Sample records for slope expedited response

  1. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi 2 (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives

  2. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  3. Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006 - Office of Ocean Exploration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006" expedition, May 7 through June 2, 2006. Additional...

  4. Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007" expedition, June 4 through July 6, 2007. Additional...

  5. Submersible Data (Dive Trackpoints) for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the ROV Jason along its track during sixteen dives of the 2007 "Expedition to the Deep Slope" expedition sponsored by the National...

  6. Overpressure, Flow Focusing, Compaction and Slope Stability on the continental slope: Insights from IODP Expedition 308 (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.


    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expepedition 308 used direct measurements of pore pressure, analysis of hydromechanical properties, and geological analysis to illuminate how sedimentation, flow focusing, overpressure, and slope stability couple beneath the seafloor on the deepwater continental slope in the Gulf of Mexico. We used pore pressure penetrometers to measure severe overpressures (60% of the difference between lithostatic stress and hydrostatic pressure) that extend from the seafloor for 100’s of meters. We ran uniaxial consolidation experiments on whole core and found that although permeability is relatively high near the seafloor, the sediments are highly compressible. As a result, the coefficient of consolidation (the hydraulic diffusivity) is remarkably constant over a large range of effective stresses. This behavior accounts for the high overpressure that begins near the seafloor and extends to depth. Forward modeling suggests that flow is driven laterally along a permeable unit called the Blue Unit. Calculations suggest that soon after deposition, lateral flow lowered the effective stress and triggered the submarine landslides that we observe. Later in the evolution of this system, overpressure may have pre-conditioned the slope to failure by earthquakes. Results from IODP Expedition 308 illustrate how pore pressure and sedimentation control the large-scale form of continental margins, how submarine landslides form, and provide strategies for designing stable drilling programs.

  7. Riverland expedited response action proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Riverland Railroad Car Wash Pit and the 600 Area Army Munitions Burial Site. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA proposal will undergo reviews by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE, EPA, Ecology, and the public. Ecology and EPA will issue an Action Agreement Memorandum after resolution of all review comments. The, memorandum will authorize remediation activities. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-1 Operable Unit. A No Action Record of Decision may be issued after cleanup completion

  8. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin


    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  9. Wildlife response on the Alaska North Slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanzo, D.; McKenzie, B.


    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive plan to deal with potentially oiled wildlife on the Alaskan North Slope, a multifaceted wildlife protection strategy was developed and implemented during 1991. The strategy incorporated all aspects of wildlife response including protection of critical habitat, hazing, capture and stabilization, long term rehabilitation, and release. The primary wildlife response strategy emphasizes controlling of the release and spreading of spilled oil at the source to prevent or reduce contamination of potentially affected species and/or their habitat. A secondary response strategy concentrates on keeping potentially affected wildlife away from an oiled area through the use of deterrent techniques. Tertiary response involves the capture and treatment of oiled wildlife. Implementation of the strategy included the development of specialized training, the procurement of equipment, and the construction of a bird stabilization center. The result of this initiative is a comprehensive wildlife response capability on the Alaskan North Slope. 1 ref., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  11. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  12. Quality Assurance Plan, N springs expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.J.


    This document is the Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) to be followed during the definitive design, construction, and operational phases for activities associated with the N Springs Expedited Response Action (ERA) for the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit (OU). Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) will comply with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance (DOE 1989), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), EPA/530-SW-86-031, Technical Guidance Document: Construction Quality Assurance for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Facilities (EPA 1986)

  13. Slide Activity along the eastern slope of the Gela Basin (offshore Sicily): First results from expedition MSM-15/3 (United States)

    Huhn, K.; Strasser, M.; Freudenthal, T.; Foglini, F.; Trincardi, F.; Minisini, D.; Msm15/3 Working Group


    Submarine slides occur at all sediment bearing margins worldwide (Camerlenghi et al., 2009; Masson et al., 2006). Although numerous studies have dealt with mapping and monitoring of submarine landslide as well as investigations of trigger mechanisms and sediment failure processes, many open questions persist why a given slope fails whereas adjacent remains stable. Besides large slide events, smaller scaled mid-size slides became recently of particular importance because especially these local slides enable investigation of physical and kinematical processes during failure and to test a wide range of different trigger mechanisms. Hence, during the research expedition MSM15/3 we drilled two distinct landslides in the Gela Basin offshore south of Sicily (Italy) utilizing the MARUM sea floor drill rig (MeBo). These so-called ‘Twin Slides’ have previously been identified in water depth between 200 - 800m on the basis of side-scan sonar, Chirp seismics, swath bathymetry and shallow core data. Besides, these landslides are described as multiple failures likely controlled by specific stratigraphic surfaces acting as glide planes (Minisini et al., 2007; Minisini and Trincardi, 2009). Nevertheless, failure planes are located in depth inaccessible by conventional coring and we therefore lack groundtruthing of the geophysical data. Therefore, MeBo was deployed to drill e.g. critical subsurface intervals. A systematic MeBo drilling transect from the undisturbed slope apron to the depositional area of these landslide masses recovers up to 55 meter long cores, including the failure planes and stacked mass transport deposits in the proximal and distal areas, respectively. Sedimentological, geochemical, geophysical and geotechnical analysis of these core materials will enable (1) an age dating and estimation of the recurrence rate of mid-sized slide events and (2) a sediment physical characterization to gain a deeper insight into kinematics and physical processes during failure

  14. N Springs expedited response action performance monitoring plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Groundwater contained in the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit is contaminated with various radionuclides derived from waste water disposal practices and spills associated with 100-N Reactor operations. Of primary concern is the presence of high levels of 90 Sr in the groundwater and the discharge of 90 Sr-contaminated groundwater to the nearby Columbia River through historic river bank seeps known as ''N Springs.'' A pump-and-treat system is being installed to remove 90 Sr contamination from the groundwater as part of the N Springs expedited response action (ERA). The groundwater extraction system will consist of four extraction and two injection wells with a proposed initial treatment capacity of 50 gal/min. The proposed location of the groundwater extraction system relative to the 90 Sr groundwater plume is presented

  15. Study on the response of unsaturated soil slope based on the effects of rainfall intensity and slope angle (United States)

    Ismail, Mohd Ashraf Mohamad; Hamzah, Nur Hasliza


    Rainfall has been considered as the major cause of the slope failure. The mechanism leading to slope failures included the infiltration process, surface runoff, volumetric water content and pore-water pressure of the soil. This paper describes a study in which simulated rainfall events were used with 2-dimensional soil column to study the response of unsaturated soil behavior based on different slope angle. The 2-dimensional soil column is used in order to demonstrate the mechanism of the slope failure. These unsaturated soil were tested with four different slope (15°, 25°, 35° and 45°) and subjected to three different rainfall intensities (maximum, mean and minimum). The following key results were obtained: (1) the stability of unsaturated soil decrease as the rainwater infiltrates into the soil. Soil that initially in unsaturated state will start to reach saturated state when rainwater seeps into the soil. Infiltration of rainwater will reduce the matric suction in the soil. Matric suction acts in controlling soil shear strength. Reduction in matric suction affects the decrease in effective normal stress, which in turn diminishes the available shear strength to a point where equilibrium can no longer be sustained in the slope. (2) The infiltration rate of rainwater decreases while surface runoff increase when the soil nearly achieve saturated state. These situations cause the soil erosion and lead to slope failure. (3) The steepness of the soil is not a major factor but also contribute to slope failures. For steep slopes, rainwater that fall on the soil surface will become surface runoff within a short time compare to the water that infiltrate into the soil. While for gentle slopes, water that becomes surface runoff will move slowly and these increase the water that infiltrate into the soil.

  16. N-Springs expedited response action performance evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.B.


    Groundwater in the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit (OU) has been contaminated with various radionuclides, metals, and ionic constituents because of waste water disposal practices and spills associated with I 00-N Reactor operations. Of primary concern are the presence of high levels of strontium-90 in the groundwater and the discharge of 90 Sr contaminated groundwater to the nearby Columbia River through historic river bank seeps known as 'N-Springs'. In accordance with the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), remediation alternatives are currently being evaluated to address the hazardous substances and constituents in the soil and groundwater at the 100-NR-1/100-NR-2 OUs. Because of concern regarding the release of 90 Sr to the river, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued an action memorandum on September 23, 1994, to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), to take immediate actions consisting of a combination of a groundwater pump-and-treat system and a sheet pile barrier wall at N-Springs. By letter, dated March 23, 1995, Ecology and EPA agreed that a sheet pile construction test in December 1994 showed that the installation of the jointed hinge sheet pile wall could not be achieved in the manner specified. Ecology and EPA directed RL to proceed with the installation of the Expedited Response Action (ERA) pump-and-treat system and to (1) continue assessing accurately the flux of strontium to the river, (2) further characterize geologic and hydrologic conditions, and (3) assess design and installation alternatives related to modified barriers and expected performance

  17. Effect of Different Groundwater Levels on Seismic Dynamic Response and Failure Mode of Sandy Slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Huang

    Full Text Available Heavy seismic damage tends to occur in slopes when groundwater is present. The main objectives of this paper are to determine the dynamic response and failure mode of sandy slope subjected simultaneously to seismic forces and variable groundwater conditions. This paper applies the finite element method, which is a fast and efficient design tool in modern engineering analysis, to evaluate dynamic response of the slope subjected simultaneously to seismic forces and variable groundwater conditions. Shaking table test is conducted to analyze the failure mode and verify the accuracy of the finite element method results. The research results show that dynamic response values of the slope have different variation rules under near and far field earthquakes. And the damage location and pattern of the slope are different in varying groundwater conditions. The destruction starts at the top of the slope when the slope is in no groundwater, which shows that the slope appears obvious whipping effect under the earthquake. The destruction starts at the toe of the slope when the slope is in the high groundwater levels. Meanwhile, the top of the slope shows obvious seismic subsidence phenomenon after earthquake. Furthermore, the existence of the groundwater has a certain effect of damping.

  18. Effect of Different Groundwater Levels on Seismic Dynamic Response and Failure Mode of Sandy Slope. (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Lv, Yuejun; Peng, Yanju; Zhang, Lifang; Xiu, Liwei


    Heavy seismic damage tends to occur in slopes when groundwater is present. The main objectives of this paper are to determine the dynamic response and failure mode of sandy slope subjected simultaneously to seismic forces and variable groundwater conditions. This paper applies the finite element method, which is a fast and efficient design tool in modern engineering analysis, to evaluate dynamic response of the slope subjected simultaneously to seismic forces and variable groundwater conditions. Shaking table test is conducted to analyze the failure mode and verify the accuracy of the finite element method results. The research results show that dynamic response values of the slope have different variation rules under near and far field earthquakes. And the damage location and pattern of the slope are different in varying groundwater conditions. The destruction starts at the top of the slope when the slope is in no groundwater, which shows that the slope appears obvious whipping effect under the earthquake. The destruction starts at the toe of the slope when the slope is in the high groundwater levels. Meanwhile, the top of the slope shows obvious seismic subsidence phenomenon after earthquake. Furthermore, the existence of the groundwater has a certain effect of damping.

  19. Airway responsiveness to hypertonic saline : dose-response slope or PD15?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, G; Marks, GB; de Jongste, JC; Brunekreef, B

    The result of airway challenge test with hypertonic saline (HS) is expressed as the dose causing a 15% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; PD15). A noncensored measure, such as the dose-response slope (DRS), allows the evaluation of the risk of asthma for subjects with a fall in

  20. Potential water yield response following clearcut harvesting on north and south slopes in northern Idaho (United States)

    Richard G. Cline; Harold F. Haupt; Gaylon S. Campbell


    The hydrologic response of small clearcuts on north and south slopes in northern Idaho was investigated. On the north slope, substantial gains (27 to 35 cm) in potential water yield per year resulted from (a) removal of transpiring surfaces associated with plant cover, (b) elimination of snow interception by a closed-canopied forest, and (C) delayed reoccupation of the...

  1. The effect of shearing rate and slope angle on the simple shear response of marine clays (United States)

    Biscontin, G.; Rutherford, C.


    The response of submarine slopes to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and local tsunami hazard. Evaluation of submarine slope stability requires characterization of soil behavior and relies on the selection of appropriate parameter values. Although the traditional simple shear device has been used to investigate cyclic loading effects on marine clay, it does not allow for complex loading conditions which often contribute to the failure on submarine slopes. Understanding the interaction between the initial shear stress, the slope angle, and the multi-directional shaking due to earthquakes or storm loading is an important aspect to understanding the failure mechanisms of submarine slope failures. The initial static driving force on the slope is combined with the dynamic loading by storms and earthquakes to create complex loading paths. Therefore, the ability to apply complex stress or strain paths is important to fully study the shear response of marine clays on submarine slopes. A new multi-directional simple shear device developed at Texas A&M University allows loading along three independent axes, two perpendicular horizontal directions to allow any stress or strain paths in the horizontal plane, and a third in the vertical direction. This device is used to investigate the response of Gulf of Mexico marine deposits to different loading conditions. To study the effect of slope angle on the shear response of the soil, samples are subjected to a shear stress during consolidation, Kα consolidation. One-dimensional monotonic and cyclic shearing of Ko consolidated specimens is used to simulate level ground conditions, whereas sloping surfaces were simulated using Kα consolidation for both monotonic and cyclic tests. The effects of shearing rate on the soil response are investigated using strain controlled tests at varying frequencies.

  2. North Slope mobile technology and its application to spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabile, N.J.; Helinski, R.


    At ARCO Alaska's Prudhoe Bay operation, improved preparedness for oil spill response has been achieved by applying mobile technology according to an innovative concept. To ensure safe and efficient deployment of resources during a spill response, a rapid deployment equipment delivery system was developed. This multi-functional, modularized system was based on a previously developed chemical delivery system consisting of a primary transport truck equipped with a Dempsey Dumpster Dinosaur skid. This same modularized concept was used for spill response with the substitution of function-specific spill response vans in place of chemical transport tanks. Within this concept, skid-mounted mission-specific vans are rapidly deployed to multiple sites in a fire brigade type of response. Skid-mounted units include land and water containment, recovery, boom deployment, command center, generator skid, restroom facility, and skimmer units. 4 figs

  3. Reef response to sea-level and environmental changes during the last deglaciation. IODP Expedition 310 'Tahiti Sea Level (United States)

    Camoin, Gilbert


    The last deglaciation has been characterized by a rapid sea-level rise and coeval abrupt environmental changes. The Barbados coral reef record suggested that this period has been punctuated by two brief intervals of accelerated melting (Melt Water Pulses), occurring at 14,000 and 11,300 cal. yr. BP, superimposed on a smooth and continuous rise of sea level. Although their timing, their magnitude, or even their existence have been actively debated, those catastrophic sea-level rises are thought to have induced distinct reef drowning events. The reef response to sea-level and environmental changes during the last deglacial sea-level rise at Tahiti is reconstructed based on a chronological, sedimentological and paleobiological study of cores drilled through the relict reef features occurring on the modern fore-reef slopes during the IODP Expedition 310. Changes in the composition of coralgal assemblages coincide with abrupt variations in reef growth rates and characterize the response of the upward-growing reef pile to a non-monotonous sea-level rise and coeval environmental changes. No major break in reef development occurred between 16,000 and 10,000 cal. yr. BP. Reefs accreted mostly through aggradational processes at growth rates averaging 10 mm yr-1, thus precluding any catastrophic impact on reef development such as the temporary cessation of reef growth as it was reported in the Barbados record. An incipient drowning and a general backstepping of the reef complex have been evidenced during the 14,600-13,900 cal. yr. BP time window implying that reef growth gradually lagged behind sea-level rise.

  4. Evaluation of Sloped Bottom Tuned Liquid Damper for Reduction of Seismic Response of Tall Buildings (United States)

    Patil, G. R.; Singh, K. D.


    Due to migration of people to urban area, high land costs and use of light weight materials modern buildings tend to be taller, lighter and flexible. These buildings possess low damping. This increases the possibility of failure during earthquake ground motion and also affect the serviceability during wind vibrations. Out of many available techniques today, to reduce the response of structure under dynamic loading, Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) is a recent technique to mitigate seismic response. However TLD has been used to mitigate the wind induced structural vibrations. Flat bottom TLD gives energy back to the structure after event of dynamic loading and it is termed as beating. Beating affects the performance of TLD. Study attempts to analyze the effectiveness of sloped bottom TLD for reducing seismic vibrations of structure. Concept of equivalent flat bottom LD has been used to analyze sloped bottom TLD. Finite element method (EM) is used to model the structure and the liquid in the TLD. MATLAB code is developed to study the response of structure, the liquid sloshing in the tank and the coupled fluid-structure interaction. A ten storey two bay RC frame is analyzed for few inputs of ground motion. A sinusoidal ground motion corresponding to resonance condition with fundamental frequency of frame is analyzed. In the analysis the inherent damping of structure is not considered. Observations from the study shows that sloped bottom TLD uses less amount of liquid than flat bottom TLD. Also observed that efficiency of sloped bottom TLD can be improved if it is properly tuned.

  5. The hydrological response to precipitations of a layered shallow sloping deposit: physical experiments and mathematical modeling (United States)

    Damiano, Emilia; Greco, Roberto; Guida, Andrea; Olivares, Lucio; Picarelli, Luciano


    shallow landslides are sometimes triggered by intense and long-lasting precipitations. Several studies have already pointed out that layering may play a crucial role in the development of the infiltration process, as the coarse-grained pumice layers may behave as capillary barriers, leading to the formation of perched saturated zones. The hydrological behavior of such kind of layered slopes is investigated by means of small-scale infiltration experiments carried out in an instrumented flume in the laboratory. The interpretation of the experimental results is made with the help of a mathematical model of 2-D Richards equation, which allows shedding some light in the hydraulic properties of the pumices, which are hardly measurable with standard laboratory techniques. The obtained results show how, depending on initial moisture conditions, slope inclination angle and applied rainfall intensity, the response of the slope may be very different, and that the formation of a capillary barrier is not always observed.

  6. Reef response to sea-level and environmental changes during the last deglaciation. IODP Expedition 310 "Tahiti Sea Level". (United States)

    Camoin, G.; Seard, C.; Deschamps, P.; Webster, J.; Abbey, E.; Braga, J. C.; Durand, N.; Bard, E.; Hamelin, B.; Yokoyama, Y.


    The last deglaciation have been characterized by a rapid sea-level rise and coeval abrupt environmental changes. The Barbados coral reef record suggested that this period has been punctuated by two brief intervals of accelerated melting (Melt Water Pulses), occurring at 14,000 and 11,300 cal-yr-BP, superimposed on a smooth and continuous rise of sea level. Although the timing, the amplitude or even the realities of those periods of accelerated sea-level rise have been actively debated, those catastrophic sea-level rises are thought to have induced reef drowning events. The reef response to sea-level and environmental changes during the last deglacial sea-level rise at Tahiti is reconstructed based on a chronological, sedimentological and paleobiological study of cores drilled through the relict reef features occurring on the modern fore-reef slopes during the IODP Expedition 310. Changes in the composition of coralgal assemblages coincide with abrupt variations in reef growth rates and characterize the response of the upward-growing reef pile to a non-monotonous sea-level rise and coeval environmental changes. No major break in reef development occurred during between 16,000 and 10,000 cal-yr-BP when reefs accreted mostly through aggradational processes at growth rates averaging 10mm.yr-1, thus precluding any catastrophic impact on reef development such as the temporary cessation of reef growth as it was reported in the Barbados record. An incipient drowning and a general backstepping of the reef complex have been evidenced during the 14,600-13,900 cal-yr-BP time window implying that reef growth gradually lagged behind sea-level rise. Acknowlegments This work has been made possible thanks to the support both from the European Science Foundation (ESF) under the EUROCORES Programme EuroMARC (contract No. ERAS-CT-2003-980409 of the European Commission, DG Research, FP6) and from the CNRS-INSU through the « ECLIPSE » Programme.

  7. Expedited response action proposal (EE/CA ampersand EA) for 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The report contains the proposal for an expedited response action (ERA) for the remediation of carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. It provides the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) with information regarding the need for the ERA and an evaluation of alternatives to reduce the mobility, toxicity, and/or volume of the carbon tetrachloride in the unsaturated soils. This report is intended to aid the EPA and Ecology in selecting a preferred alternative for implementing the ERA. This proposal does not address remediation of carbon tetrachloride in the ground water underlying the 200 West Area; nor is the radioactive waste mixed with the carbon tetrachloride in the disposal site the subject of this ERA. This report has also been prepared to address the requirements for an environmental assessment (EA). The purpose of this ERA is to prevent, or at least minimize, further migration of carbon tetrachloride contamination from the unsaturated soils to uncontaminated areas. This action is needed to ensure that the environment and public health are adequately protected and to reduce the threat of further groundwater contamination. Information on the origin, nature, and extent of carbon tetrachloride (and co-contaminants), and other site characteristics used as a basis for evaluating remedial alternatives is presented

  8. Preliminary evaluation of soil-heating technologies for the 200-ZP-2 carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.J.; Todd, M.E.; Tranbarger, R.K.


    The 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The US Department of Energy has been conducting an expedited response action to treat carbon tetrachloride contamination since 1992 at the operable unit at the direction of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology. This document provides an analyses of the soil vapor extraction method used to extract carbon tetrachloride from the soil

  9. Uniform shrub growth response to June temperature across the North Slope of Alaska (United States)

    Ackerman, Daniel E.; Griffin, Daniel; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Popham, Kelly; Jones, Erin; Finlay, Jacques C.


    The expansion of woody shrubs in arctic tundra alters many aspects of high-latitude ecosystems, including carbon cycling and wildlife habitat. Dendroecology, the study of annual growth increments in woody plants, has shown promise in revealing how climate and environmental conditions interact with shrub growth to affect these key ecosystem properties. However, a predictive understanding of how shrub growth response to climate varies across the heterogeneous landscape remains elusive. Here we use individual-based mixed effects modeling to analyze 19 624 annual growth ring measurements in the stems of Salix pulchra (Cham.), a rapidly expanding deciduous shrub. Stem samples were collected at six sites throughout the North Slope of Alaska. Sites spanned four landscapes that varied in time since glaciation and hence in soil properties, such as nutrient availability, that we expected would modulate shrub growth response to climate. Ring growth was remarkably coherent among sites and responded positively to mean June temperature. The strength of this climate response varied slightly among glacial landscapes, but in contrast to expectations, this variability was not systematically correlated with landscape age. Additionally, shrubs at all sites exhibited diminishing marginal growth gains in response to increasing temperatures, indicative of alternative growth limiting mechanisms in particularly warm years, such as temperature-induced moisture limitation. Our results reveal a regionally-coherent and robust shrub growth response to early season growing temperature, with local soil properties contributing only a minor influence on shrub growth. Our conclusions strengthen predictions of changes to wildlife habitat and improve the representation of tundra vegetation dynamics in earth systems models in response to future arctic warming.

  10. Numerical Study on Dynamic Response of a Horizontal Layered-Structure Rock Slope under a Normally Incident Sv Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifa Zhan


    Full Text Available Several post-earthquake investigations have indicated that the slope structure plays a leading role in the stability of rock slopes under dynamic loads. In this paper, the dynamic response of a horizontal layered-structure rock slope under harmonic Sv wave is studied by making use of the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua method (FLAC. The suitability of FLAC for studying wave transmission across rock joints is validated through comparison with analytical solutions. After parametric studies on Sv wave transmission across the horizontal layered-structure rock slope, it is found that the acceleration amplification coefficient η, which is defined as the ratio of the acceleration at the monitoring point to the value at the toe, wavily increases with an increase of the height along the slope surface. Meanwhile, the fluctuation weakens with normalized joint stiffness K increasing and enhances with normalized joint spacing ξ increasing. The acceleration amplification coefficient of the slope crest ηcrest does not monotonously increase with the increase of ξ, but decreases with the increase of K. Additionally, ηcrest is more sensitive to ξ compared to K. From the contour figures, it can also be found that the contour figures of η take on rhythm, and the effects of ξ on the acceleration amplification coefficient are more obvious compared to the effects on K.

  11. Implementing and operating the Hanford Environmental Information System and applying it to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.J.; Last, G.V.; Schwab, M.R.; Rohay, V.J.


    To manage waste and perform environmental monitoring and restoration at the 1450-square kilometer (560-square mile) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, vast amounts of scientific and technical data are being generated from sampling. This paper provides an overview of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), a computerized system designed and implemented to manage the Site's environmental sampling data, lessons learned from putting HEIS into operation, and how HEIS is being applied to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action being performed at the Site

  12. [Expedition medicine]. (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana


    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  13. Effect of rainfall infiltration on the hydraulic response and failure mechanisms of sandy slope models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Montoya-Domínguez


    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results obtained from silty sand slope models subjected to an artificial rainfall. Four models were constructed to evaluate the effect of initial water content and rainfall intensity on the hydraulic behavior and failure mechanisms of the slopes. The models were instrumented with volumetric water content sensors to monitor the advance of the water front, and inclinometers to measure lateral movements of the slope. The models were subjected to rainfall intensities ranging from 25 to 50 mm/h, and durations from 19 to 152 minutes. The influence of low intensity rainfall events before a high intensity rainfall is discussed herein. The results showed that the time the slope models required to reach failure was influenced by the soil initial water content, being shorter at high initial water contents. These results are useful to understand the behavior of unsaturated natural slopes and embankments exposed to rainfall infiltration, and to complement the existing laboratory database existing in this subject.

  14. Expedition sol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland


    Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?......Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?...

  15. Dive Data from Expedition Information System (EIS) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats off the Coast of North Carolina - Office of Ocean Exploration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...

  16. On the seismic response of instable rock slopes based on ambient vibration recordings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjánek, Jan; Fäh, D.


    Roč. 69, September (2017), č. článku 126. ISSN 1880-5981 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : ambient vibrations * instable rock slopes * site amplification Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016

  17. Sediment transport capacity and its response to hydraulic parameters in experimental rill flow on steep slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Yang, X.; Liu, J.; Yuan, Y.


    Sediment transport capacity must be considered when developing physical models of soil erosion. The effects of related hydraulic parameters (e.g., flow discharge, slope gradient, and flow velocity), and of force predictors (e.g., shear stress, stream power, and unit stream power) on sediment

  18. On the seismic response of instable rock slopes based on ambient vibration recordings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjánek, Jan; Fäh, D.


    Roč. 69, September (2017), č. článku 126. ISSN 1880-5981 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : ambient vibrations * instable rock slopes * site amplification Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016

  19. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Characterizing the Response of the Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrate Reservoir to Bottom Water Warming Along the Upper Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Evan A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnson, H. Paul [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Salmi, Marie [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Whorley, Theresa [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    The objective of this project is to understand the response of the WA margin gas hydrate system to contemporary warming of bottom water along the upper continental slope. Through pre-cruise analysis and modeling of archive and recent geophysical and oceanographic data, we (1) inventoried bottom simulating reflectors along the WA margin and defined the upper limit of gas hydrate stability, (2) refined margin-wide estimates of heat flow and geothermal gradients, (3) characterized decadal scale temporal variations of bottom water temperatures at the upper continental slope of the Washington margin, and (4) used numerical simulations to provide quantitative estimates of how the shallow boundary of methane hydrate stability responds to modern environmental change. These pre-cruise results provided the context for a systematic geophysical and geochemical survey of methane seepage along the upper continental slope from 48° to 46°N during a 10-day field program on the R/V Thompson from October 10-19, 2014. This systematic inventory of methane emissions along this climate-sensitive margin corridor and comprehensive sediment and water column sampling program provided data and samples for Phase 3 of this project that focused on determining fluid and methane sources (deep-source vs. shallow; microbial, thermogenic, gas hydrate dissociation) within the sediment, and how they relate to contemporary intermediate water warming. During the 2014 research expedition, we sampled nine seep sites between ~470 and 520 m water depth, within the zone of predicted methane hydrate retreat over the past 40 years. We imaged 22 bubble plumes with heights commonly rising to ~300 meters below sea level with one reaching near the sea surface. We collected 22 gravity cores and 20 CTD/hydrocasts from the 9 seeps and at background locations (no acoustic evidence of seepage) within the depth interval of predicted downslope retreat of the methane hydrate stability zone. Approximately 300 pore water

  20. Unstable slope management program. (United States)


    This Rapid Response Project gathered information on existing unstable slope management programs, with a : focus on asset management practices in the United States and overseas. On the basis of this study, the research : team summarized and recommende...

  1. Palynological Response to Middle Eocene Climate Variability in the North Atlantic Ocean: IODP Expedition 342, Newfoundland Ridge, Offshore Canada (United States)

    Willard, D. A.


    Proxy records from Eocene hyperthermals provide evidence for rates and magnitudes of environmental changes associated with these events, as well as their impacts on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) occurred ~40 Million years ago (Ma) and lasted ~500,000 years, and previous research has documented changes in marine and terrestrial biotas during and after this event. Cores collected in sediment drifts on Newfoundland Ridge off the coast of eastern Canada during IODP Expedition 342 recovered expanded sections of the middle Eocene, with sedimentation rates of 1-2 cm/kyr. We present results from pollen, palynofacies, and dinocyst analyses from Sites 1408 (41.438'N, 49.786'W, 3022 mwd), 1409 (41.296'N, 49.233'W, 3501 mwd), and 1410 (41.328'N, 49.170'W, 3387 mwd), spanning an interval that includes the MECO. Palynological assemblages are well preserved throughout the middle Eocene at Sites 1408 and 1410, whereas carbonate-rich samples from Site 1409 were completely barren of palynomorphs. Substantial variability in dinocyst species composition and diversity, pollen assemblages, and organic palynofacies were observed within the MECO event. Fluctuations in concentrations of opaque organic matter, insect fragments, and pollen and spores from terrestrial vegetation reflect changes in terrigenous influx, intensity of the hydrologic cycle, and source vegetation. Dinocyst assemblage shifts are correlated with changes in productivity, nutrient supply, and salinity. Integration of palynological data with other proxies will provide further insights into correlations between increased terrigenous input and eutrophication, leads and lags between terrestrial and marine responses to climate fluctuations, and environmental stability during the Middle Eocene.

  2. Plankton blooms, ocean circulation and the European slope current: Response to weather and climate in the Bay of Biscay and W English Channel (NE Atlantic) (United States)

    Pingree, Robin D.; Garcia-Soto, Carlos


    The flow of upper-layer surface water and circulation for the Bay of Biscay, continental slope and in the wider region of the NE Atlantic is presented, as well as the seasonality of flow and internal tides. The marine plankton environments of Biscay Ocean, Biscay Eddies, Biscay Slope and Biscay Shelf are defined. The Shelf region (Armorican and Celtic) is further divided into Stratified Shelf, Frontal and Tidally Mixed. Seasonal distributions of chlorophyll a are given for all environment from in situ measurements and remote sensing data. Mixing and stabilisation of surface water in the euphotic layer for the start of the spring bloom using in situ profiling measurements is examined. Some regional responses for the slope current, dinoflagellate blooms and interannual variations in spring diatom numbers with respect to weather and climate in the Bay of Biscay and around the British Isles are suggested and discussed. An example of the Eastern European Ocean Margin continental slope response to winter weather (sea level atmospheric pressure forcing) resulting in warm winter water in the southern Bay of Biscay (Navidad, with eddy production) and off the Shetland continental slopes (the warm-water supply route to the Arctic) is given from the slope climate observation series.

  3. Learning through Expeditions: The Need for Method as Well as Opportunity--A Response to Allison and Von Wald (2010) (United States)

    Tozer, Mark; Collins, Dave; Hathaway, Tanya


    Allison and Von Wald (2010) highlight the substantial opportunities presented by expeditions to address the crucial topic of personal and social development. The present paper wishes to address the apparent oversight of transfer within such learning experiences. Issues that need to be addressed if the impact of transfer is to be optimised are…

  4. Influence of Slope-Scale Snowmelt on Catchment Response Simulated With the Alpine3D Model (United States)

    Brauchli, Tristan; Trujillo, Ernesto; Huwald, Hendrik; Lehning, Michael


    Snow and hydrological modeling in alpine environments remains challenging because of the complexity of the processes affecting the mass and energy balance. This study examines the influence of snowmelt on the hydrological response of a high-alpine catchment of 43.2 km2 in the Swiss Alps during the water year 2014-2015. Based on recent advances in Alpine3D, we examine how snow distributions and liquid water transport within the snowpack influence runoff dynamics. By combining these results with multiscale observations (snow lysimeter, distributed snow depths, and streamflow), we demonstrate the added value of a more realistic snow distribution at the onset of melt season. At the site scale, snowpack runoff is well simulated when the mass balance errors are corrected (R2 = 0.95 versus R2 = 0.61). At the subbasin scale, a more heterogeneous snowpack leads to a more rapid runoff pulse originating in the shallower areas while an extended melting period (by a month) is caused by snowmelt from deeper areas. This is a marked improvement over results obtained using a traditional precipitation interpolation method. Hydrological response is also improved by the more realistic snowpack (NSE of 0.85 versus 0.74), even though calibration processes smoothen out the differences. The added value of a more complex liquid water transport scheme is obvious at the site scale but decreases at larger scales. Our results highlight not only the importance but also the difficulty of getting a realistic snowpack distribution even in a well-instrumented area and present a model validation from multiscale experimental data sets.

  5. Flowering phenology and reproductive fitness along a mountain slope: maladaptive responses to transplantation to a warmer climate in Campanula thyrsoides. (United States)

    Scheepens, J F; Stöcklin, J


    In many biomes, global warming has resulted in advanced and longer growing seasons, which has often led to earlier flowering in plant taxa. Elevational gradients are ideal to study the effects of global warming as they allow transplantation of plants from their original cooler higher elevations down to elevations with a prospective climate. We transplanted plants from ten populations of the European alpine monocarpic herb species Campanula thyrsoides L. to three sites along a steep mountain slope (600, 1,235 and 1,850 m above sea level) in the Swiss Alps and asked whether reproductive phenology adjusts plastically to elevation and if these responses were adaptive, i.e. increased the fitness of plants. We further assessed current genetic differentiation in phenotypic traits and whether any such origin effects were due to adaptation to climatic conditions of origin. Our results showed that transplantation to lower elevations caused strong shifts in phenology, with plants starting growth and flowering earlier than plants placed at higher elevations. However, compared to flower production at high elevation, number of flowers per plant decreased 21 % at mid- and 61 % at low elevation. The shift in phenology thus came with a high cost in fitness, and we suggest that phenology is maladaptive when C. thyrsoides faces temperature conditions deviating from its natural amplitude. We conclude that the frequently reported phenological shift in plant species as a response to global warming may include heavy fitness costs that may hamper species survival.

  6. [Trunk sap flow dynamic changes in response to the slopes of plantation of Toona ciliata var. pubescens]. (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Wen-Rong; Xu, Jin-Liang; Zou, Jun; Jiang, Jing-Min; Li, Yan-Jie; Diao, Song-Feng


    The sap flow and environmental factors, including temperature, water content and water potential of soil, were continuously measured by using an auto-data collection system at the upper and lower slopes of Toona ciliata var. pubescens plantation in July to October, 2012 to investigate the relationships between the sap flow and environmental factors. The results showed that, the trunk sap flow velocity of the two positions both presented a typical single-peak curve, with high values in the daytime and low values in the nighttime. The average sap flow of the lower slope was significantly higher than that of the upper slope. Soil temperature of the upper slope was significantly higher than that of the lower slope, and soil water content and water potential were vice versa. Soil water content and water potential were the leading environmental factors affecting the trunk sap flow velocity at the lower slope, while soil temperature and water potential were the main environmental factors at the upper slope.

  7. Full-wave algorithm to model effects of bedding slopes on the response of subsurface electromagnetic geophysical sensors near unconformities (United States)

    Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L.


    We propose a full-wave pseudo-analytical numerical electromagnetic (EM) algorithm to model subsurface induction sensors, traversing planar-layered geological formations of arbitrary EM material anisotropy and loss, which are used, for example, in the exploration of hydrocarbon reserves. Unlike past pseudo-analytical planar-layered modeling algorithms that impose parallelism between the formation's bed junctions, our method involves judicious employment of Transformation Optics techniques to address challenges related to modeling relative slope (i.e., tilting) between said junctions (including arbitrary azimuth orientation of each junction). The algorithm exhibits this flexibility, both with respect to loss and anisotropy in the formation layers as well as junction tilting, via employing special planar slabs that coat each ;flattened; (i.e., originally tilted) planar interface, locally redirecting the incident wave within the coating slabs to cause wave fronts to interact with the flattened interfaces as if they were still tilted with a specific, user-defined orientation. Moreover, since the coating layers are homogeneous rather than exhibiting continuous material variation, a minimal number of these layers must be inserted and hence reduces added simulation time and computational expense. As said coating layers are not reflectionless however, they do induce artificial field scattering that corrupts legitimate field signatures due to the (effective) interface tilting. Numerical results, for two half-spaces separated by a tilted interface, quantify error trends versus effective interface tilting, material properties, transmitter/receiver spacing, sensor position, coating slab thickness, and transmitter and receiver orientation, helping understand the spurious scattering's effect on reliable (effective) tilting this algorithm can model. Under the effective tilting constraints suggested by the results of said error study, we finally exhibit responses of sensors

  8. Slippery Slopes (United States)


    The wheel tracks in this image are an artifact of the difficult terrain faced recently by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity deep inside 'Endurance Crater.' Opportunity took the picture with its navigation camera on the rover's 205th martian day, or sol (Aug. 21, 2004). On the preceding sol, to avoid a potentially hazardous rock target, the rover team changed routes. Steep slopes and lack of traction when driving in this terrain caused the rover to experience up to 50 percent slip during parts of its traverse. Opportunity ended up more than 50 centimeters (about 20 inches) downslope from the planned final position. Another shift in objective on sol 205 had Opportunity on the move again toward safer terrain. Analysis of the final drive showed the rover's traction increasing during its latest moves.

  9. Fore reef upper slope mixed sedimentation response to penultimate glacial interglacial sea level fluctuations: IODP Hole 325-M0058A , Great Barrier Reef, Australia (United States)

    Harper, B.; Bernabéu; Droxler, A. W.; Webster, J. M.; Thomas, A. L.; Tiwari, M.; Gischler, E.; Jovane, L.; Morgan, S.; Lado-Insua, T.


    High resolution stratigraphy in IODP Expedition 325 Hole-M0058A(58A) shows that the mixed carbonate siliciclastic sedimentary section, cored on the upper slope of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) SE of Cairns, corresponds to the last 200 ky or almost two full late Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. Contrary to what has been observed in similar settings, strontium (Sr) and silica (Si) X-ray Fluorescence counts-proxies for reef-derived carbonate and terrigenous exports to the upper slope, respectively-appear to be out of phase of well-established models such as highstand shedding for periplatform sediment and lowstand shedding for siliciclastics systems. Hole 58A, drilled at 167 mbsl, is the deepest site along a 7 site transect SE of Cairns offshore the GBR. The recovered 41.4 m-long sedimentary sequence is mainly composed of three unconsolidated green mud sections intercalated with two distinct sandy intervals. The close proximity to the modern GBR and shallow water depth of this hole allows for dramatic changes in sedimentation and energy as a result of the glacial-interglacial high amplitude sea level fluctuations. Planktic foraminifer tests of the species Globigerinoides ruber (white) were picked and analyzed every 10 cm to produce a high resolution oxygen isotope record at Hole 58A. This record clearly exhibits δ18O cyclic variations that are interpreted to correspond with Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1-7 or the last 200ky. The disappearance of G. ruber (pink) at 28.5 m, in addition to several uranium/thorium dates, confirm that the interval between 30 and 28 m characterized by a sharp δ18O decrease corresponds to Termination II; moreover three radiocarbon ages (6550 years BP or younger) within the top 6 m of Hole 58A confirm the Holocene. Throughout Hole 58A, Sr and Si count variations appear to be out of phase suggesting periods of alternating neritic and terrigenous input dominance to the upper slope. The pattern, however, does not follow the typical

  10. Evaluating the unequal-variance and dual-process explanations of zROC slopes with response time data and the diffusion model


    Starns, Jeffrey J.; Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail


    We tested two explanations for why the slope of the z-transformed receiver operating characteristic (zROC) is less than 1 in recognition memory: the unequal-variance account (target evidence is more variable than lure evidence) or the dual-process account (responding reflects both a continuous familiarity process and a threshold recollection process). These accounts are typically implemented in signal detection models that do not make predictions for response time (RT) data. We tested them us...

  11. Analysing the meandering rivers responses to the slope-changes, depending on their bankfull discharge - Case study in the Pannonian Basin (United States)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Timár, Gábor; Molnár, Gábor


    The multi-variable connection between the channel slope, bankfull discharge and sinuosity values were analysed to get a mathematical formula, which describes the responses of the rivers, and gives the probable sinuosity values for every slope and discharge values. Timár (2003) merged two planar diagrams into a quasi 3D graph. One of them displayed how the river pattern changes, according to the slope and bankfull discharge values (Leopold and Wolmann, 1957; Ackers and Charlton, 1971); the other based on flume experiments, and gives a connection between the slope and sinuosity (Schumm and Khan, 1972). The result graph suggests that the slope-sinuosity connection also works along the natural rivers, for every discharge values. The aim of this work was to prove this relation, and describe it numerically. The sinuosity values were calculated along the natural, meandering river beds, using historical maps (2nd Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, from the 19th century). The available slope and discharge values were imported from a database measured after the main river control works, at the beginning of the 20th century (Viczián, 1905). Analysing the reports of the river control works, the natural slope could be computed for every river sections. The mean discharges were also converted to bankfull discharges. Neither long time series, nor cross sectional areas were obtainable, so other method was used to generate the bankfull discharge. After the above mentioned corrections a quadratic polynomial surface was fitted onto these points with least squares regression. The cross section of this surface follows the theoretical slope-sinuosity graph, verifying that the flume experiments and natural rivers behave similarly. The differences between the fitted surface and the original points were caused by other river parameters, which also affect the natural rivers (e.g. the sediment discharge). Furthermore, this graph confirms the connection between the slope and sinuosity

  12. Changes in heparin dose response slope during cardiac surgery: possible result in inaccuracy in predicting heparin bolus dose requirement to achieve target ACT. (United States)

    Ichikawa, Junko; Mori, Tetsu; Kodaka, Mitsuharu; Nishiyama, Keiko; Ozaki, Makoto; Komori, Makiko


    The substantial interpatient variability in heparin requirement has led to the use of a heparin dose response (HDR) technique. The accuracy of Hepcon-based heparin administration in achieving a target activated clotting time (ACT) using an HDR slope remains controversial. We prospectively studied 86 adult patients scheduled for cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. The total dose of calculated heparin required for patient and pump priming was administered simultaneously to achieve a target ACT of 450 s for HDR on the Hepcon HMS system. Blood samples were obtained after the induction of anesthesia, at 3 min after heparin administration and after the initiation of CPB to measure kaolin ACT, HDR slope, whole-blood heparin concentration based on the HDR slope and anti-Xa heparin concentration, antithrombin and complete blood count. The target ACT of 450 s was not achieved in 68.6% of patients. Compared with patients who achieved the target ACT, those who failed to achieve their target ACT had a significantly higher platelet count at baseline. Correlation between the HDR slope and heparin sensitivity was poor. Projected heparin concentration and anti-Xa heparin concentration are not interchangeable based on the Bland-Altman analysis. It can be hypothesized that the wide discrepancy in HDR slope versus heparin sensitivity may be explained by an inaccurate prediction of the plasma heparin level and/or the change in HDR of individual patients, depending on in vivo factors such as extravascular sequestration of heparin, decreased intrinsic antithrombin activity level and platelet count and/or activity.

  13. Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes (United States)

    Savage, W.Z.


    An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.

  14. Drainage effects on the transient, near-surface hydrologic response of a steep hillslope to rainfall: Implications for slope stability, Edmonds, Washington, USA (United States)

    Biavati, G.; Godt, J.W.; McKenna, J.P.


    Shallow landslides on steep (>25??) hillsides along Puget Sound have resulted in occasional loss of life and costly damage to property during intense or prolonged rainfall. As part of a larger project to assess landslide hazards in the Seattle area, the U.S. Geological Survey instrumented two coastal bluff sites in 2001 to observe the subsurface hydrologic response to rainfall. The instrumentation at one of these sites, near Edmonds, Washington, consists of two rain gauges, two water-content probes that measure volumetric water content at eight depths between 0.2 and 2.0 m, and two tensiometer nests that measure soil-water suction at six depths ranging from 0.2 to 1.5m. Measurements from these instruments are used to test one- and two-dimensional numerical models of infiltration and groundwater flow. Capillary-rise tests, performed in the laboratory on soil sample from the Edmonds site, are used to define the soil hydraulic properties for the wetting process. The field observations of water content and suction show an apparent effect of porosity variation with depth on the hydraulic response to rainfall. Using a range of physical properties consistent with our laboratory and field measurements, we perform sensitivity analyses to investigate the effects of variation in physical and hydraulic properties of the soil on rainfall infiltration, pore-pressure response, and, hence, slope stability. For a two-layer-system in which the hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer is at least 10 times greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, and the infiltration rate is greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, a perched water table forms above the layer boundary potentially destabilizing the upper layer of soil. Two-dimensional modeling results indicate that the addition of a simple trench drain to the same two-layer slope has differing effects on the hydraulic response depending on the initial pressure head conditions. For slope-parallel flow conditions

  15. Drainage effects on the transient, near-surface hydrologic response of a steep hillslope to rainfall: implications for slope stability, Edmonds, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biavati


    Full Text Available Shallow landslides on steep (>25° hillsides along Puget Sound have resulted in occasional loss of life and costly damage to property during intense or prolonged rainfall. As part of a larger project to assess landslide hazards in the Seattle area, the U.S. Geological Survey instrumented two coastal bluff sites in 2001 to observe the subsurface hydrologic response to rainfall. The instrumentation at one of these sites, near Edmonds, Washington, consists of two rain gauges, two water-content probes that measure volumetric water content at eight depths between 0.2 and 2.0 m, and two tensiometer nests that measure soil-water suction at six depths ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 m. Measurements from these instruments are used to test one- and two-dimensional numerical models of infiltration and groundwater flow. Capillary-rise tests, performed in the laboratory on soil sample from the Edmonds site, are used to define the soil hydraulic properties for the wetting process. The field observations of water content and suction show an apparent effect of porosity variation with depth on the hydraulic response to rainfall. Using a range of physical properties consistent with our laboratory and field measurements, we perform sensitivity analyses to investigate the effects of variation in physical and hydraulic properties of the soil on rainfall infiltration, pore-pressure response, and, hence, slope stability. For a two-layer-system in which the hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer is at least 10 times greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, and the infiltration rate is greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, a perched water table forms above the layer boundary potentially destabilizing the upper layer of soil. Two-dimensional modeling results indicate that the addition of a simple trench drain to the same two-layer slope has differing effects on the hydraulic response depending on the initial pressure head conditions. For slope

  16. Wine tasting based on emotional responses: An expedite approach to distinguish between warm and cool climate dry red wine styles. (United States)

    Coste, Amaury; Sousa, Paulo; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel


    In this study, we improved an empirical tasting sheet including emotional responses and common sensory attributes. An Optimized Descriptive Profile (ODP) was run to characterize different red wines according to sensory descriptors used in the improved sheet. A total of 5 wines were evaluated by a Consumer Panel (CP) of 103 subjects (36 females, 67 males) using the improved sheet and a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) list of 25 emotions. In the ODP, the panel identified the main discriminating sensory attributes as "Complexity", "Astringency" and "Duration of the wine fragrance". However, this analysis did not allow for differentiating very distinct dry red wine styles originating from warmer or cooler regions. On the contrary, Principal Component Analysis of emotional attributes demonstrated that these two wine styles could be easily distinguished. In particular, wine with a red-brick color, complex smell and aggressive mouthfeel consistent with those from cooler regions was less liked by the CP than a warm climate gold-awarded wine. Although receiving lower scores considering its color and smell, the former wine was regarded as the most "surprising" in the CATA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Upscaling surface energy fluxes over the North Slope of Alaska using airborne eddy-covariance measurements and environmental response functions (United States)

    Serafimovich, Andrei; Metzger, Stefan; Hartmann, Jörg; Kohnert, Katrin; Zona, Donatella; Sachs, Torsten


    The objective of this study was to upscale airborne flux measurements of sensible heat and latent heat and to develop high resolution flux maps. In order to support the evaluation of coupled atmospheric/land-surface models we investigated spatial patterns of energy fluxes in relation to land-surface properties. We used airborne eddy-covariance measurements acquired by the POLAR 5 research aircraft in June-July 2012 to analyze surface fluxes. Footprint-weighted surface properties were then related to 21 529 sensible heat flux observations and 25 608 latent heat flux observations using both remote sensing and modelled data. A boosted regression tree technique was used to estimate environmental response functions between spatially and temporally resolved flux observations and corresponding biophysical and meteorological drivers. In order to improve the spatial coverage and spatial representativeness of energy fluxes we used relationships extracted across heterogeneous Arctic landscapes to infer high-resolution surface energy flux maps, thus directly upscaling the observational data. These maps of projected sensible heat and latent heat fluxes were used to assess energy partitioning in northern ecosystems and to determine the dominant energy exchange processes in permafrost areas. This allowed us to estimate energy fluxes for specific types of land cover, taking into account meteorological conditions. Airborne and modelled fluxes were then compared with measurements from an eddy-covariance tower near Atqasuk. Our results are an important contribution for the advanced, scale-dependent quantification of surface energy fluxes and provide new insights into the processes affecting these fluxes for the main vegetation types in high-latitude permafrost areas.

  18. Sediment property changes in response to the glacial activity on the continental slope to the eastern side of Pennell-Iselin Bank in the Ross Sea, Antarctica (United States)

    Ha, Sangbeom; Khim, Boo-Keun; Colizza, Ester; Marci, Patrizia; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Caricchi, Chiara; Langone, Leonardo; Giglio, Federico; Kuhn, Gerhard


    High latitude marine environments including the Antarctic continental margin have sensitively responded to the climate change, and the Ross Sea is one of these examples. Subglacial marine sedimentary changes have been studied extensively in the continental shelf areas of the Ross Sea to understand the growth and retreat of glaciers in response to the glacial-interglacial changes. However, the continental slope areas of the Ross Sea have not been investigated comparatively less. Thus, in order to comprehend the glaciomarine sedimentation change on the continental slope of the Ross Sea, 3 gravity cores (GC1, GC2, GC3) and 3 box cores (BC1, BC2, BC3) were collected from 3 sites (RS14-C1, C2, C3 by decreasing water depth), respectively, across the continental slope to the eastern side of the Pennell-Iselin Bank during XXIX PNRA (Rosslope II) cruise in 2014. A variety of sedimentological (grain size, magnetic susceptibility, XRF) and geochemical (biogenic opal, total organic carbon, CaCO3, δ13C of organic matter) properties were analyzed along with AMS 14C dating of bulk sediments. All core sediments consist of mostly hemipelagic sandy clay or silty clay with scattered IRD (Ice-Rafted Debris). Sediment color of three cores changes consistently downward from brown to gray with some alternations in core GC1. Based on the basic sediment properties such as sediment color, grain size, and magnetic susceptibility, sediment lithology was decided to divide Unit A and Unit B, both of which were further divided into two subunits. Despite old carbon effect, AMS 14C dates confirm that Unit A belongs to the Holocene and Unit B covers the deglacial to last glacial period at the top of cores. Unit A is characterized by low TOC, low CaCO3, low biogenic opal content and low C/N ratios, whereas Unit B is characterized by high TOC, high CaCO3, moderate to high biogenic opal content and high C/N ratios. Consequently, Unit A represents the modern and interglacial sediments deposited mainly

  19. Caudwell xtreme everest expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grocott, Michael P. W.; Martin, Daniel S.; Wilson, Mark H.; Mitchell, Kay; Dhillon, Sundeep; Mythen, Monty G.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Levett, Denny Z. H.; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.; Murray, A.; Mythen, M.; Newman, S.; O'Dwyer, M.; Pate, J.; Plant, T.; Pun, M.; Richards, P.; Richardson, A.; Rodway, G.; Simpson, J.; Stroud, C.; Stroud, M.; Stygal, J.; Symons, B.; Szawarski, P.; van Tulleken, A.; van Tulleken, C.; Vercueil, A.; Wandrag, L.; Wilson, M.; Windsor, J.


    The Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) expedition involved the detailed study of 222 subjects ascending to 5300 m or higher during the first half of 2007. Following baseline measurements at sea level, 198 trekker-subjects trekked to Everest Base Camp (EBC) following an identical ascent profile. An

  20. Expeditions and other fieldwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Between 22 February and 18 March 1985 the Kew Assistants’ Expedition was held. Members were Ms. F. BOOTH, Ms. L. FITT, Ms. S. OLDRIDGE, Ms. B. SWAIN, Mr. D. COOKE, Mr. P. EDWARDS and Mr. B. STANNARD under the guidance of Dr. B. CROXALL, Dr. S. DRANSFIELD and Dr. J. DRANSFIELD. Between February and

  1. Expeditions and other exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Previous to the 4th UNESCO Expedition, Dr H. Sleumer of the Rijksherbarium made three trips together with Mr Tem Smitinand, first to Doi Chiengdao and Doi Suthep in the North (Aug. 15-21, 1963), then to the Khao Yai National Park in Central Siam (Aug. 28-29), then to Pha Nok Khao and Phu Krading

  2. Expeditions and other fieldwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM) has started a project on the conservation of fruit trees. Collecting expeditions have been made in 1988 to the Kraun Game Reserve (c. 102° 30’ E, 3° 40’ N), Maxwell’s Hill, Endau-Rompin. Collections were not only made of fruit trees, but also of any

  3. Phytoplankton biovolume is independent from the slope of the size spectrum in the oligotrophic atlantic ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno-Ostos, Enrique


    Modelling the size-abundance spectrum of phytoplankton has proven to be a very useful tool for the analysis of physical-biological coupling and the vertical flux of carbon in oceanic ecosystems at different scales. A frequent observation relates high phytoplankton biovolume in productive regions with flatter spectrum slope and the opposite in oligotrophic ecosystems. Rather than this, the relationship between high biovolume phytoplankton assemblages and flatter size-abundance spectra does not correspond with measurements of the phytoplankton community in the Atlantic Ocean open waters. As part of the Malaspina Circunnavegation Expedition, sixty seven sampling stations within the Atlantic Ocean covering six oceanographic provinces, at different seasons, produced a complete set of phytoplankton size-spectra whose slope and biovolume did not show any obvious interrelation. In these oligotrophic sites, small (procaryotes) and medium-size (nanoplankton) cells are responsible for the most part of biovolume, and their response to environmental conditions does not apply to changes in the size-abundance spectrum slope as expected in richer, large-cell dominated ecosystems.

  4. Useful marker of oscillatory lung function in methacholine challenge test-comparison of reactance and resistance with dose-response slope. (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Won; Shin, Youn Ho; Jee, Hye Mi; Chang, Sun Jung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Sun Hee; Kim, Hyeong Yun; Han, Man Yong


    There are few studies focusing on the comparison of resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) in impulse oscillometry system (IOS) in the bronchial challenge test using dose-response slope (DRS), a quantitative index of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conducted a case-control study of 144 asthmatic and 218 non-asthmatic children to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two-point linear DRS for FEV1 , Rrs5 , and Xrs5 (DRS_FEV1 , DRS_Rrs5 , and DRS_Xrs5 ) and assessed various diagnostic cut-off points of provocation concentrations (PC) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. DRS_FEV1 had a stronger correlation with DRS_Xrs5 (r = 0.739, P  percent change of FEV1 (Pch_FEV1 ) (0.735) > Pch_Xrs5 (0.727) > Abs_Rrs5 (0.690) > Pch_Rrs5 (0.630). PC78 _Xrs5 and PC0.17 _Xrs5 of IOS showed considerably good sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of PC20 _FEV1 by spirometry. Additional 18 (13%) children who showed normal spirometric measures were identified as asthmatics with the use of IOS. The utility of the DRS_Xrs5 to differentiate asthmatics from controls was comparable to that of the DRS_FEV1 and better than that of the DRS_Rrs5 . In addition, IOS could detect additional asthmatic patients who did not show positive responses in spirometry. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preliminary Slope Stability Study Using Slope/ W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazran Harun; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Muzamil Mohd Hashim; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin


    Analyzing the stability of earth structures is the oldest type of numerical analysis in geotechnical engineering. Limit equilibrium types of analyses for assessing the stability of earth slopes have been in use in geotechnical engineering for many decades. Modern limit equilibrium software is making it possible to handle ever-increasing complexity within an analysis. It is being considered as the potential method in dealing with complex stratigraphy, highly irregular pore-water pressure conditions, various linear and nonlinear shear strength models and almost any kind of slip surface shape. It allows rapid decision making by providing an early indication of the potential suitability of sites based on slope stability analysis. Hence, a preliminary slope stability study has been developed to improve the capacity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in assessing potential sites for Borehole Disposal for Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources. The results showed that geometry of cross section A-A ' , B-B ' , C-C ' and D-D ' achieved the factor of safety not less than 1.4 and these are deemed acceptable. (author)

  6. [Response characteristics of the field-measured spectrum for the four general types of halophyte and species recognition in the northern slope area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang]. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-gang; Nurbay, Abdusalih; Luan, Fu-ming


    Based on the field-measured Vis-NIR reflectance of four common types of halophyte (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.) Nevski, Sophora alopecuroides L., Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) within given spots in the Northern Slope Area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang, the spectral response characteristics and species recognition of these types of halophyte were analyzed. The results showed that (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) had higher chlorophyll and carotenoid by CARI and SIPI index. (Sophora alopecuroides L. was at a vigorously growing state and had a higher NDVI compared with the other three types of halophyte because of its greater canopy density. But its CARI and SIPI values were lower due to the influence of its flowers. (Sophora alopecuroides L.) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)) had stable REPs and BEPs, but REPs and BEPs of (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski, Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) whose spectra red shift and spectra blue shift occurred concurrently obviously changed. There was little difference in spectral curves among the four types of halophyte, so the spectrum mixing phenomenon was severe. (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii (L.)Aellen) and (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) could not be separated exactly in a usual R/NIR feature space in remote sensing. Using the stepwise discriminant analysis, five indices were selected to establish the discriminant model, and the model accuracy was discussed using the validated sample group. The total accuracy of the discriminant model was above 92% and (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen) could be respectively recognized 100% correctly.

  7. The Antiviral Activity of Approved and Novel Drugs against HIV-1 Mutations Evaluated under the Consideration of Dose-Response Curve Slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Chang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify common HIV-1 mutation complexes affecting the slope of inhibition curve, and to propose a new parameter incorporating both the IC50 and the slope to evaluate phenotypic resistance.Utilizing site-directed mutagenesis, we constructed 22 HIV-1 common mutation complexes. IC50 and slope of 10 representative approved drugs and a novel agent against these mutations were measured to determine the resistance phenotypes. The values of new parameter incorporating both the IC50 and the slope of the inhibition curve were calculated, and the correlations between parameters were assessed.Depending on the class of drug, there were intrinsic differences in how the resistance mutations affected the drug parameters. All of the mutations resulted in large increases in the IC50s of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The effects of the mutations on the slope were the most apparent when examining their effects on the inhibition of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. For example, some mutations, such as V82A, had no effect on IC50, but reduced the slope. We proposed a new concept, termed IIPatoxic, on the basis of IC50, slope and the maximum limiting concentrations of the drug. The IIPatoxic values of 10 approved drugs and 1 novel agent were calculated, and were closely related to the IIPmax values (r > 0.95, p < 0.001.This study confirms that resistance mutations cannot be accurately assessed by IC50 alone, because it tends to underestimate the degree of resistance. The slope parameter is of very importance in the measurement of drug resistance and the effect can be applied to more complex patterns of resistance. This is the most apparent when testing the effects of the mutations on protease inhibitors activity. We also propose a new index, IIPatoxic, which incorporates both the IC50 and the slope. This new index could complement current IIP indices, thereby enabling predict the

  8. Inoculation Expedition of Agar wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Rusli Zakaria


    Inoculation expedition of agar wood is a main field works for researcher in Nuclear Malaysia to prove the real inoculation of agar wood in real jungle. These expeditions was conducted fourth times in the jungles of Malaysia including Gunung Tebu in Terengganu, Murum in Belaga, Sarawak, Kampung Timbang in Kota Belud, Sabah and Nuclear Malaysia itself. This expedition starts from preparation of samples and equipment, transportation into the jungle, searching and recognition of agar wood and lastly, inoculation of the agar wood. Safety aspects precedence set out in the preparation and implementation of this expedition. (author)

  9. Rock Slope Design Criteria (United States)


    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  10. Dark Slope Streaks (United States)


    13 March 2004 Martian slope streaks occur in the regions most heavily mantled by fine, dry dust, particularly Tharsis, Arabia, and the knobby areas between Amazonis and Cerberus. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some examples of dark slope streaks off of buttes, mesas, and massifs in a dust-mantled crater in central Arabia Terra. New slope streaks form from time to time in the modern martian environment; the streaks in this image probably formed within the past decade. To create them, dust slid or avalanched down the slopes in an almost liquid-like manner. The image is located near 6.8oN, 321.7oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  11. Rock slope design guide. (United States)


    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  12. A lunar polar expedition (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas


    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  13. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited processes. 303.101 Section 303.101... STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.101 Expedited processes. (a) Definition. Expedited processes means... intrastate cases, expedited processes as specified under this section to establish paternity and to establish...

  14. ISS Expedition 06 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 06 from 11/2002-05/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  15. ISS Expedition 09 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 09 from 04/2004-10/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  16. ISS Expedition 12 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 12 from 10/2005-04/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  17. ISS Expedition 14 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 14 from 09/2006-04/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  18. ISS Expedition 07 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 07 from 04/2003-10/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  19. ISS Expedition 04 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 04 from 12/2001-06/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  20. ISS Expedition 41 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 41 from 05/2014-11/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  1. ISS Expedition 42 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 42 from 09/2014-03/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  2. ISS Expedition 38 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 38 from 09/2013-03/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  3. ISS Expedition 43 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 43 from 11/2014-06/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  4. ISS Expedition 36 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 36 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  5. ISS Expedition 28 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 28 from 04/2011-11/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  6. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  7. Slope earthquake stability

    CERN Document Server

    Changwei, Yang; Jing, Lian; Wenying, Yu; Jianjing, Zhang


    This book begins with the dynamic characteristics of the covering layerbedrock type slope, containing monitoring data of the seismic array, shaking table tests, numerical analysis and theoretical derivation. Then it focuses on the landslide mechanism and assessment method. It also proposes a model that assessing the hazard area based on the field investigations. Many questions, exercises and solutions are given. Researchers and engineers in the field of Geotechnical Engineering and Anti-seismic Engineering can benefit from it.

  8. The Q-Slope Method for Rock Slope Engineering (United States)

    Bar, Neil; Barton, Nick


    Q-slope is an empirical rock slope engineering method for assessing the stability of excavated rock slopes in the field. Intended for use in reinforcement-free road or railway cuttings or in opencast mines, Q-slope allows geotechnical engineers to make potential adjustments to slope angles as rock mass conditions become apparent during construction. Through case studies across Asia, Australia, Central America, and Europe, a simple correlation between Q-slope and long-term stable slopes was established. Q-slope is designed such that it suggests stable, maintenance-free bench-face slope angles of, for instance, 40°-45°, 60°-65°, and 80°-85° with respective Q-slope values of approximately 0.1, 1.0, and 10. Q-slope was developed by supplementing the Q-system which has been extensively used for characterizing rock exposures, drill-core, and tunnels under construction for the last 40 years. The Q' parameters (RQD, J n, J a, and J r) remain unchanged in Q-slope. However, a new method for applying J r/ J a ratios to both sides of potential wedges is used, with relative orientation weightings for each side. The term J w, which is now termed J wice, takes into account long-term exposure to various climatic and environmental conditions such as intense erosive rainfall and ice-wedging effects. Slope-relevant SRF categories for slope surface conditions, stress-strength ratios, and major discontinuities such as faults, weakness zones, or joint swarms have also been incorporated. This paper discusses the applicability of the Q-slope method to slopes ranging from less than 5 m to more than 250 m in height in both civil and mining engineering projects.

  9. Centrifuge model test of rock slope failure caused by seismic excitation. Plane failure of dip slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Makoto; Kawai, Tadashi


    Recently, it is necessary to assess quantitatively seismic safety of critical facilities against the earthquake induced rock slope failure from the viewpoint of seismic PSA. Under these circumstances, it is essential to evaluate more accurately the possibilities of rock slope failure and the potential failure boundary, which are triggered by earthquake ground motions. The purpose of this study is to analyze dynamic failure characteristics of rock slopes by centrifuge model tests for verification and improvement of the analytical methods. We conducted a centrifuge model test using a dip slope model with discontinuities limitated by Teflon sheets. The centrifugal acceleration was 50G, and the acceleration amplitude of input sin waves increased gradually at every step. The test results were compared with safety factors of the stability analysis based on the limit equilibrium concept. Resultant conclusions are mainly as follows: (1) The slope model collapsed when it was excited by the sine wave of 400gal, which was converted to real field scale, (2) Artificial discontinuities were considerably concerned in the collapse, and the type of collapse was plane failure, (3) From response acceleration records observed at the slope model, we can say that tension cracks were generated near the top of the slope model during excitation, and that might be cause of the collapse, (4) By considering generation of the tension cracks in the stability analysis, correspondence of the analytical results and the experimental results improved. From the obtained results, we need to consider progressive failure in evaluating earthquake induced rock slope failure. (author)

  10. Deciphering the Preparatory and Triggering Factors Responsible for Post-Glacial Slope Failures: Insights from Landslide Age and Morphology in Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Nicholas, G.; Dixon, J. L.; Pierce, K. L.


    Landslides are ubiquitous to post-glacial landscapes worldwide. Withdrawal of glacier ice exposes oversteepened landscapes that may be unstable, and consequently susceptible to landsliding. Several disparate mechanisms can act as triggers: glacial debuttressing can directly destabilize slopes; however, changes in climate resulting in greater effective moisture and subsequent degradation of permafrost may also play a role. Here, we quantify relative age, spatial relationships, and topographic metrics in a set of post-glacial landslides in northwest Yellowstone National Park. Preliminary analysis of high-resolution topography indicates increasing surface roughness of non-active landslides southward, consistent with younging ages along the retreat path of the Yellowstone Ice Cap. These roughness values in ancient slides are roughly half those of the active Slide Lake Landslide within the same study region. However, the changes in roughness within the non-active landslides disappear when we remove biases such as gullying, fluvial erosional contacts, and areas believed to have been remobilized. These removed areas appear largely linked to a Holocene incision pulse up the Gardiner River, which interacts with the toes of landslides in the southern region. Stream power analysis indicates that incision is focused at a knickpoint locally coincident with the toe of the modern and active Slide Lake Landslide. Our results indicate caution should be used when using surface roughness for landslide ages without accounting for both intrinsic and extrinsic changes in erosion of the landslide system, and suggest tight links between modern stream erosion and landslide reactivation. Insights from this dynamic landscape in Yellowstone National Park are actively being used by park officials to mitigate risk, and broadly show that quantifying the temporal and spatial patterns of landslides can provide diagnostic understanding of the long-term controls on post-glacial slope failure.

  11. A Different Pitch to Slope (United States)

    Wolbert, William


    The query "When are we ever going to use this?" is easily answered when discussing the slope of a line. The pitch of a roof, the grade of a road, and stair stringers are three applications of slope that are used extensively. The concept of slope, which is introduced fairly early in the mathematics curriculum has hands-on applications…

  12. Integrating Near-Real Time Hydrologic-Response Monitoring and Modeling for Improved Assessments of Slope Stability Along the Coastal Bluffs of the Puget Sound Rail Corridor, Washington State (United States)

    Mirus, B. B.; Baum, R. L.; Stark, B.; Smith, J. B.; Michel, A.


    Previous USGS research on landslide potential in hillside areas and coastal bluffs around Puget Sound, WA, has identified rainfall thresholds and antecedent moisture conditions that correlate with heightened probability of shallow landslides. However, physically based assessments of temporal and spatial variability in landslide potential require improved quantitative characterization of the hydrologic controls on landslide initiation in heterogeneous geologic materials. Here we present preliminary steps towards integrating monitoring of hydrologic response with physically based numerical modeling to inform the development of a landslide warning system for a railway corridor along the eastern shore of Puget Sound. We instrumented two sites along the steep coastal bluffs - one active landslide and one currently stable slope with the potential for failure - to monitor rainfall, soil-moisture, and pore-pressure dynamics in near-real time. We applied a distributed model of variably saturated subsurface flow for each site, with heterogeneous hydraulic-property distributions based on our detailed site characterization of the surficial colluvium and the underlying glacial-lacustrine deposits that form the bluffs. We calibrated the model with observed volumetric water content and matric potential time series, then used simulated pore pressures from the calibrated model to calculate the suction stress and the corresponding distribution of the factor of safety against landsliding with the infinite slope approximation. Although the utility of the model is limited by uncertainty in the deeper groundwater flow system, the continuous simulation of near-surface hydrologic response can help to quantify the temporal variations in the potential for shallow slope failures at the two sites. Thus the integration of near-real time monitoring and physically based modeling contributes a useful tool towards mitigating hazards along the Puget Sound railway corridor.

  13. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either: (1...

  14. Source Characterization and Temporal Variation of Methane Seepage from Thermokarst Lakes on the Alaska North Slope in Response to Arctic Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The goals of this research were to characterize the source, magnitude and temporal variability of methane seepage from thermokarst lakes (TKL) within the Alaska North Slope gas hydrate province, assess the vulnerability of these areas to ongoing and future arctic climate change and determine if gas hydrate dissociation resulting from permafrost melting is contributing to the current lake emissions. Analyses were focused on four main lake locations referred to in this report: Lake Qalluuraq (referred to as Lake Q) and Lake Teshekpuk (both on Alaska's North Slope) and Lake Killarney and Goldstream Bill Lake (both in Alaska's interior). From analyses of gases coming from lakes in Alaska, we showed that ecological seeps are common in Alaska and they account for a larger source of atmospheric methane today than geologic subcap seeps. Emissions from the geologic source could increase with potential implications for climate warming feedbacks. Our analyses of TKL sites showing gas ebullition were complemented with geophysical surveys, providing important insight about the distribution of shallow gas in the sediments and the lake bottom manifestation of seepage (e.g., pockmarks). In Lake Q, Chirp data were limited in their capacity to image deeper sediments and did not capture the thaw bulb. The failure to capture the thaw bulb at Lake Q may in part be related to the fact that the present day lake is a remnant of an older, larger, and now-partially drained lake. These suggestions are consistent with our analyses of a dated core of sediment from the lake that shows that a wetland has been present at the site of Lake Q since approximately 12,000 thousand years ago. Chemical analyses of the core indicate that the availability of methane at the site has changed during the past and is correlated with past environmental changes (i.e. temperature and hydrology) in the Arctic. Discovery of methane seeps in Lake Teshekpuk in the northernmost part of the lake during 2009

  15. Decision Guide for Roof Slope Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, T.R.


    This decision guide has been written for personnel who are responsible for the design, construction, and replacement of Air Force roofs. It provides the necessary information and analytical tools for making prudent and cost-effective decisions regarding the amount of slope to provide in various roofing situations. Because the expertise and experience of the decision makers will vary, the guide contains both basic slope-related concepts as well as more sophisticated technical data. This breadth of information enables the less experienced user to develop an understanding of roof slope issues before applying the more sophisticated analytical tools, while the experienced user can proceed directly to the technical sections. Although much of this guide is devoted to the analysis of costs, it is not a cost-estimating document. It does, however, provide the reader with the relative costs of a variety of roof slope options; and it shows how to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of different options. The selection of the proper roof slope coupled with good roof design, a quality installation, periodic inspection, and appropriate maintenance and repair will achieve the Air Force's objective of obtaining the best possible roofing value for its buildings.

  16. Habitat compression and expansion of sea urchins in response to changing climate conditions on the California continental shelf and slope (1994-2013) (United States)

    Sato, Kirk N.; Levin, Lisa A.; Schiff, Kenneth


    Echinoid sea urchins with distributions along the continental shelf and slope of the eastern Pacific often dominate the megafauna community. This occurs despite their exposure to naturally low dissolved oxygen (DO) waters (calcium carbonate (ΩCaCO3<1). Here we present vertical depth distribution and density analyses of historical otter trawl data collected in the Southern California Bight (SCB) from 1994 to 2013 to address the question: Do changes in echinoid density and species' depth distributions along the continental margin in the SCB reflect observed secular or interannual changes in climate? Deep-dwelling burrowing urchins (Brissopsis pacifica, Brisaster spp. and Spatangus californicus), which are adapted to low-DO, low-pH conditions appeared to have expanded their vertical distributions and populations upslope over the past decade (2003-2013), and densities of the deep pink urchin, Strongylocentrotus fragilis, increased significantly in the upper 500 m of the SCB. Conversely, the shallower urchin, Lytechinus pictus, exhibited depth shoaling and density decreases within the upper 200 m of the SCB from 1994 to 2013. Oxygen and pH in the SCB also vary inter-annually due to varying strengths of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in depth distributions and densities were correlated with bi-monthly ENSO climate indices in the region. Our results suggest that both a secular trend in ocean deoxygenation and acidification and varying strength of ENSO may be linked to echinoid species distributions and densities, creating habitat compression in some and habitat expansion in others. Potential life-history mechanisms underlying depth and density changes observed over these time periods include migration, mortality, and recruitment. These types of analyses are needed for a broad suite of benthic species in order to identify and manage climate-sensitive species on the margin.

  17. Combining expedited cleanup with innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagood, M.C.; Rohay, V.J.; Valcich, P.J.; Brouns, T.M.; Cameron, R.J.


    A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) expedited response action (ERA) has been initiated at the Hanford Site, Washington, for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from contaminated soils to mitigate further contamination of the groundwater. Soil vapor extraction with aboveground collection and treatment was chosen as the preferred remedial technology for the first phase of the ERA. At the same time, innovative technology demonstrations are being conducted in coordination with the ERA to determine the viability of emerging technologies that can be used to characterize, remediate, and monitor carbon tetrachloride and cocontaminants. The overall goal is to improve the performance and decrease the costs of carbon tetrachloride remediation while maintaining a safe working environment

  18. Slope failure simulations with MPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardon, P.J.; Wang, B.; Hicks, M.A.


    The simulation of slope failures, including both failure initiation and development, has been modelled using the material point method (MPM). Numerical case studies involving various slope angles, heterogeneity and rainfall infiltration are presented. It is demonstrated that, by utilising a

  19. Slope Failure Simulations with MPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardon, P.J.; Wang, B.; Hicks, M.A.


    The simulation of slope failures, including both failure initiation and development, has been modelled using the material point method. By utilising a constitutive model which encompasses, in a simplified manner, both pre- and post-failure behaviour, the majority of types of geotechnical slope

  20. Hydrologic behavior of model slopes with synthetic water repellent soils (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Lourenço, Sérgio D. N.; Cleall, Peter J.; Chui, Ting Fong May; Ng, Angel K. Y.; Millis, Stuart W.


    In the natural environment, soil water repellency decreases infiltration, increases runoff, and increases erosion in slopes. In the built environment, soil water repellency offers the opportunity to develop granular materials with controllable wettability for slope stabilization. In this paper, the influence of soil water repellency on the hydrological response of slopes is investigated. Twenty-four flume tests were carried out in model slopes under artificial rainfall; soils with various wettability levels were tested, including wettable (Contact Angle, CA 90°). Various rainfall intensities (30 mm/h and 70 mm/h), slope angles (20° and 40°) and relative compactions (70% and 90%) were applied to model the response of natural and man-made slopes to rainfall. To quantitatively assess the hydrological response, a number of measurements were made: runoff rate, effective rainfall rate, time to ponding, time to steady state, runoff acceleration, total water storage and wetting front rate. Overall, an increase in soil water repellency reduces infiltration and shortens the time for runoff generation, with the effects amplified for high rainfall intensity. Comparatively, the slope angle and relative compaction had only a minor contribution to the slope hydrology. The subcritical water repellent soils sustained infiltration for longer than both the wettable and water repellent soils, which presents an added advantage if they are to be used in the built environment as barriers. This study revealed substantial impacts of man-made or synthetically induced soil water repellency on the hydrological behavior of model slopes in controlled conditions. The results shed light on our understanding of hydrological processes in environments where the occurrence of natural soil water repellency is likely, such as slopes subjected to wildfires and in agricultural and forested slopes.

  1. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo


    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θ s - θ r), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process. PMID:24672332

  2. Relevance of the volume-axis intercept, V0, compared with the slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship in response to large variations in inotropy and afterload in rats. (United States)

    Blaudszun, Grégoire; Morel, Denis R


    The end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) is proposed and used as a reliable index of left ventricular (LV) contractility despite the fact that its afterload independence has been challenged. Furthermore, the physiological relevance of its volume-axis intercept, V(0), remains unclear. Systemic haemodynamics and pressure-volume loops obtained by inferior vena cava occlusion were recorded in 21 rats anaesthetized by isoflurane inhalation and instrumented with a conductance pressure-volume catheter in response to incremental I.V. doses of adrenaline, dobutamine, phenylephrine, metoprolol, papaverine and isoflurane inhalation. In conditions with large variations (± 100%) of both inotropy and afterload, infusion of negative inotropic drugs was associated with a dose-dependent rightward shift of ESPVR accompanied by a decrease in its slope (end-systolic elastance, E(es)), whereas positive inotropic agents produced an isolated decrease in V(0). With the predominant vasoactive drugs, there was a dose-dependent change in E(es) without major horizontal shifts, demonstrating that this slope mainly represents LV afterload rather than inotropy. When contractility was altered, V(0) was negatively correlated to the preload-adjusted contractility index, PAdP/dt(max), demonstrating that a reduced V(0) provides a good reflection of increased LV contractility. From these results, we computed a logarithmically adjusted E(es)/V(0) ratio, which resulted in reasonably strong concordance with PAdP/dt(max), including all the investigated drugs and dosages [n = 288; bias, 0.8 ± 16.2% (SD)]. Concordance with E(es) (bias, 7.2 ± 58.7%) or V(0) (bias, -0.6 ± 33.4%), used alone or with other commonly used contractility indices, was far less significant. In contrast to E(es), V(0) provides a relatively good LV contractility index because it is much less sensitive to afterload.

  3. Slope failure investigation management system. (United States)


    Highway slopes are exposed to a variety of environmental and climatic conditions, such as deforestation, cycles of : freezing and thawing weather, and heavy storms. Over time, these climatic conditions, in combination with other : factors such as geo...

  4. Light and Dark Slope Streaks (United States)


    21 July 2004 Dark slope streaks are a common feature on slopes thickly-mantled by dust, especially in the Tharsis, Arabia, and western Amazonis regions of Mars. Less common are light-toned slope streaks, which often occur in the same area as dark streaks. They are most common in Arabia Terra, and some are shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. Slope streaks are probably the result of sudden avalanches of extremely dry dust. The behavior of the avalanching dust is somewhat fluid-like, and new streaks have been observed to form over intervals of a few months to a Mars year. This image is located near 13.4oN, 340.3oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  5. Compost for steep slope erosion. (United States)


    This study was initiated to develop guidelines for maintenance erosion control measures for steep slopes. The study focused on evaluating and monitoring KY-31 fescue germination rates using two media treatments 1) 100 percent by weight compost and 2)...

  6. IODP Expedition 317: Exploring the Record of Sea-Level Change off New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blum


    Full Text Available Expedition 317 investigated the record of global sea-level change (eustasy within continental margin sedimentary sequences and how eustasy interacts with local forcing to produce preserved sedimentary architectures. The Canterbury Basin, on the eastern margin of the South Island of New Zealand, was selected to study these complex interactions because of high rates of Neogene sediment supply fromthe uplifting Southern Alps. This sediment input results in a high-frequency (~0.1–0.5 My periods record of depositional cyclicity that is modulated by the presence of strong ocean currents. The expedition recovered sediments as old as Eocene but focused on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to Recent, when global sea-level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. A transect of three sites was drilled on the continental shelf (Sites U1353, U1354, and U1351, plus one on the continental slope (Site U1352. The transectsamples the shallow-water environment most directly affected by relative sea-level change. Lithologic boundaries, provisionally correlative with seismic sequence boundaries, have been identified in cores from each site. Continental slope Site U1352 provides a record of ocean circulation and fronts during the last ~35 My. The early Oligocene (~30 MaMarshall Paraconformity was the deepest target ofExpedition 317 and is hypothesized to represent intensified current erosion or non-deposition associated with the initiation of thermohaline circulation in the region. Expedition 317 involved operational challenges for JOIDES Resolution, including shallow-water, continental-shelf drilling and deep penetrations. Despitethese challenges, Expedition 317 set a number of records for scientific ocean drilling penetration and water-depth.

  7. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such consideration...

  8. Seismic response of reinforced soil slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, Ioanna; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis


    a parametric investigation to illustrate the impact of the crucial parameters of this approach. Subsequently, Newmark’s sliding block model is modified to account for the reinforcement forces in the calculation of seismic displacements. Finally, finite element analyses were performed and the numerical results...

  9. 16 determination of posterior tibia slope and slope deterioration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orth (SA), FCS (ECSA), Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon, P.O. Box. 84074, Mombasa, Kenya. Email: ABSTRACT. Background: The posterior inclination of the tibia plateaux relative to the longitudinal axis of the tibia is referred to as the Posterior Tibia Slope (PTS). Fore knowledge of the mean ...

  10. Evolution of steep Martian slopes (United States)

    Sullivan, Robert John, Jr.


    The physical properties and evolution of steep slopes on the planet Mars are examined. Where martian slopes are steepest and of greatest relief, the slope morphology is distinctive and characterized by regular, alternating spurs and gullies. Previous workers identified these martian gullies as dry debris avalanche chutes, partially because a nonspecific 'dry mass-wasting' explanation seemed compatible, initially, with current surface conditions. An evacuated avalanche chute provides the opportunity to back analyze the stability of the mobile layer of the chute at the time of its failure. For the martian slope problem a new stability back-analysis technique was developed which incorporates the third dimension (chute width) into the back-analysis calculation, allowing unambiguous determination of the average cohesion and angle of internal friction of the mobile layer. A series of trials was performed to investigate the effects of gravitational acceleration, average slope angle, and average mobile layer density, cohesion, and angle of internal friction on the size and shape of the transverse chute cross-section. Results indicate that: (1) variations in density, gravitational acceleration, and cohesion affect the overall size of the cross-section but not its width:depth ratio, and (2) the contrast between average slope angle and angle of internal friction is most influential on the width:depth ratio of the cross-section. The difference between these two parameters is inversely proportional to the width:depth ratio. Application of the three-dimensional back-analysis technique to proposed martian avalanche chutes yields values of cohesion and angle of internal friction of the mobile layers that are similar mechanically (without genetic implications) to those of terrestrial glacial till, a poorly sorted material with moderate inter-grain cohesion, or lunar soils under normal stresses representative of (lunar) depths of between ten and twenty meters. Material of these

  11. The influence of slope on Spartium junceum root system: morphological, anatomical and biomechanical adaptation. (United States)

    Lombardi, Fabio; Scippa, G S; Lasserre, B; Montagnoli, A; Tognetti, R; Marchetti, M; Chiatante, D


    Root systems have a pivotal role in plant anchorage and their mechanical interactions with the soil may contribute to soil reinforcement and stabilization of slide-prone slopes. In order to understand the responses of root system to mechanical stress induced by slope, samples of Spartium junceum L., growing in slope and in plane natural conditions, were compared in their morphology, biomechanical properties and anatomical features. Soils sampled in slope and plane revealed similar characteristics, with the exception of organic matter content and penetrometer resistance, both higher in slope. Slope significantly influenced root morphology and in particular the distribution of lateral roots along the soil depth. Indeed, first-order lateral roots of plants growing on slope condition showed an asymmetric distribution between up- and down-slope. Contrarily, this asymmetric distribution was not observed in plants growing in plane. The tensile strength was higher in lateral roots growing up-slope and in plane conditions than in those growing down-slope. Anatomical investigations revealed that, while roots grown up-slope had higher area covered by xylem fibers, the ratio of xylem and phloem fibers to root diameter did not differ among the three conditions, as also, no differences were found for xylem fiber cell wall thickness. Roots growing up-slope were the main contributors to anchorage properties, which included higher strength and higher number of fibers in the xylematic tissues. Results suggested that a combination of root-specific morphological, anatomical and biomechanical traits, determines anchorage functions in slope conditions.

  12. 29 CFR 1404.20 - Proper use of expedited arbitration. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proper use of expedited arbitration. 1404.20 Section 1404... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.20 Proper use of expedited arbitration. (a) FMCS reserves the right to cease honoring request for Expedited Arbitration if a pattern of misuse of this becomes...

  13. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri


    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  14. Cambridge University Expeditions Society : Expedition Report : Proyecto Ashaninka Peru, Summer 2004


    Cuadros, William Yupanqui; FitzPatrick, Michael; López, Jessica Rodrigo; Maynard, Kim; Müller, Mago Medina; Paico, Jessica Bravo; Shreeve, Matt; Stephenson, Emilie


    The expedition to the Ashaninka communities of Coriteni Tarso, Camantavishi and Shirampari in the summer of 2004 carried out a number of studies; primarily herpetological surveys but also vegetation, soil and hunting surveys. The work was carried out in little known areas where no previous systematic studies had been completed. The expedition recorded frogs and a snake not previously found in the department of Junín1. The expedition discovered at least one new species (to be registered...

  15. Educational expeditions - et norsk perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Horgen


    Full Text Available AbstractThe topic of this article is the Norwegian concept of “friluftsliv” (outdoor life, used as a pedagogical tool to support personal growth. While supporting personal growth appears to be a central pedagogical strategy within Anglo-American and British youth expeditions and adventure programming, this does not appear to be case in the Norwegian outdoor tradition. My research question is: Do Norwegian Outdoor Education students experience a learning outcome related to personal growth, and to their abilities as leaders/mentors, during ski expeditions? I have collected data through a three-year period, after three ski expeditions with Outdoor Education students from an outdoor bachelor-programme at Telemark University College.The students have given written answers to questions regarding personal growth in which several informants’ express thoughts about experiences related to “self” and “identity”. They reflect upon experiences related to “mastering” and “performing”, to acceptance of their own strengths and weaknesses, and about developing self-confidence. They also reflect upon learning outcomes related to interpersonal relations and abilities, self-control, communication and caregiving. The informants have experienced, as leaders/mentors, that it is important to be able to, to “read” situations, to make good assessments of the situations, and to make good decisions related to the situations. As a follow up to this, the informants highlight the importance of being aware of each individual in the group, the importance of encouragement, being positive and caregiving. This study has shown that ski expeditions in “a Norwegian tradition” may have a potential when it comes to encouraging reflections related to personal growth and leadership abilities. Hopefully this study can contribute to increased awareness of the pedagogical potential, for personal growth, within the Norwegian concept of

  16. Strategies and Procedures for Expediting Election Petitions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    53 has made a far reaching innovation by specifying the time limit for concluding electoral disputes and appeals arising therefrom. Strategies for Expediting Election Petition Disputes. The primary aim of adjudication in election petitions should ...

  17. VT Lidar Slope (1 meter) - 2005 - Essex (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Essex County 2005 1m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command...

  18. MITAS-2009 Expedition, U.S. Beaufort Shelf and Slope—Lithostratigraphy Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.; Johnson, J.E.; Phillips, S.C.; Smith, J.; Reed, A.; Disenhof, C.; Presley, J.


    The volume of methane released through the Arctic Ocean to the atmosphere and its potential role in the global climate cycle have increasingly become the focus of studies seeking to understand the source and origin of this methane. In 2009, an international, multi-disciplinary science party aboard the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea successfully completed a trans-U.S. Beaufort Shelf expedition aimed at understanding the sources and volumes of methane across this region. Following more than a year of preliminary cruise planning and a thorough site evaluation, the Methane in the Arctic Shelf/Slope (MITAS) expedition departed from the waters off the coast of Barrow, Alaska in September 2009. The expedition was organized with an international shipboard science team consisting of 33 scientists with the breadth of expertise necessary to meet the expedition goals. NETL researchers led the expedition’s initial core processing and lithostratigraphic evaluations, which are the focus of this report. This data report is focused on the lithostratigraphic datasets from the recovered vibra cores and piston cores. Operational information about the piston and vibra cores such as date acquired, core name, total length, water depth, and geographic location is provided. Once recovered, gas samples were immediately collected from cores. In addition, each core was run through the Geotek multi-sensor core logger for magnetic susceptibility, P-wave velocity, resistivity, and gamma-density measurements (Rose et al., 2010). After the samples and measurements were completed, the cores were split into working and archive halves. Visual core descriptions of the archive half was completed for each core. Samples for shipboard smear slides, coarse fractions, and XRD analyses were collected, as well as corresponding samples for post-cruise grain size analysis from the working half of each core. Line scan images of the split core surfaces were collected post-expedition. The methods used to

  19. Slope protection for artificial island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, M.T.; Collins, J.I.; Shak, A.T.


    The technology under development to protect artificial-island production platforms from Arctic sea and ice damage involves three major considerations: (1) sea conditions during the ice-free season, (2) ice conditions during winter, and (3) construction constraints imposed by material availability, transportation problems, and length of the construction season. So far, researchers have evaluated 15 different slope-protection systems on the basis of reliability, construction-cost, and maintenance-cost factors, choosing 8 candidates for wave and ice model testing. The cases of interest involve exploration and production islands in shallow and deeper water applications.

  20. Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin


    Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This difference, if real

  1. Mycorrhizal aspects in slope stabilisation (United States)

    Graf, Frank


    In order to re-colonise and stabilise slopes affected by superficial soil failure with plants essential requirements have to be met: the plants must grow the plants must survive sustainably plant succession must start and continuously develop These requirements, however, are anything but easy given, particularly under the often hostile environmental conditions dominating on bare and steep slopes. Mycorrhizal fungi, the symbiotic partners of almost all plants used in eco-engineering, are said to improve the plants' ability to overcome periods governed by strongly (growth) limiting factors. Subsequently, results of investigations are presented of mycorrhizal effects on different plant and soil functions related to eco-engineering in general and soil and slope stabilisation in particular. Generally, inoculation yielded higher biomass of the host plants above as well as below ground. Furthermore, the survival rate was higher for mycorrhized compared to non-mycorrhized plants, particularly under extreme environmental conditions. However, the scale of the mycorrhizal impact may be species specific of both the plant host as well as the fungal partner(s) and often becomes evident only after a certain time lag. Depending on the plant-fungus combination the root length per soil volume was found to be between 0 and 2.5 times higher for inoculated compared to non-inoculated specimens. On an alpine graded ski slope the survival of inoculated compared to non-treated Salix herbacea cuttings was significant after one vegetation period only for one of the three added mycorrhizal fungus species. However, after three years all of the inoculated plantlets performed significantly better than the non-inoculated controls. The analysis of the potential for producing and stabilising soil aggregates of five different ectomycorrhizal fungi showed high variation and, for the species Inocybe lacera, no significant difference compared to untreated soil. Furthermore, inoculation of Salix

  2. The Influence of Shales on Slope Instability (United States)

    Stead, Doug


    Shales play a major role in the stability of slopes, both natural and engineered. This paper attempts to provide a review of the state-of-the-art in shale slope stability. The complexities of shale terminology and classification are first reviewed followed by a brief discussion of the important physical and mechanical properties of relevance to shale slope stability. The varied mechanisms of shale slope stability are outlined and their importance highlighted by reference to international shale slope failures. Stability analysis and modelling of anisotropic rock slope masses are briefly discussed and the potential role of brittle rock fracture and damage highlighted. A short review of shale slopes in open pits is presented.

  3. Architecture and growth patterns of last deglacial reefs. IODP Expedition #310, Tahiti (French Polynesia). (United States)

    Seard, C.; Camoin, G.; Yokoyama, Y.; Durand, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Deschamps, P.; Bard, E.


    The study of coral reef systems that developed during the last deglaciation (23,000-6,000 cal. yr BP) is of pivotal interest both for the reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes, and the evaluation of the impact of those combined changes on reef accretion, growth modes and architecture. However, those features have been poorly documented because they are mostly stored on modern fore-reef slopes, at depths greater than 100 m. The present study, based on the sedimentological and chronological analysis (14C AMS dating) of drill cores carried out on the successive terraces occurring on the modern reef slopes from Tahiti (IODP Expedition #310 « Tahiti Sea Level »), provides a comprehensive data base to investigate the microbialite growth patterns (e.g. growth rates and habitats), to analyze their roles in the reef frameworks, to reconstruct the evolution of the reef framework architecture and to better constrain the changing environmental conditions through time. The last deglacial reefs from Tahiti are composed of two distinctive biological communities which were characterized by a similar scenario of development throughout the sequence, involving a diachronous development and a lack of direct competition. The coralgal communities composed of seven assemblages characterized by various growth forms (branching, robust branching, massive, tabular and encrusting) formed the initial frameworks, while microbialites developed in the primary cavities of those frameworks, a few meters below the living reef surface, where they heavily encrusted the coralgal assemblages. The offset between the growth of coral assemblages and the development of microbialite crusts ranges from 300 to 700 years. The development of microbial crusts was controlled by the volume and the shape of the primary cavities of the initial reef frameworks determined by the morphology and the packing of coral colonies. The highest microbialite development occurred in frameworks dominated by

  4. Characterization of Unstable Rock Slopes Through Passive Seismic Measurements (United States)

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjanek, J.; Fäh, D.


    Catastrophic rock slope failures have high social impact, causing significant damage to infrastructure and many casualties throughout the world each year. Both detection and characterization of rock instabilities are therefore of key importance. An analysis of ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes might be a new alternative to the already existing methods, e.g. geotechnical displacement measurements. Systematic measurements have been performed recently in Switzerland to study the seismic response of potential rockslides concerning a broad class of slope failure mechanisms and material conditions. Small aperture seismic arrays were deployed at sites of interest for a short period of time (several hours) in order to record ambient vibrations. Each measurement setup included a reference station, which was installed on a stable part close to the instability. Recorded ground motion is highly directional in the unstable parts of the rock slope, and significantly amplified with respect to stable areas. These effects are strongest at certain frequencies, which were identified as eigenfrequencies of the unstable rock mass. In most cases the directions of maximum amplification are perpendicular to open cracks and in good agreement with the deformation directions obtained by geodetic measurements. Such unique signatures might improve our understanding of slope structure and stability. Thus we link observed vibration characteristics with available results of detailed geological characterization. This is supported by numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media with complex topography.For example, a potential relation between eigenfrequencies and unstable rock mass volume is investigated.

  5. 7 CFR 1703.112 - Expedited telecommunications loans (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited telecommunications loans 1703.112 Section... § 1703.112 Expedited telecommunications loans RUS will expedite consideration and determination of an application submitted by an RUS telecommunications borrower for a loan under the Act or an advance of such...

  6. The Importance of the Expedition in Adventure Education. (United States)

    March, Bill; Wattchow, Brian


    Traces types of expeditions in the history of civilization. Describes the following phases in the current expedition experience: (1) conceptualization/dream phase; (2) the preparation phase; (3) the action/reality phase; and (4) the reporting/reflective/processing phase. An expedition should be self-contained, have an element of challenge, and…

  7. The Hydromechanics of Vegetation for Slope Stabilization (United States)

    Mulyono, A.; Subardja, A.; Ekasari, I.; Lailati, M.; Sudirja, R.; Ningrum, W.


    Vegetation is one of the alternative technologies in the prevention of shallow landslide prevention that occurs mostly during the rainy season. The application of plant for slope stabilization is known as bioengineering. Knowledge of the vegetative contribution that can be considered in bioengineering was the hydrological and mechanical aspects (hydromechanical). Hydrological effect of the plant on slope stability is to reduce soil water content through transpiration, interception, and evapotranspiration. The mechanical impact of vegetation on slope stability is to stabilize the slope with mechanical reinforcement of soils through roots. Vegetation water consumption varies depending on the age and density, rainfall factors and soil types. Vegetation with high ability to absorb water from the soil and release into the atmosphere through a transpiration process will reduce the pore water stress and increase slope stability, and vegetation with deep root anchoring and strong root binding was potentially more significant to maintain the stability of the slope.

  8. Geological results of the Carstensz Expedition 1936

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dozy, J.J.; Erdman, D.A.; Jong, W.J.; Krol, G.L.; Schouten, C.


    The observations made during the Carstensz Expedition give the following impression of the geological structure of the Nassau mountains: 1. Possibly Lower Palaeozoic, Upper Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary (Tertiary c, d, e and f) rocks were found. 2. A granodioritic intrusion occurs with a contact

  9. The expediting resolutions of the Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Even before the Third Update of their Energy Programme was dismissed the Federal Government had decreed ten measures for expediting the licensing procedures for nuclear power plants in October. The statements of politicians, experts and a journalist are given. (orig./UA) [de

  10. Expedition medicine: A southern African perspective | Hofmeyr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A growing number of people are undertaking expeditions and adventure travel to previously inaccessible areas. The risks posed by increasing accessibility of remote regions and interest in extreme sports have not been fully obviated by modern equipment and communications. Therefore, there remains a requirement for ...

  11. Slope Estimation from ICESat/GLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Mahoney


    Full Text Available We present a novel technique to infer ground slope angle from waveform LiDAR, known as the independent slope method (ISM. The technique is applied to large footprint waveforms (\\(\\sim\\ mean diameter from the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS to produce a slope dataset of near-global coverage at \\(0.5^{\\circ} \\times 0.5^{\\circ}\\ resolution. ISM slope estimates are compared against high resolution airborne LiDAR slope measurements for nine sites across three continents. ISM slope estimates compare better with the aircraft data (R\\(^{2}=0.87\\ and RMSE\\(=5.16^{\\circ}\\ than the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM DEM inferred slopes (R\\(^{2}=0.71\\ and RMSE\\(=8.69^{\\circ}\\ ISM slope estimates are concurrent with GLAS waveforms and can be used to correct biophysical parameters, such as tree height and biomass. They can also be fused with other DEMs, such as SRTM, to improve slope estimates.

  12. Slope of the Slope Derivative Surface used to characterize the complexity of the seafloor around St. John, USVI (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope of slope was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell by applying the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst 'Slope' Tool to a previously created slope...

  13. Hydrosweep Measurements During the Expedition ARK XX-2 to Lena Trough and Western Gakkel Ridge (United States)

    Gauger, S.; Kohls, T.; Roeber, S.; Snow, J.


    The region of Lena Trough and Western Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean was the object of an expedition in the summer of 2004. This region is of particular geoscientific interest because of its extremely slow spreading rates and the variety of morphologic forms that are produced in this tectonic environment. Therefore, the multibeam measurement system was of particular importance to the scientific goals of the cruise. The main characteristic of the Hydrosweep DS-2 deep-water sounding system aboard RV Polarstern is the 90° or 120° coverage angle in which the seafloor is depicted with 59 specific values for water depths perpendicular to the ship's long axis. The accuracy of the measurement is approx. 1% of water depth, the frequency of the acoustic signal is 15.5 kHz. The refraction of the sonar beams was corrected by automatic crossfan calibration. By regular transmission and measurement of a sweep profile in the ship's longitudinal direction and comparison of the slant beams with the vertical beam, the mean sound velocity over the vertical water column is determined and is used for the depth computation. The data collected include depth, sidescan (2048 values per scan), and backscatter information on each of the 59 beams. During this cruise, the Lena Trough was surveyed systematically for the first time by a multibeam sonar system. The recorded area has an expanse of approx. 100000 km2 and connects previously mapped areas of the Eurasian - North-American plate boundary between Fram Strait and Gakkel Ridge. The region of Western Gakkel Ridge, mapped in 2001 (AMOR-Expedition) by RV Polarstern and USCGC Healy (USA), was extended by two more profiles (each 220 km long) along the ridge. In order to produce working maps for the expedition, the multibeam sonar data were gridded with a spacing of 50 m, producing plots with various contour line intervals. For further morphological interpretation of Lena Trough and Gakkel Ridge slope magnitude maps, slope direction maps and

  14. Alaskan North Slope Oil & Gas Transportation Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Michael Russell [Geo-Watersheds Scientific LLC, Fairbanks, AK (United States)


    early or risk being caught on ice roads with flooded stream crossings, or unusable sections of ice road due to local melt. These challenges result in higher oil and gas field exploration and operational costs. Much of the scientific understanding to address transportation issues for oil and gas development on the North Slope exists, but has not been placed into a set of tools and data sets useful for industry and management agencies. Optimizing North Slope transportation networks during winter operation seasons is critical in managing increasing resource development and will provide a framework for environmentally-responsive development. Understanding the physical environment (such as snow, water, ice, soils) is necessary to ensure protection of fisheries and other natural resources on the sensitive tundra landscape. Solutions also have to do more than just describe current conditions, they need the ability to forecast short-term conditions. This will allow management agencies to respond to future variability in snow cover, soil temperature, and water availability more effectively. In turn, industry will then have more time to plan the significant mobilization taking place every winter season.

  15. The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    By overcoming the barriers that limit access to financial liquidity and human resource, the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) can promote rural livelihood diversification. This paper examines this effect using a household survey data set spanning the 1999 implementation of the Sloping land c...

  16. Lattice calculus of the morphological slope transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk); P. Maragos


    textabstractThis paper presents a study of the morphological slope transform in the complete lattice framework. It discusses in detail the interrelationships between the slope transform at one hand and the (Young-Fenchel) conjugate and Legendre transform, two well-known concepts from convex

  17. Internal waves and temperature fronts on slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Thorpe

    Full Text Available Time series measurements from an array of temperature miniloggers in a line at constant depth along the sloping boundary of a lake are used to describe the `internal surf zone' where internal waves interact with the sloping boundary. More small positive temperature time derivatives are recorded than negative, but there are more large negative values than positive, giving the overall distribution of temperature time derivatives a small negative skewness. This is consistent with the internal wave dynamics; fronts form during the up-slope phase of the motion, bringing cold water up the slope, and the return flow may become unstable, leading to small advecting billows and weak warm fronts. The data are analysed to detect `events', periods in which the temperature derivatives exceed a set threshold. The speed and distance travelled by `events' are described. The motion along the slope may be a consequence of (a instabilities advected by the flow (b internal waves propagating along-slope or (c internal waves approaching the slope from oblique directions. The propagation of several of the observed 'events' can only be explained by (c, evidence that the internal surf zone has some, but possibly not all, the characteristics of the conventional 'surface wave' surf zone, with waves steepening as they approach the slope at oblique angles.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (benthic boundary layers; limnology, Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  18. Polar poisons: did Botulism doom the Franklin expedition? (United States)

    Horowitz, B Zane


    In 1845 the Franklin expedition left London with 2 ships and 134 men on board in an attempt to find the route through the Northwest Passage. The ships were built with state-of-the-art technology for their day, but provisioned with supplies from the lowest bidder. After taking on fresh provisions in the Whalefish Islands, off the coast of Greenland, the entire crew was never heard from again. Graves found on remote Beechey Island indicate that three able-bodied seamen died during the first winter. A note written on a ship's log, later found in a cairn, indicate that the expedition's leader, Sir John Franklin, died during the second winter entrapped on the ice, by which time 24 men had also perished. The remaining crew failed in their attempt to walk out of the Arctic by an overland route. In 1981 Owen Beattie, from the University of Alberta, exhumed the remains of the sailors from the three graves on Beechey Island. Elevated lead levels were found in all three sailors. While lead poisoning has been a leading theory of the cause of the crew's deaths, blamed on the crudely tinned provisions the ships carried with them from England, chronic lead exposure may only have weakened the crew, not necessarily killed them. One of three exhumed sailors also had in his intestine the spores of an unspecified Clostridium species. The theory put forth by this article is that Botulism, type E, which is endemic in the Arctic, may have been responsible for their deaths.

  19. Wave run-up on sandbag slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamnoon Rasmeemasmuang


    Full Text Available On occasions, sandbag revetments are temporarily applied to armour sandy beaches from erosion. Nevertheless, an empirical formula to determine the wave run -up height on sandbag slopes has not been available heretofore. In this study a wave run-up formula which considers the roughness of slope surfaces is proposed for the case of sandbag slopes. A series of laboratory experiments on the wave run -up on smooth slopes and sandbag slopes were conducted in a regular-wave flume, leading to the finding of empirical parameters for the formula. The proposed empirical formula is applicable to wave steepness ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 and to the thickness of placed sandbags relative to the wave height ranging from 0.17 to 3.0. The study shows that the wave run-up height computed by the formula for the sandbag slopes is 26-40% lower than that computed by the formula for the smooth slopes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Brazilian coffee farming is carried out both on flat and steep lands. In flat areas, mechanized operations are intensive; however, in steep slope areas, certain mechanized operations cannot be performed, such as harvesting. Based on this, the industry has developed machinery to harvest coffee in areas with up to 30% slope. However, harvesters have their efficiency and operational performance influenced by land slope. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the operational performance and harvesting efficiency of a steep-slope harvester under different situations, using different speed settings. The experiment was carried out in the county of Santo Antônio do Amparo, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using five coffee stands with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% slope. Evaluations were performed with a self-propelled harvester (Electron, TDI®, Araguari, MG, Brazil at three rotation speeds (600, 800 and 1.000 rpm and two ground speeds (800 and 1.000 m h-1. The results showed the lower speed (800 m h-1 was suitable for 10% slope areas since the amount of fallen coffee berries. For areas of 20% slope, harvesting time was 21.6% longer than in flatter areas. Downtime varied from 10.66 to 29.18% total harvest due to a higher number of maneuvers.

  1. Thermal Properties of Alaskan North Slope Soils. (United States)

    Overduin, P. P.; Kane, D. L.


    Climatic processes important to permafrost formation, maintenance and degradation have an annual to millennial timescale. The thin active layer, vegetation and snow above the permafrost can exert considerable influence on permafrost stability and react more rapidly than permafrost to climatic shifts. The thermal properties of this layer are thus important for the interpretation of permafrost data. We seek to predict bulk properties of a porous multiphase media based on state variables, bulk material properties and spatial phase densities. In this study, our objectives are: 1) to test thermal diffusivity probes in the field for the assessment of phase density, in particular of volumetric ice content and 2) to corroborate field studies with laboratory determinations of phase density and thermal diffusivity. We measure thermal properties and phase densities of a range of soils from the Alaskan North Slope, including high organic content and fine-grained mineral soils. Liquid water content is measured using time domain reflectometry to constrain the composition of the multiphase soil. Additional measurements of the soil's state are made using thermistors, heat flux plates and radial heat dissipation probes. The latter are thin films with embedded heat pulse wire and thermopiles to measure the radial thermal gradient response to temperature change. We report changes in thermal conductivity and diffusivity during freezing and thawing, and at different moisture contents and temperatures. The results for thermal conductivity and diffusivity as a function of phase density under field conditions are compared to those measured in the lab and to those calculated using empirical models.

  2. Mt. Kilimanjaro expedition in earth science education (United States)

    Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Narita, Kenji; Brettenny, Mark; Yule, Sheila; O'Toole, Michael; Brettenny, Rogeline


    Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain is 5,895 meters above sea level and is located 330 km south of the equator in Tanzania. In 1976 glaciers covered most of Mt. Kilimanjaro's summit; however in 2000, an estimated eighty percent of the ice cap has disappeared since the last thorough survey done in 1912. There is increased scientific interest in Mt. Kilimanjaro with the increase in global and African average temperatures. A team of college and pre-college school students from Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya, teachers from South Africa and the United States, and scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in the United States and Akita University in Japan, climbed to the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro in October 2009. They were accompanied by guides, porters, two expedition guests, and a videographer. This expedition was part of the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Project and the GLOBE Africa science education initiative, exploring and contributing to climate change studies. Students learned about earth science experientially by observing their physical and biological surroundings, making soil and air temperature measurements, participating in discussions, journaling their experience, and posing research questions. The international trekkers noted the change in the biomes as the altitude, temperature and conditions changed, from cultivated lands, to rain forest, heath zone, moorland, alpine desert, and summit. They also discovered permafrost, but not at the summit as expected. Rather, it was where the mountain was not covered by a glacier and thus more exposed to low extreme temperatures. This was the first report of permafrost on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Classrooms from all over the world participated in the expedition virtually. They followed the trek through the expedition website ( where pictures and journals were posted, and posed their own questions which were answered by the expedition and base camp team members

  3. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report (United States)


    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  4. Slope activity in Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.; McEwen, Alfred S.


    High-resolution repeat imaging of Aeolis Mons, the central mound in Gale crater, reveals active slope processes within tens of kilometers of the Curiosity rover. At one location near the base of northeastern Aeolis Mons, dozens of transient narrow lineae were observed, resembling features (Recurring Slope Lineae) that are potentially due to liquid water. However, the lineae faded and have not recurred in subsequent Mars years. Other small-scale slope activity is common, but has different spatial and temporal characteristics. We have not identified confirmed RSL, which Rummel et al. (Rummel, J.D. et al. [2014]. Astrobiology 14, 887–968) recommended be treated as potential special regions for planetary protection. Repeat images acquired as Curiosity approaches the base of Aeolis Mons could detect changes due to active slope processes, which could enable the rover to examine recently exposed material.

  5. Slope failure investigation management system : [research summary]. (United States)


    Highway slopes are exposed to a variety of environmental and climatic conditions, : such as deforestation, cycles of freezing and thawing weather, and heavy storms. : Over time, these climatic conditions, in combination with other factors such as : g...

  6. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type....

  7. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  8. Green technologies for reducing slope erosion. (United States)


    As climate change alters precipitation patterns, departments of transportation will increasingly face the problem of : slope failures, which already cost California millions of dollars in repair work annually. Caltrans hopes to prevent : these failur...

  9. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  10. 3D geodetic monitoring slope deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Gabriel


    Full Text Available For plenty of slope failures that can be found in Slovakia is necessary and very important their geodetic monitoring (because of their activity, reactivisations, checks. The paper gives new methodologies for these works, using 3D terrestrial survey technologies for measurements in convenient deformation networks. The design of an optimal type of deformation model for various kinds of landslides and their exact processing with an efficient testing procedure to determine the kinematics of the slope deformations are presented too.

  11. Numerical Computation of Homogeneous Slope Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Xiao


    Full Text Available To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759 were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS.

  12. Seasonal slope surface deformation measured with TLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, L; Smethurst, J; Powrie, W; Sellaiya, A


    In temperate European climates, soil water removal due to vegetation transpiration peaks in summer and soil rewetting from higher levels of precipitation occurs in winter. In clays of high plasticity, the seasonal cycles of drying and wetting cause the soil to experience a volumetric change, resulting in seasonal shrinking and swelling. For a clay slope exhibiting volume change, such behaviour can lead to excessive deformation and could contribute to strain-softening and progressive slope failure. This can in turn cause traffic disruption and loss of life if roads and railways are founded on or surrounded by such slopes. This paper discusses the driving forces of seasonal surface movement, in particular the role of vegetation, and presents the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to measure the surface movement of a lightly vegetated London Clay slope near Newbury, UK. Two TLS scans were carried out in early and late summer respectively, representing relative wet and dry conditions of the slope. Continuous field measurements of soil water content in upper layers of the slope were obtained from TDR ThetaProbes already installed at the site. The water content data are used to support the results obtained from TLS by indicating the likely volumetric change in the soil due to loss of water

  13. Automatic approach to deriving fuzzy slope positions (United States)

    Zhu, Liang-Jun; Zhu, A.-Xing; Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Jun-Zhi


    Fuzzy characterization of slope positions is important for geographic modeling. Most of the existing fuzzy classification-based methods for fuzzy characterization require extensive user intervention in data preparation and parameter setting, which is tedious and time-consuming. This paper presents an automatic approach to overcoming these limitations in the prototype-based inference method for deriving fuzzy membership value (or similarity) to slope positions. The key contribution is a procedure for finding the typical locations and setting the fuzzy inference parameters for each slope position type. Instead of being determined totally by users in the prototype-based inference method, in the proposed approach the typical locations and fuzzy inference parameters for each slope position type are automatically determined by a rule set based on prior domain knowledge and the frequency distributions of topographic attributes. Furthermore, the preparation of topographic attributes (e.g., slope gradient, curvature, and relative position index) is automated, so the proposed automatic approach has only one necessary input, i.e., the gridded digital elevation model of the study area. All compute-intensive algorithms in the proposed approach were speeded up by parallel computing. Two study cases were provided to demonstrate that this approach can properly, conveniently and quickly derive the fuzzy slope positions.

  14. Regional comparison of tundra carbon budget response over the Alaska North Slope to varying environmental conditions as informed by in situ and flux tower measurements, remote sensing and biophysical modeling (United States)

    Shirley, S.; Watts, J. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Zhang, Z.; Poulter, B.; Klene, A. E.; Jones, L. A.; Kim, Y.; Oechel, W. C.; Zona, D.; Euskirchen, E. S.


    A warming Arctic climate is contributing to shifts in landscape moisture and temperature regimes, a shortening of the non-frozen season, and increases in the depth of annual active layer. The changing environmental conditions make it difficult to determine whether tundra ecosystems are a carbon sink or source. At present, eddy covariance flux towers and biophysical measurements within the tower footprint provide the most direct assessment of change to the tundra carbon balance. However, these measurements have a limited spatial footprint and exist over relatively short timescales. Thus, terrestrial ecosystem models are needed to provide an improved understanding of how changes in landscape environmental conditions impact regional carbon fluxes. This study examines the primary drivers thought to affect the magnitude and variability of tundra-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 fluxes over the Alaska North Slope. Also investigated is the ability of biophysical models to capture seasonal flux characteristics over the 9 tundra tower sites examined. First, we apply a regression tree approach to ascertain which remotely sensed environmental variables best explain observed variability in the tower fluxes. Next, we compare flux estimates obtained from multiple process models including Terrestrial Carbon Flux (TCF) and the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Wald Schnee und Landschaft (LPJ-wsl), and Soil Moisture Active Passive Level 4 Carbon (SMAP L4_C) products. Our results indicate that out of 7 variables examined vegetation greenness, temperature, and moisture are more significant predictors of carbon flux magnitude over the tundra tower sites. This study found that satellite data-driven models, due to the ability of remote sensing instruments to capture the physical principles and processes driving tundra carbon flux, are more effective at estimating the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of CO2 and CH4 fluxes in northern high latitude ecosystems.

  15. Synergism Analysis of Bedding Slope with Piles and Anchor Cable Support under Sine Wave Vehicle Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dan-Feng


    Full Text Available Slope instability under dynamic load is the technical difficulty in the engineering; the evaluation of slope stability under dynamic load and the control of dynamic load is particularly important. In this paper, taking the right side slope of K27+140 m~380 m typical section (K27 slope for short in Chongqing Fuling-Fengdu-Shizhu expresses highway as an example to calculate and analyze. The K27 slope is under sinusoidal vehicle load and supported by anchor cable and antislide pile to resist downslide strength; at the same time, the combined effect of them is studied. Three-dimensional finite element methodology (FEM is used to simulate the bedding slope with piles and anchor cable support; furthermore, the eigenvalue can be obtained. In order to reduce error of the elastic boundary conditions caused by the reflection effect of wavelengths, the combination of Lysmer surface viscous boundary and traditional ground support boundaries is utilized to analyze and calculate the time-histories during bedding slope under dynamic load. The dynamic response of pile anchor support to resist sliding force is obtained. The concept of the pile anchor supporting coordinate interval is put forward. Furthermore, it is verified that the pile anchor supporting coordinate interval can be used to evaluate the stability of the slope under dynamic load and provide a new method for the control of the dynamic load.

  16. Sloping fan travertine, Belen, New Mexico, USA (United States)

    Cook, Megan; Chafetz, Henry S.


    Pliocene to Quaternary age travertines are very well-exposed in quarries near Belen, New Mexico, U.S.A., on the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift system. A series of hillside springs produced travertine tongues tens of meters thick and hundreds of meters long. The accumulations represent deposits from individual springs as well as the amalgamation of deposits. The overall architecture is predominantly composed of sloping fans with a smaller component of terrace mounds. The sloping fan deposits commonly have a dip of step morphology. As a consequence of vertical accretion in the pools, terrace mounds morphed into sloping fans. The travertine is composed of a variety of commonly reported constituents, i.e., centimeter thick laminae of bacterial shrubs and oncoids, foam rock, sheets and rafts, and finely crystalline crusts that occur throughout the sloping fan and terrace mound accumulations. Sheets and rafts formed as precipitates in pools on the surfaces of the fans and terraces as well as spelean deposits on the water surfaces of pools within cavities in the overall accumulation. Thus, the spelean rafts provide valuable indicators of original horizontality in the sloping fan strata. In addition, intraformational breccias, composed of locally torn-up travertine intraclastic boulders and deposited in with other travertine, and extraformational breccias, composed of torn-up travertine intraclasts mixed with siliciclastic fines and sand and Paleozoic limestone clasts transported downslope from higher on the hillside, are a common constituent in the sloping fan accumulation. The Belen travertines provide a very well-exposed example of sloping fan travertines and may provide relevant data with regard to the subsurface Aptian Pre-Salt deposits, offshore Brazil.

  17. Role of slope on infiltration: A review (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Govindaraju, Rao S.


    Partitioning of rainfall at the soil-atmosphere interface is important for both surface and subsurface hydrology, and influences many events of major hydrologic interest such as runoff generation, aquifer recharge, and transport of pollutants in surface waters as well as the vadose zone. This partitioning is achieved through the process of infiltration that has been widely investigated at the local scale, and more recently also at the field scale, by models that were designed for horizontal surfaces. However, infiltration, overland flows, and deep flows in most real situations are generated by rainfall over sloping surfaces that bring in additional effects. Therefore, existing models for local infiltration into homogeneous and layered soils and those as for field-scale infiltration, have to be adapted to account for the effects of surface slope. Various studies have investigated the role of surface slope on infiltration based on a theoretical formulations for the dynamics of infiltration, extensions of the Green-Ampt approach, and from laboratory and field experiments. However, conflicting results have been reported in the scientific literature on the role of surface slope on infiltration. We summarize the salient points from previous studies and provide plausible reasons for discrepancies in conclusions of previous authors, thus leading to a critical assessment of the current state of our understanding on this subject. We offer suggestions for future efforts to advance our knowledge of infiltration over sloping surfaces.

  18. Winter chemistry of North Slope lakes (United States)

    Chambers, M. K.; White, D. M.; Lilly, M. R.; Hinzman, L. D.; Hilton, K. M.; Busey, R.


    Lakes are important water resources on the North Slope of Alaska. Oilfield exploration and production requires water for facility use as well as transportation. Ice road construction requires winter extraction of fresh water. Since most North Slope lakes are relatively shallow, the quantity and quality of the water remaining under the ice by the end of the winter are important environmental management issues. Currently permits are based on the presence of overwintering fish populations and their sensitivity to low oxygen. Sampling during the winter of 2004 2005 sheds light on the winter chemistry of several pumped lakes and one unpumped lake on the North Slope. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and temperature profiles were taken along with ice thickness and water depth measurements. Water samples were extracted and analyzed for Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, DOC, and alkalinity in the laboratory. Lake properties, rather than pumping activities, were the best predictors of oxygen depletion, with the highest levels of dissolved oxygen maintained in the lake with the least dissolved constituents. As would be expected, specific conductance increased with depth in the lake while dissolved oxygen decreased with depth. Dissolved oxygen and specific conductance data suggested that the lakes began to refresh in May. The summarized data provides a view of North Slope lake chemistry trends, while continued studies investigate the chemical impacts of pumping North Slope lakes through continued sampling and modeling efforts.

  19. Leadership Status Congruency and Cohesion in Outdoor Expedition Groups (United States)

    Eys, Mark A.; Ritchie, Stephen; Little, Jim; Slade, Heather; Oddson, Bruce


    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between status congruency and group cohesion in outdoor expedition groups in an educational setting. Specifically, three aspects of status congruency were assessed in relation to group cohesion in four adventure canoe groups. The groups participated in 2-week expeditions in the…

  20. 8 CFR 235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 235.3 Section 235.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.3 Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. (a) Detention...

  1. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process. (United States)


    ... jurisdiction regarding criminal violations of law. [68 FR 35281, June 13, 2003] ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited internal review process. 287.10... OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.10 Expedited internal review process. (a) Violations of standards for...

  2. 17 CFR 201.500 - Expedited consideration of proceedings. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited consideration of proceedings. 201.500 Section 201.500 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Expedited consideration of proceedings. Consistent with the Commission's or the hearing officer's other...

  3. Cooperative Three-Robot System for Traversing Steep Slopes (United States)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Younse, Paulo; Garrett, Michael


    from all three robots for decision- making at each step, and to control the physical connections among the robots. In addition, TRESSA (as in prior systems that have utilized this architecture) , incorporates a capability for deterministic response to unanticipated situations from yet another architecture reported in Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing (NPO-43635), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 10 (October 2008), page 40. Tether tension control is a major consideration in the design and operation of TRESSA. Tension is measured by force sensors connected to each tether at the Cliffbot. The direction of the tension (both azimuth and elevation) is also measured. The tension controller combines a controller to counter gravitational force and an optional velocity controller that anticipates the motion of the Cliffbot. The gravity controller estimates the slope angle from the inclination of the tethers. This angle and the weight of the Cliffbot determine the total tension needed to counteract the weight of the Cliffbot. The total needed tension is broken into components for each Anchorbot. The difference between this needed tension and the tension measured at the Cliffbot constitutes an error signal that is provided to the gravity controller. The velocity controller computes the tether speed needed to produce the desired motion of the Cliffbot. Another major consideration in the design and operation of TRESSA is detection of faults. Each robot in the TRESSA system monitors its own performance and the performance of its teammates in order to detect any system faults and prevent unsafe conditions. At startup, communication links are tested and if any robot is not communicating, the system refuses to execute any motion commands. Prior to motion, the Anchorbots attempt to set tensions in the tethers at optimal levels for counteracting the weight of the Cliffbot; if either Anchorbot fails to reach its optimal tension level within a specified time, it sends

  4. Global Analysis of the Shallow Geology of Large-Scale Ocean Slopes. (United States)


    Geology of Baja California Con- tinental Borderland, Mexico. AAPG Bull., v. 61, n. 6, p. 903-917. Fornari, D., A. Malahoff, and B. Heezen (1979...elements of the slope environment and disregards much of the stratigraphy and structural geology except where related to outstanding acoustic response...structure of the slopes. Off the east coast of the United States, most submarine canyon walls are truncated sedimentary strata, whereas off the California

  5. [Current incidence of accidents on Austrian ski slopes]. (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Philippe, M; Sommersacher, R; Dünnwald, T; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M


    Alpine skiing and snowboarding are the most popular winter sports. These sports are also associated with a certain injury risk which, however, has steadily decreased during the past decades. During the winter season 2002/2003 the last large survey on ski injuries in Austria was performed. Among others, modern skiing equipment and optimized slope preparation may impact on the injury risk. We hypothesise that these changes may have led to a further decrease in ski injuries during the past decade. In the winter season 2012/2013, skiing injuries were recorded in 26 Austrian ski areas. Data were collected from rescue personnel on ski slopes and by physicians in the hospital or doctors practice with the help of a questionnaire. A total of 7325 injured skiers and snowboarders (age: 34.8 ± 17.8 years) were recorded (49 % males and 51 % females; 80 % skiers, 14 % snowboarders, 6 % others). The most frequent causes of injury were self-inflicted falls (87 %) and collisions with other skiers/snowboarders (8 %). Most affected injury locations among skiers were the knee (41 %; predominantly in female skiers, > 50 %), shoulder/back (18 %) and arms (10 %). Most affected injury locations among snowboarders were arms (38 %) and shoulder/back (23 %). Head injuries were found at the same frequency (8 %) in skiers and snowboarders. The calculated injury rate was about 0.6 injuries per 1000 skier days and has decreased by more than 50 % during the past decade. Modern skiing equipment and optimised slope preparation may be at least partly responsible for the decreased injury risk on ski slopes which is supported by the observation of a reduced falling frequency. Future preventive measures should focus on a reduction of knee injuries in female skiers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. NOAA Ocean Exploration 2002 Expeditions to Pacific Seafloor Spreading Centers: The Galápagos Rift and the Explorer Ridge (United States)

    McLean, C. N.; Hammond, S. R.


    The 2002 NOAA Ocean Exploration (OE) program, NOAA's contribution to an envisioned multi-agency effort to learn about unknown, or poorly known areas, processes, life, and cultural resources within the global ocean, began its first full expeditionary year with a return to the Galápagos Rift. This expedition, along with the Ring of Fire expedition to the Explorer Ridge in the northeast Pacific, exemplifies OE collaborative, interdisciplinary expeditions of ocean discovery. The OE program supported approximately about a dozen other major projects and expeditions during FY2002 (see and the program anticipates at least as vigorous a program of ocean exploration and discovery in FY2003. A hallmark of the OE program is its emphasis on bold, and sometimes relatively high-risk, science that will both augment and expand the horizons of research supported by NOAA as well as other funding entities. The Galápagos Rift expedition was an example of the OE program's ability to organize and field a major expedition within a relatively short period of time in response to an unanticipated opportunity. The purpose of the expedition was twofold, (1) to mark the 25th anniversary of the discovery of seafloor hydrothermal venting by continuing time-series observations at some of the original sites, (i.e., exploration in the time domain), especially, the Rose Garden hydrothermal vent site and, (2) to explore a portion of the rift to the west of these sites which was known only in terms of its bathymetry. Significant results of the cruise include discovery of the demise of the famous Rose Garden vent site (apparently brought about by a recent volcanic eruption) and discovery of a two new vent sites, one of which, Rosebud, is establishing itself on what appears to be a new lava flow. The Explorer Ridge expedition was a complex multi-institutional effort that was focused on exploring a poorly known, but intensely hydrothermally active, portion of the northeast

  7. Modern Slope Processes on the Moon (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Pine, P. K.; Shevrel, S. D.; Dadu, I.; Lu, Y.; Skobeleva, T. P.; Kvaratskhelia, O.; Rosemberg, K.


    Slope movements of material in lunar craters are investigated based on remote spectral studies carried out on board the Clementine spacecraft, and data obtained during the large-scale survey on board the LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbit) spacecraft. The morphological analysis of crater forms based on large-scale images and spectral and spectropolarized assessments of the exposition age (or maturity) of the slope material has led to the conclusion that the formation process of observed outcrops probably is a modern feature. The lower age limit of these structures is estimated at 40-80 years. Thus, slope movements of surface materials can continue at the present time, regardless of the age of the crater studied. Slope movements of crushed granular material lead to fresh outcrops of subsurface layers of marine or continental landscapes and, therefore, extend our capabilities to research the deep material of the Moon. To analyze this phenomenon, craters of 16 and 30 km have been selected. The length of fresh outcrops, while depending strongly on the dimensions of the craters, can be up to several kilometers. In connection with this, the prospect appears of remote analysis of rocks that came to the surface from depths of at least several hundred meters. In this case, there are openings for the contact analysis of subsurface material without the use of labor-intensive operations associated with the delivery of equipment for deep drilling to the lunar surface.

  8. Interrill soil erosion processes on steep slopes (United States)

    To date interrill erosion processes and regimes are not fully understood. The objectives are to 1) identify the erosion regimes and limiting processes between detachment and transport on steep slopes, 2) characterize the interactive effects between rainfall intensity and flow depth on sediment trans...

  9. Mathematics, Physics and Computer Sciences Dual slope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematics, Physics and Computer Sciences Dual slope integration technique to design a digital thermometer. S. F. AKANDE, E. D. DADOEM. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · · AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. VT USGS NED Slope (10 meter) - statewide (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Used ElevationDEM_DEM10M and the Arc/Info SLOPE command with the "PERCENT_RISE" and ".3048" Z_unit options to create this data layer. Input source...

  11. A Worthwhile Task to Teach Slope (United States)

    Wagener, Lauren L.


    Since mathematics is found in every aspect of life, it is important for teachers to provide experiences that help students find connections and develop an appreciation for math and its use in their lives outside school. Slope is an excellent example of a math concept that is usually taught without context or connection. In this article, the…

  12. Fractal Rock Slope Dynamics Anticipating a Collapse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paluš, Milan; Novotná, Dagmar; Zvelebil, Jiří


    Roč. 70 (2004), 036212 ISSN 1063-651X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/00/1055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fractal * scaling * unstable rock slope * collapse prediction * engineering geology Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.352, year: 2004

  13. A Novel Way To Practice Slope. (United States)

    Kennedy, Jane B.


    Presents examples of using a tic-tac-toe format to practice finding the slope and identifying parallel and perpendicular lines from various equation formats. Reports the successful use of this format as a review in both precalculus and calculus classes before students work with applications of analytic geometry. (JRH)

  14. On Front Slope Stability of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.


    The short communication presents application of the conventional Van der Meer stability formula for low-crested breakwaters for the prediction of front slope erosion of statically stable berm breakwaters with relatively high berms. The method is verified (Burcharth, 2008) by comparison with the r......The short communication presents application of the conventional Van der Meer stability formula for low-crested breakwaters for the prediction of front slope erosion of statically stable berm breakwaters with relatively high berms. The method is verified (Burcharth, 2008) by comparison...... with the reshaping of a large Norwegian breakwater exposed to the North Sea waves. As a motivation for applying the Van der Meer formula a discussion of design parameters related to berm breakwater stability formulae is given. Comparisons of front erosion predicted by the use of the Van der Meer formula with model...... test results including tests presented in Sigurdarson and Van der Meer (2011) are discussed. A proposal is presented for performance of new model tests with the purpose of developing more accurate formulae for the prediction of front slope erosion as a function of front slope, relative berm height...

  15. Advance in prediction of soil slope instabilities (United States)

    Sigarán-Loría, C.; Hack, R.; Nieuwenhuis, J. D.


    Six generic soils (clays and sands) were systematically modeled with plane-strain finite elements (FE) at varying heights and inclinations. A dataset was generated in order to develop predictive relations of soil slope instabilities, in terms of co-seismic displacements (u), under strong motions with a linear multiple regression. For simplicity, the seismic loads are monochromatic artificial sinusoidal functions at four frequencies: 1, 2, 4, and 6 Hz, and the slope failure criterion used corresponds to near 10% Cartesian shear strains along a continuous region comparable to a slip surface. The generated dataset comprises variables from the slope geometry and site conditions: height, H, inclination, i, shear wave velocity from the upper 30 m, vs30, site period, Ts; as well as the input strong motion: yield acceleration, ay (equal to peak ground acceleration, PGA in this research), frequency, f; and in some cases moment magnitude, M, and Arias intensity, Ia, assumed from empirical correlations. Different datasets or scenarios were created: "Magnitude-independent", "Magnitude-dependent", and "Soil-dependent", and the data was statistically explored and analyzed with varying mathematical forms. Qualitative relations show that the permanent deformations are highly related to the soil class for the clay slopes, but not for the sand slopes. Furthermore, the slope height does not constrain the variability in the co-seismic displacements. The input frequency decreases the variability of the co-seismic displacements for the "Magnitude-dependent" and "Soil-dependent" datasets. The empirical models were developed with two and three predictors. For the sands it was not possible because they could not satisfy the constrains from the statistical method. For the clays, the best models with the smallest errors coincided with the simple general form of multiple regression with three predictors (e.g. near 0.16 and 0.21 standard error, S.E. and 0.75 and 0.55 R2 for the "M

  16. The German-Tanzanian Tendaguru Expedition 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-D. Heinrich


    Full Text Available The celebrated fossil locality of Tendaguru (Tanzania, East Africa has been well known for its unique Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages since the early decades of the 20th century. Recently, within the scope of the German-Tanzanian Tendaguru project, an expedition returned to Tendaguru with the aim of collecting microvertebrates, micro- and macroinvertebrates, plant fossils and new sedimentological and stratigraphical data. Applying a multidisciplinary research approach, the data collected were used to address various controversial issues regarding the Tendaguru Beds. These include their exact age, depositional environments and reconstructions of the palaeoecosystems in which the dinosaurs lived. Field work resulted in a new standard section for the Tendaguru Beds. Preliminary biostratigraphic results, based on ammonites, charophytes and palynomorphs, support a Late Kimmeridgian age for the Nerinea Bed, an early Tithonian age for the Trigonia smeei Bed, and an Early Cretaceous (possibly Valanginian to Hauterivian age for the Trigonia schwarzi Bed. Facies analysis of the Tendaguru Beds indicates environments ranging from storm- and tide-influenced, siliciclastic coastal barrier systems, ooid sand bar complexes and backbarrier tidal flats to sabkha-like coastal plains with brackish lakes and pools. Sedimentological indicators of palaeoclimate and palynological data point to a subtropical to tropical climate with pronounced dry seasons. In concert with sedimentological data, quantitative palaeoecological analysis of macroinvertebrates helped to finetune understanding of environmental factors such as substrate conditions, salinity, sedimentation rate and water depth. Along with abundant microvertebrate remains and fragments of fusain and cuticles, these new data have considerably improved our knowledge of the fauna and flora found in the Tendaguru Beds, and provide a solid basis for developing a better understanding of the Late Jurassic and Early

  17. Desirable plant root traits for protecting unstable slopes against landslides (United States)

    Stokes, A.; Atger, C.; Bengough, G.; Fourcaud, T.; Sidle, R. C.


    A trait is defined as a distinct, quantitative property of organisms, usually measured at the individual level and used comparatively across species. Plant quantitative traits are extremely important for understanding the local ecology of any site. Plant height, architecture, root depth, wood density, leaf size and leaf nitrogen concentration control ecosystem processes and define habitat for other taxa. An engineer conjecturing as to how plant traits may directly influence physical processes occurring on sloping land just needs to consider how e.g. canopy architecture and litter properties influence the partitioning of rainfall among interception loss, infiltration and runoff. Plant traits not only influence abiotic processes occurring at a site, but also the habitat for animals and invertebrates. Depending on the goal of the landslide engineer, the immediate and long-term effects of plant traits in an environment must be considered if a site is to remain viable and ecologically successful. When vegetation is considered in models of slope stability, usually the only root parameters taken into consideration are tensile strength and root area ratio. Root system spatial structure is not considered, although the length, orientation and diameter of roots are recognized as being of importance. Thick roots act like soil nails on slopes, reinforcing soil in the same way that concrete is reinforced with steel rods. The spatial position of these thick roots also has an indirect effect on soil fixation in that the location of thin and fine roots will depend on the arrangement of thick roots. Thin and fine roots act in tension during failure on slopes and if they cross the slip surface, are largely responsible for reinforcing soil on slopes. Therefore, the most important trait to consider initially is rooting depth. To stabilize a slope against a shallow landslide, roots must cross the shear surface. The number and thickness of roots in this zone will therefore largely

  18. IODP Expedition 334: An Investigation of the Sedimentary Record, Fluid Flow and State of Stress on Top of the Seismogenic Zone of an Erosive Subduction Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vannucchi


    Full Text Available The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP is an experiment to understand the processes that control nucleation and seismic rupture of large earthquakes at erosional subduction zones. Integrated Ocean Drililng Program (IODP Expedition 334 by R/V JOIDES Resolution is the first step toward deep drilling through the aseismic and seismicplate boundary at the Costa Rica subduction zone offshore the Osa Peninsula where the Cocos Ridge is subducting beneath the Caribbean plate. Drilling operations included logging while drilling (LWD at two slope sites (Sites U1378 and U1379 and coring at three slope sites (Sites U1378–1380and at one site on the Cocos plate (Site U1381. For the first time the lithology, stratigraphy, and age of the slope and incoming sediments as well as the petrology of the subducting Cocos Ridge have been characterized at this margin.The slope sites recorded a high sediment accumulation rate of 160–1035m m.y.-1 possibly caused by on-land uplift triggered by the subduction of the Cocos Ridge. The geochemical data as well as the in situ temperature data obtained at the slope sites suggest that fluids are transported from greater depths. The geochemical profiles at Site U1381 reflect diffusional communication of a fluid with seawater-likechemistry and the igneous basement of the Cocos plate (Solomon et al., 2011; Vannucchi et al., 2012a. The present-day in situ stress orientation determined by borehole breakouts at Site U1378 in the middle slope and Site U1379 in the upper slope shows a marked change in stress state within ~12 km along the CRISP transect; that maycorrespond to a change from compression (middle slope to extension (upper slope.

  19. Agricultural terraces and slope instability at Cinque Terre (NW Italy) (United States)

    Brandolini, Pierluigi; Cevasco, Andrea


    Cinque Terre, located in the eastern Liguria, are one of the most representative examples of terraced coastal landscape within the Mediterranean region. They are the result of a century-old agricultural practice and constitute an outstanding example of human integration with the natural landscape. For this highly unusual man-made coastal landscape, the Cinque Terre have been recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 1997 and became National Park in 1999. The complex network of retaining dry stone walls and drainage networks ensured through times the control of shallow water erosion and therefore, indirectly, favoured debris cover stability. The lack of maintenance of terracing due to farmer abandonment since the 1950s led to widespread slope erosion phenomena. The effects of such phenomena culminated during the 25 October 2011 storm rainfall event, when slope debris materials charged by streams gave rise to debris floods affecting both Monterosso and Vernazza villages. As the analysis of the relationships between geo-hydrological processes and land use in the Vernazza catchment highlighted, abandoned and not well maintained terraces were the most susceptible areas to shallow landsliding and erosion triggered by intense rainfall. As a consequence, the thousands of kilometres of dry stone walls retaining millions of cubic metres of debris cover at Cinque Terre currently constitute a potential menace for both villages, that are mainly located at the floor of deep cut valleys, and tourists. Given the increasing human pressure due to tourist activities, geo-hydrological risk mitigation measures are urgently needed. At the same time, restoration policies are necessary to preserve this extraordinary example of terraced coastal landscape. In this framework, the detailed knowledge of the response of terraced areas to intense rainfall in terms of slope instability is a topic issue in order to identify adequate land planning strategies as well as the areas where

  20. Introduction of inclined open channels for the control of surface runoff of slopes in road structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hniad O.


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of water erosion induced by runoff speeds at the surface of the embankments causes their instability. Particularly in road environments, gullying on the slope's surface due to runoffs causes landslides, which in turn cause considerable damage and consequent disorders to the road network. The aim of this research is to put in place a new technology for superficial water drainage on slope surfaces. Our study has developed a methodology involving the change of the geometric configuration of the water flow, aiming at velocity control of the flows by choosing slanting waterways with small slopes coupled to vertical drains. A modelling of the proposed solution will evaluate its effectiveness as to prevent the erosive factor and to identify other factors that are responsible for slope disorders.

  1. SlamZ: Slide activity on the Hikurangi margin, New Zealand - First results of the RV Sonne expedition SO247 (United States)

    Huhn, Katrin; Kukowski, Nina; Freudenthal, Tim; Crutchley, Gareth; Goepel, Andreas; Henrys, Stuart; Kasten, Sabine; Kaul, Norbert; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Mountjoy, Joshu; Orpin, Alan; Pape, Thomas; Schwarze, Cornelius; Totsche, Kai-Uwe; Torres, Marta; Villinger, Heiner


    Submarine landslides are important geologic hazards. Although they have been the focus of research for decades, there is still a clear lack in knowledge with respect to the interplay between tectonic movements, slope architecture and sediment physical properties of slope strata, as well as gas hydrate dissociation as controlling factors of slope stability or respectively slope failure processes. The main scientific goal of the Sonne expedition SO247 undertaken in spring 2016 was to gain a better understanding of the factors controlling slope destabilization, especially the interaction of tectonic steepening and gas hydrate transformation, at different tectonic settings along the Hikurangi subduction zone east of New Zealand's North Island. This active continental margin is characterized by various potential triggers for slope failure, e.g. (I) a wide range of tectonic movements which are associated with high seismicity, numerous active faults, sediment uplift and slope over-steepening, and (II) large gas hydrate deposits whose current upper stability limit in some places correlates with the breakoff points of slides. The target areas of SO247 were the frontal accretionary ridge at Rock Garden and the Tuaheni landslide complex (TLC) further north offshore Gisborne. Bathymetric as well as high-resolution seismic reflection and Parasound data were used to select suitable position for 53 gravity cores with a total length of 150 m which were recovered along systematic transects from the undisturbed slope sections to the slid masses in both working areas. In addition, six long sediment cores (three in both working areas) with a total length of approx. 470 m were drilled utilizing the MARUM Bremen drill rig MeBo200. These include a 105 m long continuous sediment core (core recovery > 95%) from an undisturbed slope section in the vicinity of the Tuaheni slide complex. This core represented the first long (i.e. longer than 50 m) sediment record from the Hikurangi margin

  2. The effects of slope length and slope gradient on the size distributions of loess slides: Field observations and simulations (United States)

    Qiu, Haijun; Cui, Peng; Regmi, Amar Deep; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuzhu


    In this study, we characterize and consider the effects of slope length and slope gradient on the size distributions of loess slides. To carry out this study, we employ data on 275 loess slides within Zhidan County, Central Loess Plateau, China. These data were collected in the field and supplemented by the interpretation of remote sensing images. Both the field observations and slope stability analysis show that loess slide size increases with the slope length. Slide sizes is significantly correlated with slope length, showing a power law relationship in both cases. However, the simulation results show that slope gradient is not associated with loess slide size. The main part of the link between slope gradient and slide size seen in the observations is only apparent, as indicated by the strong connection between slope gradient and length. Statistical analysis of the field observations reveals that slope gradient decreases with increasing slope length, and this correlation interferes with the potential relationship between landslide sizes and slope gradient seen in the field observations. In addition, the probability densities of the areas of loess slides occurring on slopes of different slope lengths are determined using kernel density estimation. This analysis shows that slope length controls the rollover of the frequency-size distribution of loess slides. The scaling exponent increases with slope length.

  3. Slope parameters of ππ-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, P.S.; Osipov, A.A.


    The slope parameters of the ππ-system are calculated in the framework of the superconductor-tupe quark model. The analogous calculations are made for πK-system. The amplitudes are obtained by using the box quark diagrams and tree diagrams with the intermediate scalar epsilon(700), Ssup(x)(975), K tilde (1350) mesons and vector rho(770), K* (892) mesons

  4. Interrill soil erosion processes on steep slopes (United States)

    Zhang, X. C. (John); Wang, Z. L.


    To date interrill erosion processes are not fully understood under different rainfall and soil conditions. The objectives are to 1) identify the interrill erosion regime and limiting process under the study condition, 2) characterize the interactive effects of rainfall intensity and flow depth on sediment transport competency and mode, and 3) develop a lumped interrill erosion model. A loess loam soil with 39% sand and 45% silt was packed to flumes and exposed to simulated rainfall. A complete factorial design with three factors was used, which included rainfall intensity (48, 62, 102, 149, and 170 mm h-1), slope gradient (17.6, 26.8, 36.4, 46.6, and 57.7%), and slope length (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2 m). Rain splash, sediment discharge in runoff, and flow velocity were measured. Results showed that rainfall intensity played a dual role not only in detaching soil materials but also in enhancing sediment transport. Sediment transport was the process limiting interrill erosion rate under the study condition. Two major sediment transport modes were identified: rainfall-driven rolling/creeping and flow-driven rolling/sliding. The relative importance of each mode was largely determined by flow depth. The competence of the flow in transporting sediment decreased downslope as flow depth increased due to increased dissipation of raindrop energy. The optimal mean flow depth for the maximal interrill erosion rates was erosion rate. The negative correlation seemed stronger for heavier rains, indicating the cushioning effects of flow depth. Lumped interrill erosion models, developed from short slopes, are likely to overestimate erosion rates. Given transport as the limiting process, the so called erodibility value, estimated with those models, is indeed sediment transportability under the study condition. The effects of slope length on interrill erosion regimes need to be studied further under a wider range of conditions.

  5. The sloping land conversion program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen; Lan, Jing


    Through addressing the motivations behind rural households’ livelihood diversification, this paper examines the effect of the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) on livelihood diversification using a longitudinal household survey data set spanning the overall implementation of the SLCP. Our...... results show that the SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention to increase rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the implementation of the SLCP has had heterogeneous effects on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower...

  6. Ocean processes at the Antarctic continental slope. (United States)

    Heywood, Karen J; Schmidtko, Sunke; Heuzé, Céline; Kaiser, Jan; Jickells, Timothy D; Queste, Bastien Y; Stevens, David P; Wadley, Martin; Thompson, Andrew F; Fielding, Sophie; Guihen, Damien; Creed, Elizabeth; Ridley, Jeff K; Smith, Walker


    The Antarctic continental shelves and slopes occupy relatively small areas, but, nevertheless, are important for global climate, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem functioning. Processes of water mass transformation through sea ice formation/melting and ocean-atmosphere interaction are key to the formation of deep and bottom waters as well as determining the heat flux beneath ice shelves. Climate models, however, struggle to capture these physical processes and are unable to reproduce water mass properties of the region. Dynamics at the continental slope are key for correctly modelling climate, yet their small spatial scale presents challenges both for ocean modelling and for observational studies. Cross-slope exchange processes are also vital for the flux of nutrients such as iron from the continental shelf into the mixed layer of the Southern Ocean. An iron-cycling model embedded in an eddy-permitting ocean model reveals the importance of sedimentary iron in fertilizing parts of the Southern Ocean. Ocean gliders play a key role in improving our ability to observe and understand these small-scale processes at the continental shelf break. The Gliders: Excellent New Tools for Observing the Ocean (GENTOO) project deployed three Seagliders for up to two months in early 2012 to sample the water to the east of the Antarctic Peninsula in unprecedented temporal and spatial detail. The glider data resolve small-scale exchange processes across the shelf-break front (the Antarctic Slope Front) and the front's biogeochemical signature. GENTOO demonstrated the capability of ocean gliders to play a key role in a future multi-disciplinary Southern Ocean observing system.

  7. Slope and curvature of microbreaking wind waves (United States)

    Caulliez, G.


    Microscale breaking is commonly observed at sea for steep waves less than 30 cm in wavelength. This phenomenon generates high surface slope and curvature roughness at the water surface, which has numerous implications for air-sea exchange and remote-sensing studies. In particular, microbreaking affects momentum transfer from wind to waves, leads to formation of vortices in water, and plays a key role in scattering of electromagnetic and acoustic waves by the air-sea interface. The geometric properties of the parasitic capillaries generated upon steep steady gravity-capillary waves have been well studied over the last decades, both experimentally and numerically. However, owing to their variability, the basic features of naturally occurring wind wave breakers as observed at sea or even in laboratory are far from being identified up to now. To this end, an experimental investigation of microbreaking wind waves was made in a large wind wave tank which combined visualizations of wave breaker profiles with single-point wave elevation and slope measurements. We show that microscale breakers exhibit a characteristic signature in slope and curvature suggesting formation of a bulge on the forward face of the wave crest. Parasitic ripples however are not necessarily generated ahead the bulge. Such breakers are observed for a wide range of wave steepness and wave slope skewness, their structure being only weakly dependent on wavelength and wind forcing. The geometric properties of microbreakers are analysed statistically and compared with the results of the recent numerical simulations by Hung and Tsai (J. Phys. Oceanogr., 2009).

  8. Transhumanism, medical technology and slippery slopes


    McNamee, M J; Edwards, S D


    In this article, transhumanism is considered to be a quasi‐medical ideology that seeks to promote a variety of therapeutic and human‐enhancing aims. Moderate conceptions are distinguished from strong conceptions of transhumanism and the strong conceptions were found to be more problematic than the moderate ones. A particular critique of Boström's defence of transhumanism is presented. Various forms of slippery slope arguments that may be used for and against transhumanism are discussed and on...

  9. 32 CFR 1800.34 - Requests for expedited processing. (United States)


    ... COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Additional Administrative Matters § 1800.34 Requests for expedited processing. (a) In general. All requests will be handled...

  10. The Twelfth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica: Events and achievements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The twelfth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica comprising 56 members coming from different scientific organisations/institutions and the logistic contingent from three wings of defense services was flagged off by Shri Ravi Naik, Honourable...

  11. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation (United States)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama


    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  12. Biological results of the Snellius expedition : XXIX. Echinodermata, Asteroidea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jangoux, M.


    Twenty-eight species of starfish were collected during the Snellius Expedition (19291930). The collection contains seven rare or uncommon species, i.e., Astropecten novaeguineae, A. sumbawanus, Celerina heffernani, Fromia eusticha, Disasterina abnormalis, Nepanthia briareus and Echinaster

  13. The Russian-Swedish tundra radioecology expedition 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.; Holm, E.; Carlsson, K.Aa.; Josefsson, D.; Roos, P.


    The expedition investigated the ecology of the anthropogenic radio nuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 239,240 Pu in the Northern Sea to explain the origin from different sources. It had been shown from an earlier expedition that the levels of 137 Cs are higher in the central Arctic Ocean than further south in Barents Sea. The question was if this was due to inflow from the Atlantic or is due to other origin. The expedition also examined the outflow of 90 Sr from the rivers along the Siberian coast in order to investigate if the permafrost enhances the run-off of radionuclides from tundra. Study of anthropogenic radionuclides in the mixing zone between fresh and salt water at the different river systems along the Siberian coast was of particular interest. Some of the results from the expedition are presented in the present paper. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Calanoid copepods of the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Devi, K.S.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Saraswathy, M.

    The distribution of calanoid copepods is discussed based on the subsorted taxa of the International Indian Ocean Expedition samples. Of the 32 calanoid taxa only 17 groups were considered as significant components. The family Eycalanidae...

  15. Behavioral Issues Associated With Long Duration Space Expeditions: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals (United States)

    Struster, Jack


    Personal journals maintained by NASA astronauts during six-month expeditions onboard the International Space Station were analyzed to obtain information concerning a wide range of behavioral and human factors issues. Astronauts wrote most about their work, followed by outside communications (with mission control, family, and friends), adjustment to the conditions, interactions with crew mates, recreation/leisure, equipment (installation, maintenance), events (launches, docking, hurricanes, etc.), organization/management, sleep, and food. The study found evidence of a decline in morale during the third quarters of the missions and identified key factors that contribute to sustained adjustment and optimal performance during long-duration space expeditions. Astronauts reported that they benefited personally from writing in their journals because it helped maintain perspective on their work and relations with others. Responses to questions asked before, during, and after the expeditions show that living and working onboard the ISS is not as difficult as the astronauts anticipate before starting their six-month tours of duty. Recommendations include application of study results and continuation of the experiment to obtain additional data as crew size increases and operations evolve.

  16. Modelling Progressive Failure in Rock-slopes (United States)

    Pons, M. Güell I.; Jaboyedoff, M.


    Rock failures are common in Alpine mountain chains and pose a threat to life and infrastructures. In general, rock slope stability is an interplay between existing discontinuities and development of new ones in intact material. In this work, we study progressive failure by means of numerical methods at multiple scales and using distinct element methods (DEM). Distinct element methods are of advantage because they account for discontinuities and are able to simulate the development of failure in time. The use of micro-parameters instead of constitutive laws allows studying the influence of heterogeneities present in the rock mass. In the first case, the code PFC-2D is used at the slope scale to test the influence of the slope geometry, the joint sets distribution and the joint set persistence in the case of toppling failures under various triggering mechanisms. Heterogeneity properties (cohesion and friction angle) are distributed randomly to simulate natural rock variability. In the second case, a cellular automata model, which is based on concepts of progressive failure in disordered systems, is used to explain the role of heterogeneities in the fracture process at a small scale. The results provide a link to time-to-failure predictions observed in some field cases. This study aims to be a base for the development of a model which permits to understand why some rock masses accelerate until global failure while other are capable to stabilize under the same conditions.

  17. Progress in Predicting Rock-Slope Failures (United States)

    Korup, O.


    Recent research on predicting landslides has seen a massive increase in statistical and computational methods that are largely adapted from the fields of machine learning and data mining. Judging from a sample of some 150 recent scientific papers, the gross majority of the reported success rates of these statistical methods are overwhelmingly high and promising at between 71% and 98%. Perhaps surprisingly, though, the death toll and damage from landslides has remained elevated in the early 21st century, so that reliably predicting the occurrence of rock-slope failures without overfitting our models remains challenging. Here I review some of the recent advances in this field, and show how novel results from landslide seismology and landslide sedimentology have promoted our ability of detecting large rock-slope failures in mountainous terrain. Several new detailed investigations of the internal nature of large rockslide deposits, for example, help to reduce the confusion potential with macroscopically similar moraine debris, or microscopically similar fault breccia. I further outline some of the limitations of empirical models that use rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for landslide early warning, and of multivariate methods concerned with mapping landslide susceptibility at the regional scale. I conclude by discussing the occurrence of 'black swans' such as long-runout rock-ice avalanches in size distributions of rock-slope failures, and their implications for quantitative hazard appraisals.

  18. Statistics of the slope-method estimator. (United States)

    Rocadenbosch, F; Comerón, A; Albiol, L


    The slope method has customarily been used and is still used for inversion of atmospheric optical parameters, extinction, and backscatter in homogeneous atmospheres from lidar returns. Our aim is to study the underlying statistics of the old slope method and ultimately to compare its inversion performance with that of the present-day nonlinear least-squares solution (the so-called exponential-curve fitting). The contents are twofold: First, an analytical study is conducted to characterize the bias and the mean-square-estimation error of the regression operator, which permits estimation of the optical parameters from the logarithm of the range-compensated lidar return. Second, universal plots for most short- and far-range tropospheric backscatter lidars are presented as a rule of thumb for obtaining the optimum regression interval length that yields unbiased estimates. As a result, the simple graphic basis of the slope method is still maintained, and its inversion performance improves up to that of the present-day computer-oriented exponential-curve fitting, which ends the controversy between these two algorithms.

  19. Geotechnical properties of cemented sands in steep slopes (United States)

    Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.


    An investigation into the geotechnical properties specific to assessing the stability of weakly and moderately cemented sand cliffs is presented. A case study from eroding coastal cliffs located in central California provides both the data and impetus for this study. Herein, weakly cemented sand is defined as having an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of less than 100 kPa, and moderately cemented sand is defined as having UCS between 100 and 400 kPa. Testing shows that both materials fail in a brittle fashion and can be modeled effectively using linear Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters, although for weakly cemented sands, curvature of the failure envelope is more evident with decreasing friction and increasing cohesion at higher confinement. Triaxial tests performed to simulate the evolving stress state of an eroding cliff, using a reduction in confinement-type stress path, result in an order of magnitude decrease in strain at failure and a more brittle response. Tests aimed at examining the influence of wetting on steep slopes show that a 60% decrease in UCS, a 50% drop in cohesion, and 80% decrease in the tensile strength occurs in moderately cemented sand upon introduction to water. In weakly cemented sands, all compressive, cohesive, and tensile strength is lost upon wetting and saturation. The results indicate that particular attention must be given to the relative level of cementation, the effects of groundwater or surficial seepage, and the small-scale strain response when performing geotechnical slope stability analyses on these materials. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  20. Communicating polar sciences to school children through a scientific expedition (United States)

    Lacarra, Maite; Lamarque, Gaelle; Koenig, Zoé; Bourgain, Pascaline; Mathilde Thierry, Anne


    APECS-France, the French national committee of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), was created in 2013 to improve the dissemination of polar sciences towards the general public and school children in particular, through activities developed in French for French schools. During the autumn of 2014, a young polar oceanographer from the University Pierre and Marie Curie, Zoé Koenig, participated in an expedition on board a sailing vessel in the Southern Ocean. APECS-France set up a new education and outreach project called "Zoé en Expé". Using different media, about 800 children, aged 6 to 12, and from 40 schools, were actively involved in the project. Interactions between Zoé and the students occurred before, during, and after the expedition, through a newsletter, a blog updated in real-time during the expedition, webinars (interactive video-conferences), and visits in classrooms when possible. Teachers were given a list of websites dedicated to polar and oceanographic science outreach and activities adapted to the age and level of the students were offered. Different activities were developed around the expedition, depending on teachers' objectives and children affinities. In particular, students were able to relate to the expedition by imagining a day in the life of Chippy, the mascot of the expedition. They were then asked to draw and/or write Chippy's adventures. APECS-France is now planning to edit a children's book using students' drawings as well as photographs taken during the expedition. Older students were also able to follow in real-time sensors released in the Southern Ocean by Zoé, measuring salinity and temperature. Throughout this 3-month project, children were able to study a wide range of topics (oceanography, biology, history, geography…). The expedition and the educational project allowed raising the awareness of children about the fragile and badly known Antarctic environment.

  1. Slope aspect influences arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities in arid ecosystems of the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, North China. (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Rong; Bai, Shulan; Bai, Yv E; Wang, Jugang


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis plays an important role in ecosystem functioning, particularly in fragile environments. Little is known, however, about how AM fungus community composition responds to slope aspect. Our objective was to compare the AM fungus communities between sunny and shady slopes and to detect factors that influenced the distributions of AM fungi in arid ecosystems of the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, North China. AM fungus communities were evaluated based on small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSUs) using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. AM fungus community composition differed significantly between slope aspects, and sunny slopes had significantly higher AM fungus diversity and richness as well as spore density, total root colonization, arbuscule abundance, vesicle abundance, and hyphal colonization than shady slopes. Structural equation modeling (SEM) illustrated that the effects of slope aspect on AM fungus richness likely were mediated by available phosphorus, soil organic carbon, plant cover, and plant diversity. Available phosphorus was the principal factor that influenced AM fungus species richness, and soil organic carbon was the principal factor influencing spore density and total root colonization, suggesting that these factors especially might be responsible for differences between the AM fungus communities of different slope aspects. These findings elucidate the influence of slope aspect on AM fungus communities and may inform use of AM fungi in protection and restoration of vegetation with different slope aspects in arid ecosystems.

  2. HDMR methods to assess reliability in slope stability analyses (United States)

    Kozubal, Janusz; Pula, Wojciech; Vessia, Giovanna


    Stability analyses of complex rock-soil deposits shall be tackled considering the complex structure of discontinuities within rock mass and embedded soil layers. These materials are characterized by a high variability in physical and mechanical properties. Thus, to calculate the slope safety factor in stability analyses two issues must be taken into account: 1) the uncertainties related to structural setting of the rock-slope mass and 2) the variability in mechanical properties of soils and rocks. High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) (Chowdhury et al. 2009; Chowdhury and Rao 2010) can be used to carry out the reliability index within complex rock-soil slopes when numerous random variables with high coefficient of variations are considered. HDMR implements the inverse reliability analysis, meaning that the unknown design parameters are sought provided that prescribed reliability index values are attained. Such approach uses implicit response functions according to the Response Surface Method (RSM). The simple RSM can be efficiently applied when less than four random variables are considered; as the number of variables increases, the efficiency in reliability index estimation decreases due to the great amount of calculations. Therefore, HDMR method is used to improve the computational accuracy. In this study, the sliding mechanism in Polish Flysch Carpathian Mountains have been studied by means of HDMR. The Southern part of Poland where Carpathian Mountains are placed is characterized by a rather complicated sedimentary pattern of flysh rocky-soil deposits that can be simplified into three main categories: (1) normal flysch, consisting of adjacent sandstone and shale beds of approximately equal thickness, (2) shale flysch, where shale beds are thicker than adjacent sandstone beds, and (3) sandstone flysch, where the opposite holds. Landslides occur in all flysch deposit types thus some configurations of possible unstable settings (within fractured rocky

  3. Expedited response action proposal for 316-5 process trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A summary of the evaluation of remedial alternatives for the 300 Area Process Trench sediment removal at Hanford is presented. Based on the preliminary technology screening, screening factors, and selection criteria the preferred alternative for the 300 Area Process Trench is to remove and interim stabilize the sediments within the fenced area of the process trenches. This alternative involves proven technologies that are applied easily at this mixed waste site. This alternative removes and isolates contaminated sediments from the active portion of the trenches allowing continued used of the trenches until an inspection and treatment facility is constructed. The alternative does not incorporate any materials or actions that preclude consideration of a technology for final remediation of the operable unit. The estimated initial and annual costs would enable this alternative to be implemented under the guidelines for an EPA- funded ERA ($2 million). Implementation of the alternative can be accomplished with trained personnel using familiar procedures to provide a safe operation that accomplishes the objective for removing a potential source of contamination, thereby reducing potential environmental threat to groundwater. 18 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  4. [Characteristics of Soil Respiration along Eroded Sloping Land with Different SOC Background on the Hilly Loess Plateau]. (United States)

    Chen, Gai; Xu, Ming-xiang; Zhang, Ya-feng; Wang, Chao-hua; Fan, Hui-min; Wang, Shan-shan


    This study aimed to characterize soil respiration along eroded sloping land at erosion and deposition area under different soil organic carbon(SOC) levels, and linked the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil moisture, SOC and slope position. Experiments were carried out in the plots of S type slopes include five different soil organic carbon levels in the Loess Hilly Region. The S type slopes were divided into control area at the top of the slope, erosion area at the middle of the slope and deposition area at the toe of the slope. We found that soil temperature had a greater impact on soil respiration in the deposition area, whereas soil moisture had a greater impact on soil respiration in the erosion area compared among control area, erosion area and deposition area. In addition, SOC was the most important factor affecting soil respiration, which can explain soil respiration variation 54. 72%, followed by soil moisture, slope position and soil temperature, which explain soil respiration variation 18. 86% , 16. 13% and 10. 29%, respectively. Soil respiration response to erosion showed obvious on-site and off-site effects along the eroded sloping land. Soil respiration in the erosion area was reduced by 21. 14% compared with control area, and soil respiration in the deposition area was increased by 21. 93% compared with control area. Erosion effect on source and sink of carbon emission was correlated with SOC content of the eroded sloping land. When SOC content was higher than 6. 82, the slope. erosion tended to be a carbon sequestration process, and when SOC content was lower than 3.03, the slope erosion tended to be a process of the carbon emission source. The model could reflect the relationship between soil respiration and independent variables of soil organic carbon content, soil temperature and moisture.

  5. Spatiotemporal Information Extraction from a Historic Expedition Gazetteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafkereseb Kassahun Bekele


    Full Text Available Historic expeditions are events that are flavored by exploratory, scientific, military or geographic characteristics. Such events are often documented in literature, journey notes or personal diaries. A typical historic expedition involves multiple site visits and their descriptions contain spatiotemporal and attributive contexts. Expeditions involve movements in space that can be represented by triplet features (location, time and description. However, such features are implicit and innate parts of textual documents. Extracting the geospatial information from these documents requires understanding the contextualized entities in the text. To this end, we developed a semi-automated framework that has multiple Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing components to extract the spatiotemporal information from a two-volume historic expedition gazetteer. Our framework has three basic components, namely, the Text Preprocessor, the Gazetteer Processing Machine and the JAPE (Java Annotation Pattern Engine Transducer. We used the Brazilian Ornithological Gazetteer as an experimental dataset and extracted the spatial and temporal entities from entries that refer to three expeditioners’ site visits (which took place between 1910 and 1926 and mapped the trajectory of each expedition using the extracted information. Finally, one of the mapped trajectories was manually compared with a historical reference map of that expedition to assess the reliability of our framework.

  6. A qualitative study of patients' use of expedited partner therapy. (United States)

    Temkin, Elizabeth; Klassen, Ann C; Mmari, Kristin; Gillespie, Duff G


    In randomized controlled trials of expedited partner therapy (EPT), among patients in the EPT arm, the proportion of partners believed to have taken the medication ranged from 56% to 85%. Little is known about the content of successful and unsuccessful EPT negotiations between patients and their partners. The aim of this study was to describe how patients made decisions about EPT and what they did with the EPT medication packs dispensed to them. We performed a qualitative study at the Baltimore City Health Department sexually transmitted disease clinics, which instituted an EPT pilot program in 2007. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 patients, 1 week to 3 months after they had accepted EPT to bring to their partners. Taped interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using ATLAS.ti 6 qualitative software. Codes were further combined into more comprehensive themes that were mapped onto the study's main aim. Participants were innovative about how to get medication to their partners and indicated a deep sense of concern and responsibility for their partners' health. On the other hand, participants reported of being anxious about the interaction and sometimes felt that they lacked the words to talk with their partners about EPT. Some participants used EPT in unexpected ways, such as giving it to people other than their sex partners or taking it themselves. Enhancing the counseling that accompanies EPT may improve patients' success in delivering it to their partners.

  7. ISS Expedition 1 Crew Interviews: William M. Shepherd (United States)


    Live footage of a preflight interview with Commander Bill Shepherd is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Shepherd became interested in the space program, the events that led to his interest, the transition from the navy to his selection in the astronaut program. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses are the main goals of the first Expedition Crew, their scheduled docking with the International Space Station (ISS), making the ISS ready for human inhabitance, and all the specifics that will make his living arrangements difficult. Shepherd mentions his responsibilities during the much-anticipated two-day flight to the ISS, as well as the scheduled space-walk. Shepherd also discusses the crew's first tasks upon entrance including other scheduled tasks for the first week, docking from cargo ships, and spacecraft delivering equipment or performing Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA). He explains his interpretation of the meaning of mission success, and the implications of having human beings in space.

  8. Expedited site characterization. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) has been developed, demonstrated, and deployed as a new time-saving, cost-effective approach for hazardous waste site investigations. ESC is an alternative approach that effectively shortens the length of the assessment period and may significantly reduce costs at many sites. It is not a specific technology or system but is a methodology for most effectively conducting a site characterization. The principal elements of ESC are: a field investigation conducted by an integrated team of experienced professionals working in the field at the same time, analysis, integration and initial validation of the characterization data as they are obtained in the field, and a dynamic work plan that enables the team to take advantage of new insights from recent data to adjust the work plan in the field. This report covers demonstrations that took place between 1989 and 1996. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  9. Pacific and Atlantic water influence on the Beaufort Sea slope tracked by epifaunal invertebrate biogeography (United States)

    Bluhm, B.


    As an interior Arctic sea with a narrow shelf and a steep slope, the US Beaufort Sea is influenced by complex vertical and horizontal domains of water masses and current regimes. The benthic invertebrates inhabiting that area form communities that reflect the long-term (year to decadal) environmental conditions and waters mass source. During six expeditions over five years, we deployed plumb-staff beam trawls to collect epifauna invertebrates at >150 locations spanning the shelf and slope to 1000 m and across the primary water masses of the region (as defined by T/S). The >250 species sampled in this effort are dominated in species richness by crustaceans and gastropods, and in abundance and biomass by echinoderms and crustaceans, with proportional variations across water depths. We find strong turnover in species and/or community composition with water depth, and moderate shifts along the west-east axis. Depth-related species/community shifts are gradual, but most pronounced around the 20 m isobaths, at the shelf break (between 100 and 200 m) and between 350 and 500 m. Inshore of 20 m, the dynamic environment (ice gouging, variable salinity) results in a species-poor community. At locations deeper than 350 m, communities increasingly include species common in the Atlantic-influenced Arctic and Atlantic-boreal regions, roughly matching the transition from Pacific-origin to Atlantic-origin waters. We conclude that benthic community distribution can delineate boundaries in hydrographic conditions that are characteristic of different water mass types that reside on the shelf and slope of the Beaufort Sea.

  10. NEESROCK: A Physical and Numerical Modeling Investigation of Seismically Induced Rock-Slope Failure (United States)

    Applegate, K. N.; Wartman, J.; Keefer, D. K.; Maclaughlin, M.; Adams, S.; Arnold, L.; Gibson, M.; Smith, S.


    Worldwide, seismically induced rock-slope failures have been responsible for approximately 30% of the most significant landslide catastrophes of the past century. They are among the most common, dangerous, and still today, least understood of all seismic hazards. Seismically Induced Rock-Slope Failure: Mechanisms and Prediction (NEESROCK) is a major research initiative that fully integrates physical modeling (geotechnical centrifuge) and advanced numerical simulations (discrete element modeling) to investigate the fundamental mechanisms governing the stability of rock slopes during earthquakes. The research is part of the National Science Foundation-supported Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEES) program. With its focus on fractures and rock materials, the project represents a significant departure from the traditional use of the geotechnical centrifuge for studying soil, and pushes the boundaries of physical modeling in new directions. In addition to advancing the fundamental understanding of the rock-slope failure process under seismic conditions, the project is developing improved rock-slope failure assessment guidelines, analysis procedures, and predictive tools. Here, we provide an overview of the project, present experimental and numerical modeling results, discuss special considerations for the use of synthetic rock materials in physical modeling, and address the suitability of discrete element modeling for simulating the dynamic rock-slope failure process.

  11. Slope stabilization guide for Minnesota local government engineers. (United States)


    This user guide provides simple, costeffective methods for stabilizing locally maintained slopes along roadways in Minnesota. Eight slope stabilization techniques are presented that local government engineers can undertake using locally available ...

  12. Stabilization of erodible slopes with geofibers and nontraditional liquid additives. (United States)


    Instability of erodible slopes due to extreme climate events and of permafrost slopes due degradation and thawing is a significant : engineering problem for northern transportation infrastructure. Engineers continually look for mitigation alternative...

  13. Thermomechanical forcing of deep rock slope deformation: 1. Conceptual study of a simplified slope (United States)

    Gischig, Valentin S.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Evans, Keith F.; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon


    Thermo-elastic rock slope deformation is often considered to be of relatively minor importance and limited to shallow depths subject to seasonal warming and cooling. In this study, we demonstrate how thermomechanical (TM) effects can drive rock slope deformation at greater depths below the annual thermal active layer. Here in Part 1 of two companion papers, we present 2D numerical models of a simplified slope subject to annual surface temperature cycles. The slope geometry and discontinuity sets are loosely based on the Randa instability considered in detail in Part 2. Results show that near-surface thermo-elastic stresses can propagate to depths of 100 m and more as a result of topography and elasticity of the rock mass. Shear dislocation along discontinuities can have both a reversible component controlled by discontinuity compliance and, provided that the stress state is sufficiently close to the strength limit, an irreversible component (i.e., slip). Induced slip increments are followed by stress redistribution resulting in the propagation of slip fronts. Thus, deformation and progressive rock slope failure can be driven solely by thermomechanical forcing. The influence of TM-induced stress changes becomes stronger for increasing numbers of critically stressed discontinuities and is enhanced if failure of discontinuities involves slip-weakening. The net TM effect acts as a meso-scale fatigue process, involving incremental discontinuity slip and hysteresis driven by periodic loading.

  14. Shelf-Slope Exchanges near Submarine Canyons in the Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight (United States)

    Wang, H.; Gong, D.


    Shelf-slope exchange processes are major physical drivers of biological productivity near the shelf-break. Observations from two Slocum ocean gliders in Fall 2013 are used to explore the driving mechanisms of cross-shelf-slope exchanges near Norfolk Canyon and Washington Canyon in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight. Offshore excursion of bottom "cold pool" water, and shoreward intrusion of slope water at surface layer and thermocline depth occurred during northeasterly along-shelf winds. The saline intrusions of surface slope water resided between the cold pool and surface shelf water, and reached the bottom on the outer and mid-shelf, while the offshore excursion of cold pool water was found between the surface and intermediate slope-water over the canyon. Ekman transport calculation shows wind-driven cross-shelf transport can partially explain this interleaving pattern of intrusions. Scaling analysis of double diffusive processes demonstrate that they also likely played a role in the cross-shelf-slope exchange. A unique canyon upwelling event was captured in and around Washington Canyon during a period of southwesterly along-shelf wind and along-shelf flow to the northeast. The water mass distributions and isopycnal responses in both along-canyon and cross-canyon transects are consistent with scaling analysis and numerical studies of canyon upwelling. Temperature-Salinity properties of water masses in the canyon suggest active mixing between shelf and slope water masses near the canyon head. These results point to the importance of wind, double diffusion, and canyon topography on shelf-slope exchange in the MAB.

  15. Understanding slope behavior through microseismic monitoring (United States)

    Arosio, Diego; Boccolari, Mauro; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Zanzi, Luigi


    It is well known that microseismic activity originates as an elastic stress wave at locations where the material is mechanically unstable. Monitoring techniques focusing on this phenomenon have been studied for over seventy years and are now employed in a wide range of applications. As far as the study of unstable slope is concerned, microseismic monitoring can provide real-time information about fracture formation, propagation and coalescence and may be an appropriate solution to reduce the risk for human settlements when structural mitigation interventions (e.g., rock fall nets and ditches) cannot cope with large rock volumes and high kinetic energies. In this work we present the datasets collected in a 4-year period with a microseismic monitoring network deployed on an unstable rock face in Northern Italy. We mainly focus on the classification and the interpretation of collected signals with the final aim of identifying microseismic events related to the kinematic and dynamic behavior of the slope. We have analyzed signal parameters both in time and frequency domains, spectrograms, polarization of 3-component recordings supported by principal component analysis. Clustering methodologies have been tested in order to develop an automatic classification routine capable to isolate a cluster with most of the events related to slope behavior and to discard all disturbances. The network features both geophones and meteorological sensors so that we could also explore the correlation between microseismic events and meteorological datasets, although no significant relationships emerged. On the contrary, it was found that the majority of the events collected by the network are short-time high-frequency signals generated by electromagnetic activity caused by near and far thunderstorms. Finally, we attempted a preliminary localization of the most promising events according to an oversimplified homogeneous velocity model to get a rough indication about the regions of the

  16. Transhumanism, medical technology and slippery slopes. (United States)

    McNamee, M J; Edwards, S D


    In this article, transhumanism is considered to be a quasi-medical ideology that seeks to promote a variety of therapeutic and human-enhancing aims. Moderate conceptions are distinguished from strong conceptions of transhumanism and the strong conceptions were found to be more problematic than the moderate ones. A particular critique of Boström's defence of transhumanism is presented. Various forms of slippery slope arguments that may be used for and against transhumanism are discussed and one particular criticism, moral arbitrariness, that undermines both weak and strong transhumanism is highlighted.

  17. Clustering Moving Objects Using Segments Slopes


    Mohamed E. El-Sharkawi; Hoda M. O. Mokhtar; Omnia Ossama


    Given a set of moving object trajectories, we show how to cluster them using k-meansclustering approach. Our proposed clustering algorithm is competitive with the k-means clusteringbecause it specifies the value of “k” based on the segment’s slope of the moving object trajectories. Theadvantage of this approach is that it overcomes the known drawbacks of the k-means algorithm, namely,the dependence on the number of clusters (k), and the dependence on the initial choice of the clusters’centroi...

  18. Intertidal beach slope predictions compared to field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.


    This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium

  19. Evolution of continental slope gullies on the northern california margin (United States)

    Spinelli, G.A.; Field, M.E.


    A series of subparallel, downslope-trending gullies on the northern California continental slope is revealed on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles imaging the uppermost 50 m of sediment. The gullies are typically 100 m wide and have 1 to 3 m of relief. They extend for 10 to 15 km down the slope and merge into larger channels that feed the Trinity Canyon. In the lower half of the 50 m stratigraphic section, the gullies increase in both relief and number up section, to maxima at a surface 5 to 10 m below the last glacial maximum lowstand surface. Gully relief increased as interfluves aggraded more rapidly than thalwegs. Erosion is not evident in the gully bottoms, therefore gully growth was probably due to reduced sediment deposition within the gullies relative to that on interfluves. As the gullies increased in relief, their heads extended upslope toward the shelfbreak. At all times, a minimum of 10 km of non-gullied upper slope and shelf stretched between the heads of the gullies and the paleo-shoreline; the gullies did not connect with a subaerial drainage network at any time. Gully growth occurred when the gully heads were in relatively shallow water (??? 200 m paleo-water depth) and were closest to potential sediment sources. We suggest that prior to the last glacial maximum, the Mad River, then within 10 km of the gully heads, supplied sediment to the upper slope, which fed downslope-eroding sediment flows. These flows removed sediment from nearly parallel gullies at a rate slightly slower than sediment accumulation from the Eel River, 40 km to the south. The process or processes responsible for gully growth and maintenance prior to the last glacial maximum effectively ceased following the lowstand, when sea level rose and gully heads lay in deeper water (??? 300 m water depth), farther from potential sediment sources. During sea-level highstand, the Mad River is separated from the gully heads by a shelf 30 km wide and no longer feeds sediment flows

  20. Numerical analysis and comparison of three types of herringbone frame structure for highway subgrade slopes protection (United States)

    Nie, Yihua; Tang, Saiqian; Xu, Yang; Mao, Kunli


    In order to obtain mechanical response distribution of herringbone frame structure for highway subgrade slopes protection and select the best structure type, 3D numerical models of three types herringbone frame structure were established and analyzed in finite element software ANSYS. Indoor physical model of soil slope protected by herringbone frame structure was built and mechanical response of the frame structure was measured by loading tests. Numerical results indicate slope foot is the stress most disadvantageous location. Comparative analysis shows that structure composed of mortar rubble base layer and precast concrete blocks paving layer is the best one for resisting deformation and structure with cement mortar base layer and precast concrete blocks paving layer is the best one for being of low stress.

  1. IODP Expedition 366 Reveals Widespread Seamount Subduction Effects in the Mariana Forearc (United States)

    Fryer, P. B.; Wheat, C. G.; Williams, T.


    Numerous studies of the subduction of seamounts at accretionary convergent plate margins show considerable vertical tectonic deformation in the forearc region. This includes embayment of the trench axis, steepening of the inner trench slope, the creation of troughs in the wake of the seamount track beneath the forearc sediment wedge, but hypotheses regarding the seismogenic consequences of these processes are frequently at odds. In the nonaccretionary Mariana convergent plate margin, it is clear that ridges crosscut the entire forearc region in commensurate dimensions with thicker areas of subducting Pacific plate. Furthermore, to-date deep-sea drilling results on ODP Legs 125 and 195 and on IODP Expedition 366 recovered seamount materials from 5 serpentinite mud volcanoes over a 640 km along-strike distance, within 90 km west of the trench axis, and from 13 to 19 km depth to slab. The location of the serpentinite mud volcanoes is always associated with fault lineaments. The faulting creates the conduits for eruption of mixtures of fluids from the subduction channel and fault gouge from both the subduction channel and the forearc lithosphere. Cores from IODP 366 confirm that seamount subduction and deformation is a temporally and spatially pervasive process on the Mariana forearc. The new findings provide windows on a continuum of the evolution of plate and seamount subduction from the trench to nearly 20 km depth within the subduction channel. Cased boreholes were deployed at the summits of three active serpentinite mud volcanoes (Yinazao (Blue Moon), Asùt Tesoro (Big Blue), and Fantangisña (Celestial) Seamounts) during Expedition 366. These, plus the existing borehole observatory at ODP Site 1200C on the active summit of Conical Seamount provide a means to monitor processes of subduction related to serpentinite mud volcanism of the Mariana forearc. Such drilling results and borehole observations impact current paradigms of lithospheric deformation, mass cycling

  2. Composition of Sediment Inputs to the Hikurangi Subduction Margin: A Prelude to IODP Expedition 375 (United States)

    Underwood, M.


    Expedition 375 of the International Ocean Discovery Program is scheduled to begin drilling offshore New Zealand in March 2018. Two sites will be cored seaward of the Hikurangi subduction front (subduction inputs), plus one site at the toe of the accretionary prism, and one site in the forearc above a zone of well-documented slow-slip events. One of the challenges during planning for Expedition 375 has been the total absence of pre-existing compositional data from the region; that lack of basic information impacts such tasks as mixing and analysis of appropriate standards for X-ray diffraction, error analysis, computation of accurate normalization factors, and QA/QC. To help overcome those deficiencies, I analyzed a total of 152 samples from ODP Sites 1123 (Quaternary to Eocene), 1124 (Quaternary to Cretaceous), and 1125 (Quaternary to Miocene), plus piston/gravity-core samples from the repositories at Lamont-Doherty, Oregon State, and NIWA. The results reveal an unusually large range of compositions for the bulk sediments. The relative abundance of total clay minerals ranges from 3 to 64 wt%. Quartz ranges from 0 to 39 wt%. Feldspar ranges from 0 to 40 wt%, and calcite ranges from 0 to 93 wt%. Samples from the Hikurangi Plateau and Chatham Rise are carbonate-rich, with many bordering on almost-pure nannofossil chalk. Hemipelagic muds from the floor of Hikurangi Trough, Ruatoria slide, and the landward slope of the trench are fairly uniform, with averages of 36 wt% total clay minerals, 27 wt% quartz, 24 wt% feldspar, and 13 wt% calcite. Unlike many other subduction zones, this diversity of lithologies will save shipboard scientists from repetitive, mind-numbing descriptions and analyses, and shorebased experiments for frictional properties, permeability, and consolidation will need to pay close attention to the compositional attributes of the specimens. In addition, results from the four IODP boreholes can be interpreted within a broader, regional-scale framework of

  3. Students on Ice Arctic Youth Expedition 2008: outcomes, student perspectives and expected impacts (United States)

    Bales, E. H.; Codog, A.; Green, D.; Green, G.; Galbraith, E.; Conklin, M. H.


    How do we give a voice to youth to express their views on the importance of remote ecosystems and their response to global climate change? STUDENTS ON ICE is an International Polar Year-endorsed program bringing students from around the world together to learn about the world's polar regions. Students are budding environmental leaders and scientists in training. Besides traveling to incredibly beautiful areas and seeing polar animals in their natural habitat, students attend lectures, learn through hands-on activities and peer-teaching seminars. The expedition is chronicled by diary entries by the participants (see below). One premise of Students on Ice's Arctic program is that when youths are shown how Inuit adapted to the harsh living conditions and students are exposed to ways they could reduce their ecological footprint, they would become ambassadors of change. In this poster we present, from a student perspective, what was learned on a 2-week expedition to Baffin Island in August, 2008 and our follow-up activities. We have contacted our fellow students to see if the expedition has resulted in them reducing their carbon footprint. We have divided the responses into three categories: changing our lifestyle, becoming an ambassador for sustainability and considering a career in Earth or polar sciences. Preliminary responses are that it is difficult to change our lifestyles by ourselves but we think more carefully before we consume and most of us will probably not become polar scientists. Our overwhelming sentiment is that this is an awesome program and should be continued, and that we are trying to become ambassadors for the polar regions and sustainable lifestyles.

  4. Microbialite development patterns in the last deglacial reefs from Tahiti (French Polynesia; IODP Expedition #310): implications on reef framework architecture (United States)

    Seard, C.; Camoin, G. F.; Yokoyama, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Durand, N.; Bard, E.; Sepulcre, S.; Deschamps, P.


    The widespread occurrence of microbialites in the last deglacial reef frameworks (16-6 Ka BP) implies that the accurate study of their development patterns is of prime importance to unravel the evolution of reef architecture through time and to reconstruct the reef response to sea-level variations and environmental changes. The present study is based on the sedimentological and chronological analysis (14C AMS dating) of drill cores obtained during the IODP Expedition #310 « Tahiti Sea Level » on the successive terraces which typify the modern reef slopes from Tahiti. It provides a comprehensive data base to investigate the microbialite growth patterns (i. e. growth rates and habitats), to analyze their roles in reef frameworks and to reconstruct the evolution of the reef framework architecture during sea-level rise. The last deglacial reefs from Tahiti are composed of two distinctive biological communities which were characterized by a similar scenario of development throughout the sequence, involving a diachronous development and a lack of direct competition. The initial frameworks were formed by coralgal communities including seven assemblages characterized by various growth forms (branching, robust branching, massive, tabular and encrusting). The microbial communities developed in the primary cavities of those frameworks, a few meters (1.5 to 6 m) below the living coral reef surface, where they heavily encrusted the coralgal assemblages to form microbialite crusts. The offset between the growths of coral assemblages and microbialites ranges from 100 to 500 years. The development of microbialites was controlled by the volume and the shape of the primary cavities of the initial reef frameworks determined by the morphology and the packing of coral colonies. The most widespread microbialite development occurred in frameworks dominated by branching, thin encrusting, tabular and robust branching coral colonies which built loose and open frameworks typified by a high

  5. Assessment and mapping of slope stability based on slope units: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4) 1153–1171. Muntohar A S and Liao H J 2010 Rainfall infiltration: Infi- nite slope model for landslides triggering by rainstorm;. Nat. Hazards 54(3) 967–984. Muthu K, Petrou M, Tarantino C and Blonda P 2008 Land- slide possibility mapping ...

  6. Fire behavior, weather, and burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, North Slope, Alaska (United States)

    Benjamin M. Jones; Crystal A. Kolden; Randi Jandt; John T. Abatzoglu; Frank Urban; Christopher D. Arp


    In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River Fire (ARF) became the largest recorded tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. The ARF burned for nearly three months, consuming more than 100,000 ha. At its peak in early September, the ARF burned at a rate of 7000 ha d-1. The conditions potentially responsible for this large tundra fire include modeled record high...

  7. Effects of slope gradient on hydro-erosional processes on an aeolian sand-covered loess slope under simulated rainfall (United States)

    Zhang, F. B.; Yang, M. Y.; Li, B. B.; Li, Z. B.; Shi, W. Y.


    The aeolian sand-covered loess slope of the Wind-Water Erosion Crisscross Region of the Loess Plateau in China may play a key role in contributing excessive sediment to the Yellow River. Understanding its hydro-erosional processes is crucial to assessing, controlling and predicting soil and water losses in this region and maintaining the ecological sustainability of the Yellow River. Simulated rainfall (intensity 90 mm h-1) was used to investigate the runoff and soil loss from loess slopes with different slope gradients (18%, 27%, 36%, 47%, and 58%) and overlying sand layer thicknesses (0, 5 and 10 cm). As compared with uncovered loess slopes, an overlying sand layer delayed runoff production, reduced cumulative runoff and increased cumulative soil loss, as well as enhancing variations among slope gradients. Cumulative runoff and soil loss from the sand-covered loess slopes increased with increasing slope gradients and then slightly decreased, with a peak at about 47% gradient; they both were greater from the 10-cm sand-covered loess slope than from the 5-cm except for with 18% slope gradient. In general, differences in cumulative runoff between sand layer thicknesses became smaller, while those in cumulative soil loss became larger, with increasing slope gradient. Runoff and soil loss rates on the sand-covered loess slopes exhibited unimodal distributions during the rainstorms. Maximum values tended to occur at the same rain duration, and increased considerably with increasing slope gradient and sand layer thickness on slopes that were less than 47%. Liquefaction process might occur on the lower loess slopes covered with thinner sand layers but failures similar to shallow landslides might occur when the sand layer was thicker on steeper slopes. The presence of an overlying sand layer changed the relationship between runoff and soil loss rates during intense rainstorms and this change varied with different slope gradients. Our results demonstrated that the effects

  8. Methodologies for risk analysis in slope instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu Garcia, M.; Diaz Torres, J. A.


    This paper is an approach to the different methodologies used in conducting landslide risk maps so that the reader can get a basic knowledge about how to proceed in its development. The landslide hazard maps are increasingly demanded by governments. This is because due to climate change, deforestation and the pressure exerted by the growth of urban centers, damage caused by natural phenomena is increasing each year, making this area of work a field of study with increasing importance. To explain the process of mapping a journey through each of the phases of which it is composed is made: from the study of the types of slope movements and the necessary management of geographic information systems (GIS) inventories and landslide susceptibility analysis, threat, vulnerability and risk. (Author)

  9. Positive Surge Propagation in Sloping Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pietro Viero


    Full Text Available A simplified model for the upstream propagation of a positive surge in a sloping, rectangular channel is presented. The model is based on the assumptions of a flat water surface and negligible energy dissipation downstream of the surge, which is generated by the instantaneous closure of a downstream gate. Under these hypotheses, a set of equations that depends only on time accurately describes the surge wave propagation. When the Froude number of the incoming flow is relatively small, an approximate analytical solution is also proposed. The predictive ability of the model is validated by comparing the model results with the results of an experimental investigation and with the results of a numerical model that solves the full shallow water equations.

  10. Development of kenaf mat for slope stabilization (United States)

    Ahmad, M. M.; Manaf, M. B. H. Ab; Zainol, N. Z.


    This study focusing on the ability of kenaf mat to act as reinforcement to laterite compared to the conventional geosynthetic in term of stabilizing the slope. Kenaf mat specimens studied in this paper are made up from natural kenaf fiber with 3mm thickness, 150mm length and 20mm width. With the same size of specimens, geosynthetic that obtain from the industry are being tested for both direct shear and tensile tests. Plasticity index of the soil sample used is equal to 13 which indicate that the soil is slightly plastic. Result shows that the friction angle of kenaf mat is higher compared to friction between soil particles itself. In term of resistance to tensile load, the tensile strength of kenaf mat is 0.033N/mm2 which is lower than the tensile strength of geosynthetic.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu


    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  12. Adaptive sampling program support for expedited site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.


    Expedited site characterizations offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the ''real-time'' data generated by an expedited site characterization. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system for data fusion, management and display; and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods for contamination extent estimation and sample location selection

  13. Contamination tracer testing with seabed drills: IODP Expedition 357 (United States)

    Orcutt, Beth N.; Bergenthal, Markus; Freudenthal, Tim; Smith, David; Lilley, Marvin D.; Schnieders, Luzie; Green, Sophie; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.


    IODP Expedition 357 utilized seabed drills for the first time in the history of the ocean drilling program, with the aim of collecting intact sequences of shallow mantle core from the Atlantis Massif to examine serpentinization processes and the deep biosphere. This novel drilling approach required the development of a new remote seafloor system for delivering synthetic tracers during drilling to assess for possible sample contamination. Here, we describe this new tracer delivery system, assess the performance of the system during the expedition, provide an overview of the quality of the core samples collected for deep biosphere investigations based on tracer concentrations, and make recommendations for future applications of the system.

  14. An alternative soil nailing system for slope stabilization: Akarpiles (United States)

    Lim, Chun-Lan; Chan, Chee-Ming


    This research proposes an innovative solution for slope stabilization with less environmental footprint: AKARPILES. In Malaysia, landslide has become common civil and environmental problems that cause impacts to the economy, safety and environment. Therefore, effective slope stabilization method helps to improve the safety of public and protect the environment. This study focused on stabilizing surfacial slope failure. The idea of AKARPILES was generated from the tree roots system in slope stabilization. After the piles are installed in the slope and intercepting the slip plane, grout was pumped in and discharged through holes on the piles. The grout then filled the pores in the soil with random flow within the slip zone. SKW mixture was used to simulate the soil slope. There were two designs being proposed in this study and the prototypes were produced by a 3D printer. Trial mix of the grout was carried out to obtain the optimum mixing ratio of bentonite: cement: water. A series of tests were conducted on the single-pile-reinforced slope under vertical slope crest loading condition considering different slope gradients and nail designs. Parameters such as ultimate load, failure time and failure strain were recorded and compared. As comparison with the unreinforced slope, both designs of AKARPILES showed better but different performances in the model tests.

  15. Model tests of geosynthetic reinforced slopes in a geotechnical centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aklik, P.


    Geosynthetic-reinforced slopes and walls became very popular in recent years because of their financial, technical, and ecological advantages. Centrifuge modelling is a powerful tool for physical modelling of reinforced slopes and offers the advantage to observe the failure mechanisms of the slopes. In order to replicate the gravity induced stresses of a prototype structure in a geometrically 1/N reduced model, it is necessary to test the model in a gravitational field N times larger than that of the prototype structure. In this dissertation, geotextile-reinforced slope models were tested in a geotechnical centrifuge to identify the possible failure mechanisms. Slope models were tested by varying slope inclination, tensile strengths of the geotextiles, and overlapping lengths. Photographs of the geotextile reinforced slope models in flight were taken with a digital camera and the soil deformations of geotextile reinforced slopes were evaluated with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experimental results showed that failure of the centrifuge models initiated at midheight of the slope, and occurred due to geotextile breakage instead of pullout. The location of the shear surface is independent of the tensile strength of the geotextile; it is dependent on the shear strength of the soil. It is logical to see that the required acceleration of the centrifuge at slope failure was decreased with increasing slope inclination. An important contribution to the stability of the slope models was provided by the overlapping of the geotextile layers. It has a secondary reinforcement effect when it was prolonged and passed through the shear surface. Moreover, the location of the shear surface observed with PIV analysis exactly matches the tears of the retrieved geotextiles measured carefully after the centrifuge testing. It is concluded that PIV is an efficient tool to instrument the slope failures in a geotechnical centrifuge.(author) [de

  16. Spatial variability in channel and slope morphology within the Ardennes Massif, and its link with tectonics (United States)

    Sougnez, N.; Vanacker, V.


    Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 years. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This work focuses on a wide range of slope and river channel morphometric indices to study their behavior and strength in regions affected by low to moderate tectonic activity. We selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm year-1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our data indicate that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronous, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  17. Coupled organic and inorganic carbon cycling in the deep subseafloor sediment of the northeastern Bering Sea Slope (IODP Exp. 323)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehrmann, Laura M.; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Schrum, Heather


    We studied microbially mediated diagenetic processes driven by carbon mineralization in subseafloor sediment of the northeastern Bering Sea Slope to a depth of 745 meters below seafloor (mbsf). Sites U1343, U1344 and U1345 were drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323...... mediated processes in the sediment encompasses (1) organoclastic sulfate reduction, (2) anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction, and (3) methanogenesis. The sediment contains two distinct zones of diagenetic carbonate formation, located at the sulfate–methane transition zone (SMTZ......) and between 300 and 400 mbsf. The SMTZ at the three sites is located between 6 and 9 mbsf. The upward methane fluxes into the SMTZ are similar to fluxes in SMTZs underlying high-productivity surface waters off Chile and Namibia. Our Bering Sea results show that intense organic carbon mineralization drives...

  18. 48 CFR 6302.9 - The SMALL CLAIMS (EXPEDITED) procedure (Rule 9). (United States)


    ... (EXPEDITED) procedure (Rule 9). 6302.9 Section 6302.9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.9 The SMALL CLAIMS (EXPEDITED) procedure (Rule 9). (a) The SMALL CLAIMS (EXPEDITED) procedure provides for simplified rules of procedure to facilitate...

  19. Large-scale slope failure and active erosion occurring in the southwest Ryukyu fore-arc area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matsumoto


    Full Text Available The southwestern Ryukyu area east of Taiwan Island is an arcuate boundary between Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasian Plate. The topographic features in the area are characterised by (1 a large-scale amphitheatre off Ishigaki Island, just on the estimated epicentre of the tsunamigenic earthquake in 1771, (2 lots of deep sea canyons located north of the amphitheatre, (3 15–20 km wide fore-arc basin, (4 15–20 km wide flat plane in the axial area of the trench, (5 E-W trending half grabens located on the fore-arc area, etc., which were revealed by several recent topographic survey expeditions. The diving survey by SHINKAI6500 in the fore-arc area on a spur located 120 km south of Ishigaki Island was carried out in 1992. The site is characterised dominantly by rough topography consisting of a series of steep slopes and escarpments. A part of the surface is eroded due to the weight of the sediment itself and consequently the basement layer is exposed. The site was covered with suspended particles during the diving, due to the present surface sliding and erosion. The same site was resurveyed in 1997 by ROV KAIKO, which confirmed the continuous slope failure taking place in the site. Another example that was observed by KAIKO expedition in 1997 is a largescale mud block on the southward dipping slope 80 km south of Ishigaki Island. This is apparently derived from the shallower part of the steep slope on the southern edge of the fan deposit south of Ishigaki Island. The topographic features suggest N-S or NE-SW tensional stress over the whole study area. In this sense, the relative motion between the two plates in this area is oblique to the plate boundary. So, the seaward migration of the plate boundary may occur due to the gravitational instability at the boundary of the two different lithospheric structures. This is evidenced by a lack of accretionary sediment on the fore-arc and the mechanism of a recent earthquake which occurred on 3 May 1998 in

  20. From incipient slope instability through slope deformation to catastrophic failure - Different stages of failure development on the Ivasnasen and Vollan rock slopes (western Norway) (United States)

    Oppikofer, T.; Saintot, A.; Hermanns, R. L.; Böhme, M.; Scheiber, T.; Gosse, J.; Dreiås, G. M.


    The long-term evolution of rock slope failures involves different stages, from incipience of slope instability to catastrophic failure, through a more or less long-lasting slope deformation phase that also involves creeping or sliding. Topography, lithology, and structural inheritance are the main intrinsic factors that influence this evolution. Here, we investigate the role of these intrinsic factors on the rock slope failure development of the Ivasnasen and Vollan rock slopes (Sunndal Valley, western Norway) using a multitechnique approach that includes geomorphologic and structural field mapping, kinematic analysis, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating, topographic reconstruction, and deformation quantification. Ivasnasen is a rock slope failure complex with several past rock slope failures and a present unstable rock slope, located on a cataclinal NW-facing slope and developed in augen gneiss. Vollan on the opposite valley side is a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) affecting the whole mountainside, developed in quartzite in the upper part and micaschist in the lower part. These different lithologies belong to different nappe complexes that were emplaced and folded into a series of syn- and anticlines during the Caledonian orogeny. These folds lead to different lithologies being exposed in different structural orientations on the opposite valley flanks, which in turn leads to different types and evolution of rock slope failures. At Ivasnasen the 45°-55° NW-dipping ductile foliation allowed for a fairly simple planar sliding mechanism for the 1.2 million m3 post-glacial rock slope failure. Failure occurred ca. 3.3 ka ago after a short period of prefailure deformation. For the present 2.2 million m3 unstable rock slope at Ivasnasen, a steepening of the foliation at the toe impedes such a mechanism and up to 10 m of displacement has not lead to a catastrophic failure yet. The Vollan DSGSD is characterized by a steep major back scarp

  1. Simulating the seismic behaviour of soil slopes and embankments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos


    In the current study the clarification of the main assumptions, related to the two most commonly used methods of seismic slope stability analysis (pseudostatic and permanent deformation) is attempted. The seismic permanent displacements and the corresponding seismic coefficients were determined via...... parametric dynamic numerical analyses taking into account not only the main parameters dominating the seismic slope stability, but also the inherent assumptions of the applied approaches that affect the obtained results. The investigation conclude to a realistic procedure for seismic slope stability...

  2. A Hybrid FEM-ANN Approach for Slope Instability Prediction (United States)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, T. N.; Chauhan, Nikhil Kumar; Sarkar, K.


    Assessment of slope stability is one of the most critical aspects for the life of a slope. In any slope vulnerability appraisal, Factor Of Safety (FOS) is the widely accepted index to understand, how close or far a slope from the failure. In this work, an attempt has been made to simulate a road cut slope in a landslide prone area in Rudrapryag, Uttarakhand, India which lies near Himalayan geodynamic mountain belt. A combination of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been adopted to predict FOS of the slope. In ANN, a three layer, feed- forward back-propagation neural network with one input layer and one hidden layer with three neurons and one output layer has been considered and trained using datasets generated from numerical analysis of the slope and validated with new set of field slope data. Mean absolute percentage error estimated as 1.04 with coefficient of correlation between the FOS of FEM and ANN as 0.973, which indicates that the system is very vigorous and fast to predict FOS for any slope.

  3. [Analysis of related factors of slope plant hyperspectral remote sensing]. (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Tu, Lin-Ling


    In the present paper, the slope gradient, aspect, detection zenith angle and plant types were analyzed. In order to strengthen the theoretical discussion, the research was under laboratory condition, and modeled uniform slope for slope plant. Through experiments we found that these factors indeed have influence on plant hyperspectral remote sensing. When choosing slope gradient as the variate, the blade reflection first increases and then decreases as the slope gradient changes from 0° to 36°; When keeping other factors constant, and only detection zenith angle increasing from 0° to 60°, the spectral characteristic of slope plants do not change significantly in visible light band, but decreases gradually in near infrared band; With only slope aspect changing, when the dome meets the light direction, the blade reflectance gets maximum, and when the dome meets the backlit direction, the blade reflectance gets minimum, furthermore, setting the line of vertical intersection of incidence plane and the dome as an axis, the reflectance on the axis's both sides shows symmetric distribution; In addition, spectral curves of different plant types have a lot differences between each other, which means that the plant types also affect hyperspectral remote sensing results of slope plants. This research breaks through the limitations of the traditional vertical remote sensing data collection and uses the multi-angle and hyperspectral information to analyze spectral characteristics of slope plants. So this research has theoretical significance to the development of quantitative remote sensing, and has application value to the plant remote sensing monitoring.

  4. A comparison between centre-based and expedition-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison between centre-based and expedition-based (wilderness) adventure experiential learning regarding group effectiveness: A mixed methodology ... it is strongly recommended that a centre-based adventure program be used – mainly on account of active involvement, intensive social interaction and continuous ...

  5. ISS Potable Water Quality for Expeditions 26 through 30 (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin


    International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 26-30 spanned a 16-month period beginning in November of 2010 wherein the final 3 flights of the Space Shuttle program finished ISS construction and delivered supplies to support the post-shuttle era of station operations. Expedition crews relied on several sources of potable water during this period, including water recovered from urine distillate and humidity condensate by the U.S. water processor, water regenerated from humidity condensate by the Russian water recovery system, and Russian ground-supplied potable water. Potable water samples collected during Expeditions 26-30 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-133 (ULF5), STS-134 (ULF6), and STS-135 (ULF7), as well as Soyuz flights 24-27. The chemical quality of the ISS potable water supplies continued to be verified by the Johnson Space Center s Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) via analyses of returned water samples. This paper presents the chemical analysis results for water samples returned from Expeditions 26-30 and discusses their compliance with ISS potable water standards. The presence or absence of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) is specifically addressed, since DMSD was identified as the primary cause of the temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon of the U.S. product water that occurred in the summer of 2010.

  6. Strategies and Procedures for Expediting Election Petitions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delay in the dispensation of electoral disputes in Nigeria has become an albatross to the Nigerian nation. It has become a sour point in our electoral process. In this article, the writer meticulously looked at the various strategies and procedures for expediting election petitions and appeals in our electoral system.

  7. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol


    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...

  8. 8 CFR 1235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 1235.3 Section 1235.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.3 Inadmissible aliens...

  9. Antibacterial compounds from marine Vibrionaceae isolated on a global expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Månsson, Maria; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held


    On a global research expedition, over 500 bacterial strains inhibitory towards pathogenic bacteria were isolated. Three hundred of the antibacterial strains were assigned to the Vibrionaceae family. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the phylogeny and bioactivity of five...

  10. 42 CFR 405.1202 - Expedited determination procedures. (United States)


    ... Section 405.1202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Expedited Determinations and... beneficiary did not receive valid notice, coverage of provider services continues until at least 2 days after...

  11. 29 CFR 2701.7 - Expedited closing procedure. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited closing procedure. 2701.7 Section 2701.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION GOVERNMENT IN THE... policy of the Commission to open to the public meetings that may be subject to closure, including...

  12. Two Commemorative Expeditions to Celebrate the Return to Totality (United States)

    Thompson, Kristen; English, Tom


    Throughout history, total solar eclipses have generated excitement across the scientific community, as they provide a unique opportunity to study the Sun’s corona. Occurrences of such events have prompted many American astronomy programs to organize expeditions aimed at studying and photographing the eclipse. Only two observing stations from any of the major 19th and early 20th century eclipse expeditions were once again found in the path of totality of the 21 August 2017 Great American Eclipse. These stations, one in Newberry, SC and the other in Winnsboro, SC, were located in the shadow of the 28 May 1900 eclipse that passed through the southeastern United States from New Orleans to Norfolk. To celebrate this unique opportunity, we organized two expeditions that travelled to these towns to commemorate their return to totality. In this talk, I will describe the circumstances of the 1900 solar eclipse, our modern expeditions, and our effort to bring this eclipse history to life for the community.

  13. 15 CFR 325.8 - Expediting the certification process. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expediting the certification process. 325.8 Section 325.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS EXPORT TRADE...

  14. Runoff generation and routing on artificial slopes in a Mediterranean-continental environment: the Teruel coalfield, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, J.M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Alcala de Henares (Spain)


    The aim of the study was to identify the mechanisms of runoff generation and routing and their controlling factors at the hillslope scale, on artificial slopes derived from surface coal mining reclamation in a Mediterranean-continental area. Rainfall and runoff at interrill and microcatchment scales were recorded for a year on two slopes with different substrata: topsoil cover and overburden cover. Runoff coefficient and runoff routing from interrill areas to microcatchment outlets were higher in the overburden substratum than in topsoil, and greater in the most developed rill network. Rainfall volume is the major parameter responsible for runoff response on overburden, suggesting that this substratum is very impermeable - at least during the main rainfall periods of the year (late spring and autumn) when the soil surface is sealed. In such conditions, most rainfall input is converted into runoff, regardless of its intensity. Results from artificial rainfall experiments, conducted 3 and 7 years after seeding, confirm the low infiltration capacity of overburden when sealed. The hydrological response shows great seasonal variability on the overburden slope in accordance with soil surface changes over the year. Rainfall volume and intensities explain runoff at the inter-rill scale on the topsoil slope, where rainfall experiments demonstrated a typical Hortonian infiltration curve. However, no correlation was found at the microcatchment level, probably because of the loss of functionality of the only rill as ecological succession proceeded. The runoff generation mechanism on the topsoil slope is more homogeneous throughout the year. The dense rill networks of the overburden slope guarantee very effective runoff drainage, regardless of rainfall magnitude. Runoff generation and routing on topsoil slopes are controlled by grass cover and soil moisture content, whereas on overburden slopes rill network density and soil moisture content are the main controlling factors.

  15. Nitrogen isotopic composition of plants and soil in an arid mountainous terrain: south slope versus north slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen


    Full Text Available Nitrogen cycling is tightly associated with environment. The south slope of a given mountain could significantly differ from north slope in environment. Thus, N cycling should also be different between the two slopes. Since leaf δ15N, soil δ15N and Δδ15Nleaf-soil (Δδ15Nleaf-soil =  leaf δ15N − soil δ15N could reflect the N cycling characteristics, we put forward a hypothesis that leaf δ15N, soil δ15N and Δδ15Nleaf-soil should differ between the two slopes. However, such a comparative study between two slopes has never been conducted. In addition, environmental effects on leaf and soil δ15N derived from studies at global scale were often found to be different from those on a regional scale. This led to our argument that environmental effects on leaf and soil δ15N could depend on local environment. To confirm our hypothesis and argument, we measured leaf and soil δ15N on the south and north slopes of Tian Shan. Remarkable environmental differences between the two slopes provided an ideal opportunity for our test. The study showed that leaf δ15N, soil δ15N and δ15Nleaf-soil on the south slope were greater than those on the north slope, although the difference in soil δ15N was not significant. The result confirmed our hypothesis and suggested that the south slope has higher soil N transformation rates and soil N availability than the north slope. In addition, in this study it was observed that the significant influential factors of leaf δ15N were temperature, precipitation, leaf N, leaf C ∕ N, soil moisture and silt ∕ clay ratio on the north slope, whereas on the south slope only leaf C ∕ N was related to leaf δ15N. The significant influential factors of soil δ15N were temperature, precipitation, soil moisture and silt ∕ clay ratio on the north slope, whereas on the south slope, mean annual precipitation and soil moisture exerted significant effects. Precipitation exerted contrary effects on soil


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang


    Full Text Available The surface slopes of planetary bodies are important factors for exploration missions, such as landing site selection and rover manoeuvre. Generally, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs such as those generated from the HiRISE images on Mars are preferred to generate detailed slopes with a better fidelity of terrain features. Unfortunately, high-resolution datasets normally only cover small area and are not always available. While lower resolution datasets, such as MOLA, provide global coverage of the Martian surface. Slopes generated from the low-resolution DEM will be based on a large baseline and be smoothed from the real situation. In order to carry out slope analysis at large scale on Martian surface based low-resolution data such as MOLA data, while alleviating the smoothness problem of slopes due to its low resolution, this paper presents an amplifying function of slopes derived from low-resolution DEMs based on the relationships between DEM resolutions and slopes. First, slope maps are derived from the HiRISE DEM (meter-level resolution DEM generated from HiRISE images and a series of down-sampled HiRISE DEMs. The latter are used to simulate low-resolution DEMs. Then the high-resolution slope map is down- sampled to the same resolution with the slope map from the lower-resolution DEMs. Thus, a comparison can be conducted pixel-wise. For each pixel on the slope map derived from the lower-resolution DEM, it can reach the same value with the down-sampled HiRISE slope by multiplying an amplifying factor. Seven sets of HiRISE images with representative terrain types are used for correlation analysis. It shows that the relationship between the amplifying factors and the original MOLA slopes can be described by the exponential function. Verifications using other datasets show that after applying the proposed amplifying function, the updated slope maps give better representations of slopes on Martian surface compared with the original

  17. Nitrogen isotopic composition of plants and soil in an arid mountainous terrain: south slope versus north slope (United States)

    Chen, Chongjuan; Jia, Yufu; Chen, Yuzhen; Mehmood, Imran; Fang, Yunting; Wang, Guoan


    Nitrogen cycling is tightly associated with environment. The south slope of a given mountain could significantly differ from north slope in environment. Thus, N cycling should also be different between the two slopes. Since leaf δ15N, soil δ15N and Δδ15Nleaf-soil (Δδ15Nleaf-soil = leaf δ15N - soil δ15N) could reflect the N cycling characteristics, we put forward a hypothesis that leaf δ15N, soil δ15N and Δδ15Nleaf-soil should differ between the two slopes. However, such a comparative study between two slopes has never been conducted. In addition, environmental effects on leaf and soil δ15N derived from studies at global scale were often found to be different from those on a regional scale. This led to our argument that environmental effects on leaf and soil δ15N could depend on local environment. To confirm our hypothesis and argument, we measured leaf and soil δ15N on the south and north slopes of Tian Shan. Remarkable environmental differences between the two slopes provided an ideal opportunity for our test. The study showed that leaf δ15N, soil δ15N and δ15Nleaf-soil on the south slope were greater than those on the north slope, although the difference in soil δ15N was not significant. The result confirmed our hypothesis and suggested that the south slope has higher soil N transformation rates and soil N availability than the north slope. In addition, in this study it was observed that the significant influential factors of leaf δ15N were temperature, precipitation, leaf N, leaf C / N, soil moisture and silt / clay ratio on the north slope, whereas on the south slope only leaf C / N was related to leaf δ15N. The significant influential factors of soil δ15N were temperature, precipitation, soil moisture and silt / clay ratio on the north slope, whereas on the south slope, mean annual precipitation and soil moisture exerted significant effects. Precipitation exerted contrary effects on soil δ15N between the two slopes. Thus, this study

  18. Hydrological modelling of a slope covered with shallow pyroclastic deposits from field monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Greco


    Full Text Available A one-dimensional hydrological model of a slope covered with pyroclastic materials is proposed. The soil cover is constituted by layers of loose volcanic ashes and pumices, with a total thickness between 1.8 m and 2.5 m, lying upon a fractured limestone bedrock. The mean inclination of the slope is around 40°, slightly larger than the friction angle of the ashes. Thus, the equilibrium of the slope, significantly affected by the cohesive contribution exerted by soil suction in unsaturated conditions, may be altered by rainfall infiltration. The model assumes a single homogeneous soil layer occupying the entire depth of the cover, and takes into account seasonally variable canopy interception of precipitation and root water uptake by vegetation, mainly constituted by deciduous chestnut woods with a dense underbrush growing during late spring and summer. The bottom boundary condition links water potential at the soil–bedrock interface with the fluctuations of the water table of the aquifer located in the fractured limestone, which is conceptually modelled as a linear reservoir. Most of the model parameters have been assigned according to literature indications or from experimental data. Soil suction and water content data measured between 1 January 2011 and 20 July 2011 at a monitoring station installed along the slope allowed the remaining parameters to be identified. The calibrated model, which reproduced very closely the data of the calibration set, has been applied to the simulation of the hydrological response of the slope to the hourly precipitation record of 1999, when a large flow-like landslide was triggered close to the monitored location. The simulation results show that the lowest soil suction ever attained occurred just at the time the landslide was triggered, indicating that the model is capable of predicting slope failure conditions.

  19. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.


    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  20. Degradation of terraced slopes in Mediterranean conditions (United States)

    Tsermegas, I.; DłuŻewski, M.; Biejat, K.; Szynkiewicz, A.


    Agricultural terraces with dry-stone walls take the largest area of all man-made landforms in Mediterranean mountain regions. Despite on that their contemporary morphodynamics have not been the subject of many studies. It is a significant problem both from a scientific and a practical point of view. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of relief, lithology, climatic conditions, methods of wall construction and actual agricultural practice on the degradation of agricultural terraces. A field study was conducted in Greece on 7 plots with the overall area of over 42 000 m2 - on the east Crete and on two Aegean islands - Ikaria and Thera. The analysis was conducted on terraced slopes with gradient of 8-23o, built of granitoids, gneisses, crystalline schists, limestones, crystalline dolomites and volcanic tuffs. There was identified the types of terrace walls. Metrical features of terrace systems were ascertained on the basis of GPS RTK measurement. Terrace material petrography and grain size distribution was identified for regolith an soil samples taken from the selected outcrops which were recognized as being representative for 239 georadar profiles of the joint length of over 2500 m. On that basis the volume of each terrace material was defined. The rills cutting the fields and the walls were measured. The infiltration rate was also taken in 130 points. Reasearch showed that regardless of metrical features of terraces, soil grain size distribution and thickness of the terrace material, the most important reason for the destruction of terrace walls is the abandonment of cultivated areas. Changes in cultivation methods and the introduction of pasturage visibly accelerate the degradation processes. On areas unused for 30 years terrace walls are destroyed on over 25% of their length. It concerns both the areas on which filtration coefficient (k) reaches about 10-5m•s-1 as well as the ones where it is a 100 times lower. The least varied values (10-6-10-5m

  1. "A Comparison of Several Methods in a Rock Slope Stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This researchuses the mentioned methods and principles in the stability analysis of some rock slopes in an open pit mine in Syria, that is Khneifees phosphate mine. The importance of this researchis that it shows the role of kinematical analysis in minimizing efforts when verifying the safety of rock slopes in site, and when ...

  2. After the Slippery Slope: Dutch Experiences on Regulating Active Euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Th.A.


    “When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward.” If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery-slope argument, however, is by

  3. assessment of slope stability around gilgel gibe-ii hydroelectric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    ... are steep and valleys are deep with low vegetation cover. Along the road from Fofa town to powerhouse II, the slope cuts are steep, which overhang at places. Thus, an attempt has been made to analyze the stability condition of potential unstable slopes along the road between Fofa town and Gilgel-Gibe Hydro- power II.

  4. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra


    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  5. RMS slope of exponentially correlated surface roughness for radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang


    In radar signature analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface slope is utilized to assess the relative contribution of multiple scattering effects. For an exponentially correlated surface, an effective RMS slope can be determined by truncating the high frequency tail of the roughness spectrum...

  6. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... survey perspective on the typical problems that can be expected during slope monitoring using total station (also known as prism monitoring) and second, to suggest ways of mitigating such problems. The aim is to create awareness of the implications of incorrect use or negligence during slope monitoring surveys utilising ...

  7. Effects of slope position and fertilization on the performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FARO 45 (ITA 257) early maturing upland variety of rice was used as the test crop at each slope level. The experiment was a 3 x 2 factorial combination of three slopes (upper, middle and hydromorphic fringe) and two fertilizations (without fertilizer and with fertilizer) in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), ...

  8. Assessment of slope stability and remedial measures around Gilgel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1995) technique, whereas the slope having wedge mode of failure was analyzed by 'SASW' computer program. The stability analysis was carried out for the existing and anticipated worst conditions. The results indicate that all critical slopes in the study area are stable for the existing conditions, represented by dry static ...

  9. Assessment of rock mass decay in artificial slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.


    This research investigates the decay of rock masses underlying slopes, and seeks to quantify the relations of such decay with time and geotechnical parameters of the slope and rock mass. Decay can greatly affect the geotechnical properties of rocks within engineering timescales, and may induce a

  10. Analysis of Covariance and Randomized Block Design with Heterogeneous Slopes. (United States)

    Klockars, Alan J.; Beretvas, S. Natasha


    Compared the Type I error rate and the power to detect differences in slopes and additive treatment effects of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and randomized block designs through a Monte Carlo simulation. Results show that the more powerful option in almost all simulations for tests of both slope and means was ANCOVA. (SLD)

  11. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    implications of incorrect use or negligence during slope monitoring surveys utilising a total station. 1. Introduction ... monitoring frequency depends on the nature of the rock type, operations around the slope and the objectives of ... to do with correct design, legal compliance, monitoring requirements and systems design that.

  12. Morphologic, Topographic, and Thermal Analysis of Slope Streaks on Mars (United States)

    Aharonson, O.; Schorghofer, N.; Khatiwala, S.; Richardson, M. I.


    Surfaces containing features known as slope streaks are common on Mars in regions where thermal-inertia is low and steep slopes are frequent. We have recently compiled a catalog of slope streak images and identified previously unrecognized correlations with surface properties. Building on this work, we analyze data from Mars Orbiter Camera, from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and from the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on board Mars Odyssey, to constrain the physical properties and thermal conditions at the specific sites where slope streaks are forming. A number of proposed theories explaining the formation mechanism of slope streaks can be tested using new data, including an exciting possibility of the potential role of a water phase-transition.

  13. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.


    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  14. Determination Of Slope Instability Using Spatially Integrated Mapping Framework (United States)

    Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; Omar, R. C.; Roslan, R.; Khalid, N. H. N.; Hanifah, M. I. M.


    The determination and identification of slope instability are often rely on data obtained from in-situ soil investigation work where it involves the logistic of machineries and manpower, thus these aspects may increase the cost especially for remote locations. Therefore a method, which is able to identify possible slope instability without frequent ground walkabout survey, is needed. This paper presents the method used in prediction of slope instability using spatial integrated mapping framework which applicable for remote areas such as tropical forest and natural hilly terrain. Spatial data such as geology, topography, land use map, slope angle and elevation were used in regional analysis during desktop study. Through this framework, the occurrence of slope instability was able to be identified and was validate using a confirmatory site- specific analysis.

  15. Circulating smallpox knowledge: Guatemalan doctors, Maya Indians and designing Spain's smallpox vaccination expedition, 1780-1803. (United States)

    Few, Martha


    Drawing on the rich but mostly overlooked history of Guatemala's anti-smallpox campaigns in the 1780s and 1790s, this paper interweaves an analysis of the contribution of colonial medical knowledges and practical experiences with the construction and implementation of imperial science. The history of the anti-smallpox campaigns is traced from the introduction of inoculation in Guatemala in 1780 to the eve of the Spanish Crown-sponsored Royal Maritime Vaccination Expedition in 1803. The paper first analyses the development of what Guatemalan medical physician José Flores called his 'local method' of inoculation, tailored to material and cultural conditions of highland Maya communities, and based on his more than twenty years of experience in anti-smallpox campaigns among multiethnic populations in Guatemala. Then the paper probes the accompanying transformations in discourses about health through the anti-smallpox campaigns as they became explicitly linked to new discourses of moral responsibility towards indigenous peoples. With the launch of the Spanish Vaccination Expedition in 1803, anti-smallpox efforts bridged the New World, Europe and Asia, and circulated on a global scale via the enactment of imperial Spanish health policy informed, in no small part, by New World and specifically colonial Guatemalan experiences with inoculation in multiethnic cities and highland Maya towns.

  16. Spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemical transport on Arctic hill slopes (United States)

    Risser, R.; Harms, T.; Jones, J.


    , with a CV of 64% compared to 11% in an ephemeral water track. Despite spatial heterogeneity in dissolved gas concentrations within the perennial site, NH4+ concentration in surface and soil water was less variable, with a CV of 38%. In contrast, NH4+ concentration was more variable (CV=41%) than dissolved gases within the ephemeral site, and mean concentration was 2 times greater than at the perennial site, suggesting less active biological retention of nitrogen at the ephemeral site. These differences in dissolved gases and nutrient concentrations among water tracks indicate that nutrient processing during hydrologic transport on hill slopes varies across the catchment, which will likely result in spatially heterogeneous responses of elemental cycles in response to permafrost loss.

  17. Ambient vibration characterization and monitoring of a rock slope close to collapse (United States)

    Burjánek, Jan; Gischig, Valentin; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Fäh, Donat


    We analyse the ambient vibration response of Alpe di Roscioro (AdR), an incipient rock slope failure located above the village Preonzo in southern Switzerland. Following a major failure in May 2012 (volume ˜210 000 m3), the remaining unstable rock mass (˜140 000 m3) remains highly fractured and disrupted, and has been the subject of intensive monitoring. We deployed a small-aperture seismic array at the site shortly after the 2012 failure. The measured seismic response exhibited strong directional amplification (factors up to 35 at 3.5 Hz), higher than previously recorded on rock slopes. The dominant direction of ground motion was found to be parallel to the predominant direction of deformation and perpendicular to open fractures, reflecting subsurface structure of the slope. We then equipped the site with two semi-permanent seismic stations to monitor the seismic response with the goal of identifying changes caused by internal damage that may precede subsequent failure. Although failure has not yet occurred, our data reveal important variations in the seismic response. Amplification factors and resonant frequencies exhibit seasonal trends related (both directly and inversely) to temperature changes and are sensitive to freezing periods (resonant frequencies increase with temperature and during freezing). We attribute these effects to thermal expansion driving microcrack closure, in addition to ice formation, which increase fracture and bulk rock stiffness. We find the site response at AdR is linear over the measured range of weak input motions spanning two orders of magnitude. Our results further develop and refine ambient vibration methods used in rock slope hazard assessment.

  18. Slope mass rating and kinematic analysis of slopes along the national highway-58 near Jonk, Rishikesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Siddique


    Full Text Available The road network in the Himalayan terrain, connecting remote areas either in the valleys or on the hill slopes, plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development of India. The planning, development and even maintenance of road and rail networks in such precarious terrains are always a challenging task because of complexities posed by topography, geological structures, varied lithology and neotectonics. Increasing population and construction of roads have led to destabilisation of slopes, thus leading to mass wasting and movement, further aggravation due to recent events of cloud bursts and unprecedented flash floods. Vulnerability analysis of slopes is an important component for the “Landslide Hazard Assessment” and “Slope Mass Characterisation” guide planners to predict and choose suitable ways for construction of roads and other engineering structures. The problem of landslides along the national highway-58 (NH-58 from Rishikesh to Devprayag is a common scene. The slopes along the NH-58 between Jonk and Rishikesh were investigated, which experienced very heavy traffic especially from March to August due to pilgrimage to Kedarnath shrine. On the basis of slope mass rating (SMR investigation, the area falls in stable class, and landslide susceptibility score (LSS values also indicate that the slopes under investigation fall in low to moderate vulnerability to landslide. More attentions should be paid to the slopes to achieve greater safe and economic benefits along the highway.

  19. Effect of slope height and horizontal forces on the bearing capacity of strip footings near slopes in cohesionless soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian


    The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal, ...

  20. Seismic Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, I.; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.


    Over recent decades increased research interest has been observed on the dynamic response and stability issues of earth walls and reinforced soil structures. The current study aims to provide an insight into the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics...... of the most significant parameters involved, such as the flexibility of the sliding system, the mechanical properties of the soil and of the geosynthetics material, the frequency content of the excitation and the interface shear strength....

  1. Slope stability and rockfall assessment of volcanic tuffs using RPAS with 2-D FEM slope modelling (United States)

    Török, Ákos; Barsi, Árpád; Bögöly, Gyula; Lovas, Tamás; Somogyi, Árpád; Görög, Péter


    Steep, hardly accessible cliffs of rhyolite tuff in NE Hungary are prone to rockfalls, endangering visitors of a castle. Remote sensing techniques were employed to obtain data on terrain morphology and to provide slope geometry for assessing the stability of these rock walls. A RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System) was used to collect images which were processed by Pix4D mapper (structure from motion technology) to generate a point cloud and mesh. The georeferencing was made by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) with the use of seven ground control points. The obtained digital surface model (DSM) was processed (vegetation removal) and the derived digital terrain model (DTM) allowed cross sections to be drawn and a joint system to be detected. Joint and discontinuity system was also verified by field measurements. On-site tests as well as laboratory tests provided additional engineering geological data for slope modelling. Stability of cliffs was assessed by 2-D FEM (finite element method). Global analyses of cross sections show that weak intercalating tuff layers may serve as potential slip surfaces. However, at present the greatest hazard is related to planar failure along ENE-WSW joints and to wedge failure. The paper demonstrates that RPAS is a rapid and useful tool for generating a reliable terrain model of hardly accessible cliff faces. It also emphasizes the efficiency of RPAS in rockfall hazard assessment in comparison with other remote sensing techniques such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS).

  2. Slope stability and rockfall assessment of volcanic tuffs using RPAS with 2-D FEM slope modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Török


    Full Text Available Steep, hardly accessible cliffs of rhyolite tuff in NE Hungary are prone to rockfalls, endangering visitors of a castle. Remote sensing techniques were employed to obtain data on terrain morphology and to provide slope geometry for assessing the stability of these rock walls. A RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System was used to collect images which were processed by Pix4D mapper (structure from motion technology to generate a point cloud and mesh. The georeferencing was made by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS with the use of seven ground control points. The obtained digital surface model (DSM was processed (vegetation removal and the derived digital terrain model (DTM allowed cross sections to be drawn and a joint system to be detected. Joint and discontinuity system was also verified by field measurements. On-site tests as well as laboratory tests provided additional engineering geological data for slope modelling. Stability of cliffs was assessed by 2-D FEM (finite element method. Global analyses of cross sections show that weak intercalating tuff layers may serve as potential slip surfaces. However, at present the greatest hazard is related to planar failure along ENE–WSW joints and to wedge failure. The paper demonstrates that RPAS is a rapid and useful tool for generating a reliable terrain model of hardly accessible cliff faces. It also emphasizes the efficiency of RPAS in rockfall hazard assessment in comparison with other remote sensing techniques such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS.

  3. Is there a distinct continental slope fauna in the Antarctic? (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Brandão, Simone N.; Brandt, Angelika; O'Brien, Philip E.


    The Antarctic continental slope spans the depths from the shelf break (usually between 500 and 1000 m) to ˜3000 m, is very steep, overlain by 'warm' (2-2.5 °C) Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), and life there is poorly studied. This study investigates whether life on Antarctica's continental slope is essentially an extension of the shelf or the abyssal fauna, a transition zone between these or clearly distinct in its own right. Using data from several cruises to the Weddell Sea and Scotia Sea, including the ANDEEP (ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity, colonisation history and recent community patterns) I-III, BIOPEARL (BIOdiversity, Phylogeny, Evolution and Adaptive Radiation of Life in Antarctica) 1 and EASIZ (Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone) II cruises as well as current databases (SOMBASE, SCAR-MarBIN), four different taxa were selected (i.e. cheilostome bryozoans, isopod and ostracod crustaceans and echinoid echinoderms) and two areas, the Weddell Sea and the Scotia Sea, to examine faunal composition, richness and affinities. The answer has important ramifications to the link between physical oceanography and ecology, and the potential of the slope to act as a refuge and resupply zone to the shelf during glaciations. Benthic samples were collected using Agassiz trawl, epibenthic sledge and Rauschert sled. By bathymetric definition, these data suggest that despite eurybathy in some of the groups examined and apparent similarity of physical conditions in the Antarctic, the shelf, slope and abyssal faunas were clearly separated in the Weddell Sea. However, no such separation of faunas was apparent in the Scotia Sea (except in echinoids). Using a geomorphological definition of the slope, shelf-slope-abyss similarity only changed significantly in the bryozoans. Our results did not support the presence of a homogenous and unique Antarctic slope fauna despite a high number of species being restricted to the slope. However, it remains the case that there may be

  4. Physics of the Jagla model as the liquid-liquid coexistence line slope varies. (United States)

    Luo, Jiayuan; Xu, Limei; Angell, C Austen; Stanley, H Eugene; Buldyrev, Sergey V


    The slope of the coexistence line of the liquid-liquid phase transition can be positive, negative, or zero. All three possibilities have been found in Monte-Carlo simulations of a modified spherically symmetric two-scale Jagla model. Since the liquid-liquid critical point frequently lies in a region of the phase diagram that is difficult to access experimentally, it is of great interest to study critical phenomena in the supercritical region. We therefore study the properties of the Widom line, defined in the one-phase region above the critical point as an extension of the coexistence line near which the loci of various response functions extrema asymptotically converge with each other. This phenomenon is predicted by the scaling theory according to which all response functions can be expressed asymptotically in the vicinity of a critical point as functions of the diverging correlation length. We find that the method of identifying the Widom line as the loci of heat capacity maxima becomes unfruitful when the slope of the coexistence line approaches zero in the T-P plane. In this case, the specific heat displays no maximum in the one-phase region because, for a horizontal phase coexistence line, according to the Clapeyron equation, the enthalpy difference between the coexisting phases is zero, and thus the critical fluctuations do not contribute to enthalpy fluctuations. The extension of the coexistence line beyond the critical point into the one-phase region must in this case be performed using density fluctuations. Although the line of compressibility maxima bifurcates into a symmetrical pair of lines, it remains well-defined. We also study how the glass transition changes as the slope of the coexistence line in the T-P plane approaches zero. We find that for the case of positive slopes, diffusivity shows a fragile-to-strong transition upon crossing the Widom line, while for horizontal slope, diffusivity shows the behavior typical for fragile liquids.

  5. Expedited Remedial Action Program (SB 923): A California Brownfields initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambridge, M.; Wolfenden, A.K.


    California`s Expedited Remedial Action Program (ERAP) created a comprehensive program that promotes an equitable and expedited approach for redevelopment of properties contaminated with hazardous substances. This bill embodies an emerging trend in environmental policy that permits flexibility, cooperation and creativity without compromising protection to public health or the environment. Within the California Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) is promoting a number of programs to facilitate the restoration of contaminated properties as part of its Brownfields initiative. ERAP represents a potentially more efficient process to remediate sites by minimizing economic risks through a clearly identified liability scheme, indemnifying future owners through a covenant not to sue, and providing risk based cleanups that are based on the permanent use of the site.

  6. Voluntary program promotes equitable and expedited remediation of contaminated properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfenden, A.K.; Cambridge, M. [California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Toxic Substances Control


    In California, the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) has developed a more equitable and expedited approach for the redevelopment of sites contaminated with hazardous substances. Senate Bill 923 enacted in 1994, established the Expedited Remedial Action Program (ERAP) under Chapter 6.85 of the California Health and Safety Code. This bill responds to a nationwide demand to reform Superfund laws and promote the restoration of blighted and contaminated parcels--often referred to as Brownfields. The program was designed as an alternative to CERCLA, which has come under criticism for being inefficient, unfair and restricting opportunities for effective cleanups. Cal/EPA`s Department of Toxic Substances Control will implement this pilot program. This pilot program, which will eventually comprise 30 sites, provides incentives for voluntary remediation by addressing key economic issues associated with the remediation and redevelopment of contaminated properties.

  7. Martian slope streaks as plausible indicators of transient water activity. (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anshuman; Sam, Lydia; Martín-Torres, F Javier; Zorzano, María-Paz; Fonseca, Ricardo M


    Slope streaks have been frequently observed in the equatorial, low thermal inertia and dusty regions of Mars. The reason behind their formation remains unclear with proposed hypotheses for both dry and wet mechanisms. Here, we report an up-to-date distribution and morphometric investigation of Martian slope streaks. We find: (i) a remarkable coexistence of the slope streak distribution with the regions on Mars with high abundances of water-equivalent hydrogen, chlorine, and iron; (ii) favourable thermodynamic conditions for transient deliquescence and brine development in the slope streak regions; (iii) a significant concurrence of slope streak distribution with the regions of enhanced atmospheric water vapour concentration, thus suggestive of a present-day regolith-atmosphere water cycle; and (iv) terrain preferences and flow patterns supporting a wet mechanism for slope streaks. These results suggest a strong local regolith-atmosphere water coupling in the slope streak regions that leads to the formation of these fluidised features. Our conclusions can have profound astrobiological, habitability, environmental, and planetary protection implications.

  8. Soil erosion processes on sloping land using REE tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhenzhou; Liu Puling; Yang Mingyi; Lian Zhenlong; Ju Tongjun; Yao Wenyi; Li Mian


    Sheet erosion is the main performance in the slope soil erosion process at the primary stage of natural rainfall. For three times of rainfall during experiment, the ratios of sheet erosion to total erosion account for 71%, 48% and 49% respectively, which showed that the sloping erosion was still at the primary stage from sheet erosion to rill erosion. With the rainfall going, the rill erosion amount increase. It showed that soil erosion was changing from sheet erosion to rill erosion. The sources of sediment from different sections of the plot were analyzed, and the results indicated that whatever the sheet erosion changed, the ratio erosion of upper part of surface soil was always lower than 10%. Sheet erosion came mainly from the lower section of surface soil. With the ratios to the amount of total rill erosion changes, the rill erosion amount of each section regularly changes too. The general conclusion is that when the rainfall ends, relative erosion of different slope element to the foot of slope is: 1 meter away accounts for 16%, 2-4 meters away is 6% and 5-9 meters away is 3%. The ratio of rill erosion amount of these three slope element is 5:2:1, which shows the rill erosion amount are mainly from the slope element of 4 meters from the foot of slope. (authors)

  9. P-wave velocity model of mud volcano on the continental slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea from frequency-domain full waveform inversion (United States)

    Jang, U. G.; Kang, S. G.; Hong, J. K.; Jin, Y. K.; Dallimore, S.; Riedel, M.; Paull, C. K.


    2014 Expedition ARA05C was a multidisciplinary undertaking conducted in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean on the Korean ice breaker IBRV ARAON from August 30 to September 19, 2014. The program was carried out as collaboration between the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), Department of Fisheries and Ocean (DFO) with participation by Bremen University (BARUM). During this expedition, multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea, totaling 20 lines with 1,000 line-kilometers from September 1 to September 13, 2014. Three MCS survey lines was designed to cross the three submarine mud volcanoes found in the slope at approximate water depth of 290 m, 460 m and 740 m. Submarine mud volcanoes are seafloor structures with positive topography formed by a combination of mud eruption, gas emission, and water seepage from the subsurface. MCS data will allow image subsurface structures of mud volcanoes as identification of fluid migration pathways, however, imaging its subsurface structure is difficult by using conventional seismic data processing procedure, because it is seismically characterized by acoustically transparent facies. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is non-linear data-fitting procedure to estimate the physical properties of the subsurface by minimizing the difference between the observed and modelled data. FWI uses the two-wave wave equation to compute forward/backward wavefield to calculate the gradient direction, therefore it can derive more detailed velocity model beyond travel-time tomography techniques, which use only the kinematics of seismic data, by additional information provided by the amplitude and phase of the seismic waveform. In this study, we suggest P-wave structure of mud volcanos, which were inverted by 2D acoustic FWI. It will be useful to understand the characterization of mud

  10. Virtual special issue on IODP Expedition 339: The Mediterranean outflow (United States)

    Hodell, D. A.; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos


    IODP Expedition 339 had two inter-related objectives to recover continuous sedimentary sequences for: (i) studying the Contourite Depositional System formed by the MOW; and (ii) reconstructing North Atlantic climate variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. This Elsevier Virtual Special Issue (VSI) ;Mediterranean Outflow; is comprised of two volumes that are roughly divided along these lines with Marine Geology devoted to (i) and Global and Planetary Change to (ii), although some papers overlap the two themes. The Marine Geology volume contains 9 contributions addressing specific aspects of IODP Expedition 339 related to contourite deposits including sedimentology, seismic interpretation, stratigraphy, physical properties, downhole logging and ichnofacies (Hernández-Molina et al., 2015; Lofi et al., 2015; Ducassou et al., 2015; Alonso et al., 2015; Takashimizu et al., 2016; Nishida, 2015; Dorador and Rodríguez-Tovar, 2015a, 2015b; Kaboth et al., 2015). The Global and Planetary Change volume consists of 18 papers described below, highlighting paleoclimatic results from sites drilled on the SW Iberian Margin and in the Gulf of Cadiz. The two volumes provide a sample of emerging results of Expedition 339 and foretell of the promising research yet to come.

  11. Slope Deformation Prediction Based on Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei JIA


    Full Text Available This paper principally studies the prediction of slope deformation based on Support Vector Machine (SVM. In the prediction process,explore how to reconstruct the phase space. The geological body’s displacement data obtained from chaotic time series are used as SVM’s training samples. Slope displacement caused by multivariable coupling is predicted by means of single variable. Results show that this model is of high fitting accuracy and generalization, and provides reference for deformation prediction in slope engineering.

  12. Avoiding the Slippery Slope: Conducting Effective Interventions (United States)


    city of Veracruz in response to the arrest of American Sailors by the city’s police. Following a raid against Columbus, New Mexico, on March 9...estimates num- ber the FSA at 7,000 fighters, whose weapons come from Syrian military defectors and black-market arms sales via Iraq, Lebanon, and


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty


    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. Coreflood, quarter 5-spot study, compositional simulation, wettability, relative permeability study and streamline-based simulation were conducted in this project. 1D compositional simulation results agree reasonably well with those of the slim tube experiments. Injection of CO{sub 2}-NGL is preferable over that of PBG-NGL. MME is sensitive to pressure (in the range of 1300-1800 psi) for the injection of PBG-NGL, but not for CO{sub 2}-NGL. Three hydrocarbon phases form in this pressure range. As the mean thickness of the adsorbed organic layer on minerals increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The adsorbed organic films left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil implying that asphaltenes are responsible for the mixed-wettability in this reservoir. A new relative permeability model for a four-phase, mixed-wet system has been proposed. A streamline module is developed which can be incorporated in an existing finite-difference based

  14. Thermomechanical forcing of deep rock slope deformation: 2. The Randa rock slope instability (United States)

    Gischig, Valentin S.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Evans, Keith F.; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon


    Deformation monitoring between 2004 and 2011 at the rock slope instability above Randa (Switzerland) has revealed an intriguing seasonal trend. Relative dislocation rates across active fractures increase when near-surface rock temperatures drop in the fall and decrease after snowmelt as temperatures rise. This temporal pattern was observed with different monitoring systems at the ground surface and at depths up to 68 m, and represents the behavior of the entire instability. In this paper, the second of two companion pieces, we interpret this seasonal deformation trend as being controlled by thermomechanical (TM) effects driven by near-surface temperature cycles. While Part 1 of this work demonstrated in a conceptual manner how TM effects can drive deep rock slope deformation and progressive failure, we present here in Part 2 a case study where temperature-controlled deformation trends were observed in a natural setting. A 2D discrete-element numerical model is employed, which allows failure along discontinuities and successfully reproduces the observed kinematics of the Randa instability. By implementing simplified ground surface temperature forcing, model results were able to reproduce the observed deformation pattern, and TM-induced displacement rates and seasonal amplitudes in the model are of the same order of magnitude as measured values. Model results, however, exhibit spatial variation in displacement onset times while field measurements show more synchronous change. Additional heat transfer mechanisms, such as fracture ventilation, likely create deviations from the purely transient-conductive temperature field modeled. We suggest that TM effects are especially important at Randa due to the absence of significant groundwater within the unstable rock mass.

  15. Carbonate slope morphology revealing bank-to-slope sediment transfer in Little Bahama Bank, Bahamas (United States)

    Mulder, Thierry; Gillet, Hervé; Hanquiez, Vincent; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Fauquembergue, Kelly; Conesa, Gilles; Principaud, Mélanie; Le Goff, Johan; Ragusa, Jérémy; Bujan, Stephane; Bashah, Sara


    New high-quality multibeam data depict the area located between Little Bahama Bank (LBB, Bahamas) and Blake Plateau. The survey details the morphology of a giant 135-km-long canyon, the Great Abaco Canyon (GAC) and its main characteristics. The canyon main axis runs parallel to the margin. The pathway shows several knickpoints and plunge pools. The most important knickpoint is underlined by an abrupt change in slope of the canyon thalweg. The last one leads to the opening towards the Blake Basin. Its morphologic head forms a vast receptacle but does not represent the main source of material at present. The material supplied through the LBB canyon systems does not reach this area which only shows lineaments related to the pathway of the Antilles current and restricted failure scars. Most of the supply comes from the canyon flanks. In the north, tributary canyons drain the contourite deposits forming large flat plateaus above the drowned carbonate platform of the Blake Plateau. In addition, these contourite plateaus are subjected to translational slides moving towards the northern edge of the canyon forming a dissymmetric debris accumulation along the toe of the north canyon edge. Another source of sediment are two large tributaries connecting the GAC directly to the LBB upper slope. Sub bottom profiles suggest the presence of a turbiditic levee on the tributary canyon sides and inferred turbiditic activity. Little Abaco Canyon (LAC) shows morphologic similarities with GAC but at a smaller size. However, the canyon seems more active in terms of sediment transport. Canyons draining the eastern part of LBB show fresh sedimentary structures (sediment waves) suggesting active sedimentary processes. These structures are made of clean sand with shallow water organisms suggesting a direct supply from the carbonate platform edge. In term of size and morphology, the GAC compares to the largest canyons in siliciclastic environments. Its originality comes from the fact it is

  16. The granular origin of the relation between slope and sediment flux in soil mantled hillslopes (United States)

    BenDror, Eran; Goren, Liran


    Hillslopes occupy most of the Earth's surface area, and are the main source of sediments to the fluvial routing system. Since the slope of soil mantled hillslopes normally lies below the angle of repose, it has been suggested that sediment mobilization across and from hillslopes is facilitated by climatic, biologic, and tectonic environmental disturbances. Previous empirical studies have shown that sediment flux out of hillslopes depends non-linearly on the slope. However, the functional dependency between the slope and the flux that aspires to span a range of processes from slow creep to rapid landsliding generally lacks a mechanistic explanation. The absence of a physical understanding of the slope-flux relation hinders our ability to assess hillslope evolution in different settings and evaluate the effect of changing environmental conditions on the flux. Due to the particulate nature of the material composing the upper layer of soil mantled hillslopes, sediment transport on and from hillslopes has discrete granular characteristics. Entrainment of grains, grain travel distance, velocity and acceleration, all depend on the dynamics of the sediment particles and their interactions. It is therefore likely that the spatial and temporal evolution of the sediment flux in response to a given slope and disturbance characteristics should inherently depend on the inter-particle dynamics. For this reason, the current work investigates the relations between flux, slope, and disturbance characteristics at the granular scale. This has the advantage of using first order mechanical principles without the need to assume a priori empirical relations. We construct a two-dimensional model representing a long hillslope, and we model granular interactions and their response to environmental disturbances using a soft disc granular dynamics algorithm. Environmental disturbances are simulated by applying temporally and spatially variable 'external' forces to individual grains following a

  17. Early scientific expeditions and local encounters: new perspectives on Carsten Niebuhr and 'The Arabian Journey'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    scholarly expeditions and voyages from the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, placing the Danish expedition in a broad context of early scientific expeditions. This was a time when the coastlines of continents, except in the Pacific and the Polar regions, were reasonably well known. Yet scientific...... and longer encounters with local populations. Most studies in this volume focus on expeditions that involved contacts between local people and travelling European scientists and scholars. Others examine the scholarly questions which the scientific expeditions and travellers were sent out to solve and how......, the papers in these proceedings paint a varied picture of eighteenth and early nineteenth century scientific expeditions and scholarly travel. In the eighteenth century the considerate and careful approach of Niebuhr and Forsskål in their dealing with local people was new or at least not so common...

  18. Submarine slope failures due to pipe structure formation. (United States)

    Elger, Judith; Berndt, Christian; Rüpke, Lars; Krastel, Sebastian; Gross, Felix; Geissler, Wolfram H


    There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability. Hydrates reduce sediment permeability and cause build-up of overpressure at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Resulting hydro-fracturing forms pipe structures as pathways for overpressured fluids to migrate upward. Where these pipe structures reach shallow permeable beds, this overpressure transfers laterally and destabilises the slope. This process reconciles the spatial correlation of submarine landslides and gas hydrate, and it is independent of environmental change and water depth.

  19. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes (Future) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type....

  20. Adaptive slope compensation for high bandwidth digital current mode controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeed, Fazel; Nymand, Morten


    An adaptive slope compensation method for digital current mode control of dc-dc converters is proposed in this paper. The compensation slope is used for stabilizing the inner current loop in peak current mode control. In this method, the compensation slope is adapted with the variations...... in converter duty cycle. The adaptive slope compensation provides optimum controller operation in term of bandwidth over wide range of operating points. In this paper operation principle of the controller is discussed. The proposed controller is implemented in an FPGA to control a 100 W buck converter....... The experimental results of measured loop-gain at different operating points are presented to validate the theoretical performance of the controller....

  1. Slope movements in Callejón de Huyalas, Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilímek, V.; Zapata, M. L.; Stemberk, Josef


    Roč. 35, supplementum (2003), s. 39-51 ISSN 0300-5402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : slope movements * natural hazards * Cordillera Blanca Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  2. Clay mineral distribution on the Kerala continental shelf and slope

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    minerals are quartz and feldspar. Kaolinite and gibbsite have low values on the outer shelf and high values on the inner shelf and slope, while illite increases in the offshore direction. However, montmorillonite behaves differently from others in having...

  3. Slope Stabilization Using Recycled Plastic Pins, Phase III. (United States)


    A new technique for stabilizing surficial slope failures using recycled plastic reinforcing members has been developed. The : objective of the project described in this report has been to develop, evaluate, and document a technique for stabilization ...

  4. Probabilistic analysis algorithm for UA slope software program. (United States)


    A reliability-based computational algorithm for using a single row and equally spaced drilled shafts to : stabilize an unstable slope has been developed in this research. The Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) : technique was used in the previously develop...

  5. North Slope, Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears, caribou, and muskoxen for the North Slope, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  6. North Slope, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales, seals, walruses, and polar bears for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  7. Landslide hazard on the slopes of Dabicho Ridge, Wondo Genet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Landslide hazard on the slopes of Dabicho Ridge, Wondo Genet area: the case of June 18, 1996 event. Berhanu Temesgen, Mohammed Umer, Asfawossen Asrat, Ogbaghebriel Berakhi, Abayneh Ayele, Dramis Francesco, Metasebia Demissie ...

  8. Systems of pillarless working of adjacent, sloped and inclined seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.


    An analysis is made (advantages and disadvantages) of existing and recommended (pillarless) systems of working adjacent, sloped, and inclined seams. The economic benefits, area and extent of those systems are indicated. 8 references, 4 figures.

  9. Effect of slope height and horizontal forces on the bearing capacity of strip footings near slopes in cohesionless soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian


    The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal......, and in such cases the bearing capacity of the footing cannot be found using the existing methods. The present work comprises finite element based upper- and lower-bound calculations, using the geotechnical software OptumG2 to investigate the effect of the slope height and horizontal forces on the total bearing...

  10. Slope Impacts on Concentrated Flow Hydraulics in Rangeland (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, O. Z.; Pierson, F. B.; Williams, C. J.; Kormos, P. R.; Nearing, M. A.; Boll, J.


    Several studies have been conducted to describe rill or concentrated flow hydraulics. However, most of these studies used data obtained from either laboratory experiments or field sites located on gently sloping crop lands. The data sets in the few rangeland field studies conducted did not cover a variety of hillslope angles and generally focused on slope gradients less than 20%. The lack of studies with steeper slopes resulted in misinterpreting the slope gradient impact on concentrated flow hydraulics, as sites with different slopes have different soil and vegetation cover characteristics. This study examines the characteristics of rangeland concentrated flow hydraulics as a function of vegetation and ground cover using field experimental data from diverse vegetated rangeland sites of the western United States. These data span a wide range of slope angles (5.6%-65.8%), soil types, and vegetative cover. Many of the sites exhibit some degree of disturbance, such as wild fire, prescribed fire, tree mastication, and/or tree cutting. The data were divided into two sets, gently sloping (20%). Analyses were performed on each data set separately as well as on the combined data set. For the complete data set, concentrated flow occurred on less than 26% of the gently sloping plots and on more than 70% of the steep plots. The results showed that the Darcy-Weisbach roughness coefficient (f) had no significant correlation with vegetation and ground cover variables on the gently sloping sites. However, roughness coefficient f was positively correlated with vegetation and ground cover on steep rangelands (R2=0.53, n=439). The power relation relating the flow width (w) to the discharge (Q) was statistically different on the gentle and the steep sites. A multi regression equation for estimating the width of the concentrated flow as a function of flow discharge, slope, and vegetation cover was developed (R2=0.62, n=360), where the variation of slope alone explained 39% of the

  11. Mass movement hazard assessment model in the slope profile (United States)

    Colangelo, A. C.


    The central aim of this work is to assess the spatial behaviour of critical depths for slope stability and the behaviour of their correlated variables in the soil-regolith transition along slope profiles over granite, migmatite and mica-schist parent materials in an humid tropical environment. In this way, we had making measures of shear strength for residual soils and regolith materials with soil "Cohron Sheargraph" apparatus and evaluated the shear stress tension behaviour at soil-regolith boundary along slope profiles, in each referred lithology. In the limit equilibrium approach applied here we adapt the infinite slope model for slope analysis in whole slope profile by means of finite element solution like in Fellenius or Bishop methods. In our case, we assume that the potential rupture surface occurs at soil-regolith or soil-rock boundary in slope material. For each slice, the factor of safety was calculated considering the value of shear strength (cohesion and friction) of material, soil-regolith boundary depth, soil moisture level content, slope gradient, top of subsurface flow gradient, apparent soil bulk density. The correlations showed the relative weight of cohesion, internal friction angle, apparent bulk density of soil materials and slope gradient variables with respect to the evaluation of critical depth behaviour for different simulated soil moisture content levels at slope profile scale. Some important results refer to the central role of behaviour of soil bulk-density variable along slope profile during soil evolution and in present day, because the intense clay production, mainly Kaolinite and Gibbsite at B and C-horizons, in the humid tropical environment. A increase in soil clay content produce a fall of friction angle and bulk density of material, specially when some montmorillonite or illite clay are present. We have observed too at threshold conditions, that a slight change in soil bulk-density value may disturb drastically the equilibrium of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ikani


    Full Text Available Measurements of climatic processes such as cold air drainage flows are problematic over mountainous areas. Observation of cold air drainage is not available in the existing observation network and it requires a special methodology. The main objective of this study was to characterize the cold air drainage over regions with a slope. A high resolution infrared camera, a meteorological station and Digital Elevation Model (DEM were used. The specific objective was to derive nocturnal cold air drainage velocity over the slope. To address these objectives, a number of infrared measurement campaigns were conducted during calm and clear sky conditions over an agricultural zone (blackcurrant farm in Canada. Using thermal infrared images, the nocturnal surface temperature gradient were computed in hourly basis. The largest gradient magnitudes were found between 17h -20h. The cooling rates at basin area were two times higher in comparison to the magnitudes observed within slope area. The image analysis illustrated this considerable temperature gradient of the basin may be partly due to transport of cold air drainage into the basin from the slope. The results show that thermal imagery can be used to characterize and understand the microclimate related to the occurrence of radiation frost in the agricultural field. This study provided the opportunity to track the cold air drainage flow and pooling of cold air in low lying areas. The infrared analysis demonstrated that nocturnal drainage flow displayed continuous variation in terms of space and time in response to microscale slope heterogeneities. In addition, the analysis highlighted the periodic aspect for cold air drainage flow.

  13. The Expedited Remedial Action Program: A case study. The Alhambra Front Street manufactured gas plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padleschat, J.A.; McMahon, T.D.


    Early in 1995, the Department of Toxic Substances Control asked Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas) to enter one of its manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites into the new Expedited Remedial Action Program (ERAP). SoCalGas initially was not enthusiastic about the new program. Nevertheless, SoCalGas submitted an application for its Alhambra MGP site to be selected for the ERAP. The Alhambra Site was accepted into ERAP in November 1995, and was the first ERAP site to have orphan shares. MGP sites are well suited to the ERAP. They often involve few potentially responsible parties and can be expected to have the same primary contaminants: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, and petroleum hydrocarbons from the crude oil feedstock used to manufacture the gas.

  14. Argonne's Expedited Site Characterization: An integrated approach to cost- and time-effective remedial investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Meyer, W.T.


    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a methodology for remedial site investigation that has proven to be both technically superior to and more cost- and time-effective than traditional methods. This methodology is referred to as the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). Quality is the driving force within the process. The Argonne ESC process is abbreviated only in time and cost and never in terms of quality. More usable data are produced with the Argonne ESC process than with traditional site characterization methods that are based on statistical-grid sampling and multiple monitoring wells. This paper given an overview of the Argonne ESC process and compares it with traditional methods for site characterization. Two examples of implementation of the Argonne ESC process are discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the process in CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) and RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) programs

  15. Sampling design and analytical method selection strategies for expedited CERCLA remediations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.H.


    Decision makers from the Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA, and the US DOE recently assembled to discuss data collection requirements for supporting expedited Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 remediations at the Hanford Site. The decision makers indicated that one of their primary goals is to reduce remediation cost of sampling and analysis at the Hanford Site from approximately 40% of total soil remediation project costs to 8% of total cost, while providing data sufficient to support defensible decisions. Because many areas of the Hanford Site are contaminated primarily with metals and radionuclides, the decision makers decided that cost reductions should be focused initially on metals and radionuclide contaminated sites. This strategy document addresses the cost reduction goal and is to be used by the projects when preparing sampling and analysis plans for remedial actions

  16. Effect of cement injection on sandy soil slope stability, case study: slope in Petang district, Badung regency (United States)

    Arya, I. W.; Wiraga, I. W.; GAG Suryanegara, I.


    Slope is a part of soil topography formed due to elevation difference from two soil surface. Landslides is frequently occur in natural slope, it is because shear force is greater than shear strength in the soil. There are some factor that influence slope stability such as: rain dissipation, vibration from earthquake, construction and crack in the soil. Slope instability can cause risk in human activity or even threaten human lives. Every years in rainy season, landslides always occur in Indonesia. In 2016, there was some landslide occurred in Bali. One of the most damaging is landslide in Petang district, Badung regency. This landslide caused main road closed entirely. In order to overcome and prevent landslide, a lot of method have been practiced and still looking for more sophisticated method for forecasting slope stability. One of the method to strengthen soil stability is filling the soil pores with some certain material. Cement is one of the material that can be used to fill the soil pores because when it is in liquid form, it can infiltrate into soil pores and fill the gap between soil particles. And after it dry, it can formed a bond with soil particle so that soil become stronger and the slope as well. In this study, it will use experimental method, slope model in laboratory to simulate a real slope behavior in the field. The first model is the slope without any addition of cement. This model will be become a benchmark for the other models. The second model is a slope with improved soil that injects the slope with cement. Injection of cement is done with varying interval distance of injection point is 5 cm and 10 cm. Each slope model will be given a load until the slope collapses. The slope model will also be analyzed with slope stability program. The test results on the improved slope models will be compared with unimproved slope. In the initial test will consist of 3 model. First model is soil without improvement or cement injection, second model is soil

  17. NRL Glider Data Report for the Shelf-Slope Experiment (United States)


    Transformation and Transport in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Platform Proof of Concept for the Ocean Observing System in the Northern Gulf of Mexico...glider SL083 was deployed for the Shelf-Slope experiment: “Shelf-Slope Interactions and Carbon Transformation and Transport in the Northern Gulf of... Digital Environmental Model (GDEM) climatology profiles. Optics QC generates flags to indicate that manual examination of profiles is required. Both

  18. Digital analysis of the slopes of Rab Island


    Mladen Pahernik


    The paper analyzes morphometric features of the slopes of Rab Island. Based on the digital elevation model, raster layers were calculated for the values of slope angle, aspect and curvature, as well as valley network, which was grouped using the Strahler method. A comparative analysis of the calculated values of morphometric parameters was conducted in the GIS environment. Spatial distribution of the values of each of the morphometric parameters was correlated to the structural and morphogene...

  19. Modelling the influence of tree removal on embankment slope hydrology


    Briggs, Kevin; Smethurst, Joel; Powrie, William


    Trees cover the slopes of many railway earthworks supporting the UK’s transport network. Root water uptake by trees can cause seasonal shrinkage and swelling of the embankment soil, affecting the line and level of the railway track. This requires continual maintenance to maintain the serviceability of the track and reduce train speed restrictions. However, the removal of trees from railway embankment slopes and the loss of soil suctions generated by root water uptake may negatively impact emb...

  20. Effects of surface slope on erosion rates of quartz particles


    Lodge, Phillip.


    Modeling sediment erosion is important in a wide range of environmental problems. The effects of various environmental factors on erosion rates have been studied, but the effects of surface slope on erosion rates of a wide range of sediments have not been quantified. The effects of surface slope, both in the direction of flow (pitch) and perpendicular to the flow (roll), on erosion rates of quartz particles were investigated using the Sediment Erosion at Depth Flume (Sedflume). US Navy (US...



    Matisovs, Ivars


    The paper deals with ecological expedition as effective form of environmental research and ecological education. Since 1997 Rēzekne Higher education institution organizes ecological expeditions for study programme “Environmental engineering” students in the Eastern Latvia region. Students realize integrated assessment of environmental quality with different methods. Article summarize experience of 10- years long period. Also show main goals and tasks of ecological expeditions, describe field ...

  2. Spatial position influences perception of slope from graphs. (United States)

    Parrott, Stacey; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Huntington, Mark D; Suzuki, Satoru


    We routinely examine linear trends from bar graphs and scatterplots while taking a science class, attending a business presentation, or reading a magazine article. Graphs are placed in different positions on a page or a presentation slide for aesthetic considerations. However, because left and right positions tend to be associated with lower and higher values in the conventional depiction of numerical values, we hypothesized that the perception of positive and negative slopes may be influenced by the placement of a graph. Using a visual search task, with each display containing four bar graphs or scatterplots (one per quadrant), we have demonstrated that the detection of a negative slope is selectively slowed in the upper-right quadrant (for both bar graphs and scatterplots), whereas the detection of a positive slope is selectively slowed in the upper-left quadrant (for bar graphs only). These results suggest that an upper-right position is incompatible with perceiving negative slopes and an upper-left position is incompatible with perceiving positive slopes. Although the origin of these specific associations is unclear, our results have implications for where to place a graph depending on the slope it displays.

  3. Modern Instrumentation of a Historical Landslide to Understand Dynamic Processes Governing Slope Movement in a Hostile Environment. (United States)

    Johnson, K. A.


    The Milepost 6.2 Landslide on Many Glacier Road in Glacier National Park, Montana, has been moving since construction of the roadway in the early 1900's. Movement of the slide has a direct impact on Park operations and requires regrading and reconstruction of the road on a nearly annual basis. Prior attempts to stabilize the slope were not effective. Despite the history of this slide, very little quality data was available to delineate the depth and shape of the slide or the groundwater pressures that influence slope stability due to only seasonal data collection and a hostile winter environment. Landslide dynamics are further complicated where the toe of the slide becomes submerged seasonally by Lake Sherburne. In addition, due to irrigation use the lake levels fluctuate rapidly with seasonal rise and drops commonly greater than 30 feet in elevation. Five Shape Accelerometer Array inclinometers (SAAs) were installed to depths between 60 and 200 feet, along with 10 vibrating wire piezometers, one tipping bucket rain gauge, and onsite data acquisition system with a real-time satellite communication link enabling year-round data collection. Measurements of groundwater pressures and slide dynamics were used to develop a well constrained 2-D dynamic model of slide movement. Movement is controlled by clayey zones in glacial till deposits that mantle the valley slopes, along with water pressures from groundwater in the slope and fluctuating lake levels at the toe of the slope. The SAAs document slide plane locations and rates of slide movement as it changes through the year in response to the dynamic hydrologic setting. SAAs document sliding of over 3 feet and continue to operate and generate additional data. The data collected enabled the design of an extensive horizontal drain system to lower the groundwater pressures and stabilize the slope. Continuous year-round monitoring allowed comparison of slope movement in response to changes in lake elevation and precipitation

  4. Consideration on the relation between dynamic seismic motion and static seismic coefficient for the earthquake proof design of slope around nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hirata, Kazuta


    When the large cutting slopes are constructed closed to around nuclear power plants, it is important to evaluate the stability of the slopes during the strong earthquake. In the evaluation, it may be useful to clarify relationship between the static seismic coefficient and dynamic seismic force corresponded to the basic seismic motion which is specified for designing the nuclear power facilities. To investigate this relation some numerical analyses are conducted in this paper. As the results, it is found that dynamic forces considering the amplified responses of the slopes subjected to the basic seismic motion with a peak acceleration of 500 gals at the toe of the slopes, are approximately equal to static seismic force which generates in the slopes when the seismic coefficients of k = 0.3 is applied. (author)

  5. IODP Expedition 307 Drills Cold-Water Coral Mound Along the Irish Continental Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Williams


    Full Text Available Introduction Over the past decade, oceanographic and geophysical surveys along the slope of the Porcupine Seabight off the southwestern continental margin of Ireland have identified upwards of a thousand enigmatic mound-like structures (Figs. 1 and 2. The mounds of the Porcupine Seabight rise from the seafl oor in water depths of 600–900 m and formimpressive conical bodies several kilometers wide and up to 200 m high. Although a few mounds such as Thérèse Mound and Galway Mound are covered by a thriving thicket of coldwater corals, most mound tops and fl anks are covered by dead coral rubble or are entirely buried by sediment (De Mol et al., 2002; Fig. 2, Beyer et al., 2003. Lophelia pertusa (Fig.3 and Madrepora oculata are the most prominent cold-water corals growing without photosynthetic symbionts. The widespread discovery of large and numerous coral-bearing banks and the association of these corals with the mounds have generated signifi cant interest as to the composition, origin and development of these mound structures.Challenger Mound, in the Belgica mound province, has an elongated shape oriented along a north-northeast to south-southwest axis and ispartially buried under Pleistocene drift sediments. In high-resolution seismic profiles the mounds appear to root on an erosion surface (van Rooij et al., 2003. During IODP Expedition307 the Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight was drilled with the goal of unveiling the origin and depositional processes withinthese intriguing sedimentary structures. Challenger Mound, unlike its near neighbors the Thérèse and Galway mounds, has little to no livecoral coverage and, therefore, was chosen as the main target for drilling activities, so that no living ecosystem would be disturbed.

  6. IODP Expedition 323—Pliocene and Pleistocene Paleoceanographic Changes in the Bering Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez Zarikian


    Full Text Available High-resolution paleoceanography of the Plio-Pleistocene is important in understanding climate forcing mechanisms and the associated environmental changes. This is particularly true in high-latitude marginal seas such as the Bering Sea, which has been very sensitive to changes in global climate during interglacial and glacial or Milankovitch time scales. This is due to significant changes in water circulation, land-ocean interaction, and sea-ice formation. With theaim to reveal the climate and oceanographic history of the Bering Sea over the past 5 Ma, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 323 cored a total of 5741 meters of sediment (97.4% recovery at seven sites covering three different areas: Umnak Plateau, Bowers Ridge, and the Bering slope region. Four deep holes range from 600 m to 745 m spanning in age from 1.9 Ma to 5 Ma. The water depths (819 m to 3173 m allow characterization of past verticalwater mass distribution such as the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. The results highlight three key points. (1 The first is an understanding of long-term evolution of surface-water mass distribution during the past 5 Ma including past sea-ice distribution and warm and less eutrophic subarctic Pacific water mass entry into the Bering Sea. (2 We characterized relatively stagnant intermediate water mass distribution imprinted as laminated sediment intervals that have beenubiquitously encountered. Today, the OMZ impinges upon the sediments at ~700–1600 m water depths. In the past, the OMZ appears to have occurred mainly during interglacial periods. Changes in low oxygen-tolerant benthic foraminiferal faunas clearly concur with this observation. (3 We also characterized significant changes between glacial episode of terrigenous sedimentary supply and interglacialepisode of diatom flux.

  7. An experimental test of well-described vegetation patterns across slope aspects using woodland herb transplants and manipulated abiotic drivers. (United States)

    Warren, Robert J


    *The ubiquitous transition of plant communities across slope aspects is a well-described, but rarely tested, ecological dynamic. Aspect position is often used as a proxy for microclimate changes in moisture, light and temperature, but these abiotic drivers are seldom decoupled and very rarely manipulated across slope aspects. *To investigate the mechanisms and demographic stages driving the observed distribution patterns of two woodland herbs in the southeastern USA, seeds and adults were transplanted across north- and south-facing slopes, and moisture and light were experimentally manipulated. *Stage- and species-specific abiotic responses resulted in similar landscape-level patterning for Hexastylis arifolia and Hepatica nobilis, but the underlying abiotic drivers were unique. Adult rather than seed survival best explained the natural distributions across slope aspects, and Hexastylis arifolia was limited by higher temperature, whereas Hepatica nobilis was limited by lower soil moisture. *The stage- and species-specific responses indicated that the use of slope aspect to explain plant distributions not only obfuscates explanatory mechanisms, but probably undermines the portability of results. As abiotic drivers, not topographical proxies, are projected to shift with global climate change, distribution research requires direct abiotic data in association with key demographic stages rather than topographical proxies.

  8. Soil properties in high-elevation ski slopes (United States)

    Filippa, Gianluca; Freppaz, Michele; Letey, Stéphanie; Corti, Giuseppe; Cocco, Stefania; Zanini, Ermanno


    The development of winter sports determines an increasing impact on the high altitude ecosystems, as a consequence of increased participation and an increasing demand of high quality standards for skiable areas. The construction of a ski slope is associated with a certain impact on soil, which varies as a function of the degree of human-induced disturbance to the native substrata. In this work, we provide a description of the characteristics of alpine tundra ski-slope soils and their nutrient status, contrasted with undisturbed areas. The study site is located in the Monterosaski Resort, Aosta Valley, NW Italy (45°51' N; 7°48' E). We chose 5 sites along an altitudinal gradient between 2700 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Per each site, one plot was established on the ski slope, while a control plot was chosen under comparable topographic conditions a few meters apart. Soils were described and samples were collected and analysed for main chemical-physical properties. In addition an evaluation of N forms, organic matter fractionation and microbial biomass was carried out. Soil depth ranged between 10 to more than 70 cm, both on the ski slope and in the undisturbed areas. A true organo-mineral (A) horizon was firstly identified at 2500 m a.s.l., while a weathering horizon (Bw) was detected at 2400 m a.s.l.. However, a Bw horizon thick enough to be recognised as diagnostic for shifting soil classification order from Entisols to Inceptisols (USDA-Soil Taxonomy) was detected only below 2400 m a.s.l.. Lithic Cryorthents were predominant in the upper part of the sequence (above 2500 m a.s.l.), both in the ski slope and the undisturbed areas; Typic Cryorthents were identified between 2500 and 2400 m a.s.l., while Inceptisols were predominant between 2400 and 2200 m a.s.l.. Chemical-physical properties will be discussed focusing on the main differences between ski slope and undisturbed soils, as determined by the ski slope construction. Pedogenetic processes at high altitude are

  9. Slope Derivative Surface used to characterize the complexity of the seafloor around St. John, USVI (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell using ArcGIS's Spatial Analyst 'Slope' Tool. Slope describes the maximum steepness of a terrain...

  10. Seismic slope stability of embankments: a comparative study on EC8 provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.; Psarropoulos, P.N.


    for the selection of either the seismic coefficient or the acceleration time history of the rigid block. Although both ULS and SLS are defined according to acceptable level of deformations at the slope, the assigned level of displacements is not clarified. In the current study the seismic slope stability...... their dynamic response and the permanent seismic displacements. After calculating the horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients from parametric dynamic numerical analyses the seismic permanent displacements were estimated according to Newmark’s sliding block approach. Seismic coefficient spectra for circular...... failure surfaces, based on two levels of acceptable seismic displacements, are proposed. For deep failure surfaces, coupled analyses of a SDOF system with sliding potential along its base have been performed and the critical acceleration was established. The results indicate that displacements...

  11. Break of slope in earthquake size distribution and creep rate along the San Andreas Fault system (United States)

    Shebalin, P.; Narteau, C.; Vorobieva, I.


    Crustal faults accommodate slip either by a succession of earthquakes or continuous slip, andin most instances, both these seismic and aseismic processes coexist. Recorded seismicity and geodeticmeasurements are therefore two complementary data sets that together document ongoing deformationalong active tectonic structures. Here we study the influence of stable sliding on earthquake statistics.We show that creep along the San Andreas Fault is responsible for a break of slope in the earthquake sizedistribution. This slope increases with an increasing creep rate for larger magnitude ranges, whereas itshows no systematic dependence on creep rate for smaller magnitude ranges. This is interpreted as a deficitof large events under conditions of faster creep where seismic ruptures are less likely to propagate. Theseresults suggest that the earthquake size distribution does not only depend on the level of stress but also onthe type of deformation.

  12. Effects of slope smoothing in river channel modeling (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Liu, Frank; Hodges, Ben R.


    In extending dynamic river modeling with the 1D Saint-Venant equations from a single reach to a large watershed there are critical questions as to how much bathymetric knowledge is necessary and how it should be represented parsimoniously. The ideal model will include the detail necessary to provide realism, but not include extraneous detail that should not exert a control on a 1D (cross-section averaged) solution. In a Saint-Venant model, the overall complexity of the river channel morphometry is typically abstracted into metrics for the channel slope, cross-sectional area, hydraulic radius, and roughness. In stream segments where cross-section surveys are closely spaced, it is not uncommon to have sharp changes in slope or even negative values (where a positive slope is the downstream direction). However, solving river flow with the Saint-Venant equations requires a degree of smoothness in the equation parameters or the equation set with the directly measured channel slopes may not be Lipschitz continuous. The results of non-smoothness are typically extended computational time to converge solutions (or complete failure to converge) and/or numerical instabilities under transient conditions. We have investigated using cubic splines to smooth the bottom slope and ensure always positive reference slopes within a 1D model. This method has been implemented in the Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) and is compared to the standard HEC-RAS river solver. It is shown that the reformulation of the reference slope is both in keeping with the underlying derivation of the Saint-Venant equations and provides practical numerical stability without altering the realism of the simulation. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  13. Embark students on geosciences expeditions, across the oceans … (United States)

    Burgio, Marion; Darrieu, Michele; Pointu, Agnes; Maruejol, Patricia; Cooper, Sharon


    As teachers we can live and share a fabulous experience of science and research on the scientific drilling vessels and platforms of IODP-ECORD and JAMSTEC consortiums. ECORD offered us the opportunity to embark on the IODP 359, 360 and 362 expeditions as Education Officers. Our task was to communicate about science with the general public and students from 7 to 25 years-old. In this presentation, we will focus on the 360 expedition, South West Indian Ridge-lower crust and Moho. We explain the three steps of the "teacher at sea" experience from the very first idea to the real pedagogical work during and after the expedition. -Apply, get ready and leave… for two months: From the difficulties you may encounter to the most efficient ways to prepare the pedagogical tasks. -Work, live onboard and get back: We will describe the main activities of the Education officers among the Science party and the way all this can become a highly changing-life experience. -Use data, share and inspire: We will detail some strategies we used to catch the attention of the students. They could participate to "live" science and have a better idea of the job of researcher. Now, we have to inspire others teachers to use our data and pedagogical documents, or to get the opportunity to embark ! What gets out of these crossed experiences is that the quality of the human relationships, and the way the students can get closer to the scientists during the interactions, are the keys to motivate students and give them a new vision of the scientific research.

  14. Direct Strain and Slope and Slope Measurement Using 2D DSPSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandach, W.; Molimard, J.; Picart, P.


    Large variety of optical full-field measurement techniques are being developed and applied to solve mechanical problems. Since each technique possesses its own merits, it is important to know the capabilities and limitations of such techniques. Among these optical full-field methods, interferometry techniques take an important place. They are based on illumination with coherent light (laser). In shearing interferometry the difference of the out of-plane displacement in two neighboring object points is directly measured. Since object displacement does not result in interferometry fringes, the method is suited for localization of strain concentrations and is indeed used in industry for this purpose. DSPSI possesses the advantage over conventional out-of-plane displacement-sensitive interferometry, that only a single difference of the unwrapped phase map is required to obtain flexural strains, thereby relieving problems with noise and reduction in the field of view. A first work in this domain (DSPSI) [1] was made in 1973, later recent studies emerged to provide a quantitative system of measurements [2]. This work aims to present the results of strain and slope measurements using digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry (DSPSI). (author)

  15. [Dr Alexander M. Kellas and the first Mount Everest expedition]. (United States)

    Hauge, A


    In 1921 the government of Tibet gave permission for a British party to attempt Mount Everest from the northern Tibetan side. Little was known about the physiological and medical problems associated with ascents to extreme altitudes. The person who knew most about these topics was Dr. Alexander Kellas, lecturer in medical chemistry at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School. He had made a number of expeditions to the Sikkim Himal and the Tibetan border before the first world war, and had become increasingly interested in the problems caused by altitude. He was invited to join the Everest expedition but died on the approach march at Kampa Dzong on the Tibetan plateau, within sight of the mountain. Before he went on the expedition Kellas wrote an article entitled A consideration of the possibility of ascending Mt. Everest. This paper was never published, but the manuscript exists in the archives of the Royal Geographical Society and the Alpine Club in London. As Kellas saw it, the main issue was whether sufficient adaptation could occur to allow a climber to ascend from a camp at about 7,700 m to the summit (8,848 m) in one day without supplementary oxygen. His conclusion was that this was possible and, in fact, the first such ascent by Habeler and Messner in 1978 started from a camp at 7,900 m. Kellas calculated the pressure on the summit to be 251 mmHg, a more accurate figure than estimates based on the "Standard Atmosphere" Kellas estimated maximum oxygen uptake at the summit to be 970 ml/min, and the current value is thought to be about 1,070 ml/min. His estimates of the climbing rate near the summit closely parallels the rate of Habeler and Messner. Kellas had a talent for asking the right questions. He applied his considerable knowledge of physiology to the topic of high altitude, and his suggestions and recommendations were of consistently high quality. He deserves to be better known, both for his geographical surveys and for his pioneer work on high altitude

  16. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  17. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  18. Physical Analysis Work for Slope Stability at Shah Alam, Selangor (United States)

    Ishak, M. F.; Zaini, M. S. I.


    Slope stability analysis is performed to assess the equilibrium conditions and the safe design of a human-made or natural slope to find the endangered areas. Investigation of potential failure and determination of the slope sensitivity with regard to safety, reliability and economics were parts of this study. Ground anchor is designed to support a structure in this study. Ground anchor were implemented at the Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) wall along Anak Persiaran Jubli Perak to overcome the further cracking of pavement parking, concrete deck and building of the Apartments. A result from the laboratory testing of soil sample such as index test and shear strength test were applied to the Slope/W software with regard to the ground anchors that were implemented. The ground anchors were implemented to increase the value of the factor of safety (FOS) of the MSE Wall. The value of the factor of safety (FOS) before implementing the ground anchor was 0.800 and after the ground anchor was implemented the value increase to 1.555. The increase percentage of factor of safety by implementing on stability of slope was 94.38%.

  19. Landform Degradation and Slope Processes on Io: The Galileo View (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Chuang, Frank C.; Head, James W., III; McEwen, Alfred S.; Milazzo, Moses P.; Nixon, Brian E.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Schenk, Paul M.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; hide


    The Galileo mission has revealed remarkable evidence of mass movement and landform degradation on Io. We recognize four major slope types observed on a number of intermediate resolution (250 m/pixel) images and several additional textures on very high resolution (10 m/pixel) images. Slopes and scarps on Io often show evidence of erosion, seen in the simplest form as alcove-carving slumps and slides at all scales. Many of the mass movement deposits on Io are probably mostly the consequence of block release and brittle slope failure. Sputtering plays no significant role. Sapping as envisioned by McCauley et al. remains viable. We speculate that alcove-lined canyons seen in one observation and lobed deposits seen along the bases of scarps in several locations may reflect the plastic deformation and 'glacial' flow of interstitial volatiles (e.g., SO2) heated by locally high geothermal energy to mobilize the volatile. The appearance of some slopes and near-slope surface textures seen in very high resolution images is consistent with erosion from sublimation-degradation. However, a suitable volatile (e.g., H2S) that can sublimate fast enough to alter Io's youthful surface has not been identified. Disaggregation from chemical decomposition of solid S2O and other polysulfur oxides may conceivably operate on Io. This mechanism could degrade landforms in a manner that resembles degradation from sublimation, and at a rate that can compete with resurfacing.

  20. Surface drainage in leveled land: Implication of slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniony S. Winkler

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the lowlands of Rio Grande do Sul, land leveling is mostly carried out with no slope for the purpose of rice production. In this environment, soils with a low hydraulic conductivity are predominant owing to the presence of a practically impermeable B-horizon near the surface. Land leveling leads to soil accommodation resulting in the formation of depressions where water accumulates after heavy rainfalls, subsequently leading to problems with crops implanted in succession to rice, such as soybeans. The objective of this research was to quantify the areas and volumes of water accumulation in soil as a function of the slope of land leveling. Five typical leveled lowland areas were studied as a part of this research. The original areas presented slopes of 0, 0.20, 0.25, 0.28 and 0.40%, which were used to generate new digital elevation models with slopes between 0 and 0.5%. These newly generated digital models were used to map the depressions with surface water storage. In conclusion, land leveling with slopes higher than 0.1% is recommended to minimize problems with superficial water storage in rice fields.

  1. Control and perception of balance at elevated and sloped surfaces. (United States)

    Simeonov, Peter I; Hsiao, Hongwei; Dotson, Brian W; Ammons, Douglas E


    Understanding roof-work-related risk of falls and developing low-cost, practical engineering controls for reducing this risk remain in high demand in the construction industry. This study investigated the effects of the roof work environment characteristics of surface slope, height, and visual reference on standing balance in construction workers. The 24 participants were tested in a laboratory setting at 4 slopes (0 degrees, 18 degrees, 26 degrees, and 34 degrees), 2 heights (0, 3 m), and 2 visual conditions (with and without visual references). Postural sway characteristics were calculated using center of pressure recordings from a force platform. Workers' perceptions of postural sway and instability were also evaluated. The results indicated that slope and height synergistically increased workers' standing postural instability. Workers recognized the individual destabilizing effects of slope and height but did not recognize the synergistic effect of the two. Visual references significantly reduced the destabilizing effects of height and slope. Actual and potential applications of this research include the use of temporary level work surfaces and proximal vertical reference structures as postural instability control measures during roofing work.

  2. The Influence of Slope Breaks on Lava Flow Surface Disruption (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Wright, Robert


    Changes in the underlying slope of a lava flow impart a significant fraction of rotational energy beyond the slope break. The eddies, circulation and vortices caused by this rotational energy can disrupt the flow surface, having a significant impact on heat loss and thus the distance the flow can travel. A basic mechanics model is used to compute the rotational energy caused by a slope change. The gain in rotational energy is deposited into an eddy of radius R whose energy is dissipated as it travels downstream. A model of eddy friction with the ambient lava is used to compute the time-rate of energy dissipation. The key parameter of the dissipation rate is shown to be rho R(sup 2/)mu, where ? is the lava density and mu is the viscosity, which can vary by orders of magnitude for different flows. The potential spatial disruption of the lava flow surface is investigated by introducing steady-state models for the main flow beyond the steepening slope break. One model applies to slow-moving flows with both gravity and pressure as the driving forces. The other model applies to fast-moving, low-viscosity, turbulent flows. These models provide the flow velocity that establishes the downstream transport distance of disrupting eddies before they dissipate. The potential influence of slope breaks is discussed in connection with field studies of lava flows from the 1801 Hualalai and 1823 Keaiwa Kilauea, Hawaii, and 2004 Etna eruptions.

  3. Hyperstereopsis in helmet-mounted NVDs: slope perception (United States)

    Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Flanagan, Patrick; Gibbs, Peter


    Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwl helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the sides of the helmet onto the helmet faceplate. This produces a situation of hyperstereopsis in which binocular disparities are magnified. This has the potential to distort the perception of slope in depth (an important cue to landing), because the slope cue provided by binocular disparity conflicts with veridical cues to slope, such as texture gradients and motion parallax. In the experiments, eight observers viewed sparse and dense textured surfaces tilted in depth under three viewing conditions: normal stereo hyper-stereo (4 times magnification), and hypostereo (1/4 magnification). The surfaces were either stationary, or rotated slowly around a central vertical axis. Stimuli were projected at 6 metres to minimise conflict between accommodation and convergence, and stereo viewing was provided by a Z-screen and passive polarised glasses. Observers matched perceived visual slope using a small tilt table set by hand. We found that slope estimates were distorted by hyperstereopsis, but to a much lesser degree than predicted by disparity magnification. The distortion was almost completely eliminated when motion parallax was present.

  4. 76 FR 30176 - Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen Reduction Claims; Withdrawal... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (Formerly Docket No. 2001D-0107) Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen Reduction Claims; Withdrawal of Guidance AGENCY: Food and... guidance for industry 121 entitled ``Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen...

  5. Potato germplasm collecting expedition to Mexico in 1997 : taxonomy and new germplasm resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Rivera-Pena, A.; Berg, van den R.G.; Schueler, K.


    Wild potato (Solanum sect. Petota) germplasm has been collected in Mexico on nine major expeditions, as determined by 20 collections or more from each expedition currently at the United States potato genebank, the National Research Support Program-6 (NRSP-6). These have resulted in 609 accessions

  6. 49 CFR 385.308 - What may cause an expedited action? (United States)


    ... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.308 What may cause an expedited... inspections or by any other means, may be subjected to an expedited safety audit or a compliance review or may..., or missing a required endorsement. (2) Operating a vehicle placed out of service for violations of...

  7. 42 CFR 405.1206 - Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care. (United States)


    ... hospital care. 405.1206 Section 405.1206 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... Hospital Discharges § 405.1206 Expedited determination procedures for inpatient hospital care. (a... expedited determination by the QIO when a hospital (acting directly or through its utilization review...

  8. Spheres of Interest: Imperialism, Culture, and Practice in British Solar Eclipse Expeditions, 1860-1914 (United States)

    Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim

    Scientific expeditions have played an important role in the development of Western Science, but have received far less attention than theory-making or experiment. This is a cultural and social history of British solar eclipse expeditions and observing practices. An introductory chapter outlines the historiography of scientific practice, imperialism and science, and scientific expeditions, and explains the importance of solar eclipses to nineteenth-century science. The chapters follow expeditions from their planning, through their execution, and into the publication of results. Chapter 2 is an institutional and social history of British and American eclipse planning. British expeditions were organized by national societies, while American expeditions were planned by individual observatories and colleges. Chapters 3 and 4 move into the field. They show how the evolution of tourist culture, the expansion of imperial spheres of political control, the transfer of Western technological systems to colonial territories shaped the experience of going on an expedition, and even made accurate astrophysical observation possible. They also examine the roles women played on eclipse expeditions. Chapters 5 and 6 examine spectroscopic and visual observation. They study the effects of intellectual shifts, the introduction of photography, and the scaling up of instruments on observing practices. Chapter 6 shows how visual and photographic observations of the solar corona were made. Chapter 7 follows those pictures out of the field, and examines how they were copied and shared with other astronomers.

  9. Probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zijun; Li, Dianqing


    This is the first book to revisit geotechnical site characterization from a probabilistic point of view and provide rational tools to probabilistically characterize geotechnical properties and underground stratigraphy using limited information obtained from a specific site. This book not only provides new probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis, but also tackles the difficulties in practical implementation of these approaches. In addition, this book also develops efficient Monte Carlo simulation approaches for slope stability analysis and implements these approaches in a commonly available spreadsheet environment. These approaches and the software package are readily available to geotechnical practitioners and alleviate them from reliability computational algorithms. The readers will find useful information for a non-specialist to determine project-specific statistics of geotechnical properties and to perform probabilistic analysis of slope stability.

  10. Rock mass characterisation and stability analyses of excavated slopes (United States)

    Zangerl, Christian; Lechner, Heidrun


    Excavated slopes in fractured rock masses are frequently designed for open pit mining, quarries, buildings, highways, railway lines, and canals. These slopes can reach heights of several hundreds of metres and in cases concerning open pit mines slopes larger than 1000 m are not uncommon. Given that deep-seated slope failures can cause large damage or even loss of life, the slope design needs to incorporate sufficient stability. Thus, slope design methods based on comprehensive approaches need to be applied. Excavation changes slope angle, groundwater flow, and blasting increases the degree of rock mass fracturing as well as rock mass disturbance. As such, excavation leads to considerable stress changes in the slopes. Generally, slope design rely on the concept of factor of safety (FOS), often a requirement by international or national standards. A limitation of the factor of safety is that time dependent failure processes, stress-strain relationships, and the impact of rock mass strain and displacement are not considered. Usually, there is a difficulty to estimate the strength of the rock mass, which in turn is controlled by an interaction of intact rock and discontinuity strength. In addition, knowledge about in-situ stresses for the failure criterion is essential. Thus, the estimation of the state of stress of the slope and the strength parameters of the rock mass is still challenging. Given that, large-scale in-situ testing is difficult and costly, back-calculations of case studies in similar rock types or rock mass classification systems are usually the methods of choice. Concerning back-calculations, often a detailed and standardised documentation is missing, and a direct applicability to new projects is not always given. Concerning rock mass classification systems, it is difficult to consider rock mass anisotropy and thus the empirical estimation of the strength properties possesses high uncertainty. In the framework of this study an approach based on

  11. Some Limits Using Random Slope Models to Measure Academic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Wright


    Full Text Available Academic growth is often estimated using a random slope multilevel model with several years of data. However, if there are few time points, the estimates can be unreliable. While using random slope multilevel models can lower the variance of the estimates, these procedures can produce more highly erroneous estimates—zero and negative correlations with the true underlying growth—than using ordinary least squares estimates calculated for each student or school individually. An example is provided where schools with increasing graduation rates are estimated to have negative growth and vice versa. The estimation is worse when the underlying data are skewed. It is recommended that there are at least six time points for estimating growth if using a random slope model. A combination of methods can be used to avoid some of the aberrant results if it is not possible to have six or more time points.

  12. Mars Climate History: Insights From Impact Crater Wall Slope Statistics (United States)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.


    We use the global distribution of the steepest slopes on crater walls derived from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter profile data to assess the magnitudes of degradational processes with latitude, altitude, and time. We independently confirm that Amazonian polar/high-latitude crater slope modification is substantial, but that craters in the low latitudes have essentially escaped significant slope modification since the Early Hesperian. We find that the total amount of crater wall degradation in the Late Noachian is very small in comparison to the circumpolar regions in the Late Amazonian, an observation that we interpret to mean that the Late Noachian climate was not characterized by persistent and continuous warm and wet conditions. A confirmed elevational zonality in degradation in the Early Hesperian is interpreted to mean that the atmosphere was denser than today.

  13. Development of a new generation of optical slope measuring profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Takacs, Peter Z.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas


    A collaboration, including all DOE synchrotron labs, industrial vendors of x-ray optics, and with active participation of the HBZ-BESSY-II optics group has been established to work together on a new slope measuring profiler -- the optical slope measuring system (OSMS). The slope measurement accuracy of the instrument is expected to be<50 nrad for the current and future metrology of x-ray optics for the next generation of light sources. The goals were to solidify a design that meets the needs of mirror specifications and also be affordable; and to create a common specification for fabrication of a multi-functional translation/scanning (MFTS) system for the OSMS. This was accomplished by two collaborative meetings at the ALS (March 26, 2010) and at the APS (May 6, 2010).

  14. The Socioeconomic Assessment of Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    with the aim to combat deforestation, ecological degradation, over cultivation of sloping land and soil erosion. However, we also believe it brings changes to the rural economic structure and household livelihood strategy. Applying and developing some empirical and theoretical methods with a large amount......Abstract This thesis mainly focuses on the socioeconomic impact of the largest Ecological Recovery Program ― the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), also called Grain for Green Program (GFG) in China. The central government initiated this program in 1999 and it was launched nationwide in 2002...... that there exist heterogeneous effects of SLCP implementation on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower income group was more affected by the program in terms of income diversification. The Second paper ― The Effects of Sloping Land Conversion Program on Agricultural Households...

  15. Sharing Data: Building on the Traditions of Collaborative Ocean Expeditions (United States)

    Leinen, M.


    Collaborative international marine research programs over the past 60 years have built on the historic tradition of extended national expeditions during the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries that explored new regions of the ocean and integrated knowledge: the Challenger, Albatross, and Meteor Expeditions. As oceanography matured after WWII, a new style of collaborative program emerged that focused on specific processes or problems rather than general exploration; the International Geophysical Year (IGY, 1957-58) was followed by the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE, 1970s). The latter set the stage for regular campaign-style oceanography focused on large-scale problems beyond the capability of individuals or small groups. These have become a staple of international oceanography and provide a framework around which oceanographers from around the world can contribute to global ocean discovery regardless of the capabilities of their individual nations. These collaborations have explored everything from processes controlling and associated with the formation of new ocean floor (RIDGE) to the Census of Marine Life. New collaborations have extended the concept of the international campaign to networks of autonomous vehicles (ARGO) in which all data are freely available. Regardless of the immediate discoveries associated with a campaign, much of its influence derives from the free availability of the data. Those research programs that have made digital data freely available have had an enormous follow-on impact as new models (digital and otherwise) are applied to the results. .

  16. Development of a GIS-based failure investigation system for highway soil slopes (United States)

    Ramanathan, Raghav; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Tanyu, Burak F.


    A framework for preparation of an early warning system was developed for Maryland, using a GIS database and a collective overlay of maps that highlight highway slopes susceptible to soil slides or slope failures in advance through spatial and statistical analysis. Data for existing soil slope failures was collected from geotechnical reports and field visits. A total of 48 slope failures were recorded and analyzed. Six factors, including event precipitation, geological formation, land cover, slope history, slope angle, and elevation were considered to affect highway soil slope stability. The observed trends indicate that precipitation and poor surface or subsurface drainage conditions are principal factors causing slope failures. 96% of the failed slopes have an open drainage section. A majority of the failed slopes lie in regions with relatively high event precipitation ( P>200 mm). 90% of the existing failures are surficial erosion type failures, and only 1 out of the 42 slope failures is deep rotational type failure. More than half of the analyzed slope failures have occurred in regions having low density land cover. 46% of failures are on slopes with slope angles between 20° and 30°. Influx of more data relating to failed slopes should give rise to more trends, and thus the developed slope management system will aid the state highway engineers in prudential budget allocation and prioritizing different remediation projects based on the literature reviewed on the principles, concepts, techniques, and methodology for slope instability evaluation (Leshchinsky et al., 2015).

  17. Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method (United States)

    Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson


    Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.

  18. Evidence of slope instability in the Southwestern Adriatic Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Minisini


    Full Text Available The Southwestern Adriatic Margin (SAM shows evidence of widespread failure events that generated slide scars up to 10 km wide and extensive slide deposits with run out distances greater than 50 km. Chirp-sonar profiles, side-scan sonar mosaics, multibeam bathymetry and sediment cores document that the entire slope area underwent repeated failures along a stretch of 150 km and that mass-transport deposits, covering an area of 3320 km2, are highly variable ranging from blocky slides to turbidites, and lay on the lower slope and in the basin. The SAM slope between 300–700 m is impacted by southward bottom currents shaping sediment drifts (partly affected by failure and areas of dominant erosion of the seafloor. When slide deposits occur in areas swept by bottom currents their fresh appearence and their location at seafloor may give the misleading impression of a very young age. Seismic-stratigraphic correlation of these deposits to the basin floor, however, allow a more reliable age estimate through sediment coring of the post-slide unit. Multiple buried failed masses overlap each other in the lower slope and below the basin floor; the most widespread of these mass-transport deposits occurred during the MIS 2-glacial interval on a combined area of 2670 km2. Displacements affecting Holocene deposits suggest recent failure events during or after the last phases of the last post-glacial eustatic rise. Differences in sediment accumulation rates at the base or within the sediment drifts and presence of downlap surfaces along the slope and further in the basin may provide one or multiple potential weak layers above which widespread collapses take place. Neotectonic activity and seismicity, together with the presence of a steep slope, represent additional elements conducive to sediment instability and failure along the SAM. Evidence of large areas still prone to failure provides elements of tsunamogenic hazard.

  19. Assessment of shallow subsurface characterisation with non-invasive geophysical methods at the intermediate hill-slope scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Popp


    Full Text Available Hill-slopes of several hectares in size represent a difficult scale for subsurface characterisation, as these landscape units are well beyond the scope of traditional point-scale techniques. By means of electromagnetic induction (EMI and gamma-ray spectroscopy, spatially distributed soil proxy data were collected from a heterogeneous hill-slope site. Results of EMI mapping using the EM38DD showed that soil electrical conductivity (ECa is highly variable at both temporal and spatial scales. Calibration of the integral ECa signal to a specific target like soil moisture is hampered by the ambiguous response of EMI to the clay-rich hill-slope underground. Gamma-ray results were obtained during a single survey, along with EMI measurements and selected soil sampling. In contrast to ECa, a noticeable correlation between Total Count and K emission data and soil-water content seemed to be present. Relevant proxy variables from both methods were used for k means clustering in order to distinguish between hill-slope areas with different soil conditions. As a result, we obtained a suitable partition of hill-slope that was comparable with a previously obtained zonation model based on ecological factors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Santos Cruz


    Full Text Available In several companies, transportation costs are most part logistics costs. In this context, the appropriate distribution planning figures as a strategic activity in the generation of competitiveness. Previous studies that analyzed the transportation problem do not consider the role of the expedition in their models. This research investigated a transportation problem considering the expedition of goods. A midsize retailer located in the ABC region of Sao Paulo was used to conduct a case study. In addition to documentary data, interviews were conducted with professionals involved in the expedition operation. The results indicated that the company could optimize their expedition by considering the changes proposed in this study. We conclude that the expedition is an important activity in the analysis of a transport model.

  1. Measurement of the π0 electromagnetic transition form factor slope (United States)

    Lazzeroni, C.; Lurkin, N.; Romano, A.; Blazek, T.; Koval, M.; Ceccucci, A.; Danielsson, H.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hallgren, B.; Maier, A.; Peters, A.; Piccini, M.; Riedler, P.; Frabetti, P. L.; Gersabeck, E.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Movchan, S.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Rubin, P.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Bucci, F.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Antonelli, A.; Moulson, M.; Raggi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Eppard, K.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Bolotov, V.; Duk, V.; Gushchin, E.; Ambrosino, F.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Piandani, R.; Sergi, A.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Balev, S.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Gallorini, S.; Goudzovski, E.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Ruggiero, G.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Kholodenko, S.; Kurshetsov, V.; Obraztsov, V.; Semenov, V.; Yushchenko, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Leonardi, E.; Serra, M.; Valente, P.; Fucci, A.; Salamon, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Peyaud, B.; Engelfried, J.; Coward, D.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Dellacasa, G.; Marchetto, F.; Numao, T.; Retière, F.; NA62 Collaboration


    The NA62 experiment collected a large sample of charged kaon decays in 2007 with a highly efficient trigger for decays into electrons. A measurement of the π0 electromagnetic transition form factor slope parameter from 1.11 ×106 fully reconstructed K± →π± πD0, πD0 →e+e- γ events is reported. The measured value a = (3.68 ± 0.57) ×10-2 is in good agreement with theoretical expectations and previous measurements, and represents the most precise experimental determination of the slope in the time-like momentum transfer region.

  2. Wave Run-Up on Sloping Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouck, J. De; Troch, P.; Ronde, J. De


    Wave run-up is one of the main physical processes which are taken into account in the design of the crest level of sloping coastal structures. The crest level design of these structures is mainly based on physical scale model results.......Wave run-up is one of the main physical processes which are taken into account in the design of the crest level of sloping coastal structures. The crest level design of these structures is mainly based on physical scale model results....

  3. After the Slippery Slope: Dutch Experiences on Regulating Active Euthanasia


    Boer, Th.A.


    “When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward.” If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery-slope argument, however, is by definition limited by its reference to future developments which cannot empirically be sustained. Experience in the Netherlands—where a law regulating active euthanasia was accepted in April 2001—may shed...

  4. Newton slopes for Artin-Schreier-Witt towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher; Wan, Daqing; Xiao, Liang


    We fix a monic polynomial f(x)∈Fq[x] over a finite field and consider the Artin-Schreier-Witt tower defined by f(x); this is a tower of curves ⋯→Cm→Cm−1→⋯→C0=A1, with total Galois group Zp. We study the Newton slopes of zeta functions of this tower of curves. This reduces to the study of the Newton...... a result on the behavior of the slopes of the eigencurve associated to the Artin-Schreier-Witt tower, analogous to the result of Buzzard and Kilford....

  5. The Unsaturated Hydromechanical Coupling Model of Rock Slope Considering Rainfall Infiltration Using DDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianshan Liu


    Full Text Available Water flow and hydromechanical coupling process in fractured rocks is more different from that in general porous media because of heterogeneous spatial fractures and possible fracture-dominated flow; a saturated-unsaturated hydromechanical coupling model using a discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA similar to FEM and DEM was employed to analyze water movement in saturated-unsaturated deformed rocks, in which the Van-Genuchten model differently treated the rock and fractures permeable properties to describe the constitutive relationships. The calibrating results for the dam foundation indicated the validation and feasibility of the proposed model and are also in good agreement with the calculations based on DEM still demonstrating its superiority. And then, the rainfall infiltration in a reservoir rock slope was detailedly investigated to describe the water pressure on the fault surface and inside the rocks, displacement, and stress distribution under hydromechanical coupling conditions and uncoupling conditions. It was observed that greater rainfall intensity and longer rainfall time resulted in lower stability of the rock slope, and larger difference was very obvious between the hydromechanical coupling condition and uncoupling condition, demonstrating that rainfall intensity, rainfall time, and hydromechanical coupling effect had great influence on the saturated-unsaturated water flow behavior and mechanical response of the fractured rock slopes.

  6. The Wilderness Expedition: An Effective Life Course Intervention to Improve Young People's Well-Being and Connectedness to Nature (United States)

    Barton, Jo; Bragg, Rachel; Pretty, Jules; Roberts, Jo; Wood, Carly


    It is well understood that wilderness expeditions improve well-being; however, there is little supporting quantitative data. The aim of this study was to measure the impact of wilderness expeditions on self-esteem (SE) and connectedness to nature (CN) and assess whether benefits varied according to participant and expedition characteristics. SE…

  7. Instrumental record of debris flow initiation during natural rainfall: Implications for modeling slope stability (United States)

    Montgomery, D.R.; Schmidt, K.M.; Dietrich, W.E.; McKean, J.


    The middle of a hillslope hollow in the Oregon Coast Range failed and mobilized as a debris flow during heavy rainfall in November 1996. Automated pressure transducers recorded high spatial variability of pore water pressure within the area that mobilized as a debris flow, which initiated where local upward flow from bedrock developed into overlying colluvium. Postfailure observations of the bedrock surface exposed in the debris flow scar reveal a strong spatial correspondence between elevated piezometric response and water discharging from bedrock fractures. Measurements of apparent root cohesion on the basal (Cb) and lateral (Cl) scarp demonstrate substantial local variability, with areally weighted values of Cb = 0.1 and Cl = 4.6 kPa. Using measured soil properties and basal root strength, the widely used infinite slope model, employed assuming slope parallel groundwater flow, provides a poor prediction of hydrologie conditions at failure. In contrast, a model including lateral root strength (but neglecting lateral frictional strength) gave a predicted critical value of relative soil saturation that fell within the range defined by the arithmetic and geometric mean values at the time of failure. The 3-D slope stability model CLARA-W, used with locally observed pore water pressure, predicted small areas with lower factors of safety within the overall slide mass at sites consistent with field observations of where the failure initiated. This highly variable and localized nature of small areas of high pore pressure that can trigger slope failure means, however, that substantial uncertainty appears inevitable for estimating hydrologie conditions within incipient debris flows under natural conditions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Development of the springbok skin - colour pattern, hair slope and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.-Afr. Tydskr. Dierk. 1989,24(1). Development of the springbok skin - colour pattern, hair slope and horn rudiments in Antidorcas marsupialis. G.H. Findlay. Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0001 Republic of South Africa·. Received 19 May 1988; accepted 8 September 1988.

  9. Stability analysis of sandy slope considering anisotropy effect in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of anisotropy of shear strength parameter on the stability of a sandy slope by performing the limit equilibrium analysis. Because of scarcity of mathematical equation for anisotropic friction angle of sand, at first, all results of principal stress rotation tests are processed by artificial neural ...

  10. Experimental research on stability of covering blocks for sloping banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Toshihiko


    In the case of constructing thermal and nuclear power stations facing open seas, usually the harbors for unloading fuel and others are constructed. In Japan, breakwaters are installed in the places of relatively shallow depth less than 20 m, and in such case, the sloping banks having the covering material of wave-controlling blocks made of concrete are mostly adopted as those are excellent in their function and economical efficiency, and are advantageous in the maintenance and management. Sloping banks are of such type that wave-controlling blocks cover the vertical front face of nonpermeating caissons, and the same type was adopted for breakwaters and others in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station, Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. As for the wave-controlling blocks, tetrapods and shake blocks were used. One of the most important problems in the design of sloping banks is how to estimate the stability of wave controlling blocks. In this paper, the results of the examination by hydraulic model experiment on the stability of covering blocks are reported, which are useful as the basic data for the rational and economical design of sloping banks. The experimental setup and a model bank, the generation of experimental waves and their characteristics, the experimental conditions and experimental method, and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Wave Run-Up on Sloping Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouck, J. De; Troch, P.; Ronde, J. De

    Wave run-up is one of the main physical processes which is taken into account in the design of the crest level of sloping coastal structures. Until recently, solely physical model results were used for the crest level design. However, prototype measurements have indicated that scale models...

  12. Nonlinear assessment of time series from rock slope monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvelebil, J.; Paluš, Milan


    Roč. 9 (2007), A-05649 ISSN 1029-7006. [General Asembly of the European Geophysical Society. 15.04.2007-20.04.2007, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fractal * scaling * unstable rock slope * collapse prediction * engineering geology Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  13. the Modeling of Hydraulic Jump Generated Partially on Sloping Apron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Abdulatif Jalil


    Full Text Available Modeling aims to characterize system behavior and achieve simulation close as possible of the reality. The rapid energy exchange in supercritical flow to generate quiet or subcritical flow in hydraulic jump phenomenon is important in design of hydraulic structures. Experimental and numerical modeling is done on type B hydraulic jump which starts first on sloping bed and its end on horizontal bed.  Four different apron slopes are used, for each one of these slopes the jump is generated on different locations by controlling the tail water depth.  Modelling validation is based on 120 experimental runs which they show that there is reliability. The air volume fraction which creates in through hydraulic jump varied between 0.18 and 0.28. While the energy exchanges process take place within 6.6, 6.1, 5.8, 5.5 of the average relative jump height for apron slopes of 0.18, 0.14, 0.10, 0.07 respectively. Within the limitations of this study, mathematical prediction model for relative hydraulic jump height is suggested.The model having an acceptable coefficient of determination.

  14. Soil erosion and management activities on forested slopes (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer


    Some of the most productive forests in the Western United States grow on marginally stable mountainous slopes, where disturbance increases the likelihood of erosion. Much of the public's concern about, and, consequently, most of the research on, erosion from these forested areas is related more to the degradation of stream resources by eroded material than to the...

  15. Erosion protection for soil slopes along Virginia's highways. (United States)


    A survey of the state of practice for designing slope erosion control measures within VDOT's nine districts has been conducted. On the basis of the survey, it is clear that there are no specific design procedures currently in use within VDOT for deal...

  16. Effect of Angle of Attack on Slope Climbing Performance (United States)

    Creager, Colin M.; Jones, Lucas; Smith, Lauren M.


    Ascending steep slopes is often a very difficult challenge for off-road vehicles, whether on Earth or on extraterrestrial bodies. This challenge is even greater if the surface consists of loose granular soil that does not provide much shear strength. This study investigated how the path at which a vehicle traverses a slope, specifically the angle that it is commanded to drive relative to the base of the hill (the angle of attack), can affect its performance. A vehicle was driven in loose sand at slope angles up to 15 degrees and angles of attack ranging from 10 to 90 degrees. A novel photogrammetry technique was implemented to both track vehicle motion and create a three-dimensional profile of the terrain. This allowed for true wheel sinkage measurements. The study showed that though low angles of attack result in lower wheel slip and sinkage, the efficiency of the vehicles uphill motion increased at higher angles of attack. For slopes up to 15 degrees, a 90 degree angle of attack provided the greatest likelihood of successful ascent.

  17. End depth in steeply sloping rough rectangular channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conte S D, de Boor C 1987 Elementary numerical analysis: An algorithmic approach (New York: McGraw-Hill). Davis A C, Ellett B G S, Jacob R P 1998 Flow measurement in sloping channels with rectangular free overfall. J. Hydraul. Eng., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 124: 760±763. Davis A C, Jacob R P, Ellett B G S 1999 Estimating ...

  18. Title Qualitative stability assessment of cut slopes along the national ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Monitoring: ISRM Suggested Methods. Pergamon Press, London. Kundu J, Sarkar K, Singh AK (2016) Integrating structural and numerical solutions for road cut slope stability analysis-A case study, India. Rock Dynamics: From Research to. Engineering: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Rock Dynamics ...

  19. Spider (Araneae) communities of scree slopes in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Klimeš, Leoš


    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2005), s. 280-289 ISSN 0161-8202 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : scree slopes * environmental factors * ice formation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2005

  20. Data compression by a decreasing slope-threshold test (United States)

    Kleinrock, L.


    Resolution can be obtained at large compression ratios with method for selecting data points for transmission by telemetry in television compressed-data system. Test slope of raw data stream and compare it to symmetric pair of decreasing thresholds. When either threshold is exceeded, data are sampled and transmitted; thresholds are reset, and test begins again.

  1. Oscillating Nocturnal Slope Flow in a Coastal Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mahrt, Larry


    Observations of slope flows in a coastal valley are analyzed. The diurnal variation of upslope and downslope flows depends on season in a systematic way which appears to be related to the high latitude of the observational site and the presence of a nearby layer of marine air. Summer nocturnal flow...

  2. Air quality in bedded mono-slope beef barns (United States)

    Bedded mono-slope barns are becoming more common in the upper Midwest. Because these are new facilities, little research has been published regarding environmental quality, building management and animal performance in these facilities. A team of researchers from South Dakota State University, USDA ...

  3. How the spatial variation of tree roots affects slope stability (United States)

    Mao, Zhun; Stokes, A.; Jourdan, C.; Rey, H.; Courbaud, B.; Saint-André, L.


    It is now widely recognized that plant roots can reinforce soil against shallow mass movement. Although studies on the interactions between vegetation and slope stability have significantly augmented in recent years, a clear understanding of the spatial dynamics of root reinforcement (through additional cohesion by roots) in subalpine forest is still limited, especially with regard to the roles of different forest management strategies or ecological landscapes. The architecture of root systems is important for soil cohesion, but in reality it is not possible to measure the orientation of each root in a system. Therefore, knowledge on the effect of root orientation and anisotropy on root cohesion on the basis of in situ data is scanty. To determine the effect of root orientation in root cohesion models, we investigated root anisotropy in two mixed, mature, naturally regenerated, subalpine forests of Norway spruce (Picea abies), and Silver fir (Abies alba). Trees were clustered into islands, with open spaces between each group, resulting in strong mosaic heterogeneity within the forest stand. Trenches within and between clusters of trees were dug and root distribution was measured in three dimensions. We then simulated the influence of different values for a root anisotropy correction factor in forests with different ecological structures and soil depths. Using these data, we have carried out simulations of slope stability by calculating the slope factor of safety depending on stand structure. Results should enable us to better estimate the risk of shallow slope failure depending on the type of forest and species.

  4. Slope Stability Analysis Using Slice-Wise Factor of Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao


    Full Text Available The concept of slice-wise factor of safety is introduced to investigate the state of both the whole slope and each slice. The assumption that the interslice force ratio is the same between any two slices is made and the eccentric moment of slice weight is also taken into account. Then four variables equations are formulated based on the equilibrium of forces and moment and the assumption of interslice forces, and then the slice-wise factor of safety along the slip surface can be obtained. The active and passive sections of the slope can be determined based on the distribution of factor of safety. The factor of safety of the whole slope is also defined as the ratio of the sum of antisliding force to the sum of sliding force on the slip surface. Two examples with different slip surface shapes are analysed to demonstrate the usage of the proposed method. The slice-wise factor of safety enables us to determine the sliding mechanism and pattern of a slope. The reliability is verified by comparing the overall factor of safety with that calculated by conventional methods.

  5. Slope histogram distribution-based parametrisation of Martian geomorphic features (United States)

    Balint, Zita; Székely, Balázs; Kovács, Gábor


    The application of geomorphometric methods on the large Martian digital topographic datasets paves the way to analyse the Martian areomorphic processes in more detail. One of the numerous methods is the analysis is to analyse local slope distributions. To this implementation a visualization program code was developed that allows to calculate the local slope histograms and to compare them based on Kolmogorov distance criterion. As input data we used the digital elevation models (DTMs) derived from HRSC high-resolution stereo camera image from various Martian regions. The Kolmogorov-criterion based discrimination produces classes of slope histograms that displayed using coloration obtaining an image map. In this image map the distribution can be visualized by their different colours representing the various classes. Our goal is to create a local slope histogram based classification for large Martian areas in order to obtain information about general morphological characteristics of the region. This is a contribution of the TMIS.ascrea project, financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG). The present research is partly realized in the frames of TÁMOP 4.2.4.A/2-11-1-2012-0001 high priority "National Excellence Program - Elaborating and Operating an Inland Student and Researcher Personal Support System convergence program" project's scholarship support, using Hungarian state and European Union funds and cofinances from the European Social Fund.

  6. Late Holocene Radiocarbon Variability in Northwest Atlantic Slope Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, O; Edinger, E; Guilderson, T P; Ghaleb, B; Risk, M J; Scott, D B


    Deep-sea gorgonian corals secrete a 2-part skeleton of calcite, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon at depth, and gorgonin, derived from recently fixed and exported particulate organic matter. Radiocarbon contents of the calcite and gorgonin provide direct measures of seawater radiocarbon at depth and in the overlying surface waters, respectively. Using specimens collected from Northwest Atlantic slope waters, we generated radiocarbon records for surface and upper intermediate water layers spanning the pre- and post bomb-{sup 14}C eras. In Labrador Slope Water (LSW), convective mixing homogenizes the pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C signature (-67 {+-} 4{per_thousand}) to at least 1000 m depth. Surface water bomb-{sup 14}C signals were lagged and damped (peaking at {approx} +45{per_thousand} in the early 1980s) relative to other regions of the northwest Atlantic, and intermediate water signals were damped further. Off southwest Nova Scotia, the vertical gradient in {Delta}{sup 14}C is much stronger. In surface water, pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C averaged -75 {+-} 5{per_thousand}. At 250-475 m depth, prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C oscillated quasi-decadally between -80 and -100{per_thousand}, likely reflecting interannual variability in the presence of Labrador Slope Water vs. Warm Slope Water (WSW). Finally, subfossil corals reveal no systematic changes in vertical {Delta}{sup 14}C gradients over the last 1200 years.

  7. 30 CFR 716.2 - Steep-slope mining. (United States)


    ... original contour restoration requirements. (1) This section applies to surface coal mining operations on... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steep-slope mining. 716.2 Section 716.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM...

  8. Stability analysis of sandy slope considering anisotropy effect in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Faculty of Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, ... 2School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, ..... material. 4.3 Stability analysis result. For each analysis case with specified geometrical configuration for slope, a wide range of slip surfaces are considered by establishing a grid of ...

  9. Soil conservation options for olive orchards on sloping land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Graaff, de J.


    Olive production is an important and growing agricultural activity throughout the Meditteranean zone. At the same time, soil erosion is one of the environmental key problems in this zone. Actual erosion in olive production areas is high, in particular on sloping land. Several erosion risk factors

  10. Slope failure susceptibility zonation using integrated remote sensing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The susceptibility of slopes in open pit coal mines to various modes of failure (i.e. plane, wedge, circular and toppling failure) could be envisaged by virtue of processing and analysis of pertinent satellite data. The aim of the present study was to integrate thematic maps generated using remote sensing image processing ...

  11. Title Qualitative stability assessment of cut slopes along the national ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Keeping an eye to above problems, a study was carried out along NH-05 covering a stretch of 12 km from Jhakri to Jeori ... 2016). Regional strike of lithological units is ENE-WSW which shows local variations in the trend (Singh 1979). .... Slope 3 is exposed to wedge failure and trend of the intersection line is towards 301°.

  12. Postural Stability Margins as a Function of Support Surface Slopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviroop Dutt-Mazumder

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the effects of slope of the surface of support (35°, 30°, 20°, 10° Facing(Toe Down, 0° Flat and 10°, 20°, 25° Facing (Toe Up and postural orientation on the margins of postural stability in quiet standing of young adults. The findings showed that the center of pressure-CoP (displacement, area and length had least motion at the baseline (0° Flat platform condition that progressively increased as a function of platform angle in both facing up and down directions. The virtual time to collision (VTC dynamics revealed that the spatio-temporal margins to the functional stability boundary were progressively smaller and the VTC time series also more regular (SampEn-Sample Entropy as slope angle increased. Surface slope induces a restricted stability region with lower dimension VTC dynamics that is more constrained when postural orientation is facing down the slope. These findings provide further evidence that VTC acts as a control variable in standing posture that is influenced by the emergent dynamics of the individual-environment-task interaction.

  13. Infiltration on mountain slopes: a comparison of three environments. (United States)

    Carol P. Harden*; P. Delmas Scruggs


    Water is well established as a major driver of the geomorphic change that eventually reduces mountains to lower relief landscapes. Nonetheless, within the altitudinal limits of continuous vegetation in humid climates, water is also an essential factor in slope stability. In this paper, we present results from field experiments to determine infiltration rates at...

  14. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining. (United States)



  15. Challenging conservation agriculture on marginal slopes in Sehoul, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwilch, G.; Laouina, A.; Chaker, M.; Machouri, N.; Sfa, M.; Stroosnijder, L.


    In Sehoul, Morocco, the use of marginal land for agriculture became a necessity for the local population due to increased poverty and the occupation of the best land by new owners. Desertification poses an additional threat to agricultural production on marginal slopes, which are often stony and

  16. A global safety deficiency : False glide slope capture affecting aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, M.J.


    A serious incident occurred at Eindhoven Airport (Netherlands) in May 2013. A Boeing 737-800 performed a go-around while using the Instrument Landing System (ILS). The flight crew reported a False Glide Slope capture as the reason for the go-around.
    At first the occurrence report did not really

  17. The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2) (United States)

    Cowie, Greg; Hood, Raleigh


    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. SCOR and the IOC are working to stimulate a new phase of coordinated international research focused on the Indian Ocean for a 5-year period beginning in late 2015 and continuing through 2020. The goal is to help to organize ongoing research and stimulate new initiatives in the 2015-2020 time frame as part of a larger expedition. Several International programs that have research ongoing or planned in the Indian Ocean during this time period and many countries are planning cruises in this time frame as well. These programs and national cruises will serve as a core for the new Indian Ocean research focus, which has been dubbed "IIOE-2." The overarching goal of the IIOE-2 is to advance our understanding of interactions between geological, oceanic and atmospheric processes that give rise to the complex physical dynamics of the Indian Ocean region, and to determine how those dynamics affect climate, extreme events, marine biogeochemical cycles, ecosystems and human populations. This understanding is required to predict the impacts of climate change, pollution, and increased fish harvesting on the Indian Ocean and its nations, as well as the influence of the Indian Ocean on other components of the Earth System. New understanding is also fundamental to policy makers for

  18. Radiological investigation in the outside area of expedition's room during radiopharmaceuticals' expedition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reina, Luiz C.; Monteiro, Ilka H.T.S.; Silva, Joao Carlos P. da; Teixeira, Danilo L.; Pedro, C.R.; Santos, J. Regis dos


    Radiopharmaceuticals produced in IEN - Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, are issued by the radiation protection team, which is responsible for preparing and issuing the packaged documentation required for movement in modal transportation. The documents are: Invoice , Shipper's Declaration of Radioactive Material , Shipper's Declaration of Dangerous Goods - (form IATA ) , Emergency Sheet, sketch of packed. All this documentation is inserted in an envelope of emergency. The Department of Radiological Protection is responsible for issuing such documents except the invoice that is issued by the Commercial Sector (Setcom). A employee of this sector is responsible for delivering it to the shipment sector. The preparation of packaged and documentation is performed in a room located in the building of Radiopharmaceutical Division. The vehicles which are used in the transport are parked outside this building, where are monitored after commissioning of packaged. The present study aims to evaluate potential and occupational radiation risks of people in transit or remain in the area where radioactive material circulates due to the shipment of radiopharmaceuticals for the classification of the area during the operation of dispatch

  19. A new vision of carbonate slopes: the Little Bahama Bank (United States)

    Mulder, Thierry; Gillet, Hervé; Hanquiez, Vincent; Reijmer, John J.; Tournadour, Elsa; Chabaud, Ludivine; Principaud, Mélanie; Schnyder, Jara; Borgomano, Jean


    Recent data collected in November 2014 (RV Walton Smith) on the upper slope of the Little Bahama Bank (LBB) between 30 and 400 m water depth allowed to characterize the uppermost slope (Rankey et al., 2012) over a surface of 170 km2. The new data set includes multibeam bathymetry and acoustic imagery, 3.5 kHz very-high resolution (VHR) seismic reflection lines, 21 gravity cores and 11 Van Veen grabs. The upper slope of the LBB does not show a steep submarine cliff as known from western Great Bahama Bank. The carbonate bank progressively deepens towards the basin through a slighty inclined plateau. The slope value is reef rests on paleo-reefs that outcrop at a water depth of about 40 m. These paleo-reef structures could represent reefs that established themselves during past periods of sea-level stagnation. Below this water depth, the slope steepens up to 30° to form the marginal escarpment (Rankey et al., 2012), which is succeeded by the open margin realm (Rankey et al., 2012). The slope inclination value decreases at about 180-200 m water depth. Between 20 and 200 m of water depth, the VHR seismic shows no seafloor sub-bottom reflector. Between 180 and 320 m water depth, the seafloor smoothens. The VHR seismic shows an onlapping sediment wedge, which starts in this water depth and shows a blind or very crudely stratified echo facies. The sediment thickness of this Holocene unit may exceed 20 m. It fills small depressions in the substratum and thickens in front of gullies that cut the carbonate platform edge. Sediment samples show the abundancy of carbonate mud on the present Bahamian seafloor. In gullies, coarser sediment can be found. In some case, soft sediments are absent suggesting by-passing. At water depth between 40 and 100 m, the present-day seafloor is covered with bioclastic sediments. The main carbonate producer seems to be the alga genus Halimeda. Sediments collected in the deeper part of the basin (water depth = 1080 m) on the distal lobe consist of

  20. Expedited remedial action -- A promising opportunity at your doorstep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, E.R.


    The Expedited Remedial Action Program or ERAP carries great promise and is limited to no more than 30 sites, there are a number of slots now available, and the legislature will soon be considering a reauthorization of the full state Superfund program, which expires in June 1998, to reportedly be based to a great extent on the ERAP model. The ERAP provides for: (1) The early identification of fair and equitable shares of liability, including an orphan share, where appropriate, to be paid by the state; (2) The elimination of all joint and several liability; (3) Cleanup levels and remedies based on the foreseeable planned use of the site; (4) Site specific risk assessments based on the latest risk assessment protocols; (5) Use of an arbitrator to quickly resolve all significant liability and technical disputes; and (6) Broad and timely releases from future liability upon completion of cleanup.

  1. QuickSiteSM, the Argonne expedited site characterization methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Meyer, W.T.


    Expedited site characterization (ESC), developed by Argonne National Laboratory, is an interactive, integrated process emphasizing the use of existing data of sufficient quality, multiple complementary characterization methods, and on-site decision making to optimize site investigations. The Argonne ESC is the basis for the provisional ESC standard of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). QuickSite SM is the implementation package developed by Argonne to facilitate ESC of sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. At various sites, Argonne has successfully implemented QuickSite SM and demonstrated the technical superiority of the ESC process over traditional methodologies guided by statistics and random-sampling approaches. For example, in a QuickSite SM characterization of a perched aquifer at the Pantex Plant in Texas, past data and geochemical analyses of existing wells were used to develop a model for recharge and contaminant movement. With the model as a guide, closure was achieved with minimal field work

  2. Expedited Demolition Notification for 2nd Quarter CY 2012 Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Catherine L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The National Nuclear Security Administration and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) (collectively the Permittees) are informing the New Mexico Environment Department Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of the need to expedite the demolition of structures summarized in the enclosures. These structures have been identified to receive funding and be demolished prior to the 3rd Quarter Demolition Notification (June 30, 2012). This letter is a follow up to the email that was sent to the NMED-HWB on April 17, 2012. The enclosures attached to this letter satisfy the reporting requirements as outlined in Section 1.17 of the LANL Hazardous Facility Waste Permit (Permit). Demolition of buildings that appear on this list will not occur until 30 days after NMED has received this notification.

  3. The 137Cs technique applied to steep Mediterranean slopes (Part I): the effects of lithology, slope morphology and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, J.M.; Boix Fayos, C.; Meijer, de R.J.; Graaff, van der E.R.; Veldkamp, A.


    Concentrations in the soil of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides have been investigated in order to assess the applicability of the Cs-137 technique in an area of typical Mediterranean steep slopes. This technique can be used to estimate net soil redistribution rates but its potential in areas

  4. The Cs-137 technique applied to steep Mediterranean slopes (Part I) : the effects of lithology, slope morphology and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.J.; van der Graaf, E.R.


    Concentrations in the soil of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides have been investigated in order to assess the applicability of the Cs-137 technique in an area of typical Mediterranean steep slopes. This technique can be used to estimate net soil redistribution rates but its potential in areas

  5. [Taxonomic list of the asteroids (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from the shelf and superior slope from the Colombian Caribbean]. (United States)

    Benavides-Serrato, Milena; Borrero-Pérez, Giomar Helena; Solano, Oscar D; Rodolfo Navas, Gabriel


    Between 1998 and 2001 we surveyed the benthic macrofauna of the continental shelf and its upper slope in the Colombian Caribbean. The INVEMAR-MACROFAUNA I-II expeditions used a "semi-ballon" net were for 10 minute bottom drags from Punta Gallinas (Guajira) to Arboletes (Antioquia). These covered seven ecological sectors from the Colombian Caribbean: Guajira (GUA), Palomino (PAL), Tayrona (TAY), Magdalena (MAG), Archipiélagos Coralinos (ARCO), Morrosquillo (MOR), and Darié (DAR). We collected 4109 Asteroidea individuals belonging to six orders, 13 families, 26 genera, four subgenera, 35 species and eight subspecies. Luidia barbadensis, Luidia heterozona barimae, Luidia ludwigi scotti, Luidia sarsi elegans, Prionaster elegans, Cheiraster (Cheiraster) planus, Cheiraster (Cheiraster) sepitus, Cheiraster (Barbadosaster) echinulatus, Pseudarchaster gracilis gracilis, Rosaster alexandri, Pteraster acicula, Pteraster militarioides militarioides, Doraster constellatus, Mammaster sigsbeei and Coronaster briareus are first records for the Colombian Caribbean. Luidia sarsi elegans, Marginaster pectinatus, Tamaria halperni and Stephanasterias albula are first records for the south Caribbean and Pterasterpersonatus and Dipsacaster antillensis are first records for the Caribbean sea.

  6. Okeanos Explorer 2014 Gulf of Mexico Expedition: engaging and connecting with diverse and geographically dispersed audiences (United States)

    Russell, C. W.; Elliott, K.; Lobecker, E.; McKenna, L.; Haynes, S.; Crum, E.; Gorell, F.


    From February to May 2014, NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer conducted a telepresence-enabled ocean exploration expedition addressing NOAA and National deepwater priorities in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. The community-driven expedition connected diverse and geographically dispersed audiences including scientists from industry, academia, and government, and educators, students, and the general public. Expedition planning included input from the ocean science and management community, and was executed with more than 70 scientists and students from 14 U.S. states participating from shore in real time. Training the next generation permeated operations: a mapping internship program trained undergraduate and graduate students; an ROV mentorship program trained young engineers to design, build and operate the system; and undergraduate through doctoral students around the country collaborated with expedition scientists via telepresence. Online coverage of the expedition included background materials, daily updates, and mission logs that received more than 100,000 visits by the public. Live video feeds of operations received more than 700,000 views online. Additionally, professional development workshops hosted in multiple locations throughout the spring introduced educators to the Okeanos Explorer Educational Materials Collection and the live expedition, and taught them how to use the website and education resources in their classrooms. Social media furthered the reach of the expedition to new audiences, garnered thousands of new followers and provided another medium for real-time interactions with the general public. Outreach continued through live interactions with museums and aquariums, Exploration Command Center tours, outreach conducted by partners, and media coverage in more than 190 outlets in the U.S. and Europe. Ship tours were conducted when the ship came in to port to engage local scientists, ocean managers, and educators. After the expedition, data and products were

  7. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning (United States)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.


    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  8. Physical model studies of seismically induced deformations in slopes (United States)

    Wartman, Joseph

    Physical model experiments were conducted on a 1-g shaking table with the goals of: (1) investigating the mechanisms of seismically induced permanent deformations in slopes and embankments, (2) assessing the accuracy and applicability of the popular "Newmark-type" procedures for estimating deformations in slopes, and (3) developing a suite of fully defined "model-scale" case histories for calibration of existing numerical procedures for predicting seismic slope deformations and for the future development of advanced numerical analyses. The inclined plane experiments indicated that the Newmark (1965) sliding block procedure generally provides unconservative estimates of deformation when the predominant frequency of the input motion is 0.2 to 1.5 times the natural frequency of the sliding mass. Conversely, the procedure was found to be generally conservative when the frequency ratio is in the range of about 1.5 to 2.2. The inclined plane tests also suggest that one-dimensional decoupled deformation analyses are generally conservative, with decoupled analyses overpredicting measured deformations by about 10% to 20% for the tests analyzed. The model slopes were commonly observed to displace along two or more localized shear surfaces. The multiple shear surfaces were typically of the same orientation and generally located within relatively close proximity of each other. Surface deformations varied over the length of each model, with the largest displacements occurring at the toe or along the face of the slope. Newmark's (1965) assumption that deformation occurs along a single surface reasonably approximated the actual deformation behavior for tests where multiple shear surfaces developed in close proximity to each other. For approximately half the tests, however, the single surface assumption proved to be an oversimplification. Accuracy was improved when the Newmark (1965) procedure was modified by using the acceleration-time history recorded in the soil immediately

  9. High resolution measurement of earthquake impacts on rock slope stability and damage using pre- and post-earthquake terrestrial laser scans (United States)

    Hutchinson, Lauren; Stead, Doug; Rosser, Nick


    Understanding the behaviour of rock slopes in response to earthquake shaking is instrumental in response and relief efforts following large earthquakes as well as to ongoing risk management in earthquake affected areas. Assessment of the effects of seismic shaking on rock slope kinematics requires detailed surveys of the pre- and post-earthquake condition of the slope; however, at present, there is a lack of high resolution monitoring data from pre- and post-earthquake to facilitate characterization of seismically induced slope damage and validate models used to back-analyze rock slope behaviour during and following earthquake shaking. Therefore, there is a need for additional research where pre- and post- earthquake monitoring data is available. This paper presents the results of a direct comparison between terrestrial laser scans (TLS) collected in 2014, the year prior to the 2015 earthquake sequence, with that collected 18 months after the earthquakes and two monsoon cycles. The two datasets were collected using Riegl VZ-1000 and VZ-4000 full waveform laser scanners with high resolution (c. 0.1 m point spacing as a minimum). The scans cover the full landslide affected slope from the toe to the crest. The slope is located in Sindhupalchok District, Central Nepal which experienced some of the highest co-seismic and post-seismic landslide intensities across Nepal due to the proximity to the epicenters (<20 km) of both of the main aftershocks on April 26, 2015 (M 6.7) and May 12, 2015 (M7.3). During the 2015 earthquakes and subsequent 2015 and 2016 monsoons, the slope experienced rockfall and debris flows which are evident in satellite imagery and field photographs. Fracturing of the rock mass associated with the seismic shaking is also evident at scales not accessible through satellite and field observations. The results of change detection between the TLS datasets with an emphasis on quantification of seismically-induced slope damage is presented. Patterns in the

  10. IODP Expedition 302, Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX: A First Look at the Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 302 Scientists


    Full Text Available Introduction The behavior and inf luence of the A rct ic Oceanthroughout the course of the global Cenozoic climateevolution have been virtually unknown. Only the uppermostfew meters of the Arctic’s sediment record, representingHolocene and late Pleistocene times, have been retrievedfrom ridges through a limited number of short piston,gravity, and box cores. Even less of the thick sedimentsequences, ~6 km in the Canada Basin and ~3 km in theNansen Basin(Grantz et al., 1990; Jokat et al., 1995, restingon the Arctic Ocean’s abyssal plains, have been cored.Prior to the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX, informationon Neogene or Paleogene conditions in the central Arcticwas limited to a 1.6-m interval in a 3.6-m-long T-3 gravitycore raised from the Alpha Ridge (Clark, 1974, providingthe sole evidence for marine conditions no older than themiddle Eocene in the central Arctic (Bukry, 1984.

  11. IODP Expedition 345: Hydrothermal Alteration of Fast-Spreading EPR Lower Crust (United States)

    Marks, N.; Faak, K.; Gillis, K. M.; McCaig, A. M.; Nozaka, T.; Python, M.


    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345 sampled lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) and are exposed at the Hess Deep Rift. Site U1415 is located along the southern slope of the intrarift ridge at ~ 4850 m water depth. The primary science results were obtained from coring of two ~110 m deep reentry holes (U1415J and U1415P) and one 35-m-deep single-bit hole (U1415I), all co-located within an ~200-m-wide area. The metamorphic mineral assemblages in the rocks recovered at Site U1415 record the cooling of primitive gabbroic lithologies from magmatic (>1000°C) to zeolite facies conditions (corona textures between olivine and plagioclase) is sparsely developed in the core, and is intense in only a few samples. Lower grade greenschist (textured serpentinization is the most common alteration after olivine, although tremolite-chlorite corona textures are variably developed in all of the olivine-bearing gabbroic lithologies recovered at Site U1415. The freshest lithologies at Site U1415 are found in the Layered Series (Unit II) of Holes U1415I and J and Multi-textured Layered Olivine Gabbro Series (Unit II) in Hole U1415P. The Troctolite Series in Holes U1415J (Unit III) and U1415P (Unit III) are more pervasively altered than the gabbroic series, with U1415J troctolites being more altered (~80%) than in Hole U1415P (~65%). This likely reflects the greater brittle deformation in Hole U1415J. Hydrothermal veins occur in limited abundance in all of the rock types recovered at Site U1415, forming networks with no preferred orientation. Amphibole and epidote veins appear to be the earliest formed veins. Chlorite and prehnite veins formed later and have mutually cross-cutting relationships. Zeolite veins are always late, crosscutting all other assemblages and structures. Cataclastic rocks in the Troctolite Series (Unit III) of Hole U1415J record complex interactions between cataclastic faulting, fluid

  12. Pore water geochemistry along continental slopes north of the East Siberian Sea: inference of low methane concentrations (United States)

    Miller, Clint M.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Jakobsson, Martin; Johansson, Carina; Koshurnikov, Andrey; O'Regan, Matt; Muschitiello, Francesco; Stranne, Christian; Mörth, Carl-Magnus


    Continental slopes north of the East Siberian Sea potentially hold large amounts of methane (CH4) in sediments as gas hydrate and free gas. Although release of this CH4 to the ocean and atmosphere has become a topic of discussion, the region remains sparingly explored. Here we present pore water chemistry results from 32 sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 joint Swedish-Russian-US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions (SWERUS-C3) expedition. The cores come from depth transects across the slope and rise extending between the Mendeleev and the Lomonosov ridges, north of Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands, respectively. Upward CH4 flux towards the seafloor, as inferred from profiles of dissolved sulfate (SO42-), alkalinity, and the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), is negligible at all stations east of 143° E longitude. In the upper 8 m of these cores, downward SO42- flux never exceeds 6.2 mol m-2 kyr-1, the upward alkalinity flux never exceeds 6.8 mol m-2 kyr-1, and δ13C composition of DIC (δ13C-DIC) only moderately decreases with depth (-3.6 ‰ m-1 on average). Moreover, upon addition of Zn acetate to pore water samples, ZnS did not precipitate, indicating a lack of dissolved H2S. Phosphate, ammonium, and metal profiles reveal that metal oxide reduction by organic carbon dominates the geochemical environment and supports very low organic carbon turnover rates. A single core on the Lomonosov Ridge differs, as diffusive fluxes for SO42- and alkalinity were 13.9 and 11.3 mol m-2 kyr-1, respectively, the δ13C-DIC gradient was 5.6 ‰ m-1, and Mn2+ reduction terminated within 1.3 m of the seafloor. These are among the first pore water results generated from this vast climatically sensitive region, and they imply that abundant CH4, including gas hydrates, do not characterize the East Siberian Sea slope or rise along the investigated depth transects. This contradicts previous modeling and discussions, which

  13. Materials Science Problems of the SCRF Q-Slope (United States)

    Insepov, Z.; Norem, J.; Swenson, D. R.; Hassanein, A.


    None of the existing theoretical models can explain all the observed features of the Q-slope. In the present work, we review this problem and show how Atom Probe Tomography and Gas Cluster Ion Beam smoothing can study the basic mechanisms that may be involved. The gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) treatment method has recently been proposed as a new way to significantly reduce the surface roughness and the dark current from the rf-cavity surfaces. In addition to the suppression of the dark current, GCIB might also be an important treatment for mitigation of the Q-slope in superconducting cavities. Niobium surface treatment by cluster ion irradiation was studied based on atomistic and mesoscopic simulation methods and the surface modification dynamics results were compared to experiments.

  14. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony


    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  15. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Goldberg, K.A.; Celestre, R.; Church, M.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.


    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situvisible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  16. Integration of Indoor Ski Slopes into the Urban Recreation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Urbonaitė


    Full Text Available Indoor ski slope is an innovative type of active indoor recreation. This new urban character is simulating the concept of mountain ski resort and is considered to be a strong attraction point all year-round. Due to a big scale and complexity, sustainable integration into an urban context should be very carefully considered. Economical, social, environmental and aesthetic impact on surrounding territories is an important factor to be evaluated. International practice shows that the appropriate integration of the above mentioned typology into urban parks increase their popularity and use of the recreation zone. On the other hand, the alien architecture and egocentric dominance of complexes can cause conflict with the existing urban territories and natural environment. Having indoor ski slopes in mind at the stages of regional and town territorial planning is an important point. Only complex development can bring positive results for sustainable town development, town economy, tourism and social life. Article in Lithuanian

  17. Optimal velocity in the race over variable slope trace. (United States)

    Maroński, Ryszard; Samoraj, Piotr


    The minimum-time running problem is reconsidered. The time of covering a given distance is minimized. The function that should be found is the runner's velocity that varies with the distance. The Hill-Keller model of motion is employed. It is based on the Newton second law and an equation of power balance. The new element of the current approach is that the trace slope angle varies with the distance. The problem is formulated and solved in optimal control applying the Chebyshev direct pseudospectral method. The essential finding is that the optimal velocity during the cruise is constant regardless of the local slope of the terrain. Such result is valid if the inequality constraints imposed on the propulsive force or the energy are not active.

  18. Conservation laws for shallow water waves on a sloping beach


    Akyildiz, Yilmaz


    Shallow water waves are governed by a pair of non-linear partial differential equations. We transfer the associated homogeneous and non-homogeneous systems, (corresponding to constant and sloping depth, respectively), to the hodograph plane where we find all the non-simple wave solutions and construct infinitely many polynomial conservation laws. We also establish correspondence between conservation laws and hodograph solutions as well as Bäcklund transformations by using the linear nature of...

  19. Center Line Slope Analysis in Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy


    ?anda, Franti?ek; Perl?k, V?clav; Lincoln, Craig N.; Hauer, J?rgen


    Center line slope (CLS) analysis in 2D infrared spectroscopy has been extensively used to extract frequency?frequency correlation functions of vibrational transitions. We apply this concept to 2D electronic spectroscopy, where CLS is a measure of electronic gap fluctuations. The two domains, infrared and electronic, possess differences: In the infrared, the frequency fluctuations are classical, often slow and Gaussian. In contrast, electronic spectra are subject to fast spectral diffusion and...

  20. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Devices by the Slope-Efficiency Method (United States)


    materials: the Seebeck coefficient, α; the electrical resistivity , ρ; and the thermal conductivity, κ. However, experimental measurement of those...Rload, then total system resistance is equal to 2Rint and open- circuit voltage, Voc, drops by half leading to Approved for public release...Evaluation of Thermoelectric Devices by the Slope-Efficiency Method by Patrick J Taylor Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Jay R

  1. Low-velocity impact cratering experiments in granular slopes (United States)

    Hayashi, Kosuke; Sumita, Ikuro


    Low-velocity impact cratering experiments are conducted in sloped granular targets to study the effect of the slope angle θ on the crater shape and its scales. We use two types of granular matter, sand and glass beads, former of which has a larger friction coefficient μs = tanθr , where θr is the angle of repose. Experiments show that as θ increases, the crater becomes shallower and elongated in the direction of the slope. Furthermore the crater floor steepens in the upslope side and a thick rim forms in the downslope side, thus forming an asymmetric profile. High-speed images show that these features are results of ejecta being dispersed farther towards the downslope side and the subsequent avalanche which buries much of the crater floor. Such asymmetric ejecta dispersal can be explained by combining the Z-model and a ballistic model. Using the topographic maps of the craters, we classify crater shape regimes I-III, which transition with increasing θ : a full-rim crater (I), a broken-rim crater (II), and a depression (III). The critical θ for the regime transitions are larger for sand compared to glass beads, but collapse to close values when we use a normalized slope θ^ = tanθ / tanθr . Similarly we derive θ^-dependences of the scaled crater depth, length, width and their ratios which collapse the results for different targets and impact energies. We compare the crater profiles formed in our experiments with deep craters on asteroid Vesta and find that some of the scaled profiles nearly overlap and many have similar depth / length ratios. This suggests that these Vestan craters may also have formed in the gravity regime and that the formation process can be approximated by a granular flow with a similar effective friction coefficient.

  2. A generalization of the Ross-Thomas slope theory


    Odaka, Yuji


    We give a formula for the Donaldson--Futaki invariants of certain type of semi test configurations, which essentially generalizes the Ross--Thomas slope theory [28]. The positivity (resp. non-negativity) of those ``a priori special'' Donaldson--Futaki invariants implies K-stability (resp. K-semistability). As an application, we prove the K-(semi)stability of certain polarized varieties with semi-log-canonical singularities, which generalizes some results of [28].

  3. A generalization of Ross-Thomas' slope theory


    Odaka, Yuji


    We give a formula of the Donaldson-Futaki invariants for certain type of semi test configurations, which essentially generalizes Ross-Thomas' slope theory. The positivity (resp. non-negativity) of those "a priori special" Donaldson-Futaki invariants implies K-stability (resp. K-semistability). We show its applicability by proving K-(semi)stability of certain polarized varieties with semi-log-canonical singularities, generalizing some results by Ross-Thomas.

  4. Vector polynomials for direct analysis of circular wavefront slope data. (United States)

    Mahajan, Virendra N; Acosta, Eva


    In the aberration analysis of a circular wavefront, Zernike circle polynomials are used to obtain its wave aberration coefficients. To obtain these coefficients from the wavefront slope data, we need vector functions that are orthogonal to the gradients of the Zernike polynomials, and are irrotational so as to propagate minimum uncorrelated random noise from the data to the coefficients. In this paper, we derive such vector functions, which happen to be polynomials.

  5. Review of the Frontier Workshop and Q-slope results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianluigi Ciovati


    Over the last few years, significant progress has been made to produce field emission free niobium surfaces. Nowadays, the major limitation towards achieving the critical field in radio-frequency (rf) superconducting cavities made of bulk niobium of high purity is represented by the so-called ''high field Q-slope'' or ''Q-drop''. This phenomenon is characterized by a sharp decrease of the cavity quality factor, in absence of field emission, starting at a peak surface magnetic field of the order of 100 mT. It has been observed that these losses are usually reduced by a low-temperature ''in-situ'' baking, typically at 100-120 C for 24-48 h. Several models have been proposed to explain the high field Q-slope and many experiments have been conducted in different laboratories to validate such models. A three-day workshop was held in Argonne in September 2004 to present and discuss experimental and theoretical results on the present limitations of superconducting rf cavities. In this paper, we will focus on the high field Q-slope by reviewing the results presented at the workshop along with other experimental data. In order to explain the Q-drop and the baking effect we will discuss an improved version of the oxygen diffusion model.

  6. Minimizing Slope and Kick of Intermediate Bunches for Electron Cooling (United States)

    Dotson, Andrew


    Ions in the Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) will have transverse energy, which limits the beams density. Electron cooling is a process by which a beam of bunched electrons with small transverse kinetic energy is directed along the ion beam with the same velocity. The ions transfer their transverse kinetic energy to the electron bunches, making the ions lose transverse energy. Electron bunches will be supplied by an electron gun. The required current needed to cool the ion beam can be reached by reusing electrons and incorporating RF kicker cavities to supply a pulsed electric field that kicks every 11th bunch out of the cooling ring. This provides an exact solution that yields zero kick and slope to all intermediate bunches in the cooling ring, which is described by a cosine series with 11 terms. The goal of this project is to determine if solutions exist that are sufficiently close to zero kick and slope, but require less than 4 kicker cavities. The method used to find these solutions is minimizing an objective function through Sequential Least Squares Programming (SLSQP). A Pareto front then demonstrated the average kick vs. average slope when using 1 through 4 kickers.

  7. North Slope Decision Support for Water Resource Planning and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, William; Brumbelow, Kelly


    The objective of this project was to enhance the water resource decision-making process with respect to oil and gas exploration/production activities on Alaska’s North Slope. To this end, a web-based software tool was developed to allow stakeholders to assemble, evaluate, and communicate relevant information between and amongst themselves. The software, termed North Slope Decision Support System (NSDSS), is a visually-referenced database that provides a platform for running complex natural system, planning, and optimization models. The NSDSS design was based upon community input garnered during a series of stakeholder workshops, and the end product software is freely available to all stakeholders via the project website. The tool now resides on servers hosted by the UAF Water and Environmental Research Center, and will remain accessible and free-of-charge for all interested stakeholders. The development of the tool fostered new advances in the area of data evaluation and decision support technologies, and the finished product is envisioned to enhance water resource planning activities on Alaska’s North Slope.

  8. Particle sizes of Pliocene and Pleistocene core sediments from IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data compilation includes the results of grain size analyses of core sediment collected by IODP during Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea. One dataset is included...

  9. Expediting Clinician Adoption of Safety Practices: The UCSF Venous Access Patient Safety Interdisciplinary Education Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donaldson, Nancy E; Plank, Rosemary K; Williamson, Ann; Pearl, Jeffrey; Kellogg, Jerry; Ryder, Marcia


    ...) Venous Access Device (VAD) Patient Safety Interdisciplinary Education Project was to develop a 30-hour/one clinical academic unit VAD patient safety course with the aim of expediting clinician adoption of critical concepts...

  10. Effects of an Arctic Ocean Ski Traverse on the Protective Capabilities of Expedition Footwear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endrusick, Thomas; Frykman, Peter; O'Brien, Catherine; Giblo, Joseph


    A traverse of the Arctic Ocean during a 2000-km unsupported ski expedition provided an opportunity to assess the impact of an extreme cold environment on the protective capabilities of a specialized footwear system (FS...

  11. ASTER Expedited L1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor V003 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Expedited ASTER Level-1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor data set is produced with the express purpose of providing ASTER Science Team members data of their...

  12. ASTER Expedited L1A Reconstructed Unprocessed Instrument Data V003 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Expedited L1A Reconstructed Unprocessed Instrument Data is produced with the express purpose of providing the ASTER Science Team members and others, data...

  13. A critical review of rock slope failure mechanisms: The importance of structural geology (United States)

    Stead, Doug; Wolter, Andrea


    Geological structures such as folds, faults, and discontinuities play a critical role in the stability and behaviour of both natural and engineered rock slopes. Although engineering geologists have long recognised the importance of structural geology in slopes, it remains a significant challenge to integrate structural geological mapping and theory into all stages of engineering projects. We emphasise the importance of structural geology to slope stability assessments, reviewing how structures control slope failure mechanisms, how engineering geologists measure structures and include them in slope stability analyses, and how numerical simulations of slopes incorporate geological structures and processes.

  14. Japan Sea expeditions for studies on water circulation and transport processes of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Ito, Toshimichi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi


    The Japan Sea expeditions at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA from October 1, 2005, former JAERI: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute until September 30, 2005) were started on its participation in the first and second Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expeditions in 1994 and 1995 to investigate the situation on marine pollution due to radioactive wastes dumped in the Japan Sea and other seas around Japan. After the joint expeditions, JAEA continued to conduct the Japan Sea expeditions not only to monitor the impacts of radioactive wastes dumped in the Japan Sea, but also to investigate water circulation and the migration behavior of radionuclides in the Japan Sea. Taking account of some difficulties and constraints due to the political boundaries in the Japan Sea, the expeditions were carried out, separating the sea into two regions; one is the Japanese exclusive economical zone (EEZ) and the other is the Russian EEZ. The data of observations and measurements obtained in the two regions were analyzed together. The program of the Japan Sea expeditions included large-volume seawater sampling at different depths and seabed sediment sampling for measurements of representative anthropogenic radionuclides. To investigate the migration behavior of the radionuclides more in detail, associated oceanographic observations were also implemented; CTD/MBS (conductivity-temperature-depth meter with multi-bottle sampler) casts, analysis of dissolved oxygen and nutrients, deployment and recovery of mooring systems with current meters and sediment traps, and so on. Additional seawater samples were taken with CTD/MBS for further analysis on land. This report summarizes the results of the Japan Sea expeditions (Phase 1) conducted and/or jointed by JAEA from 1994 to 2002. First the report explains oceanographic features of the Japan Sea, main expeditions in the past and the summarized results of the Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expeditions. Then the report gives an outline of the

  15. Raman Spectroscopy: an essential tool for future IODP expeditions (United States)

    Andò, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Kulhanek, Denise K.


    The scientific drilling of oceanic sedimentary sequences plays a fundamental part in provenance studies, paleoclimate recostructions, and source-to-sink investigations (e.g., France-Lanord et al., 2015; Pandey et al., 2015). When studying oceanic deposits, Raman spectroscopy can and does represent an essential flexible tool for the multidisciplinary approach necessary to integrate the insight provided by different disciplines. This new user-friendly technique opens up an innovative avenue to study in real time the composition of detrital mineral grains of any origin, complementing traditional methods of provenance analysis (e.g., sedimentary petrography, heavy minerals; Andò and Garzanti, 2014). Raman spectra can readily reveal the chemistry of foraminiferal tests, nannofossils and other biogenic debris for the study of ecosystem evolution and paleoclimate, or the Ca/Mg ratio in biogenic or terrigenous carbonates for geological or marine biological applications and oil exploration (Borromeo et al., 2015). For the study of pelagic or turbiditic muds, which represent the bulk of the deep-marine sedimentary record, Raman spectroscopy allows us to identify silt-sized grains down to the size of a few microns with the same precision level required in quantitative provenance analysis of sand-sized sediments (Andò et al., 2011). Silt and siltstone also represent a very conspicuous part of the stratigraphic record onshore and usually preserve original mineralogical assemblages better than more permeable interbedded sand and sandstone (Blatt, 1985). Raman spectra can be obtained on sample volumes of only a few cubic microns by a confocal micro-Raman coupled with a standard polarizing light microscope using a 50× objective. The size of this apparatus can be easily placed onboard an IODP vessel to provide crucial information and quickly solve identification problems for the benefit of a wide range of scientists during future expeditions. Cited references Andò, S., Vignola

  16. Illness and injury to travelers and access to dental care on a research expedition to Mongolia. (United States)

    Shaw, Marc T M; Daniels, David; Leggat, Peter A


    Expeditions provide an opportunity for travelers to undertake specialized travel to more extreme destinations in the security of an expeditionary group with medical coverage. Little is known about the illnesses and injuries occurring to expeditioners in Mongolia or access to dental care in the local population. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of health problems suffered by travelers and managed among the local population on a research expedition to Mongolia. In June 2005, the expedition physician (MTMS) and dentist (DD) prospectively diagnosed and recorded all illnesses and injuries among 16 travelers (eight males and eight females) as well as any indigenous people on a 22-day paleontological expedition to the Mongolian Gobi Desert. There were 53 health presentations and 14 dental problems among the indigenous population and the Mongolian escort. Males and females presented in equal proportions with the average age of 49 years (SD = 16). Presentations involved locomotor/accident (32%), dermatological (23%), gastrointestinal (19%), neurological (17%), psychological (6%), and with other systems (11%). Most accidents were due to lacerations (85%). Presentations were highest on days 4 and 5 (10% or 18%). Females were significantly more likely to present later in the expedition (p= 0.013). One quarter (25%) were handled conservatively with 28% requiring topical treatments with others requiring antiemetics (9%) and anti-inflammatory drugs (4%). There were no dental concerns reported among the expeditioners, although there were 14 cases among the indigenous population. While there were no deaths on the expedition, there were two major incidents, one of which required emergency evacuation. The health problems encountered were largely similar to those reported for other expeditions. The most common problems included trauma as well as dermatological, dental, gastrointestinal, and neurological conditions. It is important that expedition teams are

  17. 20 CFR 408.1030 - When can you use the expedited appeals process? (United States)


    ... Process § 408.1030 When can you use the expedited appeals process? (a) General rules. Under the expedited... administrative review process. For purposes of this part, we use the same EAP rules we use in the title XVI... offices listed in § 408.1009(b)” and the reference in the last sentence of paragraph (c) to “§ 416.1411...

  18. Large slope failures in the La Paz basin, Bolivian Andes (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; Hermanns, R. L.; Rabus, B.; Guzmán, M. A.; Minaya, E.; Clague, J. J.


    The La Paz basin in the eastern Bolivian Andes has been a hotspot for large-scale, deep-seated gravitational slope deformation during the Holocene. In less than 2 Ma, a network of steep-sided valleys up to 800 m deep formed in sediments of the Altiplano Plateau and underlying basement rocks. We characterize the distribution, extent, mechanisms, and modern activity of large-scale failures within this landscape using optical image interpretation, existing geologic maps, synthetic RADAR interferometry (InSAR), and field investigation. Deposits of nearly 20 landslides larger than 100 Mm3 occur within the basin. Most failures have occurred in weakly lithified Late Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary rocks and include earth flows, translational and rotational landslides, and plug flows. Failures in underlying tectonized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include bedding-parallel rockslides. The largest failure is the 3 km3 Achcocalla earth flow (ca. 11 ka BP), which ran out ~20 km. Other dated events span the period from the early Holocene to nearly the Colonial historic period. InSAR results show that many large slope failures, including the Achocalla earth flow, are currently moving at rates of a few centimeters to a few decimeters per year. Rapid deposition, shallow burial, and rapid incision of the basin fills produced steep slopes in weak geologic materials that, coupled with groundwater discharge from the valley walls, are the primary controls on instability. In contrast, the Altiplano surface has changed little in 2 Ma and the adjacent slopes of the Cordilleran Real, although steep, are relatively stable. Of the over 100 landslides that have occurred in the city of La Paz since the early twentieth century, most are at the margins of large, deep-seated prehistoric failures, and two of the most damaging historic landslides (Hanko-Hanko, 1582; Pampahasi, 2011) were large-scale reactivations of previously failed slopes. Improved understanding of large, deep-seated landslides in

  19. GIS modelling of slope stability in Phewa Tal watershed, Nepal (United States)

    Rowbotham, David N.; Dudycha, Douglas


    Hazards are an inherent but dangerous and costly element of mountainous environments. Conventional maps of mountain hazards provide useful inventories of hazardous sites but provide little insight into the operation of the hazards. Furthermore, this approach tends to rely heavily on subjective interpretation of the landscape, which means that the results can not be replicated or transferred to other areas. Thus, alternative approaches employing the quantitative capabilities of geographic information systems (GIS) to model and predict slope stability are receiving increasing attention. This paper reports on the use of a diverse GIS database, compiled primarily from existing maps and aerial photographs, to construct a regional model of slope stability in Phewa Tal watershed, Nepal. An integral part of the research was to explore an alternative approach to the commonly used grid cell approach by employing geomorphometrically significant terrain units. The terrain units employed were created by generating line networks representing local maxima and minima extracted from elevation and curvature surfaces. One of the chief benefits of applying GIS technology in this research was the ability to georeference all of the attribute data to these terrain units. In doing so, it allowed the database to be exported into an external statistical package, where the terrain units could be statistically explored as the basic analytical unit. The application of a variety of statistical techniques resulted in logistic regression being selected as the most useful. Logistic regression successfully predicted terrain units as being either stable or unstable at a rate of approximately 90% concordance with a conventionally produced map of slope stability. The statistical probabilities of terrain unit stability were imported back into the GIS to produce a map of predicted slope stability that compared well with the conventional map of slope stability. The findings of this research suggest that

  20. Arctic Collaboration: Developing a Successful Researcher/Teacher Expedition (United States)

    Skotnicki, S.; Loranty, M. M.


    Are you a researcher working in the polar regions of the world or a K-12 science teacher who would like to be part of a field research expedition in the polar regions? Researchers and K-12 science teachers can apply for funding from PolarTREC, a program that pairs researchers and teachers to conduct field science in Antarctica and the Arctic. Our poster presentation will offer details of one such successful researcher/teacher partnership. During the summer of 2016, Science Teacher Stan Skotnicki (Cheektowaga Central Middle School in Buffalo, NY) was teamed up with Assistant Professor Mike Loranty (Colgate University) to study vegetation and ecosystem impacts on permafrost vulnerability. Stan joined Mike and his research team in Northeastern Siberia preparing field sites, collecting data, processing samples, discussing methods, and planning daily activities. In order to raise awareness and broaden the impact of the research being conducted, Stan communicated the science through a series of journals on the PolarTREC website with his students, staff, and members of the community. Additionally, Mike and Stan held a live webinar from Siberia discussing the content of the research, the nature of the fieldwork, and why it was important to travel so far for this information. This expedition allowed Stan to experience working with a field research team for an extended period of time. Mike benefited from having a team member dedicated to learning about and communicating project details that also provided valuable field assistance. Stan gets to bring his hands-on experience back to his classroom in Buffalo and Mike has the opportunity to share his research with a new and different audience, including presenting to students at Cheektowaga Central with the help of his undergraduate students. This model of collaboration provides a number of valuable benefits for both teachers and researchers. While the PolarTREC program provides necessary logistics and funding to conduct these

  1. Influence of soil physical properties and vegetation coverage at different slope aspects in a reclaimed dump. (United States)

    Pan, Jian; Bai, Zhongke; Cao, Yingui; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jinman


    Vegetation coverage is an important parameter for affecting soil erosion and the physical and chemical properties of soil. To analyze the mutual influence between vegetation coverage and soil quality at different slope aspects in a reclaimed dump, fitting analyses were built between the normalized difference vegetation index and soil physical properties at each slope aspect. Twenty six quadrats were sampled in slope-platform alternate mode. Each quadrat was 10 m × 10 m. Vegetation index and soil physical properties were measured and calculated. Through curve fitting analysis, the results showed that soil bulk density has a negative correlation with the vegetation index on shady and half shady slopes, sunny slopes, and half sunny slopes. Soil porosity has a positive correlation with the vegetation index on shady and half shady slopes, sunny slope, and half sunny slope. The soil mass water content has a concave function relationship with the vegetation index on shady and half shady slopes and has a quadratic function relationship with the vegetation index on sunny and half sunny slopes, with the parabola moving upwards. The soil gravel content has a linear relationship with the vegetation index on shady and half shady slopes, and the image has a negative slope with a quadratic function relationship to the vegetation index on sunny slope and half sunny slope, with the parabola moving downwards. Due to differences among hydrothermal conditions, the relationship between vegetation coverage and soil quality indicators at different slope aspects is different; therefore, reasonable improvement of soil quality indicators on sunny and half sunny slopes could help plants to grow. These findings feed into a reference document that sets out how vegetation and soil quality may be improved in mining areas.

  2. Performance of the Bowen ratio systems on a 22 deg slope (United States)

    Nie, D.; Flitcroft, I.; Kanemasu, E. T.


    The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to assess the energy fluxes on inclined surfaces during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). Since air flow over sloping surface may differ from that over flat terrain, it is important to examine whether Bowen ratio measurements taken on sloping surfaces are valid. In this study, the suitability of using the Bowen ratio technique on sloping surfaces was tested by examining the assumptions that the technique requires for valid measurements. This was accomplished by studying the variation of Bowen ratio measurements along a selected slope at the FIFE site. In September 1988, four Bowen ratio systems were set up in a line along the 22 degree north-facing slope with northerly air flow (wind went up the slope). In July of 1989, six Bowen ratio systems were similarly installed with southerly air flow (the wind went down slope). Results indicated that, at distances between 10 to 40 meters from the top of the slope, no temperature or vapor pressure gradient parallel to the slope was detected. Uniform Bowen ratio values were obtained on the slope, and thus the sensible or latent heat flux should be similar along the slope. This indicates that the assumptions for valid flux measurements are reasonably met at the slope. The Bowen ratio technique should give the best estimates of the energy fluxes on slopes similar to that in this study.

  3. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.


    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH 4 H 2 O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H 2 O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH) 4 are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results detennined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components

  4. In Shackleton's trails: Central and local thermoadaptive modifications to cold and hypoxia after a man-hauling expedition on the Antarctic Plateau. (United States)

    Keramidas, Michail E; Kölegård, Roger; Eiken, Ola


    Cold and hypoxia constitute the main environmental stressors encountered on the Antarctic Plateau. Hence, we examined whether central and/or peripheral acclimatisation to the combined stressors of cold and hypoxia would be developed in four men following an 11-day man-hauling expedition on this polar region. Before and after the journey, participants performed a static whole-body immersion in 21 °C water, during which they were breathing a hypoxic gas (partial pressure of inspired O 2 : ~97 mmHg). To evaluate their local responses to cold, participants also immersed the hand into 8 °C water for 30 min, while they were whole-body immersed and mildly hypothermic [i.e. 0.5 °C fall in rectal temperature (T rec ) from individual pre-immersion values]. T rec and skin temperature (T sk ), skin blood flux, and oxygen uptake (reflecting shivering thermogenesis) were monitored throughout. The polar expedition accelerated by ~14 min the drop in T rec [final mean (95% confidence interval) changes in T rec : Before = -0.94 (0.15) °C, After: - 1.17 (0.23) °C]. The shivering onset threshold [Before: 19 (22) min, After: 25 (19) min] and gain [Before: - 4.19 (3.95) mL min -1 kg -1 , After: - 1.70 (1.21) mL min -1 kg -1 ] were suppressed by the expedition. T sk did not differ between trials. The development of a greater post-expedition hypothermic state did not compromise finger circulation during the hand-cooling phase. Present findings indicate therefore that a hypothermic pattern of cold acclimatisation, as investigated in hypoxia, was developed following a short-term expedition on the South Polar Plateau; an adaptive response that is characterised mainly by suppressed shivering thermogenesis, and partly by blunted cutaneous vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Centrifuge model test of rock slope failure caused by seismic excitation. Applicability to the stability evaluation method of safety factors against sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Makoto; Kawai, Tadashi


    The purposes of this study are to analyze dynamic failure characteristics of slopes in discontinuous rock mass with brittle fracture by centrifuge model tests and to study applicability to the equivalent linear analysis against dynamic sliding failure of rock slopes. We conducted centrifuge model test using a dip slope model with discontinuities imitated by Teflon sheets. The centrifugal acceleration was 30G, and the acceleration amplitudes of input sin waves were increased gradually at every step. The test results were compared with safety factors of the sliding surface based on the equivalent linear analysis. The following results were obtained: (1) The slope model collapsed when it was excited by the sine wave of 350gal, which was converted to real field scale. (2) Artificial discontinuities considerably affected the collapse, and the type of collapse was plane failure. (3) From response displacement records measured at the slope model, the failure around toe of the slope model probably caused the collapse. (4) The evaluation of safety factors against sliding based on the equivalent linear analysis were conservative compared with the experimental results. (author)

  6. Europa’s lost expedition a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael


    This classically styled, chilling murder mystery about an expedition under the ice of Jupiter’s ocean moon Europa, backed up by the latest scientific findings on this icy satellite. The science fiction premise explores real possibilities of exploring other bodies in the Solar System, including probing their possible astrobiology. Now that the most recent world war has concluded on Earth, human explorers are returning to exploration, carrying out a full-court press to journey into the alien abyss using tele-operated biorobotics and human-tended submersibles. Nine scientists head out to Jupiter’s icy ocean-moon. But at Europa’s most remote outpost, one by one, the team members who shared the cruise out begin to die under suspicious circumstances. All was well until humans begin diving into Europa’s subsurface ocean. The deaths have all the symptoms of some sort of plague, despite Europa’s seemingly sterile environment. Besides providing thrills, a science section covers the very latest in undersea rob...

  7. Task-dependent cold stress during expeditions in Antarctic environments. (United States)

    Morris, Drew M; Pilcher, June J; Powell, Robert B


    This study seeks to understand the degree of body cooling, cold perception and physical discomfort during Antarctic tour excursions. Eight experienced expedition leaders across three Antarctic cruise voyages were monitored during occupational tasks: kayaking, snorkelling and zodiac outings. Subjective cold perception and discomfort were recorded using a thermal comfort assessment and skin temperature was recorded using a portable data logger. Indoor cabin temperature and outdoor temperature with wind velocity were used as measures of environmental stress. Physical activity level and clothing insulation were estimated using previous literature. Tour leaders experienced a 6°C (2°C wind chill) environment for an average of 6 hours each day. Leaders involved in kayaking reported feeling colder and more uncomfortable than other leaders, but zodiac leaders showed greater skin temperature cooling. Occupational experience did not predict body cooling or cold stress perception. These findings indicate that occupational cold stress varies by activity and measurement methodology. The current study effectively used objective and subjective measures of cold-stress to identify factors which can contribute to risk in the Antarctic tourism industry. Results suggest that the type of activity may moderate risk of hypothermia, but not discomfort, potentially putting individuals at risk for cognitive related mistakes and cold injuries.

  8. Radiation measured for ISS-Expedition 12 with different dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.


    Radiation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). These particles' radiation impact to astronauts depends strongly on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. It is important to investigate the LET spectrum for the radiation field and the influence of radiation on astronauts. At present, the best active dosimeters used for all LET are the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and silicon detectors; the best passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for low LET and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used to investigate the radiation for space mission Expedition 12 (ISS-11S) in LEO. LET spectra and radiation quantities (fluence, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor) were measured for the mission with these different dosimeters. This paper introduces the operation principles for these dosimeters, describes the method to combine the results measured by CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs, presents the experimental LET spectra and the radiation quantities


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the Magellan Global Slope Data Record (GSDR). The surface meter-scale slopes are derived by fitting altimeter echoes from the fan-beam...

  10. VT Data - Lidar Slope (0.7m) 2015, Windham County (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Windham County 2015 0.7m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  11. A platform for proactive, risk-based slope asset management, phase II. (United States)


    The lidar visualization technique developed by this project enables highway managers to understand changes in slope characteristics : along highways. This change detection and analysis can be the basis of informed decisions for slope inspection and r...

  12. VT Lidar-based Slope, Symbolized, Not Cached, VT State Plane Meters (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — SLOPE service (percent slope) derived from various VT Lidar datasets. Pre-symbolized. VT State Plane Meters NAD83. For more information on Vermont's Lidar Program...

  13. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola


    The instability of lava deltas is a recurrent phenomenon affecting volcanic islands, which can potentially cause secondary events such as littoral explosions (due to interactions between hot lava and seawater) and tsunamis. It has been shown that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique to forecast the collapse of newly emplaced lava deltas. This work goes further, demonstrating that the monitoring of lava deltas is a successful strategy by which to observe the long-term deformation of subaerial-submarine landslide systems on unstable volcanic flanks. In this paper, displacement measurements derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery were used to detect lava delta instability at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Recent flank eruptions (2002-2003, 2007 and 2014) affected the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression, created a "stacked" lava delta, which overlies a pre-existing scar produced by a submarine-subaerial tsunamigenic landslide that occurred on 30 December 2002. Space-borne X-band COSMO-SkyMED (CSK) and C-band SENTINEL-1A (SNT) SAR data collected between February 2010 and October 2016 were processed using the SqueeSAR algorithm. The obtained ground displacement maps revealed the differential ground motion of the lava delta in both CSK and SNT datasets, identifying a stable area (characterized by less than 2 mm/y in both datasets) within the northern sector of the SdF and an unstable area (characterized by velocity fields on the order of 30 mm/y and 160 mm/y in the CSK and SNT datasets, respectively) in the central sector of the SdF. The slope stability of the offshore part of the SdF, as reconstructed based on a recently performed multibeam bathymetric survey, was evaluated using a 3D Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM). In all the simulations, Factor of Safety (F) values between 0.9 and 1.1 always characterized the submarine slope between the coastline and -250 m a.s.l. The critical surfaces for all the search volumes corresponded to

  14. Vegetated Flow down a Slope under a Uniform Rainfall (United States)

    Hsieh, P.; Hu, S.


    To understand the effect of vegetation on flow velocity and water depth, a semi-analytical approach was proposed to study flow passing over a finite thick vegetated area under a uniform rainfall event. In this study, the flow region is divided into three layers-- homogenous water layer, mixed water-plant layer and finite thick soil layer (briefly denoted by water layer, vegetation layer, and soil layer). The flow of the water layer is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The vegetation and soil layers are both regarded as porous media and a laminar model modified from Biot's theory of poroelasticity is applied. The semi-closed solutions were obtained via the Runge-Kutta method. The flow profiles on a vegetated slope with different slopes were graphed. Accordingly, the relation between vegetation and water depth was divided into three patterns-- submerged vegetation, emergent vegetation and submerged-emergent vegetation. The velocity profiles for these patterns at each location were estimated. The retardation of vegetation causes that the velocity in vegetation layer is much slower than that in water layer and thus an inflection point exists inside the vegetation layer. This phenomenon doesn't happen in the case of emergent vegetation. The nonzero velocity at the ground surface is also estimated, and the velocity in the soil layer decays quickly to a constant. The shear stress distribution for different diameters of vegetation in the case of submerged vegetation was estimated. There is a positive correlation between the diameter of vegetation and the retardation of vegetation. Therefore the shear stress is influenced by the diameter of vegetation. The shear stress inside the water layer increases with the diameter of vegetation while the shear stress inside the vegetation layer decreases with the diameter of vegetation. This implies that the vegetation on the slope can protect the soil erosion.

  15. A New Formula for Front Slope Recession of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.


    The front slope stability of breakwaters with a homogeneous berm was studied in a large number of two dimensional model tests at Aalborg University, Denmark. The results are presented together with a new formula for prediction of the berm recession which is the most important parameter...... for describing the reshaping. The formula has also been calibrated and validated against model test data from other researchers. The significance of the new design formula is that it predicts berm recession much better than the existing methods, especially in case of more stable structures....

  16. Mixing by internal waves impinging on a slope (United States)

    Chalamalla, Vamsi Krishna; Sarkar, Sutanu


    Direct and large eddy simulations are performed to study the mixing that occurs when internal waves interact with critical and near-critical sloping bottom. Different horizontal wave lengths up to O ~ 1 km are considered at a moderate value of Froude number. The pathway from the input wave energy to the irreversible mixing of density field is explored. Diagnostics such as turbulent kinetic energy and density variance budget are used to obtain the phasing of turbulence and associated mixing. Energy transfer to higher harmonics and subharmonics is also quantified.

  17. Subjective perceptions associated with the ascending and descending slopes of breath alcohol exposure vary with recent drinking history. (United States)

    Wetherill, Leah; Morzorati, Sandra L; Foroud, Tatiana; Windisch, Kyle; Darlington, Todd; Zimmerman, Ulrich S; Plawecki, Martin H; O'Connor, Sean J


    The differentiator model predicts that individuals with a positive family history of alcoholism (FHA) or heavy alcohol consumers will feel more sensitive to the effects of alcohol on the ascending phase of the blood alcohol content while feeling less sedated on the descending phase. This study tested whether subjective perceptions are sensitive to the slope of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and whether that sensitivity is associated with an FHA and/or recent drinking history (RDH). Family-history-positive (FHP, n = 27) and family-history-negative (FHN, n = 27) young adult nondependent drinkers were infused intravenously with alcohol in 2 sessions separated by 1 week. After 20 minutes, one session had an ascending BrAC (+3.0 mg%/min), while the other session had a descending BrAC (-1 mg%/min). The BrAC for both sessions at this point was approximately 60 mg%, referred to as the crossover point. Subjective perceptions of intoxication, high, stimulated, and sedation were sampled frequently and then interpolated to the crossover point. Within-subject differences between ascending and descending responses were examined for associations with FHA and/or RDH. Recent moderate drinkers reported increased perceptions of feeling intoxicated (p Subjective perceptions in young adult social drinkers depend on the slope of the BrAC when examined in association with RDH. These results support the differentiator model hypothesis concerning the ascending slope and suggest that moderate alcohol consumers could be at risk for increased alcohol consumption because they feel more intoxicated and high on the ascending slope. Subjects did not feel less sedated on the descending slope, contrary to the differentiator model but replicating several previous studies. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Investigation of digital timing resolution and further improvement by using constant fraction signal time marker slope for fast scintillator detectors (United States)

    Singh, Kundan; Siwal, Davinder


    A digital timing algorithm is explored for fast scintillator detectors, viz. LaBr3, BaF2, and BC501A. Signals were collected with CAEN 250 mega samples per second (MSPS) and 500 MSPS digitizers. The zero crossing time markers (TM) were obtained with a standard digital constant fraction timing (DCF) method. Accurate timing information is obtained using cubic spline interpolation of a DCF transient region sample points. To get the best time-of-flight (TOF) resolution, an optimization of DCF parameters is performed (delay and constant fraction) for each pair of detectors: (BaF2-LaBr3), (BaF2-BC501A), and (LaBr3-BC501A). In addition, the slope information of an interpolated DCF signal is extracted at TM position. This information gives a new insight to understand the broadening in TOF, obtained for a given detector pair. For a pair of signals having small relative slope and interpolation deviations at TM, leads to minimum time broadening. However, the tailing in TOF spectra is dictated by the interplay between the interpolation error and slope variations. Best TOF resolution achieved at the optimum DCF parameters, can be further improved by using slope parameter. Guided by the relative slope parameter, events selection can be imposed which leads to reduction in TOF broadening. While the method sets a trade-off between timing response and coincidence efficiency, it provides an improvement in TOF. With the proposed method, the improved TOF resolution (FWHM) for the aforementioned detector pairs are; 25% (0.69 ns), 40% (0.74 ns), 53% (0.6 ns) respectively, obtained with 250 MSPS, and corresponds to 12% (0.37 ns), 33% (0.72 ns), 35% (0.69 ns) respectively with 500 MSPS digitizers. For the same detector pair, event survival probabilities are; 57%, 58%, 51% respectively with 250 MSPS and becomes 63%, 57%, 68% using 500 MSPS digitizers.

  19. Different elevational patterns of rodent species richness between the southern and northern slopes of a mountain. (United States)

    Shuai, Ling-Ying; Ren, Chun-Lei; Yan, Wen-Bo; Song, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Zhi-Gao


    Studies on elevational gradients in biodiversity have accumulated in recent decades. However, few studies have compared the elevational patterns of diversity between the different slopes of a single mountain. We investigated the elevational distribution of rodent diversity (alpha and beta diversity) and its underlying mechanisms along the southern and northern slopes of Mt. Taibai, the highest mountain in the Qinling Mountains, China. The species richness of rodents on the two slopes showed distinct distribution patterns, with a monotonically decreasing pattern found along the southern slope and a hump-shaped elevational pattern evident along the northern slope. Multi-model inference suggested that temperature was an important explanatory factor for the richness pattern along the southern slope, and the mid-domain effect (MDE) was important in explaining the richness pattern along the northern slope. The two slopes also greatly differed in the elevational patterns of species turnover, with the southern slope demonstrating a U-shaped curve and the northern slope possessing a roughly hump-shaped pattern. Our results suggest that even within the same mountain, organisms inhabiting different slopes may possess distinct diversity patterns, and the underlying mechanisms may also differ. The potential role of the factors associated with slope aspect in shaping diversity, therefore, cannot be ignored.

  20. The effect of posterior tibial slope on simulated laxity tests in cruciate-retaining TKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Marco A.; Strzelczak, Marta; Heesterbeek, Petra J.C.; van de Groes, Sebastiaan; Janssen, Dennis; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.; Wymenga, Ate B.; Verdonschot, Nico


    INTRODUCTION: Tibial slope can affect the outcomes of Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). More posterior slope potentially helps releasing a too tight flexion gap and it is generally associated with a wider range of post-operative knee flexion. However, the mechanism by which tibial slope affects the

  1. Influence of flow on thawing of underwater slopes and the pace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hydraulic laboratory of department of architecture & civil engineering RUDN University was performed studies of destruction of underwater and above-water coastal slopes in conditions simulating permafrost, depending on the soil type, the initial slope, and the slope angle. It was shown by authors, the speed of erosion of ...

  2. The Impact of Vegetative Slope on Water Flow and Pollutant Transport through Embankments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liting Sheng


    Full Text Available Embankments are common structures along rivers or lakes in riparian zones in plain areas. They should have natural slopes instead of slopes covered by concrete or other hard materials, in order to rebuild sustainable ecosystems for riparian zones. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetative slopes on water flow and pollutant transport through the embankments. Three embankments with different slope treatments (a bare slope, a slope covered in centipede grass, a slope covered in tall fescue were examined, and three inflow applications of pollute water with different concentration of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP used to simulate different agricultural non-point pollution levels. The results showed that the water flux rates of the three embankments were relatively stable under all inflow events, and almost all values were higher than 80%. The embankments with vegetative slopes had better nitrogen removal than the bare slope under all events, and the one with tall fescue slope was best, but the benefits of vegetative slopes decreased with increasing inflow concentration. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the embankments on phosphorus removal, for which the reductions were all high (above 90% with most loads remaining in the front third of embankment bodies. Overall, the embankments with vegetative slopes had positive effects on water exchange and reducing non-point pollutant into lake or river water, which provides a quantitative scientific basis for the actual layout of lakeshores.

  3. Slope angle studies from multibeam sonar data on three seamounts in Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.

    Slope angles are powerful morphometric tools. Slope angle studies in manganese nodule areas using the Multi Beam Sonar (MBS) data is useful to the mining geologist. A technique to convert depth grid generated from MBS data to slope angle values data...

  4. Direction of Auditory Pitch-Change Influences Visual Search for Slope From Graphs. (United States)

    Parrott, Stacey; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Orte, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Huntington, Mark D; Suzuki, Satoru


    Linear trend (slope) is important information conveyed by graphs. We investigated how sounds influenced slope detection in a visual search paradigm. Four bar graphs or scatter plots were presented on each trial. Participants looked for a positive-slope or a negative-slope target (in blocked trials), and responded to targets in a go or no-go fashion. For example, in a positive-slope-target block, the target graph displayed a positive slope while other graphs displayed negative slopes (a go trial), or all graphs displayed negative slopes (a no-go trial). When an ascending or descending sound was presented concurrently, ascending sounds slowed detection of negative-slope targets whereas descending sounds slowed detection of positive-slope targets. The sounds had no effect when they immediately preceded the visual search displays, suggesting that the results were due to crossmodal interaction rather than priming. The sounds also had no effect when targets were words describing slopes, such as "positive," "negative," "increasing," or "decreasing," suggesting that the results were unlikely due to semantic-level interactions. Manipulations of spatiotemporal similarity between sounds and graphs had little effect. These results suggest that ascending and descending sounds influence visual search for slope based on a general association between the direction of auditory pitch-change and visual linear trend.

  5. Misalignment of Lava Flows from Topographic Slope Directions Reveals Late Amazonian Deformation at Arsia Mons, Mars (United States)

    Waring, B. A.; Chadwick, J.; McGovern, P. J., Jr.; Tucker, W.


    Arsia Mons is the southernmost of the three large Tharsis Montes near the equator of Mars and one of the largest volcanoes in the solar system. The main edifice of Arsia is about 440 km in diameter, the summit is over 9 km above the surrounding plains and has a pronounced 110 km caldera. Like the other Tharsis volcanoes, Arsia has a large, Late Amazonian glacial deposit on its NW flank. Previous crater retention studies for lava flows on Arsia have shown that the volcano experienced significant volcanic activity in the past 200 Ma. In this study, numerous long (>25 km), thin lava flows on the plains surrounding Arsia were mapped and used as indicators of the topographic slope direction at the time of their emplacement. The azimuthal orientation of each flow was compared with the present-day slope directions on the surrounding plains, derived from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data. The results reveal regions around Arsia where the flows no longer conform to the topography, indicating deformation in the time since the flows where emplaced. In a region of Daedalia Planum to the SE of Arsia, modern slope directions adjacent to 40 long lava flows are consistently misaligned from the paleo-slopes indicated by the lava flow orientations, with an angular offset that averages 7.2° in the clockwise direction. Crater size-frequency measurements for these tilted plains using CraterStats software indicate that the deformation responsible for the misaligned flows took place since 330 ± 10 Ma. Conversely, part of Daedalia Planum to the southwest of Arsia is younger, with a crater retention age of 160 ± 6 Ma, and this area shows no consistent flow-topography misalignments. These observations suggest that extensive regional deformation occurred between the two dates, consistent with other evidence for significant volcanism at Arsia in the Late Amazonian at about 200 Ma. Geophysical modelling using the finite element program COMSOL Multiphysics is planned to

  6. In the Footsteps of the Third Spanish Expedition: James Mackay and John T. Evans's Impact on the Lewis and Clark Expedition (United States)

    Witte, Kevin C.


    The odyssey of the Lewis and Clark Expedition continues to capture the hearts of those who love tales of adventure and unknown lands. In light of the bicentennial celebration that began in 2003 and continued through 2006, the popularity and aggrandizement of Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and their Corps of Discovery has never been greater.…

  7. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon Part. 4. The Holothurioidea (Echinodermata) collected at Ambon during the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massin, C.


    During the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition (4.xi-14.xii.l990) 52 specimens representing 27 holothurian species were collected. All the species are described, figured and discussed systematically. Six species are new to the fauna of Ambon; two of these are new to the fauna of Indonesia, and two are

  8. Sediment Transport and Slope Stability of Ship Shoal Borrow Areas for Coastal Restoration of Louisiana (United States)

    Liu, H.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.; Wilson, C.; Xue, Z.


    Sandy barrier islands along Louisiana coast are degrading rapidly due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. Ship Shoal is one of the largest offshore sand resources, and has been used as a borrow area for Caminada Headland Restoration Project. Our knowledge of sediment transport and infilling processes in this new sandy and dynamic borrow area is rather limited. High resolution sub-bottom seismic data, side scan sonar images, multi-beam bathymetry and laser sediment grain size data were used to study seafloor morphological evolution and pit wall stability in response to both physical and geological processes. The multi-beam bathymetry and seismic profiling inside the pit showed that disequilibrium conditions led to rapid infilling in the pits at the beginning, but this process slowed down after the pit slope became stable and topography became smooth. We hypothesize that the erosion of the adjacent seabed sediment by energetic waves and longshore currents, the supply of suspended sediment from the rivers, and the erodible materials produced by local mass wasting on pit walls are three main types of infilling sediments. Compared with mud-capped dredge pits, this sandy dredge pit seems to have more gentle slopes on pit walls, which might be controlled by the angle of repose. Infilling sediment seems to be dominantly sandy, with some mud patches on bathymetric depressions. This study helps us better understand the impacts of mining sediment for coastal restoration and improves sand resource management efforts.

  9. The Steepest Slopes on the Moon: Gradual Degradation and Instant Removal by Basin-Forming Impacts (United States)

    Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W., III


    We calculated topographic gradients over the surface of the Moon at a 25 m baseline using data obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. The derived slope-frequency distribution revealed a steep roll-over for slopes close to the angle of repose. Slopes significantly steeper than the angle of repose are almost absent on the Moon due to (1) the general absence of cohesion/strength of the fractured and fragmented megaregolith of the lunar highlands, and (2) the absence of steep-slope producing geological processes in the recent geological past. The majority of slopes steeper than 32 - 35 degrees are associated with relatively young large impact craters. Very rare extremely steep (> 45 degrees) slopes are exclusively associated with large Copernican-age craters. Craters of Early Imbrian age and older are devoid of slopes steeper than ~35 degrees. We interpret these observations in the following way. Every basin-forming impact removes steep slopes by global seismic shaking causing slope collapse. The latest such impact formed Orientale basin and instantly removed all preexisting slopes steeper than ~35 degrees. This makes steep slopes a good global stratigraphic marker at Early/Late Imbrian boundary. After the Orientale impact, craters lose their steepest slopes progressively with time. This makes crater wall steepness an independent proxy for crater age. The global spatial distribution of the proportion of the steepest slopes correlates moderately well with the predicted spatial distribution of impact rate: low latitudes and the leading hemisphere have a higher steep slope proportion than high latitudes and the trailing hemisphere. However, the southern farside has a significant paucity of steep slopes, which remains unexplained. Acknowledgement: Data processing was performed at MIIGAiK by MK and supported by Russian Science Foundation, project 14-22-00197.

  10. The Influence of Increasing Rain and Earthquake Activities on Landslide Slope Stability in Forest Areas (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Aditian, A.


    Deriving the analysis of rainfall data in various mountainous locations, increase in rainfall that is deemed to be induced by the global climate change is obvious in Kyushu district, western Japan. On this point of view, its long term impact on the forest slope stability is analyzed with field investigation and numerical simulation such as finite element method (FEM). On the other hand, the influence of earthquake such as cracks on the slope due to seismic vibration was also analyzed with FEM. In this case, the slope stability analysis to obtain the factor of safety "Fs" is conducted. Here, in case of the Fs > 1.0, the slope is stable. In addition, the slope stabilizing effect of the forest mainly due to the roots strength is evaluated on some unstable slopes. Simultaneously, a holistic estimation over landslide groups is conducted by comparing "Fs" on forest slopes with non- forest slopes. Therefore, the following conclusions are obtained: 1) Comparing the Fs without increased rainfall from the previous decade and the one with actual rainfall, the former case is 1.04 ~1.06 times more stable than the latter. 2) On the other hand, the forest slopes are estimated to be up to approximately 1.5 to 2.5 times more stable than the slope without forest. Therefore, the slope stabilizing effect by the forest is much higher than the increasing rainfall influence i.e. the climate change effect. These results imply that an appropriate forest existence is important under the climate change condition to prevent forest slope degradation. 3) Comparing with the destabilization of the slope by seismic activities (vibration) due to the reduction of soil strength and "cracks = slope deformation" (8~9 % to 30% reduction in Fs even after an earthquake of 490gal), the influence of the long term rainfall increase on slopes (such as 1% decrease in Fs) is relatively small in the study area.

  11. Shoaling internal solitary waves of depression over gentle slopes (United States)

    Rivera, Gustavo; Diamessis, Peter


    The shoaling of an internal solitary wave (ISW) of depression over gentle slopes is explored through fully nonlinear and non-hydrostatic simulations using a high resolution/accuracy deformed spectral multidomain penalty method. During shoaling, the wave does not disintegrate as in the case of steeper slope but, instead, maintains its symmetric shape. At the core of the wave, an unstable region forms, characterized by the entrapment of heavier-over-light fluid. The formation of this convective instability is attributed to the vertical stretching by the ISW of the near-surface vorticity layer associated with the baroclinic background current. According to recent field observations in the South China Sea, the unstable region drives localized turbulent mixing within the wave, estimated to be up to four times larger than that in the open ocean, in the form of a recirculating trapped core. In this talk, emphasis is placed on the structure of the unstable region and the persistence of a possible recirculating core using simulations which capture 2D wave propagation combined with 3D representation of the transition to turbulence. As such, a preliminary understanding of the underlying fluid mechanics and the potential broader oceanic significance of ISWs with trapped cores is offered. Financial support gratefully acknowledged to NSF OCE Grant 1634257.

  12. Evaluation of Critical Parameters to Improve Slope Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Weng Long


    Full Text Available This study focuses on identifying and evaluating critical parameters of various drainage configurations, arrangement, and filter which affect the efficiency of water draining system in slopes. There are a total of seven experiments with different types of homogeneous soil, drainage envelope, filter material, and quantity of pipes performed utilizing a model box with a dimension of 0.8 m × 0.8 m × 0.6 m. The pipes were orientated at 5 degrees from the horizontal. Rainfall event was introduced via a rainfall simulator with rainfall intensity of 434.1 mm/h. From the experiments performed, the expected outcomes when utilizing double pipes and geotextile as envelope filter were verified in this study. The results obtained from these experiments were reviewed and compared with Chapter 14 “Subsurface Drainage Systems” of DID’s Irrigation and Agricultural Drainage Manual of Malaysia and the European standard. It is recommended that the pipe installed in the slope could be wrapped with geotextile and in tandem with application of granular filter to minimize clogging without affecting the water discharge rate. Terzaghi’s filter criteria could be followed closely when deciding on new materials to act as aggregate filter. A caging system could be introduced as it could maintain the integrity of the drainage system and could ease installation.

  13. Grouting design for slope stability of kedung uling earthfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Kedung Uling earthfill dam locates at Wonogiri Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The dam encountered sliding and settlement at the embankment wall. To minimize sliding and settlement and to optimize the dam, both field investigation and laboratory tests have been proceeded for slope stability analysis and remedial embankment wall. Soil and rock investigation around the dam, which is followed by 10 core drillings, have been conducted. Laboratory tests such as direct shear and index properties have also been carried on. The results were further used for dam slope stability model using slide 6.0 and were used to analyzed factor of safety (FS of Kedunguling dam. 10 conditions of dam were simulated and strengthening body of dam with grouting was designed. The results showed two conditions, which are condition of maximum water level with and without earthquake at downstream, were unsatisfy Indonesia National Standard (SNI for building and infrastructure. These conditions can be managed by using grouting for increasing stabilization of embankment wall. By setting up grouting, factor of safety increases and meet the SNI standard requirement.

  14. Soil slips and debris flows on terraced slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta


    Full Text Available Terraces cover large areas along the flanks of many alpine and prealpine valleys. Soil slips and soil slips-debris flows are recurrent phenomena along terraced slopes. These landslides cause damages to people, settlements and cultivations. This study investigates the processes related to the triggering of soil slip-debris flows in these settings, analysing those occurred in Valtellina (Central Alps, Italy on November 2000 after heavy prolonged rainfalls. 260 landslides have been recognised, mostly along the northern valley flank. About 200 soil slips and slumps occurred in terraced areas and a third of them evolved into debris flows. Field work allowed to recognise the settings at soil slip-debris flow source areas. Landslides affected up to 2.5 m of glacial, fluvioglacial and anthropically reworked deposits overlying metamorphic basement. Laboratory and in situ tests allowed to characterise the geotechnical and hydraulic properties of the terrains involved in the initial failure. Several stratigraphic and hydrogeologic factors have been individuated as significant in determining instabilities on terraced slopes. They are the vertical changes of physical soil properties, the presence of buried hollows where groundwater convergence occurs, the rising up of perched groundwater tables, the overflow and lateral infiltration from superficial drainage network, the runoff concentration by means of pathways and the insufficient drainage of retaining walls.

  15. Cost estimation for slope stability improvement in Muara Enim (United States)

    Juliantina, Ika; Sutejo, Yulindasari; Adhitya, Bimo Brata; Sari, Nurul Permata; Kurniawan, Reffanda


    Case study area of SP. Sugihwaras-Baturaja is typologically specified in the C-zone type because the area is included in the foot of the mountain with a slope of 0 % to 20 %. Generally, the factors that cause landslide in Muara Enim Regency due to the influence of soil/rock, water factor, geological factors, and human activities. Slope improvement on KM.273 + 642-KM.273 + 774 along 132 m using soil nailing with 19 mm diameter tendon iron and an angle of 20o and a 75 mm shotcrete thickness, a K-250 concrete grouting material. Cost modeling (y) soil nailing based on 4 variables are X1 = length, X2 = horizontal distance, X3 = safety factor (SF), and X4 = time. Nine variations were used as multiple linear regression equations and analyzed with SPSS.16.0 program. Based on the SPSS output, then attempt the classical assumption and feasibility test model which produced the model that is Cost = (1,512,062 + 194,354 length-1,649,135 distance + 187,831 SF + 54,864 time) million Rupiah. The budget plan includes preparatory work, drainage system, soil nailing, and shotcrete. An efficient cost estimate of 8 m length nail, 1.5 m installation distance, safety factor (SF) = 1.742 and a 30 day processing time resulted in a fee of Rp. 2,566,313,000.00 (Two billion five hundred sixty six million three hundred thirteen thousand rupiah).

  16. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope MeasuringInstruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.


    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 {micro}rad (rms).

  17. Sport Injuries in Iranian Skiers (Shemshak Slope 2000-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motamedy


    Full Text Available Background: Sport medicine is a relatively new scientific branch in Iran. In order to evaluate sport injuries in Iranian skiers we examined and followed all ski players who was injured while skiing in Shemshak slope during a skiing season (January to April 2000. Materials and Methods: During a period of 3 months, a total of 32050 persons skied in Shemshak slope and 76 case of injuries were identified; the injury rate was calculated as 2.3/1000 skiers. Among the injured organs knee (32% and head and neck region (20% were respectively the most common sites of injury. Sprain of the medial collateral ligament was the most frequent knee injury (28% of the cases. 26.7% of the injured cases were amateurs and 21% of them used hired ski instruments. Results: In this study such factors as lack of exercise before skiing, fatigue and time of skiing (beginning or end of the season were not found to be related to the injury rate. However, head and neck injuries in contrast to knee injuries were most frequent in the end of the season (P<0.01. Conclusion: This study confirms the necessity of greater care of knee joints during skiing and probable need of wearing helmet for head protection in the end of skiing season. More studies are necessary to clarify other details regarding sport injuries in skiers.

  18. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope Measuring Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.


    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 (micro)rad (rms)

  19. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes


    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  20. Spectral Slope as an Indicator of Pasture Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi


    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a spectral method for assessment of pasture quality based only on the spectral information obtained with a small number of wavelengths. First, differences in spectral behavior were identified across the near infrared–shortwave infrared spectral range that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Then, slopes across different spectral ranges were calculated and correlated with the changes in crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolic energy concentration (MEC. Finally, partial least squares (PLS regression analysis was applied to identify the optimal spectral ranges for accurate assessment of CP, NDF and MEC. Six spectral domains and a set of slope criteria for real-time evaluation of pasture quality were suggested. The evaluation of three level categories (low, medium, high for these three parameters showed a success rate of: 73%–96% for CP, 72%–87% for NDF and 60%–85% for MEC. Moreover, only one spectral range, 1748–1764 nm, was needed to provide a good estimation of CP, NDF and MEC. Importantly, five of the six selected spectral regions were not affected by water absorbance. With some modifications, this rationale can be applied to further analyses of pasture quality from airborne sensors.

  1. Bioengineering case studies sustainable stream bank and slope stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Wendi; McCullah, John


    This unique volume describes and evaluates 30 projects from across the United States where bio-stabilization was employed to address a detrimental naturally occurring process or byproduct of the built environment. Bio-stabilization (or soil bioengineering) refers to the use of plant materials, primarily live cuttings, arranged in the ground in different arrays to reinforce soils and protect upland slopes and/or stream banks against surficial erosion and shallow slope failures. Examples included in the collection represent different regions of the country and their specific conditions and challenges. Each project is illustrated with a number of distinctive photographs to support the reader's understanding and showcase the wide scope of projects and techniques presented. This book also: ·         Presents a range of well-documented case studies on key techniques and best practices for bio-stabilization projects ·         Emphasizes evaluation and comparison of different techniques and challeng...

  2. Large-area landslide susceptibility with optimized slope-units (United States)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Marchesini, Ivan; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Ardizzone, Francesca; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto


    A Slope-Unit (SU) is a type of morphological terrain unit bounded by drainage and divide lines that maximize the within-unit homogeneity and the between-unit heterogeneity across distinct physical and geographical boundaries [1]. Compared to other terrain subdivisions, SU are morphological terrain unit well related to the natural (i.e., geological, geomorphological, hydrological) processes that shape and characterize natural slopes. This makes SU easily recognizable in the field or in topographic base maps, and well suited for environmental and geomorphological analysis, in particular for landslide susceptibility (LS) modelling. An optimal subdivision of an area into a set of SU depends on multiple factors: size and complexity of the study area, quality and resolution of the available terrain elevation data, purpose of the terrain subdivision, scale and resolution of the phenomena for which SU are delineated. We use the recently developed r.slopeunits software [2,3] for the automatic, parametric delineation of SU within the open source GRASS GIS based on terrain elevation data and a small number of user-defined parameters. The software provides subdivisions consisting of SU with different shapes and sizes, as a function of the input parameters. In this work, we describe a procedure for the optimal selection of the user parameters through the production of a large number of realizations of the LS model. We tested the software and the optimization procedure in a 2,000 km2 area in Umbria, Central Italy. For LS zonation we adopt a logistic regression model implemented in an well-known software [4,5], using about 50 independent variables. To select the optimal SU partition for LS zonation, we want to define a metric which is able to quantify simultaneously: (i) slope-unit internal homogeneity (ii) slope-unit external heterogeneity (iii) landslide susceptibility model performance. To this end, we define a comprehensive objective function S, as the product of three

  3. Estimating significances of differences between slopes: A new methodology and software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco M. N. C. S. Vieira


    Full Text Available Determining the significance of slope differences is a common requirement in studies of self-thinning, ontogeny and sexual dimorphism, among others. This has long been carried out testing for the overlap of the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the slopes. However, the numerical random re-sampling with repetition favours the occurrence of re-combinations yielding largely diverging slopes, widening the confidence intervals and thus increasing the chances of overlooking significant differences. To overcome this problem a permutation test simulating the null hypothesis of no differences between slopes is proposed. This new methodology, when applied both to artificial and factual data, showed an enhanced ability to differentiate slopes.

  4. Variance-in-Mean Effects of the Long Forward-Rate Slope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte


    This paper contains an empirical analysis of the dependence of the long forward-rate slope on the long-rate variance. The long forward-rate slope and the long rate are described by a bivariate GARCH-in-mean model. In accordance with theory, a negative long-rate variance-in-mean effect for the long...... forward-rate slope is documented. Thus, the greater the long-rate variance, the steeper the long forward-rate curve slopes downward (the long forward-rate slope is negative). The variance-in-mean effect is both statistically and economically significant....

  5. Stability Analysis for Loosened Rock Slope of Jinyang Grand Buddha in Taiyuan, China (United States)

    SUN, Jinzhong; TIAN, Xiaofu; GUAN, Xudong; YU, Yonggui; YANG, Xiusheng

    On the basis of the status quo of Jinyang Grand Buddha in Taiyuan, some factors such as topography, geological structures, climate, hydrology, and engineering geology that influence the stability of the Buddha slope are considered, and several working situations of the slope that possibly suffered are presented in this article. The Buddha slope stands upright and the rock masses are composed of thick Permian sandstone, which dips slightly inward to the slope. Affected by both the incision of regional joints and the load relief to the free surface, the rock mass of the Buddha slope has turned into loosened blocks. Numerical stability analysis by FLAC-2D on the basis of the strength reduction method reveals that the localized deformation of the rock masses near the vertical surface of the slope may trigger reversing of rock beddings making the back dip slope convert into a dip slope with the possibility of plane sliding failure. Furthermore, the pseudostatic method for the dynamic process and limit equilibrium method for the static process are applied to different working situations of the Buddha slope. The analytical results illustrate that plane sliding failure will not occur when the slope is affected only by seism. However, water filling in the cracks of the loosened rock mass may greatly contribute to the potential plane sliding failure. When horizontal seism-force and hydrostatic pressure are coupled, the Buddha slope can hardly keep stable. Additionally, the loosened rock masses are prone to block toppling failure when influenced by the seism force.

  6. Evaluation of the instability problems in rock slopes surrounding historical Safranbolu by kinematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnan Keskin


    Full Text Available Safranbolu which has high probability for slope-induced disasters is a very worthwhile settlement for our country and also for the world with its historical and cultural heritage. Finding out potential hazards that may affect the wealth of this world heritage city is very crucial. The historic Safranbolu is surrounded by very steep rock slopes, and occasionally instability occurs in the rock mass that forms these slopes. The rock blocks that are relaesed in various causes and shapes can damage the historic town living spaces by creating a source for the rock fallings and moving down the slope in these very steep slopes. The rock slopes were evaluated by kinematic analysis in order to reduce the mentioned damages and to reveal potential hazards. In the study, characteristics of mass that causes rock fallings are analysed, kinematic controlled instability types are determined considering the obtained data and characteristic of slopes.

  7. Soil erosion spatial distribution patterns of different slopes by using 137Cs tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingyi; Tian Junliang; Liu Puling


    The soil erosion spatial patterns of several slopes were studied through measuring 137 Cs in the top layer soil on the different slopes. The results show that all the soil erosion spatial distribution patterns are in fluctuate trend. The soil erosion is more severe in the middle part on the short farmland slope. The erosion pattern of the gully base show violent head ward erosion. Because of the influence of vegetation cover and other factor, the erosion patterns on the gully slopes are complex. The soil erosion differs obviously with the compound slopes of the same slope gradient and slope length. In general, the main factor that influence soil erosion is the change of the micro-landforms in a long period

  8. Revisiting J.M. Gilliss' astronomical expedition to Chile in 1849‒1852 (United States)

    Hermosilla, Germán Hidalgo


    Between 1849 and 1852 the U.S. astronomer J.M. Gilliss led an expedition to Santiago, Chile, aimed at improving the accepted value for the solar parallax. Although this particular research project was not a success, the astronomers did make other useful astronomical contributions, and the expedition was the catalyst that led directly to the founding of the Chilean National Observatory. Meanwhile, Gilliss later went on to achieve further prominence as Superintendent of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. The results of the Chilean expedition were published by Gilliss in a six-volume work titled The U.S. Naval Astronomical Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere during the Years 1849-50-51-52 that was issued over a 40-year period. In Volume I (published in 1855) Gilliss presented a 'warts-and-all' account of Chile, its politics and its people, which at the time—and subsequently—created considerable controversy. In this paper, after briefly reviewing Gilliss' Southern Hemisphere expedition we focus on the extensive non-astronomical narrative that Gilliss presents in this first volume.

  9. Pharmacy-level barriers to implementing expedited partner therapy in Baltimore, Maryland. (United States)

    Qin, Jennifer Z; Diniz, Clarissa P; Coleman, Jenell S


    Addressing record high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence in the United States requires the utilization of effective strategies, such as expedited partner therapy, to reduce reinfection and further transmission. Expedited partner therapy, which can be given as a prescription or medication, is a strategy to treat the sexual partners of index patients diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection without prior medical evaluation of the partners. There are multiple steps in the prescription-expedited partner therapy cascade, and we sought to identify pharmacy-level barriers to implementing prescription-expedited partner therapy for Chlamydia trachomatis treatment. We used spatial analysis and ArcGIS, a geographic information system, to map and assess geospatial access to pharmacies within Baltimore, MD, neighborhoods with the highest rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (1180.25-4255.31 per 100,000 persons). Expedited partner therapy knowledge and practices were collected via a telephone survey of pharmacists employed at retail pharmacies located in these same neighborhoods. Cost of antibiotic medication in US dollars was collected. Census tracts with the highest Chlamydia trachomatis incidence rates had lower median pharmacy density than other census tracts (26.9 per 100,000 vs 31.4 per 100,000, P strategies that do not depend on partners physically accessing a pharmacy merit consideration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [The real philanthropic expedition of the smallpox vaccine: monarchy and modernity in 1803]. (United States)

    Rigau-Pérez, José G


    Smallpox resulted in the death of 30 % of those who acquired it, so the preventive method discovered by Edward Jenner (London, 1798) spread very quickly. At the request in 1803 of Carlos IV, king of Spain, his government evaluated offers to carry smallpox vaccine to the colonies. The selected proposal, by doctor Francisco Xavier de Balmis, sought to take the lymph to America and Asia in a chain of arm to arm vaccination of foundlings. The Expedition set sail from Corunna on November 30, 1803, stopped in the Canary Isles, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela and after Caracas (1804) split in two groups. Balmis led some members of the Expedition to Cuba and Mexico. For the trip to the Philippines, in 1805, parents lent their children in exchange for economic compensation and the promise that the boys would be returned home. The Expedition returned to Mexico in August, 1807, but Balmis separately took vaccine to China and returned to Spain. Another contingent of the Expedition, under vice-director José Salvany, took vaccine to what we know as Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. His assistant Manuel Grajales reached the Chilean Patagonia in 1811. This article also comments on three principal themes - the institutional management of the scientific project, the conflicts that characterized its course, and the children's experience. The Vaccine Expedition was a brave and humanitarian endeavor, but also an extraordinary sanitary and administrative success. It was not until the twentieth century that a global eradication campaign eliminated smallpox in the world.

  11. Decreased anaerobic performance and hormone adaptation after expedition to Peak Lenin. (United States)

    Chen, Kung-tung; Chen, Yu-yawn; Wu, Huey-june; Chang, Chen-kang; Lee, Wen-tsung; Lu, Yen-yuan; Liu, Chieh-chung; Yang, Rong-sen; Lin, Jung-charng


    The change of anaerobic exercise abilities during and after a high-altitude expedition or hypoxic exposure is not well studied. To evaluate the effects of an extreme-altitude expedition on anaerobic performance, the 10-second supramaximal test and endocrine hormones were evaluated before and after an expedition to Peak Lenin. Four subjects (3 male and 1 female, age (30.5 +/- 16.5) years) were recruited into the study. Three sets of tests were performed, including a basic test at sea level and 20 days before first arrival at the base camp (3600 m), a middle test done at day after returning from the summit to the base camp and the post test at the 10th day after return to the sea level. Both the supramaximal test, performed by a cycle ergometer, and body composition, performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, were completed before the basic test and post test. The endocrine hormones including cortisol, growth hormone, testosterone, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, glucagon and beta-endorphin were measured at all tests. Comparing the conditions before and after the expedition, the body measurement parameters were decreased after the expedition, i.e., body weight (-4.22%, P Lenin had occurred. The real physiological significance needs to be further investigated.

  12. [Frequencies of injuries and causes of accidents during ski touring on ski slopes - a pilot study]. (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Pocecco, E; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M


    Ski touring along ski slopes (slope touring) increased in recent years on Austrian ski slopes. However, ascending on the border of the slope and skiing downhill on the slope might be associated with a certain injury risk. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate frequencies of injuries, causes of accidents and potential risk factors during slope touring. Slope-tourers were interviewed from March to April 2014 at the bottom of 4 Austrian ski areas. Interviews were conducted during the week and at the weekend from 7.30 a. m. to 8.45 p. m. A total of 451 slope-tourers (60.1 % males) with a mean age of 39.3 ± 14.4 years were interviewed. Interviewed persons reported that they perform about 20.6 ± 16.0 slope tours per season mainly with a partner (48 %) and during the day (51 %). Ski helmet use was 60 %. A total of 57 persons (12.6 %) reported that they suffered at least once from an injury during slope touring needing medical care. This corresponds to a rate of 6 injuries per 1000 slope tours. Main injury causes were a fall (78 %) and a collision with another person (15 %) and the main injured body part was the knee (36 %). Slope-tourers with an injury were wearing more often back protectors, and were falling more often during downhill skiing, and were abstaining less often from alcohol and were listening more often to music during downhill skiing compared to slope-tourers without an injury. Based on the findings of this pilot study we recommend abstaining from alcohol and not listening to music during downhill skiing to reduce the injury risk during slope touring. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Morphologic and sedimentologic characteristics of continental slope box slides offshore Fraser Island, Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Fletcher, Melissa; Hubble, Thomas; Clarke, Samantha; Airey, David; Yu, Phyllis; Southern Surveyor V01-2013, Scientific Party RV


    The Fraser Island Slide complex is located on eastern Australia's continental slope offshore Fraser Island in southern Queensland. Morphologic, sedimentologic and geomechanical properties data for two submarine landslides, the 'North Fraser Island Upper Slope Slide' (upper slope slide) and the 'Fraser Island Middle Slope Slide' (middle slope slide) are described. Both of these features are box-shaped, slide scars from which rectangular slabs of material have been shed. The upper slope slide is situated at a water depth of approximately 750 m at the northern end of the Fraser Canyon. The head of this slide has apparently detached from a structural surface comprised of a Miocene reef complex located beneath the continental shelf edge; this slide is estimated to be 25 square kilometres in area and an average of 100m thick. The middle slope slide is situated in 1500 m of water at the southern end of the Fraser Canyon. It estimated to be 12 square kilometres in area and 50 m thick. Cores taken in the continental slope within both slides are long (upper slope 5.65 m, middle slope 3.64 m) and are dominantly comprised of hemipelagic mud. Cores taken adjacent to both slides are short (upper slope 1.33m, middle slope 0.43m) and terminate in stiff muds of suspected Miocene or Pliocene age. Additionally, the 1.33 m core on the slope adjacent to the upper slide presents a near surface layer of upper-fining of coarse to fine shelly sand which we interpret to be a turbidite deposit, this layer was deposited within hemipelagic muds which are ubiquitously present on the upper eastern Australian Continental Slope in New South Wales and Southern Queensland.

  14. Check dams effects on sediment transport in steep slope flume (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain


    Depending on many influences (geology, relief, hydrology, land use, etc.) some mountainous watershed are prone to cause casualties and facilities damages. Large amounts of sediments episodically released by torrents are often the biggest problem in torrent related hazard mitigation. Series of transversal structures as check dams and ground sills are often used in the panel of risk mitigation technics. A large literature exits on check dams and it mainly concerns engineering design, e.g. toe scouring, stability stress diagram, changes in upper and lower reaches equilibrium slopes. Check dams in steep slope rivers constitute fixed points in the bed profile and prevent general bed incision. However their influence on sediment transport once they are filled is not yet clear. Two flume test campaigns, synthetize in Table 1, were performed to investigate this question: Table 1 : experiment plan Run (duration) Ref1 (50h)CD1a (30h)CD1b (30h)Ref2 (92h)CD2 (18h) Solid feeding discharge (g.s^-1) 44 44 44 60 60 Number of check dams none 1 3 none 2 A nearly 5-m-long, 10-cm-wide and 12%-steep flume was used. The water discharge was set to 0,55 l/s in all runs. A mixture of poorly sorted natural sediments with diameters between 0.8 and 40 mm was used. An open solid-discharge-feeding circuit kept the inlet sediment flux constant during all experiments. As both feeding rates did not present variation, changes in outlet solid discharge were assumed to be due to bed variations in the bed storage. We observed strong fluctuations of solid flux and slope in each reaches of all runs between: (i) steep aggradating armoured bed and (ii) less steep and finer bed releasing bedload sheets during erosion events and inducing bedload pulses. All experiments showed consistent results: transported volume associated with erosion event decreased with the length between two subsequent check dams. Solid transversal structures shorten the upstream erosion-propagation and avoid downstream change in the

  15. Deformation and failure mechanism of slope in three dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfa Lu


    Full Text Available Understanding three-dimensional (3D slope deformation and failure mechanism and corresponding stability analyses are crucially important issues in geotechnical engineering. In this paper, the mechanisms of progressive failure with thrust-type and pull-type landslides are described in detail. It is considered that the post-failure stress state and the pre-peak stress state may occur at different regions of a landslide body with deformation development, and a critical stress state element (or the soil slice block exists between the post-failure stress state and the pre-peak stress state regions. In this regard, two sorts of failure modes are suggested for the thrust-type and three sorts for pull-type landslides, based on the characteristics of shear stress and strain (or tensile stress and strain. Accordingly, a new joint constitutive model (JCM is proposed based on the current stability analytical theories, and it can be used to describe the mechanical behaviors of geo-materials with softening properties. Five methods, i.e. CSRM (comprehensive sliding resistance method, MTM (main thrust method, CDM (comprehensive displacement method, SDM (surplus displacement method, and MPM (main pull method, for slope stability calculation are proposed. The S-shaped curve of monitored displacement vs. time is presented for different points on the sliding surface during progressive failure process of landslide, and the relationship between the displacement of different points on the sliding surface and height of landslide body is regarded as the parabolic curve. The comparisons between the predicted and observed load–displacement and displacement–time relations of the points on the sliding surface are conducted. The classification of stable/unstable displacement–time curves is proposed. The definition of the main sliding direction of a landslide is also suggested in such a way that the failure body of landslide (simplified as “collapse body” is only

  16. Biodegradation of Alaska North Slope crude oil enhanced by commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrett, S.; Bonner, J.S.; Mills, M.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Autenrieth, R.L.


    The biodegradation of crude oil was studied. Tests were conducted in which natural unpolluted seawater was collected and then contaminated with Alaska North Slope crude oil. The oil was weathered by heating it to 521 degrees F to remove the light-end hydrocarbons. A total of 13 different bioremediation agents were tested, each one separately. Three samples per treatment were destructively analysed for petroleum chemistry. The thirteen treatments were analyzed for oil and grease. It was found that microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was enhanced by the addition of bioremediation agents, but it was not possible to identify the intermediate products responsible for the increase of resolved petroleum hydrocarbons through time. It was suggested that caution be used when interpreting results since the protocols used to test the products were prone to uncontrollable variations. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  17. The small-sized benthic biota of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (SW Barents Sea slope) (United States)

    Soltwedel, Thomas; Portnova, Daria; Kolar, Ingrid; Mokievsky, Vadim; Schewe, Ingo


    R/V POLARSTERN expedition ARK XVIII/1 in summer 2002 provided the opportunity to carry out a sampling programme to assess the activity, biomass and composition of the small-sized benthic biota (size range: bacteria to meiofauna) around the active mud-oozing and methane-seeping Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) on the SW Barents Sea slope, Northern North-Atlantic. A total of 11 stations, covering different areas (e.g., bacterial mat sites, and pogonophoran fields) within the crater, and sites outside the caldera were sampled using a multiple corer. Subsamples were analyzed for various biogenic compounds to estimate the flux of organic matter to the seafloor (sediment-bound chloroplastic pigments indicating phytodetritus), activities (bacterial exo-enzymatic turnover rates) and the total biomass [from bulk parameters, like phospholipid (PL) concentrations in the sediments] of the smallest sediment-inhabiting organisms (range: bacteria to meiofauna). Direct investigations of bacterial numbers and biomasses as well as on meiofauna densities and composition completed our investigations at HMMV. As expected for a comparable small deep-sea area with only minor disparity in water depth between sampling sites, our investigations revealed generally no significant differences in organic matter input from phytodetritus sedimentation between sampling sites inside and outside HMMV. Bacterial exo-enzymatic activities as well as total microbial biomass (TMB) and meiofauna densities, however, exhibited generally higher values at HMMV, compared to sites outside the mud volcano. Enhanced benthic life at HMMV is based on chemosynthetic processes, making the mud volcano a "chemosynthetic oasis" in an otherwise oligotrophic deep-sea environment. As we did not find any indication for bacterial symbioses in the meiofauna, comparably rich meiofaunal assemblages at HMMV are presumably indirectly related to a general enhanced biological production.

  18. Voice activity detection algorithm using perceptual wavelet entropy neighbor slope. (United States)

    Lee, Gihyoun; Na, Sung Dae; Cho, Jin-Ho; Kim, Myoung Nam


    This paper presents a voice activity detection (VAD) approach using a perceptual wavelet entropy neighbor slope (PWENS) in a low signal-to-noise (SNR) environment and with a variety of noise types. The basis for our study is to use acoustic features that have large entropy variance for each wavelet critical band. The speech signal is decomposed by the proposed perceptual wavelet packet decomposition (PWPD), and the VAD function is extracted by PWENS. Finally, VAD is decided by the proposed VAD decision rule using two memory buffers. In order to evaluate the performance of the VAD decision, many speech samples and a variety of SNR conditions were used in the experiment. The performance of the VAD decision is confirmed using objective indexes such as a graph of the VAD decision and the relative error rate.

  19. Evaluation of Surface Slope Irregularity in Linear Parabolic Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Francini


    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology, very simple in its application, for measuring surface irregularities of linear parabolic collectors. This technique was principally developed to be applied in cases where it is difficult to use cumbersome instruments and to facilitate logistic management. The instruments to be employed are a digital camera and a grating. If the reflector surface is defective, the image of the grating, reflected on the solar collector, appears distorted. Analyzing the reflected image, we can obtain the local slope of the defective surface. These profilometric tests are useful to identify and monitor the mirror portions under mechanical stress and to estimate the losses caused by the light rays deflected outside the absorber.

  20. Slope Hazard and Risk Assessment in the Tropics: Malaysia' Experience (United States)

    Mohamad, Zakaria; Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Ahmad, Ferdaus; Manap, Mohamad Abdul; Ramli, Zamri; Ahmad, Azhari; Mohamed, Zainab


    The increasing number of geological hazards in Malaysia has often resulted in casualties and extensive devastation with high mitigation cost. Given the destructive capacity and high frequency of disaster, Malaysia has taken a step forward to address the multi-scale landslide risk reduction emphasizing pre-disaster action rather than post-disaster reaction. Slope hazard and risk assessment in a quantitative manner at regional and national scales remains challenging in Malaysia. This paper presents the comprehensive methodology framework and operational needs driven by modern and advanced geospatial technology to address the aforementioned issues in the tropics. The Slope Hazard and Risk Mapping, the first national project in Malaysia utilizing the multi-sensor LIDAR has been critically implemented with the support of multi- and trans-disciplinary partners. The methodological model has been formulated and evaluated given the complexity of risk scenarios in this knowledge driven project. Instability slope problems in the urban, mountainous and tectonic landscape are amongst them, and their spatial information is of crucial for regional landslide assessment. We develop standard procedures with optimal parameterization for susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment in the selected regions. Remarkably, we are aiming at producing an utmost complete landslide inventory in both space and time. With the updated reliable terrain and landscape models, the landslide conditioning factor maps can be accurately derived depending on the landslide types and failure mechanisms which crucial for hazard and risk assessment. We also aim to improve the generation of elements at risk for landslide and promote integrated approaches for a better disaster risk analysis. As a result, a new tool, notably multi-sensor LIDAR technology is a very promising tool for an old geological problem and its derivative data for hazard and risk analysis is an effective preventive measure in Malaysia