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Sample records for slovakia chronically exposed

  1. Increased frequency of diabetes and other forms of dysglycemia in the population of specific areas of eastern Slovakia chronically exposed to contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radikova, Z.; Koska, J.; Ksinantova, L. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, SAS, Bratislava (SK)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Some studies suggest that exposure to organochlorine pollutants may affect glucose metabolism and insulin secretion and action. Considerable pollution of water, soil and food chain in Eastern Slovakia was caused by a chemical factory, which was manufacturing PCBs in 1959-1985. The aim of the present preliminary evaluation of data obtained within the EC project PCBRISK was to search for further interrelations between long-term organochlorine pollution and disturbances in glucose homeostasis in large cohorts of population from three districts of Eastern Slovakia.

  2. Chronic Pain: Content Validation of Nursing Diagnosis in Slovakia and the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleníková, Renáta; Maniaková, Lenka

    2015-10-01

    The main purpose of the study was to validate the defining characteristics and related factors of the nursing diagnosis "chronic pain" in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. This is a descriptive study. The validation process involved was based on Fehring's Diagnostic Content Validity Model. Three defining characteristics (reports pain, altered ability to continue previous activities, and depression) were classified as major by Slovak nurses, and one defining characteristic (reports pain) was classified as major by Czech nurses. The results of the study provide guidance in devising strategies of pain assessment and can aid in the formulation of accurate nursing diagnoses. The defining characteristic "reports pain" is important for arriving at the nursing diagnosis "chronic pain." © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  3. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  4. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  5. Heart rate variability in workers chronically exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Chlebda, Ewa

    2004-07-01

    Lead is a strong neurotoxin. The effects of lead on the activity of the autonomic nervous system, assessed by the use of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, have not yet been established. To assess the effects of occupational chronic lead exposure on the autonomic nervous system activity. The study group consisted of 22 copper foundry workers (mean age 41.8+/-8.7 years) who had elevated parameters of lead overload and were admitted to the hospital for chelate therapy. The control group consisted of 13 age-matched healthy males. Lead concentration was measured with the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and concentration of free protoporphyrins in erythrocytes (FEP) using a fluorometric method. Each patient underwent 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, and standard short-term as well as long-term HRV parameters were obtained. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in HRV parameters. In the control group, HRV parameters correlated with age. In patients, a significant negative correlation between lead concentration and some short-term HRV parameters calculated during the night was found: SDNN (r=-0.48, p<0.05), TP (r=-0.48, p<0.01) and LF (r=-0.48, p<0.01). In patients, a negative correlation between lead concentration and HFnight/HFday index was found (r=-0.47 p<0.01), whereas in controls this correlation was positive (r=0.66 p<0.05). Overall HRV indices are similar in subjects exposed to lead and in healthy controls. A decrease in the physiological elevation of HF values during the night, together with an increase in lead blood concentration and lack of relationship between age and HRV parameters in workers chronically exposed to lead may suggest disturbances of the autonomic system. In subjects not exposed to lead a decrease in heart rate with an increase in FEP concentration was observed.

  6. Atoms in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, D.; Feik, K.; Florek, M.; Kmosena, J.; Chrapan, J.; Morovic, M.; Slugen, V.; Seliga, M.; Valovic, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this book the history of development of using of nuclear energy in the Slovak Republic as well as in the Czechoslovakia (before 1993 year) is presented. The aim of the book is to preserve the memory of the period when the creation and development of nuclear physics, technology, nuclear medicine, radioecology and energetics in Slovakia occurred - as witnessed by people who experienced this period and to adapt it to future generations. The Editorial board of the SNUS collected the views of 60 contributors and distinguished workers - Slovakian experts in nuclear science, education and technology. Calling upon a wide spectrum of experts ensured an objective historical description of the period. A huge amount of subjective views on recent decades were collected and supported by a wealth of photographic documentation. This created a synthesised reflection on the history of the 'atoms' in Slovakia. The book contains 15 tables, 192 black and white and 119 colour pictures from around the world and from places involved in the compilation of the study and with the study of atomic science in Slovakia. The main chapters are as follows: Atoms in the world, Atoms in Slovakia, Atoms in the educational system, Atoms in health services (Radiology, Nuclear medicine, Radiation protection, the Cyclotron centre of the Slovak Republic), Radioecology, Other applications of irradiation, Nuclear energetics (Electric energy in the second half of the 20 th century, NPP Bohunice, NPP Mochovce, the back-end of Nuclear energetics, Big names in Nuclear energetics in Slovakia), Chronology and an Appendix entitled 'Slovak companies in nuclear energetics'

  7. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  8. Haemogram of adult Clarias gariepinus exposed to chronic levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus (mean weight, 850 ± 60 g) mean length, 38.75 ± 6.7 cm) were exposed individually to four concentrations of Roundup, containing 360g/l glyphosate in the form of 480g/l isopropylamine salt (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mg/l) and a control (0 mg/l), five replicates per concentration for 70 days in static renewal ...

  9. Haematological evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to chronic doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two groups (A and B) were respectively exposed to CdCl2 (0.25 and 2.5 mg/kg), two other groups (C and D) respectively received HgCl2 (0.12 and 1.2 mg/kg) and the last two groups (E and F) were respectively treated with the combination of these two metals: (0.25 mg/kg Cd + 0.12 mg/kg Hg) and (2.5 mg/kg Cd + 1.2 ...

  10. Unemployment Policy in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: Goal of the study is analysis of the unemployment policy in Slovakia and policy measures to increase the employment rate. Research question: What was the development of unemployment in the period from 2006 to September 2016 and what measures were taken by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family to reduce the unemployment rate in Slovakia? Method: Comparison of the unemployment rate in period between 2006 to 2016. Information was gathered from online sources and publications. Using the collected data, the individual unemployment rates in all Slovak regions and districts will be compared. Results: During examined period between 2006 and 2016 the highest unemployment rate was 14.40% in 2010. The paper also mentions the economic crisis that struck Slovakia between 2008 and 2010. During this period, the unemployment in Slovakia increased by 4.8%. The primary objective of the government was to reduce the unemployment rate below 10%. This has been achieved in March 2016. The positive news is the tendency of constantly falling unemployment in our country. Society: Unemployment is one of the negative phenomena in society. Job loss or inability to find a job application one is deprived of the possibility to implement and enforce own life goals. Unemployed, unless one can find a job, can enter the phase of adaptation to the lifestyle of the unemployed, which is characterized by resignation, loss of hope, passivity. A person ceases to be active, considering that his work does not make sense. Job loss affects negatively self-peception, lower self-esteem and leads to feelings of inferiority. Limitations: The aim of the Slovak Republic was in 2016 to keep unemployment below 10% and then continue the trend of reducing unemployment by new laws, inviting new investors and put into practice various measures, such as various programs for the unemployed.

  11. BUC implementation in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.; Vaclav, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved calculation methods allow one to take credit for the reactivity reduction associated with fuel burnup. This means reducing the analysis conservatism while maintaining an adequate criticality safety margin. Application of burnup credit requires knowledge of the reactivity state of the irradiated fuel for which application of burnup credit is taken. The isotopic inventory and reactivity has to be calculated with validated codes. We use in Slovakia Gd2 fuel with maximal enrichment of fuel pins 4.4%. Our transport and storage basket KZ-48 with boron steel is licensed for fresh fuel with enrichment 4.4%. In near future (2011 or 2012) we will use a new fuel with maximal enrichment of fuel pins 4.9%. For this fuel we plan to use existing KZ-48 with application of burnup credit application. In cooperation with Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority we have started several years ago process of application of burnup credit implementation in Slovakia for WWER-440 reactors. We have already prepared methodology according IAEA methodology. We have validated computational systems (SCALE 5.1 already, SCALE 6 in progress). Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority will prepare regulation about application of burnup credit application in Slovakia. Last item is preparation of safety reports (for transport and storage) for the new fuel with average enrichment 4.87% in basket KZ-48 with application of burnup credit application. (Authors)

  12. BUC implementation in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.; Vaclav, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved calculation methods allow one to take credit for the reactivity reduction associated with fuel burnup. This means reducing the analysis conservatism while maintaining an adequate criticality safety margin. Application of burnup credit (BUC) requires knowledge of the reactivity state of the irradiated fuel for which BUC is taken. The isotopic inventory and reactivity has to be calculated with validated codes. We use in Slovakia Gd 2 fuel with maximal enrichment of fuel pins 4.4%. Our transport and storage basket KZ-48 with boron steel is licensed for fresh fuel with enrichment 4.4%. In near future (2011 or 2012) we will use a new fuel with maximal enrichment of fuel pins 4.9%. For this fuel we plan to use existing KZ-48 with BUC application. In cooperation with Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) we have started several years ago process of BUC implementation in Slovakia for VVER-440 reactors. We have already prepared methodology according IAEA methodology. We have validated computational systems (SCALE 5.1 already, SCALE 6 in progress). UJD will prepare regulation about BUC application in Slovakia. Last item is preparation of safety reports (for transport and storage) for the new fuel with average enrichment 4.87% in basket KZ-48 with BUC application.

  13. Proteomic analysis of liver in rats chronically exposed to fluoride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva Pereira

    Full Text Available Fluoride (F is a potent anti-cariogenic element, but when ingestion is excessive, systemic toxicity may be observed. This can occur as acute or chronic responses, depending on both the amount of F and the time of exposure. The present study identified the profile of protein expression possibly associated with F-induced chronic hepatotoxicity. Weanling male Wistar rats (three-weeks old were divided into three groups and treated with drinking water containing 0, 5 or 50 mg/L F for 60 days (n=6/group. At this time point, serum and livers were collected for F analysis, which was done using the ion-sensitive electrode, after hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated diffusion. Livers were also submitted to histological and proteomic analyses (2D-PAGE followed by LC-MS/MS. Western blotting was done for confirmation of the proteomic data A dose-response was observed in serum F levels. In the livers, F levels were significantly increased in the 50 mg/L F group compared to groups treated with 0 and 5 mg/L F. Liver morphometric analysis did not reveal alterations in the cellular structures and lipid droplets were present in all groups. Proteomic quantitative intensity analysis detected 33, 44, and 29 spots differentially expressed in the comparisons between control vs. 5 mg/L F, control vs. 50 mg/L F, and 5 mg/L vs. 50 mg/L F, respectively. From these, 92 proteins were successfully identified. In addition, 18, 1, and 5 protein spots were shown to be exclusive in control, 5, and 50 mg/L F, respectively. Most of proteins were related to metabolic process and pronounced alterations were seen for the high-F level group. In F-treated rats, changes in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE and GRP-78 expression may account for the F-induced toxicity in the liver. This can contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatoxicity induced by F, by indicating key-proteins that should be better addressed in future studies.

  14. Bone metabolism of male rats chronically exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina

    2005-01-01

    Recently, based on a female rat model of human exposure, we have reported that low-level chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) has an injurious effect on the skeleton. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the exposure may also affect bone metabolism in a male rat model and to estimate the gender-related differences in the bone effect of Cd. Young male Wistar rats received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 12 months. The bone effect of Cd was evaluated using bone densitometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Renal handling of calcium (Ca) and phosphate, and serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, calcitonin, and parathormone were estimated as well. At treatment with 1 mg Cd/l, corresponding to the low environmental exposure in non-Cd-polluted areas, the bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the femur and lumbar spine (L1-L5) and the total skeleton BMD did not differ compared to control. However, from the 6th month of the exposure, the Z score BMD indicated osteopenia in some animals and after 12 months the bone resorption very clearly tended to an increase. The rats' exposure corresponding to human moderate (5 mg Cd/l) and especially relatively high (50 mg Cd/l) exposure dose- and duration-dependently disturbed the processes of bone turnover and bone mass accumulation leading to formation of less dense than normal bone tissue. The effects were accompanied by changes in the serum concentration of calciotropic hormones and disorders in Ca and phosphate metabolism. It can be concluded that low environmental exposure to Cd may be only a subtle risk factor for skeletal demineralization in men. The results together with our previous findings based on an analogous model using female rats give clear evidence that males are less vulnerable to the bone effects of Cd compared to females

  15. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, E.M.D.B.; Lima, M.G.; Silveira, L.C.D.S.; Rodrigues, A.R.; Teixeira, C.E.C.; De Lima, L.J.B.; Silveira, L.C.D.S.; Ventura, D.F.; Ventura, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old) were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry) and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test FM100). Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10-30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction

  16. Land associations in Slovakia

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    Anna Bandlerová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The land fragmentation is one of the serious problems in Slovakia which is given by the historical development of the land law. In the past, landowners tried to solve this problem by creation of various forms of land associations oriented to the common cultivation of agricultural land and forest land. Nowadays, the Slovak lawmaker decided to regulate the institute of land associations by the law. Land associations in Slovakia are legal entities conducting agricultural business on agricultural land, forest land or in water areas; moreover, they can provide also other business activities according to particular legal regulations. Land associations conduct business on real estate property or, more commonly, properties, which are usually owned by many co-owners, because the individual cultivation of small part of land plots would not be effective. However, the law is a subject of legal amendments more often than necessary in order to ensure the legal certainty. This paper introduces this recondite legal entity, its activities, its internal government and the ownership rights of its members. A pre-emption right that has a special legal regulation different from the general legal regulations of the pre-emption rights in the Civil Code is one of the special issues.

  17. DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMASIII AND DMASIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMAsIII and DMAsIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC. L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo2, W. R. Cullen3, and D.J. Thomas4. 1Toxicology Section, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico, D.F., 2Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 3Uni...

  18. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the lymphocytes of rats chronically exposed to radiation and chemical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, thymus and spleen of rats chronically exposed to combined external γ-radiation trichlorfon pesticide effect have been studied. It is shown that chronical combined trichlorfon and γ irradiation effect is accompanied by suppression of lymphopoiesis already at the early stages of the experience. The observed effects are formed depending on both daily and cumulative doses of the effect. The development of the combined effect is based on the summation of effects of chronical effect of ionizing radiation and pesticide. The revealed changes in lymphocytes population exposed to radiation and chemical factors can lead to substantial decrease of natural immunity thereby decreasing to various diseases

  19. Kantian Research in Slovakia

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    L'umboír Belás

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the state of the research on Kant’s philosophy in Slovakia, particularly at the University of Prešov. In the first part the authors describe the situation of Kantian research between the 1850s and 1963 as a period during which there was almost no interest in Kant and his philosophy in the region. The main part of the paper deals with the revival of Kantian philosophy, presented by a group of scholars approximately twenty years ago, that gave rise to a series of successful research projects on Kant supported by the Slovak Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport. The paper outlines the series of five successive research projects that have been realized since 2004 focusing mainly on Kant’s practical philosophy and its relevance for contemporary society. It summarizes the achievements based on the international cooperation in the research and describes the main events and publications realized so far.

  20. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  1. Effect of acetaminophen administration to rats chronically exposed to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueguen, Y.; Grandcolas, L.; Baudelin, C.; Grison, S.; Tissandie, E.; Jourdain, J.R.; Paquet, F.; Voisin, P.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; Souidi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The extensive use of depleted uranium (DU) in both civilian and military applications results in the increase of the number of human beings exposed to this compound. We previously found that DU chronic exposure induces the expression of CYP enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (drugs). In order to evaluate the consequences of these changes on the metabolism of a drug, rats chronically exposed to DU (40 mg/l) were treated by acetaminophen (APAP, 400 mg/kg) at the end of the 9-month contamination. Acetaminophen is considered as a safe drug within the therapeutic range but in the case of overdose or in sensitive animals, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity could occur. In the present work, plasma concentration of APAP was higher in the DU group compared to the non-contaminated group. In addition, administration of APAP to the DU-exposed rats increased plasma ALT (p < 0.01) and AST (p < 0.05) more rapidly than in the control group. Nevertheless, no histological alteration of the liver was observed but renal injury characterized by incomplete proximal tubular cell necrosis was higher for the DU-exposed rats. Moreover, in the kidney, CYP2E1 gene expression, an important CYP responsible for APAP bioactivation and toxicity, is increased (p < 0.01) in the DU-exposed group compared to the control group. In the liver, CYP's activities were decreased between control and DU-exposed rats. These results could explain the worse elimination of APAP in the plasma and confirm our hypothesis of a modification of the drug metabolism following a DU chronic contamination

  2. Health status of grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation. Communication 4. Congenital developmental defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushkina, N.P.; Musatkova, O.B.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence and structure of cogenital developmental defects in the grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic external gamma-irradiation. For 830 children only grandfather was exposed, for 259 only grandmother, and for 468 grandfather and grandmother. The mean equivalent doses for gonads by the moment of conception of future parents of the cohort examined ranged from 17.3 to 145.3 sSv. The incidence and structure of congenital developmental defects in 1557 grandchildren of occupationally exposed subjects differed from that in controls. Multifactorial analysis failed to establish the effect of grandparents' and parents' exposure on the development of diseases in the progeny. Factors other than radiation proved to be significant. 13 refs.; 1 tab

  3. Heat waves and warm periods in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faško, Pavel; Bochníček, Oliver; Markovič, Ladislav; Švec, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The scenarios of climate change caused by human activity show that frequency of occurrence and extent of heat waves in the interior of Europe is increasing. Among the most exposed regions in this regard should the area of southeastern and eastern Austria and south-western Slovakia. The relatively faster increase in the number of heat waves in this area is related also to potential desertification in this region just east of the Alps, since during summer, weather fronts advancing from the west are consequently losing their original features and moderating influence. Summer weather patterns for this area should in the future more closely remind climate typical for some inland areas of southwestern, southern and southeastern Europe. A certain shift of climate zones from south to north should thus modify future climate and Slovakia. Despite the complex natural conditions the existing trends derived from results of meteorological measurements and observations are clear and they confirm warming of climate in this region. Observations and measurements in the recent years of the 21st century confirm, that heat waves are no longer rare phenomenon during summer, but are systematically appearing even in colder regions of northern Slovakia. What is very remarkable and will be necessary to pay more attention to, is the fact that these heat waves are expanding into previously unaffected areas, associated with the lack of rainfall and drought, on larger regional scale. In this study heat wave periods and individual heat events and days are statistically identified in the time series characteristics of air temperature at selected meteorological stations for the period from the mid-20th century until 2015, in case of available historical data even for longer period.

  4. Pulmonary function testing of animals chronically exposed to diluted diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, K B

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the potential effect that chronic inhalation of diesel exhaust may have on lung mechanics and lung volume. Noninvasive pulmonary function tests that produced data on lung air flows and volumes have been conducted repeatedly on 25 male Fischer-344 rats exposed to diesel exhaust at a particulate concentration of 1500 micrograms m-3, 20 h per day, 5 1/2 days per week, for 612 days. The same tests were conducted on 25 clean air control animals. When the data were normalized, the majority of tests did not reveal any significant deviation from the norm for the first year of exposure. In the second year, the functional residual capacity and its component volumes - expiratory reserve and residual volume, maximum expiratory flow at 40% of vital capacity, maximum expiratory flow at 20% of vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s - were significantly greater in the diesel exposed animals. The data are inconsistent with known clinically significant adverse health effects. Although the lung volume changes in the diesel exposed animals could be indicative of emphysema or other forms of chronic obstructive lung disease, this interpretation is contradicted by the air flow data which suggest simultaneous lowering of the resistance of the smaller airways. The observations are not consistent with documented clinical lung disease in man.

  5. Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Karun, Kalesh M; Nayak, Satheesha B; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2015-10-01

    The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats. Four weeks old male Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz; SAR-1.15 W/kg with peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2)) for 1 h/day, for 28 days. Followed by this, spatial cognition was evaluated by Morris water maze test. To evaluate the hippocampal morphology; H&E staining, cresyl violet staining, and Golgi-Cox staining were performed on hippocampal sections. CA3 pyramidal neuron morphology and surviving neuron count (in CA3 region) were studied using H&E and cresyl violet stained sections. Dendritic arborization pattern of CA3 pyramidal neuron was investigated by concentric circle method. Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats. Memory retention test performed 24 h after the last training revealed minor spatial memory deficit in RF-EMR exposed group. However, RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial. Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. RF-EMR exposure influenced dendritic arborization pattern of both apical and basal dendritic trees in RF-EMR exposed rats. Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition.

  6. The health status of grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation. Communication 2. Morphofunctional parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushkina, N.P.; Musatkova, O.B.

    1996-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigation of the parameters of physical development and specific features in the development of psychomotor habits and peripheral blood parameters in children aged 0 to 7 grandchildren of exposed individuals. A dynamic follow-up of physical and psychomotor development, as well as regular check-ups of peripheral blood were carried out in 877 grandchildren of test subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation before conception. Multifactorial analysis did not show a correlation between the deviations in the physical development of children in the studied cohort and exposure of their grandparents and/or parents. Factors other than radiation (poor health status of mother, gestosis) did influence the studied parameters. The mean levels of hemoglobin, red cells, platelets, and leukocytes in the test group were virtually the same as in controls and coincided with published data [ru

  7. Slovakia : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This update of the 1995 CPAR is based on the September 1999 PPA and the findings of the Bank CPAR mission to Slovakia in November 1999. The 1999 Public Procurement Act (PPA) is an improvement upon the previous PPAs in some respects, including the creation of an OPP, more detailed and clear procurement procedures, accreditation of procurement professionals, introduction of the Public Procu...

  8. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  9. Gender Wealth Gap in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Trommlerová (Sofia Karina)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractNo data on wealth has been available in Slovakia prior to Household Finance and Consumption Survey. Therefore, only studies on labor market participation and wage gender gaps are available to date. These studies indicate that Slovak women earn on average 25% less than men.

  10. Consideration of epigenetic responses at organisms chronically exposed to low levels of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombeau, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This work integrates within the general framework of the European program COMET (7. Framework Programme EURATOM) and aims to assess the epigenetic responses, and particularly DNA methylation, during chronic exposure to low levels of radioactive materials within two particularly representative contexts of radioecological issues (i.e. uranium mining area and Fukushima post-accidental context). During a first experiment, zebra fish (Danio rerio) were exposed in laboratory controlled conditions to environmentally relevant concentrations of depleted uranium: 2 and 20 μg L"-"1. This experiment allowed an impact on the genomic DNA methylation to be demonstrated, mainly in exposed males, which increased with the duration and level of exposure. In a second experiment, we observed an impact on DNA methylation patterns in the progeny of exposed parents, as well as a perturbation of transcriptomics (i.e. epigenetic processes, DNA damage signaling and repair pathways, embryogenesis) and histological damage in larvae skeletal muscle from exposed parents. The methods developed were applied to the second context focusing on the study of biological effects induced by radionuclides emitted following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The analyses performed on the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) revealed a positive correlation between the total dose of radiation absorbed by these frogs (correlated to "1"3"7Cs accumulation), hyper-methylation of genomic DNA as well as increasing damage to mitochondrial DNA. This work highlighted the sensitivity of epigenetic responses in different biological models exposed to low levels of radionuclides. Additionally, these epigenetic modifications are stable over the time and involved in the transfer of the parental toxicity of depleted uranium. As such, the epigenetic marks could be used to further characterize adaptation mechanisms and potential trans-generational effects induced by radionuclides. (author)

  11. Effect of nephrotoxic treatment with gentamicin on rats chronically exposed to uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouas, Caroline; Stefani, Johanna; Grison, Stéphane; Grandcolas, Line; Baudelin, Cédric; Dublineau, Isabelle; Pallardy, Marc; Gueguen, Yann

    2011-01-11

    Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal with a predominantly chemical toxicity, affecting especially the kidneys and more particularly the proximal tubular structure. Until now, few experimental studies have examined the effect of chronic low-dose exposure to uranium on kidney integrity: these mainly analyse standard markers such as creatinine and urea, and none has studied the effect of additional co-exposure to a nephrotoxic agent on rats chronically exposed to uranium. The aim of the present study is to examine the potential cumulative effect of treating uranium-exposed rats with a nephrotoxic drug. Neither physiological indicators (diuresis and creatinine clearance) nor standard plasma and urine markers (creatinine, urea and total protein) levels were deteriorated when uranium exposure was combined with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. A histological study confirmed the preferential impact of gentamicin on the tubular structure and showed that uranium did not aggravate the histopathological renal lesions. Finally, the use of novel markers of kidney toxicity, such as KIM-1, osteopontin and kallikrein, provides new knowledge about the nephrotoxicity threshold of gentamicin, and allows us to conclude that under our experimental conditions, low dose uranium exposure did not induce signs of nephrotoxicity or enhance renal sensitivity to another nephrotoxicant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of nephrotoxic treatment with gentamicin on rats chronically exposed to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouas, Caroline; Stefani, Johanna; Grison, Stephane; Grandcolas, Line; Baudelin, Cedric; Dublineau, Isabelle; Pallardy, Marc; Gueguen, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal with a predominantly chemical toxicity, affecting especially the kidneys and more particularly the proximal tubular structure. Until now, few experimental studies have examined the effect of chronic low-dose exposure to uranium on kidney integrity: these mainly analyse standard markers such as creatinine and urea, and none has studied the effect of additional co-exposure to a nephrotoxic agent on rats chronically exposed to uranium. The aim of the present study is to examine the potential cumulative effect of treating uranium-exposed rats with a nephrotoxic drug. Neither physiological indicators (diuresis and creatinine clearance) nor standard plasma and urine markers (creatinine, urea and total protein) levels were deteriorated when uranium exposure was combined with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. A histological study confirmed the preferential impact of gentamicin on the tubular structure and showed that uranium did not aggravate the histopathological renal lesions. Finally, the use of novel markers of kidney toxicity, such as KIM-1, osteopontin and kallikrein, provides new knowledge about the nephrotoxicity threshold of gentamicin, and allows us to conclude that under our experimental conditions, low dose uranium exposure did not induce signs of nephrotoxicity or enhance renal sensitivity to another nephrotoxicant.

  13. Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Zavala, A.; Del Razo, L.M.; Garcia-Vargas, G.G.; Aguilar, C.; Borja, V.H.; Albores, A.; Cebrian, M.E. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Farmacologia y Toxicologica

    1999-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 {mu}g As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 20 refs.

  14. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, Steve, E-mail: steve.wiseman@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Pietrock, Michael [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5CB (Canada); Janz, David M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    , abundances of transcripts of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (p450scc) and cytochrome P450 11B1 (cyp11b1) were not significantly different between controls and Se-Met exposed trout. Exposure to Se-Met affected accumulation and tissue partitioning of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle as concentrations of these energy reserves were greater in muscle, but not liver. Concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in muscle, but not in liver, were lesser following the handling stressor suggesting that the muscle energy reserves are an important source of energy required for recovery from the handling stressor. The results of the study demonstrate that chronic exposure to dietary Se-Met elicits a stress response, but prevents a cortisol response to a secondary handling stressor, most likely due to cortisol inactivation. Moreover, exposure to Se-Met has effects on concentrations of energy reserves that are important for providing the energy necessary to cope with a secondary stressor.

  15. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, Steve; Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C.; Pietrock, Michael; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus; Janz, David M.

    2011-01-01

    , abundances of transcripts of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (p450scc) and cytochrome P450 11B1 (cyp11b1) were not significantly different between controls and Se-Met exposed trout. Exposure to Se-Met affected accumulation and tissue partitioning of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle as concentrations of these energy reserves were greater in muscle, but not liver. Concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in muscle, but not in liver, were lesser following the handling stressor suggesting that the muscle energy reserves are an important source of energy required for recovery from the handling stressor. The results of the study demonstrate that chronic exposure to dietary Se-Met elicits a stress response, but prevents a cortisol response to a secondary handling stressor, most likely due to cortisol inactivation. Moreover, exposure to Se-Met has effects on concentrations of energy reserves that are important for providing the energy necessary to cope with a secondary stressor.

  16. Impaired Latent Inhibition in GDNF-Deficient Mice Exposed to Chronic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Buhusi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased reactivity to stress is maladaptive and linked to abnormal behaviors and psychopathology. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS alters catecholaminergic neurotransmission and remodels neuronal circuits involved in learning, attention and decision making. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF is essential for the physiology and survival of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. Up-regulation of GDNF expression during stress is linked to resilience; on the other hand, the inability to up-regulate GDNF in response to stress, as a result of either genetic or epigenetic modifications, induces behavioral alterations. For example, GDNF-deficient mice exposed to chronic stress exhibit alterations of executive function, such as increased temporal discounting. Here we investigated the effects of CUS on latent inhibition (LI, a measure of selective attention and learning, in GDNF-heterozygous (HET mice and their wild-type (WT littermate controls. No differences in LI were found between GDNF HET and WT mice under baseline experimental conditions. However, following CUS, GDNF-deficient mice failed to express LI. Moreover, stressed GDNF-HET mice, but not their WT controls, showed decreased neuronal activation (number of c-Fos positive neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell and increased activation in the nucleus accumbens core, both key regions in the expression of LI. Our results add LI to the list of behaviors affected by chronic stress and support a role for GDNF deficits in stress-induced pathological behaviors relevant to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders.

  17. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar, E-mail: edgar_olivascalderon@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Recio-Vega, Rogelio, E-mail: rrecio@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gandolfi, A. Jay, E-mail: gandolfi@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lantz, R. Clark, E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); González-Cortes, Tania, E-mail: taniagc2201@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar, E-mail: cesargonzalezalba@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Froines, John R., E-mail: jfroines@ucla.edu [Center for Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A., E-mail: dr.jorge.espinosa@gmail.com [School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  18. Endothelial dysfunction in rectal cancer patients chronically exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Pak, Laura; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Tokanova, Sholpan; Madiyeva, Madina [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Inoue, Ken [Kochi University, Health Service Center, Kochi (Japan); Kawano, Noriyuki; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Takeichi, Nobuo [Takeichi Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Noso, Yoshihiro [Shimane University, Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane (Japan); Khozhayev, Arman; Molgazhdarov, Maulen [The Kazakh National Medical University of S.D.Asfendiyarov, Department of Oncology, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Olzhaev, Sayakhat [Almaty Regional Oncologic Hospital, Department of Oncology, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-08-15

    We sought to identify the features of endothelial function in rectal cancer patients who were exposed to chronic ionizing radiation from a nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. We examined 146 individuals, 76 of whom were rectal cancer patients. The existence of a complex of disturbances of the endothelium and hemostasis systems in patients vs non-patients was revealed. Endothelial dysfunction was expressed as an increase of nitric oxide (NO) production along with decreases in vasodilatation function, and increased levels of von Willebrand factor in blood, along with an increase in the number of circulating endotheliocytes. Significant correlations between indicators of endothelial function and vascular-platelet hemostasis were observed. These changes and their interrelations were expressed more strongly in the patients who lived in the contaminated area around the nuclear test site. Such patients could have an increased risk of thrombosis and other complications after the treatment of a malignant neoplasm. (orig.)

  19. Proximal renal tubular injury in rats sub-chronically exposed to low fluoride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cárdenas-González, Mariana C.; Del Razo, Luz M. [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan [Unidad de Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México, D. F., México (Mexico); Jacobo-Estrada, Tania [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); López-Bayghen, Esther [Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); and others

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride is usually found in groundwater at a very wide range of concentration between 0.5 and 25 ppm. At present, few studies have assessed the renal effects of fluoride at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, most of these studies have used insensitive and nonspecific biomarkers of kidney injury. The aim of this study was to use early and sensitive biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury after fluoride exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Recently weaned male Wistar rats were exposed to low (15 ppm) and high (50 ppm) fluoride concentrations in drinking water for a period of 40 days. At the end of the exposure period, kidney injury biomarkers were measured in urine and renal mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Our results showed that the urinary kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin (Clu), osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock protein 72 excretion rate significantly increased in the group exposed to the high fluoride concentration. Accordingly, fluoride exposure increased renal Kim-1, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in urinary β-2-microglobulin and cystatin-C excretion rate. Additionally, a tendency towards a dose dependent increase of tubular damage in the histopathological light microscopy findings confirmed the preferential impact of fluoride on the tubular structure. All of these changes occurred at early stages in which, the renal function was not altered. In conclusion using early and sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury, we were able to found proximal tubular alterations in rats sub-chronically exposed to fluoride. - Highlights: • Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride induced proximal tubular injury • Increase in urinary Kim-1, Clu, OPN and Hsp72 in 50 ppm fluoride-exposed group • Increase in urinary B2M and CysC in 15 and 50 ppm fluoride-exposed groups • Fluoride exposure increased renal Kim, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels.

  20. Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions

  1. Lung radiology and pulmonary function of children chronically exposed to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A; Chung, Charles J; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Flores-Gómez, Silvia; Solt, Anna C; Gomez-del Campo, Alberto; Jardón-Torres, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J; Reed, William

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters chronic pulmonary disease later in life.

  2. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan; Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68–45.71 mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00–1.06 mg-year), medium (1.37–3.55 mg-year), and high (4.26–48.13 mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Three regions are selected as the areas affected by endemic arsenicosis of China. ► We first examine changes in serum TRX1 among individuals exposed to arsenic. ► A positive correlation was seen between serum TRX1 and total water arsenic intake. ► The same relationship

  3. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Wei, Yudan [Department of Community Medicine, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon 31207, GA (United States); Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Sun, Dianjun, E-mail: hrbmusdj@163.com [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China)

    2012-02-15

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68–45.71 mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00–1.06 mg-year), medium (1.37–3.55 mg-year), and high (4.26–48.13 mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Three regions are selected as the areas affected by endemic arsenicosis of China. ► We first examine changes in serum TRX1 among individuals exposed to arsenic. ► A positive correlation was seen between serum TRX1 and total water arsenic intake. ► The same relationship

  4. Neuroinflammation and Behavior in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Exposed to Chronic Adolescent Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Sydney A; Harrell, Constance S; Bekhbat, Mandakh; Gangavelli, Apoorva; Wu, Matthew J; Kelly, Sean D; Reddy, Renuka; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved prognosis for people living with HIV (PLWH) and dramatically reduced the incidence of AIDS. However, even when viral load is controlled, PLWH develop psychiatric and neurological disorders more frequently than those living without HIV. Adolescents with HIV are particularly susceptible to the development of psychiatric illnesses and neurocognitive impairments. While both psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders have been found to be exacerbated by stress, the extent to which chronic stress and HIV-1 viral proteins interact to impact behavior and relevant neuroinflammatory processes is unknown. Determination of the individual contributions of stress and HIV to neuropsychiatric disorders is heavily confounded in humans. In order to isolate the influence of HIV-1 proteins and chronic stress on behavior and neuroinflammation, we employed the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat model, which expresses HIV-1 proteins with a gag and pol deletion, allowing for viral protein expression without viral replication. This Tg line has been characterized as a model of HAART-controlled HIV-1 infection due to the lack of viral replication but continued presence of HIV-1 proteins. We exposed male and female adolescent HIV-1 Tg rats to a mixed-modality chronic stress paradigm consisting of isolation, social defeat and restraint, and assessed behavior, cerebral vascularization, and neuroinflammatory endpoints. Stress, sex, and presence of the HIV-1 transgene impacted weight gain in adolescent rats. Female HIV-1 Tg rats showed decreases in central tendency during the light cycle in the open field regardless of stress exposure. Both male and female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited decreased investigative behavior in the novel object recognition task, but no memory impairments. Adolescent stress had no effect on the tested behaviors. Microglia in female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited a hyper-ramified structure, and gene expression of complement factor B was

  5. Ultrastructural nasal pathology in children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Valencia-Salazar, G; Rodríguez-Alcaraz, A; Gambling, T M; García, R; Osnaya, N; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Carson, J L

    2001-02-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are repeatedly exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Nasal biopsies taken from these children exhibit a wide range of histopathologic alterations: marked changes in ciliated and goblet cell populations, basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, and mild dysplasias. We studied the ultrastructural features of 15 nasal biopsies obtained from clinically healthy children 4 to 15 yr of age, growing up in SWMMC. The results were compared with nasal biopsies from 11 children growing up in Veracruz and exposed to low pollutant levels. Ultrathin sections of nasal biopsies revealed an unremarkable mucociliary epithelium in control children, whereas SWMMC children showed an epithelium comprised of variable numbers of basal, ciliated, goblet, and squamous metaplastic as well as intermediate cells. Nascent ciliated cells, as evidenced by the presence of migratory kinetosomes, were common, as were ciliary abnormalities, including absent central microtubules, supernumerary central and peripheral tubules, ciliary microtubular discontinuities, and compound cilia. Dyskinesia associated with these abnormal cilia was suggested by the altered orientation of the central microtubules in closely adjacent cilia. A transudate was evident between epithelial cells, suggesting potential deficiencies in epithelial junction integrity. Particulate matter was present in heterolysosomal bodies in epithelial cells and it was also deposited in intercellular spaces. The severe structural alteration of the nasal epithelium together with the prominent acquired ciliary defects are likely the result of chronic airway injury in which ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes are thought to play a crucial role. The nasal epithelium in SWMMC children is fundamentally disordered, and their mucociliary defense mechanisms are no longer intact. A compromised nasal epithelium has less ability to

  6. Intersex occurrence in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss male fry chronically exposed to ethynylestradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Depiereux

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization--dpf to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2 were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms. Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes.

  7. Chronic impairments in spatial learning and memory in rats previously exposed to chlorpyrfos or diisopropylfluorophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, A V; Beck, W D; Warner, S; Vandenhuerk, L; Callahan, P M

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) has been studied extensively; however, much less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures that are not associated with overt signs of toxicity (i.e., subthreshold exposures). The objective of this study was to determine if the protracted spatial learning impairments we have observed previously after repeated subthreshold exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or the alkylphosphate OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) persisted for longer periods after exposure. Male Wistar rats (beginning at two months of age) were initially injected subcutaneously with CPF (10.0 or 18.0mg/kg) or DFP (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg) every other day for 30 days. After an extended OP-free washout period (behavioral testing begun 50 days after the last OP exposure), rats previously exposed to CPF, but not DFP, were impaired in a radial arm maze (RAM) win-shift task as well as a delayed non-match to position procedure. Later experiments (i.e., beginning 140 days after the last OP exposure) revealed impairments in the acquisition of a water maze hidden platform task associated with both OPs. However, only rats previously exposed to DFP were impaired in a second phase of testing when the platform location was changed (indicative of deficits of cognitive flexibility). These results indicate, therefore, that repeated, subthreshold exposures to CPF and DFP may lead to chronic deficits in spatial learning and memory (i.e., long after cholinesterase inhibition has abated) and that insecticide and alkylphosphate-based OPs may have differential effects depending on the cognitive domain evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatic Proteome Sensitivity in Rainbow Trout after Chronically Exposed to a Human Pharmaceutical Verapamil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Sulc, Miroslav; Hulak, Martin; Randak, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Verapamil (VRP), a cardiovascular pharmaceutical widely distributed and persistent in the aquatic environment, has potential toxicity to fish and other aquatic organisms. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these toxic effects are not well known. In the present study, proteomic analysis has been performed to investigate the protein patterns that are differentially expressed in liver of rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of VRP (0.5, 27.0, and 270 μg/liter) for 42 days. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was employed to detect and identify the protein profiles. The analysis revealed that the expression of six hepatic acidic proteins were markedly altered in the treatment groups compared with the control group; three proteins especially were significantly down-regulated in fish exposed to VRP at environmental related concentration (0.5 μg/liter). These results suggested that the VRP induce mechanisms against oxidative stress (glucose-regulated protein 78 and 94 and protein disulfide-isomerase A3) and adaptive changes in ion transference regulation (calreticulin, hyperosmotic glycine-rich protein). Furthermore, for the first time, protein Canopy-1 was found to be significantly down-regulated in fish by chronic exposure to VRP at environmental related levels. Overall, our work supports that fish hepatic proteomics analysis serves as an in vivo model for monitoring the residual pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment and can provide valuable insight into the molecular events in VRP-induced toxicity in fish and other organisms. PMID:21997734

  9. Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Suk Chul [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Mi [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yu Mi [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwanghee [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cha Soon; Yang, Kwang Hee; Jin, Young-Woo [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Soon [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan 612-030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Sun, E-mail: hskimdvm@khnp.co.kr [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-09

    While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7 mGy/h) and low (3.95 mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4{sup +} T, CD8{sup +} T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1{alpha}, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-{gamma}. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose {gamma}-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

  10. Intersex Occurrence in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Male Fry Chronically Exposed to Ethynylestradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiereux, Sophie; Liagre, Mélanie; Danis, Lorraine; De Meulder, Bertrand; Depiereux, Eric; Segner, Helmut; Kestemont, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization – dpf) to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L) of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms). Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L) and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b) with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes. PMID:25033040

  11. Paroxetine ameliorates changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in chronic mild stress-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedr LH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobna H Khedr, Noha N Nassar, Ezzeldin S El-Denshary, Ahmed M Abdel-tawab 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression have not been fully outlined. Hence, the current study aimed at testing the link between behavioral changes in chronic mild stress (CMS model and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism and the role of paroxetine (PAROX in ameliorating these changes. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: vehicle control, CMS-exposed rats, and CMS-exposed rats receiving PAROX (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally. Sucrose preference, open-field, and forced swimming tests were carried out. Corticosterone (CORT was measured in serum, while adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites, cytosolic cytochrome-c (Cyt-c, caspase-3 (Casp-3, as well as nitric oxide metabolites (NOx were measured in hippocampal tissue homogenates. CMS-exposed rats showed a decrease in sucrose preference as well as body weight compared to control, which was reversed by PAROX. The latter further ameliorated the CMS-induced elevation of CORT in serum (91.71±1.77 ng/mL vs 124.5±4.44 ng/mL, P<0.001 as well as the changes in adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (3.76±0.02 nmol/mg protein vs 1.07±0.01 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001. Furthermore, PAROX reduced the expression of Cyt-c and Casp-3, as well as restoring NOx levels. This study highlights the role of PAROX in reversing depressive behavior associated with stress-induced apoptosis and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in the CMS model of depression. Keywords: rats, CMS, hippocampus, paroxetine, apoptosis, adenine nucleotides, cytochrome-c, caspase-3

  12. Changes in Serum Adiponectin in Mice Chronically Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuanbo; Li, Ying; Liu, Junqiu; Ji, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are prominent features of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. Adiponectin is a key adipokine that is largely involved in glucose and lipid metabolism processes. A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that arsenic exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus by affecting the level of adiponectin. In this study, we examined serum adiponectin levels, as well as serum levels of metabolic measures (including fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol) in C57BL/6 mice exposed to inorganic arsenic in drinking water (5 and 50 ppm NaAsO 2 ) for 18 weeks. Body mass and adiposity were monitored throughout the study. We found no significant changes in serum insulin and glucose levels in mice treated with arsenic for 18 weeks. However, arsenic exposure decreased serum levels of adiponectin, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol. Further, an inverse relationship was observed between urinary concentrations of total arsenic and serum levels of adiponectin. This study suggests that arsenic exposure could disturb the metabolism of lipids and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing the level of adiponectin.

  13. Morbidity rate of nervous system among medical personnel occupationally exposed to chronic low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkova, A.

    1987-01-01

    The morbidity rate of the nervous system among 1190 subjects, medical personnel, working with sources and environment of ionizing radiation was studied by the personal analysis of the diseases, written down in the personal out-patient department cards as well as of a control group of 870 medical workers of various other specialities. The morbidity rate of the nervous system among the medical personnel, exposed to chronic occupational radiation effect, was established not to be higher than that of the other medical workers - 38.0 and 40.3% respectively. Neuroses and peripheral nervous diseases have the greatest relative share in the structure of morbidity rate of the nervous system in both groups examined, with no statistical significance in the differences of the indices. The significantly higher incidence of autonome dystonias, established among the personnel from the X-ray departments and consulting rooms could be discussed in connection with the great relative share of the subjects from that group with a length of service over 15 years and had received the possible maximum cumulative equivalent doses. 3 tabs., 21 refs

  14. Excretion of 14C-labeled cyanide in rats exposed to chronic intake of potassium cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoh, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    The excretion of an acute dose of 14C-labeled cyanide in urine, feces, and expired air was studied in rats exposed to daily intake of unlabeled KCN in the diet for 6 weeks. Urinary excretion was the main route of elimination of cyanide carbon in these rats, accounting for 83% of the total excreted radioactivity in 12 hr and 89% of the total excreted radioactivity in 24 hr. The major excretion metabolite of cyanide in urine was thiocyanate, and this metabolite accounted for 71 and 79% of the total urinary activity in 12 hr and 24 hr, respectively. The mean total activity excreted in expired air after 12 hr was only 4%, and this value did not change after 24 hr. Of the total activity in expired air in 24 hr, 90% was present as carbon dioxide and 9% as cyanide. When these results were compared with those observed for control rats, it was clear that the mode of elimination of cyanide carbon in both urine and breath was not altered by the chronic intake of cyanide

  15. Bioavailability and chronic toxicity of bismuth citrate to earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to natural sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omouri, Zohra; Hawari, Jalal; Fournier, Michel; Robidoux, Pierre Yves

    2018-01-01

    The present study describes bioavailability and chronic effects of bismuth to earthworms Eisenia andrei using OECD reproduction test. Adult earthworms were exposed to natural sandy soil contaminated artificially by bismuth citrate. Average total concentrations of bismuth in soil recovered by HNO 3 digestion ranged from 75 to 289mg/kg. Results indicate that bismuth decreased significantly all reproduction parameters of Eisenia andrei at concentrations ≥ 116mg/kg. However, number of hatched cocoons and number of juveniles seem to be more sensitive than total number of cocoons, as determined by IC 50 ; i.e., 182, 123 and > 289mg/kg, respectively. Bismuth did not affect Eisenia andrei growth and survival, and had little effect on phagocytic efficiency of coelomocytes. The low immunotoxicity effect might be explained by the involvement of other mechanisms i.e. bismuth sequestered by metal-binding compounds. After 28 days of exposure bismuth concentrations in earthworms tissue increased with increasing bismuth concentrations in soil reaching a stationary state of 21.37mg/kg dry tissue for 243mg Bi/kg dry soil total content. Data indicate also that after 56 days of incubation the average fractions of bismuth available extracted by KNO 3 aqueous solution in soil without earthworms varied from 0.0051 to 0.0229mg/kg, while in soil with earthworms bismuth concentration ranged between 0.310-1.347mg/kg dry soil. We presume that mucus and chelating agents produced by earthworms and by soil or/and earthworm gut microorganisms could explain this enhancement, as well as the role of dermal and ingestion routes of earthworms uptake to soil contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Status of nuclear energy in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work author presents the status of nuclear energy in Slovakia. There are the electricity production; NPP operating results in 2007; ENEL-SE vision, mission and strategy, Continuous improvement programs as well as public acceptance of nuclear presented.

  17. VVER fuel cycle development at Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.; Chrapiak, V.; Majerik, J.

    1995-01-01

    Four VVER-440 units are now under exploitation at Bohunice-site in Slovakia. Fuel cycle development of Unit No.3 and No.4 (type 213) is discussed and compared with equilibrium cycles in this paper. (author)

  18. CD ROM 'Natural heritage of Slovakia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uradnikova, B.

    2005-01-01

    Centre of Environmental Education Geopark ('Centre') applied environmental education into school and out-of-school institutions. The 'Centre' is working in the fields: environmental education, eco-tourism development, presentation of the cultural landscape and world heritage. The CD ROM 'Natural heritage of Slovakia' was created with aim enhancement of environmental awareness, pedagogy, education and development of eco-tourism on the Slovakia. It abets general review about environment, its components, legislative, history and the present day of nature and landscape protection

  19. Lung function status of some Nigerian men and women chronically exposed to fish drying using burning firewood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E J; Esin, R A; Immananagha, K K; Siziya, S; Osim, E E

    1999-05-01

    To determine the lung function status of some Nigerian men and women chronically exposed to fish drying using burning firewood. Case control study. Ibaka, Utaewa and Ikanga fishing settlements. 183 males and 192 females engaged in fishing, aged 20 to 45 years who have been exposed for a minimum of five years as cases. The control group comprised sex matched male (142) and female (152) Nigerians from the same area who were not exposed to any known air pollutant. Lung function indices: FVC, FEV1, FEV1% and PEFR. Lung function indices were significantly lower in men engaged in fishing than in their controls: FVC [mean (SD): 2.98 (0.20) vs 3.52 (0.29), p firewood can impair lung function and cause respiratory and other symptoms.

  20. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...... being chronically enlarged and of a firm consistency. Where co-endemic, the two parasites are thought to synergistically exacerbate hepatosplenomegaly. Here, two potential health consequences, i.e. dilation of the portal vein (indicative of increased portal pressure) and stunting of growth, were...... with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences....

  1. The survey of dwellings with increased radon levels in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This national survey of indoor radon measurements in a sample of dwellings in Slovakia was organised by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in Bratislava. The aim was to find districts and type of dwellings with the highest indoor radon concentrations and to estimate the radiation load of the Slovak population owing the indoor radon exposure. Passive solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure indoor radon concentrations. The detectors were polyallyldiglycolcarbonate CR-39 which were placed in about 6,000 selected houses (minimum two detectors for every residence). After six months exposed detectors and questionnaires were returned to for analysis. Electrochemical etching combined with a chemical pre-etching process was used for evaluating detectors. Present results are from 3,657 residents (0.2% of total dwellings in Slovakia). It was found that the arithmetic mean of equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) was 86 ± 119 Bq m -3 , the geometric mean was about 41 ± 2.22 Bq m -3 and 11% of dwellings (N = 409) have a greater EEC of radon than the action level (200 Bq m -3 ). The national survey results suggest that Slovakia may be among the countries with high radon risk in Central Europe. The population-weighted arithmetic mean is 48 Bq m -3 , the maximum value found was 1500 Bq m -3 and the average annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv. The district with the highest indoor radon concentrations correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil, therefore the soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings. This survey of dwellings with increased radon levels supported this conclusion, because the highest radon levels were found in older family houses without cellars. (author)

  2. Blood Pressure of Jordanian Workers Chronically Exposed to Noise in Industrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saed Nserat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational studies investigating the association between blood pressure and noise exposure are almost lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region countries. Objective: To determine the association between occupational exposure to high level of noise and blood pressure among a group of workers in Jordan. Methods: All workers who had been exposing to noise for at least 3 years in 3 plants in Madaba governorate in Jordan were included in this cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The occupational noise level was measured with a portable calibrated sound meter. Results: We studied 191 male workers, of whom 145 (75.9% were exposed to a noise level higher than the permissible limit of 85 dBA. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the prevalence of hypertension were significantly higher among those exposed to higher noise level. In multivariate analysis, workers exposed to high level of noise had a significantly higher odds of hypertension compared to those exposed to noise level lower than the permissible limit (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 13.8. The odds of hypertension increased by 17% (95% CI 10% to 30% for each dB increase in noise intensity. Conclusion: Exposure to high level of noise is associated with elevated blood pressure.

  3. A study of immunological reactions in dogs exposed to prolonged chronic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, I. V.; Grigoryev, Y. G.; Markelov, B. A.; Skryabin, A. S.; Zemskov, V. M.; Vasilyev, I. S.; Veysfeyler, Y. K.; Iokai, I.

    1974-01-01

    Immunomorphological studies on dog tissues exposed to long term gamma irradiation show that the number of cells containing antibodies increased and that the blast transformation reaction was activated. Prolonged radiation did not cause a reliable change in the synthesis of nucleic acids in spleen cells.

  4. Evaluation of chromosomal aberrations in radiologists and medical radiographers chronically exposed to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuba, V.; Rozgaj, R.; Jazbec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are fairly reliable indicators of damage induced by ionising radiation. This study included 180 radiologists and medical radiographers (technicians) and 90 controls who were not occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. All exposed subjects were routinely monitored with film badge, and none was exposed to a radiation dose exceeding the limit for occupational exposure recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Two hundred metaphases for each person were scored. The frequencies of acentric fragments, dicentrics, ring chromosomes and chromosomal exchanges were determined and compared to those obtained in the control group. Chromosome aberrations were analysed using Poisson regression for profession, age, sex, smoking and years of exposure. Age, smoking, diagnostic exposure to X-rays and occupation were found to correlate with the occurrence of acentric fragments. The influence of exposure duration on the frequency of acentric fragments was greater in medical radiographers than in radiologists. Smoking and sex were found to correlate with the occurrence of dicentric chromosomes, which were more common in men than in women. As chromosome aberrations exceeded the expected level with respect to the absorbed dose, our findings confirm the importance of chromosome analysis as a part of regular medical check-up of subjects occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.(author)

  5. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping; Sun Xiance; Sun Guifan

    2008-01-01

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress

  6. Early Intervention for Families Exposed to Chronic Stress and Trauma: The Attachment Vitamins Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulette, Annmarie C.; Dunham, Mackenzie; Davis, Mindy; Gortney, Jason; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the Attachment Vitamins program, a trauma-informed parent group intervention for families with young children. Attachment Vitamins is a relational psychoeducational intervention based on the principles of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP). Its goal is to repair the impact of chronic stress and trauma through strengthening the…

  7. Chronic and acute risk assessment of human exposed to novaluron-bifenthrin mixture in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kaiwei; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Yuan, Longfei; Liu, Fengmao

    2016-09-01

    Based on the dissipation and residual level in cabbage determined by gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD), chronic and acute risk assessments of the novaluron and bifenthrin were investigated. At different spiked levels, mean recoveries were between 81 and 108 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 1.1 to 6.8 %. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg kg(-1), and good linearity with correlation coefficient (>0.9997) were obtained. The half-lives of novaluron and bifenthrin in cabbage were in the range of 3.2~10 days. Based on the consumption data in China, the risk quotients (RQs) of novaluron and bifenthrin were all below 100 %. The chronic and acute risk of novaluron in cabbage was relatively low, while bifenthrin exerts higher acute risk to humans than chronic risk. The obtained results indicated that the use of novaluron-bifenthrin mixture does not seem to pose any chronic or acute risk to humans even if cabbages are consumed at high application dosages and short preharvest interval (PHI).

  8. Decline of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in northern hardwood forests exposed to chronic nitrogen additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda T.A. van Diepen; Erik A. Lilleskov; Kurt S. Pregitzer; R. Michael Miller

    2007-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are important below-ground carbon (C) sinks that can be sensitive to increased nitrogen (N) availability. The abundance of AM fungi (AMF) was estimated in maple (Acer spp.) fine roots following more than a decade of experimental additions of N designed to simulate chronic atmospheric N deposition.

  9. Epidemiology of selected gynaecological malignancies in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Sadovsky, O.

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses selected trends of descriptive epidemiology of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancer in Slovakia point to time trends in their development, enabling a prediction of the development of the indicators in the years to come. Based on the results of analyses, it was discovered that the incidence of ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer in women in Slovakia is rising continually and significantly, while mortality in both diagnoses is declining. In respect of cervical cancer, a stabilised trend in incidence was registered, with an important, but very mild drop in mortality values. (author)

  10. Current status of biotechnology in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2013-07-01

    The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as: 'Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.' In other words biotechnology is 'application of scientific and technical advances in life science to develop commercial products' or briefly 'the use of molecular biology for useful purposes'. This short overview is about different branches of biotechnology carried out in Slovakia and it shows that Slovakia has a good potential for further development of modern biotechnologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  12. Conditioned flavor avoidance as a measure of withdrawal in rats chronically exposed to a caffeine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreumont-Boudreau, Sarah E; Dingle, Rachel N; Alcolado, Gillian M; Lolordo, Vincent M

    2008-09-03

    Rats were given 21 days of chronic oral caffeine. A novel flavor (Maintenance CS) was then paired with the continuation of caffeine, and a second flavor (Withdrawal CS) was paired with caffeine removal. Rats avoided the Withdrawal CS, and drank more of the Maintenance CS in a two-bottle test, suggesting that removing caffeine had induced withdrawal. The value of the Maintenance CS was investigated by comparing it to a novel flavor paired with water (Neutral CS). In a series of two-bottle tests, the Maintenance and Neutral CSs were equivalent when pitted against each other, and both were preferred to the Withdrawal CS. These results demonstrate that conditioned flavor avoidance is a useful procedure in assessing caffeine withdrawal, and by inference dependence, produced by chronic oral consumption.

  13. Cytogenetic investigations of persons exposed to professional chronic low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangelov, V.; Mitev, L.; Petrunov, P.; Vesselinova, L.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of long term influence of low-doses occupational irradiation is connected with the real assessment of their consequences. The current cytogenetic investigations were done on persons working under occupational chronic external partial irradiation. Accumulated doses of external irradiation are surveyed. Data give ground for suggestion about the relationship between accumulated dose and chromosomal aberrations. The additional damage factors (diagnostic investigations, chemical substances, tobacco addict) have done the more significant influence upon aberrations appearance increasing

  14. Respiratory tract pathology and cytokine imbalance in clinically healthy children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Devlin, R B; Miller, F J

    2000-11-01

    Chronic exposure of children to a complex mixture of air pollutants leads to recurrent episodes of upper and lower respiratory tract injury. An altered nasal mucociliary apparatus leaves the distal acinar airways more vulnerable to reactive gases and particulate matter (PM). The heterogeneity of structure in the human lung can impart significant variability in the distribution of ozone dose and particle deposition; this, in turn, influences the extent of epithelial injury and repair in chronically exposed children. Cytokines are low-molecular-weight proteins that act as intercellular mediators of inflammatory reactions, including lung injury of various etiologies. Cytokines are involved in generating inflammatory responses that contribute to injury at the lung epithelial and endothelial barriers. Mexico City is a 20-million-person megacity with severe air pollution problems. Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) atmosphere is characterized by a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, PM, and aldehydes. There is radiological evidence that significant lower respiratory tract damage is taking place in clinically healthy children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants while growing up in SWMMC. We hypothesize that there is an imbalanced and dysregulated cytokine network in SWMMC children with overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and cytokines involved in lung tissue repair and fibrosis. The nature of the sustained imbalance among the different cytokines ultimately determines the final lung histopathology, which would include subchronic inflammation, emphysema, and fibrosis. Cytokines likely would reach the systemic circulation and produce systemic effects. Individuals with an underlying respiratory or cardiovascular disease are less able to maintain equilibrium of the precarious cytokine networks.

  15. Reorganization of auditory map and pitch discrimination in adult rats chronically exposed to low-level ambient noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin eZheng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral adaption to a changing environment is critical for an animal’s survival. How well the brain can modify its functional properties based on experience essentially defines the limits of behavioral adaptation. In adult animals the extent to which experience shapes brain function has not been fully explored. Moreover, the perceptual consequences of experience-induced changes in the brains of adults remain unknown. Here we show that the tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex of adult rats living with low-level ambient noise underwent a dramatic reorganization. Behaviorally, chronic noise-exposure impaired fine, but not coarse pitch discrimination. When tested in a noisy environment, the noise-exposed rats performed as well as in a quiet environment whereas the control rats performed poorly. This suggests that noise-exposed animals had adapted to living in a noisy environment. Behavioral pattern analyses revealed that stress or distraction engendered by the noisy background could not account for the poor performance of the control rats in a noisy environment. A reorganized auditory map may therefore have served as the neural substrate for the consistent performance of the noise-exposed rats in a noisy environment.

  16. Growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine administered for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Cai, Haodong; Wang, Ying; Shen, Ying

    2015-04-01

    We studied the growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in their mothers. Maternal abnormalities during pregnancy and delivery and infant congenital anomalies, physical development status, developmental quotient (DQ), HBV vertical transmission status, and HBV vaccination outcomes of 54 infants were evaluated (2010-2013). No fetal abnormalities were observed during pregnancy or delivery. Postpartum, three infants (5.56%) had abnormalities: ankyloglossia, cutaneous hemangioma, and vaginal canal leak. Height and weight were within the normal range at birth and at 6 weeks, but were higher than the reference at 12 months (pchildren (68.52%), abnormal or suspicious for a developmental delay (15.19%, 41/270) in 17 children (31.48%), and indicated a developmental delay (4.07%, 11/270) in seven children (12.96%). There were no significant differences in developmental delay between children prenatally exposed to telbivudine and controls (p>0.05). HBV vertical transmission was successfully blocked in all infants. The effective HBV vaccination rate was 98.15% (53/54). The growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine was normal, indicating that telbivudine treatment during pregnancy is safe and effective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Transcriptomic responses in mouse brain exposed to chronic excess of the neurotransmitter glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Ranu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases during aging in extracellular levels of glutamate (Glu, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, may be linked to chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the molecular responses of neurons to chronic, moderate increases in Glu levels. Genome-wide gene expression in brain hippocampus was examined in a unique transgenic (Tg mouse model that exhibits moderate Glu hyperactivity throughout the lifespan, the neuronal Glutamate dehydrogenase (Glud1 mouse, and littermate 9 month-old wild type mice. Results Integrated bioinformatic analyses on transcriptomic data were used to identify bio-functions, pathways and gene networks underlying neuronal responses to increased Glu synaptic release. Bio-functions and pathways up-regulated in Tg mice were those associated with oxidative stress, cell injury, inflammation, nervous system development, neuronal growth, and synaptic transmission. Increased gene expression in these functions and pathways indicated apparent compensatory responses offering protection against stress, promoting growth of neuronal processes (neurites and re-establishment of synapses. The transcription of a key gene in the neurite growth network, the kinase Ptk2b, was significantly up-regulated in Tg mice as was the activated (phosphorylated form of the protein. In addition to genes related to neurite growth and synaptic development, those associated with neuronal vesicle trafficking in the Huntington's disease signalling pathway, were also up-regulated. Conclusions This is the first study attempting to define neuronal gene expression patterns in response to chronic, endogenous Glu hyperactivity at brain synapses. The patterns observed were characterized by a combination of responses to stress and stimulation of nerve growth, intracellular transport and recovery.

  18. Neoplastic and life-span effects of chronic exposure to tritium. II. Rats exposed in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, D.F.; Wright, J.F.; Godbold, J.H.; Ward, J.M.; Laskey, J.W.; Tompkins, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on neoplasia incidence and life-span of exposure in utero to a major environmental radionuclide. Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) from conception through birth in doses of 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 μCi HTO/ml body water. HTO administration was terminated at birth. Calculated cumulative doses during gestation were approximately 0, 6.6, 66, 330, and 660 rads of total body irradiation. Under these exposure conditions, the two highest doses resulted in sterile offspring. Animals surviving through 30 days postnatally were defined as the study population and observed until their deaths. Intrauterine exposures to doses up to 66 rads had no significant effects on either sex with respect to lifespan, overall neoplasia incidence, incidence rate, or onset of mammary fibroadenomas. Females exposed to 330 or 660 rads were sterile and had lower incidence rates of mammary fibroadenomas than did controls; at 660 rads females had a lower incidence of overall neoplasia and reduced mean lifespans. Sterile male offspring had reduced mean longevity after irradiation at 660 rads. Regardless of dose group, females had significantly higher incidences of neoplasia and longer life-spans than males

  19. Experience with the ASSET service in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    1996-01-01

    The experience with the ASSET service in Slovakia is described, including the following: ASSET follow-up mission to Bohunice Unit 1-2 NPP; IAEA peer review of the national Incident Reporting System in the Slovak Republic; ASSET seminar on prevention of incidents, Bratislava, January 8-12, 1996

  20. Experience with the ASSET service in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misak, J [Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    The experience with the ASSET service in Slovakia is described, including the following: ASSET follow-up mission to Bohunice Unit 1-2 NPP; IAEA peer review of the national Incident Reporting System in the Slovak Republic; ASSET seminar on prevention of incidents, Bratislava, January 8-12, 1996.

  1. African Journals Online: Slovakia (Slovak Republic)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Self-Pay, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain ...

  2. Acute heroin intoxication in a baby chronically exposed to cocaine and heroin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichini Simona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute intoxication with drugs of abuse in children is often only the tip of the iceberg, actually hiding chronic exposure. Analysis using non-conventional matrices such as hair can provide long-term information about exposure to recreational drugs. Case presentation We report the case of a one-month-old Caucasian boy admitted to our pediatric emergency unit with respiratory distress and neurological abnormalities. A routine urine test was positive for opiates, suggesting an acute opiate ingestion. No other drugs of misuse, such as cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines or derivatives, were detected in the baby's urine. Subsequently, hair samples from the baby and the parents were collected to evaluate the possibility of chronic exposure to drug misuse by segmental analysis. Opiates and cocaine metabolites were detected in hair samples from the baby boy and his parents. Conclusions In light of these and previous results, we recommend hair analysis in babies and children from risky environments to detect exposure to heroin and other drug misuse, which could provide the basis for specific social and health interventions.

  3. The energy future of Central Europe; Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this part of the book author deals with the energy future of Central Europe. The energy strategy, structure of energy supplies in Austria, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Bavaria, as well as restructuralization of the energy sources are analysed. From the ecological perspective, the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (GNP) represents a very clear example, since the Project could play a very important role as a part of the strategy to reject nuclear energy , the same strategy that was clearly declared by the Austrian government, as well as for a transportation strategy based more on railroads and navigation. The GNP could serve as an impulse promoting further and more close Central European cooperation in renewable energy sources. It could assist in harmonization of the interest in the sphere of transportation policies of Switzerland, Bavaria, Austria, Slovakia, and Hungary. Such a community oriented towards common interests would definitely be of enormous importance for the development of transportation in Central Europe. Geothermal potential of Slovakia and other Central European states are presented. Surveys conducted in Slovakia show that it is possible to reduce pollution in specific areas by substituting fossil energy sources with geothermal heating a total reduction of pollution by 39,000 tons annually, out of which 159 tons represent the annual reduction of sulfur dioxide pollution. The reduction per GWh of geothermal heat in the particular cities was calculated to be about 527 tons of carbon dioxide and 2.1 ton of sulfur dioxide. Other opportunities for renewable energy in Slovakia, as well as potential of energy savings are estimated

  4. Microvascular pressure responses of second-generation rats chronically exposed to 2 g centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D. R.; Knapp, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a study aimed at a quantitative comparison of microvascular dynamics in second-generation rats reared in a 2-g force field produced by centrifugation with similar data from animals reared in a centrifuge that produced only a 1-g force. It is shown that the pressure distribution in the mesenteric microvasculature of the second generation of rats reared in a 2-g environment, as well as the animals' blood pressure response to epinephrine, are significantly different compared to their 1-g counterparts. In particular, 1-g and 2-g chronic centrifugation enhances the arterial blood pressure, and the 2-g force field attenuates the pressor effects of norepinephrine.

  5. Adaptogenic potential of royal jelly in liver of rats exposed to chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Carvalho Caixeta

    Full Text Available Restraint and cold stress increase both corticosterone and glycemia, which lead to oxidative damages in hepatic tissue. This study assessed the effect of royal jelly (RJ supplementation on the corticosterone level, glycemia, plasma enzymes and hepatic antioxidant system in restraint and cold stressed rats. Wistar rats were allocated into no-stress, stress, no-stress supplemented with RJ and stress supplemented with RJ groups. Initially, RJ (200mg/Kg was administered for fourteen days and stressed groups were submitted to chronic stress from the seventh day. The results showed that RJ supplementation decreases corticosterone levels and improves glycemia control after stress induction. RJ supplementation also decreased the body weight, AST, ALP and GGT. Moreover, RJ improved total antioxidant capacity, SOD activity and reduced GSH, GR and lipoperoxidation in the liver. Thus, RJ supplementation reestablished the corticosterone levels and the hepatic antioxidant system in stressed rats, indicating an adaptogenic and hepatoprotective potential of RJ.

  6. Alterations of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the brain of rats chronically exposed to lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Larrubia, Pilar; Cauli, Omar

    2011-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) allows the assessment of the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), a measure of tissue water diffusivity which is altered during different pathological conditions such as cerebral oedema. By means of DWI, we repeatedly measured in the same rats apparent diffusion coefficient ADC in different brain areas (motor cortex (MCx), somato-sensory cortex (SCx), caudate-putamen (CPu), hippocampus (Hip), mesencephalic reticular formation (RF), corpus callosum (CC) and cerebellum (Cb)) after 1 week, 4 and 12 weeks of lead acetate exposure via drinking water (50 or 500 ppm). After 12 weeks of lead exposure rats received albumin-Evans blue complex administration and were sacrificed 1h later. Blood-brain barrier permeability and water tissue content were determined in order to evaluate their relationship with ADC changes. Chronic exposure to lead acetate (500 ppm) for 4 weeks increased ADC values in Hip, RF and Cb but no in other brain areas. After 12 weeks of lead acetate exposure at 500 ppm ADC is significantly increased also in CPu and CC. Brain areas displaying high ADC values after lead exposure showed also an increased water content and increased BBB permeability to Evans blue-albumin complex. Exposure to 50 ppm for 12 weeks increased ADC values and BBB permeability in the RF and Cb. In summary, chronic lead exposure induces cerebral oedema in the adult brain depending on the brain area and the dose of exposure. RF and Cb appeared the most sensitive brain areas whereas cerebral cortex appears resistant to lead-induced cerebral oedema. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative dose-response of growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to chronic gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, K.; Thompson, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    The response of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Cruciferae) to a gradient of chronic gamma-radiation was examined under field conditions. Plants that were initially introduced to the gamma field as dry seeds received exposures of 1.34 to 18 800R/20 hour day from the time of seed germination. Regression analysis demonstrated a significant, but non-linear, response for three variables, number of seedlings emerging, number of plants flowering, and plant volume; the response of a fourth variable, number of leaves per plant, was not related to daily exposure. LD 50 values ranged from 66R/20 hour day for plant volume to 1231R/20 hour day for seedling emergence. Flowering and plant volume were the most sensitive indicators of radiation exposure. The demonstration of a variable threshold at low levels of exposure indicates that in nature A. thaliana may be exposed to environmental radiation throughout its life-cycle without significant modification of growth or development. (author)

  8. Lifespan studies on different strains of mice exposed chronically to low levels of whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, L.A.; Klein, A.K.; Cain, G.R.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    Several strains of mice, chosen for their predisposition to immunohematological disorders, were exposed to low levels of 60 irradiation continuously for four weeks. All individuals were subsequently followed throughout their lifetimes. W/W/sup v/ mice, which are tyically subject to a stem cell deficiency, had a lower cumulative survival rate for the irradiated group than for the unirradiated controls. Irradiated RF/sub j/ mice had a dramatically lower cumulative survival rate than their unirradiated controls. Conversely, BXSB mice, which have a lumphoproliferative autoimmune disorder, had a higher cumulative survival rate after chronic irradiation than did unirradiated BXSBs. Irradiation had no effect upon the survival rate curves of the NZB strain, the murine model for Lupus Erythematosus

  9. Genetic effects of radon 222 in a population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salceda, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    It was investigated the mutagenic effect of Radon 222 during a experimental period of 11 generations. In this lapse Drosophila melanogaster larvae line Canton-S were maintained in a radon atmosphere. In each test generation had been extracted males, consequently exposed to radiation which were subjected to a crossing series with a bearer marker genes of according to the Wallace experimental design (1956). Due to the experimental conditions it only was determined the recessive lethal mutations frequency for the second chromosome in the 1,4,7 and 11 generations. Of all study it was conduced in parallel way a non-treated witness population. The concentrations at which was subjected the experimental population varied of generation to generation from 12 ± 2 to 43 ± 5 kBq/m 3 . Our analysis correspond to lethality determination in 1182 second chromosomes distributed between two populations and the different exposition generations. The study allow to determine the respective frequencies of recessive lethal genes varying according to the population and/or generation between 10.53 and 22.02%. The statistical analysis of data did not show significant differences among the different populations. (Author)

  10. Deep-body temperature changes in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, J.; Platt, W. T.; Holland, V. B.

    1971-01-01

    Deep-body temperature was monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry in unrestrained rats before, during, and after exposure to prolonged and almost continuous centrifugation. Rats subjected to centrifugation for the first time at various G loads ranging up to 2.5 G show a rapid and significant fall in temperature which is sustained below normal levels for periods as long as 3 days. The magnitude of the temperature fall and the recovery time were generally proportional to the G load imposed. The initial fall and recovery of body temperature closely parallels the decrease in food consumption and to a lesser degree the decrease in body mass experienced by centrifuged rats. After exposure to 2 weeks of centrifugation, rats show either no change or only a small transient increase in temperature when decelerated to a lower G level or when returned to normal gravity. Rats repeatedly exposed to centrifugation consistently showed a smaller temperature response compared to the initial exposure. Implant temperature biotelemetry has been found to be a sensitive, reliable, and extremely useful technique for assessing the initial stress of centrifugation and in monitoring the time course of recovery and acclimation of rats to increase as well as*decrease G.

  11. Microbial activities in forest soils exposed to chronic depositions from a lignite power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, S.; Wernecke, K.D.; Makeschin, F. [Technical University of Dresden, Tharandt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of fly ash and SO{sub 2} from lignite-fired power plants strongly affect large forest areas in Germany. The impact of different deposition loads on the microbial biomass and enzyme activities was studied at three forest sites (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) along an emission gradient of 3, 6, and 15 km downwind of a coal-fired power plant, representing high, moderate and low emission rates. An additional site at a distance of 3 km from the power plant was chosen to study the influence of forest type on microbial parameters in coniferous forest soils under fly ash and SO{sub 2} emissions. Soil microbial biomass C and N, CO{sub 2} evolved and activities of L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase, beta-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase (expressed on dry soil and organic C basis) were determined in the forest floor (L, Of and Oh horizon) and mineral top soil (0-10 cm). It is concluded that chronic fly ash depositions decrease litter decomposition by influencing specific microbial and enzymatic processes in forest soils.

  12. Effect on the viability in populations of Drosophila Melanogaster chronically exposed to Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salceda, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    A four generations population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically subjected to the following radon concentrations were analyzed: 30 ± 7, 12 ± 2, 43 ± 5, 25 ± 7, 14 ± 2, 6 ± 2, 78 ± 1, 58 ± 5 and 74 ± 7 k B/m 3 with estimated doses of 1.209, 0.1, 2.088, 0.869, 0.156, 0.03, 3.18, 2.12 and 2.878 mGy by generation and their respective ones witness, in order to determine the effect of the radiation in the induction of detrimental genes, also measuring the effect of the viability with regard to the fecundity and the differential viability in categories of genes with smaller effects. So much the induction of detrimental genes like the distribution of the viability with regard to the fecundity for categories they did not show inductor effect due to the treatment with radon. Notwithstanding, the changes caused by the relating treatment to the fecundity they caused in three of the four comparisons possible significant results in the production of descendants, improving the adaptation of the populations, like it has been demonstrated by other authors

  13. Soil nutrient content of old-field and agricultural ecosystems exposed to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Holt, B.R.; Bottino, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Soil nutrients (extractable P. and NO 3 -N, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K), exchangeable Al, pH and organic matter content were measured over the top six inches of the soils of the seven-year old-field portion and the cultivated portion of the Brookhaven gamma field. Although concentrations of all nutrient elements were higher in the agricultural soil, the distributions of Ca, P, Al, pH and organic matter were similar along the radiation gradient in both fields. There was also a regular reduction in the phosphorus with decreasing exposure, but distribution of other elements was not clearly related to radiation effects. The distribution of all elements except K was significantly correlated with pH in the agricultural soil. In the old-field only Ca, Mg and Al showed this relationship. The most conspicuous effects of nearly 25 yr of chronic irradiation of the site were a reduction in soil organic matter content and an increase in soil P in both fields. (author)

  14. Performance of a neuro-fuzzy model in predicting weight changes of chronic schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, T H; Loh, E W; Wu, M S; Hu, T M; Chou, P; Lan, T Y; Chiu, H-J

    2008-12-01

    Artificial intelligence has become a possible solution to resolve the problem of loss of information when complexity of a disease increases. Obesity phenotypes are observable clinical features of drug-naive schizophrenic patients. In addition, atypical antipsychotic medications may cause these unwanted effects. Here we examined the performance of neuro-fuzzy modeling (NFM) in predicting weight changes in chronic schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics. Two hundred and twenty inpatients meeting DSMIV diagnosis of schizophrenia, treated with antipsychotics, either typical or atypical, for more than 2 years, were recruited. All subjects were assessed in the same study period between mid-November 2003 and mid-April 2004. The baseline and first visit's physical data including weight, height and circumference were used in this study. Clinical information (Clinical Global Impression and Life Style Survey) and genotype data of five single nucleotide polymorphisms were also included as predictors. The subjects were randomly assigned into the first group (105 subjects) and second group (115 subjects), and NFM was performed by using the FuzzyTECH 5.54 software package, with a network-type structure constructed in the rule block. A complete learned model trained from merged data of the first and second groups demonstrates that, at a prediction error of 5, 93% subjects with weight gain were identified. Our study suggests that NFM is a feasible prediction tool for obesity in schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics, with further improvements required.

  15. Neoplastic and life-span effects of chronic exposure to tritium. I. Effects on adult rats exposed during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, D.F.; Wright, J.F.; Godbold, J.H.; Ward, J.M.; Laskey, J.W.; Tompkins, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to equilibrium levels of tritiated water (HTO) during pregnancy. The tritium activities were 1, 10, 50, and 100 μCi HTO/ml body water which provided cumulative, whole-body radiation doses of approximately 6.6, 66, 330, and 660 rads. Administration of the radioisotope was terminated at parturition. Throughout their life-spans and at autopsy, the dams showed an increased incidence of mammary fibroadenomas at exposure to 330 and 660 rads. Although the data for the incidence of malignant mammary neoplasms were consistent with a linear dose response, the small numbers of tumors preclude specific definition of the dose-response curve. Postexposure life-spans for dams chronically exposed to 66, 330, and 660 rads during pregnancy were reduced by 14, 24, and 22 percent, respectively. Accelerated aging was also demonstrated in these rats: The mean age for mammary fibroadenoma onset decreased with an increasing dose of radiation. (U.S.)

  16. Diazepam administration prevents testosterone decrease and lipofuscin accumulation in testis of mouse exposed to chronic noise stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, R; Carpi, A; Giambelluca, M A; Grasso, L; Scavuzzo, M C; Giannessi F, F

    2006-10-01

    Lipofuscin is an autofluorescent and undegradable material, which accumulates in tissues during ageing and under different types of stress. Among these, oxidative stress represents a major trigger for lipofuscin formation. However, prolonged noise exposure is also an effective stressful stimuli. Diazepam may inhibit lipofuscinogenesis in liver and prevent the noise-induced reduction of the steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation in mouse testis, and to evaluate the effects of diazepam administration. Eight-week old mice were either exposed for 6 weeks (6 h day(-1)) to white-noise (group A), or received diazepam (3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) before noise exposures (group B), while a further group was used as control (group C). Light fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy revealed lipofuscin in large amounts in the Leydig cells in mice of group A, which concomitantly had low serum testosterone levels; pre-treatment with diazepam occluded both effects. The present study indicates that: (i) chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation at the level of the Leydig cells and a decrease in testosterone; (ii) all these effects are suppressed by pre-treatment with diazepam. As the Leydig cells represent the only cellular type of the interstitial testicular tissue having peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, these results could be explained by the capacity of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors to prevent reactive oxygen species damage and to increase the resistance of these cells to oxidative stress.

  17. The status of the nervous system of persons exposed to occupational chronic radiation (45 years of observation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizova, T.V.

    2000-01-01

    The retrospective study of a state of the nervous system in dynamics in 1090 workers of the first Russian atomic enterprise was carried out. The main unfavorable factor of occupational effect in the yearly years of work (1948-1954) was chronic external gamma-radiation in doses from 0.4 to 5.7 Gy per one year. During maximal radiation exposure a vegetative dystonia of a hypotensive type (51.8%), asthenic syndrome (35.2%) and syndrome of microorganic changes of the central nervous system (5.9%) were most frequently registered in workers. Frequency and the periods of the development of these syndromes depended on an annual exposure dose (p<0.001). Alongside with an occupational chronic exposure non-radiation factors (age at the moment of an exposure, initial state of health, intense nature of job regarding nervous loads) exerted the certain influence on the development of these neurologic syndromes. In the long-term period after an exposure the cerebrovascular diseases were most frequent. Their incidence was naturally related with the age of patients. However, it was determined that the initial clinical manifestations of a cerebral atherosclerosis in persons exposed to irradiation in doses more of 2.5 Gy/year were registered in younger age than in control group. The frequency of their development depended on an annual dose of a gamma-irradiation, age at the moment of an exposure, degree of manifestation and duration of preceding vegetative - vascular disorders. (author)

  18. Ventilatory and chemoreceptor responses to hypercapnia in neonatal rats chronically exposed to moderate hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavis, Ryan W; Li, Ke-Yong; DeAngelis, Kathryn J; March, Ryan J; Wallace, Josefine A; Logan, Sarah; Putnam, Robert W

    2017-03-01

    Rats reared in hyperoxia hypoventilate in normoxia and exhibit progressive blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory response, changes which are at least partially attributed to abnormal carotid body development. Since the carotid body also responds to changes in arterial CO 2 /pH, we tested the hypothesis that developmental hyperoxia would attenuate the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) of neonatal rats by blunting peripheral and/or central chemoreceptor responses to hypercapnic challenges. Rats were reared in 21% O 2 (Control) or 60% O 2 (Hyperoxia) until studied at 4, 6-7, or 13-14days of age. Hyperoxia rats had significantly reduced single-unit carotid chemoafferent responses to 15% CO 2 at all ages; CO 2 sensitivity recovered within 7days after return to room air. Hypercapnic responses of CO 2 -sensitive neurons of the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (cNTS) were unaffected by chronic hyperoxia, but there was evidence for a small decrease in neuronal excitability. There was also evidence for augmented excitatory synaptic input to cNTS neurons within brainstem slices. Steady-state ventilatory responses to 4% and 8% CO 2 were unaffected by developmental hyperoxia in all three age groups, but ventilation increased more slowly during the normocapnia-to-hypercapnia transition in 4-day-old Hyperoxia rats. We conclude that developmental hyperoxia impairs carotid body chemosensitivity to hypercapnia, and this may compromise protective ventilatory reflexes during dynamic respiratory challenges in newborn rats. Impaired carotid body function has less of an impact on the HCVR in older rats, potentially reflecting compensatory plasticity within the CNS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modifications of the sympathetic skin response in workers chronically exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Nora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of low-level lead intoxication are not known. The sympathetic skin response (SSR was evaluated in a group of 60 former workers of a primary lead smelter, located in Santo Amaro, BA, Brazil. The individuals participating in the study were submitted to a clinical-epidemiological evaluation including questions related to potential risk factors for intoxication, complaints related to peripheral nervous system (PNS involvement, neurological clinical examination, and also to electromyography and nerve conduction studies and SSR evaluation. The sample consisted of 57 men and 3 women aged 34 to 69 years (mean ± SD: 46.8 ± 6.9. The neurophysiologic evaluation showed the presence of lumbosacral radiculopathy in one of the individuals (1.7%, axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy in 2 (3.3%, and carpal tunnel syndrome in 6 (10%. SSR was abnormal or absent in 12 cases, representing 20% of the sample. More than half of the subjects (53.3% reported a history of acute abdominal pain requiring hospitalization during the period of work at the plant. A history of acute palsy of radial and peroneal nerves was reported by about 16.7 and 8.3% of the individuals, respectively. Mean SSR amplitude did not differ significantly between patients presenting or not the various characteristics in the current neurological situation, except for diaphoresis. The results suggest that chronic lead intoxication induces PNS damage, particularly affecting unmyelinated small fibers. Further systematic study is needed to more precisely define the role of lead in inducing PNS injury.

  20. Resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects to prevent memory deficits in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazir, Yusufhan; Utkan, Tijen; Gacar, Nejat; Aricioglu, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have recently focused on the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. In prior studies, we described its beneficial effects on scopolamine-induced learning deficits in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on emotional and spatial cognitive functions, neurotropic factor expression, and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which is known to induce cognitive deficits. Resveratrol (5 or 20mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 35 days. Rats in the CUMS group and in the 5mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group performed poorly in tasks designed to assess emotional and spatial learning and memory. The 20mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group showed improved performance compared to the CUMS group. In addition, the CUMS procedure induced lower expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and c-Fos in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and in the amygdala of stressed rats. These effects were reversed by chronic administration of resveratrol (20mg/kg). In addition, plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta were increased by CUMS, but were restored to normal by resveratrol. These results indicate that resveratrol significantly attenuates the deficits in emotional learning and spatial memory seen in chronically stressed rats. These effects may be related to resveratrol-mediated changes in neurotrophin factor expression in hippocampus and in levels of proinflammatory cytokines in circulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Greenhouse gas fluxes from salt marshes exposed to chronic nutrient enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Gail L.; Kellman, Lisa; van Ardenne, Lee; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of nutrient additions on greenhouse gas fluxes using dark static chambers in a microtidal and a macrotidal marsh along the coast of New Brunswick, Canada approximately monthly over a year. Both were experimentally fertilized for six years with varying levels of N and P. For unfertilized, N and NPK treatments, average yearly CO2 emissions (which represent only respiration) at the microtidal marsh (13, 19, and 28 mmoles CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively) were higher than at the macrotidal marsh (12, 15, and 19 mmoles m-2 hr-1, respectively, with a flux under the additional high N/low P treatment of 21 mmoles m-2 hr-1). Response of CH4 to fertilization was more variable. At the macrotidal marsh average yearly fluxes were 1.29, 1.26, and 0.77 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 with control, N, and NPK treatments, respectively and 1.21 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. At the microtidal marsh CH4fluxes were 0.23, 0.16, and -0.24 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 in control, N, and NPK and treatments, respectively. Fertilization changed soils from sinks to sources of N2O. Average yearly N2O fluxes at the macrotidal marsh were -0.07, 0.08, and 1.70, μmol N2O m-2 hr-1 in control, N, NPK and treatments, respectively and 0.35 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. For the control, N, and NPK treatments at the microtidal marsh N2O fluxes were -0.05, 0.30, and 0.52 μmol N2O m-2 hr-1, respectively. Our results indicate that N2O fluxes are likely to vary with the source of pollutant nutrients but emissions will be lower if N is not accompanied by an adequate supply of P (e.g., atmospheric deposition vs sewage or agricultural runoff). With chronic fertilization the global warming potential of the increased N2O emissions may be enough to offset the global cooling potential of the C sequestered by salt marshes.

  2. [Familial Mediterranean fever - first experiences in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Tomáš; Gálová, Lucia Lukáčiková; Macejková, Eva; Sedlačko, Jozef; Toplak, Nataša; Debeljak, Maruša; Sargsyan, Hasmik; Ilenčíková, Denisa; Kovács, László

    2014-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most prevalent genetically determined autoinflammatory disease. FMF significantly decreases the quality of life and limits life expectancy due to the development of amyloidosis in affected individuals. Prevalence of FMF is highest in the south-eastern Mediterraneans. In other parts of the world, its occurance is often restricted to high-risk ethnic groups. In Central Europe, experience with FMF is scarse to none, as in the case of Slovakia, where no cases have been reported, so far. Herein we report the first five patients (3 adults and 2 children, 4 native Slovaks) in whom the diagnosis of FMF could be confirmed in Slovakia. Our experience demonstrates that FMF does occur in low-risk populations in Central Europe. Due to low prevalence and lack of experience, FMF diagnosis may be significantly delayed (4.5-30 years) and undiagnosed cases are to be expected in our population.

  3. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxtova, L.

    2001-01-01

    In Slovakia, there are two regulatory authorities. Regulatory control of the utilization of nuclear energy, based on the Slovak National Council's law No. 130/1998 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, is exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. The second regulatory authority - the Ministry of Health - is empowered by law No. 72/1994 on the protection of human health to license radiation sources and is responsible for radiation protection supervision (there are nearly 3000 establishments with sealed sources, radiation generators and unsealed sources in Slovakia). Pursuant to a new radiation protection regulation based on international standards, radiation sources are to be categorized in six classes according to the associated exposure and contamination hazards. A national strategy for improving the safety of radiation sources over their life-cycle and for the management of disused and orphan sources is being prepared for governmental approval. (author)

  4. THE PERFORMANCE OF MUTUAL FUNDS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tudorache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A good indicator for the financial markets performance in different countries is the evolution of mutual funds in terms of their inflows and outflows. The goal of the present paper is to analyse the performance of the mutual funds in Slovakia. The research objectives are twofold: to study the flows of funds into and out of mutual funds from Slovakia during the period 2007-2014 and to analyse how investors in Slovakian mutual funds behave in terms of their investment choice. The analysis focuses on identifying patterns in investors' decision making process and on examining the similarity of their behavioural patterns with the ones identi¬fied at international level.

  5. Country policy profile - Slovakia. April 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Slovakia is 14%, whereas in 2012 it reached 10,6%. The Slovak Republic uses a feed-in tariff system in the promotion of renewable electricity. Energy companies are obliged to purchase and pay for electricity transmitted to the grid. Renewable energy utilization is furthermore incentivised in a form of exemption from excise tax. Currently the Slovak Republic conducts a professional training programme for RES-installers and there are RES-H building obligations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Slovakia and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  6. Country policy profile - Slovakia. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Slovakia is 14%, whereas in 2012 it reached 10,6%. The Slovak Republic uses a feed-in tariff system in the promotion of renewable electricity. Energy companies are obliged to purchase and pay for electricity transmitted to the grid. Renewable energy utilization is furthermore incentivised in a form of exemption from excise tax. Currently the Slovak Republic conducts a professional training programme for RES-installers and there are RES-H building obligations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Slovakia and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  7. Coral reefs chronically exposed to river sediment plumes in the southwestern Caribbean: Rosario Islands, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D; Park, Edward; Aquino, Samia; Latrubesse, Edgardo M

    2016-05-15

    Politicians do not acknowledge the devastating impacts riverine sediments can have on healthy coral reef ecosystems during environmental debates in Caribbean countries. Therefore, regional and/or local decision makers do not implement the necessary measures to reduce fluvial sediment fluxes on coral reefs. The Magdalena River, the main contributor of continental fluxes into the Caribbean Sea, delivers water and sediment fluxes into the Rosario Islands National Park, an important marine protected area in the southwestern Caribbean. Until now, there is no scientific consensus on the presence of sediment fluxes from the Magdalena River in the coral reefs of the Rosario Islands. Our hypothesis is that high sediment and freshwater inputs from the Magdalena have been present at higher acute levels during the last decade than previously thought, and that these runoff pulses are not flashy. We use in-situ calibrated MODIS satellite images to capture the spatiotemporal variability of the distribution of suspended sediment over the coral reefs. Furthermore, geochemical data are analyzed to detect associated sedimentation rates and pollutant dispersion into the coastal zone. Results confirm that turbidity levels have been much higher than previous values presented by national environmental authorities on coral reefs off Colombia over the last decade. During the 2003-2013-period most of the Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) values witnessed in the sampled regions were above 10mg/l, a threshold value of turbidity for healthy coral reef waters. TSS concentrations throughout the analyzed time were up to 62.3mg/l. Plume pulses were more pronounced during wet seasons of La Niña events in 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. Reconstructed time series of MODIS TSS indicates that coral reef waters were exposed to river plumes between 19.6 and 47.8% of the entire period of analysis (2000-2013). Further analyses of time series of water discharge and sediment load into the coastal zone

  8. Environmental monitoring in Slovakia using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Sivo, A.; Sykora, I.; Chudy, M.; Richtarikova, M.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.; Meresova, J.; Ondo-Estok, D.; Mankovska, B.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Ermakov, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    The contamination of the atmosphere of Slovakia by stable elements and also by-,radionuclides as 14 C, 7 Be, 210 Pb and 222 Rn were studied during the last decade using nuclear techniques. The main aims of this research were the better understanding of processes taking place in the atmosphere, the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend, as well as the evaluation of the health risk from this pollution

  9. Utilization of Geothermal Energy in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Wittenberger; Ján Pinka

    2005-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions, Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The Slovakian government sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs the geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. The effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and the hot water supp...

  10. Governing development of regions- case of Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Bauer; Jana Knezova; Andrej Steiner

    2014-01-01

    Dynamism of development and competiveness of regions, as spatially and administratively defined units, depend not only on their natural, economic, social, and territorial potential but also on quality of regional development governance. At the time of creation of the regional level of territorial management in Slovakia there was expected that by introducing this new governance level the regional governments would become strong players in the field of regional development policy and provide su...

  11. Globalization and the Hotel Industry in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    ALENA DUBCOVÁ; JOZEF PETRIKOVIE; LUCIA ŠOLCOVÁ

    2013-01-01

    The development of tourism in the world and thus in Slovakia is influenced by globalization, which is one of the landmarks of the 21st century. Globalization starts when the internationalization of economic life develops in t he space across the planet. Closely related to internationalization, it enforces the strict territ orial framework that later grew into a wider world of space. The development of globali...

  12. Competitiveness of Slovakia and the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ručinská

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of financial crisis in the beginning of this year have also been felt by the Slovak economy. It could be argued that the competitiveness of Slovakia is under the influence of the world economic crisis, as it is a small, open and pro-export oriented economy, hence influenced by foreign markets. Because of limited extent of domestic market, the foreign demand plays a key role in economic growth, a role that depends on the development of international economic affairs. As the biggest Slovak trade partners are in a deep recession, it induces a slowdown in the domestic economy as well. Financial problems of numerous banks in these countries, in combination with the growing lack of trust in the performance of the economies have resulted in a decline in demand and consumption, which had its effects on Slovakia as well. Based on our analysis of the manifestations and consequences of the financial crisis we show the effects on competitiveness of Slovakia, as well as on public policy.

  13. DJ1 Expression Downregulates in Neuroblastoma Cells (SK-N-MC Chronically Exposed to HIV-1 and Cocaine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upal eRoy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV-associated neurological disorder (HAND has long been recognized as a consequence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection in the brain. The pathology of HAND gets more complicated with the recreational drug use such as cocaine. Recent studies have suggested multiple genetic influences involved in the pathology of addiction and HAND but only a fraction of the entire genetic risk has been investigated so far. In this regard, role of DJ1 protein (a gene linked to autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson’s disease in regulating dopamine transmission and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in neuronal cells will be worth investigating in HIV-1 and cocaine exposed microenvironment. Being a very abundant protein in the brain, DJ1 could serve as a potential marker for early detection of HIV-1 and/or cocaine related neurological disorder.Methods: In vitro analysis was done to observe the effect of HIV-1 and/or cocaine on DJ1 protein expression in neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-MC. Gene expression and protein analysis of DJ1 was done on the HIV infected and/or cocaine treated SK-N-MC and compared to untreated cells using real time PCR, Western Blot and flow cytometry.Results: Gene expression and protein analysis indicated that there was a significant decrease in DJ1 expression in SK-N-MC chronically exposed to HIV-1 and/or cocaine.Conclusion: This is the first study to establish that DJ1 expression level in the neuronal cells significantly decreased in presence of HIV-1and/or cocaine indicating oxidative stress level of dopamine neurons.

  14. Akebia quinata Decaisne aqueous extract acts as a novel anti-fatigue agent in mice exposed to chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Haeng; Jang, Seol; Lee, Si Woo; Park, Sun Dong; Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2018-08-10

    Akebia quinata Decaisne extract (AQE; Lardizabalaceae) is used in traditional herbal medicine for stress- and fatigue-related depression, improvement of fatigue, and mental relaxation. To clarify the effects of AQE on stress-induced fatigue, we investigated the neuroprotective pharmacological effects of A. quinata Decaisne in mice exposed to chronic restraint stress. Seven-week old C57BL/6 mice chronically stressed by immobilization for 3 h daily for 15 d and non-stressed control mice underwent daily oral administration of AQE or distilled water. The open field, sucrose preference, and forced swimming behavioral tests were carried out once weekly, and immunohistochemical analyses of NeuN, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, and BDNF receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in striatum and hippocampus were performed at the end of the experimental period. Brain levels of serotonin, adrenaline, and noradrenaline as well as serum levels of corticosterone were measured. Behavioral tests showed that treatment with AQE improved all lethargic behaviors examined. AQE significantly attenuated the elevated levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and serotonin in the brain and corticosterone, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase levels in the serum. Histopathological analysis showed that AQE reduced liver injury and lateral ventricle size in restraint-stress mice via inhibition of neuronal cell death. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased phosphorylation of CREB and expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in striatum and hippocampus. Chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, and isochlorogenic acid C were identified as the primary components of AQE. All three agents increased expression of BDNF in SH-SY5Y cells and PC12 cells with H 2 O 2 -induced neuronal cell damage. AQE may have a neuroprotective effect and ameliorate the effects of stress and fatigue-associated brain damage through

  15. The Impacts of Swimming Exercise on Hippocampal Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1 and peptides (VGF and NPY in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS.

  16. Chronic risk assessment for the use of radiation in occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) in the oral health area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores H, C.; Huerta F, M. R.; Sosa A, M. A.; Diaz de Leon M, L. V.

    2017-10-01

    There is a scientific discordance in the amounts of radiation used in radio-diagnosis and received in practice by the occupationally exposed personnel (OEP), with the exception of radiologists who follow the safety and hygiene measures recommended by the regulations. The objective of this study was to quantify the risk of the OEP in the dental area by the use of ionizing radiation chronically. A fundamental variable to take into account in the study was the number of films taken day/shift. A comparative study was carried out, n = 70 study subjects. The information was collected by occupational clinical history, biological and occupational monitoring. The average age was 19.6 years for E-1 and E-2 was 50 years. The radiation emission in the calibrated equipment was 1.578 (Lp). The risk is 2:1 E-1:E-2. As a result of the study was found that in most cases the OEP does not use protection measures, only the patient. (Author)

  17. Antidepressant Effects of Aripiprazole Augmentation for Cilostazol-Treated Mice Exposed to Chronic Mild Stress after Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects and underlying mechanism of aripiprazole (APZ augmentation for cilostazol (CLS-treated post-ischemic stroke mice that were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS. Compared to treatment with either APZ or CLS alone, the combined treatment resulted in a greater reduction in depressive behaviors, including anhedonia, despair-like behaviors, and memory impairments. This treatment also significantly reduced atrophic changes in the striatum, cortex, and midbrain of CMS-treated ischemic mice, and inhibited neuronal cell apoptosis, particularly in the striatum and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Greater proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells was also observed in the ipsilateral striatum of the mice receiving combined treatment compared to mice receiving either drug alone. Phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB was increased in the striatum, hippocampus, and midbrain of mice receiving combined treatment compared to treatment with either drug alone, particularly in the neurons of the striatum and hippocampus, and dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain. Our results suggest that APZ may augment the antidepressant effects of CLS via co-regulation of the CREB signaling pathway, resulting in the synergistic enhancement of their neuroprotective effects.

  18. Market survey Slovakia. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  19. The current status of proton therapy in the world, the European Union and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, J.

    2011-01-01

    Proton therapy is considered to be very promising cancer treatment modality, and therefore many countries of the world are trying to (regardless of the high investment costs) to build their own atomic centre (or other proton centres if they operate already some). Proton therapy allows better control of therapeutic doses of radiation to which the patient is exposed. Proton irradiation of the tumor can kill more cancer cells while minimizing damage of healthy tissue. Currently there is about 33 facilities in operation in the world where proton therapy can be carried out. Proton therapy complex with new, highly sophisticated equipment is also being constructed in Slovakia - in The Central Military Hospital in Ruzomberok. The project is in its final stage of implementation. The paper describes the current status of proton therapy in the world, the European Union (EU) and Slovakia. In conclusion principally new Proton therapy unit complex built in Slovakia with similar facilities currently existing in EU countries (old 15 member states) is compared (especially from technical and medical aspects). (author)

  20. Monitoring of natural radioactivity in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikodemova, D; Vladar, M; Gomola, I [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, 83301 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper deals with two main natural sources of human exposure, i.e. the outdoor photon dose equivalent rate, H{sub x}, and the indoor volume activity [Bq/m{sup 3}]. The estimation of the radiation load from outdoor photon radiation was based on continuous measurements of dose equivalent rates using: 1)Thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), types TLD 700 (LiF, Harshaw) in territorial monitoring network, consisting of 66 stations over Slovakia, where integral values are collected for 3 months; 2) Intelligent Environmental Dose Equivalent Proportional Detector, FHZ621B in an International Radiation Information System (IRIS). The system consists of 25 stations (16 working) over the whole Slovakia, situated uniformly at existing hydrometeorological stations. In standard operation a set of average dose equivalent rate, H{sub x}, are transferred every 24 hours into the central database of IRIS. For the measurements of equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC) solid state track detectors type CR-39 (Pershore, UK) were used, exchanged in a period of 6 month during the heating season. Annual values of the effective doses from above natural sources of radiation in Slovakia range from 1.2 mSv to 3.2 mSv/year. This broad range is caused mainly by uncertaintes in calculation procedures of radon effective doses. The effective dose due to exposure radon calculated taking into account, that an annual radon gas concentration of 20 Bq/m{sup 3} is 1 mSv seems to be a very overstinated value. Therefore for protective measures the lower value of the above given range was used. This calculation methods are actually under scrutiny (J.K.). 4 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs.

  1. Morality, Normativity, and Economic Development in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Karjanen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines debates over local economic development policies and practices in contemporary Slovakia, particularly regarding property and land development. Debates about economic development often occur in relation to economic outcomes, driven by quantitative data and empirical assessments provided by city officials or consultants. In this article, I find that such debates are more likely to be driven by normative concerns, including moral outcomes. I develop a theoretical framework to understand why policy debates occur not in purely objective terms, but the more subjective normative and moral frameworks. The analysis provides greater insight into political debates and policymaking in the postsocialist context.

  2. Bilingual education in Slovakia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pokrivčáková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual education is one of the areas in contemporary education that brings out some important controversies (philosophical, conceptual, sociological, political, economical, etc. and thus calls for extensive and intensive debate. Bilingual education in Europe (and here the European Union countries are meant has gained a very different status, due to the general European policy of developing language diversity and promoting “European plurilingualism and multilingualism”. In Slovakia, one of the younger members of the EU, bilingual education became an extraordinarily popular instrument for the fulfilment of this task.  Since the specifically defined topic of bilingual education and its current status in Slovakia has not been studied and systematically reviewed yet, the research presented in this paper was designed as a single-phenomenon revelatory case study investigating seven research areas: reflection of bilingual education in school legislation and state pedagogical documents, purposes of bilingual education in Slovakia, its organization (levels and types of schools, foreign languages incorporated, teachers, structure of bilingual schools curricula, types of bilingual education applied at Slovak bilingual schools, and how bilingual education is both reflected in and saturated by the latest research findings. The conclusions presented in the paper were collected from multiple sources: state curriculum, statistical data published by the Slovak Ministry of Education or its partner institutions, international treaties on establishing and supporting bilingual sections of schools, bilingual schools curricula, interviews with school directors, teachers, and learners, direct observations at bilingual schools, research studies and research reports, etc. In the conclusion, bilingual education in Slovakia is identified as a unique, dynamically developing system which is both significantly shaped by the foreign language education policy promoted by

  3. Study of ancient pottery from Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, J.; Fusek, G.; Sitek, J.; Hucl, M.; Rausz, J.; Gajdosova, M.

    1990-01-01

    Ancient pottery samples collected from south-west Slovakia were studied through subjective observation and by Moessbauer spectroscopy. This method is convenient for determining the provenance and the manufacture of pottery. Transformations, induced by firing the clay and characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy, give valuable information regarding the manufacture as, for instance, the final temperature of firing in it. The relative abundance of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ determines the atmosphere used to fire a pottery. It has been found that the determination of the firing atmosphere obtained through the subjective observation is in good agreement with that obtained using Moessbauer spectroscopy. An unfired and fired clay was also investigated. (orig.)

  4. Education in nuclear engineering in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2005-01-01

    Slovak University of Technology is the largest and also the oldest university of technology in Slovakia. Surely more than 50% of high-educated technicians who work nowadays in nuclear industry have graduated from this university. The Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology as a one of seven faculties of this University feels responsibility for proper engineering education and training for Slovak NPP operating staff. The education process is realised via undergraduate (Bc.), graduate (MSc.) and postgraduate (PhD..) study as well as via specialised training courses in a frame of continuous education system. (author)

  5. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.; Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Vicanova, M.; Durcik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  6. Activities ofWiN Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicherova, T.

    2015-01-01

    WiN Slovakia activities of the last two years are presented. We always try to join professional and social aspects of events to improve not only our knowledge but mutual relationship and cooperation. List of activities: – The technical visit in the contaminated areas in Belarus. – The excursion to the chemical and radiation laboratories of Slovak Army and the biological and radiation department of Veterinary University in Kosice. – The Open Days in the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute in Bratislava. – The course on radiation protection in Casta-Papiernicka. All such activities are appreciated by our members and create good platform for next professional and personal relationship. (author)

  7. An integrated omic analysis of hepatic alteration in medaka fish chronically exposed to cyanotoxins with possible mechanisms of reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qin; Le Manach, Séverine; Huet, Hélène; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Chaouch, Soraya; Duval, Charlotte; Sotton, Benoit; Ponger, Loïc; Marie, Arul; Mathéron, Lucrèce; Lennon, Sarah; Bolbach, Gérard; Djediat, Chakib; Bernard, Cécile; Edery, Marc; Marie, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms threaten human health as well as the population of other living organisms in the aquatic environment, particularly due to the production of natural toxic components, the cyanotoxin. So far, the most studied cyanotoxins are microcystins (MCs). In this study, the hepatic alterations at histological, proteome and transcriptome levels were evaluated in female and male medaka fish chronically exposed to 1 and 5 μg L -1 microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and to the extract of MC-producing Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7820 (5 μg L -1 of equivalent MC-LR) by balneation for 28 days, aiming at enhancing our understanding of the potential reproductive toxicity of cyanotoxins in aquatic vertebrate models. Indeed, both MC and Microcystis extract adversely affect reproductive parameters including fecundity and egg hatchability. The liver of toxin treated female fish present glycogen storage loss and cellular damages. The quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that the quantities of 225 hepatic proteins are dysregulated. In particular, a notable decrease in protein quantities of vitellogenin and choriogenin was observed, which could explain the decrease in reproductive output. Liver transcriptome analysis through Illumina RNA-seq reveals that over 100-400 genes are differentially expressed under 5 μg L -1  MC-LR and Microcystis extract treatments, respectively. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the omic data attests that various metabolic pathways, such as energy production, protein biosynthesis and lipid metabolism, are disturbed by both MC-LR and the Microcystis extract, which could provoke the observed reproductive impairment. The transcriptomics analysis also constitutes the first report of the impairment of circadian rhythm-related gene induced by MCs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the potential consequences of chronic exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of cyanotoxins, suggesting that Microcystis extract could impact a

  8. Investigation of genomic instability by assay of DNA fingerprint from the offspring of male mice exposed to chronic low-level γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezlepkin, V.G.; Vasil'eva, G.V.; Lomaeva, M.G.; Sirota, N.P.; Gaziev, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    By polymerase chain reaction with arbitrary primer (AP-PCR), the possibility of transmission of genome instability to somatic cells of the offspring (F 1 generation) from male parents of mice exposed to chronic low-dose γ-radiation was studied. Male mice 15 days after exposure to 10-50 cGy were mated with unirradiated females. Biopsies were taken from tale tips of two month-old mice progeny for DNA separation. Primer in the AP-PCR was 20-mer oligonucleotide flanking the micro-satellite locus Atplb2 on chromosome 11 of the mouse. Comparative analysis of individual fingerprints of AP-PCR products on DNA-templates from the offspring of irradiated and unirradiated male mice revealed an increased variability of micro-satellite-associated sequences in the genome of the offspring of males exposed to 25 and 50 cGy. DNA-fingerprints of the offspring of male mice exposed to chronic irradiation doses 10 and 25 cGy. 15 days before fertilization (at the post-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis) showed an increased frequency of non-parent bands. Result of the study point to the possibility of transmission to the offspring somatic cells of changes increasing genome instability from male parents exposed to chronic low-dose radiation prior to fertilization [ru

  9. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  10. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  11. Museology in Slovakia (Muzeológia na Slovensku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tišliar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the history of museology in Slovakia as a scientific discipline in general and a specialized university course of study in particular. We discuss the fundamental characteristics of the discipline, including the development of the current conception of museology as a university course and describe the fundamentals of the course as currently implemented in various institutes of tertiary education in Slovakia. In conclusion, we briefly survey the current state of the field in Slovakia, its potential and its possible future development.

  12. The role of palliative medicine in the organizational frame of oncological care in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizanova, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we would like to describe the role of palliative medicine in the organizational frame of oncological care in Slovakia. Basic statistic data are revealing that number of beds in palliative medicine and hospices is shaped rather coincidently according to the reimbursement rates and the effort to reduce a number of chronic beds. Further on we would like to point out a distinction between palliative treatments of cancer and palliative medicine, a distinction between social care and hospice care, the role and relevance of palliative medicine and we bring about some suggestions how to improve the present situation. (author)

  13. CAS Accelerator Physics (Ion Sources) in Slovakia

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Slovak University of Technology jointly organised a specialised course on ion sources, held at the Hotel Senec, Senec, Slovakia, from 29 May to 8 June, 2012.   Following some background lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of atomic and plasma physics, the course covered a wide range of topics related to ion sources and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful, with 69 participants representing 25 nationalities. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, reflecting the high standard of the lectures. The case studies were performed with great enthusiasm and produced some excellent results. In addition to the academic programme, the participants were able to take part in a one-day excursion consisting of a guided tour of Bratislava and free time. A welcome event was held at the Hotel Senec, with s...

  14. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  15. Globalization and the Hotel Industry in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALENA DUBCOVÁ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism in the world and thus in Slovakia is influenced by globalization, which is one of the landmarks of the 21st century. Globalization starts when the internationalization of economic life develops in t he space across the planet. Closely related to internationalization, it enforces the strict territ orial framework that later grew into a wider world of space. The development of globalization processe s stimulated by the scientific-technical revolution, the growing efforts to promote free trad e through out the world, a principal change in many countries, which are accompanied by expansion o f free business, capital,investment, the impressive development of telecommunications and tr ansport networks, the option on fast- traveling to long distances, watching foreign televi sion programs, understanding and using of foreign experience and practices contributed to the convergence of the world not only economically but also in other spheres.

  16. Care for Haemoglobinopathy Patients in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábryová, Viera; Božek, Peter; Drakulová, Monika; Kollárová, Andrea; Striežencová, Zuzana Laluhová; Macichová, Michaela; Sakalová, Adriena

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents the results od 22-year study of screening and follow-up of haemoglobinopathies in Slovakia, an overview of genetic mutations, the coincidence with hereditary haemochromatosis mutations, and the procedure in genetic councelling. Between 1993-2015, in three centres in Bratislava and in one centre in Kosice, carriers of beta-thalassaemic genes or other haemoglobinopathies were searched for. Diagnosis was performed by haematologists, whereby the family history was evaluated, together with the overall clinical condition, blood count and blood smear, iron and haemolysis parameters, mutations of hereditary haemochromatosis, and haemoglobin electrophoresis testing. In the last years the haemoglobin division also examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A clinical suspicion of the heterozygous form of beta-thalassaemia or other haemoglobinopathies was documented in 554 patients. Of them 32 (5.8%) were foreigners. 213 (38.45%) patients were genetically examined. In 190 (33.93%) of them heterozygote beta-thalassaemia was confirmed. The most frequent mutations were IVS 1.110 (33.15%), IVS 2.1 (33.15%), and IVS 1.6 (14.7%). Evidence of haemoglobin S (heterozygote sickle cell anaemia) was also notable in two non-relative children, whose fathers were of African origin, and one patient from Ghana. One female patient was followed up for haemoglobin Santa Ana (non-stabile haemoglobin previously diagnosed as mutation de novo). In our group, we took care of pregnant patients with haemoglobinopathies. The study showed that there is a higher number of heterozygotes for beta-thalassaemia and rarely haemoglobinopathies in Slovakia. Over the past years, we have recorded an increase number of foreigners coming to our country. It is necessary to continue in search of pathological gene carriers to avoid serious forms of haemoglobinopathies. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  17. Areva attracted to Slovakia by engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2006-01-01

    The expected growth of demand in nuclear power stations and technologies compelled the French-German company Areva NP to look for other possibilities for expansion. The company belongs to the French energy concern, Areva, which employs almost sixty thousand people worldwide and which last year achieved revenues of ten billion EUR. A joint venture between the French company and the German company Siemens - Areva NP - designs and manufactures software and hardware for security and automation technologies in nuclear power stations. Areva NP Controls, a subsidiary of the company, has been operating in Bratislava from 1 July. The plan is that Slovak engineers will design hardware and software to be used in nuclear power station security systems around the world. The decision to open an engineering office in Bratislava was made after the management at the German head office realised the need for three hundred new engineers. T his many quality people are not available in Germany right now , said Franz Hilbert, the boss of the Slovak subsidiary. The company decided between the Czech Republic, Russia and India. In the end, Bratislava was chosen. F. Hilbert added that Slovakia has many quality people, but that lower labour costs also played a role in the decision-making process. The company plans to employ half of the required three hundred engineers in Bratislava and the remainder in Erlangen. About a dozen engineers are currently working in this Slovak company, some of whom are currently borrowed from partners. The view is that within five years about one hundred engineers will work in Slovakia under domestic management. According to F. Hilbert, the meeting of the Slovak and German cultures is trouble free, even though some differences can still be seen. 'We are better in planning and in fulfilling those plans, while the Slovaks are great at improvising. We are able to complement and learn from each other', said F. Hilbert. (authors)

  18. Rhacochelifer disjunctus (Pseudoscorpiones: Cheliferidae new to the fauna of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčovičová, Katarína

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated description of Rhacochelifer disjunctus (L. Koch, 1873 collected in Slovakia is presented. One female was found phoretic on Lepidoptera in a Malaise trap. Another 37 specimens, including both sexes, tritonymphs and a protonymph, collected in the 1950s were deposited in the Natural History Museum in Prague, Czech Republic and identified as well. The discoveries of R. disjunctus specimens at five localities within Slovakia represent the first records of the species for this country.

  19. CASE STUDY: POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND RESPONSES TO PLAGIARISM IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    FOLTYNEK, Tomas; KRAVJAR, Julius; GLENDINNING, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The European project “Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe“ has identified best practices and gaps related to plagiarism in different European countries. Slovakia is one of interesting ones, where national repository for plagiarism detection was established. However, there are still gaps in terms of policies and overall understanding of plagiarism. This case study describes what happened in Slovakia in last few years, compares the situation with other European c...

  20. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Kunca; Marek Čiliak

    2017-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled ?Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia? (Kunca and ?iliak, 2016) [FUNECO607] [2]. The dataset include all available and unpublished data from Slovakia, besides the records from the same tree or stem. We compiled a database of records of collections by processing data from herbaria, personal records and communication with mycological activists. Data on altitude, tree species, host tree vital status,...

  1. Agencification in Slovakia: The Current Situation and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj NEMEC

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on agencification in Slovakia. Here we try to fill this gap by focusing on both national and the sub-national governments. Our main goal is to describe the character and scale of agencification in Slovakia. We also wish to test a specific hypothesis, derived from NPM policy convergence theory: that agencification in Slovakia lacks a systematic conceptual framework located in the local context. Our research has unearthed nine countrywide service delivery agencies, plus a large number of decentralized delivery agencies (e.g. public hospitals, universities, schools and public training institutions, and 25 central regulatory agencies. This is not an exhaustive list as there is no official data on agencies. We argue that Slovak agencification – especially during the Dzurinda administrations – was mainly determined by two factors: the EU accession process and the political orientation of the governing coalition. Agencification predicts that increased managerial freedom should improve results. We show that this is true for Slovakia, even though our hypothesis that agencification in Slovakia lacks a systematic local conceptual framework is also shown to be true. We argue that despite many implementation problems, the creation of agencies in Slovakia and elsewhere in CEE was an important step forward.

  2. Are radiosensitivity data derived from natural field conditions consistent with data from controlled exposures? A case study of Chernobyl wildlife chronically exposed to low dose rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier-Laplace, J; Geras'kin, S; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Hinton, T G; Real, A; Oudalova, A

    2013-07-01

    The discrepancy between laboratory or controlled conditions ecotoxicity tests and field data on wildlife chronically exposed to ionising radiation is presented for the first time. We reviewed the available chronic radiotoxicity data acquired in contaminated fields and used a statistical methodology to support the comparison with knowledge on inter-species variation of sensitivity to controlled external γ irradiation. We focus on the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and effects data on terrestrial wildlife reported in the literature corresponding to chronic dose rate exposure situations (from background ~100 nGy/h up to ~10 mGy/h). When needed, we reconstructed the dose rate to organisms and obtained consistent unbiased data sets necessary to establish the dose rate-effect relationship for a number of different species and endpoints. Then, we compared the range of variation of radiosensitivity of species from the Chernobyl-Exclusion Zone with the statistical distribution established for terrestrial species chronically exposed to purely gamma external irradiation (or chronic Species radioSensitivity Distribution - SSD). We found that the best estimate of the median value (HDR50) of the distribution established for field conditions at Chernobyl (about 100 μGy/h) was eight times lower than the one from controlled experiments (about 850 μGy/h), suggesting that organisms in their natural environmental were more sensitive to radiation. This first comparison highlights the lack of mechanistic understanding and the potential confusion coming from sampling strategies in the field. To confirm the apparent higher sensitive of wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, we call for more a robust strategy in field, with adequate design to deal with confounding factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muizzuddin, N.; Shakoori, A.R. [Univ. of the Punjab, Dept. of Zoology, Cell and Molecular Biology Lab., Lahore (Pakistan); Marenus, K.D. [SUNY at Stonybrook, Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Background/aims: Within the past three decades, there has emerged a greater awareness of the molecular effects of solar rays especially ultraviolet radiation (UV-R), to the extent that the harmful effects of solar radiation are recognized not only by molecular biologists and physicians, but also by the general public. Various sunscreen molecules that effectively block the UVB component of the sun are available; however, a large part of Western populations elicits adverse reactions against chemical sunscreens. This study was designed to observe the protective effect of antioxidants against the damaging effects of chronic UVB exposure of skin in an attempt to introduce antioxidants and free radical scavengers as topical sun protective agents. Methods: Jackson hairless mice were exposed to suberythemal doses of UVB, three times a week, and topically treated with a cream containing the anti-oxidants vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, nordihydroguaradinic acid and vitamin C. Results: Treatment with vehicle alone along with UVB exposure resulted in an increase in epidermal thickness showing a 38%, 77% and 112% increase after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Chronic UVB exposed skin treated with the material containing free radical scavengers and antioxidants mix (AO mix) exhibited 39%, 73% and 124% thicker epidermis than the untreated control after, respectively, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment. The vehicle did not appear to protect skin against UV irradiation, since there appeared to be more (16%) sunburn cells in vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin after 4 weeks of treatment. After 8 weeks and 12 weeks, there were 33% and 36% less sunburn cells in the vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin. The antioxidant mix was significantly effective (P=<0.001) in protecting against UVB irradiation, having 63%, 71% and 79% fewer sunburn cells than the untreated, UV exposed skin af after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of

  4. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muizzuddin, N.; Shakoori, A.R.; Marenus, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Background/aims: Within the past three decades, there has emerged a greater awareness of the molecular effects of solar rays especially ultraviolet radiation (UV-R), to the extent that the harmful effects of solar radiation are recognized not only by molecular biologists and physicians, but also by the general public. Various sunscreen molecules that effectively block the UVB component of the sun are available; however, a large part of Western populations elicits adverse reactions against chemical sunscreens. This study was designed to observe the protective effect of antioxidants against the damaging effects of chronic UVB exposure of skin in an attempt to introduce antioxidants and free radical scavengers as topical sun protective agents. Methods: Jackson hairless mice were exposed to suberythemal doses of UVB, three times a week, and topically treated with a cream containing the anti-oxidants vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, nordihydroguaradinic acid and vitamin C. Results: Treatment with vehicle alone along with UVB exposure resulted in an increase in epidermal thickness showing a 38%, 77% and 112% increase after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Chronic UVB exposed skin treated with the material containing free radical scavengers and antioxidants mix (AO mix) exhibited 39%, 73% and 124% thicker epidermis than the untreated control after, respectively, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment. The vehicle did not appear to protect skin against UV irradiation, since there appeared to be more (16%) sunburn cells in vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin after 4 weeks of treatment. After 8 weeks and 12 weeks, there were 33% and 36% less sunburn cells in the vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin. The antioxidant mix was significantly effective (P=<0.001) in protecting against UVB irradiation, having 63%, 71% and 79% fewer sunburn cells than the untreated, UV exposed skin af after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of

  5. Lipid metabolism in rat tissues exposed to the chronic effects of γ-irradiation and ubiquinone Q9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic γ-irradiation of rats with the daily dose of 0.129 Gy activates the synthesis of various classes of lipids in the thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells and induces lipid accumulation in these tissues. Feeding of rats with the antioxidant, ubiquinone Q-9, under conditions of chronic irradiation causes a considerable normalization of lipogenesis and levels of the lipid concentration in the tissues of animals irradiated with the dose of 20 Gy

  6. Exacerbation of N-nitrosodiethylamine Induced Hepatotoxicity and DNA Damage in Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeem Bilal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress contributes to increased susceptibility to a number of diseases including cancer. The present study was designed to assess the effect of chronic unpredictable stress on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver toxicity in terms of in vivo antioxidant status and DNA damage in Swiss albino mice. The animals used in this study were randomized into different groups based on the treatment with N-nitrosodiethylamine or chronic unpredictable stress alone and post-stress administration of N-nitrosodiethylamine. The mice were sacrificed after 12 weeks of treatment, and the status of major enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, liver function markers, lipid peroxidation and the extent of DNA damage were determined in circulation and liver tissues of all the groups. The N-nitrosodiethylamine treated group showed significantly compromised levels of the antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and the liver function markers with enhanced DNA damage as compared to chronic unpredictable stress or control groups. A similar but less typical pattern observed in the chronic unpredictable stress treated mice. All the measured biochemical parameters were significantly altered in the group treated with the combination of chronic unpredictable stress and N-nitrosodiethylamine when compared to controls, or chronic unpredictable stress alone and/or N-nitrosodiethylamine alone treated groups. Thus, exposure to continuous, unpredictable stress conditions even in general life may significantly enhance the hepatotoxic potential of N-nitrosodiethylamine through an increase in the oxidative stress and DNA damage.

  7. DNA damage in nasal and brain tissues of canines exposed to air pollutants is associated with evidence of chronic brain inflammation and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Maronpot, Robert R; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Schoonhoven, Robert; Acuña-Ayala, Hilda; Villarreal-Calderón, Anna; Nakamura, Jun; Fernando, Reshan; Reed, William; Azzarelli, Biagio; Swenberg, James A

    2003-01-01

    Acute, subchronic, or chronic exposures to particulate matter (PM) and pollutant gases affect people in urban areas and those exposed to fires, disasters, and wars. Respiratory tract inflammation, production of mediators of inflammation capable of reaching the brain, systemic circulation of PM, and disruption of the nasal respiratory and olfactory barriers are likely in these populations. DNA damage is crucial in aging and in age-associated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. We evaluated apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in nasal and brain genomic DNA, and explored by immunohistochemistry the expression of nuclear factor NFkappaB p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2), metallothionein I and II, apolipoprotein E, amyloid precursor protein (APP), and beta-amyloid(1-42) in healthy dogs naturally exposed to urban pollution in Mexico City. Nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Forty mongrel dogs, ages 7 days-10 years were studied (14 controls from Tlaxcala and 26 exposed to urban pollution in South West Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC)). Nasal respiratory and olfactory epithelium were found to be early pollutant targets. Olfactory bulb and hippocampal AP sites were significantly higher in exposed than in control age matched animals. Ni and V were present in a gradient from olfactory mucosa > olfactory bulb > frontal cortex. Exposed dogs had (a) nuclear neuronal NFkappaB p65, (b) endothelial, glial and neuronal iNOS, (c) endothelial and glial COX2, (d) ApoE in neuronal, glial and vascular cells, and (e) APP and beta amyloid(1-42) in neurons, diffuse plaques (the earliest at age 11 months), and in subarachnoid blood vessels. Increased AP sites and the inflammatory and stress protein brain responses were early and significant in dogs exposed to urban pollution. Oil combustion PM-associated metals Ni and V were detected in the brain. There was an acceleration of Alzheimer

  8. Effects of acamprosate on attentional set-shifting and cellular function in the prefrontal cortex of chronic alcohol-exposed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei

    Background: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) inhibits impulsive and compulsive behaviors that characterize drug abuse and dependence. Acamprosate is the leading medication approved for the maintenance of abstinence, shown to reduce craving and relapse in animal models and human alcoholics. Whether acamprosate can modulate executive functions that are impaired by chronic ethanol exposure is unknown. Here we explored the effects of acamprosate on an attentional set-shifting task, and tested whether these behavioral effects are correlated with modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and intrinsic excitability of mPFC neurons. Methods: We induced alcohol dependence in mice via chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure in vapor chambers and measured changes in alcohol consumption in a limited access 2-bottle choice paradigm. Impairments of executive function were assessed in an attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate was applied subchronically for 2 days during withdrawal before the final behavioral test. Alcohol-induced changes in cellular function of layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons, and the potential modulation of these changes by acamprosate, were measured using patch clamp recordings in brain slices. Results: Chronic ethanol exposure impaired cognitive flexibility in the attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate improved overall performance and reduced perseveration. Recordings of mPFC neurons showed that chronic ethanol exposure increased use-dependent presynaptic transmitter release and enhanced postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. Moreover, CIE-treatment lowered input resistance, and decreased the threshold and the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) of action potentials, suggesting chronic ethanol exposure also impacted membrane excitability of mPFC neurons. However, acamprosate treatment did not reverse these ethanol-induced changes cellular function. Conclusion: Acamprosate improved attentional control of ethanol exposed animals

  9. The Antidepressant Agomelatine Improves Memory Deterioration and Upregulates CREB and BDNF Gene Expression Levels in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS-Exposed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Gumuslu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agomelatine, a novel antidepressant with established clinical efficacy, acts as an agonist of melatonergic MT 1 and MT 2 receptors and as an antagonist of 5-HT 2C receptors. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether chronic treatment with agomelatine would block unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS-induced cognitive deterioration in mice in passive avoidance (PA, modified elevated plus maze (mEPM, novel object recognition (NOR, and Morris water maze (MWM tests. Moreover, the effects of stress and agomelatine on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element binding protein (CREB messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA levels in the hippocampus was also determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Male inbred BALB/c mice were treated with agomelatine (10 mg/kg, i.p., melatonin (10 mg/kg, or vehicle daily for five weeks. The results of this study revealed that UCMS-exposed animals exhibited memory deterioration in the PA, mEPM, NOR, and MWM tests. The chronic administration of melatonin had a positive effect in the PA and +mEPM tests, whereas agomelatine had a partial effect. Both agomelatine and melatonin blocked stress-induced impairment in visual memory in the NOR test and reversed spatial learning and memory impairment in the stressed group in the MWM test. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that CREB and BDNF gene expression levels were downregulated in UCMS-exposed mice, and these alterations were reversed by chronic agomelatine or melatonin treatment. Thus, agomelatine plays an important role in blocking stress-induced hippocampal memory deterioration and activates molecular mechanisms of memory storage in response to a learning experience.

  10. Methylation changes in muscle and liver tissues of male and female mice exposed to acute and chronic low-dose X-ray-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, Olga; Burke, Paula; Besplug, Jill; Slovack, Mark; Filkowski, Jody; Pogribny, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The biological and genetic effects of chronic low-dose radiation (LDR) exposure and its relationship to carcinogenesis have received a lot of attention in the recent years. For example, radiation-induced genome instability, which is thought to be a precursor of tumorogenesis, was shown to have a transgenerational nature. This indicates a possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in LDR-induced genome instability. Genomic DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms. Existing data on radiation effects on DNA methylation patterns is limited, and no one has specifically studied the effects of the LDR. We report the first study of the effects of whole-body LDR exposure on global genome methylation in muscle and liver tissues of male and female mice. In parallel, we evaluated changes in promoter methylation and expression of the tumor suppressor gene p16 INKa and DNA repair gene O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). We observed different patterns of radiation-induced global genome DNA methylation in the liver and muscle of exposed males and females. We also found sex and tissue-specific differences in p16 INKa promoter methylation upon LDR exposure. In male liver tissue, p16 INKa promoter methylation was more pronounced than in female tissue. In contrast, no significant radiation-induced changes in p16 INKa promoter methylation were noted in the muscle tissue of exposed males and females. Radiation also did not significantly affect methylation status of MGMT promoter. We also observed substantial sex differences in acute and chronic radiation-induced expression of p16 INKa and MGMT genes. Another important outcome of our study was the fact that chronic low-dose radiation exposure proved to be a more potent inducer of epigenetic effects than the acute exposure. This supports previous findings that chronic exposure leads to greater genome destabilization than acute exposure

  11. Effects of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on the reproductive performance and outcome of an exposed population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannino, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that low doses of ionizing radiation (cumulative dose less than 5.0 rads/yr) effects the reproductive history and/or outcome of a human population. Medically-related personnel who were exposed to low doses of radiation in the course of their employment were compared with medically-related personnel who were not routinely exposed to ionizing radiation. Each population consisted of 3000 persons from the states of Michigan and Ohio. Reproductive performance, history, and outcome of each sample population was compared statistically. Nineteen congenital defects and 47 postnatal defects were recorded for conceptions of the non-exposed population and 50 congenital defects and 83 postnatal defects were recorded for the exposed group. These groups were further broken down as to whether conception took place before, during, or after exposure and the results statistically analyzed. It was found that the exposure population had greater than expected numbers of postnatal defects and less than expected numbers of normal conceptions

  12. BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF CHRONIC NIMODIPINE TREATMENT ON BEHAVIORAL DYSFUNCTIONS OF AGED RATS EXPOSED TO PERINATAL ETHANOL TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARKEL, E; FELSZEGHY, K; LUITEN, PGM; NYAKAS, C

    1995-01-01

    The long-term effects of prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure were assessed in adult (5-month), aged (24-month), and senescent (30-month) rats on non-aggressive intermale social behavior, and on black-white discrimination and spatial learning behaviors. Furthermore, the effects of chronic

  13. Railway noise annoyance on the railway track in northwest slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultznerova, Alzbeta; Eva, Panulinova; Kucharova, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large high-loaded railway track in Northwest Slovakia. The measurements of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods were taken. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition, the annoyance level and sleep disturbance of residents affected by railway noise were evaluated by a validated questionnaire on a pilot sample of 107 respondents living near the important railway track. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train were extremely high especially at night, clearly exceeding the nighttime limits of equivalent sound pressure level established by the Decree of the Slovak Ministry of Health (No.549/2007) (L Aeq  = 55 dB). Measurements at one point during the night exceeded the limit values of up to 17.4 dB. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which caused irritability, headache, poor concentration, and insomnia. In addition, 19.64% of the residents claimed that nocturnal noise pollution was the most distressing. The results of bivariate analysis showed a higher risk of annoyance especially for railway noise [OR MH  = 7.80 (4.02-15.14)] and the noise from industry [OR MH  = 3.08 (1.72-5.50)] in the exposed location. The effects of railway traffic on annoyance/sleep and psychosocial well-being were evaluated in a few studies. In accordance with our results the railway noise mostly disturbs sleep and rest of the respondents. The pilot survey showed the importance of sleep and rest disturbance by railway noise and the possibilities of getting worse health condition in the future. Noise abatement measures and strategies should, therefore, be implemented in an effective and manageable way increasing the environmental advantages of rail transport.

  14. Measurement of hydroxylated PCB metabolites for Slovakia maternal blood serums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.S.; Athanasiadou, M; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Charles, J.; Zhao, G.; Hertz-Picciotto, I. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Petrik, J.; Kocan, A; Trnovec, T. [Bratislava Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2005-07-01

    Although it is known that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have adverse impacts on human health, it is not clear if human health impacts are caused by the PCBs or their related hydroxylated (OH) PCB metabolite compounds. This study measured OH-PCB metabolites in the maternal blood serum specimens from the Svidnik and Michalovce areas in eastern Slovakia where PCBs were intensively produced and inadequately disposed. The aim of the study was to characterize and quantify levels of specific OH-PCB metabolites in Slovakian maternal serums exposed to high environmental PCB levels. All specimens were analyzed for PCBs, and a subset of the samples was analyzed for OH-PCB metabolites. The Wallenburg blood extraction method was adopted to separate the OH-PCBs from the blood serums. Final eluates and calibration standards were spiked with PCB209 as an injection standard before gas chromatography (GC) analysis. OH-PCBs in the samples range from 75{+-}9 per cent to 101{+-}11 per cent. Median concentrations of OH-PCB metabolites of Michalovce samples were approximately twice as high as for the Svidnik samples. Concentrations of OH-PCBs of Michalovce blood samples were comparable to samples obtained from northern Canadian female Inuit and Faroe Island females, and were considered to be among the highest OH-PCB concentrations obtained in human blood. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand the placental transfer of OH-PCBs to the fetus, as well as epidemiological approaches to determine the relationship between the exposure of OH-PCB metabolites and child development. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Potential of Progressive Construction Systems in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovska, Maria; Spisakova, Marcela; Mackova, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Construction industry is a sector with rapid development. Progressive technologies of construction and new construction materials also called modern methods of construction (MMC) are developed constantly. MMC represent the adoption of construction industrialisation and the use of prefabrication of components in building construction. One of these modern methods is also system Varianthaus, which is based on, insulated concrete forms principle and provides complete production plant for wall, ceiling and roof elements for a high thermal insulation house construction. Another progressive construction system is EcoB, which represents an insulated precast concrete panel based on combination of two layers, insulation and concrete, produced in a factory as a whole. Both modern methods of construction are not yet known and wide-spread in the Slovak construction market. The aim of this paper is focused on demonstration of MMC using potential in Slovakia. MMC potential is proved based on comparison of the selected parameters of construction process - construction costs and construction time. The subject of this study is family house modelled in three material variants - masonry construction (as a representative of traditional methods of construction), Varianthaus and EcoB (as the representatives of modern methods of construction). The results of this study provide the useful information in decision-making process for potential investors of construction.

  16. Pedigree Analysis of Holstein Bulls in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlík

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in Holstein bulls population in Slovakia by the methods of pedigree analysis. The population was represented by the bulls with reserve of frozen semen doses in AI centers. Whole reference population consisted of 169 bulls born from 1997 to 2009. For calculation of diversity parameters the program Endog v.4.8 (Gutiérrez, Goyache, 2005 was used. An average maximal number of generations traced was 9.35, 3.06 complete generations and equivalent number of generations traced was 5.71. An average coefficient of inbreeding was 2.48%, individual increase in inbreeding was 0.53% and average relatedness was 2.72%. The 167 bulls from 169 were inbred (98.82%. An average number of offsprings per bull was 107.70 with maximal number 1,641 offsprings. The effective population size computed via individual increase in inbreeding was 94.50. The effective number of founders was 88, effective number of ancestors 31 and only 13 ancestors described 50% of diversity. From these results we can conclude that the diversity of Holstein bulls is reduced by more factors (inbreeding, high relatedness, bottlenecks. Obtained results point out the need to use new outbred bull lines for mating cows.

  17. Quality control of mammography departments in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Considering the fact that mammary gland is the most sensitive organ to ionizing radiation, the Commission of the Ministry of Health of SR for QA in radiology organized a pilot two-run country wide audit conducted in 42 mammography departments that have met the beforehand criteria. During the audit the methods for establishing the individual parameters in technical and clinical part of quality assurance in mammography were elaborated and implemented. Technical and clinical parameters of the imaging process that mostly affect the quality of diagnostic information were followed up. These parameters included: the object thickness compensation, optical density deviation, evaluation of the film quality by means of special phantom, etc. Important measurement of ESDs at participating departments enabled to compare the radiation load of mammography patients in Slovakia with reference values in European guidelines. The uniform standard method for QA at mammography departments was elaborated and published as the regulation of the Ministry of Health for performance of preventive mammography examinations in SR. The presented results show the improved quality of mammography examinations due to regular check-ups of technical and clinical parameters and fulfilment of the required values in all parameters. The audit results are the basis for continuous quality assessment of mammography departments as a main prerequisite for conducting preventive examinations and for health insurance purposes.

  18. Stakeholder involvement in development and implementation of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation presents the process of stakeholder involvement in development and implementation of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia in last five years. The presentation gives detailed information on used practices and real process taken place in Slovakia

  19. Impaired Subset Progression and Polyfunctionality of T Cells in Mice Exposed to Methamphetamine during Chronic LCMV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Uma; Hill, Beth L; Cenna, Jonathan M; Gofman, Larisa; Fernandes, Nicole C; Haldar, Bijayesh; Potula, Raghava

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely used psychostimulant that severely impacts the host's innate and adaptive immune systems and has profound immunological implications. T cells play a critical role in orchestrating immune responses. We have shown recently how chronic exposure to METH affects T cell activation using a murine model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Using the TriCOM (trinary state combinations) feature of GemStone™ to study the polyfunctionality of T cells, we have analyzed how METH affected the cytokine production pattern over the course of chronic LCMV infection. Furthermore, we have studied in detail the effects of METH on splenic T cell functions, such as cytokine production and degranulation, and how they regulate each other. We used the Probability State Modeling (PSM) program to visualize the differentiation of effector/memory T cell subsets during LCMV infection and analyze the effects of METH on T cell subset progression. We recently demonstrated that METH increased PD-1 expression on T cells during viral infection. In this study, we further analyzed the impact of PD-1 expression on T cell functional markers as well as its expression in the effector/memory subsets. Overall, our study indicates that analyzing polyfunctionality of T cells can provide additional insight into T cell effector functions. Analysis of T cell heterogeneity is important to highlight changes in the evolution of memory/effector functions during chronic viral infections. Our study also highlights the impact of METH on PD-1 expression and its consequences on T cell responses.

  20. Social stress exacerbates the aversion to painful experiences in rats exposed to chronic pain: the role of the locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Lidia; Alba-Delgado, Cristina; Torres-Sanchez, Sonia; Mico, Juan Antonio; Neto, Fani L; Berrocoso, Esther

    2013-10-01

    Stressful experiences seem to negatively influence pain perception through as yet unknown mechanisms. As the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus coordinates many components of the stress response, as well as nociceptive transmission, we evaluated whether the sensory and affective dimension of chronic neuropathic pain worsens in situations of stress due to adaptive changes of LC neurons. Accordingly, male rats were socially isolated for 5 weeks, and in the last 2 weeks, neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury. In this situation of stress, chronic pain selectively heightened the animal's aversion to painful experiences (affective pain), as measured in the place escape/avoidance test, although no changes were observed in the sensory dimension of pain. In addition, electrophysiological recordings of LC neurons showed a low tonic but exacerbated nociceptive-evoked activity when the injured paw was stimulated. These changes were accompanied by an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase and gephyrin expression in the LC. Furthermore, intra-LC administration of bicuculline, a γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist, attenuated the negative affective effects of pain. These data show that changes in the LC are greater than those expected from the simple summation of each independent factor (pain and stress), revealing mechanisms through which stressors may exacerbate pain perception without affecting the sensorial dimension. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Intra-facility linkage of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed babies into HIV chronic care: rural and urban experience in a resource limited setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mugasha

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Linkage of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV care remains critical for improvement of maternal and child outcomes through prevention of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT and subsequent chronic HIV care. This study determined proportions and factors associated with intra-facility linkage to HIV care and Early Infant Diagnosis care (EID to inform strategic scale up of PMTCT programs. METHODS: A cross-sectional review of records was done at 2 urban and 3 rural public health care facilities supported by the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI. HIV-infected pregnant mothers, identified through routine antenatal care (ANC and HIV-exposed babies were evaluated for enrollment in HIV clinics by 6 weeks post-delivery. RESULTS: Overall, 1,025 HIV-infected pregnant mothers were identified during ANC between January and June, 2012; 267/1,025 (26% in rural and 743/1,025 (74% in urban facilities. Of these 375/1,025 (37% were linked to HIV clinics [67/267(25% rural and 308/758(41% urban]. Of 636 HIV-exposed babies, 193 (30% were linked to EID. Linkage of mother-baby pairs to HIV chronic care and EID was 16% (101/636; 8/179 (4.5%] in rural and 93/457(20.3% in urban health facilities. Within rural facilities, ANC registration <28 weeks-of-gestation was associated with mothers' linkage to HIV chronic care [AoR, 2.0 95% CI, 1.1-3.7, p = 0.019] and mothers' multi-parity was associated with baby's linkage to EID; AoR 4.4 (1.3-15.1, p = 0.023. Stigma, long distance to health facilities and vertical PMTCT services affected linkage in rural facilities, while peer mothers, infant feeding services, long patient queues and limited privacy hindered linkage to HIV care in urban settings. CONCLUSION: Post-natal linkage of HIV-infected mothers to chronic HIV care and HIV-exposed babies to EID programs was low. Barriers to linkage to HIV care vary in urban and rural settings. We recommend targeted interventions to rapidly improve linkage to

  2. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  3. Selected trends in breast cancer epidemiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Mardiak, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of malignant tumors in women and so poses a serious social and economic problem. Aims: By analysing the trends of the basic indicators of breast cancer descriptive epidemiology in Slovakia, the prospective development was predicted, providing the missing information needed to assess the impact of intervention programmes. Results: The age-standardised incidence of breast cancer in Slovakia shows a strongly rising trend by an annual percentage change value of 2.2%, whereby in respect of mortality, after a previous significant decrease in values recorded in the period 2000-2009, stabilisation is registered once again with an annual percentage change of 3.4% (without statistical significance). Conclusion: Adverse trends in the development of breast cancer mortality in Slovakia underline the importance of establishing and monitoring the efficacy of intervention steps as part of organised screening. (author)

  4. Chronic radiation exposure: possibility of studying mutation process in generations based on the established DNA bank of exposed individuals and their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinova, Galina G.; Adamova, Galina V.; Dudchenko, Natalya N.; Azizova, Tamara V.; Kurbatov, Andrey V.

    2002-01-01

    Data were summarized on the DNA Bank establishment for workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in Southern Ural, who were exposed to different doses of chronic radiation from γ -rays during the first years of the enterprise operations (1948-1958) and their families. Some workers were exposed to combined radiation (external + internal radiation from incorporated 239 Pu). The DNA Bank was established to store the unique genetic material from these individuals and their offspring for future risk estimation of the late consequences of radiation exposure using modern molecular-genetic technologies. Today, DNA Bank contains genetic material from 1,500 individuals and 218 families. The computer database was generated for the DNA Bank. It included individual medical-demographic, occupational descriptions and doses, quantitative and qualitative DNA data. Literature data on radiation-induced genome instability (variability of hypervariable areas) were also analyzed. Prospects of the DNA Bank establishment are also presented. The work is carried out on extension of the DNA Bank of exposed individuals and their offspring

  5. In vivo evaluation of the potential neurotoxicity of aerosols released from mechanical stress of nano-TiO2 additived paints in mice chronically exposed by inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manixay, S.; Delaby, S.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Wiart, M.; Motzkus, C.; Bencsik, A.

    2017-06-01

    Engineered Nanomaterials (ENM) provide technical and specific benefits due to their physical-chemical properties at the nanometer scale. For instance, many ENM are used to improve products in the building industry. Nanoscaled titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most used ENM in this industry. Incorporated in different matrix, cement, glass, paints… TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) provide the final product with anti-UV, air purification and self-cleaning properties, thanks to their photocatalytic activity. However, ageing processes of such products, as photocatalytic paints, during a mechanical stress have been shown to release TiO2 NPs from this matrix associated with sanding dust. Thus, workers who sand painted walls could be exposed to TiO2 NPs through inhalation. As inhalation may lead to a translocation of particulate matter to the brain via olfactory or trigeminal nerves, there is an urgent need for evaluating a potential neurotoxicity. In order to provide new knowledge on this topic, we developed a dedicated experimental set-up using a rodent model exposed via inhalation. The aerosol released from a mechanical stress of photocatalytic paints containing TiO2 NPs was characterized and coupled to an exposition chamber containing group of mice free to move and chronically exposed (2 hours per day for 5 days a week during 8 weeks).

  6. In vivo evaluation of the potential neurotoxicity of aerosols released from mechanical stress of nano-TiO2 additived paints in mice chronically exposed by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manixay, S; Bencsik, A; Delaby, S; Gaie-Levrel, F; Wiart, M; Motzkus, C

    2017-01-01

    Engineered Nanomaterials (ENM) provide technical and specific benefits due to their physical-chemical properties at the nanometer scale. For instance, many ENM are used to improve products in the building industry. Nanoscaled titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is one of the most used ENM in this industry. Incorporated in different matrix, cement, glass, paints… TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) provide the final product with anti-UV, air purification and self-cleaning properties, thanks to their photocatalytic activity. However, ageing processes of such products, as photocatalytic paints, during a mechanical stress have been shown to release TiO 2 NPs from this matrix associated with sanding dust. Thus, workers who sand painted walls could be exposed to TiO 2 NPs through inhalation. As inhalation may lead to a translocation of particulate matter to the brain via olfactory or trigeminal nerves, there is an urgent need for evaluating a potential neurotoxicity. In order to provide new knowledge on this topic, we developed a dedicated experimental set-up using a rodent model exposed via inhalation. The aerosol released from a mechanical stress of photocatalytic paints containing TiO 2 NPs was characterized and coupled to an exposition chamber containing group of mice free to move and chronically exposed (2 hours per day for 5 days a week during 8 weeks). (paper)

  7. Lemna minor plants chronically exposed to ionising radiation: RNA-seq analysis indicates a dose rate dependent shift from acclimation to survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    Ecotoxicological research provides knowledge on ionising radiation-induced responses in different plant species. However, the sparse data currently available are mainly extracted from acute exposure treatments. To provide a better understanding of environmental exposure scenarios, the response to stress in plants must be followed in more natural relevant chronic conditions. We previously showed morphological and biochemical responses in Lemna minor plants continuously exposed for 7days in a dose-rate dependent manner. In this study responses on molecular (gene expression) and physiological (photosynthetic) level are evaluated in L. minor plants exposed to ionising radiation. To enable this, we examined the gene expression profiles of irradiated L. minor plants by using an RNA-seq approach. The gene expression data reveal indications that L. minor plants exposed at lower dose rates, can tolerate the exposure by triggering acclimation responses. In contrast, at the highest dose rate tested, a high number of genes related to antioxidative defense systems, DNA repair and cell cycle were differentially expressed suggesting that only high dose rates of ionising radiation drive L. minor plants into survival strategies. Notably, the photosynthetic process seems to be unaffected in L. minor plants among the tested dose rates. This study, supported by our earlier work, clearly indicates that plants shift from acclimation responses towards survival responses at increasing dose rates of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dose reduction using bismuth shielding during paediatric CT examinations in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbelcova, L.; Nikodemova, D.; Horvathova, M.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the massive increase of computer tomography (CT) examinations in Slovakia during the last 10 y, it can be expected that a higher radiation load may be observed in the Slovak population. Since child population is more sensitive to radiation than adult population, a monitoring has started to see how high the radiation dose is for paediatric patients during CT examinations in chosen departments in Slovakia. The CT examination of the head is one of the most frequently done examinations in Slovakian departments and that is why measurements were done to clarify how usage of bismuth shields for eyes and thyroid can affect the eye and thyroid doses. For simulation, 215 thermoluminescent dosimeters were exposed on anthropomorphic phantom of a child with and without usage of bismuth shields. The result was that only two of the three chosen departments confirmed a reduction. On the other hand, one of the departments confirmed that the reduction can be up to 56-65 %, which is significant. (authors)

  9. Are radiosensitivity data derived from natural field conditions consistent with data from controlled exposures? A case study of Chernobyl wildlife chronically exposed to low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Geras’kin, S.; Della-Vedova, C.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Hinton, T.G.; Real, A.; Oudalova, A.

    2013-01-01

    The discrepancy between laboratory or controlled conditions ecotoxicity tests and field data on wildlife chronically exposed to ionising radiation is presented for the first time. We reviewed the available chronic radiotoxicity data acquired in contaminated fields and used a statistical methodology to support the comparison with knowledge on inter-species variation of sensitivity to controlled external γ irradiation. We focus on the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and effects data on terrestrial wildlife reported in the literature corresponding to chronic dose rate exposure situations (from background∼100 nGy/h up to ∼10 mGy/h). When needed, we reconstructed the dose rate to organisms and obtained consistent unbiased data sets necessary to establish the dose rate–effect relationship for a number of different species and endpoints. Then, we compared the range of variation of radiosensitivity of species from the Chernobyl-Exclusion Zone with the statistical distribution established for terrestrial species chronically exposed to purely gamma external irradiation (or chronic Species radioSensitivity Distribution – SSD). We found that the best estimate of the median value (HDR 50 ) of the distribution established for field conditions at Chernobyl (about 100 μGy/h) was eight times lower than the one from controlled experiments (about 850 μGy/h), suggesting that organisms in their natural environmental were more sensitive to radiation. This first comparison highlights the lack of mechanistic understanding and the potential confusion coming from sampling strategies in the field. To confirm the apparent higher sensitive of wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, we call for more a robust strategy in field, with adequate design to deal with confounding factors. -- Highlights: ► Discrepancy between controlled tests and Chernobyl effects data on wildlife was examined. ► We proposed a method to correct the dosimetry used for Chernobyl wildlife. ► Wildlife from the

  10. Assessment of thyroid system disruption in Rana pipiens tadpoles chronically exposed to UVB radiation and 4-tert-octylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, M.C., E-mail: maxinecroteau@hotmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Davidson, M., E-mail: mdavi089@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Duarte-Guterman, P., E-mail: duarte.paula@gmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wade, M., E-mail: mike_wade@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Popesku, J.T., E-mail: jpopesku@gmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wiens, S., E-mail: susannawiens@hotmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Lean, D.R.S., E-mail: dlean@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Trudeau, V.L., E-mail: trudeauv@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-11-08

    Many studies have considered recent increases in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) and endocrine disrupting chemicals polluting the environment as possible contributing factors to the reduction in amphibian populations. It has been demonstrated that exposure of amphibians to estrogenic chemicals or UVBR can affect the timing of larval development and metamorphosis. However, amphibians in the wild are exposed to multiple environmental stressors simultaneously. Therefore, our study examines the effects of UVBR and the estrogenic chemical 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), alone and in combination, on the thyroid system of Rana pipiens tadpoles, which is the main regulator of amphibian metamorphosis. Results demonstrate that thyroid gland histomorphology measurements in Gosner stage 31 tadpoles continuously exposed to UVBR (0.21 W/m{sup 2}) were not different than those measured in animals from the control group. In a separate experiment, tadpoles exposed to environmentally relevant levels of UVBR (0.22 W/m{sup 2}) and/or OP (0.01 nM or 10 nM) exhibited significantly delayed development starting from Gosner stage 29, given that fewer tadpoles developed past stage 29 in these groups. In addition, significantly fewer UVBR-treated tadpoles developed past stage 34 and metamorphosed. Samples were collected from stages 29 and 34 tadpoles for gene expression analysis in tail tissue and measurements of T3 (triiodothyronine) whole body levels (minus tail). UVBR and/or OP exposure did not affect T3 levels in stages 29 and 34 tadpoles. However, a decrease in deiodinase type 2 (D2) or increase in deiodinase type 3 (D3) mRNA levels was observed in groups of tadpoles with slowed developmental rates at those developmental stages. Given that D2 activates and D3 inactivates thyroid hormones (TH), UVBR/OP mediated disruptions in development are likely caused by dysfunctions in the localized metabolism of THs through alterations in the expression of these enzymes in peripheral tissues. This is the

  11. Third steam-gas plant in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    There are currently two large steam/gas plants in Slovakia, in Bratislava and Ruzomberok, and a third company is to start producing electricity and heat using natural gas. Although Siemens and the Swiss company, Advanced Power, have been discussing creating a steam/gas plant in Malzenice close to Trnava, it seems that Adato, Levice will be the first to launch production. Adato plans to build a facility worth 2 bil. Sk (54.05 mil. EUR) at the Gena industrial park in Levice. Although it is to employ only 35 people, the whole region would benefit. Levice wants to attract more investors that will need more electricity and according to the Mayor of Levice, Stefan Misak, the heat produced by the steam/gas plant will represent a good option for old town boilers. The executive officer and sole owner of Adato, Miroslav Gazo, stressed that the company could not cover the whole costs of the planned investment on its own. Several investors have already shown interest in financing the project and one foreign and two local investors are in negotiations. Adato has a state permit, has signed a contract with the town, has found suppliers of technologies abroad and has signed a preliminary contract with energy consumers. The company is not rushing into the project without having a risk assessment in place. W e know that gas prices are going up. But our project will be profitable even under the least optimistic scenarios of gas price development,' said M. Gazo. He is negotiating with the gas utility, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, and other gas suppliers. (authors)

  12. Development of the mitigation plan for Slovakia energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojik, I.

    1996-12-31

    According to the review of national communications from Annex I countries (FCCC/AGBM/1996/7), Slovakia is in 21st place among countries in descending order of GHG emissions. With respect to GHG emission per capita Slovakia is in 14th place and from the point of view of GHG emissions per GDP unit Slovakia is in 7th place. However, within world wide GHG emissions those originating from Slovakia are nearly negligible, but GHG emissions related to per capita or even to GDP are significantly high. Since energy production is responsible for more than 70% of GHG emissions (88% of CO{sub 2} emission) the high ranking of Slovakia is evidence of the high energy intensity of the Slovak Economy. As is common in countries with economies in transition there is no stable trend in macroeconomical values in Slovakia. Although the general shape of possible development curves is known, in fact the exact level of the real curve is not predictable. According to their analyses the Slovak Republic surely will meet the basic UN FCCC obligation for Annex I countries, i.e. to limit anthropogenic emissions of GHG in the year 2000 to the level of 1990. However, the above mentioned uncertainties are the main reason why they have no firm guaranty of fulfilling their domestic target (20% CO{sub 2} reduction in 2005 compared to 1988). Analyses made within the Country Study program have indicated that there is good possibility of reaching the domestic target but uncertainty is high and certain conditions have to be met.

  13. Chronic health effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water: dose-response relationships in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takahiko; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sun Guifan

    2004-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) poisoning has become a worldwide public health issue. Most human As exposure occurs from consumption of drinking water containing high amounts of inorganic As (iAs). In this paper, epidemiological studies conducted on the dose-response relationships between iAs exposure via the drinking water and related adverse health effects are reviewed. Before the review, the methods for evaluation of the individual As exposure are summarized and classified into two types, that is, the methods depending on As concentration of the drinking water and the methods depending on biological monitoring for As exposure; certain methods may be applied as optimum As exposure indexes to study dose-response relationship based on various As exposure situation. Chronic effects of iAs exposure via drinking water include skin lesions, neurological effects, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, diabetes mellitus, and malignancies including skin cancer. The skin is quite sensitive to arsenic, and skin lesions are some of the most common and earliest nonmalignant effects related to chronic As exposure. The increase of prevalence in the skin lesions has been observed even at the exposure levels in the range of 0.005-0.01 mg/l As in drinking waters. Skin, lung, bladder, kidney, liver, and uterus are considered as sites As-induced malignancies, and the skin is though to be perhaps the most sensitive site. Prospective studies in large area of endemic As poisoning, like Bangladesh or China, where the rate of malignancies is expected to increase within the next several decades, will help to clarify the dose-response relationship between As exposure levels and adverse health effects with enhanced accuracy

  14. Production and standing crop of litter and humus in a forest exposed to chronic gamma irradiation for twelve years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Woodwell, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous exposure since 1961 of an oak-pine forest at Brookhaven National Laboratory to chronic gamma irradiation has shown: (1) progressive reduction in litter production from the first year through 1965; (2) greater litter production in 1973 compared to 1965 at exposure rates below 9 R/day primarily because of the prolific sprouting of the oaks, especially Quercus alba; (3) further reduction in litter production in intermediate zones (14-49 R/day) from 1965 to 1973 as a result of replacement of the forest by a Carex pensylvanica mat; (4) increased litter production in the high exposure zone (125 R/day) in 1973 as a result of colonization by adventive species; (5) reduction in the standing crop of litter by 1973 at the lowest exposure rate studied (3.5 R/day) although in 1965 there was no reduction at exposure rates up to 15 R/day; (6) decline in humus content at 4.6 R/day and above with the standing crop in the Carex zone exceeding that of the shrub and damaged forest zones of lower exposures. Both further losses and partial recovery in the production and storage of organic matter have occurred since 1965. These changes constitute a portion of the long-term response of the forest to chronic disturbance. The pattern of response is the result of ecosystem processes that are still not in equilibrium with the chronic disturbance and which were not predictable from short-term studies, even those spanning as much as 4 yr

  15. [Neurologic diagnosis and certification in persons chronically exposed to certain organic solvents in light of personal cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sińczuk-Walczak, H

    1995-01-01

    A clinical picture of selected cases diagnosed or suspected of chronic poisoning by organic solvents such as: Trichlorethylene (TRI), Tetrachlorethylene (PER), Carbon Disulfide (CS2) is presented. Based on examples of diagnosed neurological syndromes, some diagnostic and certification issues concerning occupational diseases of the neurological system, are analysed. An objective assessment of patients' complaints, differentiation between occupational diseases, so called idiopathic diseases of the nervous system, selection of appropropriate diagnostic methods in order to confirm or exclude these diseases belong to essential problems among those discussed.

  16. Sources of Investment Finance in Firms in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikócziová Jana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on results of the EBRD-World Bank “Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey” (BEEPS, the paper provides an explanation of why firms in Slovakia finance the most of their new investments with retained earnings, followed by bank debt, trade credit and external equity, as well as why small firms tend to use more retained earnings and less bank debt than medium and large firms. The financing patterns of firms in Slovakia are compared to the average financing patterns of firms in selected OECD-countries. Furthermore, measures to stimulate corporate investments and their financing are proposed.

  17. Sources of Investment Finance in Firms in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Mikócziová Jana

    2010-01-01

    Based on results of the EBRD-World Bank “Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey” (BEEPS), the paper provides an explanation of why firms in Slovakia finance the most of their new investments with retained earnings, followed by bank debt, trade credit and external equity, as well as why small firms tend to use more retained earnings and less bank debt than medium and large firms. The financing patterns of firms in Slovakia are compared to the average financing patterns of firms...

  18. CASE STUDY: POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND RESPONSES TO PLAGIARISM IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLTYNEK, Tomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The European project “Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe“ has identified best practices and gaps related to plagiarism in different European countries. Slovakia is one of interesting ones, where national repository for plagiarism detection was established. However, there are still gaps in terms of policies and overall understanding of plagiarism. This case study describes what happened in Slovakia in last few years, compares the situation with other European countries and discusses the results. Additionally, the number of occurrences of the terms “plagiarism” and “academic integrity” in media and on the Internet is examined in relation to recent changes.

  19. Mineral resources of Slovakia, questions of classification and valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláž Peter

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, mineral resources of Slovakia are in the ownership of Slovak Republic. In 1997, 721 exclusive mineral deposits of mineral fuels, metals and industrial minerals were registered in Slovakia. The classification for economic and uneconomic reserves/resources requires an annual updating, concerning changes of market mineral prices and mine production costs. In terms of economic valuation of mineral resources, a new United Nations international classification for reserves/resources appears as a perspective alternative. Changes of geological and mining legislation are necessary for real valuation of Slovak mineral resources.

  20. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunca, Vladimír; Čiliak, Marek

    2017-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia" (Kunca and Čiliak, 2016) [FUNECO607] [2]. The dataset include all available and unpublished data from Slovakia, besides the records from the same tree or stem. We compiled a database of records of collections by processing data from herbaria, personal records and communication with mycological activists. Data on altitude, tree species, host tree vital status, host tree position and intensity of management of forest stands were evaluated in this study. All surveys were based on basidioma occurrence and some result from targeted searches.

  1. Risk assessment of chronic stress at work place and work environment of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation at work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, S.; Ilic, Z.; Spasojevic-Tisma, V.; Milanovic, S.)

    2007-01-01

    Interactions of factors at work and worker's health have been analyzed through indicators of chronic professional stress. The examinees have been persons working with sealed sources of radiation with various professional risks among which we have stressed exposure to different radiation doses. Health professionals (medical doctors, radiologist, technicians) working in radio diagnostic and radiotherapy of oncology deceases have been examined. It was concluded that examinees among the subgroup 'therapy' has higher values of stress indicators expressed through all examined indicators: work motivation, personal opinion of work load, behavioral dysfunctions (smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse), increase incidence of health dysfunctions and general neuroticism of examinees. Obtained results are values for which statistical significant have not been established, so they have certain theoretical and practical importance in the frame research with descriptive nature [sr

  2. Time trends for alendronate prescription practices in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and women exposed to systemic glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask-Lindemann, Dorthe; Eiken, P; Eskildsen, P

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systemic glucocorticoid exposure are well-known risk factors of osteoporosis. We evaluated alendronate prescription practices related to COPD and exposure to systemic corticosteroids from 1996 to 2008 and showed an increasing targeting...... of alendronate treatment in patients with COPD and patients with systemic corticosteroid exposure. Introduction COPD and systemic glucocorticoid exposure are well-known risk factors of osteoporosis and fragility fracture, but osteoporosis is often underdiagnosed and undertreated in these patients. This study...... aims to evaluate alendronate prescription practices related to COPD and/or to exposure to systemic glucocorticoids among Danish women. Methods A total of 388,314 female subjects >50 years old, 64,719 of whom initiated treatment with alendronate, and 323,595 age- and gender-matched controls were...

  3. Antidepressant-like effect of Butea superba in mice exposed to chronic mild stress and its possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, Daishu; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Tanaka, Ken; Thi Le, Xoan; Fujiwara, Hironori; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Higuchi, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-28

    Butea superba (BS) is a Thai medicinal plant that has been used as a folk medicine to improve physical and mental conditions and to prevent impaired sexual performance in middle-aged or elderly males. We have previously reported that this plant extract could improve cognitive deficits and depression-like behavior in olfactory bulbectomized mice, an animal model of dementia and depression. In this study we examined the effect of BS on depression-like behavior in mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) to clarify the antidepressant-like activity of BS and the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. UCMS mice were administered BS daily (300 mg of dried herb weight/kg, p.o.) or a reference drug, imipramine (IMP, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), 1 week after starting the UCMS procedure. We employed the sucrose preference test and the tail suspension test to analyze anhedonia and depression-like behavior of mice, respectively. Serum and brain tissues of mice were used for neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies. The UCMS procedure induced anhedonia and depression-like behavior, and BS treatment, as well as IMP treatment, attenuated these symptoms. UCMS caused an elevation of serum corticosterone level, an index of hyper-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, in a manner attenuated by BS and IMP treatment. BS treatment also attenuated UCMS-induced decrease in the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and a phosphorylated form of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit NR1, synaptic plasticity-related signaling proteins. Moreover, the UCMS procedure reduced doublecortin-positive cells in the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. BS administration reversed these UCMS-induced neurochemical and histological abnormalities. These results suggest that BS can ameliorate chronic stress-induced depression-like symptoms and that the effects of BS are mediated by

  4. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor teneligliptin functions as antioxidant on human endothelial cells exposed to chronic hyperglycemia and metabolic high-glucose memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas, Gemma; De Nigris, Valeria; Prattichizzo, Francesco; La Sala, Lucia; Testa, Roberto; Ceriello, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are widely used in type 2 diabetes. Endothelium plays a crucial role maintaining vascular integrity and function. Chronic exposure to high glucose drives to endothelial dysfunction generating oxidative stress. Teneligliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor with antioxidant properties. This study is aimed to verify a potential protective action of teneligliptin in endothelial cells exposed to high glucose. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured under normal (5 mmol/L) or high glucose (25 mmol/L) during 21 days, or at high glucose during 14 days followed by 7 days at normal glucose, to reproduce the high-metabolic memory state. During this period, different concentrations of teneligliptin (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 µmol/L) or sitagliptin (0.5 µmol/L) were added to cells. Ribonucleic acid and protein expression were assessed for antioxidant response, proliferation, apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers. Teneligliptin promotes the antioxidant response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, reducing ROS levels and inducing Nrf2-target genes messenger ribonucleic acid expression. Teneligliptin, but not sitagliptin, reduces the expression of the nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase regulatory subunit P22 -phox , however, both blunt the high glucose-induced increase of TXNIP. Teneligliptin improves proliferation rates in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to high glucose, regulating the expression of cell-cycle inhibitors markers (P53, P21 and P27), and reducing proapoptotic genes (BAX and CASP3), while promotes BCL2 expression. Teneligliptin ameliorates high glucose-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress reducing the expression of several markers (BIP, PERK, ATF4, CHOP, IRE1a and ATF6). Teneligliptin has antioxidant properties, ameliorates oxidative stress and apoptotic phenotype and it can overcome the metabolic memory effect, induced by chronic exposure to high

  5. Linking genomic responses of gonads with reproductive impairment in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed chronically to the chemopreventive and antifouling agent, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lianguo [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China); Au, Doris W.T. [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Hu, Chenyan [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Weipeng [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China); Zhou, Bingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Cai, Lin [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Qian, Pei-Yuan, E-mail: boqianpy@ust.hk [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Marine medaka were exposed chronically to low-doses of DIM. • Toxicogenomic responses of gonads were profiled at transcript and protein levels. • Molecular initiating events were linked to adverse apical outcomes. • VTG mobilization was blocked by lower abundance of cathepsin enzyme in ovary. • Eggshell proteins were more indicative of reproductive failure than VTG. - Abstract: 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been promoted as an effective chemopreventive and antifouling additive. However, the concurrent risks or side effects of DIM are not fully understood, especially on tissues responsive to estrogen. Therefore, this study employed marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a test model to evaluate relative safety and explore mechanisms of toxic action of DIM on development and function of gonad after chronic (28 days) aqueous exposure to relatively low doses (0 μg/L or 8.5 μg/L). Integration of comprehensive toxicogenomic analysis at the transcriptome and proteome levels with apical endpoints, such as production of eggs and swimming performance of larvae, elucidated the molecular linkage in gonad from bottom up along the reproductive adverse outcome pathway. A series of sequential changes at the transcript and protein levels were linked to lesser fecundity and viability of larvae exposed to DIM. Anomalous production of vitellogenin (VTG) and eggshell proteins in testis confirmed the estrogenic potency of DIM. In the ovary, although storage of VTG was greater, lesser expressions of cathepsin enzymes blocked cleavage and incorporation of VTG into oocytes as yolk, which acted together with lower eggshell proteins to inhibit maturation of primary oocyte and thus contributed to impairment of fecundity. Overall, this study demonstrated that exposure to DIM impaired reproductive fitness. Diverse molecular initiating changes in gonads were linked to apical endpoints that could be used in assessment of risks posed by DIM on gametogenesis. In

  6. Pronounced susceptibility to infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in mice chronically exposed to lead correlates with a shift to Th2-type immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Cabezudo, Maria J.; Ali, Sumaya A.E.; Ullah, Azim; Hasan, Mohammed Y.; Kosanovic, Melita; Fahim, Mohamed A.; Adem, Abdu; Al-Ramadi, Basel K.

    2007-01-01

    Persistent exposure to inorganic lead (Pb) is known to adversely affect the immune system. In the present study, we assessed the effect of chronic Pb exposure on susceptibility to infection by the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mice were exposed to 10 mM Pb-acetate in drinking water for ∼ 16 weeks, resulting in a significant level of Pb in the blood (106.2 ± 8.9 μg/dl). Pb exposure rendered mice susceptible to Salmonella infection, manifested by increased bacterial burden in target organs and heightened mortality. Flow cytometric analysis of the splenic cellular composition in normal and Pb-exposed mice revealed no gross alteration in the ratios of B and T lymphocytes or myeloid cells. Similarly, the capacity of B and T cells to upregulate the expression of activation antigens in response to mitogenic or inflammatory stimuli was not hindered by Pb exposure. Analysis of the ability of ex vivo-cultured splenocytes to secrete cytokines demonstrated a marked reduction in IFN-γ and IL-12p40 production associated with Pb exposure. In contrast, secretion of IL-4 by splenocytes of Pb-treated mice was 3- to 3.6-fold higher than in normal mice. The increased capacity to produce IL-4 correlated with a shift in the in vivo anti-Salmonella antibody response from the protective IgG2a isotype to the Th2-induced IgG1 isotype. We conclude that chronic exposure to high levels of Pb results in a state of immunodeficiency which is not due to an overt cytotoxic or immunosuppressive mechanism, but rather is largely caused by a shift in immune responsiveness to Th2-type reactions

  7. Linking genomic responses of gonads with reproductive impairment in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed chronically to the chemopreventive and antifouling agent, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lianguo; Au, Doris W.T.; Hu, Chenyan; Zhang, Weipeng; Zhou, Bingsheng; Cai, Lin; Giesy, John P.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Marine medaka were exposed chronically to low-doses of DIM. • Toxicogenomic responses of gonads were profiled at transcript and protein levels. • Molecular initiating events were linked to adverse apical outcomes. • VTG mobilization was blocked by lower abundance of cathepsin enzyme in ovary. • Eggshell proteins were more indicative of reproductive failure than VTG. - Abstract: 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been promoted as an effective chemopreventive and antifouling additive. However, the concurrent risks or side effects of DIM are not fully understood, especially on tissues responsive to estrogen. Therefore, this study employed marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a test model to evaluate relative safety and explore mechanisms of toxic action of DIM on development and function of gonad after chronic (28 days) aqueous exposure to relatively low doses (0 μg/L or 8.5 μg/L). Integration of comprehensive toxicogenomic analysis at the transcriptome and proteome levels with apical endpoints, such as production of eggs and swimming performance of larvae, elucidated the molecular linkage in gonad from bottom up along the reproductive adverse outcome pathway. A series of sequential changes at the transcript and protein levels were linked to lesser fecundity and viability of larvae exposed to DIM. Anomalous production of vitellogenin (VTG) and eggshell proteins in testis confirmed the estrogenic potency of DIM. In the ovary, although storage of VTG was greater, lesser expressions of cathepsin enzymes blocked cleavage and incorporation of VTG into oocytes as yolk, which acted together with lower eggshell proteins to inhibit maturation of primary oocyte and thus contributed to impairment of fecundity. Overall, this study demonstrated that exposure to DIM impaired reproductive fitness. Diverse molecular initiating changes in gonads were linked to apical endpoints that could be used in assessment of risks posed by DIM on gametogenesis. In

  8. Gravimetric Model of Quasigeoid in the Area of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Papčo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The gravimetric model of quasigeoid in the area of Slovakia was determined by using the revised and homogenised gravity mapping data in the scale of 1:25 000 from the area of Slovakia, and by using the mean Bouguer gravity anomalies with the resolution of 5´x7.5´ in the area 44°<φ<56° and 12°<λ<30° from abroad and by the digital terrain model DMR-2/ERTS89 with the resolution 3“ in the ellipsoidal latitude and 5“ in the ellipsoidal longitude from the area of Slovakia and the digital terrain model GTOPO30 with the resolution of 30“ in the ellipsoidal latitude and 30“ in the ellipsoidal longitude from abroad. The global part of the height anomaly was determined from the global geopotential model EGM96. The residual part of the height anomaly was determined by the Stokes integral formula. For the solution of the Stokes integra,l the Fast Fourier Transformation method in the spherical approximation was used. The gravimetric quasigeoid was tested by the GPS/levelling method using 46 points distributed on the area of Slovakia. The systematic trend of differences between height anomalies was rejected by the surface polynomial of second degree with 6 coefficients. The standard deviation after removing a systematic trend was 0.017 m

  9. Press travel to the Mochovce power plant in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This press dossier gives, first, a general presentation of the Mochovce power plant of the republic of Slovakia (history, technical characteristics, safety aspects, technical particularities of VVER 440/213 reactors (safety analysis, recent improvements), financing of the modernization project). Then, the activities of the Framatome group in central and eastern Europe are presented (partnerships, cooperation agreements and contracts). (J.S.)

  10. The Forbidden Fruit of Federalism: Evidence from Romania and Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel; Szöcsik, Edina

    2013-01-01

    or (asymmetric) autonomy, creating self-governed regions by the Hungarian minorities in Romania and Slovakia. The analysis focuses on the positions of the main parties of the ethnic majorities and the Hungarian minority parties in the two countries. In both cases, the parties representing the Hungarian...

  11. International excursion hydrogeology, Slovakia, [September 8 - 15, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksma, R.

    1996-01-01

    This is a report of the hydrogeological excursion to Slovakia, held in the period from September 8 up to September 15, 1996. This report is a compilation of the work of the participating students, parts of the excursion guide and also information, provided by the Slovak excursion guides.

  12. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia.

  13. PPP projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna TOMOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper informs about public – private partnerships projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia, describing various modes of capital entry. The PPI database of the World Bank is used. Advantages of PPP schemes are discussed for further development of infrastructure sectors.

  14. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Shuyusan in Rats Exposed to Chronic Stress: Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate antidepressant activities of Shuyusan (a Chinese herb, using a rats model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS. The administration groups were treated with Shuyusan decoction for 3 weeks and compared with fluoxetine treatment. In order to understand the potential antidepressant-like activities of Shuyusan, tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were used as behavioral despair study. The level of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRH, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone (CORT and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor expression were examined. After modeling, there was a significant prolongation of immobility time in administration groups with the TST and FST. High-dose Shuyusan could reduce the immobility time measured with the TST and FST. The immobility time in high-dose herbs group and fluoxetine group was increased significantly compared with the model group. After 3 weeks herbs fed, the serum contents level of CRH, ACTH, and CORT in high-dose herb group was significantly decreased compared to the model group. The result indicated that Shuyusan had antidepressant activity effects on UCMS model rats. The potential antidepressant effect may be related to decreasing glucocorticoid levels activity, regulating the function of HPA axis, and inhibiting glucocorticoid receptor expression in hippocampus.

  15. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  16. [Effects of interleukin-18 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in serum and gingival tissues of rat model with periodontitis exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluates the expression of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-lα in rat periodontitis model exposed to normoxia and chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) environments. The possible correlation between periodontitis and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) was also investigated. Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into four groups: normoxia control, normoxia periodontitis, hypoxia control, and hypoxia periodontitis groups. The periodontitis models were established by ligating the bilateral maxillary second molars and employing high-carbohydrate diets. Rats in hypoxia control and hypoxia periodontitis groups were exposed to CIH treatment mimicking a moderately severe OSAHS condition. All animals were sacrificed after eight weeks, and the clinical periodontal indexes were detected. The levels of IL-18 and HIF-1α in serum and gingival tissues were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between attachment loss (AL) and the levels of IL-18 and HIF-lα in hypoxia periodontitis group was evaluated. The levels of IL-18 and HIF-lα in hypoxia periodontitis group were significantly higher than that in normoxia periodontitis and hypoxia control groups (Pperiodontal tissues, which is correlated with IL-18 and HIF-lα levels.

  17. The medical management of high risk individuals. Experiences with persons exposed to chronic internal irradiation; Ueber den aerztlichen Umgang mit Hochrisikopersonen. Erfahrungen bei Personen mit chronischer interner Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaick, G. van; Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, E010 - Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The medical management and counseling of persons at high risk due to exposure to chemicals or radiation or due to personal disposition, present an additional challenge for physicians and especially radiologists involved. This article is based on own experiences with patients who had been exposed to Thorotrast. They had been injected with the contrast medium Thorotrast, which was in use world-wide until around 1950. Thorotrast caused a chronic alpha irradiation mainly of the liver (up to 0.4 Gy/a), spleen (1.2 Gy/a) and bone marrow (0.1 Gy/a). For the Thorotrast patients and their physicians the most worrying problem was the risk of primary malignant liver tumors which occurred in more than 20% of the exposed persons, i.e. 100 times more frequently than in a non-exposed control group. The medical and especially radiological experiences with the management of these patients summarize a general aspect of the problem and can be referred to when managing other high risk groups. (orig.) [German] Die aerztliche Fuehrung von Personen, die noch nicht erkrankt sind, aber ein deutlich hoeheres Risiko fuer bestimmte Tumorerkrankungen aufgrund exogener oder endogener Ursachen haben, stellt den Arzt und speziell den diagnostischen Radiologen vor neue Herausforderungen. Dem Beitrag zugrunde liegen die Erfahrungen bei der Betreuung und Beratung so genannter Thorotrastpatienten, d. h. Personen, die nach lange zurueckliegender (vor 1950) intravasaler Injektion eines weltweit eingesetzten Roentgenkontrastmittels zeitlebens einer Alphastrahlung v. a. der Leber (bis 0,4 Gy/a), der Milz (1,2 Gy/a) und des Knochenmarks (0,1 Gy/a) ausgesetzt waren. Fuer die Thorotrastpatienten und die Aerzte stand im Vordergrund die Sorge der Entstehung primaerer, maligner Lebertumoren, die bei mehr als 20% der Betroffenen und damit im Vergleich zu einer Kontrollgruppe 100-fach haeufiger auftraten. Die allgemeinen aerztlichen und speziell radiologischen Erfahrungen sind grundsaetzlicher Art und lassen

  18. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: Study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navoni, J.A.; De Pietri, D.; Olmos, V.; Gimenez, C.; Bovi Mitre, G.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10 −5 and 2,1·10 −2 . An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. - Highlights: • Risk assessment (RA) to As using deterministic procedures • Integration of RA through deterministic procedures with GIS tools • Analysis of the time-space behavior of the risk area • Analysis of As effect outcomes through HI • Broaden the scopes of deterministic approaches

  19. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navoni, J A; De Pietri, D; Olmos, V; Gimenez, C; Bovi Mitre, G; de Titto, E; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10(-5) and 2,1·10(-2). An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. II. histoenzymatic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, M.M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J. [Dept. of Toxicology, Medical Univ. of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland); Kaminski, M.; Dziki, M. [Dept. of Histology and Embryology, Silesian School of Medicine, Katowice-Ligota (Poland)

    2004-04-01

    Early effects of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the kidney were studied in an experimental model using rats intoxicated with Cd at the levels of 5 and 50 mg Cd/1 drinking water. The effect of Cd was evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. Damage to the cellular structures was assessed on the basis of histoenzymatic analyses of the activity and localization of indicator enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, Mg{sup 2+}-dependent adenosine triphosphatase and acid phosphatase). The histochemical observations indicate that Cd causes damage to the organization and function of the nephron. Several structures, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, lysosome, cellular and intracellular membrane, as well as their biological functions, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic respiration, transport functions and biochemical processes taking place in the endoplasmic reticulum, were affected. The cytotoxic action of Cd occurs mainly in the tubules and partially also in the glomeruli. The results clearly indicate that Cd damages kidney structurally and functionally even at a relatively low level (5 mg/l) corresponding to human environmental exposure, and they confirm our previous hypothesis that the threshold for the kidney effects of Cd is less than 4.08 {+-} 0.33 {mu}g/g kidney wet weight and higher than 2.40 {+-} 0.15 {mu}g/g. The target for Cd action in the kidney is the tubules (proximal convoluted tubules and straight tubules), and disturbance in their function is the main toxic effect of Cd. Renal glomeruli are also injured, but only partially, whereas in other parts of the nephron the damage is slight. The results, together with observations reported in the first paper of the study, incline us to conclude that humans environmentally exposed to Cd are at risk of tubular damage. (orig.)

  1. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: Study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navoni, J.A., E-mail: jnavoni@ffyb.uba.ar [Cátedra de Toxicología y Química Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); De Pietri, D., E-mail: depietrid@hotmail.com [Dirección Nacional de Determinantes de la Salud e Investigación, Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, Av. 9 de Julio 1925, C1073ABA Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Olmos, V. [Cátedra de Toxicología y Química Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gimenez, C. [Cátedra Química Analítica I, Universidad Nacional del Chaco Austral. Cmte., Fernández 755 (3700), Pres. Roque Sáenz Peña, Chaco (Argentina); Bovi Mitre, G. [Grupo INQA (Investigación Química Aplicada) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, Alberdi 47, piso 1, San Salvador de Jujuy, Jujuy CP 4600 (Argentina); and others

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10{sup −5} and 2,1·10{sup −2}. An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. - Highlights: • Risk assessment (RA) to As using deterministic procedures • Integration of RA through deterministic procedures with GIS tools • Analysis of the time-space behavior of the risk area • Analysis of As effect outcomes through HI • Broaden the scopes of deterministic approaches.

  2. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Germolec, Dori R.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Contreras-Ruiz, Jose; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Razo, Luz M. del

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAs III , MAs V , DMAs III , DMAs V ). This study examines the relationship between TGF-α concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-α in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-α concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-α levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-α concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p < 0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-α than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p = 0.003). These results suggest that TGF-α in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas

  3. Cancer Mortality Among Techa Riverside Residents (Southern Urals). Chronically Exposed to Radiation During the Prenatal Period and in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E. V.; Akleyev, A. V.

    2004-01-01

    Imperfect technology and lack of management and utilization facilities for reprocessing liquid waste released by the Mayak PA resulted in a protracted combined (external and internal) environmental radiation exposure of the population resident on the banks of the Techa River. The followup of 8.640 subjects exposed during the prenatal period and in childhood covered the period of 49 years (1.1.1950-31.12.1998), the total person-years under observation amounted to 222,686. From 1950 through 1998 1,231 death cases were registered in the catchment area (5 raions in Chelyabinsk OBlast through which the Techa flows). In 70 cases death was caused by solid cancers, and in 12 cases by leukemia. Analyses of solid cancer mortality yielded higher rates for men as compared to women (p<0.001). No significant differences in death rates were observed between different ethnic groups (Slavs vs Tartars and Bashkirs). A statistically significant increase in solid cancer mortality with attained age was shown (p<0.001). The age at first exposure was demonstrated to be a factor modifying the solid cancer mortality rate (p=0.049). The highest risk of death from solid cancers was manifested by persons whose exposure started in the prenatal period or at the age under 5 years. There were 4.6 excess cases in this group of 30 observed solid cancer cases, whereas in the group including subjects aged 5 years or older at first exposure only 1 excess case was registered among the 40 observed cancer cases. The obtained leukemia mortality ERR value (CLL excluded) was 7.76, p=0.09. The excess leukemia death was found to be 7.6 out of of 10 observed cases. The analysis performed should be regarded as a preliminary one, taking into account the need to further extend the followup of the cohort and a potential verification of dose estimates in the future. (Author) 11 refs

  4. Long-term runoff changes in regions of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekarova; Pavla

    2004-01-01

    Mean annual runoff variability includes both natural and anthropogenic (climate change) impacts. Aim of the paper is to identify the long-term trends and the cyclic runoff components of selected Slovak rivers for the period 1931-2000, and of the Danube river for the period 1840-2000. The variability is analysed by the long-term runoff trends of 27 Slovak rivers for the period 1931-2000. The stations were included into the Slovak National Climate Program and they are supposed not to be influenced by anthropogenic activities except of possible climate change. Comparison of the monthly runoff series of the 27 rivers allowed us to draw 3 regions with different runoff trends on the territory of Slovakia (constant trend in Northern and Eastern Slovakia, slow decrease in Central Slovakia, and rapid decrease in Southern Slovakia; The identification of different cyclic components of the runoff series is included. The length of the series allows to identify the 22-year cycles as maximum. By means of the longer runoff series of the Danube river it is shown that the more dry periods occurred in the central Europe and Slovakia in mid 19 th century. The longer Danube series were used also to find the longer runoff cycles of about 31 and 46 years. The mean annual temperature in Europe was lower by 0.6 o C in mid 19 th century compared to 1990s. The temperature increase is put down to climate change impact. The driest period shown by Danube runoff series in mid 19 th century occurred before the start of the climate change. Therefore it is probable that the long-term runoff variability has its own dynamics as well. (Author)

  5. Chronic radiation injury with mice and dogs exposed to external whole-body irradiation at the Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Fritz, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This document describes studies on chronic radiation injury in experimental animals and the extrapolation of derived injury parameters to man. Most of the large studies have used mice given single, weekly, or continuous exposure to cobalt-60 gamma rays, or, more recently, single or weekly exposure to fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor. Primary measures of injury have been life shortening and the associated major pathological changes, particularly neoplastic diseases. Recent and ongoing studies compare the effects of extremely low neutron exposures with gamma irradiations delivered as a single dose or in 60 equal weekly increments. Total neutron doses range from 1 to 40 rads; gamma-ray doses range from 22.5 to 600 rads. Selected genetic studies are performed concurrently to provide a nearly complete matrix of somatic and genetic effects of these low exposures. Studies with the beagle have complemented those with mice and have shown a strong parallelism in the responses of the two species. Present exposures are at 0.3, 0.75, and 1.88 rads per day of continuous gamma irradiation to test a model for the prediction of life shortening in man which has evolved from Argonne's long-term studies. The dog offers the opportunity for longitudinal clinical evaluations that are not possible in the mouse, to develop a broader view of the neoplastic disease spectrum, and to study the mechanisms of radiation induction of leukemia. Diverse statistical approaches have been used to measure excess risk, dose-response functions, and rates of injury and repair. Actuarial statistical methods have been favored since they permit a more direct means of extrapolation to man. 50 refs., 4 figs

  6. Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisudhan Thanukrishnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. Cytisus scoparius (CS Link, (Family: Leguminosae, also called Sarothamnus scoparius, has been shown in invitro experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate CS for its anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-oxidant activity in stressed rats. Methods 60% methanolic extract of CS was quantified for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS was employed to induce stress in rats. CS (125 and 250 mg/kg, p.o and diazepam (DZM (2 mg/kg, p.o was administered during the 21 day stress exposure period. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of CS were assessed in open field exploratory and behavioural despair paradigms, respectively. Plasma glucose and total lipids; endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT; non-enzymic-ascorbic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were measured in brain, kidneys and adrenals using standard protocols to assess the effect of CS. Results Total phenolic content of CS was found to be 8.54 ± 0.16% w/w. CMS produced anxiogenic and depressive behaviour in experimental rats with metabolic disturbance. Significant decrease in SOD, CAT levels and increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in stressed rats. CS administration for 21 days during stress exposure significantly increased the ambulatory behaviour and decreased the freezing time in open field behaviour. In behavioural despair test no significant alteration in the immobility period was observed. CS also improved SOD, CAT, and ascorbic acid level and controlled the lipid peroxidation in different tissues

  7. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  8. Mental health, life functioning and risk factors among people exposed to frequent natural disasters and chronic poverty in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Amie Alley; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam Tu

    2016-06-01

    People living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk for exposure to major natural disasters, which places them at increased risk for mental health problems. Evidence is less clear, however, regarding the effects of less severe but more frequent natural disasters, which are likely to increase due to global climate change. To examine the mental health and life functioning, and their predictors, of people living in central coastal Vietnam, an area characterized by high risk for natural disasters and poverty. 1000 individuals were randomly selected from 5 provinces in central coastal Vietnam. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally for exposure to major storms and other traumatic events (Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale; PDS), financial stress (Chronic Financial Stress Scale), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), PTSD (PDS), somatic syndrome (SCL-90-R), alcohol dependency (ICD-10), self-perceived general physical health (SF 36), and functional impairment (PDS life functioning section); caseness was determined using the various measures' algorithms. 22.7% percent of the sample ( n =227) met caseness criteria in one or more mental health domains, and 22.1% ( n =221) reported moderate to severe functional impairment. Lifetime exposure to typhoons and other major storms was 99% ( n =978), with 77% ( n =742) reporting traumatic major storm exposure. Moderate to high levels of financial stress were reported by 30% ( n =297). Frequency of exposure to major storms was not associated with increased risk for mental health problems but traumatic exposure to a major storm was. Overall, the strongest predictor of mental health problems was financial stress. Number of traumatic typhoons and other major storms in turn were significant predictors (r 2 = .03) of financial stress. The primary predictor of alcohol dependency was male gender, highlighting the importance of gender roles in development of alcohol abuse in countries like Vietnam. Individuals

  9. Estimation of health effects of long-term chronic exposure of the low level radiation among children exposed in consequence of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomko, E.I.; Romanneko, A.E.; Bomko, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    The low level dose effects have been studied for a long time within a framework of biological effects of radiation exposure. The estimation of the dose level of Ukrainian people who have been exposed in consequence of the Chernobyl accident allowed to consider that one of the critical populations which had been exposed to the low level radiation were children residing on the areas contaminated with radionuclides. The purpose of this work is - to reveal a regularity in morbidity and mortality of the critical populations having been exposed to long-term chronic exposure of the low level doses of radiation in consequences of the Chernobyl accident

  10. Glucoregulatory consequences and cardiorespiratory parameters in rats exposed to chronic-intermittent hypoxia: Effects of the duration of exposure and losartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B Fenik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with glucose intolerance. Both chronic sleep disruption and recurrent blood oxygen desaturations (chronic-intermittent hypoxia – CIH may cause, or exacerbate, metabolic derangements. Methods: To assess the impact of CIH alone, without accompanying upper airway obstructions, on the counter-regulatory response to glucose load and cardiorespiratory parameters, we exposed adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to CIH or sham room air exchanges for 10 h/day for 7, 21 or 35 days and then, one day after conclusion of CIH exposure, conducted intravenous glucose tolerance tests (ivgtt under urethane anesthesia. Additional rats underwent 35 days of CIH followed by 35 days of regular housing, or had 35 day-long CIH exposure combined with daily administration of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan (15 mg/kg, p.o., and then were also subjected to ivgtt. Results: Compared with the corresponding control groups, CIH rats had progressively reduced glucose-stimulated insulin release and impaired glucose clearance, only mildly elevated heart rate and/or arterial blood pressure and slightly reduced respiratory rate. The differences in insulin release between the CIH and sham-treated rats disappeared in the rats normally housed for 35 days after 35 days of CIH/sham exposure. The losartan-treated rats had improved insulin sensitivity, with no evidence of suppressed insulin release in the CIH group. Conclusions: In adult rats, the glucose-stimulated insulin release is gradually suppressed with the duration of exposure to CIH, but the effect is reversible. Elimination of the detrimental effect of CIH on insulin release by losartan suggests that CIH disrupts glucoregulation through angiotensin/catecholaminergic pathways. Accordingly, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure may ameliorate pre-diabetic conditions in OSA patients, in part, by reducing sympathoexcitatory effects of recurrent

  11. Role of Slovakia within the IAEA Decommissioning Related Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, V.; Stubna, M.

    2009-01-01

    Slovakia has a long-term experience with the IAEA decommissioning related activities as a recipient of Agency assistance and then as a country offering assistance to others. Background, short 'history' and current status of Slovakian national technical cooperation (TC) projects SLR/4/008 'Robotic Technologies for Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Bohunice A1 NPP' and SLR/3/002 'Management of Radioactive Waste from the A1 Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning' will be described in paper. The first TC project SLR/4/008 was solved by the main Slovakian counterpart, company VUJE, Inc., from 2001 to 2006. Second TC project SLR/3/002 is ongoing with extension to 2011. Thanks to the implementation of a long-term large-scale 'Project of the A1 NPP Decommissioning - Stage I' (1996-2007), financed by Slovak National Nuclear Account (decommissioning fund), as well as implementation of the IAEA TC national projects a comprehensive know-how in the field of D and D and RAW management was obtained. Moreover, technologies and facilities necessary for implementation of decommissioning and RAW management projects were developed. Thanks to this development Slovakia offers donor assistance to other countries in subjected fields through IAEA TC program. The type and scope of assistance for Armenia, Bulgaria, Egypt, Latvia, Lithuania and The Ukraine is described in the paper. The above-mentioned national projects are not only activities of Slovakia within the IAEA TC program. Regional TC project RER/3/005 'Support in Planning the Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors' has been ongoing from 2007 with accepted extension to 2011. About nine countries from Eastern and Central Europe participate in the project (for the NPPs part) and Slovakia plays the role of LCC (Leading Country Coordinator). On the basis of suggestion of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, VUJE is the coordinator of the regional project. Moreover, Slovakia would be the

  12. Epiphytic lichens of apple orchards in Poland, Slovakia, and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Zarabska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the study of epiphytic lichens in 30 apple orchards from Poland, Slovakia and Italy the list of 74 taxa was prepared. The most common are the meso- to xerophytic and heliophilous species. The highest number of taxa was observed in Slovak orchards. Moreover, lichens shared with at least one other country were also noted mainly in Slovakia. Bark of apple trees seems to create favourable habitats for Bacidia rubella, which together with Strangospora pinicola were valuable founds in Polish orchards. In Slovak orchards, special attention should be paid to Acrocordia gemmata, Melanelixia glabra and Usnea hirta. Among interesting records in Italian orchards, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Ph. kairamoi can be mentioned.

  13. Spa and Wellness Tourism in Slovakia (A Geographical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasagranda Anton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spa industry is presently an inherent part of Slovak tourism. For this reason, it has become a major interest of scientific and professional literature (economics, management, sociology, or geography. The main topic of this paper is the evaluation of tourism in Slovakia through a geographic analysis. This paper briefly evaluates the development and the importance of spa, spa tourism and wellness and their main research areas and issues. Furthermore, the primary sources of tourism development, the overview of spa tourism and the wellness resorts, the accommodation establishments and the visitation rate are evaluated as well. In conclusion, functional and spatial typification of spa tourism and wellness in Slovakia is presented. The structure of the paper is designed to be appropriate for a comparison with V4 countries.

  14. Radiotherapy in Slovakia – what is the way forward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation oncology in Slovakia is placed in precarious position. There is shortage of technology for modern conformal radiotherapy on one side. Paradoxically, technological advances have diverted the specialty away from traditional clinical care on the other side. While technology supplementation and health care infrastructure optimization could not be readily resolved, the focus and status of this field of medicine remains in hands of radiation oncologists. (author)

  15. Analysis of Hydropower Potential Utilization of Watercourses in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejguš, Mirko; Aschbacher, Christine; Sablik, Jozef

    2017-09-01

    This article analyzes the hydropower potential of watercourses in Slovakia, defining water as the most promising and most used renewable energy source. The hydro-energetic potential as a source of energy is determined by the calculation of the technically feasible potential of the watercourses, which is divided into exploited and unused. It also identifies the potential of utilizing the unused technical hydro-energetic potential.

  16. Assessment of natural radioactivity in the selected area of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubcanova, B.; Nikodemova, D.; Mojzes, A.

    2014-01-01

    Slovakia is country which has a difficult geological structure. This fact is reflected on values of natural radionuclide concentrations. A chosen area includes various types rocks which have diverse values of radioactive concentrations. Consequently these values were shown by maps which present localities with values of a radioactivity. This research was a first step which will be used like a base for a valorization and assessment of the potential radiation exposure of residents of SR where we can suppose health damage. (authors)

  17. Roof top extensions for multifamily houses in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, K.

    2010-12-01

    In the countries of the European Union with the exception of Malta, approximately 100.1 million multifamily dwelling units are situated. These dwellings count for an average of 47.5% of the total housing stock in European Union countries. At present in Slovakia and also other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, there are vast housing areas which were built after World War II. Slovakia's multifamily housing stock was privatized during the 1990s. Considering that the economy of Slovakia is not capable of replacing the existing housing fund, which is located in the multifamily houses that were built after World War II, it is necessary to place an increased emphasis on the renovation of this housing fund. The expenditures for the refurbishment of multifamily housing stock in recent decades, when compared with the demand, have been at a very low level. The main problems involving the current multifamily housing stock in Slovakia are: the need for modernization, the low level of energy efficiency, and the insufficient level of building maintenance. One of the options for creating sufficient sources for the renovation of apartment buildings is to utilize the roofs of apartment buildings as construction areas for building additional floors (over - roofing). The means acquired from the sale of the new floors after deducting the costs can be used for renovation. It is a matter of a one-time possibility, which is limited by many factors that depend on the localization and constructive technical solutions for apartment buildings. This article is an outcome of the SuReFit "Sustainable Roof Extension Retrofit for High-Rise Social Housing in Europe" international research project.

  18. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes.

  19. THE MOST IMPORTANT POLLUTANTS OF EASTERN SLOVAKIA WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Hrušková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the area of the Slovak Republic is 49,036 km², there are many potential contaminants that can affect its population. In the socialist era the town of Strážske located in the Košice Municipal Region was the centre of production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB inter alia and nowadays about 3,500 metric tonnes of PCB are persisting there and present the greatest PCB environmental risk in the central Europe. The heavy metal contamination in Slovakia is caused by the natural background as well as by the former mining activities. In Slovakia there are about 17 thousand old mining works, i.e. adits, stocks, and impoundments. Contamination of the ground and surface waters in the Spiš–Gemer Ore Mountain (SGOM area is caused by mine drainage. Arsenic, antimony, copper, mercury, cadmium, and zinc are the main pollutants of natural waters. All contaminated areas are currently monitored according to the national and EU legislation and nutrient load reduction programmes. As a result of this the level of inorganic and organic micropollutants in surface water and water reservoirs will be reduced together with the negative impact of water pollution on the environment in Eastern Slovakia region.

  20. Evaluating Competitiveness of Faculties of Higher Educational Establishments in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayevnyeva Olena V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of competitiveness of higher education, efficiency of its functioning and training graduates of higher educational establishments according to the current and future needs of the market are among the key issues of socio-economic development strategy in EU countries. The aim of the study is to determine the competitiveness of faculties of major higher educational establishments based on the use of the cluster analysis and rating evaluations provided by national experts. The paper describes the methodology of rating evaluation of faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia on the basis of such components as: educational process; attractiveness of the program; science and research activities; doctoral studies; attracted grants. Shortcomings of the approach to faculty rating evaluations based on the averaged value have been determined. In order to improve analysis of the competitive positions of individual faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia, the cluster analysis was used and the results of breaking the faculties into five groups were presented. To forecast changes in the competitive positions of faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia, discriminant functions enabling to determine possible qualitative changes in the state of the faculties’ competitiveness due to external or internal factors have been built.

  1. Sero-epidemiological study of Lyme disease among high-risk population groups in eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Mattová, Eva; Rimárová, Kvetoslava

    2015-01-01

    IIntroduction and objective. The aim of the presented cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was to determine the current presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the high-risk groups of the Slovak population, and to identify potential risk factors to LB infections. A group of 277 agricultural and forestry workers - persons with frequent stay in the countryside and employees of State Border and Customs Police - from years 2011-2012 in the Eastern Slovakia were examined in order to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Sera were screened by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study subjects completed a questionnaires with general demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. The results were evaluated statistically. A 25.3% presence of positive and 8.7% presence of borderline IgG antibodies was detected in all investigated groups. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the agricultural and forestry workers when compared to employees of State Border and Customs Police. Higher seropositivity was observed in older subjects over 30 years of age (P=0.004) than those who were younger, and also in males (P=0.045). A significant number of persons with rheumatologic conditions was statistically higher (P=0.020) in the group with seropositivity than in the group with seronegativity. The presented study confirms the higher risk of Borrelia infection in individuals with frequent exposure to ticks in eastern Slovakia. The seropositivity tests confirmed the highest seropositivity in agriculture and forestry workers, middle positivity was confirmed among other sector workers, and lowest positivity in policemen and employees of the Customs and Border Inspection. The outputs also simultaneously filling the gap of missing seroprevalence data among these exposed groups.

  2. Dose-rate effects and chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates in spleen cells from mice that are chronically exposed to gamma-ray at low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kohda, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tsuneya; Oghiso, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    Dose-rate effects have not been examined in the low dose-rate regions of less than 60-600 mGy/h. Mice were chronically exposed to gamma-ray at 20 mGy/day (approximately 1 mGy/h) up to 700 days and at 1 mGy/day (approximately 0.05 mGy/h) for 500 days under SPF conditions. Chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates in spleen cells were observed along with accumulated doses at both low dose-rates. Unstable aberrations increased in a biphasic manner within 0-2 Gy and 4-14 Gy in 20 mGy/day irradiation. They slightly increased up to 0.5 Gy in 1 mGy/day irradiation. Chromosome aberration rates at 20 mGy/day and 1 mGy/day were compared at the same total doses of 0.5 Gy and 0.25 Gy. They were 2.0 vs. 0.53, and 1.0 vs. 0.47 respectively. Thus, dose-rate effects were observed in these low dose-rate regions. (author)

  3. Proceedings of SES International Conference on Can Slovakia secure energy supply and sustainable development without nuclear? Go Nuke Slovakia!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Conference proceedings included 28 papers. The Conference included the following sessions: (I): International views; (II): National views; (III): Industry views. Focused in its objective, the is aimed to send a clear, hard-hitting message to decision-makers. This is that: Slovakia cannot secure future energy supply, if it does not complete its partially built reactors and if it closes its safe and effective ones. Nuclear has to remain an indispensable part of the country's future energy mix. The event was opened with invited presentations by officials at the highest level of organisations such as the IAEA, the IEA, OECD/NEA, the NEI, the WNA and WANO, as well as the European Commission and Parliament. This line-up was followed by a host of speakers from the political and nuclear industrial arenas in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary and the Russian Federation

  4. Down-regulation of vascular PPAR-γ contributes to endothelial dysfunction in high-fat diet-induced obese mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Zhang, Chunlian; Li, Haiou; Hou, Jingdong

    2017-10-14

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is associated with endothelial dysfunction. The prevalence of OSA is linked to an epidemic of obesity. CIH has recently been reported to cause endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese animals by exaggerating oxidative stress and inflammation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. PPAR-γ, a ligand-inducible transcription factor that exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, is down-regulated in the peripheral tissues in diet-induce obesity. We tested the hypothesis that down-regulation of vascular PPAR-γ in diet-induced obesity enhances inflammation and oxidative stress in response to CIH, resulting in endothelial dysfunction. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) and simultaneously exposed to CIH or intermittent air for 6 weeks. An additional HFD group received a combination of CIH and PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone for 6 weeks. Endothelial-dependent vasodilation was impaired only in HFD group exposed to CIH, compared with other groups, but was restored by concomitant pioglitazone treatment. Molecular studies revealed that vascular PPAR-γ expression and activity were reduced in HFD groups, compared with LFD groups, but were reversed by pioglitazone treatment. In addition, CIH elevated vascular expression of NADPH oxidase 4 and dihydroethidium fluorescence, and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in both LFD and HFD groups, but these increases was significantly greater in HFD group, along with decreased vascular eNOS activity. Pioglitazone treatment of HFD group prevented CIH-induced changes in above molecular markers. The results suggest that HFD-induced obesity down-regulates vascular PPAR-γ, which results in exaggerated oxidative stress and inflammation in response to CIH, contributing to endothelial dysfunction. This finding may provide new insights into the mechanisms by which OSA

  5. Detection of genomic instability in descendants of male mice exposed to chronic low-level gamma-radiation using the test 'adaptive response'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanova, O.M.; Zaichkina, S.I.; Akhmadieva, A.; Aptikaeva, G.F.; Klokov, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The goal of the present study was to examine whether the genomic instability can be revealed in vivo using the test 'adaptive response' (AR). Two-month-old BALB/C male mice were subjected to chronic irradiation in the gamma-field with a dose of 0.1 Gy (0.01 Gy/day) and a dose of 0.5 Gy (0.01 and 0.05 Gy/day). Control animals were kept under similar conditions but without irradiation. Fifteen days after the irradiation, males from the irradiated and control groups were mated in separate cages with unirradiated females for 2 weeks. The males, descendants from irradiated and unirradiated parents, at an age of two months were subjected to additional irradiation with a dose of 1.5 Gy. To reveal the genetic instability using the AR test, another group of males, the descendants from irradiated and unirradiated parents, were exposed to acute irradiation by the scheme of AR: with an adapting dose (D1) of 0.1 Gy (0.125 Gy/min) followed after a day by a challenging dose (D2) of 1.5 Gy (0.47 Gy/min). After 28 h, the animals of all groups were killed. Bone marrow specimens for calculating micronuclei (MN) in polychromatophyl erythrocytes (PCE) were prepared. It was found that in descendants that resulted from unirradiated parents and the parents irradiated with a dose of 0.1 Gy, the percentages of PCE with injuries were nearly equal. Upon irradiation of parents with a dose of 0.5 Gy, the percentage of PCE with MN in descendants increased. The examination of radiosensitivity of descendants from irradiated parents showed that the percentage of PCE with MN decreased three-to-fourfold (depending on the dose of irradiation of the parents) compared to descendants from unirradiated parents. If the descendants from exposed parents were irradiated by the scheme of AR, no AR was observed. Thus, the experimental data indicated that, it is possible to detect the transition of gamma-radiation-induced genomic instability in sex cells of male parents into somatic cells of mice (F1

  6. Laying performance, digestibility and plasma hormones in laying hens exposed to chronic heat stress as affected by betaine, vitamin C, and/or vitamin E supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Youssef A; Abd El-Hamid, Abd El-Hamid E; Abedalla, Ahmed A; Berika, Marfat A; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A; Kucuk, Osman; Sahin, Kazim; Abou-Shehema, Baha M

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress had a negative effect on laying hens' performance, thus this research was to study the influences of betaine (Bet, 1000 mg/kg betaine), vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg ascorbic acid), and vitamin E (VE, 150 mg/kg α-Tocopherol acetate) and their possible combinations on egg production, digestibility of nutrients, plasma hormones and reproductive organs of dual-purpose hens exposed to chronic heat stress. Two hundred and eighty eight hens and thirty-six cocks from 32 to 48 weeks of age were divided into nine treatment groups of four replicates, each containing eight hens and one cock. One group was kept under thermo-natural condition and the eight others were kept under chronic heat stress (CHS). One of these eight was used as a negative control, while the others were supplemented with VC, VE and/or betaine and their possible combinations. Body weights, laying rate, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio in hens reared under CHS rooster without any supplementation during 32 to 48 weeks of impairment (P = 0.0052) were recorded. Hens reared under heat stress and fed a diet supplemented with either Bet, VC, VE or combination of the supplements increased production traits. However, hens supplemented with VC showed the greatest production traits. Plasma glucose, estradiol-17 (E2), progesterone (P4), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) decreased in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation compared to the other treatments (P = 0.001). Liver weights, spleen weights, thyroid gland weights, ovary weights, oviduct weights and oviduct lengths were lowest in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation (P = 0.0480). In conclusion, dual purpose hens reared under CHS and supplemented with VC at 200 mg/kg diet and Bet at 1000 mg/kg enhanced the laying performance and combated CHS.

  7. Osteotoxicity after chronic dietary administration of 13-CIS-retinoic acid, retinyl palmitate or selenium in mice exposed to tumor initiation and promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, K.S.; Gensler, H.L.; Watson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the clinical trials of retinoids as therapeutic agents for premalignant skin lesions, a radiographic study was undertaken to measure skeletal toxicities after chronic dietary administration of retinoids in mice exposed to tumor initiation and promotion. CD-1 mice were initiated with 0.15 moles of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and promoted twice daily with 8 nmoles of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 23 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 60 IU, 200 IU, or 700 IU or retinyl palmitate (RP) per g diet. After 5 weeks, the 700 IU of RP/g diet was lowered to 350 IU/g diet. Administration of these diets to mice during the 23 weeks of tumor promotion results in a 0-fold, 2-fold, or 10-fold increase in bone fractures, respectively. Osteoporotic bone lesions identified on radiographs rose 0-fold, 0-fold, and 10-fold at the respective doses, whereas metaphyseal flares increased O-fold, 1.4-fold, and 3.6-fold. Bone deformities was augmented O-fold, 1.8-fold and 2.9-fold at the respective doses. Addition of selenium did not alter the bone toxicity of RP. 13-cis-retionic acid (CRA) was less toxic at 700 IU/g diet than was RP at that dose, as evidence by the death of 12 of 70 mice by the 6th week of dietary RP and no deaths in the 35 mice fed 700 IU CRA/g diet for 23 weeks. CRA at 700 IU/g diet resulted in 3/4 as many osteoporotic bones, 1/3 as many bone fractures, 4/5 as many metaphyseal flares, and a similar number of bone deformities as mice fed 700/350 IU/g diet. At the dose of 200 IU/g food, osterotoxicities were similar in the mice fed diets supplemented with RP and CRA

  8. Comments on the action of emissions on the lichen vegetation around Rudnany (Northeast Slovakia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisut, I

    1962-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes in the epiphytic, epigeal, and epipetrous lichen flora around an iron ore-processing plant emitting sulfur dioxide and mercury in Rudnany (Northeast Slovakia) were studied. Within a radius of 2550 m around the plant, the SO/sub 2/ concentrations ranged from 0.005 to 0.015 mg/l. Increases in both the number and abundance of the lichen species with increasing distance from the emission source were determined. Three different pollution zones around the industrial plant were distinguished on the basis of the lichenological study; in strongly exposed zones in which higher plants also were damaged, all lichen species but a few specimen of epipetric lichens were absent. In a second, moderately exposed zone where no damage to higher plants were visible, both epiphytic and epigeal species, as well as Cladonia sp. were present. Cladonia spp. and Baeomyces roseus were the dominant species in this zone. In a third, slightly polluted zone, normal development of epiphytic associations, and dominance of Xanthoria parietina, physcia grisea, Ph. orbicularis, Parmelia physodes, and P. sulcata were observed.

  9. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  10. Boarding the Euro Plane : Euro Adoption in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dandashly, Assem; Verdun, Amy

    2015-01-01

    What explains euro adoption strategies in the Czech Republic and Slovakia? How have each of these two countries performed under the regime they joined (Czech Republic: flexible exchange rates; Slovakia: in the euro area)? How has that experience affected Czech and Slovak policies towards euro

  11. ENGAGEMENT AND BURNOUT AMONG NURSING AND PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Škodová; Ľubica Bánovčinová; Petra Lajčiaková

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the differences in engagement and burnout syndrome in students of nursing/midwifery and psychology in Slovakia. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Methods: 171 university students on a baccalaureate program participated in the research (90.9% females; age 20.6 ± 1.3; 80 psychology students, 91 nursing/midwifery students). The School Burnout Inventory (SBI) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were employed as measurement methods. Results: A...

  12. Case concerning Gabcikovo-Nagymaros project (Hungary/Slovakia). Judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Hungary and Czechoslovakia in 1977 concluded a treaty for the building of dam structures in Slovakia and Hungary for the production of electric power, flood control and improvement of navigation on the Danube. In 1989 Hungary suspended and subsequently abandoned completion of the project alleging that it entailed grave risks to the Hungarian environment and the water supply of Budapest. Slovakia (successor to Czechoslovakia) denied these allegations and insisted that Hungary carry out its treaty obligations. It planned and subsequently put into operation an alternative project only on Slovak territory, whose operation had effects on Hungary's access to the water of the Danube. In this judgement, the Court found: (1) that Hungary was not entitled to suspend and subsequently abandon, in 1989, its part of the works in the dam project, as laid down in the treaty signed in 1977 by Hungary and Czechoslovakia and related instruments; (2) that Czechoslovakia was entitled ti start, in November 1991, preparation of an alternative provisional solution (called V ariant C ) , but not to put that solution into operation in October 1992 as a unilateral measure; (3) that Hungary's notification of termination of the 1977 Treaty and related instruments on 19 May 1992 did not legally terminate them (and they are consequently still in force and govern the relationship between the Parties); (4) and that Slovakia, as successor to Czechoslovakia became a party the Treaty of 1997.As to the future conduct of the Parties, the Court found: (1) that Hungary and Slovakia must negotiate in good faith in the light of the prevailing situation, and must take all necessary measures to ensure the achievement of the objectives of the 1997 Treaty; (2) that, unless the Parties agree otherwise, a joint operational regime for the dam on Slovak territory must be established in accordance with the Treaty of 1977; (3) that each Party must compensate the other Party for the damage caused by its conduct; (4

  13. The biggest investment in the history of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2009-01-01

    On 11 June 2009 the General Director and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Slovenske elektrarne Paolo Ruzzini and the Prime Minister of the Slovak Republic Robert Fico announced the signature of contracts with the main suppliers for the completion of units 3 and 4 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant. Planned investment of Eur 2.775 billion by 2013 for the Mochovce completion is an important commitment for us and especially in this time, such investment can mitigate the impact of global slowdown in economic growth which impacts Slovakia but also other economies of the world. (author)

  14. Moral (or ethical) education in Slovakia and its theoretical basis

    OpenAIRE

    Gluchman Vasil

    2016-01-01

    With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics) in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro-socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements ...

  15. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kunca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia” (Kunca and Čiliak, 2016 [FUNECO607] [2]. The dataset include all available and unpublished data from Slovakia, besides the records from the same tree or stem. We compiled a database of records of collections by processing data from herbaria, personal records and communication with mycological activists. Data on altitude, tree species, host tree vital status, host tree position and intensity of management of forest stands were evaluated in this study. All surveys were based on basidioma occurrence and some result from targeted searches.

  16. Evaluation of the changes of landscape types of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita IZAKOVIČOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last period landscape protection, its representative types more and more comes to the limelight. In October 2000 the European Landscape Convention - also known as the Florence Convention was adopted. The aims of this Convention are to promote landscape protection, management and planning, and to organise European co-operation on landscape issues.  Contracting states ought to analyse the landscape types on the whole area of their countries, to analyse their features, record their changes, specify motive power and pressure forming them and assess selected types with respect to special values attributed by engaged participants and inhabitants. Knowledge and identification of single landscape types enable the intensification of care of diversity of single landscape types and landscape biodiversity. It is an unavoidable condition in the strategic planning process and effective protection of regionally special landscape.Slovakia signed ELC in 2005 and became an active participant in its implementation. The Institute of the Landscape Ecology of Slovak Academy of Sciences elaborated methodology for specification and evaluation of the representative landscape types of Slovakia (RLTS.RLTS are defined as homogeneous units considering the landscape character, functions and current land-use. GIS (Geographical Information Systems tool was used to create RLTS, in particular by overlaying of abiotic landscape structure (type of relief, quaternary deposits, climatic regions, and soil types and land-cover map (CORINE Land Cover 2006 - CLC at national scale. This process yielded to a patched map of homogeneous areas, which were further interpreted, generalized, and regionalized to a final map of RLTS.Landscape types of Slovakia were defined by the synthesis of the mentioned maps. Totally there were identified 126 basic landscape types. Each landscape type represents unique combination of land-use in different abiotic conditions and gives the unique

  17. Consumers´ purchasing preferences towards organic food in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Kádeková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Submitted paper deals with the consumers´ purchasing preferences towards organic food in Slovakia, pointing at the situation on the organic food market in Slovakia finding the consumers' preferences when buying organic food. The results of the questionnaire survey identified the preferences and opinions of respondents about organic food. Paper analyses the questionnaire survey by 227 respondents concerning the purchasing preferences towards organic food in Slovakia. In order to achieve given aim and to ensure deeper analysis of the results, there had been stated 3 assumptions and 5 hypothesis. As the results of the survey proved, 65% of respondents buy organic food, of which 39% of respondents buy organic food at least once a week. Up to 98% of respondents have already met the concept of organic food and know what it means. 37 % of respondents buy mostly organic fruit and vegetables, 18% of respondents buy the most the meat and meat products in organic quality and 13% of respondents prefer dairy products in organic quality. The most preferred place to buy organic food are specialized stores (36 %,to buy organic food directly from the producer is the most popular way for 29 % of respondents, hypermarket and supermarkets are favorite place to buy organic food for 19% of respondents, and 12% of respondents buy organic food mostly in farmers´ markets. Only 4% of respondents prefer another way to buy organic food. Quality of organic food and not using the pesticides is the most important criteria for buying organic food (36%. Price has also really strong influence on purchasing decision, when 34% of respondents are the most affected by the price when purchasing organic food. Package is considered as the least important criteria when buying organic food by 72% of respondents. On the basis of provided results of our survey and formulated hypothesis which were evaluated by Chi-square goodness of fit test, Chi square test of the square contingency and

  18. Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar-Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the chronic toxicity of a mixture of light-stick chemicals and water was tested. The light-stick is used in fishery activities to catch swordfish. The tubes were collected on the beaches of the Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, Brazil, in the period from 14th to 31st July 2007. The method used was a short chronic toxicity test where embryos of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus were exposed to a stock solution consisting of the supernatant formed from a mixture of sea water and the orange-colored light-stick chemical. After a preliminary test, concentrations defined were 0.002, 0.003, 0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 1.0% of stock solution. The final test ran for 36 hours for E. Lucunter and 24 hours for L. variegatus with 4 replicates for each concentration. The value of EC50 - 36h was 0.062% with confidence limits ranging from 0.042 to 0.079% and the EC50 - 24h was 0.011% with confidence limits ranging from 0.009 to 0.014%, i.e., the chemical mix present in the light-stick is potentially toxic. So, as these flags are commonly used for fishing there is potential danger in their disposal in the open ocean.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade crônica da água do mar em contato com o líquido contido no light-stick, sinalizador utilizado em pesca de espinhel de superfície para a captura de espadarte. Os tubos foram coletados nas praias da Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, no período de 14 a 31 de Julho de 2007. O método utilizado para a verificação da toxicidade crônica foi o teste de curta duração com embriões de ouriço-do-mar Echinometra lucunter e Lytechinus variegatus, os ensaios foram realizados com solução estoque que consiste do sobrenadante formado a partir de uma mistura de água do mar com o líquido do sinalizador de coloração laranja. Após um teste preliminar as concentrações definidas foram 0.002; 0.003; 0.01; 0.02; 0.1; 1.0%. O teste definitivo teve duração de 36 horas para E. lucunter e 24

  19. Sex differences in the rapid and the sustained antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in stress-naïve and "depressed" mice exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, A; Sens, J; Herchick, S; Thelen, C; Pitychoutis, P M

    2015-04-02

    During the past decade, one of the most striking discoveries in the treatment of major depression was the clinical finding that a single infusion of a sub-anesthetic dose of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine produces a rapid (i.e. within a few hours) and long-lasting (i.e. up to two weeks) antidepressant effect in both treatment-resistant depressed patients and in animal models of depression. Notably, converging clinical and preclinical evidence support that responsiveness to antidepressant drugs is sex-differentiated. Strikingly, research regarding the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine has focused almost exclusively on the male sex. Herein we report that female C57BL/6J stress-naïve mice are more sensitive to the rapid and the sustained antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in the forced swim test (FST). In particular, female mice responded to lower doses of ketamine (i.e. 3mg/kg at 30 min and 5mg/kg at 24h post-injection), doses that were not effective in their male counterparts. Moreover, tissue levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate, as well as serotonergic activity, were affected in a sex-dependent manner in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, at the same time-points. Most importantly, a single injection of ketamine (10mg/kg) induced sex-dependent behavioral effects in mice subjected to the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. Intriguingly, female mice were more reactive to the earlier effects of ketamine, as assessed in the open field and the FST (at 30 min and 24h post-treatment, respectively) but the antidepressant potential of the drug proved to be longer lasting in males, as assessed in the splash test and the FST (days 5 and 7 post-treatment, respectively). Taken together, present data revealed that ketamine treatment induces sex-dependent rapid and sustained neurochemical and behavioral antidepressant-like effects in stress-naïve and CMS-exposed C57BL/6J mice. Copyright © 2015 IBRO

  20. 50 Years of nuclear power plants in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobak, D.; Moncekova, M.; Pritrsky, R.

    2007-01-01

    The publication was prepared to celebration of semi-centennial anniversary of nuclear power plants in Slovakia and presents a free sequel of book '40 years of nuclear power plants in Slovakia'. It contains memories of the observers that are valuable and merits spreading theirs ideas. There are photos in the publication that up to now were not disclosed and that have a unique value not due to their age only. At the same time, the publication expresses an admiration, regard and acknowledgement to all who joined their life with nuclear power. This book contains the following headings: (1) Speech, Lubomir Jahnatek (Minister of Economy of the Slovak Republic); (2) Speech, Jozef Valach; (3) Speech, Paolo Ruzzini; (4) Historic aspects of A1 NPP; (5) Historic Aspects of V1 NPP; (6) Historic Aspects of V2 NPP; (7) A remembrance to Mochovce; (8) Historic Aspects of VYZ; (9) Nuclear power as an integral part of the Slovak power engineering; (10) Under control of supervision; (12) The state health regulation performance in nuclear installations; (13) JAVYS in the Slovak energy sector

  1. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  2. Governmental Research Support Programs and Private Entities in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliková Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses public subsidies aimed to enhance development and innovation in the Slovakian private sector. The paper reviews theoretical approaches of the necessity of public support to research and development activities in order to increase private investment in research and development. An overview of research and development support tools in Slovakia is presented. The analytical part of the work is oriented on a comparative analysis of two granting agencies in Slovakia [Agency for Research and Development (ARD and Agency of Operational Program Research and Development (OPRD]. Special attention is given to direct public financial support. Logit analysis showed a relationship between success of grant applicants and their characteristics. We find that the following have impact on success of the application: Age of the company, amount of the grant required, legal form of the company, and the agency to which the application for grant was submitted. Applicants with legal form Ltd. (limited liability company have a higher chance of receiving grant than other legal forms. The highest chance of success has a request for a grant of up to 500.000 €. According to the results of our analysis, the chance to obtain a grant decreases with each passing year.

  3. Slovakia, the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project; and Central European integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter of the book author deals with the economic, social, ecological and cultural problems in connection of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (GNP) with the integration process of the 12 European Communities countries. Slovakia - sometimes also called the corridor between the East and the West - appears to have great potential as a link in the general east-west integration. Such a role could be further reinforced by the close and purposeful cooperation between Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Austria and Bavaria, and it could have a positive signal effect for the whole of Central Europe, as well as for Europe in general. However, this is possible only provided that the former COMECON countries will reduce their tendency to compete for western attention and they will begin, to a larger extent, to lay down the foundations for the indisputable benefits accruing to their population from cooperation and integration. In this respect, the GNP appears to be a crucial issue an the social and political decision on the completion of the Project would become a signal that Central Europe has entered the path towards becoming one of the most important regions of Europe

  4. Application Of NAA And AAS In Environmental Research In Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Meresova, J.; Sykora, I.; Frontasveva, M. V.; Ermakova, E.E.; Pavlov, S.S.; Mankovska, B.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 41 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare earths, and actinides) were determined in atmospheric aerosol using nuclear and related analytical techniques. The sampling location was in Bratislava (Slovak Republic). The main goal of this study is the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend. The elemental content in filters was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) at IBR-2 reactor in JINR Dubna and by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in Bratislava. The obtained results confirm the decreasing trend of pollution by most of the heavy metals in Bratislava atmosphere, and they are compared with the contents of pollutants in atmosphere of other cities, including Cairo. We determined also the composition of clear filter materials. Results on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements in the whole territory Slovakia using the moss bio monitoring technique are presented, too. The level of the elements found in the bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian moss. The marginal hot spots were revealed near nonferrous ores processing and factories and dumps of stone chips. The trans-boundary contamination by Hg through dry and wet deposition from Czech Republic and Polish is evident in the bordering territory in the north-west part of Slovakia (The Small Black Triangle), known for metallurgical works, coal processing and chemical industries

  5. The Research of Historical Trusses in Northern Regions of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenková Renáta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The blanket research of historical trusses in the territory of Slovakia has been running at our department since 2008. This research is done as teamwork in cooperation with experts from the field of conservation, and it is mainly focused on typology, construction, and the current technical and constructional state of investigated trusses. The long-time support of the grant scheme from the Ministry of Culture allows to get a fair amount of different data related to individual buildings and structures, which enables to carry out the in-depth research. In terms of their conservation and maintenance with an effort to extend their lifetime (the oldest known historical trusses in Slovakia are those of the 13th century, it is necessary to look into the microclimate impact of the under-roof space on wooden roof structures as well as to monitor the contemporary constructional and technical condition of a roof structure itself. The suitable microclimate in the under-roof space is influenced by a number of marginal conditions, constructional solutions of roof details, proper space ventilation etc

  6. Selected trends in colorectal cancer epidemiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Spanik, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In worldwide estimates for the year 2012, the Slovak Republic had the highest value of age-standardised incidence, but real data on a national level have only been available up to 2008. Aims: Colorectal cancer is one of the more preventable malignant tumors, whereby organised screening with adequate participation of the population in risk leads to a significant drop in both incidence and mortality. The aim of the submitted paper is to predict the development of selected indicators of descriptive epidemiology of this disease prospectively. Results: In recent years, a significant growth in the incidence of the disease has been witnessed in Slovakia, rising by 2.3% annually in men and 1.4% in women. Mortality in men is falling substantially by -1% annually, and in women it is -1.6%. Conclusion: The drop in mortality is manifesting later and to a lesser degree in Slovakia than in those countries with long-term organised screening in place. (author)

  7. Security of natural gas supply in Central Europe - Case study: Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepac, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Europe's dependence on imported hydrocarbons is increasing. Being the second largest consumer in the world, EU will need of billions of euro over the next 20 years to satisfy the expected energy demand and to replace the ageing infrastructure. Slovakia is the main transport corridor for the Russian gas delivered to the EU countries, 20% of the natural gas consumption in the EU countries is covered by transit through the Slovak territory. Slovakia is also almost 100% dependent on import of the Russian gas. Diversification of the natural gas resources therefore belongs to the key energy security issues in Slovakia.

  8. Slovakia should be more active in pipeline projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    European Union is interested also like USA to lower its own dependence on oil distributors from problematic region of Persian Gulf. Therefore the attention is turning on to Russia and to region of Caspian Sea. However except political and safety problems the import of oil from these territories meets also the lack of transport capacities. Slovakia can become the important transit territory, where could flow more Russian or Caspian oil to the European market. After a break-up of Soviet Union Russia lost oil export terminals on the coast of Baltic Sea. These terminals became a part of territories of three independent Baltic countries. The frequent storms in the region of Novorossiysk are disadvantage of Black Sea's ports Novorossiysk and Tuapse. The overloading of Turkish straits Bospor and Dardanely, which connect Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, is becoming a new and more serious problem. In the present time up to 500 tankers swim over through these straits annually, which transport together around 70 million tones of oil and of oil products. Owing to the rising mining of oil the only one way out is the circumvention of these straits. New pipeline from Baku through Georgia to Turkish terminal Ceyhan on the coast of Mediterranean Sea is the only one but not sufficient solution. Therefore Russia promotes the project of integration of pipelines Druzba and Adria. The intensions is to open the continuous export pipeline way through Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia and Hungary into Croatian terminal Omisajl on the coast of Adriatic Sea. Other possibility how to rise the oil transit through Slovakia is the construction of pipeline to the refinery OMW in Schweechat near Vienna. In the end of the last year the representatives of Transpetrol, Yukos and OMW signed the contract of its construction in Bratislava. Annual capacity of this pipeline is 2 million tonnes of oil. Other possibility how to transport the Caspian oil is pipeline Odessa-Brody. More then 600 km of this pipeline

  9. Innovations and networking fostering tourist destination development in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdošík Tomáš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the implementation of innovations and networking in the sector of tourism in two Slovak mountain destinations of international significance. The main objective of the paper is to identify and evaluate how innovations and networking contribute to tourist destination development in Slovakia. The implementation of institutional innovation resulted in the establishment of formal and informal networks. The developed networks consist of representatives of all sectors co-ordinating all relevant stakeholders. Formal and informal networks and the collaboration among stakeholders have launched other types of innovations in the tourism sector. The interactions and intensity of relations among stakeholders are analysed by network analysis. Destinations are compared with the network of the same size and density through quantitative network characteristics. Based on empirical research we investigate the impact of networks and innovations on tourist destination development. Due to the synergy effect of networking and implementation of multiple innovations, tourist destination development is observed.

  10. Legal status and organizational structure of commodities excange in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petričević

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Commodities exchange is an important element of market economy of a country. Being an organized commodities and capital market, it goes beyond the trade in a trade fair and particular trade in real commodities. It includes trading in exchangeable goods by standard label. As foundation of commodities exchange is expected in Croatia, the paper will explicate its status and operation in Slovakia, an EU member state that is similar to our country. The paper will focus on the legal status and organizational structure of consumer goods market in Bratislava. Although it has existed for just over 15 years, it is important to note that it actually goes back to the pre-Second World War Czechoslovakia. Also, to provide better understanding of its functioning, regulations defining the foundation and functioning of the commodities market will also be presented as well as the profile, method and types of operations, together with its positive effects.

  11. The Specific Character Traits of Young Entrepreneurs in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobeková Majková Monika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide scientific researches present the entrepreneurs have to declare specific characteristic traits to be successful in the business. This paper is focused on the comparison of the specific character traits between potential young entrepreneurs and other young people. The aim is to compare the three chosen character traits differences between these two focus groups by using the statistical method of Pearson's chi-square and bring the answers on the questions why some people incline to becoming the entrepreneurs more intensively than others, and what are the differences between them in relation to the character traits and their personality characteristics. The research was conducted among 1233 young people in all regions of Slovakia in 2012. The results show, that young people who plan to become an entrepreneur, are more creative, willing to face the risk, more confident in the solvation of complicated problems and difficult tasks with the opposite group of respondents.

  12. Hydrological scenarios of future seasonal runoff distribution in Central Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavcova, K; Szolgay, J; Kohnova, S; Balint, G

    2008-01-01

    The hydrological scenarios of future seasonal distributions of runoff in the upper Hron River basin, which was chosen as a representative mountainous region in Central Slovakia, were evaluated. Changes in the future climate were expressed by three different climate change scenarios developed within the framework of the Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Project (CECILIA). The climate change scenarios were constructed using the pattern scaling method from the outputs of transient simulations made by 3 GCMs - ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM2 and NCAR DOE-PCM. A conceptual hydrological balance model calibrated with data from the period 1971-2000 was used for modelling changes in runoff with monthly time steps. The runoff change scenarios for the selected basin in the future time horizons of 2025, 2050 and 2100 show changes in the seasonal runoff distribution.

  13. Impact of ICT on Performance of Construction Companies in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, Peter; Mandičák, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    Information and communication technologies became a part of management tools in modern companies. Construction industry and its participants deal with a serious requirement for processing the huge amount of information on construction projects including design, construction, time and cost parameters, economic efficiency and sustainability. To fulfil this requirement, companies have to use appropriate ICT tools. Aim of the paper is to examine the impact of ICT exploitation on performance of construction companies. The impact of BIM tools, ERP systems and controlling system on cost and profit indicators will be measured on the sample of 85 companies from construction industry in Slovakia. Enterprise size, enterprise ownership and role in construction process will be set as independent variables for statistical analyse. The results will be considered for different groups of companies.

  14. Geothermy Energy Used in Relaxation Regions on Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciranková Lucia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovakia has almost 3 geothermal water swimming pools ( AQUAPARKS , which are an ideal environment for family holidays. Accommodation is available directly in the swimming pools areas, or in their vicinity, for instance in campings, pensions and also in luxury hotels according to your choice.At present has been started investigation for the biggest geothermal project in Central Europe – Kosice basin construction. The Durkov geothermal structure location, which lies in depression of Neogene basement, is about 15 km eastern from town Kosice. The results of three geothermal investigation wells drilled in 1998 –1999 confirmed the presence of geothermal reservoir with heat potential at least 100 MWt. This paper showed utilization geothermy source Durkov on operations large relaxation and production complex with yearly plant.

  15. FLOOD VULNERABILITY IN BODVA RIVER BASIN IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZELENAKOVA MARTINA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to generate a composite map for decision makers using selected factors, mainly of natural character, causing floods. In the analyses, some of the causative factors for flooding in a catchment area are taken into account, such as soil type, precipitation, land use, size of catchment and basin slope. A case study of flood vulnerability identification in the Bodva river basin in eastern Slovakia is employed to illustrate the different approaches. A geographical information system (GIS is integrated with multicriteria analysis (MCA in the paper. The identification of flood vulnerability consists of two basic phases. Firstly, the effective factors causing floods are identified. Secondly several approaches to MCA in a GIS environment are applied and these approaches are evaluated in order to prepared flood vulnerability map.

  16. CEZ considering building a power station in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    General Manager of Czech concern CEZ, Martin Roman expecting that his company would probably not succeed in tender for Slovenske elektrarne (SE) shares said for BBC that CEZ was considering the possibility of building a thermal power station in Slovakia that would use Polish coal. He made this statement in a time when an approval by the Slovak cabinet was the only missing step to complete the approval process of contractual documentation related to privatization of SE through Italian Enel. The cabinet only discusses the issue on Wednesday as Slovak Minister of Finance raised objections to its contents. Ivan Miklos asked for guarantees that the state would not be responsible for any future risks resulting from long term contracts concluded by SE

  17. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmusová, Zuzana; Rapčanová, Anna; Michalko, Juraj; Čech, Peter; Veis, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for δ 13 C and δ 15 N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in 13 C and 15 N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both δ 13 C and δ 15 N values. These data were compared to previously published δ 13 C and δ 15 N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking. - Highlights: • This study deals with stable isotope analyses of fingernails from Slovak volunteers. • δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of vegetarian and omnivore fingernails were compared. • Influence of sex, diet and smoking was studied

  18. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolmusová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.grolmusova@geology.sk [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Rapčanová, Anna [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Michalko, Juraj; Čech, Peter [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Veis, Pavel [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-15

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values. These data were compared to previously published δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking. - Highlights: • This study deals with stable isotope analyses of fingernails from Slovak volunteers. • δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of vegetarian and omnivore fingernails were compared. • Influence of sex, diet and smoking was studied.

  19. Review of decommissioning, spent fuel and radwaste management in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrich, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two nuclear power plants with two WWER reactors are currently under operation in Jaslovske Bohunice and NPP A-1 is under decommissioning on the same site. At the second nuclear site in the Slovak Republic in Mochovce third nuclear power plant with two units is in operation. In accordance with the basic Slovak legislation (Act on Peaceful Utilisation of Nuclear Energy) defining the responsibilities, roles and authorities for all organisations involved in the decommissioning of nuclear installations Nuclear Regulatory Authority requires submission of conceptual decommissioning plans by the licensee. The term 'decommissioning' is used to describe the set of actions to be taken at the end of the useful life of a facility, in order to retire the facility from service while, simultaneously, ensuring proper protection of the workers, the general public and the environment. This set of activities is in principle comprised of planning and organisation of decommissioning inclusive strategy development, post-operational activities, implementation of decommissioning (physical and radiological characterisation, decontamination, dismantling and demolition, waste and spent fuel management), radiological, aspects, completion of decommissioning as well as ensuring of funding for these activities. Responsibility for nuclear installations decommissioning, radwaste and spent fuel, management in Slovakia is with a subsidiary of Slovak Electric called Nuclear Installations Decommissioning Radwaste and Spent Fuel Management (acronym SE VYZ), established on January 1, 1996. This paper provides description of an approach to planning of the NPP A-1 and NPPs with WWER reactors decommissioning, realisation of treatment, conditioning and disposal of radwaste, as well as spent fuel management in Slovakia. It takes into account that detail papers on all these issues will follow later during this meeting. (author)

  20. The 2002-2003 excavations in the Dzeravá skala Cave, West Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminská, Ľ.; Kozlowski, J. K.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2004), s. 311-322 ISSN 0323-1119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8001916 Keywords : West Slovakia * Upper Paleolithic, Upper Pleistocene * fauna, industry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Outlines of a study of some indicators of exposure of underground workers to radon in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, M; Nikodemova, D; Vladar, M; Fueloep, M; Vicanova, M [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper some indicators of exposure of underground workers to radon in Slovakia which will be used for determination of miners radiation burden and for the radon dose estimate was explained. The projected study has a dose-effect scaffold and its projected goals are on the side of dose assessment: 1) to determine the professional exposure of underground workers to radon by personal dosimetry and to establish a database of integrated personal doses for future epidemiological studies; 2) to introduce the method of counting the radionuclide {sup 210}Pb in the bones and skulls of underground workers. On the side of effect assessment the goals are: 1) to find out if a dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei in the lymphocytes from radon dose exists. The measurements of radon in mines, preferentially those by personal dosimeters as well as an existing database of radon concentration measurements in dwellings and caves will serve for the radon dose estimate; 2) to compare the DNA-repair rate in the lymphocytes of people professionally exposed to radon in Slovak caves with the same rate as assessed in unexposed people; 3) to find out the proportional role of confounding factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, exposure to dust etc., which might influence upon the interpretation of the dose from radon to health response relationship; 4) to establish a central database of lung cancer cases in professionally exposed underground workers for future epidemiological studies. The direct method will rely upon determination of miners radiation burden based on the {sup 210}Pb activity deposited in skeleton. The experimental design to assess the effects will have three main methodological parts: 1) determination of the count of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei using classical methods; 2) determination of the chromosomal changes using the fluorescent in situ hybridization method; 3) determination of the DNA-repair rate. (J.K.) 8 refs.

  2. Stakeholder involvement in development and design of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.; Kusovska, Z.; Metke, E.; Sladek, V.; Sokolikova, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the process of stakeholder involvement in development and implementation of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia in last five years. The paper presents the discussion of good practices, which made the work undertaken valuable and effective. The paper reflects the lessons learned during the course representing five years of stakeholder involvement effort. The paper gives detailed information on used practices and real process taken place in Slovakia. (authors)

  3. The Customer Relationship Management in Terms of Business Practice in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdziková, Jana; Jakábová, Martina; Saniuk, Sebastian

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the article is to present the results of the research on focus on the customer in relation to the use of customer relationship management in selected business subjects in Slovakia. The main goal of the research is the mapping of current state to ensure the principle of customer orientation and utilizing of CRM in organizations and industrial enterprises in Slovakia. This is the mapping of the current situation of that problem in practical conditions and determines potential opportunities for improvement.

  4. Current State and Development of Land Degradation Processes Based on Soil Monitoring in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobza Jozef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current state and development of land degradation processes based on soil monitoring system in Slovakia is evaluated in this contribution. Soil monitoring system in Slovakia is consistently running since 1993 year in 5-years repetitions. Soil monitoring network in Slovakia is constructed using ecological principle, taking into account all main soil types and subtypes, soil organic matter, climatic regions, emission regions, polluted and non-polluted regions as well as various land use. The result of soil monitoring network is 318 sites on agricultural land in Slovakia. Soil properties are evaluated according to the main threats to soil relating to European Commission recommendation for European soil monitoring performance as follows: soil erosion and compaction, soil acidification, decline in soil organic matter and soil contamination. The most significant change has been determined in physical degradation of soils. The physical degradation was especially manifested in compacted and the eroded soils. It was determined that about 39% of agricultural land is potentially affected by soil erosion in Slovakia. In addition, slight decline in soil organic matter indicates the serious facts on evaluation and extension of soil degradation processes during the last period in Slovakia. Soil contamination is without significant change for the time being. It means the soils contaminated before soil monitoring process this unfavourable state lasts also at present.

  5. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

  6. Changes in gene expression in chronic allergy mouse model exposed to natural environmental PM2.5-rich ambient air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yuhui; Xu, Zhaojun; Fan, Erzhong; Li, Ying; Miyake, Kunio; Xu, Xianyan; Zhang, Luo

    2018-04-20

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been associated with an increase in the incidence of chronic allergic diseases; however, the mechanisms underlying the effect of exposure to natural ambient air pollution in chronic allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the cellular responses induced by exposure to natural ambient air pollution, employing a mouse model of chronic allergy. The results indicated that exposure to ambient air pollution significantly increased the number of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa. The modulation of gene expression profile identified a set of regulated genes, and the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells1(TREM1) signaling canonical pathway was increased after exposure to ambient air pollution. In vitro, PM2.5 increased Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (Nod1) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway activation in A549 and HEK293 cell cultures. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which, PM2.5 in ambient air pollution may stimulate the innate immune system through the PM2.5-Nod1-NF-κB axis in chronic allergic disease.

  7. High prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in chronic renal failure patients exposed to gadodiamide, a gadolinium-containing magnetic resonance contrast agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Casper; Thomsen, Henrik S; Marckmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease affecting renal failure patients. It may be caused by some gadolinium (Gd)-containing contrast agents, including gadodiamide. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence of NSF after gadodiamide exposure for patients with chronic...

  8. Cancer incidence among a cohort of subjects exposed to low-dose rate chronic radiation exposure in utero and after birth in the techa riverbank villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Hall, P.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste by the Mayak Production Association (PA) into the Techa River since 1949 till 1956 the population of the Riverside villages was exposed to a protracted effect of combined (external and internal) radiation. The 1-st-generation offspring of exposed residents born on 01.01.1950 and later were exposed both in utero and after birth. In all, 46 cancer cases, including 4 cases of leukemia, were registered among the study cohort members numbering 7,890 subjects born in the Techa Riverside villages in the Chelyabinsk province over the period since 1950 till 1998. No significant differences were noted in cancer incidence rates between men and women. Cancer incidence in the offspring's cohort was by 30-35% higher compared with the unexposed population of the USSR and Russia, the differences, however, are statistically insignificant. No influence of the parents total gonadal dose on cancer development in offspring was observed. The positive dose-effect dependence of cancer incidence on both antenatal and postnatal exposure was traced

  9. The efficiency of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia exposed to ionizing radiation due to the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, Yi.V.; Fedorenko, V.G.; Shlyakhtichenko, T.Yu.; And Others

    2014-01-01

    Additional chromosomal abnormalities as well as special pattern of BCR/ABL transcripts were not revealed in CML patients exposed to ionizing radiation. Complete cytogenetic response (CCR) was shown in 50 and 48.5 % of patients from study and comparison group, respectively. Major molecular response (MMR) was achieved in 20 % of patients with radiation exposure in anamnesis and in 27.6 % of patients from comparison group. The vast majority of CCR and MMR was reached in patients with the pretreatment term up to 6 months, when imatinib was used as a first line therapy. There were less cases of primary imatinib resistance in the same group of patients. In CML patients who had a history of radiation exposure, secondary resistance developed more frequently than in the comparison group and was 25 %. Laboratory monitoring based on the registration of CCR and MMR demonstrated high efficiency of TKI in the CML treatment of patients, exposed due to Chornobyl accident. Extension of pretreatment term leads to the loss of TKI therapy efficiency and increases the likelihood of primary resistance. CML patients exposed to ionizing radiation develop secondary resistance more often than CML patients without radiation exposure in anamnesis

  10. Image Quality and Patient Dose Optimisation in Mammography in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Prikazska, M.

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer represents also in Slovakia the greatest cancer risk for women, with great incidence and mortality. Conventional film-screen mammography is still the primary breast imaging modality with increasing number of mammography units and mammography examinations. From the radiation protection point of view achievement of good practice in mammography department by implementation of quality assurance play an important role for reduction of patients doses. Introduction of QA needs trained and experienced staff and requires close collaboration between radiologists, medical physicist and radiographers. At the beginning of nineties at the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine we started with a survey of mean glandular doses at 15 existing mammography units in the country. On the basis of a questionnaire in the year 1991 were performed 10 488 mammography examinations, where due to out of date mammography units the mean glandular dose reached more as 3 mGy. In the following years the claim to the modern mammography units kept growing and in the year 1999 the total number of 63 mammography units were operating in Slovakia providing about 101 471 mammography examinations. According to the alarming increase of the number of mammography examinations it is absolutely necessary to work out criteria and principles for Quality Control at mammography workplaces in our country and make it obligatory for the staff of all mammography units. Summarising the CRP results it can be stated that they: 1) Initiated the suggestion of unified QA/QC criteria in mammography and the urgent need to implement them into the national program of radiology image quality improvement; 2) Remitted on unhomogenity not only in the equipment outfit but also in the procedure of evaluation of the measured parameters and imaging quality; 3) Revealed the shortcomings in the everyday practice of mammography units which can be removed only by comprehensive by training of personal in imaging radiology

  11. [The incidence of tularemia in Slovakia in 1997-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurycová, D; Tináková, K; Výrosteková, V; Gacíková, E

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of epidemiological trends in tularemia in the Slovak Republic (SR) over the last 12 years and changes in the epidemiology of this infection. The sources of data for the epidemiological analysis are the SR annual tularemia surveillance report, records of epidemiological investigation of reported cases and knowledge from long-term surveillance of natural foci. The incidence of tularemia was analyzed based on the standard epidemiological indicators and in relation to infection sources and transmission routes. In 1997-2008, a total of 453 tularemia cases were reported from all administrative regions in Slovakia, the mean incidence was 0.71/10(5) population and 95.4% of cases were reported in the West, with the predominance of cases in the Nitra region where the mean incidence was 4/10(5) population. In the outbreak of 2002, the incidence of tularemia was as high as 18 cases/10(5) population. Tularemia cases were reported in all age groups and more than half of the patients were aged between 30 to 59 years. Tularemia cases were 1.9 times more frequent in males than in females. The seasonal trend peaked in summer, month of July. In a greater proportion of cases, 58.5%, the source of infection was other than brown hares, 16.3%, which correlates well with the decrease in the hare tularemia foci in the study period. The most frequent route of transmission was work exposure to contaminated animal feed and bedding and in an dusty environment with increased occurrence of small rodents. The proportion of tick-borne and biting insect-borne cases was 12.8% and 12.4% of cases were not elucidated epidemiologically. Clinical manifestations were ulceroglandular and glandular tularemia in 55.6%, pulmonary tularemia in 21.2 %, oroglandular tularaemia in 18.8% and other forms of tularaemia in 4.4%. The changes in the distribution of sources of infection and routes of transmission resulted in changed epidemiological characteristics and clinical forms of tularemia in Slovakia

  12. Emission trading in Slovakia is not bound to Kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Zackova, K.

    2004-01-01

    After Pentagon published its report problems related to changes in climate became an important discussion topic again. The report indicates that future temperature increase could have fatal impacts like flooding of Netherlands. Representatives of Slovak National Climate Program do not completely share this view. They consider it to be the worst scenario - catastrophic scenario. And they are also positive that the emissions of greenhouse gases that are the main reason for these changes of climate will decrease. EU is currently working on Directives that will support one of the possible solutions - emission trading and will make this trade independent from ratification of the Kyoto protocol. The basic principle is simple - a country with production of the greenhouse gases below the legally set level or below the level set out by international agreement on climatic changes will have some spare emission quotas that can be traded i.e. sold to a country that produces more gases then allowed. And based on such an agreement signed between a Slovak and Japanese company, Japan will be allowed to produce more greenhouse gases if it can prove that there is an area in the world where the production is below the limit. But, at the same time, it will have to pay for this over-production. Starting next year over 12-thousand companies will be allowed to participate in this business. At the moment an act on emission trading is being prepared in Slovakia. It should have been completed by end of January but the approval process is being delayed. Similar acts are under preparation also in other countries and not even the EU member states have passed them yet. The National Allocation Plan in Slovakia should distribute the emission quotas to about 200 companies. Many European politicians consider the emission trade an effective economic tool provided it will be used as motivation for decrease of greenhouse gas production. And so all companies participating in this project will handle in

  13. A mathematical modeling approach to risk assessment for normal and anemic women chronically exposed to carbon monoxide from biomass-fueled cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Margaret C.; Erupaka-Chada, Kinnera

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, the chronic exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) from biomass-fueled cookstoves may pose a significant health risk for women who use these stoves, especially for those with underlying clinical conditions that impair tissue oxygenation, e.g., anemia and coronary artery disease. CO concentrations measured in the vicinity of these cookstoves often exceed World Health Organization (WHO) indoor air guidelines for an 8-h average (9 ppm) and a 1-h maximum (26 ppm). Carboxyhemoglobin levels, reported infrequently because they are difficult to obtain, often exceed the WHO threshold of 2.5%. Despite this evidence, specific adverse effects have not yet been linked with chronic CO exposures in these women. Furthermore, anemia, which is prevalent in populations that use biomass fuels, could exacerbate the adverse effects of chronic CO exposure. Because of the difficulties inherent in conducting prospective studies to address this issue, we used a mathematical model to calculate the effects of reported CO levels and exercise on carboxyhemoglobin for women living in 1) Guatemalan villages at altitudes of 4,429–4,593 ft, and 2) coastal villages in Pakistan. In addition, we used the model to calculate the effects of CO exposures in women with moderate to severe anemia on specific physiological parameters (carboxyhemoglobin, carboxymyoglobin, cardiac output, and tissue Po2) at exercise levels representing the activities in which these women would be engaged. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of using a mathematical model to predict the physiologic responses to CO and also demonstrate that chronic anemia is a critically important determinant of CO toxicity in these women. PMID:21596914

  14. Expression of selected pathway-marker genes in human urothelial cells exposed chronically to a non-cytotoxic concentration of monomethylarsonous acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has been associated with chronic arsenic exposure. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III] is a metabolite of inorganic arsenic and has been shown to transform an immortalized urothelial cell line (UROtsa at concentrations 20-fold less than arsenite. MMA(III was used as a model arsenical to examine the mechanisms of arsenical-induced transformation of urothelium. A previous microarray analysis revealed only minor changes in gene expression at 1 and 2 months of chronic exposure to MMA(III, contrasting with substantial changes observed at 3 months of exposure. To address the lack of information between 2 and 3 months of exposure (the critical period of transformation, the expression of select pathway marker genes was measured by PCR array analysis on a weekly basis. Cell proliferation rate, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity in SCID mice were also assessed to determine the early, persistent phenotypic changes and their association with the changes in expression of these selected marker genes. A very similar pattern of alterations in these genes was observed when compared to the microarray results, and suggested that early perturbations in cell signaling cascades, immunological pathways, cytokine expression, and MAPK pathway are particularly important in driving malignant transformation. These results showed a strong association between the acquired phenotypic changes that occurred as early as 1–2 months of chronic MMA(III exposure, and the observed gene expression pattern that is indicative of the earliest stages in carcinogenesis.

  15. Czech fiasco with oil reserves has not deterred Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2004-01-01

    In order to meet its obligation to keep a 90-day emergency reserve of oil and oil products, Slovakia must purchase about 40% of the required volume of these commodities and complete storage capacity for the reserves. In addition, it must also create a system of storage management for the reserves including a regular exchange of the contents of the tanks. If it does not meet the 2008 deadline, EU structural funds will be decreased. In order to create the missing storage capacity, the Sprava statnych hmotnych rezerv (SSHR - Administration of Public Material Reserves) is considering a solution which Slovnaft, a.s. sees as a major risk for the state. Should the hundreds of millions needed for the building of new tanks not be found in the budget, the state would invite private investors to build the tanks, stated SSHR Chairman, Jan Tusim. Private investors will not endanger public control over the emergency reserves. Other countries also lease tanks. But according to information provided by its chairman, SSHR also wants to make the private investors responsible for the regular exchange of the emergency reserves that must be carried out every four to five years. Given an accurate forecast of price development on international markets, a lot of money can be made on these exchanges. Slovnaft stresses that if the state were no longer responsible for the exchange of the tanks' contents, it would be the state that was at risk not the refineries

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Slovakia/Czechoslovakia in 1961 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csupka, S.; Carach, J.; Petrasova, M.

    1978-01-01

    The results are given of environmental monitoring of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in Slovakia between 1961 to 1975. Samples of radioactive fallout, milk and water were taken monthly, samples of forage, cereals and vegetables were taken in the ripening stage, and samples of foodstuffs were taken in shops. The following amounts of samples were used for the analyses: 100 g of soil, 100 g of dry forage, 100 g of dry cereals, 3 kg of fresh fruit and vegetables, 2 l of water, 1 l of milk, 2 kg of fresh meat, and flour and flour products amounting to 2 kg. The samples were dried, burned and mineralized for 24 hours with HCl. After removal of interfering elements, ie., Fe, 140 Ba, 140 La, rare earths, phosphates and 90 Y, the 90 Sr activity was determined by the yttrium method. The yttrium chemical yield was 90%. 137 Cs beta activity was determined after precipitation from a solution in the form of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and after removal of oxalates, alkali elements and rare earth elements. Chemical yield was 60 to 70%. An anticoincidence low-level beta counter by Philips was used in activity measurement. The detection efficiency was 22% for 90 Sr- 90 Y and 17% for 137 Cs. The relative mean square error of the measurement was lower than 15% for 90 Y and 10% for 137 Cs. The measurement results are classified in five parts, viz., radioactivity in fallout, in soils, in water, in plants, and in food. (J.P.)

  17. NATURAL ENEMIES OF DIURAPHIS NOXIA (STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter TÓTH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A study from 2002 documented the occurrence of natural enemies (parasitoid wasps, predatory fl ies, entomopathogenic fungi associated with colonies of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov, 1913 (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae, in the spring barley fi elds in Slovakia. Parasitization by wasps was low (<5.5% with Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh, 1855 the dominant hymenopterous parasitoid (91% of emerging wasps. The remaining parasitoid guild comprised of Aphidius ervi Haliday, 1834 Aphidius rhopalosiphi DeStefani, 1902, Aphidius picipes (Nees, 1811, Ephedrus plagiator (Nees, 1811, Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae and two hyperparasites Asaphes suspensus (Nees, 1834 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Lygocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae. Predaceous midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were consistently found with densities ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 larvae per aphid colony. The most abundant predaceous midge was Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani, 1847, while Lestodiplosis sp. was recorded infrequently. Four syrphids, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776, Melanostoma mellinum (L., 1758, Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedemann, 1830, Sphaerophoria scripta (L., 1758 (Diptera: Syrphidae and one pathogenic fungus, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudière et Hennebert Humber, were recorded.

  18. Project of new tandem-driven neutron facility in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strisovska, Jana

    2014-01-01

    New neutron laboratory based on Pelletron R Accelerator with terminal voltage of 2 MV is under construction at the Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia. The accelerator will be employed as a tunable source of monoenergetic fast neutrons. Using of deuterium and in the future also tritium gas cells is foreseen. These cells will allow to produce fast neutrons with various energies via 2 H(d,n) 3 He and 3 H(p,n) 3 He nuclear reactions. Physics program of new laboratory will be focused on nuclear structure studied via inelastic neutron scattering with gamma ray detection, especially for light singly-closed shell nuclei. Fission cross section measurement and fission gamma rays studies will be performed. Development and testing of neutron detectors, as integral part of future project ALLEGRO, i.e., the demonstrator of fast nuclear reactor cooled with helium gas, is planned. Parallel to neutron program, beams of charged particles will be used for studies of resonant nuclear astrophysics reactions. Start of operation of the laboratory is foreseen in 2015. In the talk, current status, physics program and details of the facility will be presented. (authors)

  19. Innovation in Public Service Delivery: Civic Participation in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata M. Merickova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation as such is connected with political, social and civic dimensions. Through participation, citizens can directly or indirectly help to make the public process become more transparent and more efficient. It allows citizens “to see" into a decision-making process, to understand it, as well as contribute and be able to control it. In practice, civic participation has various forms; it includes both formal civic associations and informal groups of citizens that develop activities in order to solve local problems. In this paper we focus on civic participation in the innovation in the provision of public services, i.e. co-creation. Our objective is to map the best practices of co-creation in social innovations at the local government level in Slovakia. The main findings of our analysis are that co-created innovations are mostly initiated by non-governmental actors. Our study uses a qualitative approach and is based on original survey data from our own research, conducted mainly within the LIPSE research project.

  20. Radon in outdoor air at various sites in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulko, Martin; Holy, Karol; Muellerova, Monika; Polaskova, Anna; Hola, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Radon 222 was continuously monitored at four sites of Slovakia, viz. at the campus of the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava (FMPI CU), at the Slovak Metrological Institute in Bratislava (SMI), at Jaslovske Bohunice (with its nuclear power plant), and at Novaky (coal mining area). The minima and maxima of the daily radon waves occurred at different periods of the day. The average radon activity concentration (RAC) in Novaky was more than twice as high as at the remaining sites, presumably due to a higher rate of radon exhalation from soil. By using the 'box' model, the exhalation rate at Novaky was estimated to be 40 mBq.m -2 .s -1 , which is about 2.5 times that at the FMPI CU in Bratislava. This higher exhalation rate in Novaky is probably caused by a different bedrock in this area. The average annual effective dose from radon and its daughters estimated by the UNSCEAR methodology is 0.06 mSv in the atmosphere of Bratislava and Jaslovske Bohunice and 0.13 mSv in the atmosphere of Novaky

  1. Radon in the atmosphere in two different localities of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulko, M.; Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.; Simon, J.; Muellerova, M.; Melicherova, T.; Hola, O.

    2006-01-01

    Radon activity concentration in the atmosphere can vary more or less according to the locality of the measurement. In this paper there are compared radon activity concentration (RAC) and equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) obtained in two different localities of Slovakia (Bratislava and Jaslovske Bohunice, respectively). The localities are about 55 km apart from each other. Data analyses for 5 months of the year 2005 are presented. A surprisingly good agreement between the localities was found on the variations and mean values. These results imply that the turbulent mixing of air in the atmosphere of both localities is very similar. Various EEC/RAC ratios were found for different months, which might indicate a change in equilibrium factor F during the year. There was also found out that the mean daily courses observed in the two localities are slightly shifted apart. This is probably caused by different orography of the area where the measurement devices are installed and because of an earlier incidence of solar radiation on the measurement area in Jaslovske Bohunice. (authors)

  2. PERCEPTION OF BIO-FOOD LABELING BY CONSUMERS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The paper presents an overview of the present perception of bio-food labeling by consumers in Slovakia. Analyses were realized by the questionnaire survey organized in the period December 2009 to January 2010. In the survey, 388 respondents were interviewed. From the methodological aspect, basic approaches of descriptive statistics have been used, as well as methods of association measurement. The test of robustness tested Chi-Square statistic. The robustness have been judged based on the p-values. Correlations have been tested through the Contingency coefficient and Cramer´s V coefficient. The survey showed that dependency knowledge of logos was confirmed in terms of knowledge of bio-food, education, type of employment, study at FBP faculty and in terms of choice of organic foods by manufacturers. Students of FBP  knows more bio-food logos than other respondents. The second highest dependency was confirmed within selection of bio-food produced individual manufacturers.doi:10.5219/107 

  3. PERFORMANCE OF COLD-BLOODED HORSES IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JURAJ MLYNEK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding program is based on an assessment of their exterior, and is largely influenced by the performance. The objective of the work was to analyze the performance characteristics of cold-blooded horses in Slovakia using test of performance characteristics through carriage race. By evaluating the higher forms of utility control we concluded that scores in individual disciplines were very balanced during 2005-2008, which was due to a steady track of the horses involved and the carriagers. By increasing the number of new horses and new competitors in 2009 the average value of scores marked substantial deterioration, but this cannot be seen as degradation of performance of studied horses. By analysis of the factors affecting the score we found out, that gender as the only factor, did not have any significant impact on the studied disciplines of utility control. Carriager and the year of competition were amongst the factors mostly influencing the score. As the most successful line, whose representatives were most frequently and best ranked on the carriage races, we can choose the line of Bayard de Heredia. Its seven representatives participated in the period 2005-2011 altogether for 141-times and their average ranking ranged from 2.2 to 5.4.

  4. Consumers preferences of shopping centers in Bratislava (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bilková

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been changes in the shopping behavior and preferences of consumers in the post-communist countries caused by political changes after 1989. Slovakia is not an exception, and it has been observed a change not only at the consumers’ level but also in retail stores. A notable bearer of such changes was the construction of big shopping centers that were a new phenomenon in shopping. They quickly became popular and changed spatial and shopping patterns of consumers. The main aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the shopping preferences of consumers based on the example of the capital city – Bratislava (at the level of urban districts. The database consists of results of a questionnaire survey carried out in 2011. Respondents were interviewed inside the shopping center. The partial aims focus on the analysis of consumers’ perceptions, the frequency of their shopping and the mode of transport used for shopping. One of the goals of this study is also to evaluate the perception of consumers in terms of the catchment areas of the chosen shopping center, as well as the perceptional classification of retail in the given area and the accessibility of stores.

  5. Illegal drug use among female university students in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-20

    This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; Pstudents not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; Pstudents is marijuana. Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs.

  6. Moral (or ethical education in Slovakia and its theoretical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluchman Vasil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro-socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements to more psychologically based educational program which is resulting from the problematic division of a social and moral experience into egoistic and prosocial. Egoism is presented in a distorted form and is characterized as the cause of all moral evil. However, there are several different types of understanding of the term egoism in philosophy and ethics as for example psychological and ethical egoism, or self-interest. Ethical egoism or self-interest cannot be identified with selfishness. The main aim of moral education should not be only to form the desired children and youth moral orientation but on the other hand, to form morally self-confident individuals who are able to solve the moral problems, to help the others to solve them as well and to be able to bear moral responsibility for their own deeds.

  7. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  8. Selected trends in lung cancer epidemiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Berzinec, P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The lung cancer is still among the dominant malignant tumors despite declining trend of incidence, especially in men, and also its adverse prognosis remains. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyse the development of long-term trends in incidence and mortality and to produce a prospective estimate of prevalence and overall burden of lung cancer in the population in the Slovak Republic. Results: A significant drop of incidence of the disease in men has been seen in Slovakia since 1988 by a mean annual percentage change of -2.16%, whereby mortality is declining a little faster (by an annual percentage change of -2.87%). Adverse trend has been registered in both indicators in case of lung cancer in women, with incidence rising since 2001 by 5.31% annually and mortality rising by 1.3% for the whole monitored period. Conclusion: The adverse rising trend in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in women in the Slovak Republic, as well as the slower decline in incidence and mortality in men compared with some countries of Western Europe, will have an impact in future also on total costs for management of this disease. (author)

  9. Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae as vectors of orbiviruses in Slovakia

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    Adela Sarvašová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rapid spread of Culicoides-borne pathogens such as bluetongue (BT and Schmallenberg viruses have been reported in Europe. In this study we examined the Culicoides populations in farms with wild and domestic ruminants in Eastern Slovakia with the aim to confirm the presence of biting midges serving as potential vectors of important pathogens. The main vector complexes were the Obsoletus complex (54%; n=4,209 and the Pulicaris complex (23%; n=1,796. To estimate the relative abundance of the cryptic species of the Obsoletus complex (Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides montanus, we performed the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR based on ITS-2 and ITS-1 segments, on 125 midges randomly sampled. The relative abundance of C. obsoletus ranged from 5.26% in the farm with wild ruminants to 85.71% in another farm with cattle and sheep. A total of 112 pools of parous and gravid females belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes were tested for virus detection by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for BT virus, as well as for the Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV, with negative results.

  10. Effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in rats chronically exposed to the drug, with some evidence of possible withdrawal-reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2017-03-15

    For 20days male and female PVG/c hooded rats were provided with caffeinated (approximately 50mg/kg/day) or unadulterated drinking water, and then their anxiety-related behavior was observed in an open field and elevated plus maze. Their choices of a brightness change were also observed in a Y maze to assess any caffeine effects on spatial memory. 24h later, all rats were tested again following an intraperitoneal injection of 50mg/kg acute caffeine, or vehicle. Earlier chronic caffeine decreased ambulation, walking, rearing, center occupancy and increased immobility in the open field thereby suggesting increased anxiety. However, occupancy of the plus-maze open arms and the Y-maze novel arm were increased by caffeine for male rats, but decreased for females probably because of sex differences in control levels of the response rather than to drug effects on anxiety and memory respectively. Following caffeine withdrawal, acute caffeine had the opposite effect to chronic treatment namely, increased open-field ambulation, walking, center occupancy and decreased immobility and defecation for caffeine-naïve rats that were suggestive of decreased anxiety. Similar but more consistent effects (plus decreased emergence latencies from a darkened start box into the open field) also typified the caffeine-experienced rats which in this case may have been accentuated by caffeine withdrawal-reversal. There was no evidence of either chronic or acute caffeine affecting spatial memory measured in the Y maze. There were also examples of lower overall activity and higher anxiety in male rats, than in females, and some sex-dependent caffeine effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ground Water is a Chronic Source of Chloride to Surface Water of an Urban Stream Exposed to Road Salt in a Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, P.; Doheny, E.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P.; Striz, E.

    2006-05-01

    Recent evidence from the mid-Atlantic suggests that freshwater supplies are threatened by chronic chloride inputs from road salts applied to improve highway safety. Elevated chloride levels also may limit the ability of aquatic systems to microbially process nitrate nitrogen, a nutrient whose elevated levels pose human and ecological threats. Understanding the behavior of chloride in urban watersheds where road salts are applied is critical to predicting subsequent impacts to ecosystem health and drinking water supplies. Here we report on a long-term study of water chemistry in Minebank Run, a recently restored stream in an urban watershed of Towson, MD that receives chronic chloride inputs from the 695 Beltway highway and connecting arteries. Chloride, sodium, and specific conductance were greatly elevated in the both surface water and ground water of Minebank Run, spiking in correspondence to road salt application in the winter. Chloride levels were consistently higher in ground water of the bank side of a minor roadway and downstream of the 695 Beltway. Surface water chloride levels remained elevated throughout the year apparently because ground water continued to supply surface water with chloride even after road salt application ceased. Thus, ground water may represent a chronic source of chloride to surface water, thereby contributing to the upward trend in freshwater salinity in urbanizing areas. Stream susceptibility to road salt impacts may depend upon ground water hydrology and stream geomorphology. However, geomorphic stream restoration practices widely used in the mid-Atlantic are not designed to address salinity effects. Source control of road salts may be necessary to reduce environmental risk.

  12. Differential diagnosis of neuroses and vegetative dystonias among medical personnel exposed to chronic effect of occupational low dose irradiation. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkova, A.

    1987-01-01

    An ttempt to differentiate the importance of radiation factor in the origination of functional changes in nervous activity is made. Clinical methods are applied to 456 madical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation as well as to a control group of 300 medical workers. 100 subjects from each group have been investigated by inquiry psychological methods. No dependence is established between the incidence of neurasthenic neuroses and the duration of service, the cumulative equivalent doses respectively, being within the range of 25 mSv - 1.6 Sv. Asthenic states of the nervous system, not included in the clinical picture of neuroses and other diseases, have not been diagnosed. The significantly higher incidence of vegetative dystonias among the female medical personnel, working with sources and environment of ionizing radiation with a length of service over 15 years, is discussed in causal relationship with the radiation factor. 4 tabs., 15 refs

  13. A lower dose threshold for the in vivo protective adaptive response to radiation. Tumorigenesis in chronically exposed normal and Trp53 heterozygous C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Burchart, P.; Wyatt, H.

    2008-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation to cells and animals may induce adaptive responses that reduce the risk of cancer. However, there are upper dose thresholds above which these protective adaptive responses do not occur. We have now tested the hypothesis that there are similar lower dose thresholds that must be exceeded in order to induce protective effects in vivo. We examined the effects of low dose/low dose rate fractionated exposures on cancer formation in Trp53 normal or cancer-prone Trp53 heterozygous female C57BL/6 mice. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, mice were exposed 5 days/week to single daily doses (0.33 mGy, 0.7 mGy/h) totaling 48, 97 or 146 mGy over 30, 60 or 90 weeks. The exposures for shorter times (up to 60 weeks) appeared to be below the level necessary to induce overall protective adaptive responses in Trp53 normal mice, and detrimental effects (shortened lifespan, increased frequency) evident for only specific tumor types (B- and T-cell lymphomas), were produced. Only when the exposures were continued for 90 weeks did the dose become sufficient to induce protective adaptive responses, balancing the detrimental effects for these specific cancers, and reducing the risk level back to that of the unexposed animals. Detrimental effects were not seen for other tumor types, and a protective effect was seen for sarcomas after 60 weeks of exposure, which was then lost when the exposure continued for 90 weeks. As previously shown for the upper dose threshold for protection by low doses, the lower dose boundary between protection and harm was influenced by Trp53 functionality. Neither protection nor harm was observed in exposed Trp53 heterozygous mice, indicating that reduced Trp53 function raises the lower dose/dose rate threshold for both detrimental and protective tumorigenic effects. (author)

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases the number and dendrite maturation of doublecortin cells in the dentate gyrus of middle age male Wistar rats exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Pérez, J J; Martínez-Mota, L; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Ortiz-López, L; Cabrera-Muñoz, E A; Galindo-Sevilla, N; Zambrano, E; Hernández-Luis, F; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B; Flores-Ramos, M

    2017-03-15

    Aging increases the vulnerability to stress and risk of developing depression. These changes have been related to a reduction of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, an adrenal steroid with anti-stress effects. Also, adult hippocampal neurogenesis decreases during aging and its alteration or impaired is related to the development of depression. Besides, it has been hypothesized that DHEA increases the formation of new neurons. However, it is unknown whether treatment with DHEA in aging may stimulate the dendrite maturation of newborn neurons and reversing depressive-like signs evoked by chronic stress exposure. Here aged male rats (14 months old) were subjected to a scheme of chronic mild stress (CMS) during six weeks, received a treatment with DHEA from the third week of CMS. Changes in body weight and sucrose preference (SP) were measured once a week. DHEA levels were measured in serum, identification of doublecortin-(DCX)-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells was done in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. CMS produced a gradual reduction in the body weight, but no changes in the SP were observed. Treatment enhanced levels of DHEA, but lack of recovery on body weight of stressed rats. Aging reduced the number of DCX-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN- cells but DHEA just significantly increased the number of DCX-cells in rats under CMS and controls, reaching levels of young non-stressed rats (used here as a reference of an optimal status of health). In rats under CMS, DHEA facilitated dendritic maturation of immature new neurons. Our results reveal that DHEA improves neural plasticity even in conditions of CMS in middle age rats. Thus, this hormone reverted the decrement of DCX-cells caused during normal aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  16. Transformation of tourist landscapes in mountain areas: Case studies from Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Chrenka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available After two decades of deregulated free market economy the post-socialist rural mountain areas are being unprecedently commodified. Landscapes of tourist consumption with specific behaviour patterns are produced and reproduced. The paper explores how landscapes are transformed due to massive investments into tourist infrastructure with questionable impacts on quality of life and environmental sustainability. Power relations and related production of space are analysed in three case studies in the selected mountain areas in Slovakia. First, the Oščadnica case study reflects on rural landscape rapidly transformed by massive ski resort development and deforestation. Second, the Tále golf course development case study describes commodification and gentrification processes in Central Slovakia. Third, the High Tatras case study explores how power structures push on the transformation of the oldest and most visited National Park in Slovakia.

  17. A current view of the diagnostics and treatment of phenylketonuria in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ürge Oto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the diagnostics and treatment of phenylketonuria in Slovakia is presented in this paper. The nature of diseases, incidence and prevalence in Slovakia, its genetic characteristics, current laboratory diagnostics and treatment options are defined. A new method of phenylketonuria screening in Slovakia, which has brought substantial improvement in early detection of the disease and shortening time for definitive diagnosis since 1995 as well as the importance of a tandem MS/MS (mass spectrometry introduced in the diagnosis of inherited metabolic disorders, is presented. The current state of phenylketonuria treatment focusing on low-protein dietary treatment and supplementation of amino acid mixtures is analysed. The use of sapropterin, enzyme replacement therapy, large neutral amino acids supplementation and gene therapy are also discussed.

  18. Predictors and consequences of job insecurity: Comparison of Slovakia and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ištoňová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Job insecurity is a significant current social issue in many European countries. Slovakia and Estonia significantly differ in the prevalence of job insecurity. The main aim of the present study was to compare Slovakia and Estonia in regard to job insecurity by looking at socio-demographic, job and organisational predictors and individual and social consequences based on ESS round five data. The secondary aim was to examine relationships between job insecurity and its predictors as well as job insecurity and its consequences. The analysis covered employed people with unlimited or limited contracts, working 40-50 hours per week, within the age range of 20-60. The results suggested significant differences in the predictors of job insecurity for Slovakia and Estonia. However, the individual, social and economic consequences of job insecurity were similar for both countries. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of job insecurity predictors and consequences in the European region.

  19. Analysis of trends of low flow in river stations in eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Zeleňáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of using hypothesis test techniques to identify the long-term trends of hydrological time series is investigated in this study. The aim is to analyse trends of low flows at streams in eastern Slovakia, namely Poprad, Hornád, Bodva, Bodrog river basins. The article presents a methodology for prediction of hydrological drought based on statistical testing of low stream flows by non-parametric statistical test. The main objective is to identify low flow trends in the selected 63 river stations in eastern Slovakia. The stations with human impacts are also evaluated. The Mann-Kendall non-parametric test has been used to detect trends in hydrological time series. Statistically significant trends have been determined from the trend lines for the whole territory of eastern Slovakia. The results indicate that the observed changes in Slovakian river basins do not have a clearly defined trend.

  20. International outsourcing over the business cycle: some intuition for Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine LEVASSEUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the extent to which multinational firms – in the first instance, the German ones – may adjust their international outsourcing over the business cycle in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. For that purpose, we have used monthly data of production for the manufacturing sector as a whole and some of its sub-sectors, since 2000 onwards. Our econometrical estimates suggest that there would be an asymmetry in the international outsourcing across the states of the economy, meaning that multinationals firms would be engaged differently in outsourcing activities, depending on whether bad or good economic times occur. Yet, such an asymmetry is found increasing over the time for German and French multinationals operating in the transport equipment sector of Slovakia. Another conclusion is that international outsourcing made by multinational firms in Slovakia may account for a portion of its large business cycles volatility.

  1. Chevron Texaco wants Kazakh oil to flow through Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    Chevron Texaco is offering Slovakia an option for the diversification of its oil stocks. It plans to use the Druzba pipeline to transport about 3 million tons of Kazakhstan oil. Most of it should be delivered to the refinery in Czech Kralupy. Pipeline administrator, the company Transpetrol, rejects the proposal and argues that adjusting the pipeline designed for heavy Russian oil to allow the transmission of light oil would cost over SKK 2 billion (Eur 50.04 million). Transpetrol is managed by Russian concern Yukos. Russian oil companies view Caspian oil as competition and the reaction of Transpetrol only follows in line with this attitude. It may sound paradoxical, but letting Caspian oil flow through the Transpetrol pipelines would help Russian concerns expand to Western European markets. The refinery in Kralupy is connected to the IKL pipeline, which connects the Czech Republic to the German network close to the German refinery in Ingolstadt. The one-way pipeline that the Czech used to decrease their dependency on Russian oil and the Druzba pipeline in the nineties would remain unused and discussions about an investment in a change of flow direction to allow the transport of oil to Germany would take on an entirely new dimension. The interest of Chevron may therefore indicate major changes in the European oil distribution network. If the flow direction of the IKL pipeline were to change, it would not only be possible to transport Caspian oil, but also Russian oil. What's more, both US and Western European companies have their sights set on Czech and German refineries that get their oil form the Caspian region and they are also interested in capital entry to Russian oil concerns. This scenario is likely to come true in the case of Yukos

  2. ENGAGEMENT AND BURNOUT AMONG NURSING AND PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS IN SLOVAKIA

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    Zuzana Škodová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the differences in engagement and burnout syndrome in students of nursing/midwifery and psychology in Slovakia. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Methods: 171 university students on a baccalaureate program participated in the research (90.9% females; age 20.6 ± 1.3; 80 psychology students, 91 nursing/midwifery students. The School Burnout Inventory (SBI and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES were employed as measurement methods. Results: A significant negative association between levels of burnout and engagement (R = 0.42; p < 0.01 was found. A linear regression model showed a significant effect of engagement on burnout (β = -0.34; 95% CI: -0.50; -0.19. However, the total explained variance was only 19.4%. Students of psychology scored higher in engagement compared to nursing and midwifery students (t = 6.89; p < 0.001. Conversely, midwifery and nursing students had higher levels of burnout compared to the group of psychology students (t = -4.55; p < 0,001. Conclusion: Nursing is considered to be a high risk profession in terms of development of burnout, which was demonstrated in this study by the higher burnout, and lower engagement levels in nursing and midwifery students. Higher attention to coping mechanisms for stress and burnout symptoms among students of healthcare professions is required in the school curriculum, especially in nursing programs. Keywords: burnout syndrome, engagement, students of nursing, midwifery, students of psychology, School Burnout Inventory (SBI, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES.

  3. Gastrointestinal microbiota in children with autism in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, Aleksandra; Husarova, Veronika; Lakatosova, Silvia; Bakos, Jan; Vlkova, Barbora; Babinska, Katarina; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Development of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), including autism, is based on a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Recent data propose the etiopathogenetic role of intestinal microflora in autism. The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in fecal microbiota in children with autism and determine its role in the development of often present gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and possibly other manifestations of autism in Slovakia. The fecal microflora of 10 children with autism, 9 siblings and 10 healthy children was investigated by real-time PCR. The fecal microbiota of autistic children showed a significant decrease of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and elevation of the amount of Lactobacillus spp. Our results also showed a trend in the incidence of elevated Desulfovibrio spp. in children with autism reaffirmed by a very strong association of the amount of Desulfovibrio spp. with the severity of autism in the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) restricted/repetitive behavior subscale score. The participants in our study demonstrated strong positive correlation of autism severity with the severity of GI dysfunction. Probiotic diet supplementation normalized the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Desulfovibrio spp. and the amount of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces of autistic children. We did not find any correlation between plasma levels of oxytocin, testosterone, DHEA-S and fecal microbiota, which would suggest their combined influence on autism development. This pilot study suggests the role of gut microbiota in autism as a part of the "gut-brain" axis and it is a basis for further investigation of the combined effect of microbial, genetic, and hormonal changes for development and clinical manifestation of autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil monitoring as a part of environment monitoring in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobza, J.

    1997-01-01

    In frame of Soil monitoring system it is going about a lot of methods in advance as follows: methods of soil monitoring sites selection and soil monitoring network construction, as well; methods of soil survey and soil sampling; analytical methods (indicating of chemical, agrochemical and physical properties); soil database and methods of evaluation and interpretation of measured results. The monitoring network was constructed on the base of ecological principles - including the monitoring of all soil types and subtypes, various climatic and emission regions as well as relatively clean regions, lowland and highland. Soil monitoring network in forest land is regular (8 x 8 km) with regard to International monitoring system in Forestry. The soil monitoring network in Slovakia consist of 650 monitoring sites (312 sites in farming land and 338 sites in forest land). In addition soil monitoring network includes also 21 monitoring sites. All monitoring sites are geodesically located and reported on the map at a scale of 1:5000. There are the methods concerning the important soil parameters indication with regard to main soil degradation processes a s follows: soil contamination (heavy metals and organic contaminants); soil acidification; soil salinity; soil erosion (deluometrically by the Cs-137 and remote sensing methods); soil compaction; soil fertility and protection. Analytical control system was elaborated according to Good Laboratory Practice. Evaluation of soil monitoring network results is not simple because it depends on various monitored parameters, on aim of evaluation as well as on the scale of landscape which is object for evaluation. There are used the modern statistical methods in monitoring system which can be: universal; disjunctive; simulated. Used statistical methods are significant for interpretation of measured results as follows: trends in landscape; anisotropy; comparison. The evaluation and interpretation way is very significant with regard not

  5. Developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, J. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Fac. of Medicine; Sovcikova, E.; Kovrizhnykh, I.; Wimmerova, S.; Trnovec, T. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine; Kocan, A. [Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Toxic Organic Pollutants

    2004-09-15

    Developing enamel is sensitive to a wide range of local and systemic disturbances. Because of the absolute metabolic stability of its structure, changes in enamel during its development are permanent in nature. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been shown to disturb tooth development in experimental animals, but only limited amounts of data exist on their adverse effects in humans. Dental changes such as mottled, chipped, carious, and neonatal teeth have been reported in accidentally exposed humans. Nevertheless, co-contamination with polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) was largely responsible for the overall toxicity4. Alaluusua et al. found that developmental dental defects were correlated with the total exposure to polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons via mother's milk. The correlation was strong with exposure to prevailing levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) but weak with exposure to PCBs alone. In our previous study we have shown developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs alone6, suggesting that the developing human teeth are vulnerable to PCBs. In the Michalovce region of eastern Slovakia, PCBs from a chemical plant manufacturing Delors contaminated the surrounding district7. The total serum PCB levels in samples from the general population there exceeded by several times the background levels in subjects living in a comparable unexposed Svidnik district. PCB levels in breast milk samples in the Michalovce region were the highest in Slovakia. Levels of toxic polychlorinated aromatics (PCDFs, PCNs, and planar PCBs) in technical Delors were high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to PCBs, measured at the individual level, on developmental dental defects in children in eastern Slovakia.

  6. Antidepressant-like Effect of Bacopaside I in Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress by Modulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function and Activating BDNF Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xianpeng; Zhang, Mingjian; Li, Wencai; Xie, Haisheng; Lin, Zhang; Yang, Niao; Liu, Xinru; Zhang, Weidong

    2017-11-01

    Preliminary studies conducted in our laboratory have confirmed that Bacopaside I (BS-I), a saponin compound isolated from Bacopa monnieri, displayed antidepressant-like activity in the mouse behavioral despair model. The present investigation aimed to verify the antidepressant-like action of BS-I using a mouse model of behavioral deficits induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and further probe its underlying mechanism of action. Mice were exposed to CUMS for a period of 5 consecutive weeks to induce depression-like behavior. Then, oral gavage administrations with vehicle (model group), fluoxetine (12 mg/kg, positive group) or BS-I (5, 15, 45 mg/kg, treated group) once daily were started during the last two weeks of CUMS procedure. The results showed that BS-I significantly ameliorated CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors in mice, as characterized by an elevated sucrose consumption in the sucrose preference test and reduced immobility time without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity in the forced swimming test, tail suspension test and open field test. It was also found that BS-I treatment reversed the increased level of plasma corticosterone and decreased mRNA and protein expressions of glucocorticoid receptor induced by CUMS exposure, indicating that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity of CUMS-exposed mice was restored by BS-I treatment. Furthermore, chronic administration of BS-I elevated expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (mRNA and protein) and activated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in mice subjected to CUMS procedure. Taken together, these results indicated that BS-I exhibited an obvious antidepressant-like effect in mouse model of CUMS-induced depression that was mediated, at least in part, by modulating HPA hyperactivity and activating BDNF signaling pathway.

  7. Maps of surface activity of 137Cs of Slovakia on scale 1:200 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluch, A.

    2005-05-01

    The present set of maps (13 maps) arose from the geological project 'Re-ambulation of 137 Cs radioactivity map of Slovakia at scales 1:200 000 and 1:500 000' in phase of indicative geological survey of environmental factors. Maps document the state of contamination of the territory of Slovakia by one of the radioisotopes cesium-137 at the reference date 01.01.2005. In solving of geological tasks were used all available relevant data on measurements of 137 Cs activity from the whole territory of the Slovak Republic for the period from 1990 to 2003 from results of air and ground gamma spectrometric measurements. (authors)

  8. Stephanitis takeyai and S. rhododendri (Heteroptera: Tingidae in Slovakia: first record and economic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barta Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the occurrence of andromeda lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis takeyai Drake and Maa, 1955, and rhododendron lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis rhododendri Horvath, 1905, in Slovakia. Syntopic colonies of both species were found on rhododendron shrubs (Rhododendron sp. in south-western Slovakia in 2015. The feeding of the lace bugs resulted in damage to infested rhododendrons. Leaves turned yellow and brown, prematurely dropped what led to continuous drying up of twigs and the whole plants. Details on morphology of adult stages of the two species, description of damage symptoms and economic importance of these pests are presented and discussed.

  9. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  10. Genetic effects of radon 222 in a population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically exposed; Efectos geneticos del radon 222 en una poblacion de Drosophila melanogaster cronicamente expuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V M [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    It was investigated the mutagenic effect of Radon 222 during a experimental period of 11 generations. In this lapse Drosophila melanogaster larvae line Canton-S were maintained in a radon atmosphere. In each test generation had been extracted males, consequently exposed to radiation which were subjected to a crossing series with a bearer marker genes of according to the Wallace experimental design (1956). Due to the experimental conditions it only was determined the recessive lethal mutations frequency for the second chromosome in the 1,4,7 and 11 generations. Of all study it was conduced in parallel way a non-treated witness population. The concentrations at which was subjected the experimental population varied of generation to generation from 12 {+-} 2 to 43 {+-} 5 kBq/m{sup 3}. Our analysis correspond to lethality determination in 1182 second chromosomes distributed between two populations and the different exposition generations. The study allow to determine the respective frequencies of recessive lethal genes varying according to the population and/or generation between 10.53 and 22.02%. The statistical analysis of data did not show significant differences among the different populations. (Author)

  11. Antidepressant-like behavioral, anatomical, and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhong; Cheng, Ai-Fang; Yu, Yuan-Tao; Yu, Long-Jiang; Jin, Wenwen

    2014-05-01

    Maca has been consumed as a medical food in Peru for thousands of years, and exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Our present study aimed to evaluate the behavior and anatomical and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (ME) in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. Three different doses of maca extract (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated in the six-week CUMS procedure. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control drug. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in the tail suspension test. After treatment with maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg), the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus appeared thicker. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) also induced a significant reduction in corticosterone levels in mouse serum. In mouse brain tissue, after six weeks of treatment, noradrenaline and dopamine levels were increased by maca extract, and the activity of reactive oxygen species was significantly inhibited. Serotonin levels were not significantly altered. These results demonstrated that maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed antidepressant-like effects and was related to the activation of both noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, as well as attenuation of oxidative stress in mouse brain.

  12. Effect on the viability in populations of Drosophila Melanogaster chronically exposed to Radon; Efecto sobre la viabilidad en poblaciones de Drosophila melanogaster cronicamente expuestas a Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V M [Depto. de Biologia, ININ, Km.36.5 Carr. Mexico-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A four generations population of Drosophila melanogaster chronically subjected to the following radon concentrations were analyzed: 30 {+-} 7, 12 {+-} 2, 43 {+-} 5, 25 {+-} 7, 14 {+-} 2, 6 {+-} 2, 78 {+-} 1, 58 {+-} 5 and 74 {+-} 7 k B/m{sup 3} with estimated doses of 1.209, 0.1, 2.088, 0.869, 0.156, 0.03, 3.18, 2.12 and 2.878 mGy by generation and their respective ones witness, in order to determine the effect of the radiation in the induction of detrimental genes, also measuring the effect of the viability with regard to the fecundity and the differential viability in categories of genes with smaller effects. So much the induction of detrimental genes like the distribution of the viability with regard to the fecundity for categories they did not show inductor effect due to the treatment with radon. Notwithstanding, the changes caused by the relating treatment to the fecundity they caused in three of the four comparisons possible significant results in the production of descendants, improving the adaptation of the populations, like it has been demonstrated by other authors.

  13. Fluoxetine increases the activity of the ERK-CREB signal system and alleviates the depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to chronic forced swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoli; Lin, Wenjuan; Li, Junfa; Li, Huanhuan; Wang, Weiwen; Wang, Donglin; Sun, Meng

    2008-08-01

    Our previous research indicates that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cyclic AMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB) signal system may be involved in the molecular mechanism of depression. The present study further investigated the effect of antidepressant fluoxetine on the ERK-CREB signal system and the depressive-like behaviors in rats. Fluoxetine was administrated to either naive rats or stressed rats for 21 days. The results showed that chronic forced swim stress induced depressive-like behaviors and decreased the levels of P-ERK2, P-CREB, ERK1/2 and CREB in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Fluoxetine alleviated the depressive-like behaviors and reversed the disruptions of the P-ERK2 and P-CREB in stressed rats. Fluoxetine also exerted mood-elevating effect and increased the levels of the P-ERK2 and P-CREB in naive rats. These results suggest that the ERK-CREB signal system may be the targets of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine and participate in the neuronal mechanism of depression.

  14. Neuroplastic Correlates in the mPFC Underlying the Impairment of Stress-Coping Ability and Cognitive Flexibility in Adult Rats Exposed to Chronic Mild Stress during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a valid chronic mild stress (CMS model of depression, we found that adolescent (postnatal days [PND] 28–41 CMS induced transient alterations in anhedonia that did not persist into adulthood after a 3-week recovery period. Previously stressed adult rats exhibited more immobility/despair behaviors in the forced swimming test and a greater number of trials to reach criterion in the set-shifting task, suggesting the impaired ability to cope with stressors and the cognitive flexibility that allows adaptation to dynamic environments during adulthood. In addition, adult rat exposure to adolescent CMS had a relatively inhibited activation in ERK signaling and downstream protein expression of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the medial prefrontal cortex. Further correlation analysis demonstrated that immobility and set-shifting performance were positively correlated with the inhibition of ERK signaling. These results indicated adolescent CMS can be used as an effective stressor to model an increased predisposition to adult depression.

  15. Publication of new results from the INWORKS epidemiological study about the risk of cancer among nuclear industry workers chronically exposed to low ionizing radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In this cohort study, 308297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17?957 were due to solid cancers. Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality from all solid cancers (47% (18% to 79%)), and within each country. The estimated association over the dose range of 0-100 mGy was similar in magnitude to that obtained over the entire dose range but less precise. Smoking and occupational asbestos exposure are potential confounders; however, exclusion of deaths from lung cancer and pleural cancer did not affect the estimated association. Despite substantial efforts to characterise the performance of the radiation dosimeters used, the possibility of measurement error remains. The study provides a direct estimate of the association between protracted low dose exposure to ionising radiation and solid cancer mortality. Although high dose rate exposures are thought to be more dangerous than low dose rate exposures, the risk per unit of radiation dose for cancer among radiation workers was similar to estimates derived from studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Quantifying the cancer risks associated with protracted radiation exposures can help strengthen the foundation for radiation protection standards

  16. Chronic genetic damages in Geophagus brasiliensis exposed to anthropic impact in estuarine lakes at Santa Catarina coast--southern of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincá, Cristiane; Ramsdorf, Wanessa; Vicari, Taynah; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A; de Almeida, Marina I; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2012-04-01

    Biological monitoring through animals exposed to pollutants using biomarkers provides a promising tool for the identification of pollutants that may cause damage to human health and/or to sustainability of ecosystems. The effects of pollutants in fish tissues are important tools to understand the impact of human activities in natural ecosystems. The aim of this work was to study the water quality of two estuarine lakes in Santa Catarina, Brazil (Camacho Lake and Santa Marta Lake). Geophagus brasiliensis is a species widely distributed in Brazil and was used in this work. Comet assays in peripheral red blood and kidney cells, micronucleus tests in peripheral red blood cells, measurements of acetylcholinesterase activity in axial muscle and histopathological analysis of liver were used as biomarkers. Three sampling campaigns were undertaken in November 2004, June 2005 and November 2005. Thirty adult animals were sampled from each of three different sites (P1--Santa Marta Lake, P2 and P3--Camacho Lake). A negative control was sampled in a non-polluted site at Costa Ecological Park, Paraná. The positive control for genotoxicity was obtained by treating animals with copper sulphate. The results showed that both studied lakes are impacted by potential genotoxic substances. Severe lesions in liver of G. brasiliensis were also observed. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity suggests the presence of pesticides or metals in the studied sites. This work shows that the water quality of Santa Marta and Camacho Lakes have been compromised and further control source of pollutants into these ecosystems is required.

  17. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and higher expression levels of Nrf2 and NQO1 proteins in the airways of women chronically exposed to biomass fuel smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Saha, Hirak; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Tyagi, Neetu; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2018-01-24

    The study was carried out to examine whether chronic exposure to smoke during daily household cooking with biomass fuel (BMF) elicits changes in airway cytology and expressions of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2 [Nrf2]), Keap1 (Kelch-like erythroid-cell-derived protein with CNC homology [ECH]-associated protein 1), and NQO1 (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1) proteins in the airways. For this, 282 BMF-using women (median age 34 year) and 236 age-matched women who cooked with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were enrolled. Particulate matter with diameters of LPG. Compared with LPG users, BMF users had 32% more leukocytes in circulation and their sputa were 1.4-times more cellular with significant increase in absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and alveolar macrophages, suggesting airway inflammation. ROS generation was 1.5-times higher in blood neutrophils and 34% higher in sputum cells of BMF users while erythrocyte SOD was 31% lower and plasma catalase was relatively unchanged, suggesting oxidative stress. In BMF users, Keap1 expression was reduced, the percentage of AEC with nuclear expression of Nrf2 was two- to three-times more, and NQO1 level in sputum cell lysate was two-times higher than that of LPG users. In conclusion, cooking with BMF was associated with Nrf2 activation and elevated NQO1 protein level in the airways. The changes may be adaptive cellular response to counteract biomass smoke-elicited oxidative stress and inflammation-related tissue injury in the airways.

  18. Hippocampus and serum metabolomic studies to explore the regulation of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San on metabolic network disturbances of rats exposed to chronic variable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi-heng; Jia, Hong-mei; Zhang, Hong-wu; Feng, Yu-Fei; An, Lei; Zou, Zhong-mei

    2014-03-04

    Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been effectively used for the treatment of depression. However, studies of its anti-depressive mechanism are challenging, due to the complex pathophysiology of depression, and complexity of CSGS with multiple constituents acting on different receptors. In the present work, metabolomic studies of biochemical changes in the hippocampus and serum of chronic variable stress (CVS)-induced depression rats after treatment with CSGS were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Partial least squares-discriminate analysis indicated that the metabolic perturbation induced by CVS was reduced by treatment with CSGS. A total of twenty-six metabolites (16 from the hippocampus and 10 from serum) were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of depression. Among them, 11 were first reported to have potential relevance in the pathogenesis of depression, and 25 may correlate to the regulation of CSGS treatment on depression. The results combined with a previous study indicated that CSGS mediated synergistically abnormalities of the metabolic network, composed of energy metabolism, synthesis of neurotransmitters, tryptophan, phospholipids, fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, bone loss and liver detoxification, which may be helpful for understanding its mechanism of action. Furthermore, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal pathway, involved in the neuronal protective mechanism of depression related to energy metabolism, was investigated by western blot analysis. The results showed that CSGS reversed disruptions of BDNF, ERK1/2 and pERK1/2 in CVS rats, which provides the first evidence that the ERK signal system may be one of the targets related to the antidepressant action of CSGS.

  19. Diffusion MRI and MR spectroscopy reveal microstructural and metabolic brain alterations in chronic mild stress exposed rats: A CMS recovery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Hansen, Brian; Wiborg, Ove; Kroenke, Christopher D; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2018-02-15

    Chronic mild stress (CMS) induced depression elicits several debilitating symptoms and causes a significant economic burden on society. High variability in the symptomatology of depression poses substantial impediment to accurate diagnosis and therapy outcome. CMS exposure induces significant metabolic and microstructural alterations in the hippocampus (HP), prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate-putamen (CP) and amygdala (AM), however, recovery from these maladaptive changes are limited and this may provide negative effects on the therapeutic treatment and management of depression. The present study utilized anhedonic rats from the unpredictable CMS model of depression to study metabolic recovery in the ventral hippocampus (vHP) and microstructural recovery in the HP, AM, CP, and PFC. The study employed 1 H MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) and in-vivo diffusion MRI (d-MRI) at the age of week 18 (week 1 post CMS exposure) week 20 (week 3 post CMS) and week 25 (week 8 post CMS exposure) in the anhedonic group, and at the age of week 18 and week 22 in the control group. The d-MRI data have provided an array of diffusion tensor metrics (FA, MD, AD, and RD), and fast kurtosis metrics (MKT, W L and W T ). CMS exposure induced a significant metabolic alteration in vHP, and significant microstructural alterations were observed in the HP, AM, and PFC in comparison to the age match control and within the anhedonic group. A significantly high level of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was observed in vHP at the age of week 18 in comparison to age match control and week 20 and week 25 of the anhedonic group. HP and AM showed significant microstructural alterations up to the age of week 22 in the anhedonic group. PFC showed significant microstructural alterations only at the age of week 18, however, most of the metrics showed significantly higher value at the age of week 20 in the anhedonic group. The significantly increased NAA concentration may indicate impaired catabolism due to astrogliosis or

  20. REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COSTS CALCULATING OF RUMINANTS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana KRUPOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to synthesise and analyse the methodologies and the biological aspects of the costs calculation in ruminants in Slovakia. According to literature, the account classification of cost items is most often considered for construction of costing formula. The costs are mostly divided into fixed (costs independent from volume of herd’s production and variable ones (costs connected with improvement of breeding conditions. Cost for feeds and beddings, labour costs, other direct costs and depreciations were found as the most important cost items in ruminants. It can be assumed that including the depreciations into costs of the basic herd takes into consideration the real costs simultaneously invested into raising of young animals in the given period. Costs are calculated for the unit of the main and by-products and their classification is influenced mainly by the type of livestock and production system. In dairy cows is usually milk defined as the main product, and by- products are live born calf and manure. The base calculation unit is kilogram of milk (basic herd of cows and kilogram of gain and kilogram of live weight (young breeding cattle. In suckler cows is a live-born calf the main product and manure is the by-product. The costs are mostly calculated per suckler cow, live-born calf and per kilogram of live weight of weaned calf. Similar division of products into main and by-products is also in cost calculation for sheep categories. The difference is that clotted cheese is also considered as the main product of basic herd in dairy sheep and greasy wool as the by-products in all categories. Definition of the base calculation units in sheep categories followed the mentioned classification. The value of a by-product in cattle and sheep is usually set according to its quantity and intra- plant price of the by-product. In the calculation of the costs for sheep and cattle the “structural ewe” and “structural cow

  1. Comparative Study of Honey Consumption in Slovakia and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhanna Guziy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current situation on the food market is influenced by various diet trends including eating healthy products. The honey consumption has an increasing tendency because more and more consumers consider honey as a healthy alternative to a refined sugar. The aim of this research paper was to identify consumption patterns regarding honey in terms of annual consumption, its frequency, volume of honey per purchase, consumption structure by family members and factors affecting consumers at honey purchase. The primary data was obtained from a questionnaire survey, which was conducted in Slovakia on the sample of 316 respondents as well as in Russia on the sample of 309 respondents. For a deeper analyses several assumptions were formulated where dependencies between demographic factors (age, education and income, and annual consumption by using Chi-Square Test of Independence and Cramer´V coefficient, as well as, differences in factors affecting consumers at honey purchase by using Friedman test have been statistically tested. Based on the results it was found out that, the majority of Slovak consumers make honey reserves and prefer to buy 1 kg per purchase while the majority of Russian consumers purchase honey if necessary and prefer to buy 0.5 or 2 - 5 kg per purchase. Honey is generally consumed by all family members in both countries. The mostimportant factors for Slovak consumers was the country of origin (2.59 followed by taste (3.51, type (3.97 and price (4.18, while the least important factors were the size of packaging (6.70 and the design of packaging (6.80. For Russian consumers the most important factors werethe type (2.97, design of packaging (3.13, price (3.28 and taste (3.61 while the least important factors were the size of packaging (6.98, brand (6.50 and the country of origin (6.50. The majority of consumers in both countries consume from 2 to 5 kg annually and the only significant dependence was confirmed in case of respondents

  2. Cadmium-handling strategies in two chronically exposed indigenous freshwater organisms-the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and the floater mollusc (Pyganodon grandis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Peter G.C.; Giguere, Anik; Bonneris, Emmanuelle; Hare, Landis

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on a variety of aquatic organisms suggest that metallothionein-like proteins (MT) play an important role in the regulation of essential metals, and in the sequestration and detoxification of non-essential metals (e.g., Cd). However, the importance of metallothionein production relative to alternative strategies of metal detoxification, and its effectiveness in metal detoxification, remain largely unexplored in field situations. In the present study we explored metal-handling strategies in an adult benthic bivalve (Pyganodon grandis) and in juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens), exposed to Cd in their natural habitat. The two biomonitor species were collected from lakes located along a Cd concentration gradient. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations were determined by in situ dialysis as a measure of metal exposure. Sub-cellular Cd partitioning was determined in target tissues (bivalve gills and digestive gland; perch liver) by differential centrifugation, and metallothionein was measured independently by a mercury-saturation assay in the bivalve tissues. Malondialdehyde concentrations were measured as a potential indicator of oxidative stress. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.57 nM in the nine lakes from which bivalves were collected, and from max /[Cd] min ratios for the various tissues decreased in the order: bivalve gill Cd (28) > bivalve digestive gland Cd (18) > perch hepatic Cd (14). In the two lakes that were common to both the bivalve and perch studies, i.e. lakes Opasatica and Vaudray, accumulated Cd concentrations were consistently higher in the bivalve than in the perch. Cadmium-handling strategies were similar in the bivalve digestive gland and perch liver, in that Cd was mainly associated with the heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction. Furthermore, in these organs the contributions from the 'mitochondria' and 'lysosomes + microsomes' fractions were consistently higher than in the gill tissue. In the bivalve

  3. Nižný Hrabovec. A site with evolved levallois technology in Eastern Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminská, Ľ.; Škrdla, Petr; Kozlowski, J. K.; Tomášková, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, 1-2 (2009), s. 57-64 ISSN 1730-8518 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800010801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Eastern Slovakia * Levallois * Bohunician Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Projected Eastern Slovakia nuclear power plant and its effect on the area settlement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1986-01-01

    The current situation of and expected changes in the settlement of the Kecerovce locality, where the Eastern Slovakia nuclear power plant will be sited, are discussed. The estimated requisition of agricultural soil and of forests is considered and the questions are outlined of the resettlement of the population in the power plant protective zone. (M.D.). 6 tabs., 4 refs

  5. New and interesting records of Plecoptera (Insecta) from Slovakia and several autecology notes:

    OpenAIRE

    Krno, Il'ja; Žiak, Matej

    2014-01-01

    During the last five years several important discoveries of stoneflies from Slovakia were recorded, including Leuctra dalmoni Vincon & Murányi 2007, a recently described species and Rhabdiopteryx hamulata (Klapálek 1902), an uncommon Balkan species. We also recorded a curious find of the imago of the endangered species, Capnopsis schilleri (Rostock 1892), after 60 years.

  6. Some comments concerning Rand D and education in radiation protection in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ftacnikova, S.; Nikodemova, D.

    2003-01-01

    Experience shows that when a country neglects it own research and development spending is at the risk of slowing its economic development. In Slovakia, radiation protection training and research have been neglected in recent years. In some important respects, co-operation through European Union based research and training programs provides an opportunity to improve the situation

  7. Regional mortality by socioeconomic factors in Slovakia : a comparison of 15 years of changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosicova, Katarina; Bosakova, Lucia; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Rosic, Martin; Andrejkovic, Marek; Zezula, Ivan; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Like most Central European countries Slovakia has experienced a period of socioeconomic changes and at the same time a decline in the mortality rate. Therefore, the aim is to study socioeconomic factors that changed over time and simultaneously contributed to regional differences in

  8. Beware of the Dog! Private Linguistic Landscapes in Two "Hungarian" Villages in South-West Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laihonen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates how a single type of sign can be connected to language policy on a larger scale. Focusing on the relationship between language policy and language ideologies, I investigate the private Linguistic Landscape (LL) of Hungarians living in two villages in Slovakia. Through an examination of "beware of the dog" signs,…

  9. Teaching Translation and Interpreting in Slovakia: Is There Anything Other than Levý and Popovic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biloveský, Vladimír; Djovcoš, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Institutional translation and interpreting training has a long lasting tradition in Slovakia mainly thanks to such significant translation scholars as Anton Popovic, František Miko, Ján Vilikovský and many others. However the situation has changed after the Velvet Revolution in 1989 and the education needed to start adapting to the new market…

  10. Health status among young people in Slovakia : comparisons on the basis of age, gender and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, M.; Salonna, F.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the health status of young people in Slovakia. Six subjective health indicators (self-rated health, long-standing illness, vitality, mental health, long-term well-being over the last year and occurrence of health complaints during the previous month) were used to assess the

  11. Curricular Transformation of Education in the Field of Physical and Sport Education in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendíková, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The study presents basic information on the curricular transformation of physical and sport education in Slovakia after the year 1989, which is related to the education process in the 21st century. What is more, it points to the basis for modern transformation in relation to sports as well as to insufficient undergraduate teacher training and its…

  12. Chances with self made collectors in Slovakia. Self-construction movement in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benesch, B.; Huschner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Author presented self-construction movement in Austria together with practical experiences presented by Josef Huschner from Pyhra Solar organisation. As mentioned movement has long tradition in Austria and brought valuable input for next sector of solar energy utilisation development, Austrian partners started discussion about possibilities of initiate similar movement in Slovakia

  13. Impact of EU Enlargement on Business Environment of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Vravec; Marián Gál; Tomás Sabol

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of EU enlargement on business environment in the Slovak Republic. Integration of Slovakia into EU has significantly influenced operating conditions for small and medium enterprises. Prosperity of small and medium enterprises depends mainly on their ability to adapt themselves to these new conditions.

  14. Epidemiological Study of Orofacial Clefts among Population of Eastern Slovakia during the Period 1996-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacáková, Diana; Zábavníková, Marianna; Miklošová, Mária; Kúkeľová, Diana; Dankovčík, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    Over the past 18 years, according to data from the Clinic of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, L. Pasteur University Hospital, there have been 493 cases of orofacial clefts (OC) reported in the area of Eastern Slovakia. The aim of this study was to map the occurrence of orofacial clefts reported in the area of Eastern Slovakia during the years 1996-2013. Also, we compared the occurrence of different types of clefts between the groups in relation to gender and ethnicity. The statistical analysis shows relationship between variables of location and gender and gender differences in the occurrence of various types of clefts. Moreover, in comparison with another study which analyzed the years 1985-2000 (1.29/10(3) live births), there was an increase in the incidence (1.42/10(3) live births) of OC in Eastern Slovakia. Our findings seem contradictive to similar studies which discuss ethnic differences in relation to OC. We recognize the relatively high occurrence of OC in Eastern Slovakia, and we link this phenomenon to several extrinsic factors, in particular socioeconomic status and embryotoxic factors. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  15. Finds of radioactive materials in Central Slovakia in 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxtova, L.; Durec, F.; Adamek, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief report of finds of radioactive materials out of control in Central Slovakia during period 1996-1998 has been made in this paper. The reasons of the reported events are described if known and some recommendations on safety culture development and implementation have been given. (author)

  16. Late Pliocene carnivores from Včeláre 2 (Southeastern Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabol, M.; Holec, P.; Wagner, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2008), s. 531-543 ISSN 0031-0301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Homotherium * Ursus * Parailurus * Včeláre 2 (Slovakia) Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.369, year: 2008

  17. Ethnobotany of einkorn and emmer in Romania and Slovakia. Towards interpretation of archaeological evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajnalová, M.; Dreslerová, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 101, - (2010), s. 169-202 ISSN 0031-0506 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00020701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : einkorn * tillage * yields * traditional agriculture * prehistoric agriculture * Romania * Slovakia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. The Ability of Tourist Natural Trails to Resist Tourism Load and Possibilities for Reducing the Environmental Impacts : Case Study of the Slovak Paradise National Park (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janočková Jana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The strictly protected natural area of Sucha Bela Gorge, located in the Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia, is exposed to environmental degradation by heavy tourist loads. Although educational and technical measures have been put in place, there is ongoing debate whether and how to limit the intensity of tourist visits. This study evaluates the ability of the trail leading through the gorge to resist trampling disturbance and to minimise the environmental impacts in the wider area of Sucha Bela by keeping tourists from moving off the designated areas. Aspects of trail layout, geological and geomorphological structures, terrain altering during the summer season, and acceptable tourist flow were investigated.The results show the current development would be acceptable in the case of limited off-trail movement. It therefore seems appropriate to review the trail allocation and marking, and to focus on environmental education rather than on limiting tourist visits.

  19. Improvement of information on the nuclear energy health effects, the aim of win Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrasova, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    1998-01-01

    International organisation WIN Global and national organisation WIN Slovakia which as a section of Slovak Nuclear Society, offer unique opportunities for the improvement of radiation risk communication. WIN Global was established in 1993 and currently has about 600 members in 39 countries. WIN Slovakia was established in the end of 1997 and has 20 members. WIN Slovakia is the association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and application of radiation and willing to devote time to public information. Members of WIN Slovakia all have one thing in common: They want the general public to have a better understanding of nuclear and radiation matter. The members of WIN Slovakia would like and plane to make presentations, discuss and give information material on subjects as: energy and sustainable development; radiation, radioactivity, and health effects; medical applications, radiation protection; nuclear energy, uranium mining; nuclear power plants and their safety; radioactive waste; nuclear and environment; natural radiation, radon. In 1996-1997 a comparative risk perception study was carried out in Slovak Republic. Real data were collected through the administration of a questionnaires distributed among a group of 14-17 years old children (N 1 = 308) and teenagers (N 2 = 150). The list of 44 items covered a wide range of risks and hazards, including risks from technology (nuclear power plants, water-dams etc.) pollution (air-, water-, soil, waste management) nature (floods, fire, etc.), life style (smoking, drugs, alcohol abuse) and society (crime, conflicts, war, terror etc.). The questionnaire contains the questions about the sources of risk information. The topic of the study was the self assessment of the knowledge on particular risks too. The results were summarised

  20. Introduction of a Quality Management System for Vocational Education and Training in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Podařil

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the quality of vocational education, school, teaching and learning of students should be in the interests of all participants in the education process. The quality of secondary school is the critical element in enhancing the attractiveness of vocational education in Slovakia. Finding an offcial scale that would provide such a information in Slovakia is unfortunately impossible. There is no system for evaluating the quality of vocational education and training (VET at vocational schools. There are no clearly defined criterias, rules or any standards. Speaking of an assessing the level of quality of vocational education on the base of existing outcomes in formal education such as monitoring, final exams, graduation exams is resulting in one-sided evaluation and does not address the systematic coherence and complexivity of this issue. An essential step os to create a functional system of evaluation of VET in Slovakia. The article describes importance of VET which can play a central role in preparing young people for work, developing the skills of adults and responding to the labour market needs of the economy and presents the project Model of the quality evaluation of vocational education and training at secondary vocational schools in Slovakia that is currently ongoing on many secondary vocational schools in western Slovakia and Austria. The aim of the project is to develop and apply an open, flexible and adaptable quality management system. The article not only presents indicators for evaluation but also the way how can be evaluated each of them. The effort of this project is also to create specialized portal with support services that provide transparent, clear and specific information from this area of interest. The introduction of the evaluation framework, the selection of indicators that take established criteria into consideration and assembling of the scale is therefore more than relevant and required

  1. Exposure to a predator scent induces chronic behavioral changes in rats previously exposed to low-level blast: Implications for the relationship of blast-related TBI to PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Perez-Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been unfortunately common in veterans who served in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The postconcussion syndrome associated with these mTBIs has frequently appeared in combination with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The presence of PTSD has complicated diagnosis since clinically PTSD and the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI have many overlapping symptoms. In particular establishing how much of the symptom complex can be attributed to the psychological trauma associated with PTSD in contrast to the physical injury of TBI has proven difficult. Indeed some have suggested that much of what is now being called blast-related postconcussion syndrome is better explained by PTSD. The relationship between the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI and PTSD is complex. Association of the two disorders might be viewed as additive effects of independent psychological and physical traumas suffered in a war zone. However we previously found that rats exposed to repetitive low-level blast exposure in the absence of a psychological stressor developed a variety of anxiety and PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present months following the last blast exposure. Here we show that a single predator scent challenge delivered 8 months after the last blast exposure induces chronic anxiety related changes in blast-exposed rats that are still present 45 days later. These observations suggest that in addition to independently inducing PTSD-related traits, blast exposure sensitizes the brain to react abnormally to a subsequent psychological stressor. These studies have implications for conceptualizing the relationship between blast-related mTBI and PTSD and suggest that blast-related mTBI in humans may predispose to the later development of PTSD in reaction to subsequent psychological stressors.

  2. Availability of oncological nuclear medicine in the regions of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepej, J.; Kaliska, L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine (NM) imaging technology, alone and in combination with other imaging modalities, provides clinically significant and useful information in the staging and treatment of the oncological diseases. The main objective of our study was to find out and present the situation vis-a-vis nuclear medicine facilities in the Central European country that soon becomes the new member of EU. For the purposes statistical data of WHO, Slovak Republic (SR) and nuclear medicine department (NMD) were evaluated for the period 1995-2001. Comparison with Czech Republic (CR) was done because of almost similar occurrence of the malignant diseases in these two republics that were a one country till separation in 1993. First nuclear medicine department in Czechoslovakia was established about 55 years ago. Comparing to CR the expenditures on health care per capita in SR is only 67% of CR. The number of gamma cameras, physicians and number of investigations are far from good standard of CR. The number NM departments are significantly low and growth of only 29% compared to CR is alarming. The one main reason is inadequate financial support to the health care and high debts of hospitals running nuclear medicine facilities. Providing radiology departments with new CT and MRI scanners is another reason of less nuclear medicine facilities. During the last five years, though the number of gamma cameras increased by 10%, but the number of investigations did not rise accordingly. Because of bad management of health care services in Slovakia, the latest facilities availability is greatly delayed. However, the exception is the installation of a new PET scanner in 2001. Of late, sentinel lymph node detection was started only with the help of IAEA. Data shows that most of the nuclear medicine centers are around the state capital. It is imperative to have sufficient diagnostic and therapeutic facilities in each region so as to make these available to patients living away from the

  3. Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Rats Exposed to Air Pollutant Particles Less than 2.5 Micrometers in Diameter (PM2.5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lerong; Yuan, Xiaolan; Zou, Luru; Peng, Jianping; Hu, Xinchun

    2018-01-18

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on airway changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rats exposed to air pollutant particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), and to evaluate the mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three groups were included in this study: a normal group, a COPD model group, and a COPD with 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment group. In each group, the rats were divided into four subgroups: control and different doses of PM2.5 (1.6, 8 and 40 mg/kg body weight). Apoptosis in lung tissue was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS Compared with corresponding subgroups in normal group, the apoptotic rates in COPD group were significantly increased. By contrast, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment group significantly reduced COPD-induced apoptosis in lung tissue. Upon the dose increase of PM2.5, the apoptotic rate was also elevated in each group. Compared with the corresponding control in each group, PM2.5 increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, 1,25(OH)2D3 also prevented apoptosis in COPD rats exposed to PM2.5. Mechanically, the expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 in COPD group was significantly upregulated, compared with corresponding subgroups in the normal group. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 in COPD rats. It was found that the expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 was elevated with the dose increase of PM2.5 in each group. Consistently, 1,25(OH)2D3 also reduced the expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 in COPD rats exposed to PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS 1,25(OH)2D3 prevented lung injury in COPD rats with or without PM2.5 exposure. Our results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 is useful to mitigate the injury caused by COPD.

  4. Chronic risk assessment for the use of radiation in occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) in the oral health area; Evaluacion del riesgo cronico por uso de radiacion en personal ocupacionalmente expuesto (POE) en el area de la salud oral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores H, C.; Huerta F, M. R. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Division de Ciencias de la Salud, DCAT, Laboratorio de Salud Ocupacional e Higiene Ambiental, 36320 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Sosa A, M. A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Diaz de Leon M, L. V., E-mail: fhcorina@ugto.mx [IMSS, Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, HGP 48, Direccion de Educacion e Investigacion en Salud, Paseo de los Insurgentes s/n, Los Paraisos, 37320 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    There is a scientific discordance in the amounts of radiation used in radio-diagnosis and received in practice by the occupationally exposed personnel (OEP), with the exception of radiologists who follow the safety and hygiene measures recommended by the regulations. The objective of this study was to quantify the risk of the OEP in the dental area by the use of ionizing radiation chronically. A fundamental variable to take into account in the study was the number of films taken day/shift. A comparative study was carried out, n = 70 study subjects. The information was collected by occupational clinical history, biological and occupational monitoring. The average age was 19.6 years for E-1 and E-2 was 50 years. The radiation emission in the calibrated equipment was 1.578 (Lp). The risk is 2:1 E-1:E-2. As a result of the study was found that in most cases the OEP does not use protection measures, only the patient. (Author)

  5. Regional soil erosion assessment in Slovakia using modelling and farmer's participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenderessy, Pavol; Veihe, Anita

    with cereals, sunflowers and corn and is characterised by poor cultivation practices and use of fertilizers leading to land degradation. As a first step, the initial raster-based modelling of soil loss and deposition has provided acceptable and realistic values. The predicted spatial patterns of erosion...... for erosion risk assessments at the landscape scale in Slovakia using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods for assessing spatial prediction patterns. The model was set up for the Paríž catchment (239.93 km2) in south-western Slovakia. The area has been intensively cultivated primarily...... are now being identified using farmer participation to ensure that the ‘correct’ hot spot areas are being identified. In the end, scenarios will be set up to assess the effect of farming practices and/or conservation measures on soil erosion rates in the area....

  6. Generation Y Attitudes towards Shopping: A Comparison of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klapilova Krbova Petra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study focused on Generation Y (born between 1980 and 2000 behavior in two neighboring European countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This article identifies and describes basic characteristics of this generation’s general behavior as well as defines specifics of their shopping behavior by examining their attitudes towards retailers, brands, sales and discount offers. The sample consisted of 380 respondents: 162 from Slovakia and 218 from the Czech Republic. Results of the analysis indicate that shopping is perceived as an entertaining and pleasurable leisure activity. A particular product is chosen before the shopping place. Approximately two-thirds of the respondents search for information online, but quite a large percentage prefer both offline searching and purchasing. Brands are considered to be the symbols and guarantors of quality, but also uselessly expensive. Finally, a positive attitude towards sales and discount offers was observed.

  7. The struggle to address woman battering in Slovakia: stories from service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan L; Wasileski, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Following the fall of communism, Slovakia found itself in a challenging position: to openly acknowledge the existence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its disproportionate effect on women and children without an infrastructure to address victim safety, and provide resources and legal help. With collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the government responded by developing shelters and introducing legislation that criminalized IPV and created social services for victims. To assess implementation efforts, we conducted in-depth interviews with governmental officials and NGO personnel who provide services for battered women. We focus on the operation and efficacy of shelters to discover what services are most needed for battered women, the criminal justice system's response to IPV, and what long-range goals will facilitate more permanent solutions to the social problem of violence against women in Slovakia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Perspective sources of industrial minerals for building industry in Novohrad (Southern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beláček Boris

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Novohrad a region of Southern Slovakia has wealthy industrial history, which was built mostly on local natural raw materials. Some deposits are exhausted, but other are ready to be exploited. Among such industrial minerals are raw materials for building industry. There are industrial minerals for fine and rough ceramics, stones for building and pavement, sand and gravel. The perspective areas are listed on Tab. 1 - 6 and are shown on Fig 1 - 3.

  9. Region-of-influence approach to a frequency analysis of heavy precipitation in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaál, L.; Kyselý, Jan; Szolgay, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2007), s. 2361-2401 ISSN 1812-2108 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300420601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : regional frequency analysis * region-of-influence approach * pooling groups * extreme precipitation events * L-moments * Slovakia Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/4/2361/2007/

  10. Region-of-influence approach to a frequency analysis of heavy precipitation in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaál, L.; Kyselý, Jan; Szolgay, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2008), s. 825-839 ISSN 1027-5606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300420601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : regional frequency analysis * region-of-influence approach * pooling groups * extreme precipitation events * L-moments * Slovakia Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.167, year: 2008 http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/12/825/2008/

  11. Environmental factors influencing the distribution of agricultural terraces: Case study of Horny Tisovnik, Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slámová, M.; Krčmářová, Jana; Hrončiek, P.; Kaštierová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 34-45 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15716S Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : agricultural terraces * traditional landscapes * environmental history * multivariate analysis * Slovakia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2016 http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMGRClanky/2017_1_SLAMOVA.pdf

  12. Disputes between Russia and its neighbours concern also transit through Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the problems with transit of natural gas from Russia to European Union and the possibilities of its solution are presented. Main problems are in Ukraine and Belarus and they are discussed. These disputes concern natural gas transit through Slovakia. Gazprom considers a construction of new pipelines from Russia to Germany under Baltic Sea. The investments for its realisation are estimated to 5 billion USD

  13. Role of nuclear energy in the energy policy of Slovakia and the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    During October 10-11, 2005 was carried out an International conference Role of nuclear Energy in the energy policy of Slovakia and the European Union. The Conference proceeded in following sessions: (I) Role of nuclear energy in the energy market; (II) Environment, renewable energy sources; (III) Industry views; (IV) Slovak experience; (V) Panel discussion. Totally, 128 persons took part in this Conference. Thirty-one scientific lectures were presented.

  14. On the palaeoclimatic potential of a millennium-long oak ring width chronology from Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokop, O.; Kolář, Tomáš; Büntgen, Ulf; Kyncl, J.; Bošela, M.; Choma, M.; Barta, P.; Rybníček, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, DEC (2016), s. 93-101 ISSN 1125-7865 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Composite tree-ring chronology * European oak * Palaeoclimatology * Random update sampling * Ring width * Slovakia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.259, year: 2016

  15. Creativity in fashion design in Slovakia: the case study of Bratislava region

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Pástor; Jana Parízková

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused on creativity in the fashion design in Slovakia. The fashion design in Bratislava region was selected as one of the creative industry for our research. The aim of the paper is to analyze creativity and innovation activities between Slovak fashion designers. In the paper will be presented results from research carried out between Slovak fashion designers located in Bratislava region. The empirical work that provides the basis for this case study used a case study approach...

  16. Organisational arrangement of human resources management in organisations operating in Slovakia and Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Stacho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessary condition of effective functioning of human resources management in an organisation is the creation of adequate organisational conditions including the existence of a human resources management department, its size, composition and responsibility, which are formed following particular conditions of the given organisation. Competitive environment of organisations operating in Slovakia and Czech Republic is growing with the process of world economy globalisation, and it brings the need of flexibility in management, and therefore we have to get used to changes also in the sphere of human resources management, and learn to cope with new impulses and situations. At present, that predominantly includes spreading effects of global financial and economic crisis, influencing all spheres of life in Slovakia and in Czech Republic too. Handling this situation presupposes flexibility in assessment of changes in environment where organisations operate, ability to detect all positive as well as negative impacts and situations, and formulation of measures to enhance their own position sensibly and cautiously. Due to the need of focusing of organisations on comprehensive arrangement of human resources management, in questionnaire researches, we focused on finding out whether and to what extent organisations operating in Slovakia (n = 340 and in Czech Republic (n = 109 focus on human resources management arrangement. The objective of the article is to compare results in the sphere of human resources in organisations operating in Slovak and Czech Republics. The results show that 67% organisations in Slovakia and only 43% in the Czech Republic had a human resources management department which realised followed human resources management functions and personnel strategy.

  17. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  18. Mapping of incidence and management of invasive species Fallopia japonica at selected locations of northwestern Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukova, Z.; Krskova, L.

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of one of the most dangerous invasive species Fallopia japonica was conducted at selected locations of northwestern Slovakia: in the cadastral territory of Zazriva, in the village Parnica towards Kralovany, in the village Kralovany and the city of Dolny Kubin - Zaskalie, stretch Timravina in the Lower Orava in late summer and early autumn 2009. We recorded by field survey 24 invading Japanese knotweed in the area of 12.238 m 2 . (authors)

  19. Geological aspects of the high level waste and spent fuel disposal programme in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matej, Gedeon; Milos, Kovacik; Jozef, Hok [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2001-07-01

    An autonomous programme for development of a deep geological high level waste and spent fuel disposal began in 1996. One of the most important parts in the programme is siting of the future deep seated disposal. Geological conditions in Slovakia are complex due to the Alpine type tectonics that formed the geological environment during Tertiary. Prospective areas include both crystalline complexes (tonalites, granites, granodiorites) and Neogene (Miocene) argillaceous complexes. (author)

  20. Choosing the right age group?: Intersectional analysis of demand for paid domestic workers in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Sekeráková Búriková

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon interviews with paid carers and their employers undertaken in Bratislava and Banská Bystrica between the years 2013 – 2015, this article focuses on employment of paid domestic workers (nannies, babysitters, and cleaners in Slovakia. This research focuses on the situation, which is globally unusual: unlike in Slovakia, where paid domestic workers are local women, paid domestic work is generally undertaken mostly by migrant women or women coded as ethnically other. In general, employment of paid domestic work operates on the base of ethnic hierarchies: women belonging to particular ethnic groups are seen as more or less suitable domestic workers. Analysing demand for nannies, babysitters and cleaners in Slovakia, this article argues that employers of local paid domestic workers do not use ethnicity but age as connoting particular qualities considered as necessary for undertaking paid care or housework. In particular, specific age groups are seen as more or less suitable for doing particular types of paid domestic work (e.g. cleaning, daily care for an infant, babysitting. After describing in detail how employers categorise paid domestic workers according to their age, I will reveal that in decisions of who to employ the age does not operate as an isolated individual category. Rather, it operates in intersection with other categories such as gender and can be understood only when we adopt an intersectional perspective.

  1. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  2. Radiation protection regulations in Slovakia and application of BSS and EC council directives provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktory, D.

    2003-01-01

    Slovakia, a part of the former Czechoslovak Federation, has been on the map of Europe as an independent country for only 10 years. It is a relatively small country with 5,5 million of inhabitants. The use of radiation sources in medicine, industry and research is extensive, but it corresponds with the size of country and the number of inhabitants. Nowadays here are nearly 600 licensee holders in medicine and in industry and 5 000 radiation sources in national registry. The nuclear industry is relatively developed in Slovakia. In the former Czechoslovakia, the responsibilities for nuclear safety and radiation protection were divided between two authorities. The federal authority for nuclear safety and regional authorities - regional hygienist for the radiation protection were responsible. Regional health protection authorities were managed by two separate Ministries of the Health of Czech and Slovak federal Republics. After the splitting of Czechoslovakia the development differs slightly in both countries. In the Czech Republic both authorities have merged, in Slovakia the people in power were not able to carry out such a radical change, so here the model of two independent authorities have remained. This system has been working since 1950's. (author)

  3. Activity of Cs-137 in red deer and wild boar in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missik, J [Agricultural Univ. Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology; Puskeiler, L; Miklas, P [Inst. of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology

    1996-12-31

    Results of monitoring the activity of radiocesium in game animals from various parts of Slovakia are presented. Samples of game flesh were collected by veterinary officials during hunting seasons 1988-1994. More than 80 % of samples came from following districts of Slovakia: Ziar nad Hronom, Prievidza, Martin, Rimavska Sobota, Senica, Banska Bystrica, Roznava, Poprad and Spisska Nova Ves. All measurements were carried out using gamma spectrometric system equipped with 4 high purity germanium detectors. Presented results were obtained using statistical evaluation for left-censored log-normal distribution of data sets. Overall activities of Cs-137 found in red deer and wild boards in Slovakia are considerably lower, than activities reported in game animals from some parts of Northern Moravia, Southern Bohemia and Austria. While the mean activities in red deer show a decreasing tendency, mean activities of wild boar are low, but with higher occurrence of extreme values, and hence, higher variance. The observed difference could be explained by the feeding habits of wild boar: grubbing in the ground for worms, larvae, roots, etc. can lead to presence of up to 20 % of contaminated soil in their stomach. At the same time wild boars often graze farmlands, where the activity of the Cs-137 in the top soil layer is reduced by ploughing and radiocesium on clay particles. Fraction of farmlands in the home range of the wild boars and the time of shooting could contribute to observed variations in radiocesium activity. (J.K.) 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  4. [Genetic polymorphism in sparteine oxidation--occurrence in healthy volunteers in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holomán, J; Glasa, J; Veningerová, M; Prachar, V; Lukácsová, M

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of the phenotype of poor metabolizers of sparteine (in the frame of sparteine-debrisoquine-dextromethorphane polymorphism) in Slovakia. The authors examined a group of 216 of healthy volunteers (73 women and 143 men, average age of the group 24, 9 +/- 0.4 years), university students coming from various regions of Slovakia. The test substance-sparteine (1 x 100 mg tbl.) was administered perorally to all probands, in the evening after fasting. A 12-hour gathering of urine was subsequently performed. A sample of urine was subdued to examination. Isolation, separation, identification and assessment of the concentration of sparteine and its metabolites (2- and 5-dehydrosparteine) were performed by the method of gas chromatography. The metabolic MR ratio calculated from the ratio of the detected concentrations of sparteine and (2- and 5-dehydrosparteine) served for the assessment of the phenotype of poor (MR > 20), or rapid (MR < 20) metabolizers of sparteine in 8 authors found the poor metabolizer phenotype of 216 examined probands (i.e. in 3.75%). Its prevalence of the presented phenotype was lower than that anticipated on the basis of epidemiologic studies performed in other European countries. Study represents the first data on the phenotype of poor sparteine metabolizers in Slovakia. (Tab. 4, Fig. 1, Ref. 24.)

  5. INFLUENCE OF NATIONAL CULTURE ON BEHAVIOR OF BUSINESS: COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SLOVAKIA AND UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Viktorovna Ostapenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the influence of national culture on the behavior of enterprises by comparing two countries - Ukraine and Slovakia. The data is based on the original author's own research on the enterprises of Ukraine and Slovakia. The paper is investigated why and how cultural factors (informal institutions may influence the perception of companies of rules of the game, and the formation of appropriate behavior. On the basis of surveys conducted among enterprises of Ukraine and Slovakia main conclusions about current formal rules of the game in these countries, perception by entrepreneurs these rules and the formation of certain behavior by them are done. In work on the basis of comparative analysis conclusions about the impact of national culture on the development of entrepreneurship in the national economy are done. The author of the article examines the following indicators: national culture, personal characteristics of respondents, subordination of norms, opportunism, and coherence of formal and informal institutions at the national level. In particular the most important indicators of the perception of norms are: indicators of perception of entrepreneurs of regulation and public policies in the field of entrepreneurship, business productivity, perceptions of bribery and tax evasion, etc.

  6. Detection and identification of six Cryptospordium species in livestock in Slovakia by amplification of SSU and GP60 genes with the use of PCR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oľga Danišová

    2016-06-01

    The findings suggest that livestock can be an important source of zoonotic species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium , which may adversely affect the public health of human populations. This is the first time in our country that the Cryptosporidium species has been identified in livestock in Slovakia. The identification and genotyping of this pathogen in Slovakia, completes the epidemiological situation in Europe for Cryptosporidum species.

  7. Abstracts of contributions presented in the VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutschová Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca was held on October 2-5, 201 3 in Barónka hotel in Bratislava, Slovakia and it was organised by Raptor Protection of Slovakia (RPS in cooperation with the Czech Society for Ornithology and MME/BirdLife Hungary, under the auspices of the Ministry of Environment, supported by the International Visegrad Fund. Results of 43 experts from ten countries, including three countries of Visegrad region (Slovakia, Czech Republic and Hungary were presented in 20 presentations and five posters. Six contributions are published in Slovak Raptor Journal volume 8, issue 1 (2014 as full papers, further twelve contributions are published here as conference abstracts.

  8. Homocysteine Slovakia study: study design and occurrence of hyperhomocysteinaemia and other risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietava, J; B, B Vohnout; Dukat, A; Fodor, G J

    2012-01-01

    Slovakia belong to the European Union countries with the high incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in general and IHD in particular. Homocystein-Slovakia is crossectional population study realised in subjects in high risk age 35-75 years in two groups. The first consists of patients with verified stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) (M= 152; F = 167) aged 60.8±9.37 yrs (males) res. 63.1±7.56 years (females) (NS) who were randomly selected from two cardiological registrars. Second population was formed by general population who were dichotomised according their medical records into IHD patients (M= 31, F= 53) and apparently healthy controls (M= 47; F = 55), the later in significantly younger age as patients, but in same age for intergender comparison 49.6±10.3 vs 46.6±9.2 yrs (NS). We found very high prevalence of classic as well as newer risk factors and risk markers both in IHD patients and in controls. Increased homocysteinen (Hcy >15 µmo/l for males and Hcy >13 µmo/l for females) was found even in 32.9 % of patients and 13.6 % of controls (pHomocystein Slovakia study found very high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with stable ischemic heart disease. Even the prevalence in healthy controls correspond to data reported for MI patients in Western countries. Vitamins regulating metabolism of homocysteine also shown high prevalence, however, without differences between IHD patients and controls (Tab. 5, Fig. 1, Ref. 27).

  9. External hazards analysis approach to level 1 PSA of Mochovce NPP - Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojka, Tibor

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of external events had been first time performed at the design stage of the Mochovce NPP showing sufficiently low contribution of external hazards to core damage frequency. But, based on IAEA document 'Safety problems of WWER-440/213 NPPs and the categorization' (IAEA-EBP-WWER-03, 1996), the need of new reassessment arose due to discrepancy of some origin recommendations in compare with present IAEA ones. Mochovce NPP Nuclear Safety Improvements Program elaborated at the same time included the IAEA recommendations and following improvements were proposed to perform in context of external events. 1. Seismic project and new locality seismic evaluation This safety improvement includes also some 'on site' technical improvements in seismic stability of structures and equipment. 2. Unit specific analyses of extreme meteorologic conditions. This safety improvement focuses on impact of feasible extreme conditions on NPP systems caused by rain, snow and hail storms, frost, winds, low and high temperatures. 3. Analyses of external hazards caused by humans. In this safety improvement were specified: feasible sources of explosions; analyses of hydrogen, gas and propane-calor gas depots; air crash risk. The results of these implemented safety improvements were considered in the PSA study. The External hazards analysis is also part of Level 1 PSA Mochovce NPP performed by PSA Department of VUJE Trnava Inc., Engineering, Design and Research Organization, Slovakia. Some partial analyses are performed in cooperation with following companies DS and S - SAIC, USA and Geophysical Institute Academy of Science, Slovakia Relko, Slovakia. Basic documents are: NUREG/CR-2300 'PRA Procedures Guide - A Guide to the Performance of Probabilistic Risk Assessments for Nuclear Power Plants' and IAEA SS No. 50-P-7 'Treatment of External Hazards in PSA for NPPs. The external hazards analysis consists of following parts: 1. Geography and plant locality; 2. Nearby industry; 3. Extreme

  10. Geophysical modeling across Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in Eastern Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozar, J.; Bezak, V.; Bielik, M.; Majcin, D.; Vajda, P.; Bilcik, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present a multidimensional geophysical modelling of Central and Eastern Slovakia in the area of contact zone between the Inner and Outer Western Carpathians, and the East Slovakian Basin. Our crustal and lithospheric studies are based on geophysical data collected during CELEBRATION 2000 project and project THERMES. The new magnetotelluric (MT) multidimensional modelling is combined with seismic 2D wide angle refraction profiles and gravimetric modelling. Together with thermal information gathered from the area we constructed new integrated geophysical models of structures included in the evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Preliminary results of MT modelling in Eastern Slovakia suggest more electrically conductive structures in the middle and lower crustal depths in comparison with Central Slovakia, where we observed structures dominated by resistive complexes overlaid by conductive sedimentary formations. The higher conductivities below the East Slovakian Basin restrict penetration depth of the geoelectrical images. The electrically conductive structures are connected with tectono-thermal development in Neogene and presence of volcanic activity. Another significant conductive anomaly is imaged along the contact zone between Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in depths of about 10 - 20km, which is known as the Carpathian Conductivity Anomaly (CCA). In order to improve the depth resolution of MT models we decided to combine geoelectrical images with density and velocity models of the area. We used integrated petrological and geophysical modeling code to obtain thermally consistent lithospheric scale models of the area. A possible preliminary geological interpretation of the northern segment of investigated area suggests a resistive European platform below conductive flysch sediments. The boundary between Inner and Outer Carpthians represented by the Klippen Belt on the surface is changed to the CCA in higher depths. In the direction to the south there are

  11. Jobs for partners - significant stabilization factor for personnel of East Slovakia nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1987-01-01

    The problem is discussed of employment of the wives of operating personnel of the nuclear power plant to be built in East Slovakia. It is expected that almost a half of the number of the wives have completed secondary education with final examination. A list is presented of openings best suitable for women. It is estimated that jobs for 1,580 women will have to be provided of which number 253 will be specialized jobs in health care and education. An increased number of vacancies are expected to be available, especially in the Kosice and Presov towns. (J.B.). 4 tabs., 4 refs

  12. Real Estate Appraisal in Central-Eastern Europe: Comparative Analysis of Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamuscin Andrej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The countries in Central-Eastern Europe have been subjected to dynamic economic changes. Researchers from Poland and Slovakia study the history of the creation of and rules by which the real estate appraiser’s profession functions. They also present the methodological basics for property appraisals. The original value of this article is a comparative analysis depicting the similarities and differences occurring in the research area, in two countries from the same region of Europe. The analysis may also influence the methodological discussions of specialists concerning the correctness and purpose of certain approaches, methods or techniques of property appraisal.

  13. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Slovakia's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded an 11-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Slovakia. At the request of the Slovak Government, the IAEA assembled a team of 12 senior regulatory experts from 12 nations to conduct the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission involving the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD SR). The international experts also met officials from the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic (UVZ SR) regarding the regulation of occupational radiation protection in nuclear facilities. The mission is a peer review based on the IAEA Safety Standards. Marta Ziakova, Chairperson of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic, declared that ''The IRRS mission has a great value for the future development and orientation of the UJD SR.'' ''Slovakia has established a regulatory framework for nuclear safety which is in line with international standards and practice,'' said Mission Team Leader Andrej Stritar, Director of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration. The main observations of the IRRS Review team included: UJD SR operates with independence and transparency; UJD SR has developed and implemented a systematic training approach to meet its competence needs; and in response to the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, UJD SR has reacted and communicated to interested parties, including the public. The good practices identified by the IRRS Review Team include: UJD SR has a comprehensive and well-formalized strategic approach to informing and consulting interested parties; UJD SR has developed and implemented a structured approach to training and developing its staff; and Detailed legal requirements provide a solid basis for on-site and off-site response in nuclear emergencies coordinated with local authorities. The IRRS Review team identified areas for further improvement and believes

  14. Recent and subrecent diet of the barn owl (Tyto alba in Slovakia

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    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We completed data on the diet of the barn owl (Tyto alba predominately from pellets for the period of the last 50 years from Slovakia. We analyzed material from 251 locations and 16 territorial units. The aggregate represents 119,231 pieces of prey from 47 species of mammals (Mammalia, 95.7% and 58 species of birds (Aves, 3.9%, with a small representation of amphibians, reptiles (Amphibia and Reptilia, 0.2% and invertebrates (Invertebrata, 0.2%. The obtaining of food among the owls is limited to synanthropic environments and the surrounding agricultural landscape, and the centre of its distribution in the recent period (i.e. the past 50 years: 1965-201 5 has been concentrated mainly on the southern parts of Slovakia. In this environment the common vole (Microtus arvalis, 59.6% is the primary prey. Additional prey are rodents of the family Muridae: Mus musculus (5.6%, Micromys minutus (2.2%, Apodemus microps (2.2%, A. flavicollis (2.0%, A. sylvaticus (1 .6% and A. agrarius (1 .5%; insectivores of the family Soricidae: Sorex araneus (6.2%, S. minutus (2.4%, Crocidura leucodon (4.8% and C. suaveolens (2.8%; and the house sparrow Passer domesticus (2.9%. In the higher situated Turcianska kotlina Basin the species M. arvalis (74.3% has higher domination, and instead of the white-toothed shrews the water shrews Neomys anomalus (2.8% and N. fodiens (1 .3% are more abundantly represented. In 3 localities owls focused on hunting bats; for example, in the church in Ratková the order Chiroptera made up 35.2% of prey. From the subrecent period (i.e. from before more than 50 years ago we evaluate 4 samples from the territory of Slovakia with 15,601 pieces of prey ofT. alba. Before more than 50 years ago owls were also more abundantly represented at higher elevations in Slovakia, evidence of which is Weisz’s collection of pellets from 1 6 localities in the Ondavská vrchovina Upland in the years 1945 to 1963, but also a registry of data from the 19th and

  15. 137Cs monitoring in the meat of wild boar population in Slovakia

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    Katarina Beňová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the elapsed time and the nature of the Chernobyl accident, the only artificial radionuclide present in the soil is 137Cs, with a physical half-life conversion of 30.17 years. The 137Cs is quickly integrated into a biological cycle, similar to potassium. Generally, radionuclides are characterized by their mobility in soil. Contamination of materials and food by radionuclides represent a serious problem and has a negative impact on human health. The threat of international terrorism and the inability to forestall the impact of natural disasters on nuclear energetic (Fukushima accident, are also reasons for continuous monitoring of food safety. According screening measurement performed in European countries, high radioactivity levels were reported in the wild boars muscles from Sumava (Czech Republic. Seasonal fluctuation of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples was observed in the forests on the southern Rhineland. Monitoring of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples in the hunting grounds in Slovakia was initiated based on the reports on exceeding limits of the content of radiocaesium in the meat of wild boar from the surrounding countries. The aim of this study was to determine the 137Cs post Chernobyl contamination of wild boars population in different hunting districts of Slovakia during 2013 - 2014. A total of 60 thigh muscle samples from wild boars of different age categories (4 months - 2 years were evaluated. 137Cs activity was measured by gamma spectrometry (Canberra. Despite the fact Slovakia is closer to Chernobyl as Czech Republic and Germany, the 137Cs activity measured was very low and far below the permitted limit. The highest radiocaesium activity level measured in muscle was 37.2 Bq.kg-1 ±4.7%. Wild boar originated from Zlate Moravce district. The measurement results show, that 137Cs contamination levels of game in Slovakia are low. Radiocaesium activity in examined samples was very low and

  16. ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE IN SLOVAKIA

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    Dávid Šimko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the risks associated with the process of constructing the road infrastructure. It´s showing us how many different types of risks threats this process and what can happen if we ignore them. In the article are these risks divided in different groups according to the place in this process where they arise, they are also singly defined and described. In the end of the article is possible to find different proposals for the elimination of these risks and also there are mentioned a few reasons why is building of the road infrastructure in Slovakia so slow.

  17. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  18. Consumption of sweetened soft drinks and energy drinks in adolescents in Slovakia: implications for paediatric nursing

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    Martina Bašková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study analyzed the consumption of sweetened soft drinks and energy drinks as well as attitudes towards their consumption. Design: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC is a cross-sectional school-based study focused on the target group of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old adolescents. It employs a universal, internationally standardized questionnaire. Methods: The study analyzes results of the HBSC survey carried out in Slovakia in 2014. A total of 10,179 schoolchildren from grades 5 through 9 participated (a response rate of 78.8%. Gender and age differences were analyzed in 11-, 13- and 15-year-old respondents. Results: The consumption of soft drinks varied from 16.9% (11-year-old girls to 29.0% (15-year-old boys. More than 8 in 10 respondents accepted the consumption of soft drinks. As much as 34.4% of boys and 18.8% of girls aged 15 years reported the use of energy drinks at least weekly, with boys showing higher rates than girls in all age groups and the rates increasing with age. Conclusion: In Slovakia, consumption of sweetened soft drinks and energy drinks is widely popular and socially accepted among adolescents. There is a need for more effective interventions including adoption of appropriate legislative norms. Pediatric nursing plays an important role through outpatient primary as well as hospital care.

  19. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Roma Settlements: A Comparison with the General Population in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halánová, Monika; Veseliny, Eduard; Kalinová, Zuzana; Jarčuška, Peter; Janičko, Martin; Urbančíková, Ingrid; Pella, Daniel; Dražilová, Sylvia; Babinská, Ingrid

    2018-05-03

    Hepatitis E infection is one of the most frequent causes of acute hepatitis in the world. Currently five human genotypes with different geographical distributions and distinct epidemiologic patterns are identified. In Slovakia, only rare cases of hepatitis E have been reported in past years. Because the most important risk factors associated with HEV infection include consumption of contaminated pork meat and poor hygienic standards, the aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of anti-HEV total antibodies and the main risk factors for HEV in the population living in separated and segregated Roma settlements ( n = 195), which represent places with increased risk of infection in Slovakia and to compare it with the prevalence in the general population ( n = 69). Of 264 respondents included in the study, 47 (17.8%) showed positivity for anti-HEV antibodies, 42 of whom were Roma (21.5%, n = 195) and 5 (7.2%, n = 69) non-Roma. The population living in Roma settlements lives in poorer conditions and are at higher risk of HEV in comparison to the general population. However, differences in living conditions within the settlements do not contributed to lower risk of HEV antibody prevalence between Roma living in settlements.

  20. The Position of Slovakia in Competitiveness Ranking – the Causes, Impacts and Prospects

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    Lucia Stredná

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A country’s competitiveness could be translated as its ability to successfully compete within international comparison also as a prosperity which is expressed by productivity growth of economy and living standards. Is Slovakia competitive? What are its strengths and weaknesses? What are the leading countries of the European Union in competitiveness ranking? In what aspects is Slovakia falling behind countries of V4? Strengthening of which competitive advantages is perspective for the Slovak Republic? We will try to find answers to these questions in an analysis of competitiveness based on the Global Competitiveness Reports. This thesis focuses on definition of the competitiveness in general, apprises of measuring methodology based on multicriterial evaluation and summarises pros and cons of this benchmark. The main focus is on the Slovak Republic and its position in the international ranking. In detail we will focus on comparison of the Slovak Republic with countries of V4 region. It is the authors’ ambition to bring critical view on position of the Slovak Republic in the international comparison and to formulate recommendations for the future that could contribute to strengthening of competitiveness and success of our country.

  1. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Stoffer, A.; De Kruijk, H.; Salamonova, A.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for Slovakia. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in Slovakia and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Slovak SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs but high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, lower wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  2. The seabed - an important mineral resource of Slovakia in the future

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    Peter Blišťan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1987, Slovakia bought part of the ocean bottom with the occurrence of mineral resources future - polymetallic nodules. The polymetallic nodule is a geological term for naming natural features consisting of more than 40 metals and other chemical elements. These special services originated in the ocean for two to three million years and nowadays, they are of main interest for countries whose mineral wealth is little or no available. Nodules contain about 30 % manganese, 1.2 % copper, 1.2 % nickel, 0.2 % cobalt, rare earth elements, etc. The existence of submarine nodules was found by the British ship HMS "Challenger" by oceanographic research in 1872 - 1876. Research and the subsequent mining of nodules were particularly points of interest for Western countries as well as the USSR. Rules for the use of mineral resources of the seabed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction were codified in the Convention on the Law of 1982, which came into force on 16.11.1994, and in the Slovakia on 21.7.1996. The seabed is one of the international space next to the high seas, Antarctica, outer space and celestial bodies, which are not subject to the sovereignty of any state authority.

  3. Level 1 shutdown and low power operation of Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halada, P.; Cillik, I.; Stojka, T.; Kuzma, M.; Prochaska, J.; Vrtik, L.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results that have been applied within the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia. The SPSA project was realized by VUJE Trnava Inc., Slovakia in 2001-2002 years. The Level 1 SPSA study for Mochovce NPP Unit 1 covers internal events as well as internal (fires, floods and heavy load drop) and external (aircraft crash, extreme meteorological conditions, seismic event and influence of surrounding industry) hazards. Mochovce NPP consists of two operating units equipped with VVER 440/V213 reactors safety upgraded before construction finishing and operation start. 87 safety measures based on VVER 440 operational experience and international mission insights were implemented to enhance its operational and nuclear safety. The SPSA relates to full power PSA (FPSA) as a continuation of the effort to create a harmonized level 1 PSA model for all operational modes of the plant with the goal to use it for further purposes as follows: Real Time Risk Monitor, Maintenance Optimization, Technical Specifications Optimization, Living PSA. (author)

  4. The integration of fast reactor to the fuel cycle in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Darilek, P.; Necas, V.

    2009-01-01

    A very topical problem of nuclear power is the fuel cycle back-end. One of the options is a LWR spent fuel reprocessing and a fissile nuclides re-use in the fast reactor. A large amount of spent fuel has been stored in the power plant intermediate storage during the operation of WWER-440 reactors in Slovakia. This paper is based on an analysis of Pu and minor actinides content in actual WWER-440 spent fuel stored in Slovakia. The next part presents the possibilities of reprocessing and Pu re-use in fast reactor under Slovak conditions. The fuel cycle consisting of the WWER-440 reactor, PUREX reprocessing plant and a sodium fast reactor was designed. The last section compares two parts of this fuel cycle: one is UOX cycle in WWER-440 reactor and the other is cycle in the fast reactor - SUPER PHENIX loaded with MOX fuel (Pu + Minor Actinides). The starting point is a single recycling of Pu from WWER-440 in the fission products. The next step is multi recycling of Pu in the fission products to obtain equilibrium cycle. This article is dealing with the solution of power production and fuel cycle indicators. All kinds of calculations were performed by computer code HELIOS 1.10. (Authors)

  5. The integration of fast reactor to the fuel cycle in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Darilek, P.; Necas, V.

    2009-01-01

    A very topical problem of nuclear power is the fuel cycle back-end. One of the options is a LWR spent fuel reprocessing and a fissile nuclides re-use in the fast reactor. A large amount of spent fuel has been stored in the power plant intermediate storage during the operation of VVER-440 reactors in Slovakia. This paper is based on an analysis of Pu and minor actinides content in actual VVER-440 spent fuel stored in Slovakia. The next part presents the possibilities of reprocessing and Pu re-use in fast reactor under Slovak conditions. The fuel cycle consisting of the VVER-440 reactor, PUREX reprocessing plant and a sodium fast reactor was designed. The last section compares two parts of this fuel cycle: one is UOX cycle in VVER-440 reactor and the other is cycle in the fast reactor - SUPER PHENIX loaded with MOX fuel (Pu + Minor Actinides). The starting point is a single recycling of Pu from VVER-440 in the FR. The next step is multirecycling of Pu in the FR to obtain equilibrium cycle. This article is dealing with the solution of power production and fuel cycle indicators. All kinds of calculations were performed by computer code HELIOS 1.10. (authors)

  6. Summary of winter honey bee colony losses in Slovakia between the years 2009 and 2015

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    Róbert Chlebo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Between the seasons 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 was evaluated 1305 questionnaires in total, received from Slovak beekeepers. Standard questionnaires of COST working group COLOSS were used with sets of questions related to overwintering of bee colonies and possible reasons of its losses. In season 2009/2010 winter losses in Slovakia reached 7.10 %, subsequently in 2010/2011 - 5.96 %, 2011/2012 - 9.70 %, 2012/2013 - 9.50 %, 2013/2014 - 8.84 %, 2014/2015 - 10.00 %. Expected causes of winter mortality (starvation, poor queen´s quality, parasitism, robbery were evaluated in the study to detect the presence of depopulation syndrome of bee colonies - CCD (colony collapse disorder reported from some North American and European areas. As acceptable level of winter losses is generally considered level 10 %, which was not exceeded in any season, thereby Slovakia ranks among countries with the lowest winter mortality of bee colonies worldwide. Possible reason of this situation is most probably multiple Varroa treatment throughout the year, but other reasons are discussed as well in the study.

  7. The Leadership Style and the Productiveness of Employees in the Banking Sector in Slovakia

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    Belas Jaroslav

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the article was to prove a relationship between applied leadership style of branch managers and productiveness of bank sales clerks and room for their productiveness improvementapplicable in the banking sector in Slovakia. One part of the objective was to examine the continuity between applied leadership style of branch managers and their time in control functions held. Dependencies between the individual productiveness of bank sales clerks and the level of their loyalty and satisfaction were investigated. Opinions of branch managers about the applicable leadership style and room for sales clerks’ productiveness improvement were examined through two questionnaire surveys (conducted in 2008 and 2012. The research results confirmed that the directive style of leadership is the mandatory style in the banking sector in Slovakia whereas the intensity of its implementation during the analysis period was increased. The research has also shown that there is a direct connection between the dominant style of leadership and room for improvement of sales clerks’ productiveness, because the growth of the intensity of directive style in this case led to lower productiveness of the average bank sales clerks. Our assumption that the applied leadership style of bank employees depends on timeworking in managerial positions has not been confirmed. In comparison to long-term managers, branch managers who were working for rather short period in any managerial positions did not show any differences in their management priorities. The assumption that the employee satisfaction and loyalty significantly encourage individual employee productiveness was not confirmed in the research.

  8. Analysis of bachelor study programs of nursing at universities of Eastern Slovakia: a pilot study

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    Gabriela Kuriplachová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profile of the nursing studies in Slovakia is harmonized with the criteria of European Directives, enhanced by the adoption of the Declaration of Munich and implemented into the curriculum of educational institutions that provide this traning. Objective: The main objective of the pilot study was to determinate satisfaction of graduates with accredited programs of nursing (prior to the accreditation and after accreditation at two state universities in the eastern region of Slovakia. Methods: The monitored group consisted of total 132 respondents (nursing graduates who completed the 1st degree of nursing study at University of Presov in Presov or University of P. J. Safarik in Kosice in the timeframe 2007-2011. The study was realized during calendar years 2012-2013. One year of nursing clinical practice of graduates was required for this study. Data was collected through a modified questionnaire of feedback used at the University of Presov, Faculty of Health Care within the improvement of curricula program and the whole educational program. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in area of optional courses of nursing study program (p < 0.05. Compulsory optional courses of nursing program at both universities were more interest and important for clinical practice of graduates after accreditation than before accreditation. Conclusions: The nursing study program meets the educational requirements of European Union. However, study program needs courses, which would be more interesting and effective for clinical practice.

  9. Regional mortality by socioeconomic factors in Slovakia: a comparison of 15 years of changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosicova, Katarina; Bosakova, Lucia; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Rosic, Martin; Andrejkovic, Marek; Žežula, Ivan; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2016-07-19

    Like most Central European countries Slovakia has experienced a period of socioeconomic changes and at the same time a decline in the mortality rate. Therefore, the aim is to study socioeconomic factors that changed over time and simultaneously contributed to regional differences in mortality. The associations between selected socioeconomic indicators and the standardised mortality rate in the population aged 20-64 years in the districts of the Slovak Republic in the periods 1997-1998 and 2012-2013 were analysed using linear regression models. A higher proportion of inhabitants in material need, and among males also lower income, significantly contributed to higher standardised mortality in both periods. The unemployment rate did not contribute to this prediction. Between the two periods no significant changes in regional mortality differences by the selected socioeconomic factors were found. Despite the fact that economic growth combined with investments of European structural funds contributed to the improvement of the socioeconomic situation in many districts of Slovakia, there are still districts which remain "poor" and which maintain regional mortality differences.

  10. Inner boundary reform in Košice: The most fragmented city in Slovakia

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    Csachová Stela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper the aim is to provide the reader with a theoretical insight into models of government structure at the local level and provide evidence from European countries that underwent reforms during the second half of the 20th century. In the Slovak Republic (Slovakia the renewal of local self-government in 1990 brought changes to the administrative boundary map with more than 200 municipalities reestablished bringing the current number to 2,929 local administrative units. This has resulted in some discussion regarding a reduction in the number of local government units in this country. The second part of the paper is focused on Košice; the second largest city in Slovakia with 234,000 in­habitants. The city is organised at two administrative levels; one covering the whole city, the other covering 22 wards. When compared to cities of a similar size, Košice has been criticised for its high number of city wards and councillors, with the concomitant financial inefficiency it can bring. There has been an ongoing debate on reducing their number since 2010. The paper reports on the search for an admin­istrative structure that would best tailor to the citizens' needs and provide effective management in Košice. It uses traditional methods of qualitative research (historical method, content analysis and syn­thesis accompanied by statistical data organised in tables and figures.

  11. Chosen Aspects of Non‑Profit Sector and Volunteering in Slovakia

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    Beata Gavurova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of voluntary activities in Slovakia constantly increases as it is one of the fundamental areas, which is of particular interest to chosen communities as well as the general public, with the scope of these activities exceeding religious or social groups and national character. The current situation of voluntary activities is not satisfactory and there is an absence of primary research studies that would provide a relevant and complex overview of the volunteering system. Further worsening the situation is the fact that volunteering actions were not even defined in the legal system until 2011. Evaluation of the existing situation and development of voluntary activities realized in Slovakia is carried out using a questionnaire survey, identifying the fundamental barriers of its development and evaluating the potential for implementing new challenges and trends. The most problematic issue is area of financing, closely related to non‑governmental sector financing issues. A lack of understanding by the donors concerning the process of investing in volunteers, even in high quality programs, is also an important problem, along with the lack of legislation and mistrust. Organization and volunteer motivation was also investigated.

  12. Cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Diptera: Culicidae) found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažejová, Hana; Šebesta, Oldřich; Rettich, František; Mendel, Jan; Čabanová, Viktória; Miterpáková, Martina; Betášová, Lenka; Peško, Juraj; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kampen, Helge; Rudolf, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    We report the distribution of mosquitoes of the maculipennis complex in two distinct areas of the Czech Republic (Bohemia and South Moravia) and in one locality of neighbouring Slovakia with emphasis on the detection of the newly described cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Linton, Nicolescu & Harbach, 2004). A total of 691 mosquitoes were analysed using a species-specific multiplex PCR assay to differentiate between the members of the maculipennis complex. In the Czech Republic, we found Anopheles maculipennis (with a prevalence rate of 1.4%), Anopheles messeae (49.0%) and Anopheles daciae (49.6%). In Slovakia, only An. messeae (52.1%) and An. daciae (47.9%) were detected. In this study, An. daciae was documented for the first time in the two countries where it represented a markedly higher proportion of maculipennis complex species (with an overall prevalence almost reaching 50%) in comparison to previous reports from Germany, Romania and Poland. The determination of the differential distribution of maculipennis complex species will contribute to assessing risks of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria or dirofilariasis.

  13. REFUGEE CRISIS IN EUROPE: THE CASE STUDIES OF SWEDEN AND SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Europe as a continent has throughout its history been one of the most popular destinations for migrants and foreigners who have viewed the Old continent as a place of better social and economic possibilities. However, recently most European states and its publics have not been so willing to accept the refugees fleeing the wars and violence. For instance, there have been only a few countries such as Sweden and Germany which have openly welcomed the migrants over the past years. On the other hand, some EU states such as Slovakia have openly rejected to accept the refugees just because they do not want the Brussels to impose immigration policies on them or because they simply do not want Muslims or non-Europeans in their communities. The migrant crisis has thus become a real litmus test for the EU coherence and unity. Thus, in this paper I study the cases of Sweden and Slovakia in terms of their immigration policies since they have applied completely different responses towards the migrants. Through this comparative study I hope that it will be much clearer whether the last migrant crisis can be an end to a united Europe in a global world or is this just one of the several crises the EU has faced throughout its history. Probably the biggest problem in this sense is that only a few EU states have proved their democratic and humanistic matureness to accommodate the migrants and accept them as equal citizens.

  14. Organic and conventional production in Slovakia: Comparison of selected managerial and financial indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kozáková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue to compare organic and conventional agriculture from two points of view. Firstly the managerial point of view examing number of employees and the personal costs per hectare, secondly the owners' view examing profitability of organic farming. Both views result from the specifics of organic farming. Organic production should generate higher employment, higher personal cost and results in lower yields. We evaluated differences between organic and conventional farms in Slovakia over period of years 2009-2012 on a sample of more than 1050 farms in each year. The share of organic farms was 15%. Using t-test as evaluation method we found no significant differences from the managerial point of view (measured by employees per hectare and personal costs per hectare. From the owner' s point of view (measured by return on costs, return on equity and total assets per hectare we conclude that the subsidies successfully compensate the lower revenues of organic farms (there was no significant difference in ROE and ROC. Our results are based on the sample of organic farms with Average utilised area of 850 hectares and reflect the farm structure in Slovakia. We can conclude that large organic farms do not support employment in rural areas and generate comparable profit when compared to conventional farming.

  15. DMR50 – the first digital terrain model of Slovakia in the GCCA SR sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Klobušiak

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The digital terrain model (DTM is a complex object of the Primary Database for The Geographic Information System (PD GIS. PD GIS is a component of the Automated Information System of Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre. The EC initiative INSPIRE defines DTM as one basic element of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI. The creation of NSDI is a task of the Action Plan of the Strategy of the Slovak Information Society. The range of the DTM vertical accuracy is described through the metadata. The metadata describes a product in a complex way. The GCCA SR will offer metadata and the solo product of DTM through its organization, the Geodetic and Cartographic Institute in Bratislava (GCI, via the Internet. For this purpose the GCI meaningfuly build a webmap service, GCCA SR Geoportal, which is nearly related with the NSDI concept as well as with the projects of the Eurogeographics association. The paper describes the creation of DMR50, DTM of Slovakia, with the 50x50 meter grid. DMR50 was created by the data processing of the contour lines model from the Basic Map of the Slovak Republic 1:50 000. The testing of the DMR50 vertical accuracy was carried out by the set of geodetic points from the State Levelling Network. DMR50 is a suitable contribution of Slovakia to the creation of the EuroGeographics or INSPIRE–coordinated pan-European products.

  16. The influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia

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    Jaromír Krško

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia. The migration of entire ethnic groups – especially after the dissolution of the Roman Empire – led to contact between native and incoming people. Ethnic contact also affected languages of these ethnic groups, as mutual influencing and borrowing of vocabulary occurred. Incoming ethnic groups had to find their way around in the new surroundings as well as identify and distinguish important landmarks, mainly hills, mountains and streams. We can approach the issue of pre-Slavic hydronyms from two points of view: one, by analyzing the names preserved from the time period before the arrival of Slavs in the territory of Slovakia, and two, by analyzing the names whose origin some authors consider to be pre-Slavic. The oldest name of a river from the Slovak region comes from the time period before the arrival of the Slavs. It was recorded by the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius in years 166–180 AD as Granoua. It is a record of the river Hron at which Roman legions fought against the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi. Several historians and linguists believe that besides the rivers Dunaj, Morava and Tisa, other names of big rivers date from before the arrival of Slavs in the central Europe. In the paper, we analyse the names Dunaj, Morava, Váh, Hron, Tisa, Nitra and Hornád.

  17. Absorbed Doses to Embryo from Intravenous Urography at Selected Radiological Departments in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkus, R.; Nikodemova, D.; Horvathova, M.

    2003-01-01

    Actual legislation used in radiological protection requires quality assurance program for decreasing radiation load of patients from radiological examinations. The information about irradiation of pregnant women is very important, because the embryo is more radiosensitive as adult organism. On the basis of absence of unified calculations or measurements of absorbed doses to embryo from various radiological examinations in Slovakia we present in this study the values of absorbed doses to embryo from intravenous urography at selected radiological departments in Slovakia. Absorbed doses to embryo were obtained by measurement and calculation using the simulation of irradiation of pregnant woman by intravenous urography. The results of our study indicate, that absorbed doses to embryo were at various radiological departments considerably different, depending on type of X-ray machine and different settings of technical parameters of X-ray machine. In accordance with worldwide trend it is necessary to decrease radiation load of patients as low as possible level. Differences in radiation load between radiological departments indicate, that it is necessary to continue in solving of this problem and perform measurements and calculations of absorbed doses to embryo at different types of X-ray machines and at different examinations, where the embryo is in direct beam of X-ray. (author)

  18. Use of material flow accounting for assessment of energy savings: A case of biomass in Slovakia and the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanianska, Radoslava; Gustafikova, Tatiana; Kizekova, Miriam; Kovanda, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic material and energy flows are considered to be the major cause of many environmental problems humans face today. In order to measure material and energy flows, and to mitigate related problems, the technique of material flow and energy flow analysis has been conceived. The aim of this article is to use material and energy flow accounting approaches to quantify the amount of biomass that is available, but that so far has not been used for energy purposes in Slovakia and the Czech Republic and to calculate how much consumed fossil fuels and corresponding CO 2 emissions can be saved by utilising this biomass. Based on the findings presented, 3544 kt/yr of the total unused biomass in Slovakia could replace 53 PJ/yr of energy from fossil fuels and 6294 kt/yr of the total unused biomass in the Czech Republic could replace 91 PJ/yr of energy. Such replacement could contribute to a decrease in total CO 2 emissions by 9.2% in Slovakia and by 5.4% in the Czech Republic and thus contribute to an environmental improvement with respect to climate change. - Research highlights: → The material and energy flow accounting approaches for biomass were applied. → In Slovakia, 3544 kt/yr of the total unused biomass is available. → In the Czech Republic, 6294 kt/yr of the total unused biomass is available. → Such biomass could be used for energy production and thus reduce CO 2 emissions.

  19. Holocaust Education in the "Black Hole of Europe": Slovakia's Identity Politics and History Textbooks Pre- and Post-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Holocaust education in Slovakia stands at the confluence of diverse discourses of state and supra-national legitimation. Principles of national self-determination, minority rights, and political ideologies inform and lend credence to how Slovaks' national and state identities are narrated in Slovak history textbooks. For small nation-states with…

  20. Alien wetland annual Lindernia dubia (Scrophulariaceae): the first recently mentioned localities in Slovakia and their central European context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrivnák, R.; Kochjarová, J.; Šumberová, Kateřina; Schmotzer, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 3 (2016), s. 281-286 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : wetland vegetation * neophyte * central Slovakia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  1. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF E.U. INTEGRATION ON THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGIONS NORTH-EAST OF ROMANIA, SUBCARPATHIA OF POLAND AND CENTRAL SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Liviu SCUTARIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of some notable development differences in EU at interstate and interregional level imposed the elaboration of a regional development policy aimed at reducing such disparities. The financial assistance provided by the EU is to help the underdeveloped regions. In this article we highlight the overall level of development and its evolution in Romania, Poland and Slovakia, at regional level, in the context of EU accession. Our attention will be focused on the North-East region of Romania, achieving a comparative analysis with two other similar regions from Poland and Slovakia: Subcarpathia and Central Slovakia, respectively.

  3. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  4. The Relative Age Effect On The Selection In The Slovakia National Football Teams

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    Mikulič Martin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to determine the relative age effect (RAE on selection in the Slovakia national football teams. A factor that may have a significant impact on the quality of players chosen for the national teams or may result in a poor selection of players for the elite teams. Anthropometric and cognitive acceleration of players born in the first months of the calendar year concerning the overall context of the competition for placement in the national teams may be considered as a significant advantage. The aim of this research was to examine, determine and verify the presence of relative age effect in the selection of football players for the Slovakia national teams starting with the under 16 age category (U-16 through to the A - senior national football team. We presumed that the elite teams under this review and study consisted predominantly of players born in the first quarter of the calendar year, while also presuming that relative age effect receded with the increasing age category. Our survey sample U16 consisted of 79 players, U17 consisted of 47 players, U18 consisted of 58 players, U19 consisted of 71 players, U21 consisted of 52 players and A - senior national team consisted of 302 Slovakia national football players. The information obtained from the Slovak Football Association has been processed by the application of statistical methods and statistical significance test (T-test. Our research confirmed the presence of relative age effect in the U-16, U-17 and U-18 teams under our investigation (p≤0.01. In the U19 and U21 age categories, statistical significance has not been confirmed. As for the senior national team, statistically significant difference has been found in relation to players born in the last quarter of the year as opposed to players born in the first three months of the year (p≤0.01. Our results have shown that with the increasing age, the relative age effect fades and vanishes in full in the

  5. Monitoring of selected essential elements and contaminants at sheep and cow farms in Eastern Slovakia

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    Martina TUNEGOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the actual contamination of selected area of Slovakia, in view of its environmental character referred both to the suitability or unsuitability of the use of milk from this area, to other food processing. This article deals with analysis of the content of selected compounds in soil, feed and milk, at the cow and sheep farms. Village in Eastern Slovakia, Tulčík, was the area of investigation. This area is characterized as an area with mild disturbance of environment. 11 compounds have been analyzed (calcium, selenium, cadmium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls – congeners 138, 153, 180, and pesticides - p,p´ DDE, Endosulfan I., Beta-HCH, aflatoxin M1. Samples of soil were collected once a year (spring season, samples of feeds and milk were collected two-times a year (spring and autumn season. Analysis of samples was performed in Eurofins Bel/Novamann (Nové Zámky, Slovak Republic. Analyses were performed by routine methods, according to the valid methodologies. Levels of compounds were obtained and then results have been compared with the most acceptable limits in according to applicable legislation. At both farms, 73.08% (38 samples of analyzed compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ and 26.92% (14 samples of compounds were quantifiable. The most significant differences between monitored farms were recorded in soil (27 720 mg·kg-1 Ca, feed (27 620 mg·kg-1 Ca and milk (960 mg·kg-1 Ca. The high content of calcium in soil and feed did not affect the content of calcium in milk. The results showed that the content of toxic elements, polychorinated biphenyls, pesticides and aflatoxin M1 in analyzed area of Eastern Slovakia was very low and under the limit of quantification. It can be concluded, that the use of milk from this area for direct use or for dairy products is appropriate and poses no health risk to the consumers.

  6. Determination of soil degradation from flooding for estimating ecosystem services in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavcova, Kamila; Szolgay, Jan; Karabova, Beata; Kohnova, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Floods as natural hazards are related to soil health, land-use and land management. They not only represent threats on their own, but can also be triggered, controlled and amplified by interactions with other soil threats and soil degradation processes. Among the many direct impacts of flooding on soil health, including soil texture, structure, changes in the soil's chemical properties, deterioration of soil aggregation and water holding capacity, etc., are soil erosion, mudflows, depositions of sediment and debris. Flooding is initiated by a combination of predispositive and triggering factors and apart from climate drivers it is related to the physiographic conditions of the land, state of the soil, land use and land management. Due to the diversity and complexity of their potential interactions, diverse methodologies and approaches are needed for describing a particular type of event in a specific environment, especially in ungauged sites. In engineering studies and also in many rainfall-runoff models, the SCS-CN method has remained widely applied for soil and land use-based estimations of direct runoff and flooding potential. The SCS-CN method is an empirical rainfall-runoff model developed by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly called the Soil Conservation Service or SCS). The runoff curve number (CN) is based on the hydrological soil characteristics, land use, land management and antecedent saturation conditions of soil. Since the method and curve numbers were derived on the basis of an empirical analysis of rainfall-runoff events from small catchments and hillslope plots monitored by the USDA, the use of the method for the conditions of Slovakia raises uncertainty and can cause inaccurate results in determining direct runoff. The objective of the study presented (also within the framework of the EU-FP7 RECARE Project) was to develop the SCS - CN methodology for the flood conditions in Slovakia (and especially for the RECARE pilot site

  7. Hepatic Proteomic Responses in Marine Medaka ( Oryzias melastigma ) Chronically Exposed to Antifouling Compound Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] or 4,5-Dichloro-2- N -Octyl-4-Isothiazolin-3-One (DCOIT)

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Au, Doris W. T.; Lam, Paul K. S.; Zhang, Weipeng; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    function in marine organisms. In the present study, we investigated the hepatic protein expression profiles of both male and female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to low concentrations of DCOIT at 2.55 mu g/L (0.009 mu M) or butenolide, a

  8. Genetic structuring and differentiation of Echinococcus multilocularis in Slovakia assessed by sequencing and isoenzyme studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snabel, V.; Miterpakova, M.; D'Amelio, S.

    2006-01-01

    Nucleotide sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene and isoenzyme analysis were used to survey the genetic variability in Echinococcus multilocularis populations from Slovakia. A sample of 12 isolates acquired from 10 different districts from red foxes exhibited......) in the CO1 fragment. These data, along with the recently gathered data from French isolates, are indicative of a genetically unique population occurring in Central and Western Europe. Electrophoretic examination of enzymes produced by 14 gene loci revealed intraspecific polymorphism only with the glucose...... between the species were obtained by isoenzyme analysis. Fixed genetic differences between the species were detected in the glucose-phosphate isomerase, esterase and aldolase systems, and partial differences were detected in four additional systems....

  9. Content validation of the nursing diagnosis acute pain in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleníková, Renáta; Žiaková, Katarína; Čáp, Juraj; Jarošová, Darja

    2014-10-01

    The main purpose of the study was to validate the defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis acute pain in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This is a descriptive study. The validation process involved was based on Fehring's diagnostic content validity model. Four defining characteristics were classified as major by Slovak nurses and eight defining characteristics were classified as major by Czech nurses. Validation of the nursing diagnosis acute pain in the Czech and Slovak sociocultural context has shown that nurses prioritize characteristics that are behavioral in nature as well as patients' verbal reports of pain. Verbal reports of pain and behavioral indicators are important for arriving at the nursing diagnosis acute pain. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  10. Appreciation of landscape aesthetic values in Slovakia assessed by social media photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieskovský Juraj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Geolocated photos from google Panoramio are used as a proxy for evaluation of aesthetic values appreciation of different landscape types in Slovakia. We collected the photo’s metadata from years 2005 - 2014 and calculated the density of photos uploaded by unique user per square kilometre. Then we compared the photos density in different landscape types. The most appreciated are subalpine and alpine landscape types. The high photo density was also found in urban landscapes where most of the population live. Outside the urban area, we found that less intensive type of landscapes are visually more attractive. From the abiotic landscape categories the most aesthetically valuable are landscapes in giant highlands and glacial giant highlands. The lowland landscape used intensively for agricultural production is less attractive.

  11. Monitoring of 137CS and 40K in the Levice District, Southern Slovakia

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    Kanta M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the environment, soil and meat of wild animals with radionuclides can negatively affect human health. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk arising from post-Chernobyl contamination of the meat of wild boars (Sus scrofa originating from the district Levice, southern Slovakia, with the radioactive artificial element 137Cs. The level of natural radionuclide 40K was also determined. We examined altogether 45 samples obtained from 9 wild boars hunted in this area during the period of 2013—2015. From each animal we collected and analysed samples from the thigh, stomach contents, stomach muscles and skin. We also examined samples of soil from the locations where these animals were shot. The activity values of radioactive caesium 137Cs determined in this study were very low and therefore the consumption of wild boar meat originating from this location presents no risk to human health.

  12. Institutional Framework for Support of Local Entrepreneurship Within Leader Approach in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumbalová Monika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Current development of rural areas of Slovakia is not fully reflecting the measures taken at the level of the European Union. Contrary, the differences between the territories seem to be deepening. When analysing the critical factors, job creation together with unemployment seem to be among the most pressing ones. The academics believe that the local entrepreneurship and development of small and medium size enterprises (SME in rural areas have significant impact on accelerating the development of these communities, yet, only limited measures are taken to support them. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to analyze the institutional framework for support of local SME within implementation of the LEADER approach as a direct instrument of the rural development policy. The emphasis was put on the last programming period (2007 – 2013 and the conditions set for the current programming period (2014 – 2020.

  13. Evaluation Of The Two Model Biocorridors In Soth-West Part Of Slovakia In Agricultural Landscape

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    Petra Debnáriková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to evaluate two different models of biocorridors in south-west part of Slovakia in intensively utilized agricultural landscape. The first biocorridor is a part of fragmented alluvial softwood forest along the Žitava’s river in its unregulated part in cadastral territory Horný Ohaj, district Vráble. This biocorridor should be the representative biocorridor by its structure and plant composition in its area. The second biocorridor is biocorridor composed by Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the village Báb, district Nitra. The research analyzes the structure of the selected biocorridors by using the methods of phytocoenology, evaluate functional integrity by monitoring of their spatial parameters in terrain and by processing maps in the AutoCAD program. At the base of phytocoenological report evaluates occurence of alien species.

  14. Results of periodic radiohygienic survey of some agricultural products originated in Slovakia in the year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missik, J.; Puskeiler, L.; Miklas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Among other periodic monitoring and surveillance programs of the State Veterinary and Food Administration of Slovak Republic there is also the program Radiohygienic surveillance of agricultural raw, semi-, and final products made in Slovakia. In the year 2005 six commodities were sampled giving a total of 160 samples analysed by HPGe spectrometry for the abundance of man-made radionuclides. Besides 137 Cs no other anthropogenic radionuclide was found in the samples of raw cow milk, raw sheep milk, beef, pork, wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wheat. Highest level of 137 Cs activity was found in the sample of wild boar (32.71 ± 1.88) Bq · kg -1 from the surroundings of Maly Sulin in the district Stara Lubovna. (authors)

  15. Appreciation of landscape aesthetic values in Slovakia assessed by social media photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieskovský, Juraj; Rusňák, Tomáš; Klimantová, Alexandra; Izsóff, Martin; Gašparovičová, Petra

    2017-11-01

    Geolocated photos from google Panoramio are used as a proxy for evaluation of aesthetic values appreciation of different landscape types in Slovakia. We collected the photo's metadata from years 2005 - 2014 and calculated the density of photos uploaded by unique user per square kilometre. Then we compared the photos density in different landscape types. The most appreciated are subalpine and alpine landscape types. The high photo density was also found in urban landscapes where most of the population live. Outside the urban area, we found that less intensive type of landscapes are visually more attractive. From the abiotic landscape categories the most aesthetically valuable are landscapes in giant highlands and glacial giant highlands. The lowland landscape used intensively for agricultural production is less attractive.

  16. Agroecology Development in Eastern Europe—Cases in Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Moudrý

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroecology is a discipline of science that is based on several disciplines, primarily ecology and agronomy. Although the first mention of agroecology was more than 100 years ago, it has recently been more intensely developed throughout Eastern European countries, beginning in the 1990s. Basically, such interest developed due to the intensification of agriculture in the second half of the 20th century, which was based on the premise of agricultural research, and related specifically to production. Agroecology is also strongly associated with sustainable agricultural activities, especially organic farming, which began to develop in Eastern European countries around 1990. Due to the unique environment of Eastern European countries, and a combination of several disciplines within them as well as other factors, agroecology in these differing countries can be perceived as somewhat different from one another. This overview focuses on the current state of agroecology in the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Slovakia.

  17. Immune-escape mutations and stop-codons in HBsAg develop in a large proportion of patients with chronic HBV infection exposed to anti-HBV drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colagrossi, Luna; Hermans, Lucas E; Salpini, Romina

    2018-01-01

    structure of HBV genome, some immune-escape mutations or stop-codons in HBsAg can derive from drug-resistance mutations in RT. This study is aimed at gaining insight in prevalence and characteristics of immune-associated escape mutations, and stop-codons in HBsAg in chronically HBV-infected patients...

  18. Expansion of the marbled crayfish in Slovakia: beginning of an invasion in the Danube catchment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Lipták

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The marbled crayfish, Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, is a taxon widely available in the aquarium pet trade, which has been introduced to open waters in several European countries and in Madagascar. Recent studies confirmed this parthenogenetically reproducing crayfish as a high-risk invasive species, and vector of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci. It has been first discovered in Slovakia in 2010, but the status of the local population was not studied since then. Due to enlarged sampling area around the first report and one locality, where we presupposed the crayfish occurrence, we identified new marbled crayfish populations. Here, we report presence of three newly established marbled crayfish populations in Slovakia. Two populations are located critically close to the Váh River, a major tributary of the Danube River; one of them being directly connected to the Váh River via a side channel during occasional floods. The third established marbled crayfish population was found at the mouth of a thermal stream flowing into the Nitra River, a tributary of the Váh River. In this stream, crayfish coexist with other exotic fish and gastropod species of aquarium origin. We presume that the reported localities may serve as a source for further expansion of the marbled crayfish in the mid-part of the Danube catchment. Floods, active dispersal (including overland, passive dispersal by zoochory or anthropogenic translocations are among the major drivers facilitating the marbled crayfish colonization. We have not detected the crayfish plague pathogen in any of the studied populations. However, if spreading further, the marbled crayfish will encounter established populations of crayfish plague carriers in the Danube River, in which case they may acquire the pathogen by horizontal transmission and contribute to spread of this disease to indigenous European crayfish species.

  19. Biodiversity and climate change: consequences for upper tree line in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minďaš Jozef

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of the effects of climate change on upper tree limit has mainly focused on the diversity of tree species as a result of the ability of species to tolerate temperature and moisture changes as well as some effects of disturbance regime changes. The tree species diversity changes due to climate change has been analysed via gap model and biodiversity indices. Gap models are individually based on simulations of establishment, growth, and mortality of each tree on the forest plot. Input ecological data for model calculations have been taken from the permanent research plots located in primeval forests in mountainous regions in Slovakia. The results of regional scenarios of the climatic change for the territory of Slovakia have been used, from which the values according to the CGCM3.1 (global model, KNMI and MPI (regional models. Model results for conditions of the climate change scenarios suggest a shift of the upper forest limit to the region of the present subalpine zone, in supramontane zone. The most significant tree species diversity changes have been identified for the upper tree line and current belt of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo occurrence. Hill’s index of biodiversity in the upper forest line increased by 30 – 35% for horizon of 2050, resp. by 45 – 50% modeled for the horizon of 2075. Calculated values of Shannon’s index show an even higher increase due to climate change. For horizon 2050 is a roughly of three fold increase and horizon for 2075 by almost fivefold increase in the value of the index. Results from the gap model indicate the increase of tree species diversity 2 – 2,5 times.

  20. Energy balance of chosen crops and their potential to saturate energy consumption in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Hrčková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess and compare energy inputs and outputs of various crop managements in 2011–2012. Two main crops on arable land and three permanent grasslands were investigated. Silage maize (Zea mays L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were grown on lowland, whilst two semi-natural grasslands and grassland infested by tufted hair-grass (Deschampsia caespitose (L. P. Beauv were located in mountainous regions of Slovakia. In these crops and grasslands the dry matter yield was measured and subsequently the supplementary energy, energy gain and unifying energy value – tonne of oil equivalent (TOE – were calculated. Silage maize with 233.37 GJ*ha-1 has provided the highest energy gain. In the group of grasslands, grassland infested by tufted hair-grass has offered the highest energy gain (59.77 GJ*ha-1. And this grassland had the lowest requirement on the supplementary energy (3.66 GJ*ha-1, contrary to silage maize with highest one (12.37 GJ*ha-1. The total energy potential of the crop biomasses was confronted with energy consumption in Slovakia. Winter wheat has the biggest energy potential, but it could cover only 19.6% and 11.3% total consumption of electricity or natural gas, respectively. Large area of permanent grasslands and their spatial location make them an important energy reservoir for bioenergy production. But, it is not possible to replace all consumed fossil fuels by bioenergy from these tested renewable energy sources.

  1. Increasing incidence of Geomyces destructans fungus in bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

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    Natália Martínková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

  2. Human mortality impacts of the 2015 summer heat spells in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Výberči, Dalibor; Labudová, Lívia; Eštóková, Milada; Faško, Pavol; Trizna, Milan

    2017-07-01

    In 2015, Central Europe experienced an unusually warm summer season. For a great majority of climatic stations around Slovakia, it had been the warmest summer ever recorded over their entire instrumental observation period. In this study, we investigate the mortality effects of hot days' sequences during that particular summer on the Slovak population. In consideration of the range of available mortality data, the position of 2015 is analysed within the years 1996-2015. Over the given 20-year period, the summer heat spells of 2015 were by far the most severe from a meteorological point of view, and clearly the deadliest with the total of almost 540 excess deaths. In terms of impacts, an extraordinary 10-day August heat spell was especially remarkable. The massive lethal effects of heat would have likely been even more serious under normal circumstances, since the number of premature deaths appeared to be partially reduced due to a non-standard mortality pattern in the first quarter of the year. The heat spells of the extremely warm summer of 2015 in Slovakia are notable not just for their short-term response in mortality. It appears that in a combination with the preceding strong influenza season, they subsequently affected mortality conditions in the country in the following months up until the end of the year. The impacts described above were rather different for selected population subgroups (men and women, the elderly). Both separately and as a part of the annual mortality cycle, the 2015 summer heat spells may represent a particularly valuable source of information for public health.

  3. Detection of CHLAMYDIA PSITTACI in feral pigeons ( COLUMBA LIVIA DOMESTICA in Slovakia and their characterisation

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    Lenka Čechová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objectives.[/b] [i]Chlamydia psittaci[/i], an obligate intracellular bacterium, which is the etiologic agent of avian chlamydiosis in birds and ornithosis/psittacosis in humans, has been reported to be one of the most common pathogens found in feral pigeons worldwide, and thus constitutes a zoonotic risk. The aim of the study was to investigate pigeons in Slovakia living in areas in close proximity to humans for the presence of C. psittaci, using pharyngeal and cloacal swabs. [b]Material and methods. [/b]122 clinically healthy pigeons from different geographical regions of Slovakia were examined for the presence of [i]C. psittaci[/i]. The adult pigeons of both genders were captured during the summer period in the urban centres of Slovakian towns. Each sample was examined by molecular method PCR, and in the case of positive result the identity of the obtained sequence was examined by a BLAST search. [b]Results.[/b] Of the total number of 244 examined samples, 14 (5.7% showed positivity for [i]C. psittaci[/i] infection, 5 of which were from pharyngeal swabs (4.1% and 9 from cloacal swabs (7.4%. A positive result was detected in 13 pigeons (10.7%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the positive samples are genetically very close to genotypes B and genotype E. [b]Conclusion.[/b] Phylogenetic examination of the 14 isolates of [i]C. psittaci[/i] identified in the presented study, based on 23S rRNA gene sequence, revealed their close relationship with [i]C. psittaci[/i] genotypes B and E. Both genotypes are predominantly prevalent in pigeons and both can be transmitted to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to perform screening examinations of animals and analyse the epidemiological factors affecting the way of transmission and circulation of pathogen.

  4. Distribution and harmfulness of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker at sugar beet fields in Slovakia

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    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002-2004, field surveys of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck e r in croplands were done in southwestern Slovakia. From among 150 localities surveyed, 80 were found infested by the field dodder. Within crop plants, C. campestris infested sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, alfalfa (Medicago sativa tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, potato (Solanum tuberosum, lentil (Lens esculenta, parsley (Pastinaca sativa and onion (Allium cepa. Besides the crops, 18 weed species were also recorded. The species from the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae were the most important and acted as a significant reservoir of field dodder in cropland. C. campestris was not found in cold climatic regions with altitude higher than 240 m. The impact of field dodder infestation on sugar beet yield was studied during the year of 2004 in two localities (Šalov and Žitavce in southwestern Slovakia. The presence of field dodder markedly reduced both, quantity and quality of sugar beet yield. Weight of heavily infested beets was reduced from 21.6 to 37.4% and sugar content from 12.0 to 15.2%. Such decline of both parameters was also recorded when field dodder was removed together with leaves of sugar beet during growing season at the end of July. The aim of the infested leaves removal was to decrease mass of field dodder seeds. Although the leaf area of sugar beet regenerates, the decrease of quality and quantity was observed. The decline was the same at both localities, no matter whether the fields were irrigated (Šalov or not (Žitavce.

  5. Assessment of the state administration effectiveness in the field of small business control in Slovakia

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    Eleonóra Marišová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The agenda of small business in Slovakia is administered by state administration - district offices which registry and also control the entrepreneurs. The control units in the period 2008–2011 and its evaluation in terms of efficiency were the objects of the research. A comparative analysis was focused on the number of inspections carried out by inspectors at registered enterprises and the number of fines imposed by law established methods (penalties in block proceedings and fines on the basis of a decision to impose fine. Comparison was made to the NUTS 3 level, and in different regions of Slovakia. The assessment was based on the number of inspections and fines imposed on the incumbent entrepreneur in the respective region and the number of controls per 1 inspector. The result of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of control activities of units within the NUTS 3. The average proportion of registered enterprises inspections in 2012 was 3.98% (SR. The base index of the average share of inspected enterprises in the period between the year 2008 and 2012 shows a value 0.75, which indicates a decrease in the proportion of subjects controlled by 25%. The results of the research show that the control units should increase the proportion of screened subjects, revise the amount of the fines imposed and the ability to enforce compliance with the obligations under the Act on small business No. 455/1991 Coll. (Small business law and special rules. To achieve the increase of effectiveness of inspectors, its recommended to innovate their temporal and territorial flexibility.

  6. IMPACT OF EDUCATION ON THE FINANCIAL LITERACY: A CASE OF SLOVAKIA

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    Marián Tóth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Financial crisis in 2008 increased the focus of financial intermediaries and also national authorities for financial education and financial literacy of households. Bank association in Slovakia started to measure and increase the financial literacy of population and government implemented the National standard of financial literacy into the curriculum of grammar schools and high schools. This paper examines the level of financial literacy of students in Slovakia and the influence of determinants education level and education focus. We performed a questionnaire with 10 questions on a sample of 608 students from two Faculties of Slovak University of Agriculture. The questions were linked to 4 areas: interest, risk management, financial market and personal finance. To measure the level of financial literacy we use Index of financial literacy IFIG. Using Index of financial literacy and Mann-Whitney U test techniques we find that education level and education focus are relevant determinants of financial literacy level. Students with bachelor degree have better results when compared to high school students. The success rate measured by the IFIG of bachelor students was 0,658 and the success rate of high school students was 0,577. We also found differences based on the education focus. We compared two groups: students with economic focus of education with students with non-economic focus of education. Based on our results we can conclude that economic focus of education increases the level of financial literacy. The success rate of students with economic focus of education was significantly higher (0,674 compared to the students with non-economic focus of education (0,553.

  7. Cathaemasia hians infection in Black stork in Slovakia: morphological and histopathological study

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    Königová A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cathaemasia hians is an obligate trematode parasite of Black storks that are on the List of protected birds in Europe. In the present study, adult trematodes were isolated from the Black stork post mortem and morphological study revealed C. hians species. In total, 10 worms were found in the oesophagus and the ventriculus of the bird. Histopathological examination of the tissue samples of oesophagus, proventriculus and ventriculus was performed on paraffin sections using a set of staining procedures. The sporadic lesions were seen in the tela submucosa of oesophagus containing connective tissue mast cells, eosinophils and heterophils and some foci were surrounded by the fibrous tissue. In addition, a few inflammatory nodules had larval-like material inside, probably being of the same species. There were no visible morphological alterations in the epithelial layer of lamina propria mucosae of proventriculus, rich in goblet cells as well as in the tela submucosa. Majority of trematodes were localized in the ventriculus, where the lamina propria mucosae was damaged or disrupted sporadically. In these sites, in the tela submucosa, a various food-originated inorganic/organic material and eggs of C. hians were deposited, stimulating a weak inflammatory response. Nodules containing larvae were not observed in any of ventriculus tissue layers. This study demonstrated, for the first time, infection with adults of C. hians trematode in the Black stork nesting in Slovakia. The presence of larvae and eggs in the tissues of the upper gastrointestinal tract of bird was associated with mild inflammatory response but feeding behaviour of adult worms in the ventriculus probably contributed to the enhanced susceptibility of the lamina propria mucosae to mechanical damage by inorganic material. Although larval stages have not yet been documented in the intermediate hosts in Slovakia, our report indicates that the life cycle of C. hians might occur in Central

  8. A rainfall distribution and their influence on flood generation in the eastern Slovakia

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    Lenka Gaňová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to geographically assess the flood occurrence in eastern Slovakia by using one of the methods of multi-criteria analysis – rank sum method. Flood risk assessment is conducted in three specific cases: the long term period 1989–2009, the extremely wet 2010 year, and the extremely dry 2011 year. In the analyses, some of the causative factors for flooding in a basin area are taken into account. We use set of causative factors concerning mostly hydrological and physio-geographical characteristic of the target area that can be measured and evaluated such as soil type, daily precipitation (for the years 1989–2009, 2010, 2011, land use, catchment area and basin slope. For recommendation which causative factors should be preferred we use method of multicriteria analysis – ranking method. In the ranking method (RM, every factor/criterion under consideration is ranked in the order of the decision-maker’s preference. Geographic approach to flood risk assessment provides a descriptive presentation of the results obtained. Geographic information systems as a visualization tool is presented in a manner that aids understanding in a user friendly way.Regarding our task of flood risk assessment, the partial results are three composite maps, which present comparison of flood risk zones in percentage of the area in years 1989–2009, 2010, and 2011. The composite maps are background for risk assessment of the impact of rainfall on flood generation.This study of hydrological data and physio-geographical characteristic was carried out with the purpose of the identification of flood risk occurrence in eastern Slovakia. Results from our study shows, that rainfall distribution has high influence on flood risk of the area. Area percentage with very high flood risk index was calculated for “wet” year 2010 as 11.73 %, for “dry” year 2011 as 0.01 % and for period 1989–2009 as 0.28 %.

  9. Central European attitudes towards Chinese energy investments: The cases of Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcsanyi, Richard Q.

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on Europe-wide knowledge of EU-China energy investment relations and discusses the cases of three Central European countries’ attitudes towards Chinese energy investments. It focuses on how Chinese investments are perceived compared to investments from other countries, and how the energy sector is perceived compared to other sectors. Media analysis, interviews with experts, and semi-structured questionnaires were used as data sources. It was discovered that these three countries dislike foreign control over strategic assets and Chinese energy investments are seen as falling into this category. The discourse frames on the general level fluctuate between beneficial and threatening at both the political and economic levels, yet the benefits are seen as greater than any potential threats in all three countries. Energy security frames are only just beginning to be discussed within national discourses about Chinese energy investments. In Poland, the Chinese presence in the energy sector is framed as an issue of availability, affordability, and efficiency, and is related to Polish plans for maximizing efficient use of local coal resources. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, China is often perceived ideologically and only the energy frame of environmental stewardship is present in a minor way. - Highlights: • Chinese investments in energy are perceived more negatively than investments in other sectors due to their strategic nature. • Availability, affordability, and efficiency appear in Poland as a result of the special position of coal. • Environmental stewardship appears as an issue in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. • The Polish discourse is most similar to Europe-wide discourse.

  10. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Case concerning Gabcikovo-Nagymaros project (Hungary/Slovakia). Summary of the Judgement of 25 September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The summary of the judgement contains: Review of the history of law-suit; Legal consequences of the Judgment. The operative paragraphs reads as follows: (1) A. Finds, that Hungary was not entitled to suspend and subsequently abandon, in 1989, its part of the works in the dam project, as laid down in the treaty signed in 1977 by Hungary and Czechoslovakia and related instruments; B. Finds, that Czechoslovakia was entitled to proceed, in 1991, to the p rovisional solution a s described in the terms of the Special Agreement; C. Finds, that Czechoslovakia was not entitled to put into operation, from 1992, this p rovisional solution ; D. Finds, that notification, 1992, of termination of the Treaty of 1977 and related instruments by Hungary did not have the legal effect of terminating them; 2. A. Finds, that Slovakia, as successor to Czechoslovakia, became a party the Treaty of 1997 as from 1993; B. Finds, that Hungary and Slovakia must negotiate in good faith in the light of the prevailing situation, and must take all necessary measures to ensure the achievement of the objectives of the Treaty of 1977, in accordance with such modalities as they may agree upon; C. Finds, that, unless the Parties otherwise agree, a joint operational regime must be established in accordance with the Treaty of 1977; C. Finds, that, unless the Parties otherwise agree, Hungary shall compensate Slovakia for the damage sustained by Czechoslovakia and by Slovakia on accounts of the suspension and abandonment by Hungary of works for which it was responsible: and Slovakia shall compensate Hungary for the damage it has sustained on account of the putting into operation of the p rovisional solution b y Czechoslovakia and its maintenance in service by Slovakia; E. Finds, that, the settlement of accounts for the construction and operation of the works must be effected in accordance with relevant provisions of the Treaty of 1977 and related instruments, taking due account of such measures as will have

  12. Corelations between tourism and environmental load in the „Slovak Paradise – Slovenský Raj“, E.Slovakia

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    Janka Jablonská

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism – and specially nature tourism - is an area, where the interaction between the tourists and environment is very intensive. Tourists are sensitive to the beauty and purity of the environment, but at the same time, the environmental impact of their presence in nature is marked. In order to maintain the beauty and purity of the environment a number of environmental threats are to be alleviated. Further, it seems to be necessary to decrease/regulate the number of tourists, or a set of costly cleaning and revitalising operations are to be implemented. The paper analyses the data available on the tourism related load of one of the most beautiful areas in Slovakia – the „Slovak paradise“, located in E. Slovakia.

  13. 100 years from the invention of X-rays. From the history of the radiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutarna, A.

    1996-01-01

    The survey of the development of radiology after the First World War (after disintegration of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy) as well as after the Second World War in Slovakia is given. Attention is dedicated to the development of radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic methods in Slovakia, as well as to personal occupation of the heads of radiologic clinics. In the last decade radiologic working-places and the departments are equipped with modern and efficient techniques. While in the year 1962 a number of the radiologists was about 90 doctors, in the year 1995 a number more than 360 doctors was registered from which are 80 doctors of radiotherapy. A number of radiologic assistants is about 1200. In Slovak hospitals are about 370 departments of radiology and more than 300 radiodiagnostic working-places and 12 departments of radiotherapy. 29 refs

  14. Additions to the Diptera Acalyptrata fauna (Anthomyzidae, Stenomicridae, Carnidae, Milichiidae, Heleomyzidae of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

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    Roháček Jindřich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Records of five species of Diptera Acalyptrata representing novelties for the faunas of Bohemia or Moravia (Czech Republic and Slovakia are given with discussion on their significance to the biodiversity knowledge of local faunas and a summary of their biology, distribution and identification with new information obtained from the material examined. Stiphrosoma humerale Roháček & Barber, 2005 (Anthomyzidae and Stenomicra cogani Irwin, 1982 (Stenomicridae are new additions to the dipterous fauna of Slovakia. Records of Meoneura alpina Hennig, 1948 (Carnidae and Milichia speciosa Meigen, 1830 (Milichiidae are the first from Bohemia and represent new northernmost distribution limits of these species; those of Heleomyza (Anypotacta setulosa (Czerny, 1924 are the first from Moravia. Macrophotographs of all these species are presented to document the specimens recorded and/or to facilitate identification of these uncommon species. In addition, new records of S. humerale from Russia: E Siberia and of M. speciosa from Greece: Peloponnesse are given.

  15. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by ELISA and nested PCR from blood samples and nasal swabs from pigs in Slovakia

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    Marián Prokeš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to map the situation of swine mycoplasmoses on four farms in the region of Eastern Slovakia. The primary agent of Enzootic pneumonia of swine is Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. After reviewing the health status of conventional herds and evaluation of clinical symptoms, paired samples of nasal swabs and venous blood samples were collected from 38 pigs with clinical signs of respiratory disease. Nasal swab samples were tested by nested PCR, while blood samples were used to detect antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae by blocking ELISA. The presence of M. hyopneumoniae was confirmed by nested PCR in four pigs (10.5% and by blocking ELISA in 16 pigs (42.1% of all four farms. This work presents for the first time comparison of different methods to diagnose M. hyopneumoniae infection on pig farms in Eastern Slovakia.

  16. A new marsh plant community of Eleocharito palustris-Alismatetum lanceolati (Eleocharito palustris-Sagittarion sagittifoliae alliance in Slovakia

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    Richard Hrivnák

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Open and species-poor stands with a dominance of Alisma lanceolatum were recorded in periodically flooded habitats of the southern part of central Slovakia (Ipeľ River catchment area during the summer of 2013. Phytosociological relevés correspond to the association Eleocharito palustris-Alismatetum lanceolati (alliance Eleocharito palustris-Sagittarion sagittifoliae, which is reported and documented here for the first time from the territory of Slovakia. It inhabits predominantly temporarily flooded depressions on agricultural land – wet arable fields and extensively used pastures. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that the variability in species composition was most significantly influenced by water depth, the presence of arable fields in the contact area and water conductivity. Special attention was paid to a detailed description of the floristic composition, habitat requirements, distribution patterns and nomenclature of the community.

  17. Possibility of Radioactive and Toxic WasteDisposal in a Rock Ssalt Deposits in Slovakia Combining Wells and Cavities

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    Škvareková Erika

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of radioactive and toxic waste in rock salt can be performed in two ways – disposal in the salt mine repository or disposal in the deep wells connected with salt cavity. Presented article deals with the option of the disposal in a salt cavity at medium depths. The article also cover partially salt deposits in Slovakia and their potential suitability for waste disposal..

  18. Final results of the gradual reconstruction of Bohunice VI in Slovakia and evaluation of the reconstruction by international missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenc, M.

    2001-01-01

    The gradual reconstruction of the Bohunice V1 nuclear power plant (Slovakia) represents the most extensive reconstruction of a nuclear power plant in operation as implemented worldwide up to now. Extensive reconstruction works in both civil construction and process parts, in instrumentation and control part, and in electric part enhanced both nuclear safety and operational reliability of Bohunice V1 in a significant way.(author)

  19. Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in gypsies than in non-gypsies in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Hanson, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Gypsies (or Roma) recently experienced a transition from a traditional to a Westernized lifestyle. Although mortality in this population is 4-fold higher compared with non-Gypsies, very limited information is available on their morbidity especially with regard to non-communicable diseases. Our ai...... was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in Gypsies and non-Gypsies living in the same region of southern Slovakia....

  20. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  1. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  2. WHAT SHOULD ESTONIA DO IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE VALUE OF ITS EXPORTS OF GOODS TO SLOVAKIA AND SLOVENIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Romih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Estonia’s trade in goods with the world in general and with Slovakia and Slovenia in particular. Additionally, it also proposes some measures to increase the value of Estonia’s exports of goods to the aforementioned countries, both of which are Estonia’s minor export partners in Central and Eastern Europe. In 2013, the value of Estonia’s exports of goods to Slovakia and Slovenia amounted to €51.3 million and €7.4 million respectively. In order to increase the value of its exports of goods to these two countries, Estonia should increase the competitiveness of Estonian enterprises (especially small- and medium-sized ones in the Slovakian and Slovenian markets and adopt other measures such as increasing the sustainability of the aforementioned enterprises with a view to facilitating their entry into new markets. In recent years, sustainability has become an important factor in competitiveness, which is mainly the result of increased environmental awareness of consumers and other stakeholders, foremost in developed countries (including Slovakia and Slovenia. Sustainable innovation has therefore become an important source of competitive advantage, which is especially true for enterprises operating in competitive markets. Therefore, in order to increase the competitiveness of Estonian enterprises in the aforementioned markets, Estonia should promote sustainable innovation and take certain other measures.

  3. Status and prospects of the core surveillance system SCORPIO-VVER in Czech Republic and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, J.; Vocka, R.

    2011-01-01

    The SCORPIO-VVER core monitoring system has proved since the first installation at Dukovany NPP in 1999 to be a valuable tool for the reactor operators and reactor physicists. It is now installed on four units of Dukovany NPP (Czech Republic) and two units of Bohunice NPP (Slovak Republic) replacing the original Russian VK3 system. By both Czech and Slovak nuclear regulatory bodies it was licensed as a Technical Specification Surveillance tool. Since it's first installation, the development of SCORPIO-VVER system continues along with the changes in WWER reactors operation. The system is being adapted according the utility needs and several notable improvements in physical modules of the system were introduced. The latest most significant changes were done in connection with implementation of a new digital I and C system, loading of the optimized gadolinium bearing Gd2 fuel assemblies, improvements in the area of core design (neutron physics, core thermal hydraulics and fuel thermal mechanics), adaptation of the system to up-rated unit conditions, in design and methodology of the limit and technical specifications checking (implementation of the on-line shutdown margin calculation to the system) and improvements in the predictive part of the system (Strategy Generator). After the currently finished upgrades (Upgrade 2 at EBO Slovakia in 2009, Upgrade 5 at EDU Czech Republic in 2010) the SCORPIO-VVER is still in focus of Central European nuclear power plants with the road map of modification and implementation up to 2015. In April 2011 the Upgrade 3 at EBO Slovakia has been contracted to support the changed reactor technical specification and for support of the new type of fuel planned to load in 2012. During the summer of 2011 the discussions started with EDU NPP in Czech Republic regarding to the future development of the SCORPIO-VVER system up to 2015. Parallel with the support of current installations at NPPs the project of new installations is ongoing. During

  4. Selected sociodemographic factors and related differences in patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebena Rene

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71% from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions

  5. Babesia spp. in ticks and wildlife in different habitat types of Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Kazimírová, Mária; Haruštiaková, Danka; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Berthová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2016-05-20

    Babesiosis is an emerging and potentially zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne piroplasmids of the Babesia genus. New genetic variants of piroplasmids with unknown associations to vectors and hosts are recognized. Data on the occurrence of Babesia spp. in ticks and wildlife widen the knowledge on the geographical distribution and circulation of piroplasmids in natural foci. Questing and rodent-attached ticks, rodents, and birds were screened for the presence of Babesia-specific DNA using molecular methods. Spatial and temporal differences of Babesia spp. prevalence in ticks and rodents from two contrasting habitats of Slovakia with sympatric occurrence of Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks and co-infections of Candidatus N. mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Babesia spp. were detected in 1.5 % and 6.6 % of questing I. ricinus and H. concinna, respectively. Prevalence of Babesia-infected I. ricinus was higher in a natural than an urban/suburban habitat. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Babesia spp. from I. ricinus clustered with Babesia microti, Babesia venatorum, Babesia canis, Babesia capreoli/Babesia divergens, and Babesia odocoilei. Babesia spp. amplified from H. concinna segregated into two monophyletic clades, designated Babesia sp. 1 (Eurasia) and Babesia sp. 2 (Eurasia), each of which represents a yet undescribed novel species. The prevalence of infection in rodents (with Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus prevailing) with B. microti was 1.3 % in an urban/suburban and 4.2 % in a natural habitat. The majority of infected rodents (81.3 %) were positive for spleen and blood and the remaining for lungs and/or skin. Rodent-attached I. ricinus (accounting for 96.3 %) and H. concinna were infected with B. microti, B. venatorum, B. capreoli/B. divergens, Babesia sp. 1 (Eurasia), and Babesia sp. 2 (Eurasia). All B. microti and B. venatorum isolates were identical to known zoonotic strains from Europe. Less than 1

  6. [Comparative studies on the toxicity of various dielectrics--petroleum derivatives used in the electroerosion technic. V. Functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes in the kidneys of rats chronically exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, A; Kamiński, M

    1982-01-01

    The rats exposed for 14 weeks to odourless kerosene mists (concentration of 75 and 300 mg/m3) had their urinary chemical and morphotic composition determined. In addition, morphological and cytoenzymatic examinations of kidneys were carried out. The findings were: increased pH and protein concentration and single erythrocytes in urine and also: passive congestion of renal cortex and medulla, infiltrates composed of granulocytes and eosinophils and albuminous casts in renal tubules. Decreased activity of succinate dehydrogenase, glucoso-6-phosphatase, Mg++ stimulated adenosinotriphosphatase and increased activity of acid phosphatase were found. Those changes were localized in cortical part of the kidney especially in the main tubules epithelial cells. The observed functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes depended on the magnitude of exposure. The obtained results confirm that kerosene hydrocarbons may exhibit toxic effects on the kidney function and structure.

  7. [Comparative studies on toxicity of various dielectrics, petroleum derivatives, used in electroerosion technology. IV. Morphological and cytoenzymatic changes in the lungs and acid-base imbalance in rats chronically exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, A; Kamiński, M

    1981-01-01

    In rats exposed to odourless kerosene of 75 and 300 mg/m3 concentration, for 14 weeks, morphologic and cytoenzymatic examinations of lungs have been carried out and acid-base equilibrium indices in blood have been determined. Passive congestion of lung parenchyma, subpleural blood extravasation, atelectasis foci, thickened interalveolar septa with infiltrates from neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and macrophages have been found. In addition a decrease in succinic dehydrogenase activity, NADPH -- tetrazolium reductase, and Mg++-ATP-ase and increase in acid phosphatase activity have been revealed. Those have been focal changes, involving, apart from bronchial tree (low exposure -- 75 mg/m3), the remaining lung parenchyma segments (high exposure -- 300 mg/m3). In addition, disturbances in acid-base equilibrium in form of compensated metabolic alkalosis (75 mg/m3) and compensated metabolic acidosis (300 mg/m3) have occurred. The obtained results demonstrate toxic effects of kerosene hydrocarbons on the function and structure of lungs.

  8. Comparative studies on the toxicity of various dielectrics--petroleum derivatives used in the electroerosion technic. V. Functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes in the kidneys of rats chronically exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starek, A.; Kaminski, M.

    1982-01-01

    The rats exposed for 14 weeks to odourless kerosene mists (concentration of 75 and 300 mg/m3) had their urinary chemical and morphotic composition determined. In addition, morphological and cytoenzymatic examinations of kidneys were carried out. The findings were: increased pH and protein concentration and single erythrocytes in urine and also: passive congestion of renal cortex and medulla, infiltrates composed of granulocytes and eosinophils and albuminous casts in renal tubules. Decreased activity of succinate dehydrogenase, glucoso-6-phosphatase, Mg++ stimulated adenosinotriphosphatase and increased activity of acid phosphatase were found. Those changes were localized in cortical part of the kidney especially in the main tubules epithelial cells. The observed functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes depended on the magnitude of exposure. The obtained results confirm that kerosene hydrocarbons may exhibit toxic effects on the kidney function and structure.

  9. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  10. The development of customers’ satisfaction in the banking sector of Slovakia in the turbulent economic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Belás

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction of bank’s customers presents important area of building of long-term relationships with the client, which significantly determines the financial performance of commercial banks through successful business. Satisfied customer buy bank’s products, is willing to pay also higher price for the product or service and represents some form of free advertising and considerable less effort, time and money needed for keep him, than to get a new one. This article presents current situation in the banking sector in Slovakia and quantifies changes in the area of customer satisfaction, which occurred during the financial and economic crisis. Customer satisfaction research has been conducted through a questionnaire survey. First research has been carried out on the first half of 2008 on the sample of 298 respondents, ie. the time before the financial crisis. In that time, the greatest satisfaction has been assigned to the availability of bank’s products and services, and the greatest dissatisfaction has been expressed by respondents to the prices of banking products and services. In 2012, this research has been conducted on the sample of 320 respondents. The change of satisfaction factors, respectively dissatisfied bank’s customers compared with 2008 has been investigated by standard statistical methods. Results of our research in 2012 showed satisfaction reduction of bank customers and also changes in respondents’ preferences of the perception of satisfaction factors, respectively dissatisfaction in relation to commercial banks.

  11. Dissolving current gaps in entrepreneurship education and its impact on business development in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Majdúchová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial outcomes of the research conducted under the cover of the project “V4 Scientific Centers for the Enhancement of Financial Literacy and Entrepreneurship Education“, International Visegrad Fund, Standard Grant No. 21410134. In this paper we focus on dissolving current gaps in entrepreneurship education and its impact on business development in Slovakia (one of participating countries. We do so by using the whole variety of research methods, including structured survey, direct observation, decomposition, implication, etc. We are dealing with the identification of the university education attributes important for the entrepreneurial competences development, followed by further insights into the specific area - university support of individual initiative and entrepreneurial thinking. To avoid the subjective dimension of research outcome, we look at it from two different points of view – students and teachers perceptions. We also use a cross-cultural approach and different cultural dimensions to identify the general perception of normal state of this attribute in the society. The last part of this paper summarizes our recommendations intending to improve the current state of university education system in the field of entrepreneurial competences development.

  12. Analysis and assessment of environmental impacts of small hydro power plant in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleňáková, M.; Fijko, R.; Remeňáková, I.

    2017-10-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an important process that, prior to approval of the investment plan, can provide a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to apply a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of the environmental impacts of selected constructions, namely, small hydro power plant, using matrix of impacts. This analysis method is intended not only to increase the clarity and precision of the evaluation process, but also to align it with the requirements of the environmental impact assessment system. This modification should improve the reliability of the environmental impact assessment, and could moreover also be applied to other infrastructure projects. Comparison of alternatives and designation of the optimal variant are implemented based on selected criteria that objectively describe the characteristic lines of the planned alternatives of activity and their impact on the environment. The use of proper EIA procedures can help the decision-makers to formulate proper activities based on qualified decisions. The designed project in Spišské Bystré, Slovakia is used as a case study to clarify and exemplify the methodology and techniques.

  13. Sustainable energy and development in disadvantaged communities: New approaches from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, and Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legro, Susan [Eco Ltd (Czech Republic)

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines two community projects implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The first, Promoting Access to Energy Services to Foster Integration and Human Development for Disadvantaged Communities in Hungary and Slovakia with a Special Focus on the Roma, built on regional development work with isolated communities without reliable access to heat and electricity. The second, Energy Efficiency in Housing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), focused on a network of communities where rebuilding was underway following the Balkans conflict. While the projects took place in different environments, both shared common approaches. First, they focused on community energy planning in areas where infrastructure was severely deficient. Planning was designed so that current investments in building stock would not have to be retrofitted later for efficiency. Second, they linked energy agencies and NGOs with institutions outside of the energy/environment community, such as the National Minority Self Government in Hungary and the Ministry of Refugees in BiH . The projects thus leveraged funds and expertise from new sources while raising awareness of sustainable energy issues in organizations already funding infrastructure.While time and funding were limited by the terms of the grants, both projects established a foundation of information, planning, and partnerships. Both projects included baseline energy studies, training workshops, and practical guides for local leaders. In addition, there were tangible community benefits in education (reliable heat supply for a new kindergarten), jobs creation (wood-chipping in a municipal forest), and business development (contracts for efficient construction)

  14. Shopping Behaviour of Generation Y: A Comparison of Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Klapilová Krbová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of Generation Y shopping behaviour was conducted in Czech Republic and Slovakia. The main aim was to describe the whole decision making process of this generational cohort. In this paper, only selected features are presented, especially early phases of decision making. For the purposes of the study, people with the year of birth between 1980 and 2000 served as a population. Data were collected by online and written questionnaire during autumn and winter 2014/2015. The sample of 380 respondents was conducted by non-probability sampling technique, more specifically judgemental sampling. Results suggest that Generation Y individuals prefer online environment to search for information before purchase. The four most used channels in both countries are the same and all online (e.g. web search engine or retailer’s website. These young people mainly rely on themselves when they look for some personal recommendations, so own experience was the most important source. The choice of a particular shop is influenced by the quality of goods offered, but also by the price level which should be below the competitors. Wide assortment which enables to choose an appropriate product is also preferred. According to these results segmentation in both countries was conducted. Particular segments in both countries differ, but we can also find some common attributes.

  15. Exploitation of cloud computing in management of construction projects in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandičák Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of cloud computing is a highly topical issue. Cloud computing represents a new model for information technology (IT services based on the exploitation of Web (it represents a cloud and other application platforms, as well as software as a service. In general, the exploitation of cloud computing in construction project management has several advantages, as demonstrated by several research reports. Currently, research quantifying the exploitation of cloud computing in the Slovak construction industry has not yet been carried out. The article discusses the issue of exploitation of cloud computing in construction project management in Slovakia. The main objective of the research is to confirm whether factors such as size of construction enterprise, owner of construction enterprise and participant of construction project have any impact on the exploitation level of cloud computing in construction project management. It includes confirmation of differences in use between different participants of the construction project or between construction enterprises broken down by size and shareholders.

  16. Prevalence of Malassezia pachydermatis in dogs with suspected Malassezia dermatitis or otitis in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Čonková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of yeast Malassezia pachydermatis in dogs from Slovakia in relation to different predisposition factors (sex, age, body localisation, hair type, and season. Samples of ear swabs (58 and dermal swabs (131 from 147 dogs with clinical symptoms of suspected yeast dermatitis and/or otitis, were examined between June 2005 to June 2007. Relatively higher prevalence of M. pachydermatis was found in samples taken from males (45.2% than in females (35.2%, and in geriatric dogs (63.6% than in young (42.5% or adult (38.5% dogs. Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated more often from ear swabs (44.8% than from skin swabs (38.9%. Prevalence of M. pachydermatis was significantly higher (p Malassezia pachydermatis is one of the most frequent yeasts isolated in dogs. Knowledge of factors predisposing to development of infection is valuable attribute of the correct diagnostic approach and case management.

  17. Costs of growing wheat and oilseed rape in slovakia and other V4 countries

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    Lenka Hudáková Stašová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of cost in primary agricultural production. In this paper, we assess the trends in the costs of agricultural products in the V4 countries and compare them with each other. The subject of the analysis is the evaluation of the structure and development of costs and benefits for agricultural production as a whole, partially for crop and for livestock production and also for two specifically selected products. The purpose is to find out whether the costs incurred for the cultivation of wheat and oilseed rape in Slovakia are adequate as they are compared with the surrounding countries. Following the evaluation of the development of total costs, we define the substantive issues in overhead costs and evaluate their development. Based on the results of the analyses we have defined the proportion of overhead costs in agriculture as an important component of total production costs. The paper points to the need to innovate and modernise the way we think about overheads and the method of their calculation. We also look for the answer to how modern cost management methods could influence their height and development. We propose to improve the calculation system of agricultural enterprises in the analysed countries by introducing of non-traditional calculation method which removes the inaccuracy of the traditional methods and the non-targeted allocation of high overheads to the products.

  18. Gypsy Phenylketonuria: A point mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Gypsy families from Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalanin, J. [Institute for Clinical and Experical Medicine, Praha (Czechoslovakia); Takarada, Y. [Toyobo Research Center, Shiga (Japan); Kagawa, S.; Yamashita, K.; Ohtsuka, N.; Matsuoka, A. [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    1994-01-15

    A direct mutational analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in Gypsy families with phenylketonuria (PKU) has not yet been presented. However, they obviously represent a group at high risk for this inherited disease. The authors analyzed the PAH loci of 65 Gypsies originating from Eastern Slovakia by a combination of PCR amplification, direct sequencing and ASO hybridization. These studies uncovered 10 {open_quotes}classical PKU{close_quotes} patients to be homozygous for a R252W (CGG-TGG) transition, and 29 heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Fifteen control Caucasoid PKU patients from the Czech and Slovak Republics were selected. In this group they detected R252W mutation in two subjects (6.67% of all mutant alleles). Both were compound heterozygous for two different mutations. Previous haplotype studies of Welsh Gypsies with PKU were uninformative in the determination of heterozygosity. ASO hybridization served effectively for the consequent analyses in Gypsy PKU-related families and to identify the carriers among the unrelated subjects. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  19. The effects of the 1996–2012 summer heat events on human mortality in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Výberči Dalibor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of summer heat events on the mortality of the Slovak population, both in total and for selected population sub-groups, are the foci of this study. This research is the first of its kind, focusing on a given population, and therefore one priority was to create a knowledge base for the issue and to basically evaluate existing conditions for the heat-mortality relationship in Slovakia. This article also aims to fill a void in current research on these issues in Europe. In addition to overall effects, we focused individually on the major historical heat events which occurred in the summers of 2007, 2010 and 2012. During the heat events, a non-negligible negative response in mortality was recorded and fatal effects were more pronounced during particularly strong heat events and periods which lasted for two or more days. In general, females and the elderly were the most sensitive groups in the population and mortality was characterized by several specific effects in individual population groups. The most extreme heat periods were commonly followed by a deficit in mortality, corresponding to a short-term mortality displacement, the pattern of which varied in specific cases. In general, displaced mortality appeared to compensate for a large part of heat-induced excess deaths.

  20. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs in wild mushrooms collected in Poland and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazala, M.A.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.; Cipakova, A.

    2005-01-01

    Activities of caesium in the mushrooms collected at different localities in Poland and Slovakia have been compared. Discrimination factor, defined as [(Bq·kg - 1137 Cs in caps)/(Bq·kg -1 40 K in caps)]/[(Bq·kg -1 137 Cs in stipes)/(Bq·kg - 14 0K in stipes)], was used to explain mechanisms of uptake and transport of radiocaesium in fungi. The collected specimens were divided into caps and stipes. Activities of 137 Cs and 40 K were measured using a multichannel gamma spectrophotometer with HPGe(Li) detector. The highest accumulation of 137 Cs was found in the samples of Xerocomus badius, Suillus luteus and Tricholoma equestre (2.7, 1.9 and 1.2 kBq·kg -1 , respectively). T. equestre and S. luteus proved to hyperaccumulate caesium since 137 Cs levels in the caps were two orders of magnitude higher than in the soil while only one order higher in the case of X. badius. Transport of 137 Cs from stipe to cap in fruitbody is directly related to K concentration with lack of similar dependence in the case of transport from soil to cap. There is no dependence between activity of 137 Cs in the analyzed fruitbodies and its activity in the soil, which makes mushrooms controversial bioindicators of 137 Cs-polluted soils. (author)

  1. Traffic seismicity loaded historical building frequency parameters identification due to most commonly used truck in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papán Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigation and combination with numerical modelling is one of the progressive method in many scientific areas. The structural dynamics including traffic seismicity effects are also becoming an increasing topic. The aim of this paper was to realize the numerical analysis of heritage Upper Gate in Modra - Slovakia and FEM simulation of the lorry T-815 natural vibration. These subsystems are dominant processes in traffic seismicity vibration effects in buildings. For this purpose the variants of FE model by computing program Scia engineering has been created for building and software ADINA for lorry. These models are important for the assessment of the dynamic vibration transmissibility due to mechanical impact load properties. The results of this simulation was evaluated in frequency area. Next part of the investigation was the realisation of the experimental measurement. The results obtained from the experiment were compared with FE analysis. Using of the theoretical analysis, experimental procedures results and FEM simulation of the natural vibration it seem to be the practical application for engineering practice in prediction and assessment buildings vibration due to seismicity induced by traffic.

  2. Evaluation of seismic resistance of low voltage switchgear, NPP V1 Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, P.

    1999-01-01

    During this year, company Stevenson and Associates took part in the project of evaluation of seismic resistance of NPP V-1 Jaslovske Bohunice in Slovakia. It was responsible for a part of electrical equipment, mainly for the evaluation of low voltage switchgears. There were four steps of the evaluation: Detailed Walkdown; Application of GIP-WWER Methodology; Developing, of In Cabinet Response Spectra; and Evaluation of Acceptance of Formerly Performed Relay Tests According to the Russian Standard OEG l-330.00-3). Tests performed according to the Russian Standard OAG are acceptable only if the tested subject shows just one dominant natural frequency in the significant energy frequency range. If there is no knowledge of modal properties of the tested subject (that is a frequent situation because test reports usually contain only generalized Fourier loading spectrum) the enveloping of In Cabinet Response Spectra (ICRS) in all significant energy frequency ranges by Response Spectra (RS) of harmonic signal on one arbitrary frequency. This criteria is usually not satisfied because the shake tables used for the tests are not able to produce the sufficient level of excitation in the low frequency range. It may lead to the demand for test repeating

  3. Phytoestrogens dietary intake and health status of retiree from middle-notrh Slovakia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čurlej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens found in foods of plant origin presents chemical substances that possess a wide range of biochemical benefits. It has been found that they contribute in different health related problems. A wide range of commonly consumed foods contain appreciable amounts of phytoestrogens. Consumption of diet rich to phytoestrogen acts as a protective factor against many diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, post-menopausal symptoms in the context of osteoporosis, cancerous illnesses of colon, prostate and breast. Three main classes of phytoestrogens covers: isoflavones, lignans and coumestans. Selected nine major phytoestrogens had been analyzed simultaneously in the same foods. Questionnaire designed to determine intake frequency as well as amount of selected foods and the most common diseases presented in the population has been used to find relationships between dietary habits and health status. Evaluation of selected goals in the present study has been realized in cooperation with 140 respondents in retired age (divided into Males - covered by 34 individuals and Females - 106 individuals, comming from middle-north Slovakia region. On the base of collected data it can be concluded, that evaluated population is presented by high values of lignans intake and particularly secoisolariciresinol, mainly caused by relative high proportion of cereals and linseed in the diet. Furthermore, the relationship between phytoestrogens intake and eating habits as well as its contribution in protection against selected diseases was demonstrated. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  4. Genotypic Characterization of Coagulase-negative Staphylococci Isolated from Sheep Milk in Slovakia

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    Ivana Pilipčincová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto very few reports are available presenting identification and molecular characterization of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS from sheep milk in the subclinical stage of mastitis. Furthermore, very scanty data are available on the epidemiological status of CNS in different Slovak provinces. Milk samples from 54 sheep farms located in eastern Slovak region were screened. A total 240 CNS were identified with series of biochemical testes (STAPH-API and subjected further for genotyping with the help of pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The most frequently occurring CNS species according the biochemical characterization were: S. epidermidis (36.3 %, S. caprae (21.3 %, S. hominis (6.6 %, S. chromogenes (6.3 %, S. xylosus (5.8 %, S. warneri (5.0 % and S. capitis (4.6 %. Further PFGE-based characterization of these isolates revealed six pulsotypes of the S. epidermidis, two of S. caprae, three of S. chromogenes, nine of S. hominis, five of S. capitis and seven of S. xylosus. These results contribute to knowledge of the epidemiological situation of the CNS from the subclinical form of mastitis in Slovakia.

  5. OCCURENCE OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT OF WHEAT IN SLOVAKIA UNDER THE NATURAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Hudec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Fusarium head blight FHB was documented during two consecutive years in June 2011 2012 under the natural conditions in winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. Observations were conducted at six different localities in four climatic regions in Slovakia. Incidence and severity of FHB were evaluated at the end of flowering stage in three replications. Each replication contained 100 spikes. These data served as a basis for FHB index calculations. Obtained FHB index values indicated that the environmental conditions of the year 2011 were more favourable to the development of FHB infection. Higher FHB index values were reached at localities with precipitation higher than 100% of long-term average. Although significantly higher incidence of heads with FHB symptoms was recorded in climatic region 02 quite warm, dry, hilly, correlation between the climatic regions was not confirmed. Except of the climatic conditions, the FHB development can be influenced by nitrogen application. The highest levels of FHB index was in coincidence with the highest and the lowest nitrogen rates applied. In all other cases, the effect of the mineral nutrition on head blight attack was unclear. Analyses of nitrogen forms applied revealed that nitrogen forms had no impact on FHB index value.

  6. Potential for recycling of slightly radioactive metals arising from decommissioning within nuclear sector in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncir, Tomas; Strazovec, Roman; Zachar, Matej

    2017-09-07

    The decommissioning of nuclear installations represents a complex process resulting in the generation of large amounts of waste materials containing various concentrations of radionuclides. Selection of an appropriate strategy of management of the mentioned materials strongly influences the effectiveness of decommissioning process keeping in mind safety, financial and other relevant aspects. In line with international incentives for optimization of radioactive material management, concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are widely discussed and applications of these concepts are analysed. Recycling of some portion of these materials within nuclear sector (e.g. scrap metals or concrete rubble) seems to be highly desirable from economical point of view and may lead to conserve some disposal capacity. However, detailed safety assessment along with cost/benefit calculations and feasibility study should be developed in order to prove the safety, practicality and cost effectiveness of possible recycling scenarios. Paper discussed the potential for recycling of slightly radioactive metals arising from decommissioning of NPPs within nuclear sector in Slovakia. Various available recycling scenarios are introduced and method for overall assessment of various recycling scenarios is outlined including the preliminary assessment of safety and financial aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MINERALS, MICROELEMENTS AND POLYPHENOLS CONTENT IN THE SOYBEAN VARIETIES GROWN IN DIFFERENT LOCALITIES OF SLOVAKIA

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    Mária Timoracká

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the grown locality on minerals and risky metal intake from the soil and on polyphenols formation in the soybean seeds. The research was realised in five localities of Slovakia using the seven soybean varieties. From the point of the soil hygiene, all determined values of heavy metals content in soils were lower than given hygienic limits, with the exception of Cd. Minerals and heavy metals contents in the soybean samples show significant differences between cultivars and localities. The values show imbalance between the potassium contents and other minerals. The order of the elements levels was determined as following: Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr ≈ Co > Cd. The risky elements contents, with exception of Cd, Cu, Pb and Ni content (only in some localities, did not exceed a limit for legumes by Food Codex SR. The total polyphenols content ranged from 817.6 to 1281.0 μg eq. tannic acid/g and suggest the variety dependence, but the locality influence was not significantly confirmed.

  8. The Flat Tax in Central Europe: Slovakia and the Czech Republic in Comparative Perspective

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    Joseph Michael Ellis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Why and how have Slovakia and the Czech Republic adopted flat tax policies? That is what this paper answers. This is a curious development given that flat tax policies were noticeably absent from the landscape of most of the world, including Eastern Europe. I argue that two simultaneous processes occur that make adoption viable.  First, at the domestic level, the idea of the flat tax is held in esteem by a number of actors, specifically: elite carriers, tax and financial ministers, think tanks and right-wing political parties. They champion this idea to its adoption, or at the least, introduce the flat tax into the policy-making apparatus. Second, at the international level, policy diffusion of the flat tax takes place. In other words, the experience of previous adopters impacts the decisions of future adopters. Examining both cognitive heuristics theory and rational learning I argue that there are “varieties of diffusion” during the diffusion of the flat tax.

  9. MONITORING OF A GLUTEN CONTENT IN SELECTED MEAT PRODUCTS FROM THREE BIGGEST MEAT PRODUCERS IN SLOVAKIA

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    Ladislav Staruch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on a monitoring of a gluten content in selected meat products from three biggest and most popular meat producers in Slovakia. Gluten is a type of protein complex which is typical naturally presented component of wheat, barley and rye. Flour from this sources with natural gluten content is also added into the some type of meat products and other foodstuffs for a technological reasons hand in hand with economic reasons.  Some of the gluten quantities could be hazardous for sensitive people as celiatics and allergic to gluten. Within the context of this reasons there is a need to control the amounts of this hidden type of gluten inclusive of spice mixes using in a meat production. Monitoring by itself was realized with a use of the sandwich ELISA RIDASCREEN® Fast Gliadin test. ELISA means enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. It is based on a specific reaction among the enzyme and antigen leading to a creation of a complex.  This test provides us exact quantitification of a gluten content in this type of food products using a colorimetric reaction of a complex by observing of all fundamentals of this technique. There were analysed 16 meat products and 5 types of spice mixes in total.doi:10.5219/167

  10. Heat waves according to warm spell duration index in Slovakia during 1901-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochníček, Oliver; Faško, Pavel; Markovič, Ladislav

    2017-04-01

    A heat wave is a prolonged period of extremely high temperatures for a particular region. However, there exist no universal definitions for a heat wave as it is relative to a specific area and to a certain time of year. In fact, average temperatures in one region may be considered heat wave conditions in another. For instance, an average day in the Mediterranean would be regarded as heat wave conditions in Northern Europe. We have known that World Meteorological Organization definition of a heatwave which is "when the daily maximum temperature of more than five consecutive days exceeds the average maximum temperature by 5 °C, the normal period being 1961-1990". This rule has been accepted in contribution Heat waves and warm periods in Slovakia (Oliver Bochníček - Pavol Fa\\vsko - Ladislav Markovič) published (presented) in EGU 2016. To move on we have tried another criterion for heat waves evaluation (according to warm spell duration index, WSDI) and period since 1901 (1951) to 2016. Important for many sectors (hydrology, agriculture, transportation and tourism) is, that heat waves have been expected during the whole year and period, that is why it can have various impacts. Heat waves occurrence gave us interesting results especially after the 1990.

  11. The health status of the population neighbouring the nuclear power plants in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letkovicova, M.; Letkovicova, H.; Branislav Mihaly, B.; Stehlikova, B.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to ascertain the actual state of the indicators of health in individual villages within the area under investigation, to ascertain the trend of the development of indicators in the area surrounding the nuclear power plant included in the study, to find whether the occurrence of an indicator is accidental or whether it is determined in the village, make a comparison with another area and with the situation in the Slovak Republic as a whole and, consequently, to determine possible influence of the Power Plant on the indicator's value. It is concluded, that objective and comprehensive evaluation of the health of the population of Slovakia is possible. Enough solid and reliable proofs are available to justify the conclusion that, regardless of the length of the power plants' operation, no unfavourable impacts on human health on their territory have been detected even by the most sophisticated research carried out by a large, multidisciplinary team of researchers from various fields of science

  12. Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility in companies of Eastern Slovakia region in 2009 and 2010

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    Iveta Ubrežiová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the perception of Corporate Social Responsibility in companies of Eastern Slovakia region in 2009 and 2010. It aims to evaluate the survey performed in selected companies with the aim to find answers to the research questions (concerning the rate of perception of Corporate Social Responsibility, the evaluation of using a concept in the company, the importance of engagement in this area and so on and with the assistance of selected methods for the examination. Different companies have framed different definition. Our own definition is that Corporate Social Responsibility is about how companies manage the business processes, to produce an overall positive impact on society. Holme said that Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society. Stakeholders are persons, groups or organizations that has direct or indirect stake in companies actions, objectives and policies (include creditor’s customers, directors, employees, government, owners, suppliers, unions and the community. Based on findings and a comparison of the results is made focusing on stakeholder’s area, and suggestions are offered for the improvement in areas examined.

  13. Application of analytic hierarchy process method in the evaluation of managers of industrial enterprises in Slovakia

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    Lukáš Jurík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of employees in industrial enterprises is a problem, because evaluators often make decisions based on subjective feelings. The objective approach is missing in the evaluation of employees. Objective approach during evaluation of employees can be achieved by applying the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process. We applied the method in the field of HR management in three enterprises in Slovakia. For the first time, we used the method in an enterprise in selection process of the position of HR worker, where on the basis of the criteria, we recommended the most suitable candidate for the enterprise. The second was the application of the method in the enterprise for evaluating managers, where the enterprise needed to identify qualitative differences between managers and then determine, in which fields the employees must improve. The third application was the creation of a methodology for evaluating the competencies of managers in enterprise. In the above-mentioned enterprise, there was defined a competency model, which served as a system of criteria for evaluation, and by the application of method, quality of managers was able to be expressed by the synthetic indicator.

  14. For the Game, for the Loyal Partisans: Distribution of Sport Grants in Slovakia

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    Spáč Peter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of resources is at the core of politics. Although this activity is primarily economic in nature, the existing research shows that political representatives often use the allocation of public money to reward their allies at the expense of their rivals. This paper analyses a 2015 governmental programme of local sport grants in Slovakia that aimed to build sport facilities for children and young people. In order to avoid any political bias, the programme was established as a neutral mechanism with an anonymous evaluation of grant requests. The results of analysis, however, provide substantial evidence that the subsidies were given primarily to towns with closer political ties to the government while municipalities led by mayors from the opposition were nearly fully ignored. In addition, the presented social and economic aims of the funding programme were not effectively pursued. The paper thus represents a valuable contribution to the discussion of distributive politics, in general, as it shows that, despite the respective legal framework, the allocation of resources may still end up as a process fuelled by partisan interests.

  15. Analysis of a Uranium Oxide Sample Interdicted in Slovakia (FSC 12-3-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Lars E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Zurong [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eppich, Gary R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gaffney, Amy M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Genetti, Victoria G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grant, Patrick M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gray, Leonard W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holiday, Kiel S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hutcheon, Ian D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kayzar, Theresa M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klunder, Gregory L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knight, Kimberly B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kristo, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindvall, Rachel E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marks, Naomi E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramon, Christina E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramon, Erick C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robel, Martin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, Sarah K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schorzman, Kerri C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sharp, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, Ross W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-17

    We provide a concise summary of analyses of a natural uranium sample seized in Slovakia in November 2007. Results are presented for compound identification, water content, U assay, trace element abundances, trace organic compounds, isotope compositions for U, Pb, Sr and O, and age determination using the 234U – 230Th and 235U – 231Pa chronometers. The sample is a mixture of two common uranium compounds - schoepite and uraninite. The uranium isotope composition is indistinguishable from natural; 236U was not detected. The O, Sr and Pb isotope compositions and trace element abundances are unremarkable. The 234U – 230Th chronometer gives an age of 15.5 years relative to the date of analysis, indicating the sample was produced in January 1997. A comparison of the data for this sample with data in the Uranium Sourcing database failed to find a match, indicating the sample was not produced at a facility represented in the database.

  16. WHAT IS BEHIND BIASED TECHNICAL CHANGE IN PRODUCTION OF CEREAL AND OILSEED CROPS IN SLOVAKIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter FANDEL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the productivity change in the production of cereal and oilseed crops in Slovakia with special emphasis on technical change analysis. It employs a non-parametric distance function approach to measure Malmquist productivity index which is decomposed into technical efficiency change and technical change. Technical change is further decomposed into technical change magnitude and input- and output-bias indices. The productivity change components provide more detailed information about character of productivity change itself and its sources. Our results indicate that productivity in the analysed sector decreased approximately by 20% within the examined period of 1998-2007. The decrease was caused mostly by worsening the technical change (-41,6%. Indices of input- and output bias of technical change were various from unity what suggests that technical change was not Hicks’- neutral. Results of further analysis of the direction of technical change bias indicate that farms in average tend to apply fertilizers-using/seed-saving, seed-using/labour-saving, and fertilizers-using/labour-saving technical change bias over the whole sample period, as well as in the EU pre-accession and EU post-accession periods.

  17. Sustainable Global Competitiveness Model as a New Strategic Opportunity for the Companies in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šnircová Jana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with global competitiveness is nowadays the strategic issue for the Slovak companies in context of sustainability. It means for managers of company to define new future strategic goals, to identify current position in global market, primarily to focus the strategy on sustainable global competitiveness and to assess the competitiveness in new way regarding sustainability and social corporate responsibility. The aim of this paper is to present the contribution to holistic micro and macro economical view on competitiveness of company in context of sustainable development in global environment. The introduced sustainable global competitiveness model is based on our experiences within the research in manufacturing companies in Slovakia. It is a visualization of enterprise as a system with all relation performing in its environment. Sustainable global competitiveness model comprises the three pillar principle of the sustainable development, modified Porter´s value chain, and economical environment represented with Global Competitiveness Index (GCI and other factors of environment which influence the company.

  18. Case study of a severe windstorm over Slovakia and Hungary on 25 June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, André; Kaňák, Ján; Sokol, Alois; Putsay, Mária; Uhrínová, Lucia; Csirmaz, Kálmán; Okon, Ľuboslav; Habrovský, Richard

    2011-06-01

    A system of thunderstorms approached the Slovakia and Hungary in the late evening hours of 25 June 2008, causing extensive damage and peak wind gusts up to 40 m/s. This study examines the macro- and mesosynoptic conditions for the windstorm using soundings, analyses, and forecasts of numerical models (ALADIN, ECMWF). A derecho-like character of the event is discussed. Meteosat Second Generation imagery and convective indices inferred from satellite and model data are used to assess the humidity distribution and the conditional instability of the thunderstorm environment. An intrusion of the environmental dry air into the convective system and intensification of downdrafts is considered to be one of the reasons for the damaging winds observed at some areas. This is supported by the radar imagery showing a sudden drop of radar reflectivity and creation of line echo wave patterns and bow echoes. A numerical simulation provided by the non-hydrostatic MM5 model indicated the development of meso-γ scale vortices embedded in the convective system. The genesis and a possible role of such vortices in creating rear-inflow jets and intensifying the low level winds are investigated with the help of the vorticity equation and several other diagnostic parameters. In addition, the effect of various physical parameterisations on the forecast of the windstorm is evaluated.

  19. [Comparative studies on the toxicity of various dieelectrics, kerosene derivatives, used in the electroerosion technic. I. Morphological, cytoenzymatic and biochemical changes in the liver of rats chronically exposed to kerosene hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, A; Kamiński, M

    1982-01-01

    Rats exposed to cosmetic kerosene mists (odourless kerosene), concentration of 75 and 300 mg/m3 for 14 days, underwent morphological and cytoenzymatic liver tests and biochemical tests of lipids composition in this organ. In addition, lipids concentration and activity of test--enzymes in blood serum were determined. The findings were: passive congestion, fine--droplet fatty degeneration in I zones of clusters and increased number of Browicz--Kupffer's phagocytes near liver triads. Those changes were accompanied by: decreased activity of succinic dehydrogenese (SDH), tetrazolic NADPH--reductase (NADPH-r.t.) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P-ase) and increased activity of adenosine triphosphatase (Mg++-ATP-ase) and acid phosphatase (AcP). In blood serum medium increase of base phosphatase (AP), 5-nucleotidase (5-Nt) and leucyloaminepeptidase (LAP) and decreased activity of prothrombin (Pt) were found. In addition, it was demonstrated that liver steatosis was characterized by cumulation of free fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol esters with simultaneous decrease in triglycerides content in this organ. The obtained results indicate that changes induced by kerosene hydrocarbons in liver are focal and cumulate in I zones of liver clusters. The degree of lesion varies with the extent of exposure, and results from toxic effects of this preparation on hepatic cells lypoproteid membranes.

  20. Hepatic Proteomic Responses in Marine Medaka ( Oryzias melastigma ) Chronically Exposed to Antifouling Compound Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] or 4,5-Dichloro-2- N -Octyl-4-Isothiazolin-3-One (DCOIT)

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo

    2015-02-03

    The pollution of antifoulant SeaNine 211, with 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) as active ingredient, in coastal environment raises concerns on its adverse effects, including endocrine disruption and impairment of reproductive function in marine organisms. In the present study, we investigated the hepatic protein expression profiles of both male and female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to low concentrations of DCOIT at 2.55 mu g/L (0.009 mu M) or butenolide, a promising antifouling agent, at 2.31 mu g/L (0.012 mu M) for 28 days. The results showed that proteins involved in phase I (CYP450 enzyme) metabolism, phase II (UDPGT and GST) conjugation as well as mobilization of retinoid storage, an effective nonenzymatic antioxidant, were consistently up-regulated, possibly facilitating the accelerated detoxification of butenolide. Increased synthesis of bile acid would promote the immediate excretion of butenolide metabolites. Activation of fatty acid beta-oxidation and ATP synthesis were consistent with elevated energy consumption for butenolide degradation and excretion. However, DCOIT did not significantly affect the detoxification system of male medaka, but induced a marked increase of vitellogenin (VTG) by 2.3-fold in the liver of male medaka, suggesting that there is estrogenic activity of DCOIT in endocrine disruption. Overall, this study identified the molecular mechanisms and provided sensitive biomarkers characteristic of butenolide and DCOIT in the liver of marine medaka. The low concentrations of butenolide and DCOIT used in the exposure regimes highlight the needs for systematic evaluation of their environmental risk. In addition, the potent estrogenic activity of DCOIT should be considered in the continued applications of SeaNine 211.

  1. THE PRESENT STATE OF THE KNOWLEDGE AND THE STUDY OF HISTORY OF THE GEOLOGICAL, MINERALOGICAL AND DEPOSIT ORIENTED RESEARCH IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herčko Ivan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Slovakia, with its interesting geological structure and many various ore deposits and minerals, has been the centre of the scientific interest both of domestic extensiv get geologists foreign. It is not only chance that there were preserved hundreds short as well as various studies from this region dealing with different subjects and specific problems. The slovak historiography has not evaluated them properly untill now. The first step was done only recently. The aim of the article is to offer a detailed summary of present study of sthe developing views and investigationd of some practical questions in the geological research in Slovakia. The present literature, related to the problems of the history of the geological, mineralogical and deposit research is very modest compared with how the other scientifical literature was presenting the different field of the natural science in Slovakia, especially the historiography of the geological science is still far behind.

  2. Response of surface and groundwater on meteorological drought in Topla River catchment, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Vrablikova, Dana; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Slivova, Valeria; Horvat, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Continuously increasing number of drought studies published in scientific journals reflects the attention of the scientific community paid to drought. The fundamental works among many others were published by Yevjevich (1967), Zelenhasic and Salvai (1987), later by Tallaksen and van Lanen Eds. (2004). The aim of the paper was to analyze the response of surface and groundwater to meteorological drought occurrence in the upper and middle part of the Topla River Basin, Slovakia. This catchment belongs to catchments with unfavourable hydrogeological conditions, being built of rocks with quite low permeability. The basin is located in the north-eastern part of Slovakia covering the area of 1050.05 km2. The response was analyzed using precipitation data from the Bardejov station (long-term annual average of 662 mm in 1981 - 2012) and discharge data from two gauging stations - Bardejov and Hanusovce nad Toplou. Data on groundwater head from eight observation wells, located in the catchment, were also used, covering the same observation period. Meteorological drought was estimated using characterisation of the year humidity and SPI index. Hydrological drought was evaluated using the threshold level method and method of sequent peak algorithm, both with the fixed and also variable thresholds. The centroid method of the cluster analysis with the squared Euclidean distance was used for clustering data according to occurrence of drought periods, lasting for 100 days and more. Results of the SPI index showed very good applicability for drought periods identification in the basin. The most pronounced dry periods occurred in 1982 - 1983, 1984, 1998 and 2012 being classified as moderately dry, and also in 1993 - 1994, 2003 - 2004 and 2007 evolving from moderately to severely dry years. Short-term drought prevailed in discharges, only three periods of drought longer than 100 days occurred during the evaluated period in 1986 - 1987, 1997 and 2003 - 2004. Discharge drought in the

  3. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Rudolf, Ivo; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Mendel, Jan; Blažejová, Hana; Berthová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schnittger, Leonhard; Kazimírová, Mária

    2016-10-01

    By amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments, Hepatozoon spp. DNA was detected in 0.08 % (4/5057) and 0.04 % (1/2473) of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Slovakia and Czech Republic, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. DNA was also detected in spleen and/or lungs of 4.45 % (27/606) of rodents from Slovakia. Prevalence of infection was significantly higher in Myodes glareolus (11.45 %) than in Apodemus spp. (0.28 %) (P Hepatozoon spp. gene amplicons from I. ricinus showed 100 % identity with Hepatozoon canis isolates from red foxes or dogs in Europe. Phylogenetic analysis showed that at least two H. canis 18S rRNA genotypes exist in Slovakia of which one was identified also in the Czech Republic. The finding of H. canis in questing I. ricinus suggests the geographical spread of the parasite and a potential role of other ticks as its vectors in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is not endemic. Sequencing of 18S rRNA gene amplicons from M. glareolus revealed the presence of two closely related genetic variants, Hepatozoon sp. SK1 and Hepatozoon sp. SK2, showing 99-100 % identity with isolates from M. glareolus from other European countries. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that 18S rRNA variants SK1 and SK2 correspond to previously described genotypes UR1 and UR2 of H. erhardovae, respectively. The isolate from Apodemus flavicollis (Hepatozoon sp. SK3b) was 99 % identical with isolates from reptiles in Africa and Asia. Further studies are necessary to identify the taxonomic status of Hepatozoon spp. parasitizing rodents in Europe and the host-parasite interactions in natural foci.

  4. Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia - the life's work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoba, J; Racova, K; Urbankova, H; Srbecky, M

    2016-01-01

    Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991-95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 - October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women. Iodine intake was found to be sufficient, even more than adequate, in all age groups of Slovak population. The only population group with iodine intake borderline or very mild iodine deficiency are pregnant women. 1/ Iodine nutrition in Slovakia is generally sufficient, even oversteps the requirement, with the exception of pregnant women. Iodine intake in pregnant women should be fortified by iodine containing multivitamin preparations. 2/ We recommend to include the examination of urinary iodine into the screening of thyropathies in early pregnancy. 3/ It is not enough to implement the iodine deficiency-related disorders prevention programs, it is also necessary to stabilize such programs over time and balance the benefits with possible side effects of this program.

  5. QUALITY AND SAFETY OF RAW COW’S MILK IN SLOVAKIA IN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čurlej

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality and safety of raw cow’s milk is very important for dairy companies and consumers of milk products. Due to the methods of production, it is impossible to completely eliminate contamination of milk with microorganisms, therefore the microbial content of milk is a major feature in determining its quality. Other important factors to consider include somatic cells count, veterinary drug residues, milk composition and freezing point. Somatic cells represent the udder health and can be used for monitoring of subclinical mastitis. A high level of somatic cells can increase proteolysis in milk which affects technological processes. Veterinary drugs administered to cows may lead to residues in the milk which are harmful to humans. The content of fat, protein and solids-non-fat are the main indicators used by dairies for technological purposes. In this article we discuss the quality and safety of raw cow’s milk in Slovakia during 2011. We found that 73.53% of samples tested for somatic cell count, and 84.54% of samples tested for total bacterial count, met the European Union legislation limits. We found the largest decrease in fat and protein content was during the summer period and the largest increase was in the winter period. We found that 92.14 %, 98.7% and 91.38% of samples met the limit presented in STN 570529:1999 for fat content, protein content and freezing point respectively. The percentage of drug positive samples was 0.087%.doi:10.5219/189

  6. Prevalence and Trends of Metabolic Syndrome in Slovakia during the Period of 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrihoňová, Tímea; Rimárová, Kvetoslava; Bérešová, Janka; Kontrošová, Silvia; Dorko, Erik; Diabelková, Jana

    2017-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a combination of clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as for diabetes. Metabolic syndrome arises from insulin resistance accompanied with abnormal adipose deposition. The aim of our cross-sectional time trends study was to characterize the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its five risk determinants among the clients of Health Advice Centres of Regional Public Health Authorities in Slovakia. The study was stratified by gender and age groups during the 10 year period from 2003–2012. Prevalence data were estimated in adults and children (≥10 years, N=79,904) from the nationwide electronic database of Health Advice Centres of Regional Public Health Authorities in Slovak Republic "Test of healthy heart" from 2003 to 2012. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 30.2% in males and 26.6% in females, abdominal obesity was confirmed in 48.3% of males and 53.9% of females. Increased triglyceride level has higher prevalence among males (33.3%) compared to females (24.2%). Blood pressure (BP) values and fasting glucose values were significantly higher in males (58.2%) than females (41.9%). During the 10 year period from 2003 to 2012, we confirmed an increased trend in the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Abdominal obesity and elevated triglycerides had also increased time trends prevalence in both sexes. The prevalence of people without risk determinants of metabolic syndrome had a time decreasing trend. A surprising finding is a decrease in the proportion of persons with suboptimal HDL-cholesterol. The proportion of people with elevated BP and glucose showed little change during the reporting period. The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, and elevated triglycerides highlights the urgency of addressing these health problems as a healthcare priority to reduce cardiovascular mortality in the Slovak Republic. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  7. Implementing the legal provisions for HIA in Slovakia: an exploration of practitioner perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is an instrument used in many countries across the world to assess and report on negative and positive health impacts of projects, programmes and policies. It was included in the Protection, Support and Development of Public Health Act (355/2007) of the Slovak Republic in 2007, thus legislating for HIA. Due to this novel move to legislate for HIA, exploratory research was conducted in order to inquire into the perceptions of key informants and practitioners of the upcoming enforcement of the HIA part of legislation (to take place from January 2011). This paper presents results from the survey of practitioners in the Slovak Regional Public Health Authorities. A postal questionnaire was administered to the Heads of Environmental Health Departments of the 37 Regional Public Health Authorities. Open-ended questions were contained in the survey. The response rate was 38%. Results show that a number of respondents are uncertain as to how HIA would be implemented in practice, with varying views on the technical and institutional barriers to comprehensive implementation of HIA. Although the public hygiene and sanitation networks in the public health system in Slovakia operate smoothly, the readiness of the public health infrastructure for HIA, which is based broadly on the social model of health, is dubious. Although HIA is contained within legislation, time will tell whether its implementation in practice will be as comprehensive as is hoped. Recommendations for further integration of HIA into the public health system include further training and education, national HIA resource centres and cross-country support. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Extensometric observation of Earth tides and local tectonic processes at the Vyhne station, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimich, Ladislav; Bednárik, Martin; Bezák, Vladimír; Kohút, Igor; Bán, Dóra; Eper-Pápai, Ildikó; Mentes, Gyula

    2016-06-01

    The Vyhne Tidal Station of the Earth Science Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences is located in the former mining gallery of St. Anthony of Padua in the Vyhne valley, Štiavnické vrchy Mts., Central Slovakia. It is equipped with a 20.5 metre long quartz-tube extensometer measuring Earth's tides, and long-term tectonic deformations of the Earth's crust. Data between 2001 and 2015 with some diverse gaps were digitally collected, processed and analysed. The effects of the local conditions, such as structure of the observatory, cavity effect, topography and geological features of the surrounding rocks, were investigated in detail and these effects were taken into consideration during the interpretation of the results of the data analysis. Tidal analysis of the extensometric data between 2005 and 2015 revealed that the measured tidal amplitudes are close to the theoretical values. The tidal transfer of the observatory was also investigated by coherence analysis between the theoretical and the measured extensometric data. The coherence is better than 0.9 both in the diurnal and semidiurnal band. The effect of the free core nutation resonance was also investigated in the case of the K1 and P1 tidal components. Since the K1/O1 ratio was about the theoretical value 0.8, than the P1/O1 was between 1.0 and 1.15 instead of the theoretical value of 0.9. The rate of the long-term strain rate was also investigated and the obtained -0.05 μstr/y shows a good agreement with the strain rate inferred from GPS measurements in the Central European GPS Reference Network.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH IN ROMA VILLAGES IN SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Coman, Alexandru; Gallová, Eva; Ďuricová, Janka; Kállayová, Daniela; Kvaková, Mária; Bošák, Ľuboš

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The objective of this paper is to provide information on indoor air quality and on the quality of the broader indoor environment of the houses in Roma villages in Slovakia and Romania and to discuss possible implications for health. Methods Indoor air was sampled in 11 houses in a Romanian Roma village and in 19 houses in a Slovakian Roma village. Levels of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), total particulate matter (PM), temperature and humidity were measured. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to obtain additional information on the indoor environment and behavioural factors. We have sampled the same houses in winter and in summer. Results Levels of CO and CO2 were higher in winter in both countries as compared to summer. The limit value of 10 mg/m3 CO was exceeded in a few cases in both countries. In general, levels of CO, CO2 and PM were higher in Romania. Further environmental and behavioural hazards such as indoor smoking, pets inside or lack of ventilation were found. The reported self-perceived quality of the indoor environment was poor in many aspects. Conclusions Our findings of CO, CO2 and PM levels suggest that indoor air pollution in Roma settlements has the potential to be a health threat. The fact that the inhabitants spend a relatively long time inside the houses and that a number of additional environmental and behavioural hazards were identified by our study emphasizes the importance of the indoor air quality for health and thus priority attention should be paid to these issues by health authorities and researchers. Further research is essential and study designs must consider cultural background and specific characteristics of the community, especially in order to obtain valid data on health outcomes. PMID:23285520

  10. Incidence of trichothecenes and zearalenone in poultry feed mixtures from Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, Roman; Parich, Alexandra; Berthiller, Franz; Tancinová, Dana

    2005-11-15

    A total of 50 samples of poultry feed mixtures of Slovakian origin were analyzed for eight toxicologically significant Fusarium mycotoxins, namely zearalenone (ZON), A-trichothecenes: diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and B-trichothecenes: deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV). The A-trichothecenes and the B-trichothecenes were detected by means of high pressure liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD), respectively. Reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (RP-HPLC-FLD) was used for ZON detection. The most frequent mycotoxin detected was T-2, which was found in 45 samples (90%) in relatively low concentrations ranging from 1 to 130 microg kg(-1) (average 13 microg kg(-1)), followed by ZON that was found in 44 samples (88%) in concentrations ranging from 3 to 86 microg kg(-1) (average 21 microg kg(-1)). HT-2 and DON were detected in 38 (76%) and 28 (56%) samples, respectively, in concentrations of 2 to 173 (average 18 microg kg(-1)) for HT-2 and 64 to 1230 microg kg(-1) sample (average 303 microg kg(-1)) for DON. The acetyl-derivatives of DON were in just four samples, while NIV was not detected in any of the samples investigated. In as many as 22 samples (44%), a combination of four simultaneously co-occurring mycotoxins, i.e. T-2, HT-2, ZON and DON, was revealed. Despite the limited number of samples investigated during this study poultry feed mixtures may represent a risk from a toxicological point of view and should be regarded as a potential source of the Fusarium mycotoxins in Central Europe. This is the first reported study dealing with zearalenone and trichothecene contamination of poultry mixed feeds from Slovakia.

  11. The evaluation of mercury in honey bees and their products from eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are a major source of environmental pollution, and have a significant impact on ecological quality of the environment. The human activity affects the environment so there is a high risk of metal accumulation. Heavy metals contaminate not only the environment but accumulate in the human body, from which it is difficult to degrade them. The long tradition of beekeeping in the world