an influence on cognitive function and may depend on the percentage of decrease from the Preferred speed of the individual.

  12. Interaction of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya, Y.; Schmidt, G.

    1979-01-01

    A fully developed tearing mode modifies the magnetic field profile. The effect of this profile modification on the linear growth rate of a different tearing mode in a slab and cylindrical geometry is investigated

  13. Synthesis, single-crystal structure refinement and Fe/T site preference in the ternary borides Fe {sub x}T{sub 7-x}B{sub 3} (T = Ru, Rh; 0 < x {<=} 1.5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokwa, Boniface P.T. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Dronskowski, Richard [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: drons@HAL9000.ac.rwth-aachen.de

    2007-01-31

    Single crystals of the borides Fe {sub x}Rh{sub 7-x}B{sub 3} (1 < x < 1.5) and Fe {sub x}Ru{sub 7-x}B{sub 3} (0 < x < 1) have been synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled copper crucible under argon atmosphere. The silver-like products, structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, adopt the hexagonal Th{sub 7}Fe{sub 3} structure type (space group P6{sub 3} mc, no. 186) with Z = 2. Their structures consist of layers of boron-centered trigonal prisms of rhodium or ruthenium (Rh;Ru) and iron on the one side, and one-dimensional channels of face-sharing octahedral (Rh;Ru){sub 6} clusters on the other. Unlike in FeRh{sub 6}B{sub 3}, the iron substitution takes place at two (6c and 2b) of the three available rhodium/ruthenium positions, with a preference for the 6c site in the case of the Fe {sub x}Rh{sub 7-x}B{sub 3} compounds but not for Fe {sub x}Ru{sub 7-x}B{sub 3}.

  14. EPR spectroscopic investigations in 15BaO-25Li2O-(60-x) B2O3-xFe2O3 glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogi, Ashok; Kumar, R. Vijaya; Kistaiah, P.

    2018-05-01

    Glasses with composition 15BaO-25Li2O-(60-x) B2O3 -xFe2O3 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mol %) were prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique. These glasses were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations have been carried out as a function of iron ion concentration. The observed EPR spectra of Fe3+ ion exhibits resonance signals at g= 2.0, 4.3 and 8.0. The resonance signal at g= 4.3 is due to isolated Fe3+ ions in site with rhombic symmetry where as the g= 2.0 resonance signal is attributed to the Fe3+ ions coupled by exchange interaction in a distorted octahedral environment and the signal at g= 8.0 arises from axially distorted sites. The number of spins participating in resonance (N) and its paramagnetic susceptibilities (χ) have also been evaluated. The peak-to-peak line width ΔB for the resonance lines at g ≈ 4.3 and at g ≈ 2.0 is increasing as function of the iron ion content. The line intensity of the resonance centered at g ≈ 4.3 and at g ≈ 2.0 increases up to 0.8 mol% of Fe2O3 and for 1 mol% of Fe2O3 its value is found to decrease. The analysis of these results indicated that the conversion some of Fe3+ cations to Fe2+ ions beyond 0.8 mol%.

  15. XPS, TEM and SAD investigations of nanosized Co{sub x}B{sub y}H{sub z} particles obtained by two different borohydride methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krastev, V. [Bulgarian Acad. of Sci., Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of General and Inorg. Chem.; Stoycheva, M. [Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Lefterova, E. [Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Dragieva, I. [Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Stoynov, Z. [Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    1996-07-01

    The nanosized Co{sub x}B{sub y}H{sub z} particles synthesised by the ``tea`` and ``antigravity`` methods using a borohydride reduction process have been subjected to structure and composition studies by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD). The amounts of the elements Co, B, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and C as mean volume values, and surface values for the as-prepared particles, as well as after Ar{sup +} etching to a depth of about 15 nm and 30 nm from the initial particle surface, are determined. About 1.5 atoms of cobalt per atom of boron correspond to samples obtained by the ``antigravity`` method. The binding energy (BE) of 1s electrons of boron atoms has only one value. These particles are angular and are in the typical nanocrystalline state. In the case of samples prepared by the ``tea`` method, two atoms of cobalt per atom of boron are found. The presence of two kinds of BE (B{sup I} and B{sup II}) of 1s electrons of boron atoms in the particles obtained by the ``tea`` method is observed and almost equal amounts of these two states are established in the spectrum. The particles` shape and structure are typical of the amorphous state. The fact that there is one peak when the ``antigravity`` method is applied, in contrast to the two peaks with the ``tea`` method indicates the presence of a metal amorphous state in the latter case. (orig.)

  16. Kinetic Alfven waves and electron physics. II. Oblique slow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.; Winske, D.; Daughton, W.

    2007-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC; kinetic ions and electrons) and hybrid (kinetic ions; adiabatic and massless fluid electrons) simulations of highly oblique slow shocks (θ Bn =84 deg. and β=0.1) [Yin et al., J. Geophys. Res., 110, A09217 (2005)] have shown that the dissipation from the ions is too weak to form a shock and that kinetic electron physics is required. The PIC simulations also showed that the downstream electron temperature becomes anisotropic (T e parallel )>T e perpendicular ), as observed in slow shocks in space. The electron anisotropy results, in part, from the electron acceleration/heating by parallel electric fields of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) excited by ion-ion streaming, which cannot be modeled accurately in hybrid simulations. In the shock ramp, spiky structures occur in density and electron parallel temperature, where the ion parallel temperature decreases due to the reduction of the ion backstreaming speed. In this paper, KAW and electron physics in oblique slow shocks are further examined under lower electron beta conditions. It is found that as the electron beta is reduced, the resonant interaction between electrons and the wave parallel electric fields shifts to the tail of the electron velocity distribution, providing more efficient parallel heating. As a consequence, for β e =0.02, the electron physics is shown to influence the formation of a θ Bn =75 deg. shock. Electron effects are further enhanced at a more oblique shock angle (θ Bn =84 deg.) when both the growth rate and the range of unstable modes on the KAW branch increase. Small-scale electron and ion phase-space vortices in the shock ramp formed by electron-KAW interactions and the reduction of the ion backstreaming speed, respectively, are observed in the simulations and confirmed in homogeneous geometries in one and two spatial dimensions in the accompanying paper [Yin et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 062104 (2007)]. Results from this study

  17. Toroidal mode-conversion in the ICRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaun, A.; Hellsten, T.; Chiu, S.C.

    1997-08-01

    Mode-conversion is studied in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) taking into account the toroidal geometry relevant for tokamaks. The global wavefields obtained using the gyrokinetic toroidal PENN code illustrate how the fast wave propagates to the neighborhood of the ion-ion hybrid resonance, where it is converted to a slow wave which deposits the wave energy through resonant interactions with the particles. The power deposition profiles obtained are dramatically different from the toroidal resonance absorption, showing that Budden's model is not a good approximation in the torus. Radially and poloidally localized wavefield structures characteristic of slow wave eigenmodes are predicted and could in experiments be driven to large amplitudes so as to interact efficiently with fast particles. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 48 refs

  18. Straw combustion on slow-moving grates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    Combustion of straw in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively poor fuel burnout. A numerical grate combustion model was developed to assist in improving the combustion performance of these boilers. The model is based on a one-dimensional ‘‘walking......-column’’ approach and includes the energy equations for both the fuel and the gas accounting for heat transfer between the two phases. The model gives important insight into the combustion process and provides inlet conditions for a computational fluid dynamics analysis of the freeboard. The model predictions...... indicate the existence of two distinct combustion modes. Combustion air temperature and mass flow-rate are the two parameters determining the mode. There is a significant difference in reaction rates (ignition velocity) and temperature levels between the two modes. Model predictions were compared...

  19. Counting graphene layers with very slow electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Ludĕk; Mikmeková, Eliška; Müllerová, Ilona [Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, 61264 Brno (Czech Republic); Lejeune, Michaël [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Faculté des Sciences d' Amiens, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-01-05

    The study aimed at collection of data regarding the transmissivity of freestanding graphene for electrons across their full energy scale down to the lowest energies. Here, we show that the electron transmissivity of graphene drops with the decreasing energy of the electrons and remains below 10% for energies below 30 eV, and that the slow electron transmissivity value is suitable for reliable determination of the number of graphene layers. Moreover, electrons incident below 50 eV release adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules and effectively clean graphene in contrast to faster electrons that decompose these molecules and create carbonaceous contamination.

  20. Slow relaxation in weakly open rational polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokshenev, Valery B; Vicentini, Eduardo

    2003-07-01

    The interplay between the regular (piecewise-linear) and irregular (vertex-angle) boundary effects in nonintegrable rational polygonal billiards (of m equal sides) is discussed. Decay dynamics in polygons (of perimeter P(m) and small opening Delta) is analyzed through the late-time survival probability S(m) approximately equal t(-delta). Two distinct slow relaxation channels are established. The primary universal channel exhibits relaxation of regular sliding orbits, with delta=1. The secondary channel is given by delta>1 and becomes open when m>P(m)/Delta. It originates from vertex order-disorder dual effects and is due to relaxation of chaoticlike excitations.

  1. Quasistatic modelling of the coaxial slow source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.D.; Pietrzyk, Z.A.; Vlases, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    A new 1-D Lagrangian MHD numerical code in flux coordinates has been developed for the Coaxial Slow Source (CSS) geometry. It utilizes the quasistatic approximation so that the plasma evolves as a succession of equilibria. The P=P (psi) equilibrium constraint, along with the assumption of infinitely fast axial temperature relaxation on closed field lines, is incorporated. An axially elongated, rectangular plasma is assumed. The axial length is adjusted by the global average condition, or assumed to be fixed. In this paper predictions obtained with the code, and a limited amount of comparison with experimental data are presented

  2. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple ;crossover model; without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space-time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  3. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R.C.; Imel, G.R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  4. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  5. Sustainable Development of Slow Fashion Businesses: Customer Value Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojin Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the prevalent fast fashion model, slow fashion has emerged as a way of enhancing sustainability in the fashion industry, yet how slow fashion can enhance profitability is still largely unknown. Based on a customer value creation framework, this study empirically tested a structural model that specified the slow fashion attributes that contribute to creating perceived customer value, which subsequently increases a consumer’s intention to buy and pay a price premium for slow fashion products. An analysis of 221 U.S. consumer data revealed that delivering exclusive product value is significantly critical in creating customer value for slow fashion, and customer value, in turn, positively affects consumers’ purchase intentions. Further analysis also revealed that different slow fashion attributes distinctively affect customer value. This provides potential strategies on which slow fashion businesses can focus to secure an economically sustainable business model, thereby continuously improving environmental and social sustainability with the slow fashion ideal.

  6. Piezoelectric energy harvesting through shear mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent candidates for use in energy harvesting applications due to their high electromechanical coupling properties that enable them to convert input mechanical energy into useful electric power. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the piezoelectric material is one of the most significant parameters affecting energy conversion and is dependent on the piezoelectric mode of operation. In most piezoceramics, the d 15 piezoelectric shear coefficient is the highest coefficient compared to the commonly used axial and transverse modes that utilize the d 33 and the d 31 piezoelectric strain coefficients. However, complicated electroding methods and challenges in evaluating the performance of energy harvesting devices operating in the shear mode have slowed research in this area. The shear deformation of a piezoelectric layer can be induced in a vibrating sandwich beam with a piezoelectric core. Here, a model based on Timoshenko beam theory is developed to predict the electric power output from a cantilever piezoelectric sandwich beam under base excitations. It is shown that the energy harvester operating in the shear mode is able to generate ∼50% more power compared to the transverse mode for a numerical case study. Reduced models of both shear and transverse energy harvesters are obtained to determine the optimal load resistance in the system and perform an efficiency comparison between two models with fixed and adaptive resistances. (paper)

  7. Ballooning mode stabilization by moderate sheared rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameiri, E.

    1996-01-01

    Sheared toroidal plasma rotation has been known for some time to have a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A recent calculation showed that a large flow shear, with dΩ/dq of the order of the Alfven toroidal frequency, can stabilize the ballooning modes. This latest result is, in fact, not so optimistic. For observed flows with Mach number of order unity one gets dΩ/dq smaller by a factor O(√β) from the required level (if the flow shear length is of the same order as the magnetic shear length). Moreover, the calculation does not take into account a possibly large transient growth of the mode amplitude due to its Floquet structures We show here that, in fact, there is a general tendency of the ballooning mode to stabilize as soon as the flow shear dΩ/dq exceeds the (O√β smaller) open-quotes slowclose quotes magnetosonic wave frequency. Our analysis is perturbative, where the small parameter is related to the small coupling between the slow and Alfven waves-as is the case in a high aspect-ratio tokamak. (In the perturbation it is important to take the Hamiltonian nature of the governing equations into account.) Moreover, our results apply to the relevant transient growth of the mode amplitude

  8. Slow-light dynamics in nonlinear periodic waveguides couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, A.A.; Ha, S.; Powell, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    We predict pulse switching and reshaping through nonlinear mixing of two slow-light states with different phase velocities in the same frequency range, and report on the first experimental observation of slow-light tunneling between coupled periodic waveguides.......We predict pulse switching and reshaping through nonlinear mixing of two slow-light states with different phase velocities in the same frequency range, and report on the first experimental observation of slow-light tunneling between coupled periodic waveguides....

  9. Slow-light effects in photonic crystal membrane lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted.......In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted....

  10. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  11. On the theory of slowing down gracefully

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-08

    Jun 8, 2012 ... Our analysis of this phenomenon provides a modest ... observed degrees of freedom of a medium such as the electromagnetic field in an optically dense material, sound waves in a crystal or the Goldstone modes of an atom ...

  12. Interaction of slow pions with atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, M.A.; Tsybul'nikov, A.V.; Chekunaev, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Interactions of slow pions with atomic nuclei near to pion condensation are investigated. From comparison of experimental data with the theoretical calculation results on the basis of precise microscopic approach not bound with the random phase approximation (RPA) nuclear matter fundamental parameters near a critical point can be found. Optical potential of slow pions in nuclei, πN-scattering amplitudes and lengths, π-atom level isotopic shift, phenomenon of single-nucleon pion absorption by nucleus, phenomenon of nuclear critical opalescence are considered. The results of πN-scattering lengths calculation, sup(40-44)Ca, sup(24-29)Mg, sup(16-18)O π-atom level shift are presented. It is shown that the presence of π-condensate in nuclei can explain the observed suppression of p-wave potential terms. The phenomenon of single-nucleon pion absorption by nucleus is one of direct experiments which permits to reveal the π-condensate. The nuclear opalescence phenomenon is manifested in increase of pion photoproduction reaction cross section for account of nucleus proximity to π-condensation as compared with the calculated in the Fermi-gas model. The suggested method for calculating precondensate phenomena operates the better, the nearer is the system to the condensation threshold whereas the RPA method in this region is inapplicable

  13. Factors Contributing Decreased Performance Of Slow Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. L. Kannan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Back ground Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of their students these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students were all the three internal assessments of 250 students performance is taken in to consideration for the study. This study is of cross section type.After obtaining the list of all students marks in internal examination from medical education unit supporting mentors are contacted to meet the students and confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. After obtaining informed consent a questionnaire was administered to the students by the investigator. The questionnaire contains the following sections. Section I will be on the background characteristics of the student name age sex type of family. Section II will be on the details of their learning capabilities. Section III will focus on the awareness of the slow learners in which the precipitating factors contributing to them. Results The prevalence of slow learners as low achievers were contributed to be 32.4 percentages.The performance of the students is based on combination of all three internal assessment marks including theory and practical performance. In this the students age ranges from 17 to 21 years the mean age of student was contributed to be 17.81 and majority of the students were in the age group of 18 years which contributed to be 16867.2.In the present study majority were males 13252.8 compared to females 11847.2.but when study is compared to percentage of attendance majority of the individual 15177 scored more than 50 percentage of marks have more than 80 percentage of attendance but when

  14. Good, Clean, Fair: The Rhetoric of the Slow Food Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the origins of the Slow Food movement before examining the ways in which Slow Food rhetoric seeks to redefine gastronomy and combat the more deleterious effects of globalization. In articulating a new gastronomy, Slow Food founder Carlo Petrini attempts to reconstruct the gastronomy of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, at once…

  15. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  16. A Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with overmoded slow-wave-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; He, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Jian-De; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ling, Jun-Pu

    2016-12-01

    In order to enhance the power capacity, an improved Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with overmoded slow-wave-structure (SWS) is proposed and investigated numerically and experimentally. The analysis of the dispersion relationship and the resonant curve of the cold test indicate that the device can operate at the near π mode of the TM01 mode, which is useful for mode selection and control. In the particle simulation, the improved Ku-band MILO generates a microwave with a power of 1.5 GW and a frequency of 12.3 GHz under an input voltage of 480 kV and input current of 42 kA. Finally, experimental investigation of the improved Ku-band MILO is carried out. A high-power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 800 MW, a frequency of 12.35 GHz, and pulse width of 35 ns is generated under a diode voltage of 500 kV and beam current of 43 kA. The consistency between the experimental and simulated far-field radiation pattern confirms that the operating mode of the improved Ku-band MILO is well controlled in π mode of the TM01 mode. Project supported partly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61171021).

  17. Space-dependent step features: Transient breakdown of slow-roll, homogeneity, and isotropy during inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, Rose N.; McDonald, John

    2009-01-01

    A step feature in the inflaton potential can model a transient breakdown of slow-roll inflation. Here we generalize the step feature to include space-dependence, allowing it also to model a breakdown of homogeneity and isotropy. The space-dependent inflaton potential generates a classical curvature perturbation mode characterized by the wave number of the step inhomogeneity. For inhomogeneities small compared with the horizon at the step, space-dependence has a small effect on the curvature perturbation. Therefore, the smoothly oscillating quantum power spectrum predicted by the homogeneous step is robust with respect to subhorizon space-dependence. For inhomogeneities equal to or greater than the horizon at the step, the space-dependent classical mode can dominate, producing a curvature perturbation in which modes of wave number determined by the step inhomogeneity are superimposed on the oscillating power spectrum. Generation of a space-dependent step feature may therefore provide a mechanism to introduce primordial anisotropy into the curvature perturbation. Space-dependence also modifies the quantum fluctuations, in particular, via resonancelike features coming from mode coupling to amplified superhorizon modes. However, these effects are small relative to the classical modes.

  18. Frequency-dependence of the slow force response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Dirk; Zhu, Danan; Khafaga, Mounir; Kockskamper, Jens; Maier, Lars S; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Pieske, Burkert

    2008-05-01

    Stretch induces biphasic inotropic effects in mammalian myocardium. A delayed component (slow force response, SFR) has been demonstrated in various species, however, experimental conditions varied and the underlying mechanisms are controversial. The physiological relevance of the SFR is poorly understood. Experiments were performed in ventricular muscle strips from failing human hearts and non-failing rabbit hearts. Upon stretch, twitch force was assessed at basal conditions (1 Hz, 37 degrees C) and after changing stimulation frequency with and without blockade of the Na+/H+-exchanger-1 (NHE1) or reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+-exchange (NCX). Action potential duration (APD) was assessed using floating electrodes. Low stimulation rates (0.2 Hz) potentiated and higher stimulation rates (2 and 3 Hz) reduced the SFR. The extent of SFR inhibition by NHE1 or NCX inhibition was not affected by stimulation rate. APD decreased at 0.2 Hz but was not altered at higher stimulation rates. The data demonstrate frequency-dependence of the SFR with greater positive inotropic effects at lower stimulation rates. Subcellular mechanisms underlying the SFR are not fundamentally affected by stimulation rate. The SFR may have more pronounced physiological effects at lower heart rates.

  19. Dynamically tunable slow light based on plasmon induced transparency in disk resonators coupled MDM waveguide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xu; Wang, Tao; Liu, Bo; He, Yu; Tang, Jian; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast and low-power dynamically tunable single channel and multichannel slow light based on plasmon induced transparencies (PITs) in disk resonators coupled to a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide system with a nonlinear optical Kerr medium is investigated both numerically and analytically. A coupled-mode theory (CMT) is introduced to analyze this dynamically tunable single channel slow light structure. Multichannel slow light is realized in this plasmonic waveguide structure based on a bright–dark mode coupling mechanism. In order to reduce the pump intensity and obtain ultrafast response time, the traditional nonlinear Kerr material is replaced by monolayer graphene. It is found that the magnitude of the single PIT window can be controlled between 0.08 and 0.48, while the corresponding group index is controlled between 14.5 and 2.0 by dynamically decreasing pump intensity from 11.7 to 4.4 MW cm −2 . Moreover, the phase shift multiplication effect is found in this structure. This work paves a new way towards the realization of highly integrated optical circuits and networks, especially for wavelength-selective, all-optical storage and nonlinear devices. (paper)

  20. Curvature effects in the nonlinear growth of the cylindrical tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somon, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The full set of the usual resistive massless equations is used to investigate the nonlinear growth of the helical perturbation to a cylindrical equilibrium with tokamak ordering. There is a curvature dependant critical magnetic island width xsub(T)sup(*) α set containing D/Δ' above which the Rutherford solution is recovered for the tearing mode as well as for the linear slow interchange modes with Δ' > 0. Non linearity stabilizes at this critical width the linearly unstable slow interchange modes with Δ' > 0

  1. Double-mode pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Double mode pulsation is a very pervasive phenomenon in stars all over the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In order of increasing radius, examples are: ZZ Ceti stars, the sun, the delta Scuti stars, RR Lyrae variables, the β Cephei variables and those related to them, Cepheids, and maybe even the Mira stars. These many modes have been interpreted as both radial and nonradial modes, but in many cases the actual mode has not been clearly identified. Yellow giants seem to be the most simple pulsators with a large majority of the RR Lyrae variables and Cepheids showing only one pulsation period. We limit this review to those very few cases for classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables which display two modes. For these we know many facts about these stars, but the actual cause of the pulsation in two modes simultaneously remains unknown

  2. Alpha particle destabilization of the TAE modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The high frequency, low mode number toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) are shown to be driven unstable by the circulating and/or trapped α-particles through the wave-particle resonances. For a poloidal harmonic to satisfy the resonance condition it requires that the α-particle birth speed v α ≥ v A /(2|m-nq|), where v A is the Alfven speed, m is the poloidal mode number, and n is the toroidal mode number. To destabilize the TAE modes, the inverse Landau damping associated with the α-particle pressure gradient free energy must overcome the velocity space Landau damping due to both the slowing-down α-particle and the core Maxwellian electron and ion distributions. Stability criteria in terms of the α-particle beta β α , α-particle pressure gradient parameter (ω * /ω A ) (ω * is the α-particle diamagnetic drift frequency), and (v α /v A ) parameters are presented for TFTR, CIT, and ITER tokamaks. The volume averaged α-particle beta threshold for TAE instability also depends sensitively on the core electron and ion temperature. Typically the volume averaged α-particle beta threshold is in the order of 10 -4 if the continuum damping effect is absent. Typical growth rates of the n = 1 TAE mode can be in the order of 10 -2 ω A , where ω A = v A /qR. Stability of higher n TAE modes is also studied. Other types of global Alfven waves are stable due to sideband mode continuum damping resulting from toroidal coupling effects. If the Alfven continuum gap does not exist across the whole minor radius, continuum damping exists for some poloidal harmonics. The continuum damping effect is studied by employing both a resistive MHD stability code (NOVA-R) and an analytical matching method, and the results are presented. 1 ref

  3. Modulational instability and associated rogue structures of slow magnetosonic wave in Hall magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, Anuraj; Ryu, Chang-Mo [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Hyoja-Dong San 31, KyungBuk, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The modulational instability and associated rogue structures of a slow magnetosonic wave are investigated for a Hall magnetohydrodynamic plasma. Nonlinear Schrodinger equation is obtained by using the multiple scale method, which shows a modulationally unstable slow magnetosonic mode evolving into bright wavepackets. The dispersive effects induced by the Hall electron current increase with the increase in plasma β and become weaker as the angle of propagation increases. The growth rate of the modulational instability also increases with the increase in plasma β. The growth rate is greatest for the parallel propagation and drops to zero for perpendicular propagation. The envelope wavepacket of a slow magnetosonic is widened with less oscillations as plasma β increases. But the wavepacket becomes slightly narrower and more oscillatory as the angle of propagation increases. Further a non-stationary envelope solution of the Peregrine soliton is analyzed for rogue waves. The Peregrine soliton contracts temporally and expands spatially with increase in plasma β. However, the width of a slow magnetosonic Peregrine soliton decreases both temporally and spatially with increase of the propagation angle.

  4. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  5. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  6. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  7. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  8. ELM triggering conditions for the integrated modeling of H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankin, A.Y.; Schnack, D.D.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H.; Brennan, D.P.; Snyder, P.B.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Kruger, S.; Janeschitz, G.; Onjun, T.; Pacher, G.W.; Pacher, H.D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in the integrated modeling of ELMy H-mode plasmas are presented. A new model for the H-mode pedestal and for the triggering of ELMs predicts the height, width, and shape of the H-mode pedestal and the frequency and width of ELMs. The model for the pedestal and ELMs is used in the ASTRA integrated transport code to follow the time evolution of tokamak discharges from L-mode through the transition from L-mode to H-mode, with the formation of the H-mode pedestal, and, subsequently, to the triggering of ELMs. Turbulence driven by the ion temperature gradient mode, resistive ballooning mode, trapped electron mode, and electron temperature gradient mode contributes to the anomalous thermal transport at the plasma edge in this model. Formation of the pedestal and the L-H transition is the direct result of E(vector) r x B(vector) flow shear suppression of anomalous transport. The periodic ELM crashes are triggered by MHD instabilities. Two mechanisms for triggering ELMs are considered: ELMs are triggered by ballooning modes if the pressure gradient exceeds the ballooning threshold or by peeling modes if the edge current density exceeds the peeling mode threshold. The BALOO, DCON, and ELITE ideal MHD stability codes are used to derive a new parametric expression for the peeling-ballooning threshold. The new dependence for the peeling-ballooning threshold is implemented in the ASTRA transport code. Results of integrated modeling of DIII-D like discharges are presented and compared with experimental observations. The results from the ideal MHD stability codes are compared with results from the resistive MHD stability code NIMROD. (author)

  9. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-07

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  10. Interaction of slow electrons with surfaces. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolov, S.A.; Chadderton, L.T.

    1976-01-01

    Total current spectroscopy (TCS) has been used to study the growth of films of gold and silver on (100) vanadium surfaces. A slow transition from TCS curves characteristic of vanadium to curves characteristic of the noble metals is observed, accompanied by an increase in the net work function - more rapid for silver than for gold. Vanadium characteristics are lost from the TCS curves for mean overlayer thicknesses > approximately 15A, and a simple analysis shows that the thickness of the surface zone from which TCS signals originate is approximately given by the electron mean free path. Observations of progressive attenuation of a characteristic vanadium feature with increasing mean thickness of overlayer permits separation into stages of nucleation and growth. There is a critical nucleus size of approximately 2A for silver and approximately 4A for gold. (Auth.)

  11. Slow neutron scattering by water molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancic, V [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1970-07-01

    In this work some new, preliminary formulae for slow neutron scattering cross section calculation by heavy and light water molecules have been done. The idea was to find, from the sum which exists in well known Nelkin model, other cross sections in a more simple analytical form, so that next approximations may be possible. In order to sum a series it was starting from Euler-Mclaurin formula. Some new summation formulae have been derived there, and defined in two theorems. Extensive calculations, especially during the evaluation of residues, have been made at the CDC 3600 computer. validation of derived formulae was done by comparison with the BNL-325 results. Good agreement is shown. (author)

  12. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-01-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe

  13. Slow speed object detection for haul trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Caterpillar integrates radar technology with its current camera based system. Caterpillar has developed the Integrated Object Detection System, a slow speed object detection system for mining haul trucks. Object detection is a system that aids the truck operator's awareness of their surroundings. The system consists of a color touch screen display along with medium- and short-range radar as well as cameras, harnesses and mounting hardware. It is integrated into the truck's Work Area Vision System (WAVS). After field testing in 2007, system commercialization began in 2008. Prototype systems are in operation in Australia, Utah and Arizona and the Integrated Object Detection System will be available in the fourth quarter of 2009 and on production trucks 785C, 789C, 793D and 797B. The article is adapted from a presentation by Mark Richards of Caterpillar to the Haulage & Loading 2009 conference, May, held in Phoenix, AZ. 1 fig., 5 photos.

  14. Slow neutron scattering by water molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancic, V.

    1970-01-01

    In this work some new, preliminary formulae for slow neutron scattering cross section calculation by heavy and light water molecules have been done. The idea was to find, from the sum which exists in well known Nelkin model, other cross sections in a more simple analytical form, so that next approximations may be possible. In order to sum a series it was starting from Euler-Mclaurin formula. Some new summation formulae have been derived there, and defined in two theorems. Extensive calculations, especially during the evaluation of residues, have been made at the CDC 3600 computer. validation of derived formulae was done by comparison with the BNL-325 results. Good agreement is shown. (author)

  15. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  16. Slow creep in soft granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-05-14

    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of the squid mantle muscles and giant axon during slow swimming and jet escape propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalçınkaya, Bahar Hazal; Erikli, Şükrü; Özilgen, Burak Arda; Olcay, Ali Bahadır; Sorgüven, Esra; Özilgen, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Squids have two substantially different types of muscle fibers: superficial mitochondria rich fibers, which perform aerobic respiration during slow swimming, and central mitochondria poor fibers, which perform anaerobic respiration during jet escape. A detailed thermodynamic analysis shows that during slow swimming, 3.82 J/(kg s) of chemical exergy is consumed, and a total muscle work of 0.28 J/(kg s) is produced. 0.27 J/(kg s) of this is produced by the fin to generate lift, and the rest by the mantle volume contraction. During the jet escape at a speed of 3 mantle length/s, squid consumes an exergy of 9.97 J/(kg s) and produces a muscle work of 0.16 J/(kg s). Exergy destruction rates during slow swimming and jet escape modes are 3.54 and 9.81 J/(kg s), respectively. Exergy destroyed because of the action potential propagation in the squid giant axon is calculated as 0.03 and 0.10 J/(kg s) for the slow and fast swimming modes, respectively. - Highlights: • Slow and fast swimming modes of a squid is thermodynamically analyzed. • As swimming speed increases, respiration mode switches from aerobic to anaerobic, and respiration efficiency decreases. • During fast swimming ca. 2.6 times more chemical exergy is consumed. • Both muscles and giant axon destroy nearly 3 times more exergy during jet escape. • Contraction efficiency decreases from 36.8% to 4.7% as the volume of the passive tissue increases from 5% to 95%.

  18. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Christian; Mossahebi, Pouria; Nair, Veena A; Young, Brittany M; Stamm, Julie; Birn, Rasmus; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The 'default-mode' network (DMN) has been investigated in the presence of various disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Autism spectrum disorders. More recently, this investigation has expanded to include patients with ischemic injury. Here, we characterized the effects of ischemic injury in terms of its spectral distribution of resting-state low-frequency oscillations and further investigated whether those specific disruptions were unique to the DMN, or rather more general, affecting the global cortical system. With 43 young healthy adults, 42 older healthy adults, 14 stroke patients in their early stage (system disruption may differ between healthy aging and following the event of an ischemic stroke. The stroke group in the later stage demonstrated a global reduction in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations (0.01-0.027 Hz) in the DMN as well as in the primary visual and sensorimotor networks, two 'task-positive' networks. In comparison to the young healthy group, the older healthy subjects presented a decrease in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations specific to the components of the DMN, while exhibiting an increase in oscillation power in the task-positive networks. These two processes of a decrease DMN and an increase in 'task-positive' slow-5 oscillations may potentially be related, with a deficit in DMN inhibition, leading to an elevation of oscillations in non-DMN systems. These findings also suggest that disruptions of the slow-5 oscillations in healthy aging may be more specific to the DMN while the disruptions of those oscillations following a stroke through remote (diaschisis) effects may be more widespread, highlighting a non-specificity of disruption on the DMN in stroke population. The mechanisms underlying those differing modes of network disruption need to be further explored to better inform our understanding of brain function in healthy individuals and following injury.

  20. Radiation efficiency during slow crack propagation: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestin, Camille; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Creeping faults are known to host a significant aseismic deformation. However, the observations of micro-earthquake activity related to creeping faults (e.g. San Andreas Faults, North Anatolian Fault) suggest the presence of strong lateral variabilities of the energy partitioning between radiated and fracture energies. The seismic over aseismic slip ratio is rather difficult to image over time and at depth because of observational limitations (spatial resolution, sufficiently broad band instruments, etc.). In this study, we aim to capture in great details the energy partitioning during the slow propagation of mode I fracture along a heterogeneous interface, where the toughness is strongly varying in space.We lead experiments at laboratory scale on a rock analog model (PMMA) enabling a precise monitoring of fracture pinning and depinning on local asperities in the brittle-creep regime. Indeed, optical imaging through the transparent material allows the high resolution description of the fracture front position and velocity during its propagation. At the same time, acoustic emissions are also measured by accelerometers positioned around the rupture. Combining acoustic records, measurements of the crack front position and the loading curve, we compute the total radiated energy and the fracture energy. We deduce from them the radiation efficiency, ηR, characterizing the proportion of the available energy that is radiated in form of seismic wave. We show an increase of ηR with the crack rupture speed computed for each of our experiments in the sub-critical crack propagation domain. Our experimental estimates of ηR are larger than the theoretical model proposed by Freund, stating that the radiation efficiency of crack propagation in homogeneous media is proportional to the crack velocity. Our results are demonstrated to be in agreement with existing studies which showed that the distribution of crack front velocity in a heterogeneous medium can be well described by a

  1. Excursions through KK modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki [Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal University,Manipal, Karnataka 576104 (India)

    2016-07-07

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  2. Excursions through KK modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  3. Slow Earthquake Hunters: A New Citizen Science Project to Identify and Catalog Slow Slip Events in Geodetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlow, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Slow Earthquake Hunters is a new citizen science project to detect, catalog, and monitor slow slip events. Slow slip events, also called "slow earthquakes", occur when faults slip too slowly to generate significant seismic radiation. They typically take between a few days and over a year to occur, and are most often found on subduction zone plate interfaces. While not dangerous in and of themselves, recent evidence suggests that monitoring slow slip events is important for earthquake hazards, as slow slip events have been known to trigger damaging "regular" earthquakes. Slow slip events, because they do not radiate seismically, are detected with a variety of methods, most commonly continuous geodetic Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. There is now a wealth of GPS data in some regions that experience slow slip events, but a reliable automated method to detect them in GPS data remains elusive. This project aims to recruit human users to view GPS time series data, with some post-processing to highlight slow slip signals, and flag slow slip events for further analysis by the scientific team. Slow Earthquake Hunters will begin with data from the Cascadia subduction zone, where geodetically detectable slow slip events with a duration of at least a few days recur at regular intervals. The project will then expand to other areas with slow slip events or other transient geodetic signals, including other subduction zones, and areas with strike-slip faults. This project has not yet rolled out to the public, and is in a beta testing phase. This presentation will show results from an initial pilot group of student participants at the University of Missouri, and solicit feedback for the future of Slow Earthquake Hunters.

  4. Construction report of the PF slow-positron source. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Atsushi; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Kobayashi, Hitoshi

    1993-12-01

    The slow positron source utilizing the electron beam of the 2.5 GeV electron beam accelerator which is the synchrotron radiation injector is being constructed. The outline of the project and the present state of construction are reported. As of November, 1993, by injecting the electron beam of about 10 W to the targets for producing positrons, the slow positrons of 4 x 10 4 e + /s has been obtained in the laboratory. Finally, with the electron beam of 30 kW, it is aimed at to obtain the slow positron beam of 2 x 10 9 e + /s. In the slow positron source, the electron beam from the 2.5 GeV linear accelerator is used as the primary beam. This beam is led to the target with electromagnets. Radiation shields were strengthened, and the electrostatic lens system was attached to efficiently extract and send out slow positrons. The conveying system for slow positrons is explained. Primary electron beam, target and moderator for producing slow positrons, the change to continuous current of pulsed slow positron beam and the heightening of luminance of slow positron beam, and the experiment on the utilization of slow positron beam, and the control system for positron conveyance path are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Design and optimization of the lattice of the superconducting synchrotron SIS300 for slow extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saa Hernandez, Angela

    2011-10-15

    The superconducting synchrotron SIS300 is planned to be built at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), at GSI-Darmstadt. SIS300 will be a versatile machine, which by means of a low-energy stretcher-mode or a high-energy ramped-mode will provide slowly extracted heavy ion beams towards the experimental areas. To reach the required maximum field of 4.5 T, cos({theta}) magnets are necessary. Thus, SIS300 will become the first superconducting synchrotron worldwide with cos({theta}) magnets providing resonant slow extraction. Since SIS300 will be installed in the same tunnel as the SIS100 synchrotron, the dipole layout of SIS300 cannot be freely chosen. Thus, a standard lattice cannot be applied. A redesign of the SIS300 lattice accepting compromises concerning the positions and phase advances between the optical elements has been proposed. Using the analytical model of the slow extraction, firstly proposed by Kobayashi, and the analytical description of the resonance driving modes, a multiobjective optimization algorithm has been developed for the optimization of the lattice under the given boundary conditions. The final goal of the lattice optimization is a higher efficiency of the slow extraction. The results are evaluated by means of tracking simulations performed with the code Elegant. The field quality in superconducting cos({theta}) magnets is determined by the positions of the superconducting cable and the static and time-dependent effects of the current in the cable. Furthermore, the fast ramp rates of 1 T/s in the dipoles, which are fifty times faster than in any other superconducting cos({theta}) magnet, together with the fact that the aperture is smaller than in conventional accelerator magnets, makes it extremely difficult to obtain a high-quality magnetic field. The unavoidable field errors affect the beam dynamics and worsen the slow extraction efficiency. Therefore, the field errors in the SIS300 dipoles have been estimated, and their

  6. Design and optimization of the lattice of the superconducting synchrotron SIS300 for slow extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saa Hernandez, Angela

    2011-10-01

    The superconducting synchrotron SIS300 is planned to be built at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), at GSI-Darmstadt. SIS300 will be a versatile machine, which by means of a low-energy stretcher-mode or a high-energy ramped-mode will provide slowly extracted heavy ion beams towards the experimental areas. To reach the required maximum field of 4.5 T, cos(θ) magnets are necessary. Thus, SIS300 will become the first superconducting synchrotron worldwide with cos(θ) magnets providing resonant slow extraction. Since SIS300 will be installed in the same tunnel as the SIS100 synchrotron, the dipole layout of SIS300 cannot be freely chosen. Thus, a standard lattice cannot be applied. A redesign of the SIS300 lattice accepting compromises concerning the positions and phase advances between the optical elements has been proposed. Using the analytical model of the slow extraction, firstly proposed by Kobayashi, and the analytical description of the resonance driving modes, a multiobjective optimization algorithm has been developed for the optimization of the lattice under the given boundary conditions. The final goal of the lattice optimization is a higher efficiency of the slow extraction. The results are evaluated by means of tracking simulations performed with the code Elegant. The field quality in superconducting cos(θ) magnets is determined by the positions of the superconducting cable and the static and time-dependent effects of the current in the cable. Furthermore, the fast ramp rates of 1 T/s in the dipoles, which are fifty times faster than in any other superconducting cos(θ) magnet, together with the fact that the aperture is smaller than in conventional accelerator magnets, makes it extremely difficult to obtain a high-quality magnetic field. The unavoidable field errors affect the beam dynamics and worsen the slow extraction efficiency. Therefore, the field errors in the SIS300 dipoles have been estimated, and their effects have been

  7. Feedback of slow extraction in CSRm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jian; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Xia, Jia-Wen; Yuan, You-Jin; Mao, Rui-Shi; Chai, Wei-Ping; Li, Jie; Yin, Da-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The transverse tune of the beam in a synchrotron will fluctuate due to the main quadrupole power supply ripple, which leads the spill ripple through the variation of the separatrices area. To reduce the spill ripple, an additional pair of fast-response quadrupoles (FQ) is adopted to compensate for the tune ripple caused by the main quadrupoles. After using the FQ feedback, the amplitude of the spill ripple with a frequency of less than 800 Hz has been reduced to a tenth of that in the normal mode

  8. Toward standardization of slow earthquake catalog -Development of database website-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M.; Aso, N.; Annoura, S.; Arai, R.; Ito, Y.; Kamaya, N.; Maury, J.; Nakamura, M.; Nishimura, T.; Obana, K.; Sugioka, H.; Takagi, R.; Takahashi, T.; Takeo, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Matsuzawa, T.; Ide, S.; Obara, K.

    2017-12-01

    Slow earthquakes have now been widely discovered in the world based on the recent development of geodetic and seismic observations. Many researchers detect a wide frequency range of slow earthquakes including low frequency tremors, low frequency earthquakes, very low frequency earthquakes and slow slip events by using various methods. Catalogs of the detected slow earthquakes are open to us in different formats by each referring paper or through a website (e.g., Wech 2010; Idehara et al. 2014). However, we need to download catalogs from different sources, to deal with unformatted catalogs and to understand the characteristics of different catalogs, which may be somewhat complex especially for those who are not familiar with slow earthquakes. In order to standardize slow earthquake catalogs and to make such a complicated work easier, Scientific Research on Innovative Areas "Science of Slow Earthquakes" has been developing a slow earthquake catalog website. In the website, we can plot locations of various slow earthquakes via the Google Maps by compiling a variety of slow earthquake catalogs including slow slip events. This enables us to clearly visualize spatial relations among slow earthquakes at a glance and to compare the regional activities of slow earthquakes or the locations of different catalogs. In addition, we can download catalogs in the unified format and refer the information on each catalog on the single website. Such standardization will make it more convenient for users to utilize the previous achievements and to promote research on slow earthquakes, which eventually leads to collaborations with researchers in various fields and further understanding of the mechanisms, environmental conditions, and underlying physics of slow earthquakes. Furthermore, we expect that the website has a leading role in the international standardization of slow earthquake catalogs. We report the overview of the website and the progress of construction. Acknowledgment: This

  9. Deciding about fast and slow decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskerry, Pat; Petrie, David A; Reilly, James B; Tait, Gordon

    2014-02-01

    Two reports in this issue address the important topic of clinical decision making. Dual process theory has emerged as the dominant model for understanding the complex processes that underlie human decision making. This theory distinguishes between the reflexive, autonomous processes that characterize intuitive decision making and the deliberate reasoning of an analytical approach. In this commentary, the authors address the polarization of viewpoints that has developed around the relative merits of the two systems. Although intuitive processes are typically fast and analytical processes slow, speed alone does not distinguish them. In any event, the majority of decisions in clinical medicine are not dependent on very short response times. What does appear relevant to diagnostic ease and accuracy is the degree to which the symptoms of the disease being diagnosed are characteristic ones. There are also concerns around some methodological issues related to research design in this area of enquiry. Reductionist approaches that attempt to isolate dependent variables may create such artificial experimental conditions that both external and ecological validity are sacrificed. Clinical decision making is a complex process with many independent (and interdependent) variables that need to be separated out in a discrete fashion and then reflected on in real time to preserve the fidelity of clinical practice. With these caveats in mind, the authors believe that research in this area should promote a better understanding of clinical practice and teaching by focusing less on the deficiencies of intuitive and analytical systems and more on their adaptive strengths.

  10. Slow feature analysis: unsupervised learning of invariances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskott, Laurenz; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2002-04-01

    Invariant features of temporally varying signals are useful for analysis and classification. Slow feature analysis (SFA) is a new method for learning invariant or slowly varying features from a vectorial input signal. It is based on a nonlinear expansion of the input signal and application of principal component analysis to this expanded signal and its time derivative. It is guaranteed to find the optimal solution within a family of functions directly and can learn to extract a large number of decorrelated features, which are ordered by their degree of invariance. SFA can be applied hierarchically to process high-dimensional input signals and extract complex features. SFA is applied first to complex cell tuning properties based on simple cell output, including disparity and motion. Then more complicated input-output functions are learned by repeated application of SFA. Finally, a hierarchical network of SFA modules is presented as a simple model of the visual system. The same unstructured network can learn translation, size, rotation, contrast, or, to a lesser degree, illumination invariance for one-dimensional objects, depending on only the training stimulus. Surprisingly, only a few training objects suffice to achieve good generalization to new objects. The generated representation is suitable for object recognition. Performance degrades if the network is trained to learn multiple invariances simultaneously.

  11. Range and stopping power for slow particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiano, M.; Fernandez, J. E.; Molinari, V. G.

    1997-01-01

    Generally, the effects of thermal agitation and chemical bonding of the target atoms need to be taken into account to compute properly the range and stopping power of particles. These two effects, however, complicate very much the calculation of the above parameters, and for this reason are usually neglected. In fact, when the energy of the test particles (t.p.) is sufficiently high compared to the thermal or bonding energies, these two effects can be safely disregarded. When the energy of the t.p. is of the same order of the thermal agitation or the chemical bonding, on the other hand, such approximation is not realistic, and to obtain meaningful results one must take into account the velocity distribution of the field particles (f.p.). The aim of this paper is to present a simple model describing the transport of particles (e.g., electrons) in the thermal zone, considering the thermal agitation of f.p. with an arbitrary distribution. It will be shown that in the first part of the slowing down the kinetic energy of t.p. is partially transformed into temperature. In the second part, the temperature tends to reach the equilibrium temperature, while average velocity of t.p. becomes zero. (author)

  12. Mixing, ergodicity and slow relaxation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I. V. L.; Vainstein, M. H.; Lapas, L. C.; Batista, A. A.; Oliveira, F. A.

    2006-11-01

    Investigations on diffusion in systems with memory [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] have established a hierarchical connection between mixing, ergodicity, and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). This hierarchy means that ergodicity is a necessary condition for the validity of the FDT, and mixing is a necessary condition for ergodicity. In this work, we compare those results with recent investigations using the Lee recurrence relations method [M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 26 (1982) 2547; M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 250601; M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. Lee shows that ergodicity is violated in the dynamics of the electron gas [M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. This reinforces both works and implies that the results of [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] are more general than the framework in which they were obtained. Some applications to slow relaxation phenomena are discussed.

  13. Commodity chemical growth to slow in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plishner, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    In their latest chemical outlook, DRI/McGraw-Hill economists characterize 1992 as a peak year for U.S. commodity chemical demand growth, at 4.2%, tapering off to a compound 2.2% between 1993 and 1995. Just as operating rates begin to reach higher levels in 1995, however, DRI forecasts slowing GNP growth. DRI's Ramunas J. Svarcas expects a decline in exports. Those plastics promising the rosiest consumption outlook include melamine-formaldehyde resin, up 9.9% in 1992, from 155 million lbs in 1991, and projected to grow 8.6%/year through 1995; styrene acrylonitrile resin, up 23% this year, from 58 million lbs last year, and growing 8.2%/year through 1995; and unsaturated polyester, up 11.7% this year, from 1.07 billion lbs in 1991, and increasing at 6.5%/year. Methanol is a bright spot, with consumption growing 4.7%, from 11.2 billion lbs in 1991 and 12%/year thereafter. Ortho-xylene managed an impressive 21% rebound from a depressed 1991 level of 783 million lbs, and is expected to continue its recovery at 7.7%/year

  14. Molten fuel behaviour during slow overpower transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Y.; Boidron, M.

    1985-01-01

    In large commercial reactors as Super-Phenix, if we take into account all the uncertainties on the pins and on the core, it is no longer possible to guarantee the absence of fuel melting during incidental events such as slow overpower transients. We have then to explain what happens in the pins when fuel melting occurs and to demonstrate that a limited amount of molten fuel generates no risk of clad failure. For that purpose, we may use the results of a great number of experiments (about 40) that have been performed at C.E.A., most of them in thermal reactor, but some experiments have also been performed in Rapsodie, especially during the last run of this reactor. In a great part of these experiments, fuel melting occurred at beginning of life, but we have also some results at different burnups up to 5 at %. It is not the aim of this paper to describe all these experiments and the results of their post irradiation examination, but to summarize the main conclusions that have been set out of them and that have enabled us to determine the main characteristics of fuel element behaviour when fuel melting occurs

  15. Origin of Pseudotachylites during slow creep experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peč, M.; Stünitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.; Drury, M.; De Capitani, C.

    2012-04-01

    Pseudotachylites are interpreted as solidified friction induced melts which form exclusively during seismic or impact events and are thus accepted as 'unequivocal evidence' of paleo-earthquakes on exhumed faults. However, we found in experiments that pseudotachylites can form under clearly aseismic conditions at confining pressures and temperatures typical of mid crustal levels (Pc = 500 MPa, T = 300° C). The starting material consists of granitoid powder crushed to a size of ≤ 200 μm in diameter. This material (0.1 g), with 0.2 wt% water added, is placed between alumina forcing blocks pre-cut at 45° , weld-sealed in platinum jackets with an inner nickel foil insert and deformed in a solid medium deformation apparatus (modified Griggs rig). We applied displacement rates of (10-8 ms-1 precursor material and is in general more ferromagnesian and basic compared to the bulk rock indicating preferred melting of biotite. The calculated temperature increase due to shear heating is at the most 5°C. High stresses cause pervasive comminution: the smallest crystalline fragments within the bubbly melt have a grain diameter of 10 nm. Nanomaterials exhibit a 'melting point depression' (dependence of melting point on grain size) which allows melting well below bulk melting temperatures. Thus, it seems that melting is a continuation of the comminution once the rock has reached small enough grain size. We therefore suggest that pseudotachylites may also form as 'mechanical melts' at slow displacement rates without the necessity of reaching high temperatures.

  16. Effect of modes interaction on the resistive wall mode stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Longxi; Wu Bin

    2013-01-01

    Effects of modes interaction on the resistive wall mode (RWM) stability are studied. When considering the modes interaction effects, the linear growth rate of the most unstable (3, 1) mode decreases. After linear evolution, the RWM saturates at the nonlinear phase. The saturation can be attributed to flux piling up on the resistive wall. When some modes exist, the (3, 1) mode saturates at lower level compared with single mode evolution. Meanwhile, the magnetic energy of the (5, 2) mode increases correspondingly, but the magnetic energy saturation level of the (2, 1) mode changes weakly. (authors)

  17. Surface modes in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  18. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  19. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  20. A new slow positron beam facility using a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Masafumi

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, Sumitomo Heavy Industries became the first in the world to successfully produce a slow positron beam using a compact cyclotron. Slow positron beam production using an accelerator had mainly consisted of using an electron linear accelerator (LINAC). However, the newly developed system that uses a compact cyclotron enabled cost reduction, downsizing of equipment, production of a DC slow positron beam, a polarized slow positron beam, and other benefits. After that, a genuine slow positron beam facility was developed with the construction of compact cyclotron No.2, and beam production in the new facility has already been started. The features of this new slow positron beam facility are explained below. 1) It is the world's first compact slow positron beam facility using a compact cyclotron. 2) It is the only genuine slow positron beam facility in the world which incorporates the production and use of a slow positron beam in the design stage of the cyclotron. To use a slow positron beam for non-destructive detection of lattice defects in semiconductor material, it is necessary to convert the beam into ultra-short pulses of several hundreds of pico-seconds. Sumitomo Heavy Industries has devised a new short-pulsing method (i.e. an induction bunching method) that enables the conversion of a slow positron beam into short pulses with an optimum pulsing electric field change, and succeeded in converting a slow positron beam into short pulses using this method for the first time in the world. Non-destructive detection of lattice defects in semiconductor material using this equipment has already been started, and some information about the depth distribution, size, density, etc. of lattice defects has already been obtained. (J.P.N.)

  1. Fast wave current drive above the slow wave density limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, R.; Sheehan, D.P.; Wolf, N.S.; Edrich, D.

    1989-01-01

    Fast wave and slow wave current drive near the mean gyrofrequency were compared in the Irvine Torus using distinct phased array antennae of similar principal wavelengths, frequencies, and input powers. The slow wave current drive density limit was measured for 50ω ci ≤ω≤500ω ci and found to agree with trends in tokamaks. Fast wave current drive was observed at densities up to the operating limit of the torus, demonstrably above the slow wave density limit

  2. PRINCIPLES OF SLOW TRAVEL APPLIED TO TOURIST LEISURE CONTEMPORARY

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Rafael Chequer; Netto, Alexandre Panosso

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the concept of Slow Travel, a travel’s modality based in a new perspective of touristic use considering a slowdown style. In this way, the paper analyses the context of growing and development about Slow Travel, including its ideological matrix based in industrial revolution’s contestation, specially about the acceleration noted at contemporary society and its application inside the leisure and travel universes. At least, shows the main characteristics of Slow Travel, and it...

  3. Nonlinear tearing modes in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.

    1989-01-01

    Finite-amplitude islands, which are the saturated states of tearing modes in the reversed field pinch, are calculated. These states are bifurcated noncylindrical equilibrium states. With σ(r) (σequivalentj x B/B 2 ) nonuniform across the plasma, as is consistent with experiment, a variety of m = 1 and m = 0 bifurcated equilibria are possible, instead of just the m = 1 helix calculated for uniform σ(r) by Taylor [in Pulsed High Beta Plasmas, edited by D. Evans (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), p. 59]. Assuming the magnetic field lines in the reversed field pinch are weakly stochastic, the growth time of an unstable tearing mode is on the inertial time scale, as in the Taylor model, in constrast to growth on the resistive time scale predicted from nonlinear tearing mode theory when magnetic surfaces exist. The dependence of the saturated island width on radius of a conducting shell is investigated. Islands in the reversed field pinch often have magnetic wells in the island interior, which may result in improved confinement in the island regions

  4. Threshold Characteristics of Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The threshold properties of photonic crystal quantum dot lasers operating in the slow-light regime are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Measurements show that, in contrast to conventional lasers, the threshold gain attains a minimum value for a specific cavity length. The experimental...... results are explained by an analytical theory for the laser threshold that takes into account the effects of slow light and random disorder due to unavoidable fabrication imperfections. Longer lasers are found to operate deeper into the slow-light region, leading to a trade-off between slow-light induced...

  5. Application of Planar Broadband Slow-Wave Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardas Metlevskis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of planar broadband slow-wave systems are used for designing microwave devices. The papers published by Lithuanian scientists analyze and investigate the models of helical and meander slow-wave systems. The article carefully examines the applications of meander slow-wave systems and presents the areas where similar systems, e.g. mobile devices, RFID, wireless technologies are used and reviewed nowadays. The paper also focuses on the examples of the papers discussing antennas, filters and couplers that contain designed and fabricated meander slow-wave systems.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  7. Impact of reionization on CMB polarization tests of slow-roll inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortonson, Michael J.; Hu, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of inflationary parameters from the CMB B-mode polarization spectrum on the largest scales depend on knowledge of the reionization history, especially at low tensor-to-scalar ratio. Assuming an incorrect reionization history in the analysis of such polarization data can strongly bias the inflationary parameters. One consequence is that the single-field slow-roll consistency relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and tensor tilt might be excluded with high significance even if this relation holds in reality. We explain the origin of the bias and present case studies with various tensor amplitudes and noise characteristics. A more model-independent approach can account for uncertainties about reionization, and we show that parametrizing the reionization history by a set of its principal components with respect to E-mode polarization removes the bias in inflationary parameter measurement with little degradation in precision

  8. Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajcsy, Michal; Hofferberth, S.; Balic, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a fiber-optical switch that is activated at tiny energies corresponding to a few hundred optical photons per pulse. This is achieved by simultaneously confining both photons and a small laser-cooled ensemble of atoms inside the microscopic hollow core of a single-mode photonic-crys......-crystal fiber and using quantum optical techniques for generating slow light propagation and large nonlinear interaction between light beams.......We demonstrate a fiber-optical switch that is activated at tiny energies corresponding to a few hundred optical photons per pulse. This is achieved by simultaneously confining both photons and a small laser-cooled ensemble of atoms inside the microscopic hollow core of a single-mode photonic...

  9. Development of slow and fast wave coupling and heating from the C-Stellarator to NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosea Joel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical perspective on key discoveries which contributed to understanding the properties of coupling both slow and fast waves and the effects on plasma heating and current drive will be presented. Important steps made include the demonstration that the Alfven resonance was in fact a mode conversion on the C-stellarator, that toroidal m = -1 eigenmodes were excited in toroidal geometry and impurity influx caused the Z mode on the ST tokamak, that the H minority regime provided strong heating and that 3He minority could be used as well on PLT, that the 2nd harmonic majority tritium regime was viable on TFTR, and that high harmonic fast wave heating was efficient when the SOL losses were avoided on NSTX.

  10. Syntheses and luminescence study for La{sub 1−x}Eu{sub x}[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 2}]·1.5H{sub 2}O (0≤x≤0.40) and the dehydrated products β-La{sub 1−x}Eu{sub x}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} (0≤x≤0.15)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaorui; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Haixia; Gao, Wenliang; Cong, Rihong, E-mail: congrihong@cqu.edu.cn; Yang, Tao, E-mail: taoyang@cqu.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    La{sub 1−x}Eu{sub x}[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 2}]·1.5H{sub 2}O with the Eu{sup 3+}-doping upper limit of 40 atom% were synthesized hydrothermally. Thereafter, thermal treatments at 710 °C were applied to obtain β-La{sub 1−x}Eu{sub x}B{sub 5}O{sub 9}. The solid solution range is even narrower, i.e. 0≤x≤0.15, due to the mismatch between La{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}. The host borate system shows a typical concentration quenching effect at x=0.20 under CT excitation, and this is postponed to x=0.30 under the f−f excitation. β-La{sub 1−x}Eu{sub x}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} shows a very intense absorption of charge transfer, and gives strong red emissions at 615 nm with large R/O ratios (1.9–2.4). The saturation effect appears at x=0.11, which is probably due to the lattice distortion. Eu{sup 3+} luminescence was applied as the structural probe to study the local coordination environment change during the dehydration and re-crystallization processes of La{sub 0.93}Eu{sub 0.07}[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 2}]·1.5H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: • La{sub 1−x}Eu{sub x}[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 2}]·1.5H{sub 2}O (0≤x≤0.40) were prepared by hydrothermal method. • The Eu{sup 3+}-doping limit in β-La{sub 1−x}Eu{sub x}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} is 15 atom% proved by powder XRD. • La{sub 1−x}Eu{sub x}[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 2}]·1.5H{sub 2}O show relatively weaker red emissions. • β-La{sub 1−x}Eu{sub x}B{sub 5}O{sub 9} shows an intense CT absorption together with strong red emissions. • Eu{sup 3+} luminescence was studied when annealing La{sub 0.93}Eu{sub 0.07}[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 2}]·1.5H{sub 2}O.

  11. Anorexia nervosa: slow regain of bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, A; Groenning, I L; Syversen, U; Hoeiseth, A

    2000-01-01

    In a retrospective study of women aged 18-30 years, aimed at assessing factors associated with peak bone mass (PBM), 13 of 239 study cases reported having had anorexia nervosa. The mean total femoral and lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) values were not significantly lower in women who had had anorexia than in the pooled group (mean Z-scores of -0.60 and -0.48). Cases with less than 6 years since the anorexia had on average a present weight 5.7 kg less than their premorbid weights, while cases with more than 6 years since the eating disorder had an average weight 22.5 kg above their pre-morbid weights. The cases who had not regained their weight had BMD values significantly lower than the pooled material (mean Z-scores -1.15 and -0.9 in the lumbar spine and total femur respectively). Those who had regained their weight had BMD values as predicted from their present anthropometric data, while those who had not regained their weight had BMD values that were substantially below that predicted from their present weight. Anorexia nervosa seems to be associated with a low BMD which is even lower than that which can be predicted from the weight loss alone. This suggests that weight loss and other factors, such as menstrual dysfunction and estrogen deficiency, are independent and thus additive causes of bone loss in anorexia nervosa. Recovery of BMD seems slow, but the BMD may become as predicted from the anthropometric data after restoration of body weight and menses. The potential for recovery of BMD seems intact for several years after menarche.

  12. Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg, E-mail: zikanov@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, 48128-1491 Michigan (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called “elevator modes,” are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.

  13. Study of guided modes in three-dimensional composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, S.; Gerard, A.

    The propagation of elastic waves in a three-dimensional carbon-carbon composite is modeled with a mixed variational method, using the Bloch or Floquet theories and the Hellinger-Reissner function for two independent fields. The model of the equivalent homogeneous material only exists below a cut-off frequency of about 600 kHz. The existence below the cut-off frequency of two guided waves can account for the presence of a slow guided wave on either side of the cut-off frequency. Optical modes are generated at low frequencies, and can attain high velocites (rapid guided modes of 15,000 m/sec).

  14. Propagating annular modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The leading "annular mode", defined as the dominant EOF of surface pressure or of zonal mean zonal wind variability, appears as a dipolar structure straddling the mean midlatitude jet and thus seems to describe north-south wobbling of the jet latitude. However, extratropical zonal wind anomalies frequently tend to migrate poleward. This behavior can be described by the first two EOFs, the first (AM1) being the dipolar structure, and the second (AM2) having a tripolar structure centered on the mean jet. Taken in isolation, AM1 thus describes a north-south wobbling of the jet position, while AM2 describes a strengthening and narrowing of the jet. However, despite the fact that they are spatially orthogonal, and their corresponding time series temporally orthogonal, AM1 and AM2 are not independent, but show significant lag-correlations which reveal the propagation. The EOFs are not modes of the underlying dynamical system governing the zonal flow evolution. The true modes can be estimated using principal oscillation pattern (POP) analysis. In the troposphere, the leading POPs manifest themselves as a pair of complex conjugate structures with conjugate eigenvalues thus, in reality, constituting a single, complex, mode that describes propagating anomalies. Even though the principal components associated with the two leading EOFs decay at different rates, each decays faster than the true mode. These facts have implications for eddy feedback and the susceptibility of the mode to external perturbations. If one interprets the annular modes as the modes of the system, then simple theory predicts that the response to steady forcing will usually be dominated by AM1 (with the longest time scale). However, such arguments should really be applied to the true modes. Experiments with a simplified GCM show that climate response to perturbations do not necessarily have AM1 structures. Implications of these results for stratosphere-troposphere interactions are explored. The POP

  15. The role of the radial electric field in confinement and transport in H-mode and VH-mode discharges in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Osborne, T.H.; Doyle, E.J.; Rettig, C.L.

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of the radial electric field, E r , with high spatial and high time resolution in H-mode and VH-mode discharges in the DIII-D tokamak have revealed the significant influence of the shear in E r on confinement and transport in these discharges. These measurements are made using the DIII-D Charge Exchange Recombination (CER) System. At the L-H transition in DIII-D plasmas, a negative well-like E r profile develops just within the magnetic separatrix. A region of shear in E r results, which extends 1 to 2 cm into the plasma from the separatrix. At the transition, this region of sheared E r exhibits the greatest increase in impurity ion poloidal rotation velocity and the greatest reduction in plasma fluctuations. A transport barrier is formed in this same region of E x B velocity shear as is signified by large increases in the observed gradients of the ion temperature, the carbon density, the electron temperature and electron density. The development of the region of sheared E r , the increase in impurity ion poloidal rotation, the reduction in plasma turbulence, and the transport barrier all occur simultaneously at the L-H transition. Measurements of the radial electric field, plasma turbulence, thermal transport, and energy confinement have been performed for a wide range of plasma conditions and configurations. The results support the supposition that the progression of improving confinement at the L-H transition, into the H-mode and then into the VH-mode can be explained by the hypothesis of the suppression of plasma turbulence by the increasing penetration of the region of sheared E x B velocity into the plasma interior

  16. Experimental determination of the slow-neutron wavelength distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Mikke, K.; Sledziewska-Blocka, D.

    1970-01-01

    Different experiments for determining the slow-neutron wavelength distribution in the region 227-3 meV have been carried out, and the results compared. It is concluded that the slow-neutron wave-length distribution can be determined accurately by elastic scattering on a pure incoherent or a pure...

  17. The Localizing Value Of Focal Delta Slowing In Temporal Lobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow wave EEG had a higher marginal probability than neuropsychological assessment of predicting the focus, and was equally effective as other investigative methods. Conclusion These results suggest that focal temporal delta slowing is useful in the localization of epileptogenic foci. There was no discordance with the ...

  18. On the reasons for bombarding uranium with slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Diyu

    1997-01-01

    Form the concepts of slow neutrons, the binding energy and the excitation energy of complex nuclei, and the activation energy in nuclear fission, the four reasons for bombarding uranium with slow neutrons are summed up. Not only the reasons for uranium fission are brought in light, but also the micromechanism is dealt with

  19. Slow Light at High Frequencies in an Amplifying Semiconductor Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate slow-down of a modulated light signal in a semiconductor waveguide. Concatenated amplifying and absorbing sections simultaneously achieve both amplification and a controllable time delay at 15 GHz.......We demonstrate slow-down of a modulated light signal in a semiconductor waveguide. Concatenated amplifying and absorbing sections simultaneously achieve both amplification and a controllable time delay at 15 GHz....

  20. Recurrent slow slip event likely hastened by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hitoshi; Kimura, Hisanori; Enescu, Bogdan; Aoi, Shin

    2012-01-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) are another mode of fault deformation than the fast faulting of regular earthquakes. Such transient episodes have been observed at plate boundaries in a number of subduction zones around the globe. The SSEs near the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, are among the most documented SSEs, with the longest repeating history, of almost 30 y, and have a recurrence interval of 5 to 7 y. A remarkable characteristic of the slow slip episodes is the accompanying earthquake swarm activity. Our stable, long-term seismic observations enable us to detect SSEs using the recorded earthquake catalog, by considering an earthquake swarm as a proxy for a slow slip episode. Six recurrent episodes are identified in this way since 1982. The average duration of the SSE interoccurrence interval is 68 mo; however, there are significant fluctuations from this mean. While a regular cycle can be explained using a simple physical model, the mechanisms that are responsible for the observed fluctuations are poorly known. Here we show that the latest SSE in the Boso Peninsula was likely hastened by the stress transfer from the March 11, 2011 great Tohoku earthquake. Moreover, a similar mechanism accounts for the delay of an SSE in 1990 by a nearby earthquake. The low stress buildups and drops during the SSE cycle can explain the strong sensitivity of these SSEs to stress transfer from external sources. PMID:22949688

  1. Methods for slow axis beam quality improvement of high power broad area diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Haiyan; Xiong, Yihan; Jiang, Ching-Long J.; Schmidt, Berthold; Treusch, Georg

    2014-03-01

    For high brightness direct diode laser systems, it is of fundamental importance to improve the slow axis beam quality of the incorporated laser diodes regardless what beam combining technology is applied. To further advance our products in terms of increased brightness at a high power level, we must optimize the slow axis beam quality despite the far field blooming at high current levels. The later is caused predominantly by the built-in index step in combination with the thermal lens effect. Most of the methods for beam quality improvements reported in publications sacrifice the device efficiency and reliable output power. In order to improve the beam quality as well as maintain the efficiency and reliable output power, we investigated methods of influencing local heat generation to reduce the thermal gradient across the slow axis direction, optimizing the built-in index step and discriminating high order modes. Based on our findings, we have combined different methods in our new device design. Subsequently, the beam parameter product (BPP) of a 10% fill factor bar has improved by approximately 30% at 7 W/emitter without efficiency penalty. This technology has enabled fiber coupled high brightness multi-kilowatt direct diode laser systems. In this paper, we will elaborate on the methods used as well as the results achieved.

  2. Spacetime Dynamics and Slow Neutrino Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2018-06-01

    Space is a form of existence of matter, while time is a measure of change of the matter in the space. Issac Newton suggested that the space and time are absolute, not affected by matter and its motion. His first law of motion or the law of inertia says that, without net force acts on it, an object in motion remains the motion in a straight line at a constant speed. Ernest Mach proposed that the inertia of a body results from the gravitational interaction on the body by the rest of the entire universe. As mass is a measure of inertia, Mach’s principle can be simply stated as mass here is affected by matter there. On the basis of Mach’s principle, Albert Einstein considered the space and time to be relative and developed two theories of relativities. One called special relativity describes the effect of motion on spacetime and the other called general relativity describes the effect of matter on spacetime. Recently, the author has further considered reactions of the influenced spacetime on the moving objects, including photons. A moving object including a photon, because of its continuously keeping on displacement, disturbs the rest of the entire universe or distorts/curves the spacetime. The distorted or curved spacetime then generates an effective gravitational force to act back on the moving object or photon, so that reduces the object inertia or photon frequency. Considering the disturbance of spacetime by a photon is extremely weak, the author has modelled the effective gravitational force to be Newtonian and derived a new redshift-distance relation that not only perfectly explained the redshift-distance measurement of distant type Ia supernovae but also inherently obtained Hubble’s law as an approximate at small redshift. In this study, we will further analyse the reaction of the influenced spacetime on moving neutrinos and demonstrate the creation of slow neutrino (or tired neutrino) background that may be gravitationally orbiting around clusters

  3. Revealing Hidden Structural Order Controlling Both Fast and Slow Glassy Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a supercooled liquid near the glass transition is characterized by two-step relaxation, fast β and slow α relaxations. Because of the apparently disordered nature of glassy structures, there have been long debates over whether the origin of drastic slowing-down of the α relaxation accompanied by heterogeneous dynamics is thermodynamic or dynamic. Furthermore, it has been elusive whether there is any deep connection between fast β and slow α modes. To settle these issues, here we introduce a set of new structural order parameters characterizing sterically favored structures with high local packing capability, and then access structure-dynamics correlation by a novel nonlocal approach. We find that the particle mobility is under control of the static order parameter field. The fast β process is controlled by the instantaneous order parameter field locally, resulting in short-time particle-scale dynamics. Then the mobility field progressively develops with time t, following the initial order parameter field from disorder to more ordered regions. As is well known, the heterogeneity in the mobility field (dynamic heterogeneity is maximized with a characteristic length ξ_{4}, when t reaches the relaxation time τ_{α}. We discover that this mobility pattern can be predicted solely by a spatial coarse graining of the initial order parameter field at t=0 over a length ξ without any dynamical information. Furthermore, we find a relation ξ∼ξ_{4}, indicating that the static length ξ grows coherently with the dynamic one ξ_{4} upon cooling. This further suggests an intrinsic link between τ_{α} and ξ: the growth of the static length ξ is the origin of dynamical slowing-down. These we confirm for the first time in binary glass formers both in two and three spatial dimensions. Thus, a static structure has two intrinsic characteristic lengths, particle size and ξ, which control dynamics in local and nonlocal manners, resulting

  4. Revealing Hidden Structural Order Controlling Both Fast and Slow Glassy Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hua; Tanaka, Hajime

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of a supercooled liquid near the glass transition is characterized by two-step relaxation, fast β and slow α relaxations. Because of the apparently disordered nature of glassy structures, there have been long debates over whether the origin of drastic slowing-down of the α relaxation accompanied by heterogeneous dynamics is thermodynamic or dynamic. Furthermore, it has been elusive whether there is any deep connection between fast β and slow α modes. To settle these issues, here we introduce a set of new structural order parameters characterizing sterically favored structures with high local packing capability, and then access structure-dynamics correlation by a novel nonlocal approach. We find that the particle mobility is under control of the static order parameter field. The fast β process is controlled by the instantaneous order parameter field locally, resulting in short-time particle-scale dynamics. Then the mobility field progressively develops with time t , following the initial order parameter field from disorder to more ordered regions. As is well known, the heterogeneity in the mobility field (dynamic heterogeneity) is maximized with a characteristic length ξ4, when t reaches the relaxation time τα. We discover that this mobility pattern can be predicted solely by a spatial coarse graining of the initial order parameter field at t =0 over a length ξ without any dynamical information. Furthermore, we find a relation ξ ˜ξ4, indicating that the static length ξ grows coherently with the dynamic one ξ4 upon cooling. This further suggests an intrinsic link between τα and ξ : the growth of the static length ξ is the origin of dynamical slowing-down. These we confirm for the first time in binary glass formers both in two and three spatial dimensions. Thus, a static structure has two intrinsic characteristic lengths, particle size and ξ , which control dynamics in local and nonlocal manners, resulting in the emergence of the two

  5. Rail travel: Conceptualizing a study on slow tourism approaches in sustaining rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Noor Farah Atiqah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transportation in Peninsular Malaysia is a popular transportation mode for locals to return to their hometown but is not frequently used as the mode of transport when travelling for holidays. Rural towns in Peninsular Malaysia have immense opportunity to be promoted as a popular tourism destination without the need of intense modern development. Using train rather than taking a car or a bus would endorse the concept of slowness during travel enabling tourists to enjoy the time taken to travel rather than rushing to travel to a destination. Encouragement of travelling by rail to the rural towns will enable improved utilization of the existing rail network and further uplift the travel appeal to rural towns in Peninsular Malaysia. In order to promote the concept of slow tourism that would benefit the rural towns’ sustainability, the perception of tourists on travelling slowly by train should first be understood and taken for consideration. A qualitative methodology of in depth interviews with domestic and international tourists whom have travel on trains to the rural towns will be conducted.

  6. Slow cyclotron waves in a waveguide with a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, I.L.; Yudin, L.A.; Mustafin, Kh.Kh.

    1979-01-01

    Using the analytical methods the problem about propagation of waves of a small amplitude in an electron beam (without ions), moving along the axis of a smooth waveguide in the longitudinal magnetic field is considered. The main attention is paid to dispersion.characteristics and the slow cyclotron waves intended for ion acceleration. The problems connected with utilization of these waves for ion acceleration are discussed. The estimation shows that when a system of excitation of an accelerating wave has a wide range, i.e. excited is a great set of slow cyclotron modes, the accelerating field structure significantly changes at a distance of several dozens beam radii, and synchronism supply between the wave and accelerating ions becomes an impracticable task. So it is necessary to have a narrow-band excitation system to excite only a single mode. It is noted that the model used of a uniform beam density along the cross section is an idealization permitting to simplify analytical consideration. The presence of the radial density change in an undisturbed beam will lead to some other cyclotron wave field structure. However, such a change will not give any qualitative differences in comparison with the results obtained

  7. Slow Money for Soft Energy: Lessons for Energy Finance from the Slow Money Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kock, Beaudry E. [Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)], e-mail: beaudry.kock@ouce.ox.ac.uk

    2012-12-15

    Energy infrastructure is decarbonizing, shifting from dirty coal to cleaner gas- and emissions-free renewables. This is an important and necessary change that unfortunately risks preserving many problematic technical and institutional properties of the old energy system: in particular, the large scales, high aggregation, and excessive centralization of renewable energy infrastructure and, importantly, its financing. Large-scale renewables carry environmental, social and political risks that cannot be ignored, and more importantly they may not alone accomplish the necessary decarbonization of the power sector. We need to revive a different approach to clean energy infrastructure: a 'softer' (Lovins 1978), more distributed, decentralized, local-scale strategy. To achieve this, we need a fundamentally different approach to the financing of clean energy infrastructure. I propose we learn from the 'Slow Money' approach being pioneered in sustainable agriculture (Tasch 2010), emphasizing a better connection to place, smaller scales, and a focus on quality over quantity. This 'slow money, soft energy' vision is not a repudiation of big-scale renewables, since there are some societal needs, which can only be met by big, centralized power. But we do not need the level of concentration in control and finance epitomized by the current trends in the global renewables sector: this can and must change.

  8. Enhancement of sleep slow waves: underlying mechanisms and practical consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eBellesi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Even modest sleep restriction, especially the loss of sleep slow wave activity, is invariably associated with slower EEG activity during wake, the occurrence of local sleep in an otherwise awake brain, and impaired performance due to cognitive and memory deficits. Recent studies not only confirm the beneficial role of sleep in memory consolidation, but also point to a specific role for sleep slow waves. Thus, the implementation of methods to enhance sleep slow waves without unwanted arousals or lightening of sleep could have significant practical implications. Here we first review the evidence that it is possible to enhance sleep slow waves in humans using transcranial direct-current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Since these methods are currently impractical and their safety is questionable, especially for chronic long-term exposure, we then discuss novel data suggesting that it is possible to enhance slow waves using sensory stimuli. We consider the physiology of the K-complex, a peripheral evoked slow wave, and show that, among different sensory modalities, acoustic stimulation is the most effective in increasing the magnitude of slow waves, likely through the activation of non-lemniscal ascending pathways to the thalamo-cortical system. In addition, we discuss how intensity and frequency of the acoustic stimuli, as well as exact timing and pattern of stimulation, affect sleep enhancement. Finally, we discuss automated algorithms that read the EEG and, in real-time, adjust the stimulation parameters in a closed-loop manner to obtain an increase in sleep slow waves and avoid undesirable arousals. In conclusion, while discussing the mechanisms that underlie the generation of sleep slow waves, we review the converging evidence showing that acoustic stimulation is safe and represents an ideal tool for slow wave sleep enhancement.

  9. Unified law of evolution of experimental gouge-filled fault for fast and slow slip events at slider frictional experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapchuk, Alexey; Saltykov, Nikolay

    2017-04-01

    Excessive tectonic stresses accumulated in the area of rock discontinuity are released while a process of slip along preexisting faults. Spectrum of slip modes includes not only creeps and regular earthquakes but also some transitional regimes - slow-slip events, low-frequency and very low-frequency earthquakes. However, there is still no agreement in Geophysics community if such fast and slow events have mutual nature [Peng, Gomberg, 2010] or they present different physical phenomena [Ide et al., 2007]. Models of nucleation and evolution of fault slip events could be evolved by laboratory experiments in which regularities of shear deformation of gouge-filled fault are investigated. In the course of the work we studied deformation regularities of experimental fault by slider frictional experiments for development of unified law of evolution of fault and revelation of its parameters responsible for deformation mode realization. The experiments were conducted as a classic slider-model experiment, in which block under normal and shear stresses moves along interface. The volume between two rough surfaces was filled by thin layer of granular matter. Shear force was applied by a spring which deformed with a constant rate. In such experiments elastic energy was accumulated in the spring, and regularities of its releases were determined by regularities of frictional behaviour of experimental fault. A full spectrum of slip modes was simulated in laboratory experiments. Slight change of gouge characteristics (granule shape, content of clay), viscosity of interstitial fluid and level of normal stress make it possible to obtained gradual transformation of the slip modes from steady sliding and slow slip to regular stick-slip, with various amplitude of 'coseismic' displacement. Using method of asymptotic analogies we have shown that different slip modes can be specified in term of single formalism and preparation of different slip modes have uniform evolution law. It is shown

  10. Collective Lyapunov modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazumasa A; Chaté, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    We show, using covariant Lyapunov vectors in addition to standard Lyapunov analysis, that there exists a set of collective Lyapunov modes in large chaotic systems exhibiting collective dynamics. Associated with delocalized Lyapunov vectors, they act collectively on the trajectory and hence characterize the instability of its collective dynamics. We further develop, for globally coupled systems, a connection between these collective modes and the Lyapunov modes in the corresponding Perron–Frobenius equation. We thereby address the fundamental question of the effective dimension of collective dynamics and discuss the extensivity of chaos in the presence of collective dynamics. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  11. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie

    2014-01-01

    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  12. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33......) for current confinement into the active layer (34). An air-gap layer (102) may be provided between the upper reflector (15) and the SOI wafer (50) acting as a substrate. The lower reflector may be designed as a high-contrast grating (51) by etching....

  13. The properties of fast and slow oblique solitons in a magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. F.; Doyle, T. B.

    2002-01-01

    This work builds on a recent treatment by McKenzie and Doyle [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4367 (2001)], on oblique solitons in a cold magnetized plasma, to include the effects of plasma thermal pressure. Conservation of total momentum in the direction of wave propagation immediately shows that if the flow is supersonic, compressive (rarefactive) changes in the magnetic pressure induce decelerations (accelerations) in the flow speed, whereas if the flow is subsonic, compressive (rarefactive) changes in the magnetic pressure induce accelerations (decelerations) in the flow speed. Such behavior is characteristic of a Bernoulli-type plasma momentum flux which exhibits a minimum at the plasma sonic point. The plasma energy flux (kinetic plus enthalpy) also shows similar Bernoulli-type behavior. This transonic effect is manifest in the spatial structure equation for the flow speed (in the direction of propagation) which shows that soliton structures may exist if the wave speed lies either (i) in the range between the fast and Alfven speeds or (ii) between the sound and slow mode speed. These conditions follow from the requirement that a defined, characteristic "soliton parameter" m exceeds unity. It is in this latter slow soliton regime that the effects of plasma pressure are most keenly felt. The equilibrium points of the structure equation define the center of the wave. The structure of both fast and slow solitons is elucidated through the properties of the energy integral function of the structure equation. In particular, the slow soliton, which owes its existence to plasma pressure, may have either a compressive or rarefactive nature, and exhibits a rich structure, which is revealed through the spatial structure of the longitudinal speed and its corresponding transverse velocity hodograph.

  14. The properties of fast and slow oblique solitons in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.F.; Doyle, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    This work builds on a recent treatment by McKenzie and Doyle [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4367 (2001)], on oblique solitons in a cold magnetized plasma, to include the effects of plasma thermal pressure. Conservation of total momentum in the direction of wave propagation immediately shows that if the flow is supersonic, compressive (rarefactive) changes in the magnetic pressure induce decelerations (accelerations) in the flow speed, whereas if the flow is subsonic, compressive (rarefactive) changes in the magnetic pressure induce accelerations (decelerations) in the flow speed. Such behavior is characteristic of a Bernoulli-type plasma momentum flux which exhibits a minimum at the plasma sonic point. The plasma energy flux (kinetic plus enthalpy) also shows similar Bernoulli-type behavior. This transonic effect is manifest in the spatial structure equation for the flow speed (in the direction of propagation) which shows that soliton structures may exist if the wave speed lies either (i) in the range between the fast and Alfven speeds or (ii) between the sound and slow mode speed. These conditions follow from the requirement that a defined, characteristic 'soliton parameter' m exceeds unity. It is in this latter slow soliton regime that the effects of plasma pressure are most keenly felt. The equilibrium points of the structure equation define the center of the wave. The structure of both fast and slow solitons is elucidated through the properties of the energy integral function of the structure equation. In particular, the slow soliton, which owes its existence to plasma pressure, may have either a compressive or rarefactive nature, and exhibits a rich structure, which is revealed through the spatial structure of the longitudinal speed and its corresponding transverse velocity hodograph

  15. An overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator with efficient dual-mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Renzhen; Li, Jiawei; Bai, Xianchen; Song, Zhimin; Teng, Yan; Ye, Hu; Li, Xiaoze; Sun, Jun; Chen, Changhua; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    A dual-mode operation mechanism in an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator is presented. The electron beam interacts with the −1st space harmonic of TM 01 mode synchronously in the slow wave structure. Then the backward propagating TM 01 mode is converted to the forward propagating TM 02 mode. As the phase velocity of the volume harmonic of TM 02 mode is about twice that of the surface harmonic of TM 01 mode, the TM 02 mode also plays an important role in the high-power microwave generation. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that an efficiency of 48% and a significant improvement of the power capacity have been obtained

  16. Identifying factors contributing to slow growth in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Deen, J; Shurson, G C; Wang, L; Chen, C; Keisler, D H; Li, Y Z

    2016-05-01

    Pigs that grow slower than their contemporaries can cause complications for animal welfare and profitability. This study was conducted to investigate factors that may contribute to slow growth of pigs. Pigs ( = 440) farrowed by 65 sows were monitored from birth to market. Pigs were categorized as slow, average, and fast growers based on market weight adjusted to 170 d of age (slow growers were 125 kg). Blood samples were collected from 48 focal pigs at 9 and 21 wk of age and analyzed for hormone and free AA concentrations. Data were analyzed using the Mixed and Logistic procedures of SAS. Slow-growing pigs accounted for 10% of pigs marketed, average growers accounted for 49% of pigs marketed, and fast growers accounted for 41% of pigs marketed. Compared with fast growers, slow growers were lighter at birth ( ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.19 to 3.96, = 0.01). Litter size and parity of the pigs' dam were not associated with slow growth. These results suggest that low concentrations of IGF-1, insulin, leptin, and AA may contribute to or be associated with slow growth in pigs.

  17. T cells from fully H-2 allogeneic (A replaced by B) radiation bone marrow chimeras are functionally competent and host restricted but are alloreactive against hybrid Ia determinants expressed on (A x B)F1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisbeek, A.M.; Hathcock, K.S.; Hodes, R.J.; Singer, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this communication it is demonstrated that T cells from fully allogeneic A replaced by B radiation bone marrow chimeras are alloreactive against the hybrid Ia molecules expressed on the surface of heterozygous A X B cells. These results suggested that previous failures to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses from fully allogeneic chimeras by sensitizing the chimeric T cells to antigen in an (A X B)F1-priming environment might have been confounded by an ongoing alloreaction against determinants created by hybrid Ia molecules expressed on F1 cells. Consequently, the ability to generate CTL responses from fully allogeneic chimeras was re-examined by sensitizing the chimeric T cells to antigen presented by homozygous rather that F1 stimulator cells. It was found that T cells of donor bone marrow origin that mediate cytotoxic responses to trinitrophenyl-modified self determinants do differentiate into functional competence in an H-2-incompatible host environment and are restricted to the host H-2 haplotype

  18. Magnetic modes in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.A.

    1990-04-01

    A first discussion of reciprocal propagation of magnetic modes in a superlattice is presented. In the absence of an applied external magnetic field a superllatice made of alternate layers of the type antiferromagnetic-non-magnetic materials presents effects similar to those of phonons in a dielectric superlattice. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  19. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  20. Thermal Operating Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel SAIC Company

    2002-01-01

    Higher and lower temperature operating modes (e.g., above and below the boiling point of water) are alternative approaches to managing the heat produced by the radioactive decay of spent nuclear fuel. Current analyses indicate that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site is likely to comply with applicable safety standards regardless of the particular thermal operating mode. Both modes have potential advantages and disadvantages. With a higher temperature operating mode (HTOM), waste packages (WPs) can be placed closer together. This reduces the number of drifts, the required emplacement area, construction costs, and occupational risks to construction workers. In addition, the HTOM would minimize the amount of water that might contact the waste for hundreds of years after closure. On the other hand, higher temperatures introduce uncertainties in the understanding of the long-term performance of the repository because of uncertainties in the thermal effects on WP lifetime and the near-field environment around the drifts. A lower temperature operating mode (LTOM) has the potential to reduce uncertainties in long-term performance of the repository by limiting the effects of temperature on WP lifetime and on the near-field environment around the drifts. Depending on the combination of operating parameters, a LTOM could require construction of additional drifts, a larger emplacement area, increased construction costs, increased occupational risks to construction works, and a longer period of ventilation than a HTOM. The repository design for the potential Yucca Mountain site is flexible and can be constructed and operated in various operating modes to achieve specific technical objectives, accommodate future policy decisions, and use of new information. For example, the flexible design can be operated across a range of temperatures and can be tailored to achieve specific thermal requirements in the future. To accommodate future policy decisions, the repository can be

  1. Azimuthal asymmetry of slow particles in high energy nuclear interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Subir; Goswami, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    An asymmetry in the angular distribution of slow particles in the azimuthal plane has been observed during high energy nuclear disintegration of photo emulsion nuclei exposed to 1.8 GeV/c k - and 20 GeV/c protons. The mechanism of disintegration is not in accordance with the cascade-evaporation model, which is based on isotropic emission of slow particles. Deviation from isotropy indicates that some of the slow particles might be emitted well before the thermal equilibrium is reached in the disintegrating system. (author)

  2. Theory of neutron slowing down in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ferziger, Joel H; Dunworth, J V

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Neutron Slowing Down in Nuclear Reactors focuses on one facet of nuclear reactor design: the slowing down (or moderation) of neutrons from the high energies with which they are born in fission to the energies at which they are ultimately absorbed. In conjunction with the study of neutron moderation, calculations of reactor criticality are presented. A mathematical description of the slowing-down process is given, with particular emphasis on the problems encountered in the design of thermal reactors. This volume is comprised of four chapters and begins by considering the problems

  3. Slow Food: por um alimento bom, limpo e justo

    OpenAIRE

    Porazzi, Fabiele

    2012-01-01

    REVIEW:PETRINI, Carlo. Slow Food: princípios da nova gastronomia. Trad. de Renata Lúcia Botina. São Paulo: Editora Senac, 2009. 245 p. RESEÑA:PETRINI, Carlo. Slow Food: princípios da nova gastronomia. Trad. de Renata Lúcia Botina. São Paulo: Editora Senac, 2009. 245 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2012v9n1p384 RESENHA:PETRINI, Carlo. Slow Food: princípios da nova gastronomia. Trad. de Renata Lúcia Botina. São Paulo: Editora Senac, 2009. 245 p.

  4. Face recognition using slow feature analysis and contourlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuehao; Peng, Lingling; Zhe, Fuchuan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we propose a novel face recognition approach based on slow feature analysis (SFA) in contourlet transform domain. This method firstly use contourlet transform to decompose the face image into low frequency and high frequency part, and then takes technological advantages of slow feature analysis for facial feature extraction. We named the new method combining the slow feature analysis and contourlet transform as CT-SFA. The experimental results on international standard face database demonstrate that the new face recognition method is effective and competitive.

  5. Slow light invisibility, teleportation, and other mysteries of light

    CERN Document Server

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Slow Light is a popular treatment of today's astonishing breakthroughs in the science of light. Even though we don't understand light's quantum mysteries, we can slow it to a stop and speed it up beyond its Einsteinian speed limit, 186,000 miles/sec; use it for quantum telecommunications; teleport it; manipulate it to create invisibility; and perhaps generate hydrogen fusion power with it. All this is lucidly presented for non-scientists who wonder about teleportation, Harry Potter invisibility cloaks, and other fantastic outcomes. Slow Light shows how the real science and the fantasy inspire

  6. Slow extraction from the IHEP accelerator by internal target scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The existing slow extraction system is not able to satisfy the required quality of the beam time structure in the intensity region 10 10 - 10 11 ppp. Calculations on simulation of slow extraction by internal target scattering are presented. Two regime of slow extraction are analysed: nonresonant and resonant extraction by target scattering. Resonant extraction by target scattering is able to ensure intensity of extracted beam up to 10 11 . The agreement between calculations and experimental data is good enough. The calculation of extraction possibility by thin W-target scattering are also presented. In this case the extraction efficiency is about 85%. 15 refs., 6 figs

  7. On the Rheology of Slow Slip Events Around Continental Moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Wang, K.; Wada, I.; He, J.

    2015-12-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) occur in various tectonic settings but are the most abundant around the depth of upper-plate Moho in warm-slab subduction zones such as Cascadia and Nankai, accompanied with non-valcanic tremor. The paucity or absence of these near-Moho SSEs in many other subduction zones and the relationship of these SSEs with the megathrust seismogenic zone are intriguing questions of fundamental importance. We address these questions by examining Frictional-Viscous Transitions (FVTs) along subduction faults. Our key hypothesis is that there is a sharp decrease in the frictional stength of subduction faults across its intersection with the continental Moho for two reasons: (1) Enrichment of weak hydrous minerals such as talc due to the hydration of the base of the mantle wedge, and (2) elevated pore fluid pressure in the fault zone because of serpentine (antigorite) saturation of the mantle wedge corner which retards further fluid consumption and decreases permeability. Through thermal modelling using heat flow data as constraints, we found that for Cascadia, Nankai, and Hikurangi, there are two FVTs, with the first one being shallower than the Moho. At the Moho, the fault returns to the friction mode, but with slip behaviour affected by the presence of hydrous minerals and high fluid pressure. We propose this is where near-Moho SSEs occur. Farther downdip, the second FVT occurs and serves to limit the depth extent of the SSEs. Coseismic slip is limited to be shallower than the first FVT, such that frictional slip around the Moho occurs interseismically as SSEs. This mechanism also explains the occurrence of tremor, believed to represent very small SSEs, along the San Andreas fault around the Moho depth. In a way, this mechanism is akin to the "jelly-sandwich" rheology model of the continental lithosphere, but the onset of the lower slice of bread is due to a decrease in frictional strength as opposed to an increase in viscous strength. For the other

  8. Growth Kinematics of Opening-Mode Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhubl, P.; Alzayer, Y.; Laubach, S.; Fall, A.

    2014-12-01

    Fracture aperture is a primary control on flow in fractured reservoirs of low matrix permeability including unconventional oil and gas reservoirs and most geothermal systems. Guided by principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, fracture aperture is generally assumed to be a linear function of fracture length and elastic material properties. Natural opening-mode fractures with significant preserved aperture are observed in core and outcrop indicative of fracture opening strain accommodated by permanent solution-precipitation creep. Fracture opening may thus be decoupled from length growth if the material effectively weakens after initial elastic fracture growth by either non-elastic deformation processes or changes in elastic properties. To investigate the kinematics of fracture length and aperture growth, we reconstructed the opening history of three opening-mode fractures that are bridged by crack-seal quartz cement in Travis Peak Sandstone of the SFOT-1 well, East Texas. Similar crack-seal cement bridges had been interpreted to form by repeated incremental fracture opening and subsequent precipitation of quartz cement. We imaged crack-seal cement textures for bridges sampled at varying distance from the tips using scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence, and determined the number and thickness of crack-seal cement increments as a function of position along the fracture length and height. Observed trends in increment number and thickness are consistent with an initial stage of fast fracture propagation relative to aperture growth, followed by a stage of slow propagation and pronounced aperture growth. Consistent with fluid inclusion observations indicative of fracture opening and propagation occurring over 30-40 m.y., we interpret the second phase of pronounced aperture growth to result from fracture opening strain accommodated by solution-precipitation creep and concurrent slow, possibly subcritical, fracture propagation. Similar deformation

  9. Slow light enhancement and limitations in periodic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure

    in the vicinity of the band edge. The minimum attainable group velocity will depend on the amount of imperfections. Since imperfections are inherited as part of any periodic structure it is necessary to take them into account when we are interested in slow light applications. Slowly propagating light gives rise......Properties of periodic dielectric media have attracted a big interest in the last two decades due to numerous exciting physical phenomena that cannot occur in homogeneous media. Due to their strong dispersive properties, the speed of light can be significantly slowed down in periodic structures....... When light velocity is much smaller than the speed of light in a vacuum, we describe this phenomena as slow light. In this thesis, we analyze important properties of slow light enhancement and limitations in periodic structures. We analyze quantitatively and qualitatively different technologies...

  10. Preparation and characterization of Slow Release Formulations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alginate beads and characterize the resulting slow release formulations (SRFs) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Two sets of formulations were made by extrusion into 0.25 M calcium ...

  11. Very Slow Speed Axial Motion Reluctance Motor | Agu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper presents the scheme for a very slow speed linear machine which uses conventional laminations and with which speeds of the same low order as that of the screw-thread motor can be obtained.

  12. Structural slow light can enhance Beer-Lambert absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Dicaire Isabelle; Chin Sanghoon; Thévenaz Luc

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that structural slow light can enhance Beer-Lambert absorption. A 4-fold reduction of the group velocity induced by mere cavity effects has caused an increase of molecular absorption by 130%.

  13. Techniques for slow positron beam generation and the applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Sohei

    1994-01-01

    Slow positron beams have been expected to be a powerful tool for observation of nature in wide range of research fields from materials science to basic physics, chemistry and biology. In this paper, at first, the beam technology is reviewed, which includes the positron generation, the transformation to slow positron beams and the beam manipulation such as beam stretching, bunching and brightness enhancement. Next, the present status of the slow positron beam applications to a variety of fields is demonstrated in terms of special characteristics of positron, that is, depth controllability, surface sensitivity, unique ionization channels and elemental anti-particle properties. Finally, prospects to produce intense slow positron beams are described. (author) 65 refs

  14. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measureme......We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption...

  15. Exploring carrier dynamics in semiconductors for slow light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of recent results on slow and fast light in active semiconductor waveguides. The cases of coherent population oscillations as well as electromagnetically induced transparency are covered, emphasizing the physics and fundamental limitations.......We give an overview of recent results on slow and fast light in active semiconductor waveguides. The cases of coherent population oscillations as well as electromagnetically induced transparency are covered, emphasizing the physics and fundamental limitations....

  16. Neutron slowing-down time in finite water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.

    1981-11-01

    The influence of the size of a moderator system on the neutron slowing-down time has been investigated. The experimental part of the study was performed on six cubes of water with side lengths from 8 to 30 cm. Neutrons generated in pulses of about 1 ns width were slowed down from 14 MeV to 1.457 eV. The detection method used was based on registration of gamma radiation from the main capture resonance of indium. The most probable slowing-down times were found to be 778 +- 23 ns and 898 +- 25 ns for the smallest and for the largest cubes, respectively. The corresponding mean slowing-down times were 1205 +- 42 ns and 1311 +- 42 ns. In a separate measurement series the space dependence of the slowing-down time close to the source was studied. These experiments were supplemented by a theoretical calculation which gave an indication of the space dependence of the slowingdown time in finite systems. The experimental results were compared to the slowing-down times obtained from various theoretical approaches and from Monte Carlo calculations. All the methods show a decrease of the slowing-down time with decreasing size of the moderator. This effect was least pronounced in the experimental results, which can be explained by the fact the measurements are spatially dependent. The agreement between the Monte Carlo results and those obtained using the diffusion approximation or the age-diffusion theory is surprisingly good, especially for large systems. The P1 approximation, on the other hand, leads to an overestimation of the effect of the finite size on the slowing-down time. (author)

  17. Perceptions of the Slow Food Cultural Trend among the Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Lelia Voinea; Anca Atanase; Ion Schileru

    2016-01-01

    As they become increasingly aware of the importance of healthy eating and of the serious food imbalance caused by the overconsumption of industrial, ultra-processed and superorganoleptic food, consumers are now beginning to turn their attention to food choices guaranteeing both individual health and also of the environment . Thus, in recent years we are witnessing the rise of a cultural trend ‒ Slow Food. Slow Food has become an international movement that advocates for satisfying culinary pl...

  18. Development of slow pyrolysis business operations in Finland - Hidaspyro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernas, L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: leena.fagernas@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    Birch distillate, a by-product in slow pyrolysis process of charcoal production, was found to be a promising source for biological pesticides. However, product commercialization was problematic, for EU registration is costly, and composition, active ingredients and ecotoxicological properties were not known. In addition, constant quality and process optimisation were needed. More collaboration between SMEs and research institutes was required. The primary aim was to support and develop slow pyrolysis business operations of SMEs in Finland by generating knowledge that was needed.

  19. The space charge effects on the slow extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Chihiro.

    1992-06-01

    The calculation of the slow extraction which includes the space charge effects has been performed for the Compressor/Stretcher Ring (CSR) of the proposed Japanese Hadron Project. We have investigated the slow extraction of 1 GeV proton beam with an average current of 100μA. Calculation shows not only the emittance growth of the extracted beam but also decrease of the extraction efficiency and discontinuity of beam spill. (author)

  20. Slow light in semiconductor waveguides: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Öhman, Filip; Poel, Mike van der

    2007-01-01

    Slow light in multi-section quantum well waveguide structure is realized using either coherent population oscillations (CPO) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. The properties of the two schemes are compared and discussed.......Slow light in multi-section quantum well waveguide structure is realized using either coherent population oscillations (CPO) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. The properties of the two schemes are compared and discussed....

  1. Saddle Slow Manifolds and Canard Orbits in [Formula: see text] and Application to the Full Hodgkin-Huxley Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Cris R; Krauskopf, Bernd; Osinga, Hinke M

    2018-04-19

    Many physiological phenomena have the property that some variables evolve much faster than others. For example, neuron models typically involve observable differences in time scales. The Hodgkin-Huxley model is well known for explaining the ionic mechanism that generates the action potential in the squid giant axon. Rubin and Wechselberger (Biol. Cybern. 97:5-32, 2007) nondimensionalized this model and obtained a singularly perturbed system with two fast, two slow variables, and an explicit time-scale ratio ε. The dynamics of this system are complex and feature periodic orbits with a series of action potentials separated by small-amplitude oscillations (SAOs); also referred to as mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs). The slow dynamics of this system are organized by two-dimensional locally invariant manifolds called slow manifolds which can be either attracting or of saddle type.In this paper, we introduce a general approach for computing two-dimensional saddle slow manifolds and their stable and unstable fast manifolds. We also develop a technique for detecting and continuing associated canard orbits, which arise from the interaction between attracting and saddle slow manifolds, and provide a mechanism for the organization of SAOs in [Formula: see text]. We first test our approach with an extended four-dimensional normal form of a folded node. Our results demonstrate that our computations give reliable approximations of slow manifolds and canard orbits of this model. Our computational approach is then utilized to investigate the role of saddle slow manifolds and associated canard orbits of the full Hodgkin-Huxley model in organizing MMOs and determining the firing rates of action potentials. For ε sufficiently large, canard orbits are arranged in pairs of twin canard orbits with the same number of SAOs. We illustrate how twin canard orbits partition the attracting slow manifold into a number of ribbons that play the role of sectors of rotations. The upshot is that we

  2. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  3. Charge density glass dynamics - Soft potentials and soft modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biljakovic, K., E-mail: katica@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, HR-10001, Zagreb, P.O. Box 304 (Croatia); Staresinic, D., E-mail: damirs@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, HR-10001, Zagreb, P.O. Box 304 (Croatia); Lasjaunias, J.C., E-mail: jean-claude.lasjaunias@pop3.grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Remenyi, G., E-mail: Gyorgy.Remenyi@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Melin, R., E-mail: Regis.Melin@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Monceau, P., E-mail: pierre.monceau@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Sahling, S., E-mail: sven.olaf@gmail.com [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Dresden, D-01062, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    An universal fingerprint of glasses has been found in low-temperature thermodynamic properties of charge/spin density wave (C/SDW) systems. Deviations from the well-known Debye, elastic continuum prediction for specific heat (flat C{sub p}/T{sup 3} plot) appear as two anomalies; the upturn below 1 K and a broad bump at T{approx}10 K (named Boson peak in glasses). The first one, inherent of localized two level systems within the shalow corrugated phase space, exhibits slow relaxation with the complex dynamics. The second one, 'Boson peak-like peak' was attributed to the pinned mode and incomplete softening of CDW superstructural mode. We discuss similar C{sub p}(T) features found also in incommensurate dielectrics with well documented soft-mode anomalies.

  4. Slow wave maturation on a visual working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Paulino, Catarina I; Rodríguez-Martínez, Elena I; Rojas-Benjumea, Ma Ángeles; Gómez, Carlos M

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze how the Slow Wave develops in the retention period on a visual Delayed Match-to-Sample task performed by 170 subjects between 6 and 26 years old, divided into 5 age groups. In addition, a neuropsychological test (Working Memory Test Battery for Children) was correlated with this Event Related Potential (ERP) in order to observe possible relationships between Slow Wave maturation and the components of Baddeley and Hitch's Working Memory model. The results showed a slow negativity during the retention period in the posterior region in all the age groups, possibly resulting from sustained neural activity related to the visual item presented. In the anterior region, a positive slow wave was observed in the youngest subjects. Dipole analysis suggests that this fronto-central positivity in children (6-13 years old) consists of the positive side of the posterior negativity, once these subjects only needed two posterior dipoles to explain almost all the neural activity. Negative correlations were shown between the Slow Wave and the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, indicating a commonality in assessing Working Memory with the Slow Wave and the neuropsychological testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Beneficial Effects of Slow Steaming in Bulk Freight Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Boone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Slow steaming has recently been adopted into normal practice by many maritime shipping companies for the fuel and monetary savings it offers. The practice also offers savings in Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions. With regulations coming into play such as the 2020 sulfur cap, slow steaming may be the least costly option for some maritime companies to adjust their operations. While some have accepted the new practice, there are still companies and vessels that see this exercise as a loss of revenue due to the extra time it takes to deliver goods to their destination. This paper reviews how the method of rating ships by their GHG emissions per nautical mile can be directly related to slow steaming. We propose that ships with poor ratings (E, F, G find mandatory regulations to slow steam or improve their CO2 output in some way. Those with superior ratings (A, B, C, D would benefit from incentives packages tied to their implementation of slow steaming practices. It will also examine how slow steaming benefits maritime businesses both economically and environmentally to find ways to lower their emissions and discusses the possible chain reaction that may occur if these eco-friendly shipping practices are observed.

  6. Implications of the Deep Minimum for Slow Solar Wind Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.; Titov, V. S.; Linker, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The origin of the slow solar wind has long been one of the most important problems in solar/heliospheric physics. Two observational constraints make this problem especially challenging. First, the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, unlike the fast wind that originates on open field lines. Second, the slow wind has substantial angular extent, of order 30 degrees, which is much larger than the widths observed for streamer stalks or the widths expected theoretically for a dynamic heliospheric current sheet. We propose that the slow wind originates from an intricate network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that emanate from the polar coronal hole regions. Using topological arguments, we show that these corridors must be ubiquitous in the solar corona. The total solar eclipse in August 2008, near the lowest point of the Deep Minimum, affords an ideal opportunity to test this theory by using the ultra-high resolution Predictive Science's (PSI) eclipse model for the corona and wind. Analysis of the PSI eclipse model demonstrates that the extent and scales of the open-field corridors can account for both the angular width of the slow wind and its closed-field composition. We discuss the implications of our slow wind theory for the structure of the corona and heliosphere at the Deep Minimum and describe further observational and theoretical tests. This work has been supported by the NASA HTP, SR&T, and LWS programs.

  7. Slowness and sparseness have diverging effects on complex cell learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn-Philipp Lies

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following earlier studies which showed that a sparse coding principle may explain the receptive field properties of complex cells in primary visual cortex, it has been concluded that the same properties may be equally derived from a slowness principle. In contrast to this claim, we here show that slowness and sparsity drive the representations towards substantially different receptive field properties. To do so, we present complete sets of basis functions learned with slow subspace analysis (SSA in case of natural movies as well as translations, rotations, and scalings of natural images. SSA directly parallels independent subspace analysis (ISA with the only difference that SSA maximizes slowness instead of sparsity. We find a large discrepancy between the filter shapes learned with SSA and ISA. We argue that SSA can be understood as a generalization of the Fourier transform where the power spectrum corresponds to the maximally slow subspace energies in SSA. Finally, we investigate the trade-off between slowness and sparseness when combined in one objective function.

  8. A viscoplastic shear-zone model for deep (15-50 km) slow-slip events at plate convergent margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, An; Xie, Zhoumin; Meng, Lingsen

    2018-06-01

    A key issue in understanding the physics of deep (15-50 km) slow-slip events (D-SSE) at plate convergent margins is how their initially unstable motion becomes stabilized. Here we address this issue by quantifying a rate-strengthening mechanism using a viscoplastic shear-zone model inspired by recent advances in field observations and laboratory experiments. The well-established segmentation of slip modes in the downdip direction of a subduction shear zone allows discretization of an interseismic forearc system into the (1) frontal segment bounded by an interseismically locked megathrust, (2) middle segment bounded by episodically locked and unlocked viscoplastic shear zone, and (3) interior segment that slips freely. The three segments are assumed to be linked laterally by two springs that tighten with time, and the increasing elastic stress due to spring tightening eventually leads to plastic failure and initial viscous shear. This simplification leads to seven key model parameters that dictate a wide range of mechanical behaviors of an idealized convergent margin. Specifically, the viscoplastic rheology requires the initially unstable sliding to be terminated nearly instantaneously at a characteristic velocity, which is followed by stable sliding (i.e., slow-slip). The characteristic velocity, which is on the order of <10-7 m/s for the convergent margins examined in this study, depends on the (1) effective coefficient of friction, (2) thickness, (3) depth, and (4) viscosity of the viscoplastic shear zone. As viscosity decreases exponentially with temperature, our model predicts faster slow-slip rates, shorter slow-slip durations, more frequent slow-slip occurrences, and larger slow-slip magnitudes at warmer convergent margins.

  9. Boosting Majorana Zero Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Karzig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional topological superconductors are known to host Majorana zero modes at domain walls terminating the topological phase. Their non-Abelian nature allows for processing quantum information by braiding operations that are insensitive to local perturbations, making Majorana zero modes a promising platform for topological quantum computation. Motivated by the ultimate goal of executing quantum-information processing on a finite time scale, we study domain walls moving at a constant velocity. We exploit an effective Lorentz invariance of the Hamiltonian to obtain an exact solution of the associated quasiparticle spectrum and wave functions for arbitrary velocities. Essential features of the solution have a natural interpretation in terms of the familiar relativistic effects of Lorentz contraction and time dilation. We find that the Majorana zero modes remain stable as long as the domain wall moves at subluminal velocities with respect to the effective speed of light of the system. However, the Majorana bound state dissolves into a continuous quasiparticle spectrum after the domain wall propagates at luminal or even superluminal velocities. This relativistic catastrophe implies that there is an upper limit for possible braiding frequencies even in a perfectly clean system with an arbitrarily large topological gap. We also exploit our exact solution to consider domain walls moving past static impurities present in the system.

  10. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order ... Reaching mode; sliding mode controlled systems; output tracking ... The uncertainty in the input distribution function g is expressed as.

  11. Quasinormal modes of Kerr-de Sitter black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shijun; Uchikata, Nami; Futamase, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the fundamental quasinormal modes of the Kerr-de Sitter black hole for the first time. In order to calculate the quasinormal modes, we employ the master equations derived by Suzuki, Takasugi, and Umetsu, who transform the Teukolsky equations for the Kerr-de Sitter black hole into the standard form of the Heun's equation. The transformed functions are expanded around the outer horizon of the black hole or the symmetric axis in the Froebenius series whose coefficients satisfy a three-term recurrence relation. These three-term recurrence relations allow us to use Leaver's continued fraction method to calculate the angular separation constant and the quasinormal mode frequency. Any unstable fundamental quasinormal mode is not found in this paper. It is also observed that for some black holes characterized by a large mass parameter, some retrograde modes in the slow rotation limit become prograde as the black hole spin increases. This phenomenon does not occur for the fundamental modes of the Kerr black hole.

  12. Automated Identification of MHD Mode Bifurcation and Locking in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquezes, J. D.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Park, Y. S.; Bell, R. E.; Morton, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Disruption avoidance is critical in reactor-scale tokamaks such as ITER to maintain steady plasma operation and avoid damage to device components. A key physical event chain that leads to disruptions is the appearance of rotating MHD modes, their slowing by resonant field drag mechanisms, and their locking. An algorithm has been developed that automatically detects bifurcation of the mode toroidal rotation frequency due to loss of torque balance under resonant braking, and mode locking for a set of shots using spectral decomposition. The present research examines data from NSTX, NSTX-U and KSTAR plasmas which differ significantly in aspect ratio (ranging from A = 1.3 - 3.5). The research aims to examine and compare the effectiveness of different algorithms for toroidal mode number discrimination, such as phase matching and singular value decomposition approaches, and to examine potential differences related to machine aspect ratio (e.g. mode eigenfunction shape variation). Simple theoretical models will be compared to the dynamics found. Main goals are to detect or potentially forecast the event chain early during a discharge. This would serve as a cue to engage active mode control or a controlled plasma shutdown. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-SC0016614 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Fast/Major and Slow/Minor pairings in J.S. Bach's Well Tempered Clavier Books 1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Horn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have found that subjects give higher preference ratings and clearer emotional descriptions to pieces with the tempo/mode pairs fast/major and slow/minor. If these findings are true, one might expect to find a predominance of fast/major and slow/minor pairings in musical literature. This study looks for just such a trend in the canonical work of J.S. Bach’s Well Tempered Clavier. Books 1 and 2 together contain 24 Major Preludes, 24 Minor Preludes, 24 Major Fugues and 24 Minor Fugues. We use four different measurements of fast/slow tempo based both on elements within the musical notation as well as the interpretive markings of four different music editors: 1. Attacks Per Beat (APB – measures the number of subdivisions of each piece 2. Attacks Per Minute (APM – is the APB of a piece multiplied by the editor’s metronome marking 3. Time Signature Distribution and 4. Editor’s Tempo Distribution. We find a significant amount of fast/major and slow/minor pairings in Book 1 but not in Book 2.

  14. Slowest kinetic modes revealed by metabasin renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okushima, Teruaki; Niiyama, Tomoaki; Ikeda, Kensuke S.; Shimizu, Yasushi

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the slowest relaxations of complex systems, such as relaxation of glass-forming materials, diffusion in nanoclusters, and folding of biomolecules, is important for physics, chemistry, and biology. For a kinetic system, the relaxation modes are determined by diagonalizing its transition rate matrix. However, for realistic systems of interest, numerical diagonalization, as well as extracting physical understanding from the diagonalization results, is difficult due to the high dimensionality. Here, we develop an alternative and generally applicable method of extracting the long-time scale relaxation dynamics by combining the metabasin analysis of Okushima et al. [Phys. Rev. E 80, 036112 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.036112] and a Jacobi method. We test the method on an illustrative model of a four-funnel model, for which we obtain a renormalized kinematic equation of much lower dimension sufficient for determining slow relaxation modes precisely. The method is successfully applied to the vacancy transport problem in ionic nanoparticles [Niiyama et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 654, 52 (2016), 10.1016/j.cplett.2016.04.088], allowing a clear physical interpretation that the final relaxation consists of two successive, characteristic processes.

  15. Mode-to-mode energy transfers in convective patterns

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the energy transfer between various Fourier modes in a low- dimensional model for thermal convection. We have used the formalism of mode-to-mode energy transfer rate in our calculation. The evolution equations derived using this scheme is the same as those derived using the hydrodynamical ...

  16. Phase equilibria in M-X-X' and M-Al-X ternary systems (M-transition metal, X,X'-B,C,N,Si) and crystal chemistry of ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    The data on phase equilibria in the M-X-X' and M-Al-X ternary systems (M-transition metal of 3 to 8 groups, X-B,C, N, Si) have been considered and summarized. modern oxygen-free advanced ceramics is based on these ternary systems. Phase diagrams of the 130 ternary systems have been discussed, more than two hundred ternary phases forming in these systems have been systematized and described. The typical crystal structures of ternary compounds and phase have been considered, the common and distinctive features of these structures have been analysed. It has been shown that the ternary compounds with octahedral atomic groups XM 6 have a regions of homogeneity. Refs. 240

  17. Lattice distortion and spontaneous {gamma}{sub 5g} ferro-quadrupole moment in phase IV of Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}B{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Yuichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)]. E-mail: nemoto@phys.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Goto, Terutaka [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [National Institute for Materials Science, Tukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Nakamura, Shintaro [Center for Low Temperature Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kunii, Satoru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2005-04-30

    We have performed low-temperature thermal expansion measurements to investigate lattice effect of the phase IV in Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}B{sub 6}, for x=0.75 and 0.70. In phase IV of both compounds, lattice length along the [111] direction shrinks notably, on the other hand length along the [001] direction expands. These results provide evidence that the spontaneous {gamma}{sub 5g} ferro-quadrupole moment ==<>0 is relevant in phase IV because the trigonal lattice distortion is described by the symmetry strain <{epsilon}{sub yz}>=<{epsilon}{sub zx}>=<{epsilon}{sub xy}><>0 simultaneously.

  18. Measurement of sigma Lambda b0/sigma B0 x B(Lambda b0-->Lambda c+pi-)/B(B0-->D+pi-) in pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Le, Y; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tseng, J; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-03-23

    We present the first observation of the baryon decay Lambda b0-->Lambda c+pi- followed by Lambda c+-->pK-pi+ in 106 pb-1 pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV in the CDF experiment. In order to reduce systematic error, the measured rate for Lambda b0 decay is normalized to the kinematically similar meson decay B0-->D+pi- followed by D+-->pi+K-pi+. We report the ratio of production cross sections (sigma) times the ratio of branching fractions (B) for the momentum region integrated above pT>6 GeV/c and pseudorapidity range |eta|Lambda b0X)/sigma(pp-->B0X)xB(Lambda b0-->Lambda c+pi-)/B(B0-->D+pi-)=0.82+/-0.08(stat)+/-0.11(syst)+/-0.22[B(Lambda c+-->pK-pi+)].

  19. A novel boron-rich quaternary scandium borocarbosilicide Sc3.67-xB41.4-y-zC0.67+zSi0.33-w

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takaho; Yamamoto, Akiji; Sato, Akira

    2004-01-01

    A novel quaternary scandium borocarbosilicide Sc 3.67-x B 41.4-y-z C 0.67+z Si 0.33-w was found. Single crystallites were obtained as an intergrowth phase in the float-zoned single crystal of Sc 0.83-x B 10.0-y C 0.17+y Si 0.083-z that has a face-centered cubic crystal structure. Single crystal structure analysis revealed that the compound has a hexagonal structure with lattice constants a = b = 1.43055(8) nm and c = 2.37477(13) nm and space group P6-barm2 (No. 187). The crystal composition calculated from the structure analysis for the crystal with x = 0.52, y = 1.42, z = 1.17, and w = 0.02 was ScB 12.3 C 0.58 Si 0.10 and that agreed rather well with the composition of ScB 11.5 C 0.61 Si 0.04 measured by EPMA. In the crystal structure that is a new structure type of boron-rich borides, there are 79 structurally independent atomic sites, 69 boron and/or carbon sites, two silicon sites and eight scandium sites. Boron and carbon form seven structurally independent B 12 icosahedra, one B 9 polyhedron, one B 10 polyhedron, one irregularly shaped B 16 polyhedron in which only 10.7 boron atoms are available because of partial occupancies and 10 bridging sites. All polyhedron units and bridging site atoms interconnect each other forming a three-dimensional boron framework structure. Sc atoms reside in the open spaces in the boron framework structure

  20. Introduction to focus issue: Mixed mode oscillations: Experiment, computation, and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Kaper, T.J.; Rotstein, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed mode oscillations ( MMOs ) occur when a dynamical system switches between fast and slow motion and small and large amplitude. MMOs appear in a variety of systems in nature, and may be simple or complex. This focus issue presents a series of articles on theoretical, numerical, and experiment...

  1. Azimuthal decomposition of optical modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation analyses the azimuthal decomposition of optical modes. Decomposition of azimuthal modes need two steps, namely generation and decomposition. An azimuthally-varying phase (bounded by a ring-slit) placed in the spatial frequency...

  2. SLOW SLIP EVENTS: PARAMETERS, CONDITIONS OF OCCURRENCE, AND FUTURE RESEARCH PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kocharyan

    2014-01-01

    propagation along the fault strike are variable from a few hundred metres to 20–30 km/day. Slip velocities tend to decrease with scale (Fig. 7.Various slip modes were realized in laboratory experiments with slider model. Main specific features of slow slip along faults were simulated in the laboratory conditions. Possibilities for implementation of different deformation regimes were mainly determined by structure of simulated fault gouge. At equal Coulombic strength, small variations of structural characteristics, such as granulometric composition, grain shape, presence of fluid and its viscosity, may critically impact the deformation mode (Fig. 12.As evidenced by the data consolidated and analysed in this article, conditionally stable regimes of deformation of crustal discontinuities are a common phenomenon. Studies of such transitional deformation regimes seem promising for establishment of regularities in generation and evolution of dynamic events, such earthquakes, tectonic rock bursts, and slope events.

  3. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  4. Perceptions of the Slow Food Cultural Trend among the Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Voinea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As they become increasingly aware of the importance of healthy eating and of the serious food imbalance caused by the overconsumption of industrial, ultra-processed and superorganoleptic food, consumers are now beginning to turn their attention to food choices guaranteeing both individual health and also of the environment . Thus, in recent years we are witnessing the rise of a cultural trend ‒ Slow Food. Slow Food has become an international movement that advocates for satisfying culinary pleasure, protects biological and cultural diversity, spread taste education, links "green" producers to consumers and believes that gastronomy intersects with politics, agriculture and ecology. Slow Food proposes a holistic approach to food problem, where the economic, sociocultural and environmental aspects are interlinked, being pursued as part of an overall strategy. In order to highlight the manner in which the principles of this cultural trend are perceived by the representatives of the new generation of consumers in Romania, exploratory research marketing was conducted among the students in the second year of the master’s program Quality Management, Expertise and Consumer Protection, from the Faculty of Business and Tourism from the Buchares t University of Economic Studies . The results of this research have shown an insufficient knowledge of Slow Food phenomenon and, especially, the Slow Food network activity in Romania. To show that the Slow Food type of food is a healthier option towards which the future consumer demand should be guided, especially those belonging to the younger generation, an antithetical comparative analysis of the nutritional value of two menus was performed: a suggestive one for the Slow Food feeding style and other one, specific to the fast food style. Slow Food style was considered antithetical to the fast food because many previous studies have shown a preference of the young for the fast-food type products, despite the

  5. A taste of ethical consumption at a slow food festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren T; Germov, John; Fuller, Sascha; Freij, Maria

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the motives and experiences of attendees at a Slow Food festival to gain an understanding of how people engage with ethical consumer projects. Slow Food is a global social movement aimed at promoting food that is regionally, ethically, and sustainably produced, and convivially consumed. The movement uses culinary tourist events, such as food festivals and farmers' markets, to promote its philosophy and attract new members. There have been no empirical studies of ethical consumption using a Slow Food event as a case study. This study uses an ethnographic approach and a framework of virtue ethics to explore the views of people attending a major Slow Food festival in the city of Melbourne, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in situ with 33 participants (19 consumers and 14 stallholders) to discover their rationales for attending the festival, and their perspectives on ethical consumption. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, resulting in three themes reflecting varying degrees of public virtues (altruistic motivations) and private virtues (personal wellbeing): the quest for virtuous lifestyles through ethical consumption, the importance of co-production, and the challenges of putting ethical consumer projects like Slow Food into daily practice. The findings reveal the manner in which virtue ethics affects foodways and highlights the contingent and challenging nature of practising ethical eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human skeletal muscle: transition between fast and slow fibre types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Zebedin, Michaela; Obermoser, Magdalena; Moser, Gerhard; Tauber, Mark; Niebauer, Josef; Resch, Herbert; Galler, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Human skeletal muscles consist of different fibre types: slow fibres (slow twitch or type I) containing the myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC)-I and fast fibres (fast twitch or type II) containing MHC-IIa (type IIA) or MHC-IId (type IID). The following order of decreasing kinetics is known: type IID > type IIA > type I. This order is especially based on the kinetics of stretch activation, which is the most discriminative property among fibre types. In this study we tested if hybrid fibres containing both MHC-IIa and MHC-I (type C fibres) provide a transition in kinetics between fast (type IIA) and slow fibres (type I). Our data of stretch activation kinetics suggest that type C fibres, with different ratios of MHC-IIa and MHC-I, do not provide a continuous transition. Instead, a specialized group of slow fibres, which we called "transition fibres", seems to provide a transition. Apart of their kinetics of stretch activation, which is most close to that of type IIA, the transition fibres are characterized by large cross-sectional areas and low maximal tensions. The molecular cause for the mechanical properties of the transition fibres is unknown. It is possible that the transition fibres contain an unknown slow MHC isoform, which cannot be separated by biochemical methods. Alternatively, or in addition, isoforms of myofibrillar proteins, other than MHC, and posttranslational modifications of myofibrillar proteins could play a role regarding the characteristics of the transition fibres.

  7. Fast and slow myosins as markers of muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M; Guiu-Comadevall, M; Cadefau, J A; Parra, J; Balius, R; Estruch, A; Rodas, G; Bedini, J L; Cussó, R

    2008-07-01

    The diagnosis of muscular lesions suffered by athletes is usually made by clinical criteria combined with imaging of the lesion (ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance) and blood tests to detect the presence of non-specific muscle markers. This study was undertaken to evaluate injury to fast and slow-twitch fibres using specific muscle markers for these fibres. Blood samples were obtained from 51 non-sports people and 38 sportsmen with skeletal muscle injury. Western blood analysis was performed to determine fast and slow myosin and creatine kinase (CK) levels. Skeletal muscle damage was diagnosed by physical examination, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance and biochemical markers. The imaging tests were found to be excellent for detecting and confirming grade II and III lesions. However, grade I lesions were often unconfirmed by these techniques. Grade I lesions have higher levels of fast myosin than slow myosin with a very small increase in CK levels. Grade II and III lesions have high values of both fast and slow myosin. The evaluation of fast and slow myosin in the blood 48 h after the lesion occurs is a useful aid for the detection of type I lesions in particular, since fast myosin is an exclusive skeletal muscle marker. The correct diagnosis of grade I lesions can prevent progression of the injury in athletes undergoing continual training sessions and competitions, thus aiding sports physicians in their decision making.

  8. Slow extraction control system of HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wufeng; Qiao Weimin; Yuan Youjin; Mao Ruishi; Zhao Tiecheng

    2013-01-01

    For heavy-ion radiotherapy, HIRFL-CSR (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring) needs a long term uniform ion beam extraction from HIRFL-CSR main ring to high energy beam transport line to meet the requirement of heavy-ion radiotherapy's ion beam. Slow extraction control system uses the synchronous signal of HIRFL-CSR control system's timing system to realize process control. When the synchronous event data of HIRFL-CSR control system's timing system trigger controlling and changing data (frequency value, tune value, voltage value), the waveform generator will generate waveform by frequency value, tune value and voltage value, and will amplify the generated waveform by power amplifier to electrostatic deflector to achieve RF-KO slow extraction. The synchronous event receiver of slow extraction system is designed by using FPGA and optical fiber interface to keep high transmission speed and anti-jamming. HIRFL-CSR's running for heavy-ion radiotherapy and ten thousand seconds long period slow extraction experiments show that slow extraction control system is workable and can meet the requirement of heavy-ion radiotherapy's ion beam. (authors)

  9. Late-type components of slow novae and symbiotic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D A [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia); Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK))

    1980-08-01

    It is argued that the various types of symbiotic stars and the slow novae are the same phenomena exhibiting a range of associated time-scales, the slow novae being of intermediate speed. Evidence is summarized showing that both types of object contain normal M giants or mira variables. This fact is at odds with currently fashionable single-star models for slow novae, according to which the M star is totally disrupted before the outburst. Spectral types of the late-type components are presented for nearly 80 symbiotic stars and slow novae, derived from 2 ..mu..m spectroscopy. It is found that both the intensity of the emission spectrum and the electron density of the gas are functions of the spectral type of the late-type star. Explanations for these correlations are given. On the assumption that the late-type components are normal giants, spectroscopic parallaxes are determined; credible distances are derived which indicate that the known symbiotic stars have been sampled as far afield as the Galactic Centre. Hydrogen shell flashes on a white dwarf accreting gas from the late-type components offer an attractive explanation of the phenomena of slow novae and symbiotic stars, and such models are discussed in the concluding section.

  10. Optimizing detection and analysis of slow waves in sleep EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensen, Armand; Riedner, Brady; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of individual slow waves in EEG recording during sleep provides both greater sensitivity and specificity compared to spectral power measures. However, parameters for detection and analysis have not been widely explored and validated. We present a new, open-source, Matlab based, toolbox for the automatic detection and analysis of slow waves; with adjustable parameter settings, as well as manual correction and exploration of the results using a multi-faceted visualization tool. We explore a large search space of parameter settings for slow wave detection and measure their effects on a selection of outcome parameters. Every choice of parameter setting had some effect on at least one outcome parameter. In general, the largest effect sizes were found when choosing the EEG reference, type of canonical waveform, and amplitude thresholding. Previously published methods accurately detect large, global waves but are conservative and miss the detection of smaller amplitude, local slow waves. The toolbox has additional benefits in terms of speed, user-interface, and visualization options to compare and contrast slow waves. The exploration of parameter settings in the toolbox highlights the importance of careful selection of detection METHODS: The sensitivity and specificity of the automated detection can be improved by manually adding or deleting entire waves and or specific channels using the toolbox visualization functions. The toolbox standardizes the detection procedure, sets the stage for reliable results and comparisons and is easy to use without previous programming experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modes of interannual variability in northern hemisphere winter atmospheric circulation in CMIP5 models: evaluation, projection and role of external forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Carsten S.; Ying, Kairan; Grainger, Simon; Zheng, Xiaogu

    2018-04-01

    Models from the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset are evaluated for their ability to simulate the dominant slow modes of interannual variability in the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation 500 hPa geopotential height in the twentieth century. A multi-model ensemble of the best 13 models has then been used to identify the leading modes of interannual variability in components related to (1) intraseasonal processes; (2) slowly-varying internal dynamics; and (3) the slowly-varying response to external changes in radiative forcing. Modes in the intraseasonal component are related to intraseasonal variability in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and North American, and Eurasian regions and are little affected by the larger radiative forcing of the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. The leading modes in the slow-internal component are related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Pacific North American or Tropical Northern Hemisphere teleconnection, the North Atlantic Oscillation, and the Western Pacific teleconnection pattern. While the structure of these slow-internal modes is little affected by the larger radiative forcing of the RCP8.5 scenario, their explained variance increases in the warmer climate. The leading mode in the slow-external component has a significant trend and is shown to be related predominantly to the climate change trend in the well mixed greenhouse gas concentration during the historical period. This mode is associated with increasing height in the 500 hPa pressure level. A secondary influence on this mode is the radiative forcing due to stratospheric aerosols associated with volcanic eruptions. The second slow-external mode is shown to be also related to radiative forcing due to stratospheric aerosols. Under RCP8.5 there is only one slow-external mode related to greenhouse gas forcing with a trend over four times the historical trend.

  12. Raman amplification of OAM modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Kasper; Gregg, Patrick; Galili, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The set of fibre modes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a possible basis for mode division multiplexing. In this regard, fibres supporting OAM modes have been fabricated [1], and optical communication using these fibres, has been demonstrated [2]. A vital part of any long range...

  13. ACCA College English Teaching Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates a new college English teaching mode--"ACCA" (Autonomous Cooperative Class-teaching All-round College English Teaching Mode). Integrated theories such as autonomous learning and cooperative learning into one teaching mode, "ACCA", which is being developed and advanced in practice as well, is the achievement…

  14. Fluxon modes in superconducting multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder

    2004-01-01

    We show how to construct fluxon modes from plasma modes in the inductively coupled stacked Josephson junctions, and consider some special cases of these fluxon modes analytically. In some cases we can find exact analytical solutions when we choose the bias current in a special way. We also consid...

  15. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  16. Slow scan sit detector for x-ray diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milch, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A TV-type x-ray detector using a SIT vidicon has been used for biological diffraction studies at the EMBL outstation at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. The detector converts the two-dimensional diffraction pattern to a charge pattern on the vidicon target, which is read out in the slow-scan mode. This detector has high DOE, no count-rate limit, and is simple and inexpensive to construct. Radiation from the storage ring DORIS was used to study the structure of live muscle at various phases of contraction. Typically the count-rate on the detector was 10 6 x-rays/sec and a total exposure of a few seconds was needed to record the weak diffraction from muscle. This compares with usual exposure times of several hours using a rotating anode generator and film

  17. High-energy monoenergetic proton beams from two stage acceleration with a slow laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new regime to generate high-energy quasimonoenergetic proton beams in a “slow-pulse” regime, where the laser group velocity v_{g}mode can be further trapped and reflected by the snowplough potential generated by the laser in the near-critical density plasma. These two acceleration stages are connected by the onset of Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT instability. The usual ion energy spectrum broadening by RT instability is controlled and high quality proton beams can be generated. It is shown by multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation that quasimonoenergetic proton beams with energy up to hundreds of MeV can be generated at laser intensities of 10^{21}  W/cm^{2}.

  18. Riluzole protects against glutamate-induced slowing of neurofilament axonal transport.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevenson, Alison

    2009-04-24

    Riluzole is the only drug approved for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but its precise mode of action is not properly understood. Damage to axonal transport of neurofilaments is believed to be part of the pathogenic mechanism in ALS and this has been linked to defective glutamate handling and increased phosphorylation of neurofilament side-arm domains. Here, we show that riluzole protects against glutamate-induced slowing of neurofilament transport. Protection is associated with decreased neurofilament side-arm phosphorylation and inhibition of the activities of two neurofilament kinases, ERK and p38 that are activated in ALS. Thus, the anti-glutamatergic properties of riluzole include protection against glutamate-induced changes to neurofilament phosphorylation and transport.

  19. Hybrid metal-dielectric, slow wave structure with magnetic coupling and compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.V., E-mail: asmirnov@radiabeam.com [RadiaBeam Systems LLC, 1713 Stewart St., Santa Monica, CA 90404 (United States); Savin, E. [RadiaBeam Systems LLC, 1713 Stewart St., Santa Monica, CA 90404 (United States); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-01

    A number of electron beam vacuum devices such as small radiofrequency (RF) linear accelerators (linacs) and microwave traveling wave tubes (TWTs) utilize slow wave structures which are usually rather complicated in production and may require multi-step brazing and time consuming tuning. Fabrication of these devices becomes challenging at centimeter wavelengths, at large number of cells, and when a series or mass production of such structures is required. A hybrid, metal-dielectric, periodic structure for low gradient, low beam current applications is introduced here as a modification of Andreev’s disk-and-washer (DaW) structure. Compensated type of coupling between even and odd TE01 modes in the novel structure results in negative group velocity with absolute values as high as 0.1c–0.2c demonstrated in simulations. Sensitivity to material imperfections and electrodynamic parameters of the disk-and-ring (DaR) structure are considered numerically using a single cell model.

  20. Tracer particles in two-dimensional elastic networks diffuse logarithmically slow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizana, Ludvig; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lomholt, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Several experiments on tagged molecules or particles in living systems suggest that they move anomalously slow—their mean squared displacement (MSD) increase slower than linearly with time. Leading models aimed at understanding these experiments predict that the MSD grows as a power law with a growth exponent that is smaller than unity. However, in some experiments the growth is so slow (fitted exponent  ∼0.1–0.2) that they hint towards other mechanisms at play. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate how in-plane collective modes excited by thermal fluctuations in a two dimensional membrane lead to logarithmic time dependence for the the tracer particle’s MSD. (paper)

  1. Slow Growth of a Crack with Contacting Faces in a Viscoelastic Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanov, M. F.

    2017-11-01

    An algorithm for solving the problem of slow growth of a mode I crack with a zone of partial contact of the faces is proposed. The algorithm is based on a crack model with a cohesive zone, an iterative method of finding a solution for the elastic opening displacement, and elasto-viscoelastic analogy, which makes it possible to describe the time-dependent opening displacement in Boltzmann-Volterra form. A deformation criterion with a constant critical opening displacement and cohesive strength during quasistatic crack growth is used. The algorithm was numerically illustrated for tensile loading at infinity and two concentrated forces symmetric about the crack line that cause the crack faces to contact. When the crack propagates, the contact zone disappears and its dynamic growth begins.

  2. Frequency-Dependent Altered Functional Connections of Default Mode Network in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjun Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive dysfunction of cognitive ability. Previous research has indicated that the default mode network (DMN is closely related to cognition and is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease. Because recent studies have shown that different frequency bands represent specific physiological functions, DMN functional connectivity studies of the different frequency bands based on resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI data may provide new insight into AD pathophysiology. In this study, we explored the functional connectivity based on well-defined DMN regions of interest (ROIs from the five frequency bands: slow-5 (0.01–0.027 Hz, slow-4 (0.027–0.073 Hz, slow-3 (0.073–0.198 Hz, slow-2 (0.198–0.25 Hzs and standard low-frequency oscillations (LFO (0.01–0.08 Hz. We found that the altered functional connectivity patterns are mainly in the frequency band of slow-5 and slow-4 and that the decreased connections are long distance, but some relatively short connections are increased. In addition, the altered functional connections of the DMN in AD are frequency dependent and differ between the slow-5 and slow-4 bands. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were significantly correlated with the altered functional connectivity patterns in the slow-5 and slow-4 bands. These results indicate that frequency-dependent functional connectivity changes might provide potential biomarkers for AD pathophysiology.

  3. Spin and isospin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Sagawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Spin and isospin modes in nuclei are investigated. We discuss some of the following topics. 1. Spin-dipole excitations in 12 C and 16 O are studied (1). Effects of tensor and spin-orbit interactions on the distribution of the strengths are investigated, and neutral current neutrino scattering cross sections in 16 O are obtained for heavy-flavor neutrinos from the supernovae. 2. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin-dipole (SD) modes in 208 Bi are investigated. Quenching and fragmentation of the GT strength are discussed (2). SD excitations and electric dipole (E1) transitions between the GT and SD states are studied (3). Calculated E1 strengths are compared with the sum rule values obtained within the 1p-1h and 1p-1h + 2p-2h configuration spaces. 3. Coulomb displacement energy (CDE) of the IAS of 14 Be is calculated, and the effects of the halo on the CDE and the configuration of the halo state are investigated. 4. Spreading width of IAS and isospin dependence of the width are investigated (4). Our formula for the width explains very well the observed isospin dependence (5). (author)

  4. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  5. Early warning of climate tipping points from critical slowing down: comparing methods to improve robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, T. M.; Livina, V. N.; Dakos, V.; Van Nes, E. H.; Scheffer, M.

    2012-01-01

    We address whether robust early warning signals can, in principle, be provided before a climate tipping point is reached, focusing on methods that seek to detect critical slowing down as a precursor of bifurcation. As a test bed, six previously analysed datasets are reconsidered, three palaeoclimate records approaching abrupt transitions at the end of the last ice age and three models of varying complexity forced through a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Approaches based on examining the lag-1 autocorrelation function or on detrended fluctuation analysis are applied together and compared. The effects of aggregating the data, detrending method, sliding window length and filtering bandwidth are examined. Robust indicators of critical slowing down are found prior to the abrupt warming event at the end of the Younger Dryas, but the indicators are less clear prior to the Bølling-Allerød warming, or glacial termination in Antarctica. Early warnings of thermohaline circulation collapse can be masked by inter-annual variability driven by atmospheric dynamics. However, rapidly decaying modes can be successfully filtered out by using a long bandwidth or by aggregating data. The two methods have complementary strengths and weaknesses and we recommend applying them together to improve the robustness of early warnings. PMID:22291229

  6. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yang; Mamontov, Eugene; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ 0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χ T (Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement (x 2 ) and the non-Gaussian parameter α 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  7. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Slow Dynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Aspirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Tyagi, M. [NCNR and University of Maryland; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Chen, Sow-hsin H [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 K down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent (Q) is independent of the wave vector transfer Q in the measured Q-range, and (ii) the structural relaxation time (Q) follows a power law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of 0 can be fitted with the mode coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by M. Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function T(Q,t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows a direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement x2 and non-Gaussian parameter 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  8. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χT(Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement langx2rang and the non-Gaussian parameter α2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  9. New Spill Control for the Slow Extraction in the Multi-Cycling SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, Verena; Effinger, Ewald

    2016-01-01

    The flux of particles slow extracted with the 1/3 integer resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN was previously controlled with a servo-spill feedback system which acted on the horizontal tune such as to keep the spill rate as constant as possible during the whole extraction time. The current in two servo-quadrupoles was modulated as a function of the difference between the measured and the desired spill rate. With servo quadrupoles at a single location in the SPS ring and the SPS in multi-cycling mode, the trajectory of the slow extracted beam was seen to change from cycle to cycle depending on the current applied by the servo feedback. Hence this system was replaced by a feed-forward tune correction using the main SPS quadrupoles. In this way the spill control can now be guaranteed without changing the trajectory of the extracted beam. This paper presents the algorithm and implementation in the control system and summarizes the advantages of the new approach. The obtained spill characteristics ...

  10. A fast dynamic mode in rare earth based glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Xue, R. J.; Zhu, Z. G.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y., E-mail: hybai@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ngai, K. L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-05-28

    Metallic glasses (MGs) usually exhibit only slow β-relaxation peak, and the signature of the fast dynamic is challenging to be observed experimentally in MGs. We report a general and unusual fast dynamic mode in a series of rare earth based MGs manifested as a distinct fast β′-relaxation peak in addition to slow β-relaxation and α-relaxation peaks. We show that the activation energy of the fast β′-relaxation is about 12RT{sub g} and is equivalent to the activation of localized flow event. The coupling of these dynamic processes as well as their relationship with glass transition and structural heterogeneity is discussed.

  11. MODOS GUIADOS EM SLABS METAMATERIAIS GUIDED MODES IN METAMATERIAL SLABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo André Ambrosio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de revisão de modos propagantes em um guia-de-onda slab constituído de materiais com índices de refração negativo, os chamados metamateriais, Mostra-se que os modos guiados em um slab metamaterial possuem algumas propriedades particulares, tais como a propagação de ondas lentas simétricas ou anti-simétricas, a ausência de modos fundamentais para ondas rápidas e a possibilidade de propagação de ondas guiadas em um meio menos denso. A análise é baseada em expansões de campo no guia e nos espaços superior e inferior ao mesmo.This paper presents a review of the propagation modes in a slab waveguide consisting of negative refraction index materials, known as metamaterials. Some particular properties of guided modes in a metamaterial slab, such as slow symmetric or antisymmetric slow wave propagation, the absence of fundamental modes for fast waves and the possibility of guided waves in a less dense medium. The analysis is based on field expansions in the guide and the upper and lower spaces of it.

  12. Stability of Microturbulent Drift Modes during Internal Transport Barrier Formation in the Alcator C-Mod Radio Frequency Heated H-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Fiore, C.L.; Dorland, W.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Rewoldt, G.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ernst, D.R.; Rice, J.E.; Wukitch, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent H-mode experiments on Alcator C-Mod [I.H. Hutchinson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 1 (1994) 1511] which exhibit an internal transport barrier (ITB), have been examined with flux tube geometry gyrokinetic simulations, using the massively parallel code GS2 [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88 (1995) 128]. The simulations support the picture of ion/electron temperature gradient (ITG/ETG) microturbulence driving high xi/ xe and that suppressed ITG causes reduced particle transport and improved ci on C-Mod. Nonlinear calculations for C-Mod confirm initial linear simulations, which predicted ITG stability in the barrier region just before ITB formation, without invoking E x B shear suppression of turbulence. Nonlinear fluxes are compared to experiment, which both show low heat transport in the ITB and higher transport within and outside of the barrier region

  13. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples

  14. Role of biological membranes in slow-wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnovsky, M L

    1991-02-01

    Two involvements of cellular membranes in slow-wave sleep (SWS) are discussed. In the first the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is focussed upon, and in the second, the plasmalemma, where specific binding sites (receptors?) for promoters of slow-wave sleep are believed to be located. The study concerning the ER focuses on an enzyme in the brain, glucose-6-phosphatase, which, although present at low levels, manifests greatly increased activity during SWS compared to the waking state. The work on the plasmalemma has to do with the specific binding of muramyl peptides, inducers of slow-wave sleep, to various cells, and membrane preparations of various sorts, including those from brain tissue. Such cells as macrophages from mice, B-lymphocytes from human blood, and cells from a cell line (C-6 glioma) have been examined in this context.

  15. Modeling fast and slow earthquakes at various scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake sources represent dynamic rupture within rocky materials at depth and often can be modeled as propagating shear slip controlled by friction laws. These laws provide boundary conditions on fault planes embedded in elastic media. Recent developments in observation networks, laboratory experiments, and methods of data analysis have expanded our knowledge of the physics of earthquakes. Newly discovered slow earthquakes are qualitatively different phenomena from ordinary fast earthquakes and provide independent information on slow deformation at depth. Many numerical simulations have been carried out to model both fast and slow earthquakes, but problems remain, especially with scaling laws. Some mechanisms are required to explain the power-law nature of earthquake rupture and the lack of characteristic length. Conceptual models that include a hierarchical structure over a wide range of scales would be helpful for characterizing diverse behavior in different seismic regions and for improving probabilistic forecasts of earthquakes.

  16. Enhancing physics demos using iPhone slow motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-12-01

    Slow motion video enhances our ability to perceive and experience the physical world. This can help students and teachers especially in cases of fast moving objects or detailed events that happen too quickly for the eye to follow. As often as possible, demonstrations should be performed by the students themselves and luckily many of them will already have this technology in their pockets. The "S" series of iPhone has the slow motion video feature standard, which also includes simultaneous sound recording (somewhat unusual among slow motion cameras). In this article I share some of my experiences using this feature and provide advice on how to successfully use this technology in the classroom.

  17. The condition for classical slow rolling in new inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Misao; Nambu, Yasusada; Nakao, Ken-ichi.

    1988-02-01

    By means of the stochastic description of inflation, we investigate the dynamics of a fixed comoving domain in a continuously inflating universe on the global scale, both analytically and numerically. A particular attention is paid to the condition for a domain to enter the classical slow rolling phase. New inflationary universe models with the potential form, V(φ) ∼ V 0 - cφ 2n at φ ∼ 0 are considered. The critical value of the scalar field beyond which the field slowly rolls down the potential hill is estimated. We find, for all models under consideration, the condition for classical slow rolling is a sufficient condition for the expected amplitude of density perturbations to be smaller than unity. In other words, the density perturbation amplitude at the later Friedmann stage is always smaller than unity if the universe experienced the classical slow roll-over phase. (author)

  18. Study of Dynamic Characteristics of Slow-Changing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinong Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A vibration system with slow-changing parameters is a typical nonlinear system. Such systems often occur in the working and controlled process of some intelligent structures when vibration and deformation exist synchronously. In this paper, a system with slow-changing stiffness, damping and mass is analyzed in an intelligent structure. The relationship between the amplitude and the frequency of the system is studied, and its dynamic characteristic is also discussed. Finally, a piecewise linear method is developed on the basis of the asymptotic method. The simulation and the experiment show that a suitable slow-changing stiffness can restrain the amplitude of the system when the system passes through the resonant region.

  19. Table incremental slow injection CE-CT in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shoji; Maeda, Tomoho; Morita, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate tumor enhancement in lung cancer under the table incremental study with slow injection of contrast media. The early serial 8 sliced images during the slow injection (1.5 ml/sec) of contrant media were obtained. Following the early images, delayed 8 same sliced images were taken in 2 minutes later. Chacteristic enhanced patterns of the primary cancer and metastatic mediastinal lymphnode were recognized in this study. Enhancement of the primary lesion was classified in 4 patterns, irregular geographic pattern, heterogeneous pattern, homogeneous pattern and rim-enhanced pattern. In mediastinal metastatic lymphadenopathy, three enhanced patterns were obtained, heterogeneous, homogeneous and ring enhanced pattern. Some characteristic enhancement patterns according to the histopathological finding of the lung cancer were obtained. With using this incremental slow injection CE-CT, precise information about the relationship between lung cancer and adjacent mediastinal structure, and obvious staining patterns of the tumor and mediastinal lymphnode were recognized. (author)

  20. The condition for classical slow rolling in new inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Misao; Nambu, Yasusada; Nakao, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    By means of the stochastic description of inflation we investigate the dynamics of a fixed comoving domain in a continuously inflating universe on a global scale, both analytically and numerically. Particular attention is paid to the condition for a domain to enter the classical slow rolling phase. New inflationary universe models with the potential form V(φ) ≅ V 0 -cφ 2n at φ ≅ 0 are considered. The critical value of the scalar field beyond which the field slowly rolls down the potential hill is estimated. We find that for all models under consideration, the condition for classical slow rolling is a sufficient condition for the expected amplitude of density perturbations to be smaller than unity. In other words, the density perturbation amplitude at the later Friedmann stage is always smaller than unity if the universe experienced the classical slow roll-over phase. (orig.)

  1. Slow dynamics in translation-invariant quantum lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, Alexios A.; Žnidarič, Marko; Medvedyeva, Mariya; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Prosen, Tomaž; Papić, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Many-body quantum systems typically display fast dynamics and ballistic spreading of information. Here we address the open problem of how slow the dynamics can be after a generic breaking of integrability by local interactions. We develop a method based on degenerate perturbation theory that reveals slow dynamical regimes and delocalization processes in general translation invariant models, along with accurate estimates of their delocalization time scales. Our results shed light on the fundamental questions of the robustness of quantum integrable systems and the possibility of many-body localization without disorder. As an example, we construct a large class of one-dimensional lattice models where, despite the absence of asymptotic localization, the transient dynamics is exceptionally slow, i.e., the dynamics is indistinguishable from that of many-body localized systems for the system sizes and time scales accessible in experiments and numerical simulations.

  2. Neurogenetics of slow axonal transport: from cells to animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadananda, Aparna; Ray, Krishanu

    2012-09-01

    Slow axonal transport is a multivariate phenomenon implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. Recent reports have unraveled the molecular basis of the transport of certain slow component proteins, such as the neurofilament subunits, tubulin, and certain soluble enzymes such as Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIa (CaM kinase IIa), etc., in tissue cultured neurons. In addition, genetic analyses also implicate microtubule-dependent motors and other housekeeping proteins in this process. However, the biological relevance of this phenomenon is not so well understood. Here, the authors have discussed the possibility of adopting neurogenetic analyses in multiple model organisms to correlate molecular level measurements of the slow transport phenomenon to animal behavior, thus facilitating the investigation of its biological efficacy.

  3. The Slow Control System of the Auger Fluorescence Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenthien, N.; Bethge, C.; Daumiller, K.; Gemmeke, H.; Kampert, K.-H.; Wiebusch, C.

    2003-07-01

    The fluorescence detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger experiment [1] comprises 24 telescopes that will be situated in 4 remote buildings in the Pampa Amarilla. It is planned to run the fluorescence detectors in absence of operators on site. Therefore, the main task of the Slow Control System (SCS) is to ensure a secure remote operation of the FD system. The Slow Control System works autonomously and continuously monitors those parameters which may disturb a secure operation. Commands from the data-acquisition system or the remote operator are accepted only if they do not violate safety rules that depend on the actual experimental conditions (e.g. high-voltage, wind-sp eed, light, etc.). In case of malfunctions (power failure, communication breakdown, ...) the SCS performs an orderly shutdown and subsequent startup of the fluorescence detector system. The concept and the implementation of the Slow Control System are presented.

  4. Mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation and slow light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternklar, Shmuel; Sarid, Eyal; Wart, Maxim; Granot, Er'el

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of pump and Stokes light in a Brillouin medium, where both beams are modulated, can be utilized for controlling the group velocity of the amplified Stokes (or depleted pump). The dependence of the group velocity for this mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation (MMXGM) technique on the Brillouin gain parameter is studied. A sharp transition to slow light occurs in the G 1 α/β≈1 regime, where G 1 is the Brillouin gain parameter, and α and β are the pump and Stokes modulation indices, respectively. A comparison of MMXGM slow light to the Brillouin dispersion-based slow-light technique reveals the fundamental differences between them. The formation of higher harmonics of the modulation frequency is also discussed. The theoretical predictions are experimentally corroborated and potential applications in fiber-based sensing and interferometry are discussed

  5. Slow Orbit Feedback at the ALS Using Matlab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, G.

    1999-01-01

    The third generation Advanced Light Source (ALS) produces extremely bright and finely focused photon beams using undulatory, wigglers, and bend magnets. In order to position the photon beams accurately, a slow global orbit feedback system has been developed. The dominant causes of orbit motion at the ALS are temperature variation and insertion device motion. This type of motion can be removed using slow global orbit feedback with a data rate of a few Hertz. The remaining orbit motion in the ALS is only 1-3 micron rms. Slow orbit feedback does not require high computational throughput. At the ALS, the global orbit feedback algorithm, based on the singular valued decomposition method, is coded in MATLAB and runs on a control room workstation. Using the MATLAB environment to develop, test, and run the storage ring control algorithms has proven to be a fast and efficient way to operate the ALS

  6. Surface tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Tomonori; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1985-10-01

    Surface tearing modes in tokamaks are studied numerically and analytically. The eigenvalue problem is solved to obtain the growth rate and the mode structure. We investigate in detail dependences of the growth rate of the m/n = 2/1 resistive MHD modes on the safety factor at the plasma surface, current profile, wall position, and resistivity. The surface tearing mode moves the plasma surface even when the wall is close to the surface. The stability diagram for these modes is presented. (author)

  7. Modeling of mode-locked coupled-resonator optical waveguide lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Gregersen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides made from coupled high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities are investigated for use as cavities in mode-locked lasers. Such devices show great potential in slowing down light and can serve to reduce the cavity length of a mode-locked laser. An explicit expression...... of the emerging pulse train. A range of tuning around this frequency allows for effective mode locking. Finally, noise is added to the generalized single-cavity eigenfrequencies in order to evaluate the effects of fabrication imperfections on the cold-cavity transmission properties and consequently on the locking...

  8. Computation of saddle-type slow manifolds using iterative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2015-01-01

    with respect to , appropriate estimates are directly attainable using the method of this paper. The method is applied to several examples, including a model for a pair of neurons coupled by reciprocal inhibition with two slow and two fast variables, and the computation of homoclinic connections in the Fitz......This paper presents an alternative approach for the computation of trajectory segments on slow manifolds of saddle type. This approach is based on iterative methods rather than collocation-type methods. Compared to collocation methods, which require mesh refinements to ensure uniform convergence...

  9. Experimental studies of heavy-ion slowing down in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissel, H.; Weick, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Bimbot, R.; Gardes, D.

    2002-08-01

    Measurements of heavy-ion slowing down in matter differ in many aspects from experiments with light particles like protons and α-particles. An overview of the special experimental requirements, methods, data analysis and interpretation is presented for heavy-ion stopping powers, energy- and angular-straggling and ranges in the energy domain from keV/u up to GeV/u. Characteristic experimental results are presented and compared with theory and semiempirical predictions. New applications are outlined, which represent a challenge to continuously improve the knowledge of heavy-ion slowing down. (orig.)

  10. Low, slow, small target recognition based on spatial vision network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhao; Guo, Pei; Qi, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Traditional photoelectric monitoring is monitored using a large number of identical cameras. In order to ensure the full coverage of the monitoring area, this monitoring method uses more cameras, which leads to more monitoring and repetition areas, and higher costs, resulting in more waste. In order to reduce the monitoring cost and solve the difficult problem of finding, identifying and tracking a low altitude, slow speed and small target, this paper presents spatial vision network for low-slow-small targets recognition. Based on camera imaging principle and monitoring model, spatial vision network is modeled and optimized. Simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method has good performance.

  11. Pulsed neutron method for diffusion, slowing down, and reactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    An outline is given on the principles of the pulsed neutron method for the determination of thermal neutron diffusion parameters, for slowing-down time measurements, and for reactivity determinations. The historical development is sketched from the breakthrough in the middle of the nineteen fifties and the usefulness and limitations of the method are discussed. The importance for the present understanding of neutron slowing-down, thermalization and diffusion are point out. Examples are given of its recent use for e.g. absorption cross section measurements and for the study of the properties of heterogeneous systems

  12. Solution of neutron slowing down equation including multiple inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Saad, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present work is devoted the presentation of an analytical method for the calculation of elastically and inelastically slowed down neutrons in an infinite non absorbing homogeneous medium. On the basis of the Central limit theory (CLT) and the integral transform technique the slowing down equation including inelastic scattering in terms of the Green function of elastic scattering is solved. The Green function is decomposed according to the number of collisions. A formula for the flux at any lethargy O (u) after any number of collisions is derived. An equation for the asymptotic flux is also obtained

  13. Wide-band slow-wave systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Staras, Stanislovas

    2012-01-01

    The field of electromagnetics has seen considerable advances in recent years, based on the wide applications of numerical methods for investigating electromagnetic fields, microwaves, and other devices. Wide-Band Slow-Wave Systems: Simulation and Applications presents new technical solutions and research results for the analysis, synthesis, and design of slow-wave structures for modern electronic devices with super-wide pass-bands. It makes available, for the first time in English, significant research from the past 20 years that was previously published only in Russian and Lithuanian. The aut

  14. Efficiency evaluation of slow extraction from the synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarinov, N.Yu.; Mikhajlov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical calculation of slow extraction of the beam out of the JINR synchrotron is made. The formulae for evaluation of the sextupole amplitudes and phases, quadrupole lens gradient range are obtained, the connection with circulated and extracted beam parameters is shown. The formulae for calculating optimal position of the septum-magnet or electrostatic septum are presented. On this basis the formula for estimating the efficiency of beam slow extraction out of the synchrotron is obtained under assumption that in the septum region during the extraction a quasistationary distribution of the beam density occurs

  15. Consumption of polyphenol plants may slow aging and associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Utku; Seremet, Sila; Lamping, Jeffrey W; Adams, Jerome M; Liu, Deede Y; Swerdlow, Russell H; Aires, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Slowing aging is a widely shared goal. Plant-derived polyphenols, which are found in commonly consumed food plants such as tea, cocoa, blueberry and grape, have been proposed to have many health benefits, including slowing aging. In-vivo studies have demonstrated the lifespan-extending ability of six polyphenol-containing plants. These include five widely consumed foods (tea, blueberry, cocoa, apple, pomegranate) and a flower commonly used as a folk medicine (betony). These and multiple other plant polyphenols have been shown to have beneficial effects on aging-associated changes across a variety of organisms from worm and fly to rodent and human.

  16. Investigation of magnetic modes in the ASDEX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohm, H.

    1990-10-01

    Properties of MHD-modes in the ASDEX Tokamak have been investigated by application and further development of the MIRNOV-diagnostics, i.e. measurement of magnetic field fluctuations. In addition to evaluation methods supported by models, also a model-independent statistical data analysis makes sense. The very important physics of mode locking, i.e. the slowing-down of rotating modes is examined. An elaborated theoretical model allows an interpretation of experimental results. Especially interesting is the loss of the angular momentum of rotating plasmas by mode locking. Experiments for mode stabilisation and prevention of electric current breakdown are discussed. Additional MHD-processes under different plasma conditions are treated on the fundament of the devloped model ideas. The author shows that the main tokamak plasma is described very well by one-dimensional models with cylindrical geometry, while the boundary zone of the plasma demands a more complex analysis. In the appendix a concept for the investigation of the MHD-activity in ASDEX-Upgrade is discussed. (AH)

  17. Strongly localized modes in one-dimensional defect-free magnonic quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C. H.; Qiu, R. Z.; Chang, C. H.; Hsueh, W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Signal storage in magnonic quasicrystals using a slow spin-wave mode, rather than the quasinormal mode of traditional periodic magnonic crystals, is proposed, which is analogous to the slow light mode in the field of optics. Compared to traditional materials, richer and more wavelength-selective sharp resonances are achieved using the quasicrystals with a fewer number of layers, because of the peculiar fractal transmission spectra of quasicrystals. The number of sharp resonance and the quality factor for the sharp resonances in the transmission spectra also increases as the generation order of the magnonic quasicrystal increases. This generic nature allows the storage of signals using spin wave, for a wide range of quasiperiodic systems

  18. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  19. Observing and modeling the spectrum of a slow slip event: Constraints on the scaling of slow slip and tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Bartlow, N. M.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the normalized moment rate spectrum of a slow slip event in Cascadia and then attempt to reproduce it. Our goal is to further assess whether a single physical mechanism could govern slow slip and tremor events, with durations that span 6 orders of magnitude, so we construct the spectrum by parameterizing a large slow slip event as the sum of a number of subevents with various durations. The spectrum estimate uses data from three sources: the GPS-based slip inversion of Bartlow et al (2011), PBO borehole strain measurements, and beamforming-based tremor moment estimates of Ghosh et al (2009). We find that at periods shorter than 1 day, the moment rate power spectrum decays as frequencyn, where n is between 0.7 and 1.4 when measured from strain and between 1.2 and 1.4 when inferred from tremor. The spectrum appears roughly flat at periods of 1 to 10 days, as both the 1-day-period strain and tremor data and the 6-day-period slip inversion data imply a moment rate power of 0.02 times the the total moment squared. We demonstrate one way to reproduce this spectrum: by constructing the large-scale slow slip event as the sum of a series of subevents. The shortest of these subevents could be interpreted as VLFEs or even LFEs, while longer subevents might represent the aseismic slip that drives rapid tremor reverals, streaks, or rapid tremor migrations. We pick the subevent magnitudes from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution and place the events randomly throughout a 30-day interval. Then we assign each subevent a duration that scales with its moment to a specified power. Finally, we create a moment rate function for each subevent and sum all of the moment rates. We compute the summed slow slip moment rate spectra with two approaches: a time-domain numerical computation and a frequency-domain analytical summation. Several sets of subevent parameters can allow the constructed slow slip event to match the observed spectrum. One allowable set of parameters is of

  20. Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eLa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘default-mode’ network (DMN has been investigated in the presence of various disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Autism spectrum disorders. More recently, this investigation has expanded to include patients with ischemic injury. Here, we characterized the effects of ischemic injury in terms of its spectral distribution of resting-state low-frequency oscillations and further investigated whether those specific disruptions were unique to the DMN, or rather more general, affecting the global cortical system. With 43 young healthy adults, 42 older healthy adults, 14 stroke patients in their early stage (< 7 days after stroke onset, and 16 stroke patients in their later stage (between 1-6 months after stroke onset, this study showed that patterns of cortical system disruption may differ between healthy aging and following the event of an ischemic stroke. The stroke group in the later stage demonstrated a global reduction in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations (0.01-0.027 Hz in the DMN as well as in the primary visual and sensorimotor networks, two ‘task-positive’ networks. In comparison to the young healthy group, the older healthy subjects presented a decrease in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations specific to the components of the DMN, while exhibiting an increase in oscillation power in the task-positive networks. These two processes of a decrease DMN and an increase in ‘task-positive’ slow-5 oscillations may potentially be related, with a deficit in DMN inhibition, leading to an elevation of oscillations in non-DMN systems. These findings also suggest that disruptions of the slow-5 oscillations in healthy aging may be more specific to the DMN while the disruptions of those oscillations following a stroke through remote (diaschisis effects may be more widespread, highlighting a non-specificity of disruption on the DMN in stroke population. The mechanisms underlying those differing modes of network disruption need

  1. Textile slow-release systems with medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Breteler, M.R.; Nierstrasz, Vincent; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2002-01-01

    In the development of medical drug delivery systems, attention has been increasingly focused on slow- or controlled delivery systems in order to achieve an optimal therapeutic effect. Since the administration of drugs often requires a defined or minimum effective dosage in the human body, more

  2. Delineating psychomotor slowing from reduced processing speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Matton, C.; Madani, Y.; Bouwel, L. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia that is poorly delineated from generally reduced processing speed. Although the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed, the task also taps several higher-order cognitive processes.

  3. Investigating the critical slowing down of QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Simulations of QCD are known to suffer from serious critical slowing down towards the continuum limit. This is particularly prominent in the topological charge. We investigate the severeness of the problem in the range of lattice spacings used in contemporary simulations and propose a method to give more reliable error estimates. (orig.)

  4. Passive integrated circuits utilizing slow light in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Têtu, Amélie; Yang, Lirong

    2006-01-01

    We report thorough investigations of photonic crystal waveguide properties in the slow light regime. The transmission and the group index near the cutoff wavelengths oscillate in phase in close analogy with the ID photonic crystal behavior. The influence of having a finite number of periods...

  5. Slow Light by Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Zhang; Yan, Huang; Xiao-Yu, Mao; Kai-Yu, Cui; Yi-Dong, Huang; Wei, Zhang; Jiang-De, Peng

    2009-01-01

    A simple and effective way to measure the group velocity of photonic crystal waveguides (PCWGs) is developed by using a fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer. A PCWG with perfect air-bridge structure is fabricated and slow light with group velocity slower than c/80 is demonstrated. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  6. Reduction in slow intercompartmental clearance of urea during dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, D.J.; Krejcie, T.C.; Avram, M.J.; Chow, M.J.; Del Greco, F.; Atkinson, A.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of urea and inulin were analyzed in five anesthetized dogs during sequential 2-hour periods before, during, and after hemodialysis. The distribution of both compounds after simultaneous intravenous injection was characterized by three-compartment models, and the total volumes of urea (0.66 +/- 0.05 L/kg) and inulin (0.19 +/- 0.01 L/kg) distribution were similar to expected values for total body water and extravascular space, respectively. Intercompartmental clearances calculated before dialysis were used to estimate blood flows to the fast and slow equilibrating compartments. In agreement with previous results, the sum of these flows was similar to cardiac output, averaging 101% of cardiac output measured before dialysis (range 72% to 135%). Dialysis was accompanied by reductions in the slow intercompartmental clearances of urea (81%) and inulin (47%), which reflected a 90% attenuation in blood flow supplying the slow equilibrating compartments. This was estimated to result in a 10% average reduction in the efficiency with which urea was removed by dialysis (range 2.0% to 16.4%). Mean arterial pressure fell by less than 5% during dialysis, but total peripheral resistance increased by 47% and cardiac output fell by 35%. In the postdialysis period, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output returned toward predialysis values, but blood flow to the slow equilibrating peripheral compartment was still reduced by 80%. These changes parallel activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but further studies are required to establish causality

  7. Spatial ability of slow learners based on Hubert Maier theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, I.; Pramudya, I.; Kusmayadi, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Slow learners are children who have low learning achievement (under the average of normal children) in one or all of the academic field, but they are not classified as a mentally retarded children. Spatial ability developed according to age and level of knowledge possessed, both from the neighborhood and formal education. Analyzing the spatial ability of students is important for teachers, as an effort to improve the quality of learning for slow learners. Especially on the implementation of inclusion school which is developing in Indonesia. This research used a qualitative method and involved slow learner students as the subject. Based on the data analysis it was found the spatial ability of slow learners, there were: spatial perception, students were able to describe the other shape of object when its position changed; spatial visualisation, students were able to describe the materials that construct an object; mental rotation, students cannot describe the object being rotated; spatial relation, students cannot describe the relations of same objects; spatial orientation, students were able to describe object from the others perspective.

  8. Optical signal processing using slow and fast light technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capmany, J.; Sales, Salvador; Xue, Weiqi

    2009-01-01

    We review the theory of slow and fat light effects due to coherent population oscillations in semiconductor waveguides, which can be potentially applied in microwave photonic systems as a RF phase shifters. In order to satisfy the application requirement of 360 degrees RF phase shift at different...

  9. First Observation of the Slow Dragonet Callionymus aagilis Fricke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The slow dragonet is a rare marine species of the family Callionymidae, and is endemic to Reunion and Mauritius and possibly the other Mascarene Islands. It is grey in colour with small round white spots aligned on the flanks and a honeycomb pattern on the cheeks and the snout (Fig. 1a-c). The apices of the first dorsal ...

  10. One Size Fits All? Slow Cortical Potentials Neurofeedback: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kerstin; Wyckoff, Sarah N.; Strehl, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The intent of this manuscript was to review all published studies on slow cortical potentials (SCP) neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD, with emphasis on neurophysiological rationale, study design, protocol, outcomes, and limitations. Method: For review, PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, and Google Scholar searches identified six studies and…

  11. Slow Manifold and Hannay Angle in the Spinning Top

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. V.; Shukla, P.

    2011-01-01

    The spin of a top can be regarded as a fast variable, coupled to the motion of the axis which is slow. In pure precession, the rotation of the axis round a cone (without nutation), can be considered as the result of a reaction from the fast spin. The resulting restriction of the total state space of the top is an illustrative example, at…

  12. Slow light in quantum dot photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of pulse propagation in a semiconductor quantum dot photonic crystal waveguide in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency is presented. The slow light mechanism considered here is based on both material and waveguide dispersion. The group index n...

  13. Slow light based on material and waveguide dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We study slow light pulse propagation in a photonic crystal structure consisting of a dispersive and absorptive dielectric material and compare it with the constant wave case. The group index and the trasmission are investigated for the example of an ensemble of semiconductor quantum dots embedded...

  14. Penetration of slow waves into an overdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.; Bernabei, S.; Hooke, W.M.; McWilliams, R.; Olson, L.

    1978-06-01

    Probe measurements are reported of the propagation of a 2.45 GHz slow wave launched into a linear, overdense test plasma by a phased double waveguide. We find that waves in the frequency interval omega/sub LH/ < omega < omega/sub pe/ penetrate to the plasma interior only if they satisfy the accessibility criterion

  15. Standing Slow MHD Waves in Radiatively Cooling Coronal Loops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The standing slow magneto-acoustic oscillations in cooling coronal loops ... turbation and, eventually, reduces the MHD equations to a 1D system modelling ..... where the function Q is expanded in power series with respect to ǫ, i.e.,. Q = Q0 + ...

  16. Schrodinger cat state generation using a slow light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, B. S.; Kim, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    We show a practical application of giant Kerr nonlinearity to quantum information processing based on superposition of two distinct macroscopic states- Schrodinger cat state. The giant Kerr nonlinearity can be achieved by using electromagnetically induced transparency, in which light propagation should be slowed down so that a pi-phase shift can be easily obtained owing to increased interaction time.

  17. Formation of Heliospheric Arcs of Slow Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, A. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wyper, P. F., E-mail: aleida@umich.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    A major challenge in solar and heliospheric physics is understanding the origin and nature of the so-called slow solar wind. The Sun’s atmosphere is divided into magnetically open regions, known as coronal holes, where the plasma streams out freely and fills the solar system, and closed regions, where the plasma is confined to coronal loops. The boundary between these regions extends outward as the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). Measurements of plasma composition strongly imply that much of the slow wind consists of plasma from the closed corona that escapes onto open field lines, presumably by field-line opening or by interchange reconnection. Both of these processes are expected to release closed-field plasma into the solar wind within and immediately adjacent to the HCS. Mysteriously, however, slow wind with closed-field plasma composition is often observed in situ far from the HCS. We use high-resolution, three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations to calculate the dynamics of a coronal hole with a geometry that includes a narrow corridor flanked by closed field and is driven by supergranule-like flows at the coronal-hole boundary. These dynamics produce giant arcs of closed-field plasma that originate at the open-closed boundary in the corona, but extend far from the HCS and span tens of degrees in latitude and longitude at Earth. We conclude that such structures can account for the long-puzzling slow-wind observations.

  18. On loneliness and the value of slow reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin van Marle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author considers the relationship of law, morality and reconciliation. Intrigued by the political and ethical stances taken by Arendt and McCarthy, the author supports notions of detachment, slowness and social reconciliation concerning contemporary political and ethical questions.

  19. Effects of melatonin implantation during the slow period of cashmere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin implantation during the slow period of cashmere growth on fibre production in Inner Mongolian cashmere goats. It was found that melatonin implantation had no effect on the growth rate of cashmere, except from February to March when the rate of treated goats ...

  20. Human Growth Hormone (HGH): Does It Slow Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Healthy aging Human growth hormone is described by some as the key to slowing the aging process. Before you sign up, get the ... slowdown has triggered an interest in using synthetic human growth hormone (HGH) as a way to stave ...

  1. Understanding Bifurcation of Slow Versus Fast Cyber-Attackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieren, Maarten; Doerr, Christian; Jacobs, Vivian; Pieters, Wolter; Livraga, Giovanni; Torra, Vicenç; Aldini, Alessandro; Martinelli, Fabio; Suri, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, the distinction between fast “Smash-and-Grab‿ cyber-attacks on the one hand and slow attacks or “Advanced Persistent Threats‿ on the other hand is well known. In this article, we provide an explanation for this phenomenon as the outcome of an optimization from the perspective of the

  2. Some techniques to improve time structure of slow extracted beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Y.; Sato, H.; Toyama, T.; Marutsuka, K.; Sueno, T.; Mikawa, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Yoshii, M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to improve the time structure of slow extracted beam spill for the KEK 12GeV PS, the spill control system has been upgraded by adding feed forward signal to feedback signal. Further, the wake field in the RF cavity has been cancelled by the beam bunch signal to reduce the re-bunch effect during extraction period. (author)

  3. Biochar production from freshwater algae by slow pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the feasibility of biochar production from 3 kinds of freshwateralgae, viz. Spirulina, Spirogyra and Cladophora, was undertaken. Using a slow pyrolysis process in a specially designed reactor, biochar could be generated at 550oC under nitrogen atmosphere. The yields of biochar were between 28-31% of the dry algae.

  4. Generation of slow positron beam and beam bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, O.; Satoh, T.; Shitoh, M.; Kaneko, N.; Kawaratani, T.; Hara, O.

    1994-01-01

    Two items are described in this report. One is about the outline of our slow positron beam system, which has been fabricated as a commercial prototype. The other is about the calculation result of positron beam bunching, which will be an additional function to the system. (author)

  5. Slow diuron release formulations based on clay-phosphatidylcholine complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Undabeytia, T.; Recio, E.; Maqueda, C.; Sanchez-Verdejo, T.; Balek, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 55, JAN (2012), s. 53-61 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC523 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Diuron * Phosphatidylcholine * Clay mineral * Leaching * Bioactivity * Slow release Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2012

  6. Concordance of MRI and EEG Focal Slowing in Nonsyndromic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Kangwon National University, Korea, and The Epilepsy Center, Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, USA studied the correlation and significance of EEG focal slowing and focal MRI abnormalities in 253 children with nonsyndromic epilepsy.

  7. Grating-assisted superresolution of slow waves in Fourier space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, N. Le; Houdré, R.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2007-01-01

    with a high numerical aperture Fourier space imaging set-up. A high-resolution spectroscopy of the far-field emission diagram allows us to accurately and efficiently determine the dispersion curve and the group-index dispersion of planar photonic waveguides operating in the slow light regime....

  8. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Niels Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measurements widely employed in analytical chemistry.

  9. Slow oscillations orchestrating fast oscillations and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Slow-wave sleep (SWS) facilitates the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. Based on the standard two-stage memory model, we propose that memory consolidation during SWS represents a process of system consolidation which is orchestrated by the neocortical memory. The slow oscillations temporally group neuronal activity into up-states of strongly enhanced neuronal activity and down-states of neuronal silence. In a feed-forward efferent action, this grouping is induced not only in the neocortex but also in other structures relevant to consolidation, namely the thalamus generating 10-15Hz spindles, and the hippocampus generating sharp wave-ripples, with the latter well known to accompany a replay of newly encoded memories taking place in hippocampal circuitries. The feed-forward synchronizing effect of the slow oscillation enables the formation of spindle-ripple events where ripples and accompanying reactivated hippocampal memory information become nested into the single troughs of spindles. Spindle-ripple events thus enable reactivated memory-related hippocampal information to be fed back to neocortical networks in the excitable slow oscillation up-state where they can induce enduring plastic synaptic changes underlying the effective formation of long-term memories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystal plastic earthquakes in dolostones: from slow to fast ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passelegue, F. X.; Aubry, J.; Nicolas, A.; Fondriest, M.; Schubnel, A.; Di Toro, G.

    2017-12-01

    Dolostone is the most dominant lithology of the seismogenic upper crust around the Mediterranean Sea. Understanding the internal mechanisms controlling fault friction is crucial for understanding seismicity along active faults. Displacement in such fault zones is frequently highlighted by highly reflective (mirror-like) slip surfaces, created by thin films of nanogranular fault rock. Using saw-cut dolostone samples coming from natural fault zones, we conducted stick-slip experiments under triaxial loading conditions at 30, 60 and 90 MPa confining pressure and temperature ranging from 30 to 100 degrees C. At 30 and 65 degrees C, only slow rupture was observed and the experimental fault exhibits frictional behaviour, i.e. a dependence of normal stress on peak shear stress. At 65 degrees C, a strengthening behaviour is observed after the main rupture, leading to a succession of slow rupture. At 100 degrees C, the macroscopic behaviour of the fault becomes ductile, and no dependence of pressure on the peak shear stress is observed. In addition, the increase of the confining pressure up to 60 and 90 MPa allow the transition from slow to fast rupture, highlighted by the records of acoustic activity and by dynamic stress drop occurring in a few tens of microseconds. Using strain gages located along the fault surface and acoustic transducers, we were able to measure the rupture velocities during slow and fast rupture. Slow ruptures propagated around 0.1 m/s, in agreement with natural observations. Fast ruptures propagated up to supershear velocities, i.e. faster than the shear wave speed (>3500 m/s). A complete study of the microstructures was realized before and after ruptures. Slow ruptures lead to the production of mirror-like surface driven by the production of nanograins due to dislocation processes. Fast ruptures induce the production of amorphous material along the fault surface, which may come from decarbonation and melting processes. We demonstrate that the

  11. Characteristics of broadband slow earthquakes explained by a Brownian model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, S.; Takeo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Brownian slow earthquake (BSE) model (Ide, 2008; 2010) is a stochastic model for the temporal change of seismic moment release by slow earthquakes, which can be considered as a broadband phenomena including tectonic tremors, low frequency earthquakes, and very low frequency (VLF) earthquakes in the seismological frequency range, and slow slip events in geodetic range. Although the concept of broadband slow earthquake may not have been widely accepted, most of recent observations are consistent with this concept. Then, we review the characteristics of slow earthquakes and how they are explained by BSE model. In BSE model, the characteristic size of slow earthquake source is represented by a random variable, changed by a Gaussian fluctuation added at every time step. The model also includes a time constant, which divides the model behavior into short- and long-time regimes. In nature, the time constant corresponds to the spatial limit of tremor/SSE zone. In the long-time regime, the seismic moment rate is constant, which explains the moment-duration scaling law (Ide et al., 2007). For a shorter duration, the moment rate increases with size, as often observed for VLF earthquakes (Ide et al., 2008). The ratio between seismic energy and seismic moment is constant, as shown in Japan, Cascadia, and Mexico (Maury et al., 2017). The moment rate spectrum has a section of -1 slope, limited by two frequencies corresponding to the above time constant and the time increment of the stochastic process. Such broadband spectra have been observed for slow earthquakes near the trench axis (Kaneko et al., 2017). This spectrum also explains why we can obtain VLF signals by stacking broadband seismograms relative to tremor occurrence (e.g., Takeo et al., 2010; Ide and Yabe, 2014). The fluctuation in BSE model can be non-Gaussian, as far as the variance is finite, as supported by the central limit theorem. Recent observations suggest that tremors and LFEs are spatially characteristic

  12. ELM triggering conditions for the integrated modeling of H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankin, A.Y.; Schnack, D.D.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H.; Brennan, D.P.; Snyder, P.B.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Kruger, S.; Janeschitz, G.; Onjun, T.; Pacher, G.W.; Pacher, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in the integrated modeling of ELMy (edge localized mode) H-mode plasmas are presented. A model for the H-mode pedestal and for the triggering of ELMs predicts the height, width, and shape of the H-mode pedestal and the frequency and width of ELMs. Formation of the pedestal and the L-H transition is the direct result of E r x B flow shear suppression of anomalous transport. The periodic ELM crashes are triggered by either the ballooning or peeling MHD instabilities. The BALOO, DCON, and ELITE ideal MHD stability codes are used to derive a new parametric expression for the peeling-ballooning threshold. The new dependence for the peeling-ballooning threshold is implemented in the ASTRA transport code. Results of integrated modeling of DIII-D like discharges are presented and compared with experimental observations. The results from the ideal MHD stability codes are compared with results from the resistive MHD stability code NIMROD. (authors)

  13. A Simple Slow-Sand Filter for Drinking Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Yusuf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water-borne diseases are commonly encountered when pathogen-contaminated water is consumed. In rural areas, water is usually obtained from ponds, open shallow wells, streams and rain water during rainy season. Rain water is often contaminated by pathogens due to unhygienic of physical and chemical conditions of the roofs thereby making it unsafe for consumption. A simple slow sand filter mechanism was designed and fabricated for purification of water in rural areas where electricity is not available to power water purification devices. Rain water samples were collected from aluminum roof, galvanized roof and thatched roof. The waters samples were allowed to flow through the slow sand filter. The values of turbidity, total dissolved solids, calcium, nitrite, faecal coliform and total coliform from unfiltered water through thatched roof were 0.92 NTU, 27.23 mg/l, 6 mg/l, 0.16 mg/l, 5cfu/100ml and 6.0 cfu/100ml, respectively while the corresponding values for slow sand filter from thatched roof were 0.01 NTU, 0.23 mg/l, 2.5 mg/l, 0.1 mg/l, 0 cfu/100ml and 0 cfu/100ml, respectively. The values of turbidity, total dissolved solid, nitrite, calcium, faecal coliform and total coliform from unfiltered water for aluminum roof were 0.82 NTU, 23.68 mg/l, 2.70 mg/l, 1.0 mg/l, 4 cfu/100ml and 4cfu/100ml, respectively while the corresponding values for slow sand filter were 0.01 NTU, 0.16 mg/l, 0.57 mg/l, 0.2 mg/l, 0 cfu/100ml and 0 cfu/100ml, respectively. The values obtained for galvanized roof were also satisfactory. The slow sand filter is recommended for used in rural areas for water purification to prevent risk of water-borne diseases.

  14. Continuous neutron slowing down theory applied to resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, M.

    1977-01-01

    Neutronic formalisms that discretize the neutron slowing down equations in large numerical intervals currently account for the bulk effect of resonances in a given interval by the narrow resonance approximation (NRA). The NRA reduces the original problem to an efficient numerical formalism through two assumptions: resonance narrowness with respect to the scattering bands in the slowing down equations and resonance narrowness with respect to the numerical intervals. Resonances at low energies are narrow neither with respect to the slowing down ranges nor with respect to the numerical intervals, which are usually of a fixed lethargy width. Thus, there are resonances to which the NRA is not applicable. To stay away from the NRA, the continuous slowing down (CSD) theory of Stacey was invoked. The theory is based on a linear expansion in lethargy of the collision density in integrals of the slowing down equations and had notable success in various problems. Applying CSD theory to the assessment of bulk resonance effects raises the problem of obtaining efficient quadratures for integrals involved in the definition of the so-called ''moderating parameter.'' The problem was solved by two approximations: (a) the integrals were simplified through a rationale, such that the correct integrals were reproduced for very narrow or very wide resonances, and (b) the temperature-broadened resonant line shapes were replaced by nonbroadened line shapes to enable analytical integration. The replacement was made in such a way that the integrated capture and scattering probabilities in each resonance were preserved. The resulting formalism is more accurate than the narrow-resonance formalisms and is equally as efficient

  15. The slow cell death response when screening chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Joseph; Smith, Adam; Josephson, Lee

    2011-09-01

    To examine the correlation between cell death and a common surrogate of death used in screening assays, we compared cell death responses to those obtained with the sulforhodamine B (SRB) cell protein-based "cytotoxicity" assay. With the SRB assay, the Hill equation was used to obtain an IC50 and final cell mass, or cell mass present at infinite agent concentrations, with eight adherent cell lines and four agents (32 agent/cell combinations). Cells were treated with high agent concentrations (well above the SRB IC50) and the death response determined as the time-dependent decrease in cells failing to bind both annexin V and vital fluorochromes by flow cytometry. Death kinetics were categorized as fast (5/32) (similar to the reference nonadherent Jurkat line), slow (17/32), or none (10/32), despite positive responses in the SRB assay in all cases. With slow cell death, a single exposure to a chemotherapeutic agent caused a slow, progressive increase in dead (necrotic) and dying (apoptotic) cells for at least 72 h. Cell death (defined by annexin and/or fluorochrome binding) did not correlate with the standard SRB "cytotoxicity" assay. With the slow cell death response, a single exposure to an agent caused a slow conversion from vital to apoptotic and necrotic cells over at least 72 h (the longest time point examined). Here, increasing the time of exposure to agent concentrations modestly above the SRB IC50 provides a method of maximizing cell kill. If tumors respond similarly, sustained low doses of chemotherapeutic agents, rather than a log-kill, maximum tolerated dose strategy may be an optimal strategy of maximizing tumor cell death.

  16. A Model fot the Sources of the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Mikic, Z.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Linker, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Models for the origin of the slow solar wind must account for two seemingly contradictory observations: the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, implying that it originates from the continuous opening and closing of flux at the boundary between open and closed field. On the other hand, the slow wind also has large angular width, up to approx.60deg, suggesting that its source extends far from the open-closed boundary. We propose a model that can explain both observations. The key idea is that the source of the slow wind at the Sun is a network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that map to a web of separatrices and quasi-separatrix layers in the heliosphere. We compute analytically the topology of an open-field corridor and show that it produces a quasi-separatrix layer in the heliosphere that extends to angles far from the heliospheric current sheet. We then use an MHD code and MDI/SOHO observations of the photospheric magnetic field to calculate numerically, with high spatial resolution, the quasi-steady solar wind, and magnetic field for a time period preceding the 2008 August 1 total solar eclipse. Our numerical results imply that, at least for this time period, a web of separatrices (which we term an S-web) forms with sufficient density and extent in the heliosphere to account for the observed properties of the slow wind. We discuss the implications of our S-web model for the structure and dynamics of the corona and heliosphere and propose further tests of the model. Key words: solar wind - Sun: corona - Sun: magnetic topology

  17. A Model for the Sources of the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Mikić, Z.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Linker, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    Models for the origin of the slow solar wind must account for two seemingly contradictory observations: the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, implying that it originates from the continuous opening and closing of flux at the boundary between open and closed field. On the other hand, the slow wind also has large angular width, up to ~60°, suggesting that its source extends far from the open-closed boundary. We propose a model that can explain both observations. The key idea is that the source of the slow wind at the Sun is a network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that map to a web of separatrices and quasi-separatrix layers in the heliosphere. We compute analytically the topology of an open-field corridor and show that it produces a quasi-separatrix layer in the heliosphere that extends to angles far from the heliospheric current sheet. We then use an MHD code and MDI/SOHO observations of the photospheric magnetic field to calculate numerically, with high spatial resolution, the quasi-steady solar wind, and magnetic field for a time period preceding the 2008 August 1 total solar eclipse. Our numerical results imply that, at least for this time period, a web of separatrices (which we term an S-web) forms with sufficient density and extent in the heliosphere to account for the observed properties of the slow wind. We discuss the implications of our S-web model for the structure and dynamics of the corona and heliosphere and propose further tests of the model.

  18. A slow mode wave as a possible source of Pi 2 and associated particle precipitation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saka

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available An intensification of auroral luminosity referred to as an auroral break-up often accompanies the onset of geomagnetic pulsation (Pi 2 at the dip-equator. One such auroral break-up occurred at 2239 UT on 16 June, 1986, being accompanied by weak substorm activity (AE~50 nT which was recorded in all-sky image of Syowa Station, Antarctica (66.2°S, 71.8°E in geomagnetic coordinates. The associated Pi 2 magnetic pulsation was detected by a fluxgate magnetometer in the afternoon sector at the dip-equator (Huancayo, Peru; 1.44°N, 355.9° in geomagnetic coordinates; 12.1°S, 75.2°W in geographic coordinates; L=1.00. In spite of the large separation of the two stations in longitude and latitude, the auroral break-up and subsequent luminosity modulation were seen to be correlated with the wave form of the ground Pi 2 pulsation. This occurred in such a way that the luminosity maximum was seen to occur at the phase of maximum amplitudes of Pi 2 wave form. We argue that the observed correlation could be interpreted as indicating a Pi 2-modulation of a field-aligned acceleration of the low energy electrons that may occur near the equator of the midnight magnetosphere.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; energetic particles · precipitating; MHD waves and instabilities

  19. A slow mode wave as a possible source of Pi 2 and associated particle precipitation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saka

    Full Text Available An intensification of auroral luminosity referred to as an auroral break-up often accompanies the onset of geomagnetic pulsation (Pi 2 at the dip-equator. One such auroral break-up occurred at 2239 UT on 16 June, 1986, being accompanied by weak substorm activity (AE~50 nT which was recorded in all-sky image of Syowa Station, Antarctica (66.2°S, 71.8°E in geomagnetic coordinates. The associated Pi 2 magnetic pulsation was detected by a fluxgate magnetometer in the afternoon sector at the dip-equator (Huancayo, Peru; 1.44°N, 355.9° in geomagnetic coordinates; 12.1°S, 75.2°W in geographic coordinates; L=1.00. In spite of the large separation of the two stations in longitude and latitude, the auroral break-up and subsequent luminosity modulation were seen to be correlated with the wave form of the ground Pi 2 pulsation. This occurred in such a way that the luminosity maximum was seen to occur at the phase of maximum amplitudes of Pi 2 wave form. We argue that the observed correlation could be interpreted as indicating a Pi 2-modulation of a field-aligned acceleration of the low energy electrons that may occur near the equator of the midnight magnetosphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; energetic particles · precipitating; MHD waves and instabilities

  20. Linear stability of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Hahm, T.S.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines the stability of tearing modes in a sheared slab when the width of the tearing layer is much smaller than the ion Larmor radius. The ion response is nonlocal, and the quasineutrality retains its full integal form. An expansion procedure is introduced to solve the quasineutrality equation in powers of the width of the tearing layer over the ion Larmor radius. The expansion procedure is applied to the collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes. The first order terms in the expansion we find to be strongly stabilizing. The physics of the mode and of the stabilization is discussed. Tearing modes are observed in experiments even though the slab theory predicts stability. It is proposed that these modes grow from an equilibrium with islands at the rational surfaces. If the equilibrium islands are wider than the ion Larmor radius, the mode is unstable when Δ' is positive