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Sample records for slip stacking injection

  1. Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  2. Slip-stacking Dynamics for High-Power Proton Beams at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Slip-stacking is a particle accelerator configuration used to store two particle beams with different momenta in the same ring. The two beams are longitudinally focused by two radiofrequency (RF) cavities with a small frequency difference between them. Each beam is synchronized to one RF cavity and perturbed by the other RF cavity. Fermilab uses slip-stacking in the Recycler so as to double the power of the 120 GeV proton beam in the Main Injector. This dissertation investigates the dynamics of slip-stacking beams analytically, numerically and experimentally. In the analytic analysis, I find the general trajectory of stable slip-stacking particles and identify the slip-stacking parametric resonances. In the numerical analysis, I characterize the stable phase-space area and model the particle losses. In particular, I evaluate the impact of upgrading the Fermilab Booster cycle-rate from 15 Hz to 20 Hz as part of the Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II). The experimental analysis is used to verify my approach to simulating slip-stacking loss. I design a study for measuring losses from the longitudinal single-particle dynamics of slip-stacking as a function of RF cavity voltage and RF frequency separation. I further propose the installation of a harmonic RF cavity and study the dynamics of this novel slip-stacking configuration. I show the harmonic RF cavity cancels out parametric resonances in slip-stacking, reduces emittance growth during slip-stacking, and dramatically enhances the stable phase-space area. The harmonic cavity is expected to reduce slip-stacking losses to far exceed PIP-II requirements. These results raise the possibility of extending slip-stacking beyond the PIP-II era.

  3. A new slip stacking RF system for a twofold power upgrade of Fermilab's Accelerator Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrak, Robyn [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Fermilab's Accelerator Complex has been recently upgraded, in order to increase the 120 GeV proton beam power on target from about 400 kW to over 700 kW for NOvA and other future intensity frontier experiments. One of the key ingredients of the upgrade is the offloading of some Main Injector synchrotron operations - beam injection and RF manipulation called ''slip stacking'' - to the 8GeV Recycler Ring, which had until recently been used only for low-intensity antiproton storage and cooling. This required construction of two new 53 MHz RF systems for the slip-stacking manipulations. The cavities operate simultaneously at Vpeak ≲150 kV, but at slightly different frequencies (Δf=1260 Hz). Their installation was completed in September 2013. This article describes the novel solutions used in the design of the new cavities, their tuning system, and the associated high power RF system. First results showing effective operation of the RF system, beam capture and successful slip-stacking in the Recycler Ring are presented.

  4. The operation and monitoring of sewage disposal by stack injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.A. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A system that uses turbine exhaust to evaporate sewage, was described. The Alyeska Pipeline Service developed the system for isolated pump stations located in permafrost areas. The pumps moving the crude oil in the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were driven by simple cycle gas turbine engines which produce large amounts of waste heat. The waste heat was used to evaporate the sewage effluent, effectively destroying all pathogens in it. The process, known as `stack injection`, was recently upgraded to increase efficiency and safety. Stack injection was being used at five pump stations. Methods used to control operation of the stack injection system, and field data used to redesign the system were reviewed. 3 figs., 3 refs.

  5. Atomistically determined phase-field modeling of dislocation dissociation, stacking fault formation, dislocation slip, and reactions in fcc systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Mianroodi, Jaber; Svendsen, Bob

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current work is the development of a phase field model for dislocation dissociation, slip and stacking fault formation in single crystals amenable to determination via atomistic or ab initio methods in the spirit of computational material design. The current approach is based in particular on periodic microelasticity (Wang and Jin, 2001; Bulatov and Cai, 2006; Wang and Li, 2010) to model the strongly non-local elastic interaction of dislocation lines via their (residual) strain fields. These strain fields depend in turn on phase fields which are used to parameterize the energy stored in dislocation lines and stacking faults. This energy storage is modeled here with the help of the "interface" energy concept and model of Cahn and Hilliard (1958) (see also Allen and Cahn, 1979; Wang and Li, 2010). In particular, the "homogeneous" part of this energy is related to the "rigid" (i.e., purely translational) part of the displacement of atoms across the slip plane, while the "gradient" part accounts for energy storage in those regions near the slip plane where atomic displacements deviate from being rigid, e.g., in the dislocation core. Via the attendant global energy scaling, the interface energy model facilitates an atomistic determination of the entire phase field energy as an optimal approximation of the (exact) atomistic energy; no adjustable parameters remain. For simplicity, an interatomic potential and molecular statics are employed for this purpose here; alternatively, ab initio (i.e., DFT-based) methods can be used. To illustrate the current approach, it is applied to determine the phase field free energy for fcc aluminum and copper. The identified models are then applied to modeling of dislocation dissociation, stacking fault formation, glide and dislocation reactions in these materials. As well, the tensile loading of a dislocation loop is considered. In the process, the current thermodynamic picture is compared with the classical mechanical

  6. Limitations on anti p-p luminosity with direct injection and stacking of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Teng, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    If protons of very high energy impinge on a target, a large part of the resulting antiprotons are sufficiently collimated to be injectible into a stacking and accelerating ring. They can then be stacked and injected into the main proton accelerator so as to produce anti p-p collisions without low energy antiproton cooling. A scheme is presented for the VBA, where 20 TeV protons produce 9 x 10 -4 antiprotons per proton at 100 GeV, which are then stacked, accelerated to 1 TeV, and injected into the main ring. With 16 proton pulses of 10 15 protons, one obtains a luminosity of the order of 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 with a beam-beam tune shift of 10 -3 per interaction region. The beams are bunched into 1000 bunches; the orbits are separated by means of relatively modest electostatic electrodes

  7. Aseismic and seismic slip induced by fluid injection from poroelastic and rate-state friction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Deng, K.; Harrington, R. M.; Clerc, F.

    2016-12-01

    Solid matrix stress change and pore pressure diffusion caused by fluid injection has been postulated as key factors for inducing earthquakes and aseismic slip on pre-existing faults. In this study, we have developed a numerical model that simulates aseismic and seismic slip in a rate-and-state friction framework with poroelastic stress perturbations from multi-stage hydraulic fracturing scenarios. We apply the physics-based model to the 2013-2015 earthquake sequences near Fox Creek, Alberta, Canada, where three magnitude 4.5 earthquakes were potentially induced by nearby hydraulic fracturing activity. In particular, we use the relocated December 2013 seismicity sequence to approximate the fault orientation, and find the seismicity migration spatiotemporally correlate with the positive Coulomb stress changes calculated from the poroelastic model. When the poroelastic stress changes are introduced to the rate-state friction model, we find that slip on the fault evolves from aseismic to seismic in a manner similar to the onset of seismicity. For a 15-stage hydraulic fracturing that lasted for 10 days, modeled fault slip rate starts to accelerate after 3 days of fracking, and rapidly develops into a seismic event, which also temporally coincides with the onset of induced seismicity. The poroelastic stress perturbation and consequently fault slip rate continue to evolve and remain high for several weeks after hydraulic fracturing has stopped, which may explain the continued seismicity after shut-in. In a comparison numerical experiment, fault slip rate quickly decreases to the interseismic level when stress perturbations are instantaneously returned to zero at shut-in. Furthermore, when stress perturbations are removed just a few hours after the fault slip rate starts to accelerate (that is, hydraulic fracturing is shut down prematurely), only aseismic slip is observed in the model. Our preliminary results thus suggest the design of fracturing duration and flow

  8. Influence of capillary die geometry on wall slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanétrník, D.; Hausnerová, B.; Filip, Petr; Hnátková, E.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 325, February (2018), s. 615-619 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-26808S Grant - others:Ministerstvo školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy (MŠMT)(CZ) LO1504 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : powder injection molding * highly filled polymer * wall slip * capillary entrance angle Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  9. Optimization of throughput in semipreparative chiral liquid chromatography using stacked injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mohammadreza; Fotovati, Mohsen; Hosseini, Seyed-Kiumars; Ghassempour, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    An interesting mode of chromatography for preparation of pure enantiomers from pure samples is the method of stacked injection as a pseudocontinuous procedure. Maximum throughput and minimal production costs can be achieved by the use of total chiral column length in this mode of chromatography. To maximize sample loading, often touching bands of the two enantiomers is automatically achieved. Conventional equations show direct correlation between touching-band loadability and the selectivity factor of two enantiomers. The important question for one who wants to obtain the highest throughput is "How to optimize different factors including selectivity, resolution, run time, and loading of the sample in order to save time without missing the touching-band resolution?" To answer this question, tramadol and propranolol were separated on cellulose 3,5-dimethyl phenyl carbamate, as two pure racemic mixtures with low and high solubilities in mobile phase, respectively. The mobile phase composition consisted of n-hexane solvent with alcohol modifier and diethylamine as the additive. A response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize separation factors against the main responses. According to the stacked injection properties, two processes were investigated for maximizing throughput: one with a poorly soluble and another with a highly soluble racemic mixture. For each case, different optimization possibilities were inspected. It was revealed that resolution is a crucial response for separations of this kind. Peak area and run time are two critical parameters in optimization of stacked injection for binary mixtures which have low solubility in the mobile phase. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  11. An experimental study of the influence of stress history on fault slip during injection of supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuss, Robert J.; Wiseall, Andrew C.; Tamayo-Mas, Elena; Harrington, Jon F.

    2018-04-01

    The injection of super-critical CO2 into a depleted reservoir will alter the pore pressure of the basin, which if sufficiently perturbed could result in fault slip. Therefore, knowledge of the acceptable pressure limits is required in order to maintain fault stability. A two-part laboratory study was conducted on fully saturated kaolinite fault gouge to investigate this issue. Previously, we showed that fault slip occurred once pore-pressure within the gouge was sufficient to overcome the normal stress acting on the fault. For kaolinite, this behaviour occurred at a pressure similar to the yield stress. The current study shows that following a slow-reduction in the maximum principal stress, as would be expected through changes in effective stress, the reactivation pressure shows a stress memory. Consequently, the pressure necessary to initiate fault slip is similar to that required at the maximum stress encountered. Therefore, fault slip is at least partially controlled by the previous maximum stress and not the current stress state. During the slow reduction in normal stress, the flow characteristics of the fault remain unchanged until pore-pressure exceeds shear stress and does not increase significantly until it exceeds normal stress. This results in fault slip, which slows the rate of flow increase as shear is an effective self-sealing mechanism. These observations lead to the conclusion that stress history is a vital parameter when considering fault stability.

  12. Seismic and aseismic fault slip in response to fluid injection observed during field experiments at meter scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, F.; Guglielmi, Y.; De Barros, L.; Wynants-Morel, N.; Duboeuf, L.

    2017-12-01

    During fluid injection, the observations of an enlarging cloud of seismicity are generally explained by a direct response to the pore pressure diffusion in a permeable fractured rock. However, fluid injection can also induce large aseismic deformations which provide an alternative mechanism for triggering and driving seismicity. Despite the importance of these two mechanisms during fluid injection, there are few studies on the effects of fluid pressure on the partitioning between seismic and aseismic motions under controlled field experiments. Here, we describe in-situ meter-scale experiments measuring synchronously the fluid pressure, the fault motions and the seismicity directly in a fault zone stimulated by controlled fluid injection at 280 m depth in carbonate rocks. The experiments were conducted in a gallery of an underground laboratory in south of France (LSBB, http://lsbb.eu). Thanks to the proximal monitoring at high-frequency, our data show that the fluid overpressure mainly induces a dilatant aseismic slip (several tens of microns up to a millimeter) at the injection. A sparse seismicity (-4 laws, we simulated an experiment and investigated the relative contribution of the fluid pressure diffusion and stress transfer on the seismic and aseismic fault behavior. The model reproduces the hydromechanical data measured at injection, and show that the aseismic slip induced by fluid injection propagates outside the pressurized zone where accumulated shear stress develops, and potentially triggers seismicity. Our models also show that the permeability enhancement and friction evolution are essential to explain the fault slip behavior. Our experimental results are consistent with large-scale observations of fault motions at geothermal sites (Wei et al., 2015; Cornet, 2016), and suggest that controlled field experiments at meter-scale are important for better assessing the role of fluid pressure in natural and human-induced earthquakes.

  13. Plasma target output from a magnetically augmented, gas-injected, washer-stack plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osher, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    This article describes a new washer-stack gun design developed for the application of plasma target production for the startup of neutral-beam trapping in a fusion research magnetic confinement system. The gun is a Mo anode type that is D 2 injected and has an auxiliary pulsed magnet for control of plasma-flux mapping. One of the principal features of 2--10-ms duration pulses for gun operation in a suitable magnetic field is the formation of an arc column along magnetic field lines from the gun's central cathode electrode to the vacuum chamber walls (at common anode potential). The primary power output from a 5.0-cm-i.d. gun is typically carried along this arc column by a stream of approximately 2000 A of 50--250-eV electrons. This primary stream of relatively low-density energetic electrons efficiently ionizes the injected gas, forming a quasi-dc source of denser secondary plasma of approx.10 13 /cm 3 at a few eV, which is able to flow or diffuse away along a somewhat larger column of magnetic field lines. In plasma-target production tests on a test stand, a gun operated at a D 2 gas flow of 22 Torr ls -1 yielded 250 A of equivalent plasma flow

  14. Wastewater injection and slip triggering: Results from a 3D coupled reservoir/rate-and-state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, M.; Olson, J. E.; Schultz, R.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity induced by fluid injection is controlled by parameters related to injection conditions, reservoir properties, and fault frictional behavior. We present results from a combined model that brings together injection physics, reservoir dynamics, and fault physics to better explain the primary controls on induced seismicity. We created a 3D fluid flow simulator using the embedded discrete fracture technique and then coupled it with a 3D displacement discontinuity model that uses rate and state friction to model slip events. The model is composed of three layers, including the top-seal, the injection reservoir, and the basement. Permeability is anisotropic (vertical vs horizontal) and along with porosity varies by layer. Injection control can be either rate or pressure. Fault properties include size, 2D permeability, and frictional properties. Several suites of simulations were run to evaluate the relative importance of each of the factors from all three parameter groups. We find that the injection parameters interact with the reservoir parameters in the context of the fault physics and these relations change for different reservoir and fault characteristics, leading to the need to examine the injection parameters only within the context of a particular faulted reservoir. For a reservoir with no flow boundaries, low permeability (5 md), and a fault with high fault-parallel permeability and critical stress, injection rate exerts the strongest control on magnitude and frequency of earthquakes. However, for a higher permeability reservoir (80 md), injection volume becomes the more important factor. Fault permeability structure is a key factor in inducing earthquakes in basement rocks below the injection reservoir. The initial failure state of the fault, which is challenging to assess, can have a big effect on the size and timing of events. For a fault 2 MPa below critical state, we were able to induce a slip event, but it occurred late in the injection history

  15. Data-driven fault mechanics: Inferring fault hydro-mechanical properties from in situ observations of injection-induced aseismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Viesca, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    In the absence of in situ field-scale observations of quantities such as fault slip, shear stress and pore pressure, observational constraints on models of fault slip have mostly been limited to laboratory and/or remote observations. Recent controlled fluid-injection experiments on well-instrumented faults fill this gap by simultaneously monitoring fault slip and pore pressure evolution in situ [Gugleilmi et al., 2015]. Such experiments can reveal interesting fault behavior, e.g., Gugleilmi et al. report fluid-activated aseismic slip followed only subsequently by the onset of micro-seismicity. We show that the Gugleilmi et al. dataset can be used to constrain the hydro-mechanical model parameters of a fluid-activated expanding shear rupture within a Bayesian framework. We assume that (1) pore-pressure diffuses radially outward (from the injection well) within a permeable pathway along the fault bounded by a narrow damage zone about the principal slip surface; (2) pore-pressure increase ativates slip on a pre-stressed planar fault due to reduction in frictional strength (expressed as a constant friction coefficient times the effective normal stress). Owing to efficient, parallel, numerical solutions to the axisymmetric fluid-diffusion and crack problems (under the imposed history of injection), we are able to jointly fit the observed history of pore-pressure and slip using an adaptive Monte Carlo technique. Our hydrological model provides an excellent fit to the pore-pressure data without requiring any statistically significant permeability enhancement due to the onset of slip. Further, for realistic elastic properties of the fault, the crack model fits both the onset of slip and its early time evolution reasonably well. However, our model requires unrealistic fault properties to fit the marked acceleration of slip observed later in the experiment (coinciding with the triggering of microseismicity). Therefore, besides producing meaningful and internally consistent

  16. Microstructure, surface topography and mechanical properties of slip cast and powder injection moulded microspecimens made of zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auhorn, M.; Kasanicka, B.; Beck, T.; Schulze, V.; Loehe, D.

    2003-01-01

    Investigations on ceramic microspecimens made of Y 2 O 3 -stabilized ZrO 2 produced by slip casting or micro powder injection moulding are introduced. During the production of the microspecimens, feedstocks and sintering conditions were varied. Differently moulded specimens were examined with respect to their microstructure and surface topography using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal white light microscopy. Additionally, the mechanical characteristics were investigated by three-point bending tests using a micro universal testing device. The statistical analysis was realised by means of the Weibull theory and interpreted by the aid of SEM images of fracture surfaces. This research allowed to understand correlations between different feedstocks used, process parameters like the sintering conditions applied and the resulting characteristics as well as material properties of the microspecimens. These results could be used to improve the production process. (orig.)

  17. On the effective stress law for rock-on-rock frictional sliding, and fault slip triggered by means of fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Ernest; Hackston, Abigail

    2017-08-01

    Fluid injection into rocks is increasingly used for energy extraction and for fluid wastes disposal, and can trigger/induce small- to medium-scale seismicity. Fluctuations in pore fluid pressure may also be associated with natural seismicity. The energy release in anthropogenically induced seismicity is sensitive to amount and pressure of fluid injected, through the way that seismic moment release is related to slipped area, and is strongly affected by the hydraulic conductance of the faulted rock mass. Bearing in mind the scaling issues that apply, fluid injection-driven fault motion can be studied on laboratory-sized samples. Here, we investigate both stable and unstable induced fault slip on pre-cut planar surfaces in Darley Dale and Pennant sandstones, with or without granular gouge. They display contrasting permeabilities, differing by a factor of 105, but mineralogies are broadly comparable. In permeable Darley Dale sandstone, fluid can access the fault plane through the rock matrix and the effective stress law is followed closely. Pore pressure change shifts the whole Mohr circle laterally. In tight Pennant sandstone, fluid only injects into the fault plane itself; stress state in the rock matrix is unaffected. Sudden access by overpressured fluid to the fault plane via hydrofracture causes seismogenic fault slips. This article is part of the themed issue 'Faulting, friction and weakening: from slow to fast motion'.

  18. On the effective stress law for rock-on-rock frictional sliding, and fault slip triggered by means of fluid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Ernest; Hackston, Abigail

    2017-09-28

    Fluid injection into rocks is increasingly used for energy extraction and for fluid wastes disposal, and can trigger/induce small- to medium-scale seismicity. Fluctuations in pore fluid pressure may also be associated with natural seismicity. The energy release in anthropogenically induced seismicity is sensitive to amount and pressure of fluid injected, through the way that seismic moment release is related to slipped area, and is strongly affected by the hydraulic conductance of the faulted rock mass. Bearing in mind the scaling issues that apply, fluid injection-driven fault motion can be studied on laboratory-sized samples. Here, we investigate both stable and unstable induced fault slip on pre-cut planar surfaces in Darley Dale and Pennant sandstones, with or without granular gouge. They display contrasting permeabilities, differing by a factor of 10 5 , but mineralogies are broadly comparable. In permeable Darley Dale sandstone, fluid can access the fault plane through the rock matrix and the effective stress law is followed closely. Pore pressure change shifts the whole Mohr circle laterally. In tight Pennant sandstone, fluid only injects into the fault plane itself; stress state in the rock matrix is unaffected. Sudden access by overpressured fluid to the fault plane via hydrofracture causes seismogenic fault slips.This article is part of the themed issue 'Faulting, friction and weakening: from slow to fast motion'. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Numerical Investigation of Injection Timing Influence on Fuel Slip and Influence of Compression Ratio on Knock Occurrence in Conventional Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sremec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compressed natural gas can be used in diesel engine with great benefits, but because of its low reactivity it is usually used in a so called dual fuel combustion process. Optimal parameters for dual fuel engines are not yet investigated thoroughly which is the motivation for this work. In this work, a numerical study performed in a cycle simulation tool (AVL Boost v2013 on the influence of different injection timings on fuel slip into exhaust and influence of compression ratio on knock phenomena in port injected dual fuel engine was conducted. The introduction of natural gas into the intake port of a diesel engine usually results in some fuel slipping into the exhaust port due to valve overlap. By analysing the simulation results, the injection strategy that significantly decreases the natural gas slip is defined. The knock occurrence study showed that the highest allowed compression ratio that will result in knock free operation of the presented engine is 18 for ambient intake condition, while for charged intake conditions the compression ratio should be lowered to 16.

  20. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  1. An EIS alternative for impedance measurement of a high temperature PEM fuel cell stack based on current pulse injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Araya, Samuel Simon; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a method for estimating the fuel cell impedance is presented, namely the current pulse injection (CPI) method, which is well suited for online implementation. This method estimates the fuel cell impedance and unlike electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it is simple...... to implement at a low cost. This makes it appealing as a characterization method for on-line diagnostic algorithms. In this work a parameter estimation method for estimation of equivalent electrical circuit (EEC) parameters, which is suited for on-line use is proposed. Tests on a 10 cell high temperature PEM...... fuel cell show that the method yields consistent results in estimating EEC parameters for different current pulse at different current loads, with a low variance. A comparison with EIS shows that despite its simplicity the response of CPI can reproduce well the impedance response of the high...

  2. Ultra-sensitive speciation analysis of mercury by CE-ICP-MS together with field-amplified sample stacking injection and dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YiQuan; Cheng, Xian; Mo, Fan; Huang, LiMei; Wu, Zujian; Wu, Yongning; Xu, LiangJun; Fu, FengFu

    2016-04-01

    A simple dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) used to extract and preconcentrate ultra-trace MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) from water sample, and a sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) by using capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) with field-amplified sample stacking injection (FASI) were first reported in this study. The DSPE used thiol cotton particles as adsorbent, and is simple and effective. It can be used to extract and preconcentrate ultra-trace mercury compounds in water samples within 30 min with a satisfied recovery and no mercury species alteration during the process. The FASI enhanced the sensitivity of CE-ICP-MS with 25-fold, 29-fold and 27-fold for MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) , respectively. Using FASI-CE-ICP-MS together with DSPE, we have successfully determined ultra-trace MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) in tap water with a limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.26-0.45 pg/mL, an RSD (n = 3) mercury. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Electron-electron scattering-induced channel hot electron injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors with high-k/metal gate stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Xi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Ho, Szu-Han; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Lu, Ching-Sen

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates electron-electron scattering (EES)-induced channel hot electron (CHE) injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (n-MOSFETs) with high-k/metal gate stacks. Many groups have proposed new models (i.e., single-particle and multiple-particle process) to well explain the hot carrier degradation in nanoscale devices and all mechanisms focused on Si-H bond dissociation at the Si/SiO 2 interface. However, for high-k dielectric devices, experiment results show that the channel hot carrier trapping in the pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. Therefore, we propose a model of EES-induced CHE injection to illustrate the trapping-dominant mechanism in nanoscale n-MOSFETs with high-k/metal gate stacks.

  4. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deligne, Mumford and Artin [DM, Ar2]) and consider algebraic stacks, then we can cons- truct the 'moduli ... the moduli scheme and the moduli stack of vector bundles. First I will give ... 1–31. © Printed in India. 1 ...... Cultura, Spain. References.

  5. Preparative separation and structural identification of impurities of a new α{sub 2}-Adrenoceptor agonist using stacking injection, LC-MS{sup n} and LC-SPE-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Josiane O.; Thomasi, Sérgio S.; Venâncio, Tiago; Oliveira, Regina V., E-mail: oliveirarv@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Química; Pitta, Ivan R.; Lima, Maria do Carmo A. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (NUPIT/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Núcleo de Pesquisa em Inovação Tecnológica

    2017-07-01

    Identifying impurities in drug substances has become one of the most important issues in pharmaceutical analysis since it can have a significant impact on the efficacy of new pharmaceutical products. Due to the purity requirements, in this paper a new synthetic α{sub 2}-adrenoceptor agonist, called LPSF-PT-31, was purified and its impurities were characterized by liquid chromatography multistage mass spectrometry (LC-MS{sup n}) and liquid chromatography-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-SPE-NMR). The purification step was conducted using a semi-preparative liquid chromatography and stacked injections as a new approach to drug purification. As a result, a total yield of 75% of the pure LPSF-PT-31 and 2.9 L day{sup -}'1 in solvent reduction was obtained. The combination of semi-preparative stacking injection, LC-MS{sup n}, and LC-SPE-NMR, demonstrated to be efficient to purify active drugs and unambiguously identify its impurities. In addition, isolation and identification of drug impurities in the early stages of development can improve the synthetic pathway, preventing the formation of impurities or minimizing this formation to minimum levels. (author)

  6. Insights into head-column field-amplified sample stacking: Part I. Detailed study of electrokinetic injection of a weak base across a short water plug

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Thormann, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1502, FEB (2017), s. 51-61 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * electrokinetic injection * simulation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  7. Insights into head-column field-amplified sample stacking: Part II. Study of the behavior of the electrophoretic system after electrokinetic injection of cationic compounds across a short water plug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šesták, Jozef; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-25

    Part I on head-column field-amplified sample stacking comprised a detailed study of the electrokinetic injection of a weak base across a short water plug into a phosphate buffer at low pH. The water plug is converted into a low conductive acidic zone and cationic analytes become stacked at the interface between this and a newly formed phosphoric acid zone. The fundamentals of electrokinetic processes occurring thereafter were studied experimentally and with computer simulation and are presented as part II. The configuration analyzed represents a discontinuous buffer system. Computer simulation revealed that the phosphoric acid zone at the plug-buffer interface becomes converted into a migrating phosphate buffer plug which corresponds to the cationically migrating system zone of the phosphate buffer system. Its mobility is higher than that of the analytes such that they migrate behind the system zone in a phosphate buffer comparable to the applied background electrolyte. The temporal behaviour of the current and the conductivity across the water plug were monitored and found to reflect the changes in the low conductivity plug. Determination of the buffer flow in the capillary revealed increased pumping caused by the mismatch of electroosmosis within the low conductivity plug and the buffer. This effect becomes elevated with increasing water plug length. For plug lengths up to 1% of the total column length the flow quickly drops to the electroosmotic flow of the buffer and simulations with experimentally determined current and flow values predict negligible band dispersion and no loss of resolution for both low and large molecular mass components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SLIP CASTING METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, A.G.

    1959-09-01

    S>A process is described for preparing a magnesium oxide slip casting slurry which when used in conjunction with standard casting techniques results in a very strong "green" slip casting and a fired piece of very close dimensional tolerance. The process involves aging an aqueous magnestum oxide slurry, having a basic pH value, until it attains a specified critical viscosity at which time a deflocculating agent is added without upsetting the basic pH value.

  9. RETRAN dynamic slip model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.H.; Paulsen, M.P.; Gose, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    A time dependent equation for the slip velocity in a two-phase flow condition has been incorporated into a developmental version of the RETRAN computer code. This model addition has been undertaken to remove a limitation in RETRAN-01 associated with the homogeneous equilibrium mixture model. In this paper, the development of the slip model is summarized and the corresponding constitutive equations are discussed. Comparisons of RETRAN analyses with steady-state void fraction data and data from the Semiscale S-02-6 small break test are also presented

  10. RETRAN dynamic slip model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.H.; Paulsen, M.P.; Gose, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic codes in general use for system calculations are based on extensive analyses of loss-of-coolant accidents following the postulated rupture of a large coolant pipe. In this study, time-dependent equation for the slip velocity in a two-phase flow condition has been incorporated into the RETRAN-02 computer code. This model addition was undertaken to remove a limitation in RETRAN-01 associated with the homogeneous equilibrium mixture model. The dynamic slip equation was derived from a set of two-fluid conservation equations. 18 refs

  11. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  12. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.; Amos, C. B.; Zielke, Olaf; Jayko, A. S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  13. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.

    2016-01-10

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  14. OpenStack essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Radez, Dan

    2015-01-01

    If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.

  15. Stack gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-04-12

    Hot stack gases transfer contained heat to a gravity flow of pebbles treated with a catalyst, cooled stacked gases and a sulfuric acid mist is withdrawn from the unit, and heat picked up by the pebbles is transferred to air for combustion or other process. The sulfuric acid (or sulfur, depending on the catalyst) is withdrawn in a recovery unit.

  16. Mastering OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Khedher, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.

  17. Comprehensive first-principles study of stable stacking faults in hcp metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Binglun; Wu, Zhaoxuan; Curtin, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    The plastic deformation in hcp metals is complex, with the associated dislocation core structures and properties not well understood on many slip planes in most hcp metals. A first step in establishing the dislocation properties is to examine the stable stacking fault energy and its structure on relevant slip planes. However, this has been perplexing in the hcp structure due to additional in-plane displacements on both sides of the slip plane. Here, density functional theory guided by crystal symmetry analysis is used to study all relevant stable stacking faults in 6 hcp metals (Mg, Ti, Zr, Re, Zn, Cd). Specially, the stable stacking fault energy, position, and structure on the Basal, Prism I and II, Pyramidal I and II planes are determined using all-periodic supercells with full atomic relaxation. All metals show similar stacking fault position and structure as dictated by crystal symmetry, but the associated stacking fault energy, being governed by the atomic bonding, differs significantly among them. Stacking faults on all the slip planes except the Basal plane show substantial out-of-plane displacements while stacking faults on the Prism II, Pyramidal I and II planes show additional in-plane displacements, all extending to multiple atom layers. The in-plane displacements are not captured in the standard computational approach for stacking faults, and significant differences are shown in the energies of such stacking faults between the standard approach and fully-relaxed case. The existence of well-defined stable stacking fault on the Pyramidal planes suggests zonal dislocations are unlikely. Calculations on the equilibrium partial separation further suggests 〈c + a〉 dissociation into three partials on the Pyramidal I plane is unlikely and 〈c〉 dissociation on Prism planes is unlikely to be stable against climb-dissociation onto the Basal planes in these metals.

  18. No slip gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2018-03-01

    A subclass of the Horndeski modified gravity theory we call No Slip Gravity has particularly interesting properties: 1) a speed of gravitational wave propagation equal to the speed of light, 2) equality between the effective gravitational coupling strengths to matter and light, Gmatter and Glight, hence no slip between the metric potentials, yet difference from Newton's constant, and 3) suppressed growth to give better agreement with galaxy clustering observations. We explore the characteristics and implications of this theory, and project observational constraints. We also give a simple expression for the ratio of the gravitational wave standard siren distance to the photon standard candle distance, in this theory and others, and enable a direct comparison of modified gravity in structure growth and in gravitational waves, an important crosscheck.

  19. Stacking by electroinjection with discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Zak K

    2002-08-01

    The work presented here demonstrates that electroinjection can be performed using discontinuous buffers, which can result in better stacking than that obtained by hydrodynamic injection. The sample can be concentrated at the tip of the capillary leaving practically the whole capillary for sample separation. This results in several advantages, such as better sample concentration, higher plate number and shorter time of stacking. However, sample introduction by electromigration is suited for samples free or low in salt content. Samples, which are high in salt content, are better introduced by the hydrodynamic injection for stacking by the discontinuous buffers. Different simple methods to introduce the discontinuity in the buffer for electroinjection are discussed.

  20. Insights into head-column field-amplified sample stacking: Part II. Study of the behavior of the electrophoretic system after electrokinetic injection of cationic compounds across a short water plug

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Thormann, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1512, AUG (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : head- column field-amplified sample stacking * capillary electrophoresis * water plug Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  1. Insights into head-column field-amplified sample stacking: Part II. Study of the behavior of the electrophoretic system after electrokinetic injection of cationic compounds across a short water plug

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Thormann, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1512, AUG (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : head-column field-amplified sample stacking * capillary electrophoresis * water plug Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  2. Injection and accumulation method in the TARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.; Katayama, T.

    1979-03-01

    The test accumulation ring for NUMATRON (TARN) is being constructed at INS, University of Tokyo. The main purpose of the TARN is to establish some techniques related to beam injection and RF stacking, ultrahigh vacuum, and beam monitoring and handling. In this paper, the injection and accumulation methods in the TARN are described. The combination of multiturn injection and RF stacking is applied to the TARN. Heavy ions from the INS sector focusing (SF) cyclotron are injection through a magnetic and an electrostatic inflectors. Two pulse magnets and a bump field excited by square wave current are used for the multiturn injection method. The procedure of the RF stacking is as follows. The beam from the cyclotron is transported to the ring, and is injected by a multiturn method. Then, the RF accelerating voltage is put on, and the beam is captured in the stable region of the RF acceleration. The RF voltage and the frequency are adiabatically changed, and the beam is moved to the stacking orbit. The RF voltage is put off, and the beam remains on the stacking orbit. In the present system, a repetitive stacking scheme is applied for the RF stacking. The momentum spread after the RF stacking is approximately proportional to the stacking number in synchrotron phase space. The stacking number is chosen so that the total aperture required for the combined method may not exceed the available aperture in the ring doughnut. (Kato, T.)

  3. Stacking the Equiangular Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A.; Azabi, Y. O.; Rahman, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an algorithm that adapts the mature Stack and Draw (SaD) methodology for fabricating the exotic Equiangular Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber. (ES-PCF) The principle of Steiner chains and circle packing is exploited to obtain a non-hexagonal design using a stacking procedure based on Hexagonal Close Packing. The optical properties of the proposed structure are promising for SuperContinuum Generation. This approach could make accessible not only the equiangular spiral but also other qua...

  4. Dislocation cross-slip in fcc solid solution alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nöhring, Wolfram Georg; Curtin, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Cross-slip is a fundamental process of screw dislocation motion and plays an important role in the evolution of work hardening and dislocation structuring in metals. Cross-slip has been widely studied in pure FCC metals but rarely in FCC solid solutions. Here, the cross-slip transition path in solid solutions is calculated using atomistic methods for three representative systems of Ni-Al, Cu-Ni and Al-Mg over a range of solute concentrations. Studies using both true random alloys and their corresponding average-alloy counterparts allow for the independent assessment of the roles of (i) fluctuations in the spatial solute distribution in the true random alloy randomness and (ii) average alloy properties such as stacking fault energy. The results show that the solute fluctuations dominate the activation energy barrier, i.e. there are large sample-to-sample variations around the average activation barrier. The variations in activation barrier correlate linearly with the energy difference between the initial and final states. The distribution of this energy difference can be computed analytically in terms of the solute/dislocation interaction energies. Thus, the distribution of cross-slip activation energies can be accurately determined from a parameter-free analytic model. The implications of the statistical distribution of activation energies on the rate of cross-slip in real alloys are then identified.

  5. Dislocation content of geometrically necessary boundaries aligned with slip planes in rolled aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Winther, Grethe

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that dislocation structures in metals with medium-to-high stacking fault energy, depend on the grain orientation and therefore on the slip systems. In the present work, the dislocations in eight slip-plane-aligned geometrically necessary boundaries (GNBs) in three...... expected active dominate. The dislocations predicted inactive are primarily attributed to dislocation reactions in the boundary. Two main types of dislocation networks in the boundaries were identified: (1) a hexagonal network of the three dislocations in the slip plane with which the boundary was aligned......; two of these come from the active slip systems, the third is attributed to dislocation reactions (2) a network of three dislocations from both of the active slip planes; two of these react to form Lomer locks. The results indicate a systematic boundary formation process for the GNBs. Redundant...

  6. Numerical Simulation of Methane Slip in Dual Fuel Marine Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Jaehyun; Jensen, Michael Vincent; Pang, Kar Mun

    2017-01-01

    estimations. The simulations with various gas pipe geometries were conducted. It seemed that the effect of the change in injection direction is more dominant than the change in the gas hole configuration. The favorable injection direction for minimum amount of methane slip was discovered as the direction...... which helps developing the flow of methane far from the exhaust ports. The effects of various valve timing settings were also simulated. The advancement of the exhaust valve closing was more efficient than the retardation of the intake valve opening. A little retardation of the intake valve opening even......The methane slip is the problematic issue for the engines using natural gas(NG). Because methane is more powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) than CO2, understanding of the methane slip during gas exchange process of the engines is essential. In this study, the influence of the gas pipe geometry...

  7. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  8. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  9. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  10. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  11. Slip initiation in alternative and slip-resistant footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Harish; Wade, Chip; Garner, John C; Knight, Adam C

    2017-12-01

    Slips occur as a result of failure of normal locomotion. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of alternative footwear (Crocs™, flip-flops) and an industry standard low-top slip-resistant shoe (SRS) under multiple gait trials (normal dry, unexpected slip, alert slip and expected slip) on lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity. Eighteen healthy male participants (age: 22.28 ± 2.2 years; height: 177.66 ± 6.9 cm; mass: 79.27 ± 7.6 kg) completed the study. Kinematic, kinetic and muscle activity variables were analyzed using a 3(footwear) × 4(gait trials) repeated-measures analysis of variance at p = 0.05. Greater plantar flexion angles, lower ground reaction forces and greater muscle activity were seen on slip trials with the alternative footwear. During slip events, SRS closely resembled normal dry biomechanics, suggesting it to be a safer footwear choice compared with alternative footwear.

  12. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E.K.; Amos, C.B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, Angela S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ∼1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ∼0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ∼6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7–11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ∼7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ∼0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  13. Transformation of fault slip modes in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Vasilii; Alexey, Ostapchuk; Markov, Vadim

    2017-04-01

    Slip mode of crust fault can vary because of many reasons. It's well known that fault structure, material of fault gouge, pore fluid et al. in many ways determines slip modes from creep and slow slip events to mega-earthquakes [1-3]. Therefore, the possibility of fault slip transformation due to external action is urgent question. There is popular and developing approach of fluid injection into central part of fault. The phenomenon of earthquakes induced due to pumping of water was investigated on small and large scales [4, 5]. In this work the laboratory experiments were conducted to study the evolution of the experimental fault slip when changing the properties of the interstitial fluid. The scheme of experiments is the classical slider-model set-up, in which the block under the shear force slips along the interface. In our experiments the plexiglas block 8x8x3 cm3 in size was put on the plexiglas base. The contact of the blocks was filled with a thin layer (about 3 mm thick) of a granular material. The normal load varied from 31 to 156 kPa. The shear load was applied through a spring with stiffness 60 kN/m, and the rate of spring deformation was 20 or 5 mcm/s. Two parameters were recorded during experiments: the shear force acting on the upper block (with an accuracy of 1 N) and its displacement relatively the base (with an accuracy of 0.1 μm). The gouge was composed of quartz sand (97.5%) and clay (2.5%). As a moisturizer were used different fluids with viscosity varying from 1 to 103 mPa x s. Different slip modes were simulated during slider-experiments. In our experiments slip mode is the act of instability manifested in an increase of slip velocity and a drop of shear stress acting on a movable block. The amplitude of a shear stress drop and the peak velocity of the upper block were chosen as the characteristics of the slip mode. In the laboratory experiments, slip events of one type can be achieved either as regularly recurring (regular mode) or as random

  14. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  15. Stabilizing Stick-Slip Friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozza, Rosario; Barel, Itay; Urbakh, Michael; Rubinstein, Shmuel M.; Fineberg, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Even the most regular stick-slip frictional sliding is always stochastic, with irregularity in both the intervals between slip events and the sizes of the associated stress drops. Applying small-amplitude oscillations to the shear force, we show, experimentally and theoretically, that the stick-slip periods synchronize. We further show that this phase locking is related to the inhibition of slow rupture modes which forces a transition to fast rupture, providing a possible mechanism for observed remote triggering of earthquakes. Such manipulation of collective modes may be generally relevant to extended nonlinear systems driven near to criticality.

  16. Slips of the Pun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    ’ at the same time, the second one of which gets told as a result of a simple slip of a pun. If one story of the poem is the poet-speaker’s hermeneutic quest for the possible meaningfulness of a past love affair, the other – somewhat less conspicuously – introduces his attempt to remember and recover the bodily...... matter in the end. At any rate, the reader is left wondering how literally he ought to take the poet-speaker’s punning prediction that he and his lover “’ll/Stay in touch”. And what about the reader’s own attempt to ‘make sense’ of Ashbery’s puns? To which extent does he or she become engaged in a sexual...... relationship with them if one extends Ashbery’s playing with word to what goes one in the reader’s interpretive act? Ashbery’s friend and fellow poet Kenneth Koch once said of the former’s poetry that “it wants to go to bed with you”....

  17. OpenStack cloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Locati, Fabio Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack administrator or developer, or wish to build solutions to protect your OpenStack environment, then this book is for you. Experience of Linux administration and familiarity with different OpenStack components is assumed.

  18. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  19. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  20. The relation between ductility and stacking fault energies in Mg and Mg–Y alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandlöbes, S.; Friák, M.; Zaefferer, S.; Dick, A.; Yi, S.; Letzig, D.; Pei, Z.; Zhu, L.-F.; Neugebauer, J.; Raabe, D.

    2012-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the improved room-temperature ductility in Mg–Y alloys compared to pure Mg are investigated by transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory. Both methods show a significant decrease in the intrinsic stacking fault I 1 energy (I 1 SFE) with the addition of Y. The influence of the SFE on the relative activation of different competing deformation mechanisms (basal, prismatic, pyramidal slip) is discussed. From this analysis we suggest a key mechanism which explains the transition from primary basal slip in hexagonal close-packed Mg to basal plus pyramidal slip in solid solution Mg–Y alloys. This mechanism is characterized by enhanced nucleation of 〈c + a〉 dislocations where the intrinsic stacking fault I 1 (ISF 1 ) acts as heterogeneous source for 〈c + a〉 dislocations. Possible electronic and geometric reasons for the modification of the SFE by substitutional Y atoms are identified and discussed.

  1. Five stacks over the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Following the departure of Communism, Hungary adopted the most ambitious privatisation programme of all the eastern European countries. Within a year the state electricity company, MVM, and the oil and gas company, MOL, were prepared for sale and a consequent injection of foreign capital. Control of prices by central government inhibited investment initially but a new legal framework put in place in 1995 introduced a pricing regime more attractive to external investors. Particular interest was shown in the 2,200MW mixed heavy oil and natural gas power plant at Dunamenti on the Danube, characterised by its five stacks of varying height which reflect the changing technology employed at the plant. The bid was won by Tractabel of Belgium who have been highly successful in improving plant efficiency. However, the impact of privatisation is now being felt in uncertainty over fuel supply. Removing such uncertainty in order to maintain existing investment and provide the additional 4000MW of generating capacity needed to keep pace with demand, is a major problem which the incoming government faces. (UK)

  2. MEAN STACK WEB DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thanh, Nghi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to provide a universal website using JavaScript as the main programming language. It also shows the basic parts anyone need to create a web application. The thesis creates a simple CMS using MEAN stack. MEAN is a collection of JavaScript based technologies used to develop web application. It is an acronym for MongoDB, Express, AngularJS and Node.js. It also allows non-technical users to easily update and manage a website’s content. But the application also lets o...

  3. Die-stacking architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) chip architectures, with their intrinsic capability of reducing the wire length, promise attractive solutions to reduce the delay of interconnects in future microprocessors. 3D memory stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth for future chip-multiprocessor design, mitigating the ""memory wall"" problem. In addition, heterogenous integration enabled by 3D technology can also result in innovative designs for future microprocessors. This book first provides a brief introduction to this emerging technology, and then presents a variety of approaches to design

  4. Slip of Spreading Viscoplastic Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaal, Maziyar; Balmforth, Neil J; Stoeber, Boris

    2015-11-10

    The spreading of axisymmetric viscoplastic droplets extruded slowly on glass surfaces is studied experimentally using shadowgraphy and swept-field confocal microscopy. The microscopy furnishes vertical profiles of the radial velocity using particle image velocimetry (PIV) with neutrally buoyant tracers seeded in the fluid. Experiments were conducted for two complex fluids: aqueous solutions of Carbopol and xanthan gum. On untreated glass surfaces, PIV demonstrates that both fluids experience a significant amount of effective slip. The experiments were repeated on glass that had been treated to feature positive surface charges, thereby promoting adhesion between the negatively charged polymeric constituents of the fluids and the glass surface. The Carbopol and xanthan gum droplets spread more slowly on the treated surface and to a smaller radial distance. PIV demonstrated that this reduced spreading was associated with a substantial reduction in slip. For Carbopol, the effective slip could be eliminated entirely to within the precision of the PIV measurements; the reduction in slip was less effective for xanthan gum, with a weak slip velocity remaining noticeable.

  5. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  6. Potential for visible plume formation at a coal-fired boiler using ammonia injection for non-catalytic NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, T.

    1993-01-01

    Circulating fluidized bed boilers utilizing ammonia injection for non-catalytic NO x reduction have been highly successful in reducing NO x emissions to very low levels. However, one limitation on this technology is the potential for the formation of visible plumes. One plant, with uncontrolled NO x of about 190 ppm, reduces NO x concentrations to the 20-25 ppm range by injecting ammonia in the boiler's cyclones. However, infrequent, short-lived, white, detached plumes have been noted extending for short distances downwind of the stack. Because unreacted ammonia is present in the flue gas along with HCl from coal combustion, the formation of solid NH 4 Cl in the atmosphere was suspected to be the most likely cause of the visible plume. Simple thermodynamic calculations predict the formation of solid ammonium chloride very soon after the flue gas mixes with cooler ambient air and plume optical density calculations are in reasonable agreement with observed plume density. Stack testing and other tests have been conducted during both plume and non-plume events to confirm that NH 4 Cl formation is the most likely cause of the capacity. As presented in this paper, the test data and theoretical calculations indicate that a visible plume may be expected when as little as 5 ppm of ammonia and HCl are present in the flue gas, depending on observation conditions. Analyses of fuel samples taken during stack tests show about 40% of the chlorine in the low chloride coal fired, typically less than 0.04%, is released from the stack as HCl. Ammonia slip is somewhat variable depending on combustion conditions in the boiler and the temperature at the ammonia injection points

  7. Effective slip lengths for flows over surfaces with nanobubbles: the effects of finite slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendy, S C; Lund, N J

    2009-01-01

    We consider effective slip lengths for flows of simple liquids over surfaces contaminated by gaseous nanobubbles. In particular, we examine whether the effects of finite slip over the liquid-bubble interface are important in limiting effective slip lengths over such surfaces. Using an expression that interpolates between the perfect slip and finite slip regimes for flow over bubbles, we conclude that for the bubble dimensions and coverages typically reported in the literature the effects of finite slip are secondary, reducing effective slip lengths by only 10%. Further, we find that nanobubbles do not significantly increase slip lengths beyond those reported for bare hydrophobic surfaces.

  8. Slip flow in graphene nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . Kannam, Sridhar; Billy, Todd; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamic boundary condition for simple nanofluidic systems such as argon and methane flowing in graphene nanochannels using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (EMD) in conjunction with our recently proposed method [J. S. Hansen, B. D. Todd, and P. J. Daivis, Phys. Rev....... E 84, 016313 (2011)10.1103/PhysRevE.84.016313]. We first calculate the fluid-graphene interfacial friction coefficient, from which we can predict the slip length and the average velocity of the first fluid layer close to the wall (referred to as the slip velocity). Using direct nonequilibrium...

  9. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  10. Slip rate and tremor genesis in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wech, Aaron G.; Bartlow, Noel M.

    2014-01-01

    At many plate boundaries, conditions in the transition zone between seismogenic and stable slip produce slow earthquakes. In the Cascadia subduction zone, these events are consistently observed as slow, aseismic slip on the plate interface accompanied by persistent tectonic tremor. However, not all slow slip at other plate boundaries coincides spatially and temporally with tremor, leaving the physics of tremor genesis poorly understood. Here we analyze seismic, geodetic, and strainmeter data in Cascadia to observe for the first time a large, tremor-generating slow earthquake change from tremor-genic to silent and back again. The tremor falls silent at reduced slip speeds when the migrating slip front pauses as it loads the stronger adjacent fault segment to failure. The finding suggests that rheology and slip-speed-regulated stressing rate control tremor genesis, and the same section of fault can slip both with and without detectable tremor, limiting tremor's use as a proxy for slip.

  11. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  12. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  13. Resolving the Detailed Spatiotemporal Slip Evolution of Deep Tremor in Western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kazuaki; Ide, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    We study the detailed spatiotemporal behavior of deep tremor in western Japan through the development and application of a new slip inversion method. Although many studies now recognize tremor as shear slip along the plate interface manifested in low-frequency earthquake (LFE) swarms, a conventional slip inversion analysis is not available for tremor due to insufficient knowledge of source locations and Green's functions. Here we introduce synthetic template waveforms, which are typical tremor waveforms obtained by stacking LFE seismograms at arranged points along the plate interface. Using these synthetic template waveforms as substitutes for Green's functions, we invert the continuous tremor waveforms using an iterative deconvolution approach with Bayesian constraints. We apply this method to two tremor burst episodes in western and central Shikoku, Japan. The estimated slip distribution from a 12 day tremor burst episode in western Shikoku is heterogeneous, with several patchy areas of slip along the plate interface where rapid moment releases with durations of tremor burst episode that occurred coincidentally with a very low frequency earthquake (VLF), we observe that the source size of the VLF is much larger than that estimated from tremor activity in western Shikoku. These differences in the size of the slip region may dictate the visibility of VLF signals in observed seismograms, which has implications for the mechanics of slow earthquakes and subduction zone processes.

  14. Slip activity of persistent slip bands in polycrystalline nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, A.; Beyer, R.; Blochwitz, C.; Holste, C.; Schwab, A.; Tirschler, W.

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of glide localizations after cyclic deformation in the saturation stage was investigated for polycrystalline nickel. It was shown that persistent slip bands (PSBs) are formed in a wide range of grain orientations. Concerning the grain size it was found, that the probability for the appearance of PSBs is higher for larger grains. The local slip activity of the formed PSBs was studied after half-cycle deformation using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fraction of grains with glide-active PSBs and the glide-active PSB volume itself is very small after the half-cycle loading. The obtained local shear strain amplitudes are quite high and vary in the range of 0.2-5%. They are comparable with those found in nickel single crystals at the same loading procedure

  15. Simulations Of Transverse Stacking In The NSLS-II Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliller, R. III; Shaftan, T.

    2011-01-01

    The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The linac needs to deliver 15 nC in 80 - 150 bunches to the booster every minute to achieve current stability goals in the storage ring. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. We have developed a scheme to transversely stack two bunch trains in the NSLS-II booster in order to alleviate the charge requirements on the linac. This scheme has been outlined previously. In this paper we show particle tracking simulations of the tracking scheme. We show simulations of the booster ramp with a stacked beam for a variety of lattice errors and injected beam parameters. In all cases the performance of the proposed stacking method is sufficient to reduce the required charge from the linac. For this reason the injection system of the NSLS-II booster is being designed to include this feature. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The injectors must provide 7.5nC in bunch trains 80-150 bunches long every minute for top off operation of the storage ring. Top off then requires that the linac deliver 15nC of charge once losses in the injector chain are taken into consideration. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. For this reason we have developed a method to transversely stack two bunch trains in the booster while maintaining the charge transport efficiency. This stacking scheme has been discussed previously. In this paper we show the simulations of the booster ramp with a single bunch train in the booster. Then we give a brief overview of the stacking scheme. Following, we show the results of stacking two bunch trains in the booster with varying beam emittances and train separations. The behavior of the beam through the ramp is examined showing that it is possible to stack two bunch trains in the booster.

  16. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  17. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  18. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  19. Stacking and discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Z K

    2000-08-01

    Discontinuous buffers for capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) can be used under less rigid conditions compared to those for isotachophoresis for stacking. They can be prepared simply by modifying the sample itself, either by addition of small inorganic ions, low conductivity diluents, or both, and also by adjusting its pH, meanwhile injecting a large volume on the capillary. Zwitterionic and organic-based buffers such as triethanolamine and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) are well suited for stacking due to their low conductivity, provided the buffer is discontinuous as demonstrated here. A simple mechanism based on discontinuous buffers is described to explain many of the observed stacking types in CZE, pointing out the many similarities to transient isotachophoresis.

  20. Calculations of intersection cross-slip activation energies in fcc metals using nudged elastic band method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.I.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; El-Awady, J.; Woodward, C.; Uchic, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    The nudged elastic band (NEB) method is used to evaluate activation energies for dislocation intersection cross-slip in face-centered cubic (fcc) nickel and copper, to extend our prior work which used an approximate method. In this work we also extend the study by including Hirth locks (HL) in addition to Lomer-Cottrell locks and glide locks (GL). Using atomistic (molecular statics) simulations with embedded atom potentials we evaluated the activation barrier for a dislocation to transform from fully residing on the glide plane to fully residing on the cross-slip plane when intersecting a 120 o forest dislocation in both Ni and Cu. The initial separation between the screw and the intersecting dislocation on the (1 1 1) glide plane is varied to find a minimum in the activation energy. The NEB method gives energies that are ∼10% lower than those reported in our prior work. It is estimated that the activation energies for cross-slip from the fully glide plane state to the partially cross-slipped state at the 120 o intersection forming GL in Ni and Cu are ∼0.47 and ∼0.65 eV, respectively, and from the fully cross-slip plane state to the partially cross-slipped state forming LC are ∼0.68 and ∼0.67 eV. The activation energies for cross-slip from the fully glide plane state to the partially cross-slipped state at the 120 o intersection forming HL in Ni and Cu are estimated to be ∼0.09 and ∼0.31 eV, respectively. These values are a factor of 3-20 lower than the activation energy for bulk cross-slip in Ni and, a factor of 2-6 lower than the activation energy for cross-slip in Cu estimated by Friedel-Escaig analysis. These results suggest that cross-slip should nucleate preferentially at selected screw dislocation intersections in fcc materials and the activation energies for such mechanisms are also a function of stacking fault energy.

  1. Slip Potential of Faults in the Fort Worth Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, P.; Osmond, J.; Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Similar to other areas of the southcentral United States, the Fort Worth Basin of NE Texas has experienced an increase in the rate of seismicity which has been attributed to injection of waste water in deep saline aquifers. To assess the hazard of induced seismicity in the basin we have integrated new data on location and character of previously known and unknown faults, stress state, and pore pressure to produce an assessment of fault slip potential which can be used to investigate prior and ongoing earthquake sequences and for development of mitigation strategies. We have assembled data on faults in the basin from published sources, 2D and 3D seismic data, and interpretations provided from petroleum operators to yield a 3D fault model with 292 faults ranging in strike-length from 116 to 0.4 km. The faults have mostly normal geometries, all cut the disposal intervals, and most are presumed to cut into the underlying crystalline and metamorphic basement. Analysis of outcrops along the SW flank of the basin assist with geometric characterization of the fault systems. The interpretation of stress state comes from integration of wellbore image and sonic data, reservoir stimulation data, and earthquake focal mechanisms. The orientation of SHmax is generally uniform across the basin but stress style changes from being more strike-slip in the NE part of the basin to normal faulting in the SW part. Estimates of pore pressure come from a basin-scale hydrogeologic model as history-matched to injection test data. With these deterministic inputs and appropriate ranges of uncertainty we assess the conditional probability that faults in our 3D model might slip via Mohr-Coulomb reactivation in response to increases in injected-related pore pressure. A key component of the analysis is constraining the uncertainties associated with each of the principal parameters. Many of the faults in the model are interpreted to be critically-stressed within reasonable ranges of uncertainty.

  2. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour. (paper)

  3. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour.

  4. Mechanism and energetics of dislocation cross-slip in hcp metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-10-01

    Hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals such as Mg, Ti, and Zr are lightweight and/or durable metals with critical structural applications in the automotive (Mg), aerospace (Ti), and nuclear (Zr) industries. The hcp structure, however, brings significant complications in the mechanisms of plastic deformation, strengthening, and ductility, and these complications pose significant challenges in advancing the science and engineering of these metals. In hcp metals, generalized plasticity requires the activation of slip on pyramidal planes, but the structure, motion, and cross-slip of the associated dislocations are not well established even though they determine ductility and influence strengthening. Here, atomistic simulations in Mg reveal the unusual mechanism of dislocation cross-slip between pyramidal I and II planes, which occurs by cross-slip of the individual partial dislocations. The energy barrier is controlled by a fundamental step/jog energy and the near-core energy difference between pyramidal dislocations. The near-core energy difference can be changed by nonglide stresses, leading to tension-compression asymmetry and even a switch in absolute stability from one glide plane to the other, both features observed experimentally in Mg, Ti, and their alloys. The unique cross-slip mechanism is governed by common features of the generalized stacking fault energy surfaces of hcp pyramidal planes and is thus expected to be generic to all hcp metals. An analytical model is developed to predict the cross-slip barrier as a function of the near-core energy difference and applied stresses and quantifies the controlling features of cross-slip and pyramidal I/II stability across the family of hcp metals.

  5. Testing the sampling efficiency of a nuclear power station stack monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L.H. [Instrumentinvest, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The test method comprises the injection of known amounts of monodisperse particles in the stack air stream, at a suitable point upstream of the sampling installation. To find a suitable injection polls, the gas flow was mapped by means of a tracer gas, released in various points in the stack base. The resulting concentration distributions at the stack sampler level were observed by means of an array of gas detectors. An injection point that produced symmetrical distribution over the stack area, and low concentrations at the stack walls was selected for the particle tests. Monodisperse particles of 6, 10, and 19 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter, tagged with dysprosium, were dispersed in the selected injection point. Particle concentration at the sampler level was measured. The losses to the stack walls were found to be less than 10 %. The particle concentrations at the four sampler inlets were calculated from the observed gas distribution. The amount calculated to be aspirated into the sampler piping was compared with the quantity collected by the sampling train ordinary filter, to obtain the sampling line transmission efficiency. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  6. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Koetz, R; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  7. Time-predictable Stack Caching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar

    completely. Thus, in systems with hard deadlines the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the real-time software running on them needs to be bounded. Modern architectures use features such as pipelining and caches for improving the average performance. These features, however, make the WCET analysis more...... addresses, provides an opportunity to predict and tighten the WCET of accesses to data in caches. In this thesis, we introduce the time-predictable stack cache design and implementation within a time-predictable processor. We introduce several optimizations to our design for tightening the WCET while...... keeping the timepredictability of the design intact. Moreover, we provide a solution for reducing the cost of context switching in a system using the stack cache. In design of these caches, we use custom hardware and compiler support for delivering time-predictable stack data accesses. Furthermore...

  8. Slipping on pedestrian surfaces: methods for measuring and evaluating the slip resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Christoph; Windhövel, Ulrich; Mewes, Detlef; Ceylan, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Tripping, slipping and falling accidents are among the types of accident with a high incidence. This article describes the requirements concerning slip resistance, as well as the state of the art of slip resistance measurement standards in the European Community and the USA. The article also describes how risk assessment can be performed in the field.

  9. Structure and stacking faults in layered Mg-Zn-Y alloys: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Aditi; Waghmare, U.V.; Ramamurty, U.

    2008-01-01

    We use first-principles density functional theory total energy calculations based on pseudo-potentials and plane-wave basis to assess stability of the periodic structures with different stacking sequences in Mg-Zn-Y alloys. For pure Mg, we find that the 6-layer (6l) structure with the ABACAB stacking is most stable after the lowest energy hcp (2l) structure with ABAB stacking. Addition of 2 at.% Y leads to stabilization of the structure to 6l sequence whereas the addition of 2 at.% Zn makes the 6l energetically comparable to that of the hcp. Stacking fault (SF) on the basal plane of 6l structure is higher in energy than that of the hcp 2l Mg, which further increases upon Y doping and decreases significantly with Zn doping. SF energy surface for the prismatic slip indicates activation of non-basal slip in alloys with a 6l structure. Charge density analysis shows that the 2l and 6l structures are electronically similar which might be a cause for better stability of 6l structure over a 4l sequence or other periodic structures. Thus, in an Mg-Zn-Y alloy, Y stabilizes the long periodicity, while its mechanical properties are further improved due to Zn doping

  10. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  11. Automated identification and modeling aseismic slip events on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, E. K.; Segall, P.; Miklius, A.

    2006-12-01

    Several aseismic slip events have been observed on the south flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (Cervelli et al., Nature, 2002; Brooks et al., EPSL, 2006; Segall et al., Nature, 2006). These events are identified as spatially coherent offsets in GPS time series. We have interpreted the events as slip on a sub-horizontal surface at depths consistent with a decollement under Kilauea's south flank. In order to determine whether smaller slow slip events are present in the time series, we developed an algorithm that searches for coherent displacement patterns similar to the known slow slip events. We compute candidate displacements by taking a running difference of the mean position 6 days before and after a window of 6 days centered on the candidate time step. The candidate displacements are placed in a 3N dimensional data vector, where N is the number of stations. We then compute the angle, in the 3N dimensional data space, between the candidate displacement and a reference vector at each time step. The reference vector is a stack of displacements due to the four largest known slow slip events. Small angles indicate similar displacement patterns, regardless of amplitude. The algorithm strongly identifies four events (September 20, 1998, November 9, 2000, December 16, 2002, and January 26, 2005), each separated by approximately 2.11 years. The algorithm also identified one smaller event (March 3, 1998) that preceeded the September 1998 event by ~ 200 days, and another event (July 4, 2003) that followed the December 2002 event by ~ 200 days. These smaller, 'paired' events appear to alternate rupturing of the eastern and western parts of the south flank. Each of the slow slip events is correlated with an increase, sometimes slight, in microseismicity on the south flank of Kilauea. The temporal evolution of the microseismicity for the 2005 event is well explained by increased stress due to the slow slip (Segall et al., Nature, 2006). The microearthquakes, at depths of 6

  12. Slip behaviour of experimental faults subjected to fluid pressure stimulation: carbonates vs. shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collettini, C.; Scuderi, M. M.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid overpressure is one of the primary mechanisms for triggering tectonic fault slip and human-induced seismicity. This mechanism has been invoked to explain the dramatic increase in seismicity associated with waste water disposal in intra-plate setting, and it is appealing because fluids lubricate the fault and reduce the effective normal stress that holds the fault in place. Although, this basic physical mechanism is well understood, several fundamental questions remain including the apparent delay between fluid injection and seismicity, the role of fault zone rheology, and the relationship between injection volume and earthquake size. Moreover, models of earthquake nucleation predict that a reduction in normal stress, as expected for fluid overpressure, should stabilize fault slip. Here, we address these questions using laboratory experiments, conducted in the double direct shear configuration in a true-triaxial machine on carbonates and shale fault gouges. In particular, we: 1) evaluate frictional strength and permeability, 2) characterize the rate- and state- friction parameters and 3) study fault slip evolution during fluid pressure stimulations. With increasing fluid pressure, when shear and effective normal stresses reach the failure condition, in calcite gouges, characterized by slightly velocity strengthening behaviour, we observe an acceleration of slip that spontaneously evolves into dynamic failure. For shale gouges, with a strong rate-strengthening behaviour, we document complex fault slip behavior characterized by periodic accelerations and decelerations with slip velocity that remains slow (i.e. v 200 µm/s), never approaching dynamic slip rates. Our data indicate that fault rheology and fault stability is controlled by the coupling between fluid pressure and rate- and state- friction parameters suggesting that their comprehensive characterization is fundamental for assessing the role of fluid pressure in natural and human induced earthquakes.

  13. The role of water in slip casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccauley, R. A.; Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. Slip casting rate and viscosity are functions of temperature. Slip rheology and response to deflocculating agents varies significantly as the kinds and amounts of colloid modifiers change. Water is considered as a raw material. Various concepts of water/clay interactions and structures are discussed. Casting is a de-watering operation in which water moves from slip to cast to mold in response to a potential energy termed moisture stress. Drying is an evaporative process from a free water surface.

  14. Stack semantics of type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...

  15. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  16. V-stack piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, Emil V.; Clark, Robert L.

    2001-07-01

    Aeroelastic control of wings by means of a distributed, trailing-edge control surface is of interest with regards to maneuvers, gust alleviation, and flutter suppression. The use of high energy density, piezoelectric materials as motors provides an appealing solution to this problem. A comparative analysis of the state of the art actuators is currently being conducted. A new piezoelectric actuator design is presented. This actuator meets the requirements for trailing edge flap actuation in both stroke and force. It is compact, simple, sturdy, and leverages stroke geometrically with minimum force penalties while displaying linearity over a wide range of stroke. The V-Stack Piezoelectric Actuator, consists of a base, a lever, two piezoelectric stacks, and a pre-tensioning element. The work is performed alternately by the two stacks, placed on both sides of the lever. Pre-tensioning can be readily applied using a torque wrench, obviating the need for elastic elements and this is for the benefit of the stiffness of the actuator. The characteristics of the actuator are easily modified by changing the base or the stacks. A prototype was constructed and tested experimentally to validate the theoretical model.

  17. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  18. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  19. Interchange Slip-Running Reconnection and Sweeping SEP-Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Pariat, E.; Klein, K.-L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model to explain how particles, accelerated at a reconnection site that is not magnetically connected to the Earth, could eventually propagate along the well-connected open flux tube. Our model is based on the results of a low-beta resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a three-dimensional line-tied and initially current-free bipole, that is embedded in a non-uniform open potential field. The topology of this configuration is that of an asymmetric coronal null-point, with a closed fan surface and an open outer spine. When driven by slow photospheric shearing motions, field lines, initially fully anchored below the fan dome, reconnect at the null point, and jump to the open magnetic domain. This is the standard interchange mode as sketched and calculated in 2D. The key result in 3D is that, reconnected open field lines located in the vicinity of the outer spine, keep reconnecting continuously, across an open quasi-separatrix layer, as previously identified for non-open-null-point reconnection. The apparent slipping motion of these field lines leads to form an extended narrow magnetic flux tube at high altitude. Because of the slip-running reconnection, we conjecture that if energetic particles would be travelling through, or be accelerated inside, the diffusion region, they would be successively injected along continuously reconnecting field lines that are connected farther and farther from the spine. At the scale of the full Sun, owing to the super-radial expansion of field lines below 3 solar radius, such energetic particles could easily be injected in field lines slipping over significant distances, and could eventually reach the distant flux tube that is well-connected to the Earth.

  20. Electro-optical hybrid slip ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, En

    2005-11-01

    The slip ring is a rotary electrical interface, collector, swivel or rotary joint. It is a physical system that can perform continuous data transfer and data exchange between a stationary and a rotating structure. A slip ring is generally used to transfer data or power from an unrestrained, continuously rotating electro-mechanical system in real-time, thereby simplifying operations and eliminating damage-prone wires dangling from moving joints. Slip rings are widely used for testing, evaluating, developing and improving various technical equipment and facilities with rotating parts. They are widely used in industry, especially in manufacturing industries employing turbo machinery, as in aviation, shipbuilding, aerospace, defense, and in precise facilities having rotating parts such as medical Computerized Tomography (CT) and MRI scanners and so forth. Therefore, any improvement in slip ring technology can impact large markets. Research and development in this field will have broad prospects long into the future. The goal in developing the current slip ring technology is to improve and increase the reliability, stability, anti-interference, and high data fidelity between rotating and stationary structures. Up to now, there have been numerous approaches used for signal and data transfer utilizing a slip ring such as metal contacts, wires, radio transmission, and even liquid media. However, all suffer from drawbacks such as data transfer speed limitations, reliability, stability, electro-magnetic interference and durability. The purpose of the current research is to break through these basic limitations using an optical solution, thereby improving performance in current slip ring applications. This dissertation introduces a novel Electro-Optical Hybrid Slip Ring technology, which makes "through the air" digital-optical communication between stationary and rotating systems a reality with high data transfer speed, better reliability and low interference susceptibility

  1. Slip Zone versus Damage Zone Micromechanics, Arima-Takasuki Tectonic Line, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. C.; Lin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Arima-Takasuki Tectonic Line (ATTL) of southern Honshu, Japan is defined by historically active faults and multiple splays producing M7 earthquakes. The damage zone of the ATTL comprises a broad zone of crushed, comminuted and pulverized granite/rhyolite1,2containing cm-scale slip zones and highly comminuted injection veins. In this presentation, prior work on the ATTL fault rocks is extending to include microstructural characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) from recent trenching of the primary slip zone, as well as secondary slip zones. This is necessary to adequately characterize the extremely fine-grained material (typically less than 1mm) in both damage and core zones. Damage zone material exhibits generally random textures3 whereas slip zones are macroscopically foliated, and compositionally layered, notwithstanding a fairly homogeneous protolith. The latter reflects fluid-rock interaction during both coseismic and interseismic periods. The slip zones are microstructurally heterogeneous at all scales, comprising not only cataclasites and phyllosilicate (clay)-rich gouge zones, but Fe/Mn pellets or clasts that are contained within gouge. These structures appear to have rolled and would suggest rapid recrystallization and/or growth. A central question related to earthquake recurrence along existing faults is the nature of the gouge. In both near-surface exposures and ongoing drilling at depth, "plastic" or "viscous" gouge zones comprise ultra-fine-grained clay-siliciclastic particles that would not necessarily respond in a simple frictional manner. Depending on whether the plastic nature of these slip zones develops during or after slip, subsequent focusing of slip within them could be complicated. 1 Mitchell, T.A., Ben-Zion, Y., Shimamoto, T., 2011. Ear. Planet. Sci. Lett. 308, 284-297. 2 Lin, A., Yamashita, K, Tanaka, M. J., 2013. Struc. Geol. 48, 3-13. 3 White, J.C., Lin, A. 2016. Proc. AGU Fall Mtg., T42-02 San Francisco.

  2. Nb/NiCu bilayers in single and stacked superconductive tunnel junctions: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, G.P.; Ruotolo, A.; Parlato, L.; Peluso, G.; Ausanio, G.; Carapella, G.; Latempa, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present preliminary experimental results concerning both single and stacked tunnel junctions in which one of the electrodes was formed by a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) bi-layer. In particular, in the stacked configuration a Nb/NiCu bi-layer was used as the intermediate electrode, and it was probed by tunneling on both sides. Tunnel junctions have been characterized in terms of current-voltage characteristics (IVC), and differential conductance. Preliminary steady-state injection-detection measurements performed in the stacked devices at T=4.2 K are also presented and discussed

  3. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  4. Design and Experimental Research of a Novel Stick-Slip Type Piezoelectric Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A linear piezoelectric actuator based on the stick-slip principle is presented and tested in this paper. With the help of changeable vertical preload force flexure hinge, the designed linear actuator can achieve both large travel stick-slip motion and high-resolution stepping displacement. The developed actuator mainly consists of a bridge-type flexure hinge mechanism, a compound parallelogram flexure hinge mechanism, and two piezoelectric stacks. The mechanical structure and motion principle of the linear actuator were illustrated, and the finite element method (FEM is adopted. An optimal parametric study of the flexure hinge is performed by a finite element analysis-based response surface methodology. In order to investigate the actuator’s working performance, a prototype was manufactured and a series of experiments were carried out. The results indicate that the maximum motion speed is about 3.27 mm/s and the minimum stepping displacement is 0.29 μm. Finally, a vibration test was carried out to obtain the first natural frequency of the actuator, and an in situ observation was conducted to investigate actuator’s stick-slip working condition. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the proposed actuator, and the motion speed and displacement are both improved compared with the traditional stick-slip motion actuator.

  5. Seismic slip on clay nano-foliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretusini, S.; Pluemper, O.; Passelègue, F. X.; Spagnuolo, E.; Di Toro, G.

    2017-12-01

    Deformation processes active at seismic slip rates (ca. 1 m/s) on smectite-rich slipping zones are not well understood, although they likely control the mechanical behaviour of: i) subduction zone faults affected by tsunamigenic earthquakes (e.g. Japan Trench affected by Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake), ii) plate-boundary faults (e.g. San Andreas Fault), and iii) landslide decollements (e.g. 1963 Vajont landslide). Here we present a set of rotary experiments performed on water-dampened 2 mm thick clay-rich (70% wt. smectite and 30% wt. opal) gouge layers sheared at slip rates V ranging from 0.01 to 1.3 m/s, for 3 m of displacement under 5 MPa normal stress. Microstructural analyses were conducted on pre- and post-sheared gouges using focused ion beam scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. All sheared gouges were slip weakening in the first 0.1 m of displacement, with friction coefficient decreasing from 0.3-0.45 to 0.5-0.15. Then, with progressive slip, gouges evolved to slip-strengthening (final friction coefficient of 0.35-0.48) at V ≤0.1 m/s and slip-neutral (final friction of 0.05) at V=1.3 m/s. Despite the large difference in the imposed slip rate and frictional behaviour, the slipping zone always consisted of a nano-foliation defined by sub-micrometric smectite crystals wrapping opal grains. The nano-foliated layer thickness decreased from 1.5 mm at V≤0.1 m/s to 0.15 mm at V=1.3 m/s. The presence of a similar nano-foliation in all the smectite-rich wet gouges suggests the activation of similar deformation processes, dominated by frictional slip on grain boundary and basal planes. The variation of deformed thickness with slip rate shows that dynamic weakening, occurring only at seismic slip rates, is controlled by strain localization.

  6. Helping Students Design HyperCard Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to teach students to design HyperCard stacks. Highlights include introducing HyperCard, developing storyboards, introducing design concepts and scripts, presenting stacks, evaluating storyboards, and continuing projects. A sidebar presents a HyperCard stack evaluation form. (AEF)

  7. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  8. Docker on OpenStack

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Nitin; Moreira, Belmiro

    2014-01-01

    Project Specification CERN is establishing a large scale private cloud based on OpenStack as part of the expansion of the computing infrastructure for storing the data coming out of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. As the data coming out of the detectors is increasing continuously that needs to be stored in the data center, we need more physical resources (more money) and since Virtual machines takes lot of CPU and memory overhead and minutes for creating the images, booting u...

  9. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Bruyere, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative 'all modes' failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  10. Measurement and characterization of slippage and slip-law using a rigorous analysis in dynamics of oscillating rheometer: Newtonian fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azese, Martin Ndi

    2018-02-01

    This article presents a rigorous calculation involving velocity slip of Newtonian fluid where we analyze and solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equation with emphasis on its rheological implication. The goal of which is to model a simple yet effective non-invasive way of quantifying and characterizing slippage. Indeed this contrasts with previous techniques that exhibit inherent limitations whereby injecting foreign objects usually alter the flow. This problem is built on the Couette rheological flow system such that μ-Newton force and μ-stress are captured and processed to obtain wall slip. Our model leads to a linear partial differential equation and upon enforcing linear-Navier slip boundary conditions (BC) yields inhomogeneous and unsteady "Robin-type" BC. A dimensional analysis reveals salient dimensionless parameters: Roshko, Strouhal, and Reynolds while highlighting slip-numbers from BC. We also solve the slip-free case to corroborate and validate our results. Several graphs are generated showing slip effects, particularly, studying how slip-numbers, a key input, differentiate themselves to the outputs. We also confirm this in a graphical fashion by presenting the flow profile across channel width, velocity, and stress at both walls. A perturbation scheme is introduced to calculate long-time behavior when the system seats for long. More importantly, in the end, we justify the existence of a reverse mechanism, where an inverse transformation like Fourier transform uses the output data to retrieve slip-numbers and slip law, thus quantifying and characterizing slip. Therefore, we not only substantiate our analysis, but we also justify our claim, measurement and characterization, and theorize realizability of our proposition.

  11. Slip-mediated dewetting of polymer microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Joshua D.; Chan, Tak Shing; Maurer, Simon; Salez, Thomas; Benzaquen, Michael; Raphaël, Elie; Brinkmann, Martin; Jacobs, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Classical hydrodynamic models predict that infinite work is required to move a three-phase contact line, defined here as the line where a liquid/vapor interface intersects a solid surface. Assuming a slip boundary condition, in which the liquid slides against the solid, such an unphysical prediction is avoided. In this article, we present the results of experiments in which a contact line moves and where slip is a dominating and controllable factor. Spherical cap-shaped polystyrene microdroplets, with nonequilibrium contact angle, are placed on solid self-assembled monolayer coatings from which they dewet. The relaxation is monitored using in situ atomic force microscopy. We find that slip has a strong influence on the droplet evolutions, both on the transient nonspherical shapes and contact line dynamics. The observations are in agreement with scaling analysis and boundary element numerical integration of the governing Stokes equations, including a Navier slip boundary condition. PMID:26787903

  12. Nonequilibrium Chromosome Looping via Molecular Slip Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackley, C. A.; Johnson, J.; Michieletto, D.; Morozov, A. N.; Nicodemi, M.; Cook, P. R.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a model for the formation of chromatin loops based on the diffusive sliding of molecular slip links. These mimic the behavior of molecules like cohesin, which, along with the CTCF protein, stabilize loops which contribute to organizing the genome. By combining 3D Brownian dynamics simulations and 1D exactly solvable nonequilibrium models, we show that diffusive sliding is sufficient to account for the strong bias in favor of convergent CTCF-mediated chromosome loops observed experimentally. We also find that the diffusive motion of multiple slip links along chromatin is rectified by an intriguing ratchet effect that arises if slip links bind to the chromatin at a preferred "loading site." This emergent collective behavior favors the extrusion of loops which are much larger than the ones formed by single slip links.

  13. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation....... An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...

  15. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  16. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  18. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  19. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  20. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  2. Analytical approximations for stick-slip vibration amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Fidlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    , the amplitudes, and the base frequencies of friction-induced stick¿slip and pure-slip oscillations. For stick¿slip oscillations, this is accomplished by using perturbation analysis for the finite time interval of the stick phase, which is linked to the subsequent slip phase through conditions of continuity...

  3. Seismic Slip on an Oblique Detachment Fault at Low Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecke, S. U.; Steely, A. N.; Evans, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes are one of the few accepted indicators of seismic slip along ancient faults. Low-angle normal faults have produced few large earthquakes in historic times and low-angle normal faults (detachment faults) are typically severely misoriented relative to a vertical maximum compressive stress. As a result many geoscientists question whether low-angle normal faults produce earthquakes at low angles. Relationships in southern California show that a major low-angle normal-oblique fault slipped at low angles and produced large earthquakes. The exhumed Late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault preserves spectacular fault- related pseudotachylytes along its fault plane and injected into its hanging wall and footwall. Composite pseudotachylyte zones are up to 1.25 m thick and persists over lateral distances of at least 10's of meters. Pseudotachylyte is common in most thin sections of damaged fault rocks with more than 20% (by volume) of cataclasite. We recognized the presence of original melt using numerous criteria: abundant spherulites in thin sections, injection structures at both the thin-section and outcrop scale, black aphanitic textures, quenched vein margins, variations in microcrystallite textures and/or size with respect to the vein margin, and glassy textures in hand sample. Multiple earthquakes are inferred to produce the layered "stratigraphy" in some exposures of pseudotachylytes. We infer that the West Salton detachment fault formed and slipped at low angles because it nearly perfectly reactivates a Cretaceous ductile thrust system at the half km scale and dips between 10 and 45 degrees. The about 30 degree NNE dip of the detachment fault on the north side of Yaqui Ridge is likely steeper than its dip during detachment slip because there is local steepening on the flanks of the Yaqui Ridge antiform in a contractional stepover of a crosscutting Quaternary San Felipe dextral fault zone. These relationships indicate a low dip on the detachment

  4. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  5. Modeling defects and plasticity in MgSiO3 post-perovskite: Part 1-generalized stacking faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryaeva, Alexandra M; Carrez, Philippe; Cordier, Patrick

    In this work, we examine the transferability of a pairwise potential model (derived for MgSiO 3 perovskite) to accurately compute the excess energies of the generalized stacking faults (GSF, also called γ -surfaces) in MgSiO 3 post-perovskite. All calculations have been performed at 120 GPa, a pressure relevant to the D″ layer. Taking into account an important aspect of crystal chemistry for complex materials, we consider in detail all possible locations of slip planes in the post-perovskite structure. The γ -surface calculations emphasize the easiness of glide of slip systems with the smallest shear vector [100] and of the [001](010) slip system. Our results are in agreement with previous ab initio calculations. This validates the use the chosen potential model for further full atomistic modeling of dislocations in MgSiO 3 post-perovskite.

  6. AA injection kicker in its tank

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    For single-turn injection of the antiprotons, a septum at the end of the injection line made the beam parallel to the injection orbit, and a quarter of a betatron-wavelength downstream a fast kicker corrected the angle. Kicker type: lumped delay line. PFN voltage 56 kV. Bending angle 7.5 mrad; kick-strength 0.9 Tm; fall-time 95%-5% in 150 ns. The injection orbit is to the left, the stack orbit to the far right. A fast shutter near the central orbit had to be closed before the kicker fired, so as to protect the stack core from being shaken by the kicker's fringe field. The shutter is shown in closed position.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging at primary diagnosis cannot predict subsequent contralateral slip in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensaas, Anders [Akershus University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Loerenskog (Norway); Wiig, Ola; Terjesen, Terje [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rikshospitalet (Norway); Castberg Hellund, Johan; Khoshnewiszadeh, Behzad [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ullevaal (Norway)

    2017-12-15

    Prophylactic fixation of the contralateral hip in slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is controversial, and no reliable method has been established to predict subsequent contralateral slip. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at primary diagnosis could predict future contralateral slip. Twenty-two patients with unilateral SCFE were included, all had MRI of both hips taken before operative fixation. Six different parameters were measured on the MRI: the MRI slip angle, the greatest focal widening of the physis, the global widening of the physis measured at three locations (the midpoint of the physis and 1 cm lateral and medial to the midpoint), periphyseal (epiphyseal and metaphyseal) bone marrow edema, the presence of pathological joint effusion, and the amount of joint effusion measured from the lateral edge of the greater trochanter. Mean follow-up was 33 months (range, 16-63 months). Six patients were treated for contralateral slip during the follow-up time and a comparison of the MRI parameters of the contralateral hip in these six patients and in the 16 patients that remained unilateral was done to see if subsequent contralateral slip was possible to predict at primary diagnosis. All MRI parameters were significantly altered in hips with established SCFE compared with the contralateral hips. However, none of the MRI parameters showed any significant difference between patients who had a subsequent contralateral slip and those that remained unilateral. MRI taken at primary diagnosis could not predict future contralateral slip. (orig.)

  8. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  9. Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.

    1985-12-23

    A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

  10. A Kinematic Model of Slow Slip Constrained by Tremor-Derived Slip Histories in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, D. A.; Houston, H.

    2016-12-01

    We explore new ways to constrain the kinematic slip distributions for large slow slip events using constraints from tremor. Our goal is to prescribe one or more slip pulses that propagate across the fault and scale appropriately to satisfy the observations. Recent work (Houston, 2015) inferred a crude representative stress time history at an average point using the tidal stress history, the static stress drop, and the timing of the evolution of tidal sensitivity of tremor over several days of slip. To convert a stress time history into a slip time history, we use simulations to explore the stressing history of a small locked patch due to an approaching rupture front. We assume that the locked patch releases strain through a series of tremor bursts whose activity rate is related to the stressing history. To test whether the functional form of a slip pulse is reasonable, we assume a hypothetical slip time history (Ohnaka pulse) timed with the occurrence of tremor to create a rupture front that propagates along the fault. The duration of the rupture front for a fault patch is constrained by the observed tremor catalog for the 2010 ETS event. The slip amplitude is scaled appropriately to match the observed surface displacements from GPS. Through a forward simulation, we evaluate the ability of the tremor-derived slip history to accurately predict the pattern of surface displacements observed by GPS. We find that the temporal progression of surface displacements are well modeled by a 2-4 day slip pulse, suggesting that some of the longer duration of slip typically found in time-dependent GPS inversions is biased by the temporal smoothing. However, at some locations on the fault, the tremor lingers beyond the passage of the slip pulse. A small percentage (5-10%) of the tremor appears to be activated ahead of the approaching slip pulse, and tremor asperities experience a driving stress on the order of 10 kPa/day. Tremor amplitude, rather than just tremor counts, is needed

  11. The prevention of slipping accidents: a review and discussion of work related to the methodology of measuring slip resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq , Sylvie

    1999-01-01

    International audience; The recommendations made after the analysis of accidents following an incident of slipping often include the use of anti-slip footwear and/or the installation of an anti-slip floor covering. Such recommendations make it necessary to study biomechanical and tribologic phenomena that occur during slipping, in particular in order to develop criteria for the evaluation of the slip resistance of footwear and floor surfaces. Consequently, research which deals with the preven...

  12. Evidence for slip partitioning and bimodal slip behavior on a single fault: Surface slip characteristics of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, William; Briggs, Richard; Reitman, Nadine G.; Gold, Ryan D.; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Deformation is commonly accommodated by strain partitioning on multiple, independent strike-slip and dip-slip faults in continental settings of oblique plate convergence. As a corollary, individual faults tend to exhibit one sense of slip – normal, reverse, or strike-slip – until whole-scale changes in boundary conditions reactivate preexisting faults in a new deformation regime. In this study, we show that a single continental fault may instead partition oblique strain by alternatively slipping in a strike-slip or a dip-slip sense during independent fault slip events. We use 0.5 m resolution optical imagery and sub-pixel correlation analysis of the 200+ km 200+km"> 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake to document co-seismic surface slip characteristics and Quaternary tectonic geomorphology along the causative Hoshab fault. We find that the 2013 earthquake, which involved a ∼6:1 strike-slip to dip-slip ratio, ruptured a structurally segmented fault. Quaternary geomorphic indicators of gross fault-zone morphology reveal both reverse-slip and strike-slip deformation in the rupture area of the 2013 earthquake that varies systematically along fault strike despite nearly pure strike-slip motion in 2013. Observations of along-strike variations in range front relief and geomorphic offsets suggest that the Hoshab fault accommodates a substantial reverse component of fault slip in the Quaternary, especially along the southern section of the 2013 rupture. We surmise that Quaternary bimodal slip along the Hoshab fault is promoted by a combination of the arcuate geometry of the Hoshab fault, the frictional weakness of the Makran accretionary prism, and time variable loading conditions from adjacent earthquakes and plate interactions.

  13. Asymmetrical slip propensity: required coefficient of friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-suk; Kim, Sukwon

    2013-07-31

    Most studies in performing slips and falls research reported their results after the ipsilateral leg of subjects (either right foot or left foot) was guided to contact the contaminated floor surface although many studies indicated concerns for asymmetries of legs in kinematic or kinetic variables. Thus, the present study evaluated if dominant leg's slip tendency would be different from non-dominant leg's slip tendency by comparing the Required Coefficient of Friction (RCOF) of the two lower limbs. Forty seven health adults participated in the present study. RCOF was measured when left or right foot of subjects contacted the force platforms respectively. Paired t-test was performed to test if RCOF and heel velocity (HCV) of dominant legs was different from that of non-dominant legs. It was suggested that the asymmetry in RCOFs and HCV between the two lower limbs existed. The RCOFs of non-dominant legs were higher than that of dominant legs. The results indicated that asymmetry in slip propensity, RCOF, was existed in lower extremity. The results from the study suggested that it would be benefit to include a variable, such as asymmetry, in slips and falls research.

  14. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu

    2010-05-07

    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  15. Slip patterns and preferred dislocation boundary planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    2003-01-01

    The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single and polycryst......The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single...... and polycrystals of fcc metals in three deformation modes (rolling, tension and torsion). In the macroscopic system, boundaries lie close to the macroscopically most stressed planes. In the crystallographic system, the boundary plane depends on the grain/crystal orientation. The boundary planes in both co......-ordinate systems are rationalised based on the slip. The more the slip is concentrated on a slip plane, the closer the boundaries lie to this. The macroscopic preference arises from the macroscopic directionality of the slip. The established relations are applied to (a) prediction of boundary planes from slip...

  16. Quantifying slip balance in the earthquake cycle: Coseismic slip model constrained by interseismic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Lifeng

    2015-11-11

    The long-term slip on faults has to follow, on average, the plate motion, while slip deficit is accumulated over shorter time scales (e.g., between the large earthquakes). Accumulated slip deficits eventually have to be released by earthquakes and aseismic processes. In this study, we propose a new inversion approach for coseismic slip, taking interseismic slip deficit as prior information. We assume a linear correlation between coseismic slip and interseismic slip deficit, and invert for the coefficients that link the coseismic displacements to the required strain accumulation time and seismic release level of the earthquake. We apply our approach to the 2011 M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. Under the assumption that the largest slip almost fully releases the local strain (as indicated by borehole measurements, Lin et al., 2013), our results suggest that the strain accumulated along the Tohoku-Oki earthquake segment has been almost fully released during the 2011 M9 rupture. The remaining slip deficit can be attributed to the postseismic processes. Similar conclusions can be drawn for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. We also estimate the required time of strain accumulation for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake to be ~25 years (confidence interval of [17, 43] years), consistent with the observed average recurrence time of ~22 years for M6 earthquakes in Parkfield. For the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we estimate the recurrence time of~500-700 years. This new inversion approach for evaluating slip balance can be generally applied to any earthquake for which dense geodetic measurements are available.

  17. Quantifying slip balance in the earthquake cycle: Coseismic slip model constrained by interseismic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Lifeng; Hainzl, Sebastian; Mai, Paul Martin

    2015-01-01

    The long-term slip on faults has to follow, on average, the plate motion, while slip deficit is accumulated over shorter time scales (e.g., between the large earthquakes). Accumulated slip deficits eventually have to be released by earthquakes and aseismic processes. In this study, we propose a new inversion approach for coseismic slip, taking interseismic slip deficit as prior information. We assume a linear correlation between coseismic slip and interseismic slip deficit, and invert for the coefficients that link the coseismic displacements to the required strain accumulation time and seismic release level of the earthquake. We apply our approach to the 2011 M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. Under the assumption that the largest slip almost fully releases the local strain (as indicated by borehole measurements, Lin et al., 2013), our results suggest that the strain accumulated along the Tohoku-Oki earthquake segment has been almost fully released during the 2011 M9 rupture. The remaining slip deficit can be attributed to the postseismic processes. Similar conclusions can be drawn for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. We also estimate the required time of strain accumulation for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake to be ~25 years (confidence interval of [17, 43] years), consistent with the observed average recurrence time of ~22 years for M6 earthquakes in Parkfield. For the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we estimate the recurrence time of~500-700 years. This new inversion approach for evaluating slip balance can be generally applied to any earthquake for which dense geodetic measurements are available.

  18. Pre-stack estimation of time-lapse seismic velocity changes : an example from the Sleipner CO2-sequestration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, A.; Landro, M.; Ghaderi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is being injected into a shallow sand formation at around a 1,000 metre depth at the Sleipner Field located in the North Sea. It is expected that the CO 2 injected in the bottom of the formation, will form a plume consisting of CO 2 accumulating in thin lenses during migration up through the reservoir. Several studies have been published using stacked seismic data from 1994, 1999, 2001 and 2002. A thorough analysis of post-stack seismic data from the Sleipner CO2-Sequestration Pilot Project was conducted. Interpretation of seismic data is usually done on post-stack data. For a given subsurface reflection point, seismic data are acquired for various incidence angles, typically 40 angles. These 40 seismic signals are stacked together in order to reduce noise. The term pre-stack refers to seismic data prior to this step. For hydrocarbon-related 4-dimensional seismic studies, travel time shift estimations have been used. This paper compared pre-stack and post-stack estimation of average velocity changes based on measured 4-dimensional travel time shifts. It is more practical to compare estimated velocity changes than the actual travel time changes, since the time shifts vary with offset for pre-stack time-lapse seismic analysis. It was concluded that the pre-stack method gives smaller velocity changes when estimated between two key horizons. Therefore, pre-stack travel time analysis in addition to conventional post-stack analysis is recommended. 6 refs., 12 figs

  19. The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carraro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.

  20. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  1. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro López García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum’s Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015  [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  2. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    López García, Álvaro; Fernández del Castillo, Enol; Orviz Fernández, Pablo

    In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum's Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015) [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  3. Modeling and Analyzing the Slipping of the Ball Screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Xu

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper aims to set up the ball systematic slipping model and analyze the slipping characteristics caused by different factors for a ball screw operating at high speeds. To investigate the ball screw slipping mechanism, transformed coordinate system should be established firstly. Then it is used to set up mathematical modeling for the ball slipping caused by the three main reasons and the speed of slipping can be calculated. Later, the influence of the contact angle, helix angle and screw diameter for ball screw slipping will be analyzed according to the ball slipping model and slipping speeds equation and the slipping analysis will be obtained. Finally, curve of slipping analysis and that of mechanical efficiency of the ball screw analysis by Lin are compared, which will indirectly verify the correctness of the slipping model. The slipping model and the curve of slipping analysis established in this paper will provide theory basis for reducing slipping and improving the mechanical efficiency of a ball screw operating at high speeds.

  4. Slipping slender bodies and enhanced flagellar locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Lauga, Eric

    2017-11-01

    In the biological world, many cells exploit slender appendages to swim, include numerous species of bacteria, algae and spermatozoa. A classical method to describe the flow field around such appendages is slender-body theory (SBT), which is often used to study flagellar motility in Newtonian fluids. However, biology environments are often rheologically complex due to the presence of polymers. These polymers generically phase-separate near rigid boundaries where low-viscosity fluid layers lead to effective slip on the surface. In this talk, we present an analytical derivation of SBT in the case where the no-slip boundary condition on the appendage is replaced by a Navier slip boundary condition. Our results demonstrate in particular a systematic reduction of the resistance coefficient of the slender filaments in their tangential direction, which leads to enhanced flagellar locomotion.

  5. Vaporization of fault water during seismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R.; Fokker, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory and numerical studies, as well as field observations, indicate that phase transitions of pore water might be an important process in large earthquakes. We present a model of the thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes, including a two-phase mixture model to incorporate the phase transitions of pore water, occurring during fast slip (i.e., a natural earthquake) in order to investigate the effects of vaporization on the coseismic slip. Using parameters from typical natural faults, our modeling shows that vaporization can indeed occur at the shallow depths of an earthquake, irrespective of the wide variability of the parameters involved (sliding velocity, friction coefficient, gouge permeability and porosity, and shear-induced dilatancy). Due to the fast kinetics, water vaporization can cause a rapid slip weakening even when the hydrological conditions of the fault zone are not favorable for thermal pressurization, e.g., when permeability is high. At the same time, the latent heat associated with the phase transition causes the temperature rise in the slip zone to be buffered. Our parametric analyses reveal that the amount of frictional work is the principal factor controlling the onset and activity of vaporization and that it can easily be achieved in earthquakes. Our study shows that coseismic pore fluid vaporization might have played important roles at shallow depths of large earthquakes by enhancing slip weakening and buffering the temperature rise. The combined effects may provide an alternative explanation for the fact that low-temperature anomalies were measured in the slip zones at shallow depths of large earthquakes.

  6. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  7. California dreaming?[PEM stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosse, J.

    2002-06-01

    Hyundai's Santa Fe FCEV will be on sale by the end of 2002. Hyundai uses PEM stacks that are manufactured by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a division of United Technologies. Santa Fe is equipped with a 65 kW electric powertrain of Enova systems and Shell's new gasoline reformer called Hydrogen Source. Eugene Jang, Senior Engineer - Fuel Cell and Materials at Hyundai stated that the compressor related losses on IFC system are below 3%. The maximum speed offered by the vehicle is estimated as 123km/hr while the petrol equivalent fuel consumption is quoted between 5.6L/100 km and 4.8L/100 km. Santa Fe is a compact vehicle offering better steering response and a pleasant drive. (author)

  8. Recent Progress on Modeling Slip Deformation in Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehitoglu, H.; Alkan, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of slip deformation in shape memory alloys. The performance of shape memory alloys depends on their slip resistance often quantified through the Critical Resolved Shear Stress (CRSS) or the flow stress. We highlight previous studies that identify the active slip systems and then proceed to show how non- Schmid effects can be dominant in shape memory slip behavior. The work is mostly derived from our recent studies while we highlight key earlier works on slip deformation. We finally discuss the implications of understanding the role of slip on curtailing the transformation strains and also the temperature range over which superelasticity prevails.

  9. Recent Progress on Modeling Slip Deformation in Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehitoglu, H.; Alkan, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of slip deformation in shape memory alloys. The performance of shape memory alloys depends on their slip resistance often quantified through the Critical Resolved Shear Stress (CRSS) or the flow stress. We highlight previous studies that identify the active slip systems and then proceed to show how non-Schmid effects can be dominant in shape memory slip behavior. The work is mostly derived from our recent studies while we highlight key earlier works on slip deformation. We finally discuss the implications of understanding the role of slip on curtailing the transformation strains and also the temperature range over which superelasticity prevails.

  10. Unravelling the Mysteries of Slip Histories, Validating Cosmogenic 36Cl Derived Slip Rates on Normal Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, H.; Gregory, L. C.; Wedmore, L.; Roberts, G.; Shanks, R. P.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Amey, R.; Hooper, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The cosmogenic isotope chlorine-36 (36Cl) is increasingly used as a tool to investigate normal fault slip rates over the last 10-20 thousand years. These slip histories are being used to address complex questions, including investigating slip clustering and understanding local and large scale fault interaction. Measurements are time consuming and expensive, and as a result there has been little work done validating these 36Cl derived slip histories. This study aims to investigate if the results are repeatable and therefore reliable estimates of how normal faults have been moving in the past. Our approach is to test if slip histories derived from 36Cl are the same when measured at different points along the same fault. As normal fault planes are progressively exhumed from the surface they accumulate 36Cl. Modelling these 36Cl concentrations allows estimation of a slip history. In a previous study, samples were collected from four sites on the Magnola fault in the Italian Apennines. Remodelling of the 36Cl data using a Bayesian approach shows that the sites produced disparate slip histories, which we interpret as being due to variable site geomorphology. In this study, multiple sites have been sampled along the Campo Felice fault in the central Italian Apennines. Initial results show strong agreement between the sites we have processed so far and a previous study. This indicates that if sample sites are selected taking the geomorphology into account, then 36Cl derived slip histories will be highly similar when sampled at any point along the fault. Therefore our study suggests that 36Cl derived slip histories are a consistent record of fault activity in the past.

  11. Imbricated slip rate processes during slow slip transients imaged by low-frequency earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengliné, O.; Frank, W.; Marsan, D.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Low Frequency Earthquakes (LFEs) often occur in conjunction with transient strain episodes, or Slow Slip Events (SSEs), in subduction zones. Their focal mechanism and location consistent with shear failure on the plate interface argue for a model where LFEs are discrete dynamic ruptures in an otherwise slowly slipping interface. SSEs are mostly observed by surface geodetic instruments with limited resolution and it is likely that only the largest ones are detected. The time synchronization of LFEs and SSEs suggests that we could use the recorded LFEs to constrain the evolution of SSEs, and notably of the geodetically-undetected small ones. However, inferring slow slip rate from the temporal evolution of LFE activity is complicated by the strong temporal clustering of LFEs. Here we apply dedicated statistical tools to retrieve the temporal evolution of SSE slip rates from the time history of LFE occurrences in two subduction zones, Mexico and Cascadia, and in the deep portion of the San Andreas fault at Parkfield. We find temporal characteristics of LFEs that are similar across these three different regions. The longer term episodic slip transients present in these datasets show a slip rate decay with time after the passage of the SSE front possibly as t-1/4. They are composed of multiple short term transients with steeper slip rate decay as t-α with α between 1.4 and 2. We also find that the maximum slip rate of SSEs has a continuous distribution. Our results indicate that creeping faults host intermittent deformation at various scales resulting from the imbricated occurrence of numerous slow slip events of various amplitudes.

  12. Dislocation self-organization under single slip straining and dipole properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.-L.; Veyssiere, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous microstructural organization under single slip is investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The formation and the structure of dislocation entanglements are analyzed on three types of fcc-based systems, Al, Cu and TiAl, all deformed by {1 1 1} slip. Differences are found that depend on stacking fault energy and lattice friction. The importance of dipolar configurations is outlined. Selected properties of dipoles are analyzed theoretically under isotropic and anisotropic elasticity in cubic systems. At variance from screw and near-screw dipoles, the stress-free equilibrium angle of an edge dipole is little dependent on the material's elastic anisotropy. In Cu, for instance, a screw dipole is at equilibrium at around 59 deg. from the slip plane, and this angle is unchanged over a range of dislocation characters of approximately ±20 deg. On the other hand, given a dipole height, the passing stress is a maximum in the screw orientation. It is, however, not a minimum in the edge orientation. Static and dynamic dipole properties are but little affected by dissociation down to a dipole height of the order of a few times the dissociation distance

  13. Temperature-dependent stability of stacking faults in Al, Cu and Ni: first-principles analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogra, Meha; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, Umesh V

    2014-09-24

    We present comparative analysis of microscopic mechanisms relevant to plastic deformation of the face-centered cubic (FCC) metals Al, Cu, and Ni, through determination of the temperature-dependent free energies of intrinsic and unstable stacking faults along [1 1̄ 0] and [1 2̄ 1] on the (1 1 1) plane using first-principles density-functional-theory-based calculations. We show that vibrational contribution results in significant decrease in the free energy of barriers and intrinsic stacking faults (ISFs) of Al, Cu, and Ni with temperature, confirming an important role of thermal fluctuations in the stability of stacking faults (SFs) and deformation at elevated temperatures. In contrast to Al and Ni, the vibrational spectrum of the unstable stacking fault (USF[1 2̄ 1]) in Cu reveals structural instabilities, indicating that the energy barrier (γusf) along the (1 1 1)[1 2̄ 1] slip system in Cu, determined by typical first-principles calculations, is an overestimate, and its commonly used interpretation as the energy release rate needed for dislocation nucleation, as proposed by Rice (1992 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 40 239), should be taken with caution.

  14. Inferring Fault Frictional and Reservoir Hydraulic Properties From Injection-Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagalur-Mohan, Jayanth; Jha, Birendra; Wang, Zheng; Juanes, Ruben; Marzouk, Youssef

    2018-02-01

    Characterizing the rheological properties of faults and the evolution of fault friction during seismic slip are fundamental problems in geology and seismology. Recent increases in the frequency of induced earthquakes have intensified the need for robust methods to estimate fault properties. Here we present a novel approach for estimation of aquifer and fault properties, which combines coupled multiphysics simulation of injection-induced seismicity with adaptive surrogate-based Bayesian inversion. In a synthetic 2-D model, we use aquifer pressure, ground displacements, and fault slip measurements during fluid injection to estimate the dynamic fault friction, the critical slip distance, and the aquifer permeability. Our forward model allows us to observe nonmonotonic evolutions of shear traction and slip on the fault resulting from the interplay of several physical mechanisms, including injection-induced aquifer expansion, stress transfer along the fault, and slip-induced stress relaxation. This interplay provides the basis for a successful joint inversion of induced seismicity, yielding well-informed Bayesian posterior distributions of dynamic friction and critical slip. We uncover an inverse relationship between dynamic friction and critical slip distance, which is in agreement with the small dynamic friction and large critical slip reported during seismicity on mature faults.

  15. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  16. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  17. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  18. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  19. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  20. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  1. 40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...

  2. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  3. Learning OpenStack networking (Neutron)

    CERN Document Server

    Denton, James

    2014-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack-based cloud operator with experience in OpenStack Compute and nova-network but are new to Neutron networking, then this book is for you. Some networking experience is recommended, and a physical network infrastructure is required to provide connectivity to instances and other network resources configured in the book.

  4. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  5. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  6. Estimated combined steady state tyre slip characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, A.L.A.; Pauwelussen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Excessive behaviour of vehicles is often the subject of study, motivated by either the development of active safety systems uch as ESP, or the improvement of vehicle performance such as for racecars. In all of these cases, combined slip needs to be taken into account. In many cases however, the full

  7. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  8. Next generation GNSS single receiver cycle slip reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.J.G.; De Bakker, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution we study the multi-frequency, carrier-phase slip detection capabilities of a single receiver. Our analysis is based on an analytical expression that we present for themulti-frequencyminimal detectable carrier phase cycle slip.

  9. Development of compact slip detection sensor using dielectric elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-young; Hwang, Do-Yeon; Kim, Baek-chul; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we developed a resistance tactile sensor that can detect a slip on the surface of sensor structure. The presented sensor device has fingerprint-like structures that are similar with the role of the humans finger print. The resistance slip sensor that the novel developed uses acrylo-nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as a dielectric substrate and graphene as an electrode material. We can measure the slip as the structure of sensor makes a deformation and it changes the resistance through forming a new conductive route. To manufacture our sensor, we developed a new imprint process. By using this process, we can produce sensor with micro unit structure. To verify effectiveness of the proposed slip detection, experiment using prototype of resistance slip sensor is conducted with an algorithm to detect slip and slip is successfully detected. We will discuss the slip detection properties.

  10. Probing Temperature Inside Planar SOFC Short Stack, Modules, and Stack Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Guan, Wanbing; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Probing temperature inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack lies at the heart of the development of high-performance and stable SOFC systems. In this article, we report our recent work on the direct measurements of the temperature in three types of SOFC systems: a 5-cell short stack, a 30-cell stack module, and a stack series consisting of two 30-cell stack modules. The dependence of temperature on the gas flow rate and current density was studied under a current sweep or steady-state operation. During the current sweep, the temperature inside the 5-cell stack decreased with increasing current, while it increased significantly at the bottom and top of the 30-cell stack. During a steady-state operation, the temperature of the 5-cell stack was stable while it was increased in the 30-cell stack. In the stack series, the maximum temperature gradient reached 190°C when the gas was not preheated. If the gas was preheated and the temperature gradient was reduced to 23°C in the stack series with the presence of a preheating gas and segmented temperature control, this resulted in a low degradation rate.

  11. The impact of stack geometry and mean pressure on cold end temperature of stack in thermoacoustic refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantha, Channarong

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.

  12. Origin analysis of expanded stacking faults by applying forward current to 4H-SiC p-i-n diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shohei; Naijo, Takanori; Yamashita, Tamotsu; Miyazato, Masaki; Ryo, Mina; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Miyajima, Masaaki; Senzaki, Junji; Kato, Tomohisa; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Okumura, Hajime

    2017-08-01

    Stacking faults expanded by the application of forward current to 4H-SiC p-i-n diodes were observed using a transmission electron microscope to investigate the expansion origin. It was experimentally confirmed that long-zonal-shaped stacking faults expanded from basal-plane dislocations converted into threading edge dislocations. In addition, stacking fault expansion clearly penetrated into the substrate to a greater depth than the dislocation conversion point. This downward expansion of stacking faults strongly depends on the degree of high-density minority carrier injection.

  13. A geodetic matched filter search for slow slip with application to the Mexico subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, B.; Campillo, M.; Lasserre, C.; Frank, W. B.; Cotte, N.; Walpersdorf, A.; Socquet, A.; Kostoglodov, V.

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of slow slip events, many methods have been successfully applied to model obvious transient events in geodetic time series, such as the widely used network strain filter. Independent seismological observations of tremors or low-frequency earthquakes and repeating earthquakes provide evidence of low-amplitude slow deformation but do not always coincide with clear occurrences of transient signals in geodetic time series. Here we aim to extract the signal corresponding to slow slips hidden in the noise of GPS time series, without using information from independent data sets. We first build a library of synthetic slow slip event templates by assembling a source function with Green's functions for a discretized fault. We then correlate the templates with postprocessed GPS time series. Once the events have been detected in time, we estimate their duration T and magnitude Mw by modeling a weighted stack of GPS time series. An analysis of synthetic time series shows that this method is able to resolve the correct timing, location, T, and Mw of events larger than Mw 6 in the context of the Mexico subduction zone. Applied on a real data set of 29 GPS time series in the Guerrero area from 2005 to 2014, this technique allows us to detect 28 transient events from Mw 6.3 to 7.2 with durations that range from 3 to 39 days. These events have a dominant recurrence time of 40 days and are mainly located at the downdip edges of the Mw>7.5 slow slip events.

  14. Evidence for Truncated Exponential Probability Distribution of Earthquake Slip

    KAUST Repository

    Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar; Mai, Paul Martin

    2016-01-01

    Earthquake ruptures comprise spatially varying slip on the fault surface, where slip represents the displacement discontinuity between the two sides of the rupture plane. In this study, we analyze the probability distribution of coseismic slip, which provides important information to better understand earthquake source physics. Although the probability distribution of slip is crucial for generating realistic rupture scenarios for simulation-based seismic and tsunami-hazard analysis, the statistical properties of earthquake slip have received limited attention so far. Here, we use the online database of earthquake source models (SRCMOD) to show that the probability distribution of slip follows the truncated exponential law. This law agrees with rupture-specific physical constraints limiting the maximum possible slip on the fault, similar to physical constraints on maximum earthquake magnitudes.We show the parameters of the best-fitting truncated exponential distribution scale with average coseismic slip. This scaling property reflects the control of the underlying stress distribution and fault strength on the rupture dimensions, which determines the average slip. Thus, the scale-dependent behavior of slip heterogeneity is captured by the probability distribution of slip. We conclude that the truncated exponential law accurately quantifies coseismic slip distribution and therefore allows for more realistic modeling of rupture scenarios. © 2016, Seismological Society of America. All rights reserverd.

  15. Evidence for Truncated Exponential Probability Distribution of Earthquake Slip

    KAUST Repository

    Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.

    2016-07-13

    Earthquake ruptures comprise spatially varying slip on the fault surface, where slip represents the displacement discontinuity between the two sides of the rupture plane. In this study, we analyze the probability distribution of coseismic slip, which provides important information to better understand earthquake source physics. Although the probability distribution of slip is crucial for generating realistic rupture scenarios for simulation-based seismic and tsunami-hazard analysis, the statistical properties of earthquake slip have received limited attention so far. Here, we use the online database of earthquake source models (SRCMOD) to show that the probability distribution of slip follows the truncated exponential law. This law agrees with rupture-specific physical constraints limiting the maximum possible slip on the fault, similar to physical constraints on maximum earthquake magnitudes.We show the parameters of the best-fitting truncated exponential distribution scale with average coseismic slip. This scaling property reflects the control of the underlying stress distribution and fault strength on the rupture dimensions, which determines the average slip. Thus, the scale-dependent behavior of slip heterogeneity is captured by the probability distribution of slip. We conclude that the truncated exponential law accurately quantifies coseismic slip distribution and therefore allows for more realistic modeling of rupture scenarios. © 2016, Seismological Society of America. All rights reserverd.

  16. Performance analysis of a microcontroller based slip power recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slip power recovery wound rotor induction motor drives are used in high power, limited speed range applications where control of slip power provides the variable speed drive system. In this paper, the steady state performance analysis of conventional slip power recovery scheme using static line commutated inverter in the ...

  17. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  18. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  19. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  20. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  1. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  2. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  3. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  4. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  5. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  6. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  7. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  8. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  9. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  10. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  11. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  12. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  13. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  14. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  15. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  16. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  17. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  18. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  19. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  20. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  1. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  2. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  3. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  4. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  5. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  6. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  7. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  8. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  9. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  10. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  11. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  12. Relation between boundary slip mechanisms and waterlike fluid behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, Patricia; Salcedo, Evy; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2018-03-01

    The slip of a fluid layer in contact with a solid confining surface is investigated for different temperatures and densities using molecular dynamic simulations. We show that for an anomalous waterlike fluid the slip goes as follows: for low levels of shear, defect slip appears and is related to the particle exchange between the fluid layers; at high levels of shear, global slip occurs and is related to the homogeneous distribution of the fluid in the confining surfaces. The oscillations in the transition velocity from defect to global slip are shown to be associated with changes in the layering distribution in the anomalous fluid.

  13. Fault Creep along the Southern San Andreas from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Permanent Scatterers, and Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Suzanne; Sandwell, David

    2003-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) provides a practical means of mapping creep along major strike-slip faults. The small amplitude of the creep signal (less than 10 mm/yr), combined with its short wavelength, makes it difficult to extract from long time span interferograms, especially in agricultural or heavily vegetated areas. We utilize two approaches to extract the fault creep signal from 37 ERS SAR images along the southem San Andreas Fault. First, amplitude stacking is utilized to identify permanent scatterers, which are then used to weight the interferogram prior to spatial filtering. This weighting improves correlation and also provides a mask for poorly correlated areas. Second, the unwrapped phase is stacked to reduce tropospheric and other short-wavelength noise. This combined processing enables us to recover the near-field (approximately 200 m) slip signal across the fault due to shallow creep. Displacement maps fiom 60 interferograms reveal a diffuse secular strain buildup, punctuated by localized interseismic creep of 4-6 mm/yr line of sight (LOS, 12-18 mm/yr horizontal). With the exception of Durmid Hill, this entire segment of the southern San Andreas experienced right-lateral triggered slip of up to 10 cm during the 3.5-year period spanning the 1992 Landers earthquake. The deformation change following the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake was much smaller (4 cm) and broader than for the Landers event. Profiles across the fault during the interseismic phase show peak-to-trough amplitude ranging from 15 to 25 mm/yr (horizontal component) and the minimum misfit models show a range of creeping/locking depth values that fit the data.

  14. On thermal stability in incompressible slip flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1990-12-01

    The paper considers the classical problem of the stability of a layer of fluid heated from below, but in the case when the density is low and there is slip flow at the bounding walls. The eigenvalue problem which ensures is tackled by taking cognisance of the orthogonality of Bessel function of the first kind. It is observed that the Rayleigh number for the onset of instability, for the case of marginal stability, is increased by gas rarefication. (author). 2 refs

  15. Slip processing of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.K.; Sinha, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Slip-processing technique has been used to fabricate tapes and alumina-supported films of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 Osub(7-x). Good densification and connectivity are revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Both the tape and film show superconductivity well above the liquid nitrogen temperature with a transition range of 3deg and 5degK respectively. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  16. First-Principles Quantum Dynamics of Singlet Fission: Coherent versus Thermally Activated Mechanisms Governed by Molecular π Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene; Olivier, Yoann; Beljonne, David

    2015-09-01

    Singlet excitons in π -stacked molecular crystals can split into two triplet excitons in a process called singlet fission that opens a route to carrier multiplication in photovoltaics. To resolve controversies about the mechanism of singlet fission, we have developed a first principles nonadiabatic quantum dynamical model that reveals the critical role of molecular stacking symmetry and provides a unified picture of coherent versus thermally activated singlet fission mechanisms in different acenes. The slip-stacked equilibrium packing structure of pentacene derivatives is found to enhance ultrafast singlet fission mediated by a coherent superexchange mechanism via higher-lying charge transfer states. By contrast, the electronic couplings for singlet fission strictly vanish at the C2 h symmetric equilibrium π stacking of rubrene. In this case, singlet fission is driven by excitations of symmetry-breaking intermolecular vibrations, rationalizing the experimentally observed temperature dependence. Design rules for optimal singlet fission materials therefore need to account for the interplay of molecular π -stacking symmetry and phonon-induced coherent or thermally activated mechanisms.

  17. Characterization of Piezoelectric Stacks for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to actuate mechanisms to precision levels in the nanometer range and below. Co-fired multilayer piezoelectric stacks offer the required actuation precision that is needed for such mechanisms. To obtain performance statistics and determine reliability for extended use, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and high temperatures and voltages. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators were driven sinusoidally for up to ten billion cycles. An automated data acquisition system was developed and implemented to monitor each stack's electrical current and voltage waveforms over the life of the test. As part of the monitoring tests, the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current were measured to assess the operation degradation. This paper presents some of the results of this effort.

  18. The stack on software and sovereignty

    CERN Document Server

    Bratton, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive political and design theory of planetary-scale computation proposing that The Stack -- an accidental megastructure -- is both a technological apparatus and a model for a new geopolitical architecture.

  19. Development of Auto-Stacking Warehouse Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse automation is a very important issue for the promotion of traditional industries. For the production of larger and stackable products, it is usually necessary to operate a fork-lifter for the stacking and storage of the products by a skilled person. The general autonomous warehouse-truck does not have the ability of stacking objects. In this paper, we develop a prototype of auto-stacking warehouse-truck that can work without direct operation by a skill person. With command made by an RFID card, the stacker truck can take the packaged product to the warehouse on the prior-planned route and store it in a stacking way in the designated storage area, or deliver the product to the shipping area or into the container from the storage area. It can significantly reduce the manpower requirements of the skilled-person of forklift technician and improve the safety of the warehousing area.

  20. Dynamic slip of polydisperse linear polymers using partitioned plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Konaganti, Vinod Kumar; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.

    2018-03-01

    The slip velocity of an industrial grade high molecular weight high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is studied in steady and dynamic shear experiments using a stress/strain controlled rotational rheometer equipped with a parallel partitioned plate geometry. Moreover, fluoroalkyl silane-based coating is used to understand the effect of surface energy on slip in steady and dynamic conditions. The multimode integral Kaye-Bernstein-Kearsley-Zapas constitutive model is applied to predict the transient shear response of the HDPE melt obtained from rotational rheometer. It is found that a dynamic slip model with a slip relaxation time is needed to adequately predict the experimental data at large shear deformations. Comparison of the results before and after coating shows that the slip velocity is largely affected by surface energy. Decreasing surface energy by coating increases slip velocity and decreases the slip relaxation time.

  1. Oscillatory Stokes Flow Past a Slip Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, D.

    2013-11-01

    Two-dimensional transient slow viscous flow past a circular cylinder with Navier slip boundary conditions is considered in the limit of low-Reynolds number. The oscillatory Stokes flow problem around a cylinder is solved using the stream function method leading to an analytic solution in terms of modified Bessel functions of the second kind. The corresponding steady-state behavior yields the familiar paradoxical result first detected by Stokes. It is noted that the two key parameters, viz., the frequency λ, and the slip coefficient ξ have a significant impact on the flow field in the vicinity of the cylinder contour. In the limit of very low frequency, the flow is dominated by a term containing a well-known biharmonic function found by Stokes that has a singular behavior at infinity. Local streamlines for small times show interesting flow patterns. Attached eddies due to flow separation - observed in the no-slip case - either get detached or pushed away from the cylinder surface as ξ is varied. Computed asymptotic results predict that the flow exhibits inviscid behavior far away from the cylinder in the frequency range 0 < λ << 1 . Although the frequency of oscillations is finite, our exact solutions reveal fairly rapid transitions in the flow domain. Research Enhancement grant, TAMUCC.

  2. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhi, E-mail: liangz3@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel, E-mail: keplip@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  3. Slip cast coating of alumina crucibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, N.A.; El-Masry, M.A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a process for coating alumina crucibles with MgO protective coat in a two-step slip casting operation is described. The best milling conditions for the alumina used were wet ball milling for 24 hr. MgO had to be calcined at 1200 0 C to minimize hydration. Optimum slip casting conditions for alumina and magnesia were found to be L/S I and pH 3-6 or 9-II for the former, and L/S 3 (alcohol) and pH 8.5-10 for the latter. Sintering of Al 2 O 3 and MgO in the temperature range 1150-500 0 C was investigated. Additions of NiO and MgO lowered the sintered densities at lower temperatures but improved the densification at 1500 0 C. Near theoretical density Al 2 O 3 and MgO crucibles were obtained. A two-step slip casting technique was developed to coat Al 2 O 3 with MgO. Certain slow firing schedules could eliminate the otherwise observed coat-crucible separation and cracks. (author)

  4. Exploring online evolution of network stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Network stacks today follow a one-size-fits-all philosophy. They are mostly kept unmodified due to often prohibitive costs of engineering, deploying and administrating customisation of the networking software, with the Internet stack architecture still largely being based on designs and assumptions made for the ARPANET 40 years ago. We venture that heterogeneous and rapidly changing networks of the future require, in order to be successful, run-time self-adaptation mechanisms at different tim...

  5. Modeling of rock friction 2. Simulation of preseismic slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieterich, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The constitutive relations developed in the companion paper are used to model detailed observations of preseismic slip and the onset of unstable slip in biaxial laboratory experiments. The simulations employ a deterministic plane strain finite element model to represent the interactions both within the sliding blocks and between the blocks and the loading apparatus. Both experiments and simulations show that preseismic slip controlled by initial inhomogeneity of shear stress along the sliding surface relative to the frictional strength. As a consequence of the inhomogeneity, stable slip begins at a point on the surface and the area of slip slowly expands as the external loading increases. A previously proposed correlation between accelerating rates of stable slip and growth of the area of slip is supported by the simulations. In the simulations and in the experiments, unstable slip occurs, shortly after a propagating slip event traverses the sliding surface and breaks out at the ends of the sample. In the model the breakout of stable slip causes a sudden acceleration of slip rates. Because of velocity dependency of the constitutive relationship for friction, the rapid acceleration of slip causes a decrease in frictional strength. Instability occurs when the frictional strength decreases with displacement at a rate that exceeds the intrinsic unloading characteristics of the sample and test machine. A simple slider-spring model that does not consider preseismic slip appears to approximate the transition adequately from stable sliding to unstable slip as a function of normal stress machine stiffness, and surface roughness for small samples. However, for large samples and for natural faults the simulations suggest that the simple model may be inaccurate because it does not take into account potentially large preseismic displacements that will alter the friction parameters prior to instability

  6. A Time-predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to le...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures.......Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to less...... precise results of the cache analysis part of the WCET analysis. Splitting the data cache for different data areas enables composable data cache analysis. The WCET analysis tool can analyze the accesses to these different data areas independently. In this paper we present the design and implementation...

  7. StackGAN++: Realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Han; Xu, Tao; Li, Hongsheng; Zhang, Shaoting; Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiaolei; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown remarkable success in various tasks, they still face challenges in generating high quality images. In this paper, we propose Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks (StackGAN) aiming at generating high-resolution photo-realistic images. First, we propose a two-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v1, for text-to-image synthesis. The Stage-I GAN sketches the primitive shape and colors of the object based on given...

  8. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  9. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  10. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  11. Earthquake scaling laws for rupture geometry and slip heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Mai, P. Martin; Goda, Katsuichiro

    2016-04-01

    We analyze an extensive compilation of finite-fault rupture models to investigate earthquake scaling of source geometry and slip heterogeneity to derive new relationships for seismic and tsunami hazard assessment. Our dataset comprises 158 earthquakes with a total of 316 rupture models selected from the SRCMOD database (http://equake-rc.info/srcmod). We find that fault-length does not saturate with earthquake magnitude, while fault-width reveals inhibited growth due to the finite seismogenic thickness. For strike-slip earthquakes, fault-length grows more rapidly with increasing magnitude compared to events of other faulting types. Interestingly, our derived relationship falls between the L-model and W-model end-members. In contrast, both reverse and normal dip-slip events are more consistent with self-similar scaling of fault-length. However, fault-width scaling relationships for large strike-slip and normal dip-slip events, occurring on steeply dipping faults (δ~90° for strike-slip faults, and δ~60° for normal faults), deviate from self-similarity. Although reverse dip-slip events in general show self-similar scaling, the restricted growth of down-dip fault extent (with upper limit of ~200 km) can be seen for mega-thrust subduction events (M~9.0). Despite this fact, for a given earthquake magnitude, subduction reverse dip-slip events occupy relatively larger rupture area, compared to shallow crustal events. In addition, we characterize slip heterogeneity in terms of its probability distribution and spatial correlation structure to develop a complete stochastic random-field characterization of earthquake slip. We find that truncated exponential law best describes the probability distribution of slip, with observable scale parameters determined by the average and maximum slip. Applying Box-Cox transformation to slip distributions (to create quasi-normal distributed data) supports cube-root transformation, which also implies distinctive non-Gaussian slip

  12. A Thermal Technique of Fault Nucleation, Growth, and Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagash, D.; Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L. C.; Martel, S. J.; Reches, Z.; Elsworth, D.; Onstott, T. C.

    2009-12-01

    -Coulomb strength criterion with standard Byerlee parameters, a fault will initiate before the net tension occurs. After a new fault is created, hot fluid can be injected into the boreholes to increase the temperature and reverse the direction of fault slip. This process can be repeated to study the formation of gouge, and how the properties of gouge control fault slip and associated seismicity. Instrumenting the site with arrays of geophones, tiltmeters, strain gauges, and displacement transducers as well as back mining - an opportunity provided by the DUSEL project - can reveal details of the fault geometry and gouge. We also expect to find small faults (with cm-scale displacement) during construction of DUSEL drifts. The same thermal technique can be used to induce slip on one of them and compare the “man-made” and natural gouges. The thermal technique appears to be a relatively simple way to rapidly change the stress field and either create slip on existing fractures or create new faults at scales up to 10 m or more.

  13. Barrier inhomogeneities at vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Fu; Li, Wenwu; Li, Song-Lin; Xu, Yong; Aparecido-Ferreira, Alex; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Sun, Huabin; Nakaharai, Shu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2014-01-21

    The integration of graphene and other atomically flat, two-dimensional materials has attracted much interest and been materialized very recently. An in-depth understanding of transport mechanisms in such heterostructures is essential. In this study, vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructure transistors were manufactured to elucidate the mechanism of electron injection at the interface. The temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics was investigated from 300 to 90 K. In a careful analysis of current-voltage characteristics, an unusual decrease in the effective Schottky barrier height and increase in the ideality factor were observed with decreasing temperature. A model of thermionic emission with a Gaussian distribution of barriers was able to precisely interpret the conduction mechanism. Furthermore, mapping of the effective Schottky barrier height is unmasked as a function of temperature and gate voltage. The results offer significant insight for the development of future layer-integration technology based on graphene-based heterostructures.

  14. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  15. Principles for Instructional Stack Development in HyperCard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneaney, John E.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about obtaining and using HyperCard stacks that introduce users to principles of stack development. The HyperCard stacks described are available for downloading free of charge from a server at Indiana University South Bend. Specific directions are given for stack use, with advice for beginners. A…

  16. The RHIC injection fast kicker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, E.B.; Pappas, G.C.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Zhang, W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the injection kicker is to provide the ultimate deflection to the incoming beam from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The beam is kicked in the vertical direction to place it on the equilibrium orbit of RHIC. Each bunch in the AGS is transferred separately, and stacked box-car fashion in the appropriate RHIC rf bucket. In order to achieve the required deflection angle four magnets powered by four pulsers will be used for each ring of RHIC. When the bunches are stacked in RHIC the last few rf buckets are left unfilled in order to provide a gap in the beam to facilitate the ejection or beam abort process. This also means there is not a severe constraint on the fall-time of the injection kicker. One prototype pulser has been built and tested. Much of the development effort has gone into the magnet design. Although lumped ferrite magnets are simpler to build and require less power to reach full field, a transmission line magnet was developed because of the very fast rise-time requirement and the tolerances imposed on the field variation and ripple

  17. A Model for Low-Frequency Earthquake Slip in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestler, S.; Creager, K.

    2017-12-01

    Low-Frequency Earthquakes (LFEs) are commonly used to identify when and where slow slip occurred, especially for slow slip events that are too small to be observed geodetically. Yet, an understanding of how slip occurs within an LFE family patch, or patch on the plate interface where LFEs repeat, is limited. How much slip occurs per LFE and over what area? Do all LFEs within an LFE family rupture the exact same spot? To answer these questions, we implement a catalog of 39,966 LFEs, sorted into 45 LFE families, beneath the Olympic Peninsula, WA. LFEs were detected and located using data from approximately 100 3-component stations from the Array of Arrays experiment. We compare the LFE family patch area to the area within the LFE family patch that slips through LFEs during Cascadia Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events. Patch area is calculated from relative LFE locations, solved for using the double difference method. Slip area is calculated from the characteristic moment (mean of the exponential moment-frequency distribution) and number LFEs for each family and geodetically measured ETS slip. We find that 0.5-5% of the area within an LFE family patch slips through LFEs. The rest must deform in some other manner (e.g., ductile deformation). We also explore LFE slip patterns throughout the entire slow slip zone. Is LFE slip uniform? Does LFE slip account for all geodetically observed slow slip? Double difference relocations reveal that LFE families are 2 km patches where LFE are clustered close together. Additionally, there are clusters of LFE families with diameters of 4-15 km. There are gaps with no observable, repeating LFEs between LFE families in clusters and between clusters of LFE families. Based on this observation, we present a model where LFE slip is heterogeneous on multiple spatial scales. Clusters of LFE families may represent patches with higher strength than the surrounding areas. Finally, we find that LFE slip only accounts for a small fraction ( 0

  18. EmuStack: An OpenStack-Based DTN Network Emulation Platform (Extended Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of computing and network virtualization technology, the networking research community shows great interest in network emulation. Compared with network simulation, network emulation can provide more relevant and comprehensive details. In this paper, EmuStack, a large-scale real-time emulation platform for Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, is proposed. EmuStack aims at empowering network emulation to become as simple as network simulation. Based on OpenStack, distributed synchronous emulation modules are developed to enable EmuStack to implement synchronous and dynamic, precise, and real-time network emulation. Meanwhile, the lightweight approach of using Docker container technology and network namespaces allows EmuStack to support a (up to hundreds of nodes large-scale topology with only several physical nodes. In addition, EmuStack integrates the Linux Traffic Control (TC tools with OpenStack for managing and emulating the virtual link characteristics which include variable bandwidth, delay, loss, jitter, reordering, and duplication. Finally, experiences with our initial implementation suggest the ability to run and debug experimental network protocol in real time. EmuStack environment would bring qualitative change in network research works.

  19. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  20. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  1. Fixed recurrence and slip models better predict earthquake behavior than the time- and slip-predictable models 1: repeating earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Uchida, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of individual events in repeating earthquake sequences in California, Taiwan and Japan is better predicted by a model with fixed inter-event time or fixed slip than it is by the time- and slip-predictable models for earthquake occurrence. Given that repeating earthquakes are highly regular in both inter-event time and seismic moment, the time- and slip-predictable models seem ideally suited to explain their behavior. Taken together with evidence from the companion manuscript that shows similar results for laboratory experiments we conclude that the short-term predictions of the time- and slip-predictable models should be rejected in favor of earthquake models that assume either fixed slip or fixed recurrence interval. This implies that the elastic rebound model underlying the time- and slip-predictable models offers no additional value in describing earthquake behavior in an event-to-event sense, but its value in a long-term sense cannot be determined. These models likely fail because they rely on assumptions that oversimplify the earthquake cycle. We note that the time and slip of these events is predicted quite well by fixed slip and fixed recurrence models, so in some sense they are time- and slip-predictable. While fixed recurrence and slip models better predict repeating earthquake behavior than the time- and slip-predictable models, we observe a correlation between slip and the preceding recurrence time for many repeating earthquake sequences in Parkfield, California. This correlation is not found in other regions, and the sequences with the correlative slip-predictable behavior are not distinguishable from nearby earthquake sequences that do not exhibit this behavior.

  2. Slip control for LIM propelled transit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A. K.; Parker, J. H.; Dawson, G. E.

    1980-09-01

    Short stator linear induction motors, with an iron-backed aluminum sheet reaction rail and powered by a controlled inverter, have been selected as the propulsion system for transit vehicles in an intermediate capacity system (12-20,000 pphpd). The linear induction motor is capable of adhesion independent braking and acceleration levels which permit safe, close headways. In addition, simple control is possible allowing moving block automatic train control. This paper presents a slip frequency control scheme for the LIM. Experimental results for motoring and braking obtained from a test vehicle are also presented. These values are compared with theoretical predictions.

  3. Boundary Slip and Surface Interaction: A Lattice Boltzmann Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Yan, Chen; Hua-Bing, Li; Hou-Hui, Yi

    2008-01-01

    The factors affecting slip length in Couette geometry flows are analysed by means of a two-phase mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann model including non-ideal fluid-fluid and fluid-wall interactions. The main factors influencing the boundary slip are the strength of interactions between fluid-fluid and fluid-wall particles. Other factors, such as fluid viscosity, bulk pressure may also change the slip length. We find that boundary slip only occurs under a certain density (bulk pressure). If the density is large enough, the slip length will tend to zero. In our simulations, a low density layer near the wall does not need to be postulated a priori but emerges naturally from the underlying non-ideal mesoscopic dynamics. It is the low density layer that induces the boundary slip. The results may be helpful to understand recent experimental observations on the slippage of micro flows

  4. Closed central slip injuries--a missed diagnosis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N

    2011-09-01

    The extensor apparatus of the finger is a complex structure and injury can lead to significant digital dysfunction. Closed central slip injuries may be missed or diagnosis delayed because of lack of an open wound and often no radiographic abnormality, and can result in boutonniere deformities if untreated. This study aimed to quantify the number of patients attending with closed central slip injuries and to ascertain if the initial diagnosis was correct. The number of patients presenting to us over a 6 month period was recorded. The original diagnosis, time to diagnosis of central slip injury and the presence\\/absence of a boutonniere deformity were recorded. Ten patients were included in the study. Seven (70%) injuries were due to sport. Eight (80%) had a delayed diagnosis of central slip injury. Six (60%) had previously presented to general practitioners or emergency departments. Seven (70%) had boutonniere deformities. Closed central slip injuries can be missed. Simple clinical tests can diagnose central slip disruption.

  5. Megathrust Earthquake Swarms Contemporaneous to Slow Slip and Non-Volcanic Tremor in Southern Mexico, Detected and Analyzed through a Template Matching Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, S.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.

    2012-12-01

    An outstanding question in geophysics is the degree to which the newly discovered types of slow fault slip are related to their destructive cousin - the earthquake. Here, we utilize a local network along the Oaxacan segment of the Middle American subduction zone to investigate the potential relationship between slow slip, non-volcanic tremor (NVT), and earthquakes along the subduction megathrust. We have developed a multi-station "template matching" waveform cross correlation technique which is able to detect and locate events several orders of magnitude smaller than would be possible using more traditional techniques. Also, our template matching procedure is capable of consistently locate events which occur during periods of increased background activity (e.g., during productive NVT, loud cultural noise, or after larger earthquakes) because the multi-station detector is finely tuned to events with similar hypocentral location and focal mechanism. The local network in the Oaxaca region allows us to focus on documented megathrust earthquake swarms, which we focus on because slow slip is hypothesized to be the cause for earthquake swarms in some tectonic environments. We identify a productive earthquake swarm in July 2006 (~600 similar earthquakes detected), which occurred during a week-long episode of productive tremor and slow slip. Families of events in this sequence were also active during larger and longer slow slip events, which provides a potential link between slow slip in the transition zone and earthquakes at the downdip end of the seismogenic portion of the megathrust. Because template matching techniques only detect similar signals, detected waveforms can be stacked together to produce higher signal to noise ratios or cross correlated against each other to produce precise relative phase arrival times. We are using the refined signals to look for evidence of expansion or propagation of hypocenters during these earthquake swarms, which could be used as a

  6. Progressive slip after removal of screw fixation in slipped capital femoral epiphysis: two case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, Y.; Morgenstern, P.; van der Sluijs, J.A.; Witbreuk, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In slipped capital femoral epiphysis the femoral neck displaces relative to the head due to weakening of the epiphysis. Early recognition and adequate surgical fixation is essential for a good functional outcome. The fixation should be secured until the closure of the epiphysis to

  7. EMG and Kinematic Responses to Unexpected Slips After Slip Training in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parijat, Prakriti; Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to design a virtual reality (VR) training to induce perturbation in older adults similar to a slip and examine the effect of the training on kinematic and muscular responses in older adults. Twenty-four older adults were involved in a laboratory study and randomly assigned to two groups (virtual reality training and control). Both groups went through three sessions including baseline slip, training, and transfer of training on slippery surface. The training group experienced twelve simulated slips using a visual perturbation induced by tilting a virtual reality scene while walking on the treadmill and the control group completed normal walking during the training session. Kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected during all the sessions. Results demonstrated the proactive adjustments such as increased trunk flexion at heel contact after training. Reactive adjustments included reduced time to peak activations of knee flexors, reduced knee coactivation, reduced time to trunk flexion, and reduced trunk angular velocity after training. In conclusion, the study findings indicate that the VR training was able to generate a perturbation in older adults that evoked recovery reactions and such motor skill can be transferred to the actual slip trials. PMID:25296401

  8. Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.

  9. Development of an Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Proyag; Hammacher, Jens; Pease, Mark; Gurung, Sitanshu; Goettert, Jost

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic is a field of considerable interest. While significant research has been carried out to develop microfluidic components, very little has been done to integrate the components into a complete working system. We present a flexible modular system platform that addresses the requirements of a complete microfluidic system. A microfluidic stack system is demonstrated with the layers of the stack being modular for specific functions. The stack and accompanying infrastructure provides an attractive platform for users to transition their design concepts into a working microfluidic system quickly with very little effort. The concept is demonstrated by using the system to carry out a chemilumiscence experiment. Details regarding the fabrication, assembly and experimental methods are presented

  10. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    application of advanced methods for detailed electrochemical characterisation during operation. An operating stack is subject to steep compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and significant temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which makes it a complex system...... Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...

  11. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  12. Calculation of tritium release from reactor's stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for calculation of tritium release from nuclear to environment has been discussed. Part of gas effluent contain tritium in form of HTO vapor released from reactor's stack was sampled using silica-gel. The silica-gel was put in the water to withdraw HTO vapor absorbed by silica-gel. Tritium concentration in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counter of Aloka LSC-703. Tritium concentration in the gas effluent and total release of tritium from reactor's stack during certain interval time were calculated using simple mathematic formula. This method has examined for calculation of tritium release from JRR-3M's stack of JAERI, Japan. From the calculation it was obtained the value of tritium release as much as 4.63 x 10 11 Bq during one month. (author)

  13. A geodetic matched-filter search for slow slip with application to the Mexico subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, B.; Campillo, M.; Lasserre, C.; Frank, W.; Cotte, N.; Walpersdorf, A.; Socquet, A.; Kostoglodov, V.

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of slow slip events, many methods have been successfully applied to model obvious transient events in geodetic time series, such as the widely used network strain filter. Independent seismological observations of tremors or low frequency earthquakes and repeating earthquakes provide evidence of low amplitude slow deformation but do not always coincide with clear occurrences of transient signals in geodetic time series. Here, we aim to extract the signal corresponding to slow slips hidden in the noise of GPS time series, without using information from independent datasets. We first build a library of synthetic slow slip event templates by assembling a source function with Green's functions for a discretized fault. We then correlate the templates with post-processed GPS time series. Once the events have been detected in time, we estimate their duration T and magnitude Mw by modelling a weighted stack of GPS time series. An analysis of synthetic time series shows that this method is able to resolve the correct timing, location, T and Mw of events larger than Mw 6.0 in the context of the Mexico subduction zone. Applied on a real data set of 29 GPS time series in the Guerrero area from 2005 to 2014, this technique allows us to detect 28 transient events from Mw 6.3 to 7.2 with durations that range from 3 to 39 days. These events have a dominant recurrence time of 40 days and are mainly located at the down dip edges of the Mw > 7.5 SSEs.

  14. Experimental investigation of flow and slip transition in nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Li, Long; Mo, Jingwen

    2014-11-01

    Flow slip in nanochannels is sought in many applications, such as sea water desalination and molecular separation, because it can enhance fluid transport, which is essential in nanofluidic systems. Previous findings about the slip length for simple fluids at the nanoscale appear to be controversial. Some experiments and simulations showed that the slip length is independent of shear rate, which agrees with the prediction of classic slip theories. However, there is increasing work showing that slip length is shear rate dependent. In this work, we experimentally investigate the Poiseuille flows in nanochannels. It is found that the flow rate undergoes a transition between two linear regimes as the shear rate is varied. The transition indicates that the non-slip boundary condition is valid at low shear rate. When the shear rate is larger than a critical value, slip takes place and the slip length increases linearly with increasing shear rate before approaching a constant value. The results reported in this work can help advance the understanding of flow slip in nanochannels. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region under Grant Nos. 615710 and 615312. J. Mo was partially supported by the Postgraduate Scholarship through the Energy Program at HKUST.

  15. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: A modern treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavković Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of a patient with slipped capital femoral epiphysis begins with an early diagnosis and accurate classification. On the basis of symptom duration, clinical findings and radiographs, slipped capital femoral epiphysis is classified as pre-slip, acute, acute-on-chronic and chronic. The long-term outcome of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is directly related to severity and the presence or absence of avascular necrosis and/or chondrolysis. Therefore, the first priority in the treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is to avoid complications while securing the epiphysis from further slippage. Medical treatment of patients with acute and acute-on-chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis, as well as those presented in pre-slip stage, is the safest, although time-consuming. Manipulations, especially forced and repeated, are not recommended due to higher avascular necrosis risk. The use of intraoperative fluoroscopy to assist in the placement of internal fixation devices has markedly increased the success of surgical treatment. Controversy remains as to whether the proximal femoral epiphysis in severe, chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis should be realigned by extracapsular osteotomies or just fixed in situ. The management protocol for slipped capital femoral epiphysis depends on the experience of the surgeon, motivation of the patient and technical facilities.

  16. Multiparameter Monitoring and Prevention of Fault-Slip Rock Burst

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shan-chao; Tan, Yun-liang; Ning, Jian-guo; Guo, Wei-Yao; Liu, Xue-sheng

    2017-01-01

    Fault-slip rock burst is one type of the tectonic rock burst during mining. A detailed understanding of the precursory information of fault-slip rock burst and implementation of monitoring and early warning systems, as well as pressure relief measures, are essential to safety production in deep mines. This paper first establishes a mechanical model of stick-slip instability in fault-slip rock bursts and then reveals the failure characteristics of the instability. Then, change rule of mining-i...

  17. Stochastic Wheel-Slip Compensation Based Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDHARTHAN, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wheel slip compensation is vital for building accurate and reliable dead reckoning based robot localization and mapping algorithms. This investigation presents stochastic slip compensation scheme for robot localization and mapping. Main idea of the slip compensation technique is to use wheel-slip data obtained from experiments to model the variations in slip velocity as Gaussian distributions. This leads to a family of models that are switched depending on the input command. To obtain the wheel-slip measurements, experiments are conducted on a wheeled mobile robot and the measurements thus obtained are used to build the Gaussian models. Then the localization and mapping algorithm is tested on an experimental terrain and a new metric called the map spread factor is used to evaluate the ability of the slip compensation technique. Our results clearly indicate that the proposed methodology improves the accuracy by 72.55% for rotation and 66.67% for translation motion as against an uncompensated mapping system. The proposed compensation technique eliminates the need for extro receptive sensors for slip compensation, complex feature extraction and association algorithms. As a result, we obtain a simple slip compensation scheme for localization and mapping.

  18. Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.

  19. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  20. Stack Monitoring System At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamrul Faizad Omar; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the current Stack Monitoring System at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) building. A stack monitoring system is a continuous air monitor placed at the reactor top for monitoring the presence of radioactive gaseous in the effluent air from the RTP building. The system consists of four detectors that provide the reading for background, particulate, Iodine and Noble gas. There is a plan to replace the current system due to frequent fault of the system, thus thorough understanding of the current system is required. Overview of the whole system will be explained in this paper. Some current results would be displayed and moving forward brief plan would be mentioned. (author)

  1. Fluid Pressures at the Shoe-Floor-Contaminant Interface During Slips: Effects of Tread & Implications on Slip Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschorner, Kurt E.; Albert, Devon L.; Chambers, April J.; Redfern, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research on slip and fall accidents has suggested that pressurized fluid between the shoe and floor is responsible for initiating slips yet this effect has not been verified experimentally. This study aimed to 1) measure hydrodynamic pressures during slipping for treaded and untreaded conditions; 2) determine the effects of fluid pressure on slip severity; and 3) quantify how fluid pressures vary with instantaneous resultant slipping speed, position on the shoe surface, and throughout the progression of the slip. Eighteen subjects walked on known dry and unexpected slippery floors, while wearing treaded and untreaded shoes. Fluid pressure sensors, embedded in the floor, recorded hydrodynamic pressures during slipping. The maximum fluid pressures (mean+/−standard deviation) were significantly higher for the untreaded conditions (124 +/−75 kPa) than the treaded conditions (1.1 +/−0.29 kPa). Maximum fluid pressures were positively correlated with peak slipping speed (r = 0.87), suggesting that higher fluid pressures, which are associated with untreaded conditions, resulted in more severe slips. Instantaneous resultant slipping speed and position of sensor relative to the shoe sole and walking direction explained 41% of the fluid pressure variability. Fluid pressures were primarily observed for untreaded conditions. This study confirms that fluid pressures are relevant to slipping events, consistent with fluid dynamics theory (i.e. the Reynolds equation), and can be modified with shoe tread design. The results suggest that the occurrence and severity of unexpected slips can be reduced by designing shoes/floors that reduce underfoot fluid pressures. PMID:24267270

  2. Witnessing a Large-scale Slipping Magnetic Reconnection along a Dimming Channel during a Solar Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Ju; Lee, Jeongwoo; Xu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Liu, Rui [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Cheung, Mark C. M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Zhu, Chunming, E-mail: ju.jing@njit.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We report the intriguing large-scale dynamic phenomena associated with the M6.5 flare (SOL2015-06-22T18:23) in NOAA active region 12371, observed by RHESSI , Fermi , and the Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO ). The most interesting feature of this event is a third ribbon (R3) arising in the decay phase, propagating along a dimming channel (seen in EUV passbands) toward a neighboring sunspot. The propagation of R3 occurs in the presence of hard X-ray footpoint emission and is broadly visible at temperatures from 0.6 MK to over 10 MK through the differential emission measure analysis. The coronal loops then undergo an apparent slipping motion following the same path of R3, after a ∼80 minute delay. To understand the underlying physics, we investigate the magnetic configuration and the thermal structure of the flaring region. Our results are in favor of a slipping-type reconnection followed by the thermodynamic evolution of coronal loops. In comparison with those previously reported slipping reconnection events, this one proceeds across a particularly long distance (∼60 Mm) over a long period of time (∼50 minutes) and shows two clearly distinguished phases: the propagation of the footpoint brightening driven by nonthermal particle injection and the apparent slippage of loops governed by plasma heating and subsequent cooling.

  3. Two sides of a fault: Grain-scale analysis of pore pressure control on fault slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibing; Juanes, Ruben

    2018-02-01

    Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection and extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remains poorly understood; yet, it is critical for the assessment of seismic hazard. Here, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on fault slip behavior. The model couples fluid flow on the network of pores with mechanical deformation of the skeleton of solid grains. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks. We study fault stability in the presence of a pressure discontinuity across the gouge layer and compare it with the case of continuous (homogeneous) pore pressure. We focus on the onset of shear failure in the gouge layer and reproduce conditions where the failure plane is parallel to the fault. We show that when the pressure is discontinuous across the fault, the onset of slip occurs on the side with the higher pore pressure, and that this onset is controlled by the maximum pressure on both sides of the fault. The results shed new light on the use of the effective stress principle and the Coulomb failure criterion in evaluating the stability of a complex fault zone.

  4. Two sides of a fault: Grain-scale analysis of pore pressure control on fault slip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibing; Juanes, Ruben

    2018-02-01

    Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection and extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remains poorly understood; yet, it is critical for the assessment of seismic hazard. Here, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on fault slip behavior. The model couples fluid flow on the network of pores with mechanical deformation of the skeleton of solid grains. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks. We study fault stability in the presence of a pressure discontinuity across the gouge layer and compare it with the case of continuous (homogeneous) pore pressure. We focus on the onset of shear failure in the gouge layer and reproduce conditions where the failure plane is parallel to the fault. We show that when the pressure is discontinuous across the fault, the onset of slip occurs on the side with the higher pore pressure, and that this onset is controlled by the maximum pressure on both sides of the fault. The results shed new light on the use of the effective stress principle and the Coulomb failure criterion in evaluating the stability of a complex fault zone.

  5. Slip reactivation model for the 2011 Mw9 Tohoku earthquake: Dynamic rupture, sea floor displacements and tsunami simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Rahnema, K.; Bader, M.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Mw9 Tohoku earthquake has been recorded with a vast GPS and seismic network given unprecedented chance to seismologists to unveil complex rupture processes in a mega-thrust event. In fact more than one thousand near field strong-motion stations across Japan (K-Net and Kik-Net) revealed complex ground motion patterns attributed to the source effects, allowing to capture detailed information of the rupture process. The seismic stations surrounding the Miyagi regions (MYGH013) show two clear distinct waveforms separated by 40 seconds. This observation is consistent with the kinematic source model obtained from the inversion of strong motion data performed by Lee's et al (2011). In this model two rupture fronts separated by 40 seconds emanate close to the hypocenter and propagate towards the trench. This feature is clearly observed by stacking the slip-rate snapshots on fault points aligned in the EW direction passing through the hypocenter (Gabriel et al, 2012), suggesting slip reactivation during the main event. A repeating slip on large earthquakes may occur due to frictional melting and thermal fluid pressurization effects. Kanamori & Heaton (2002) argued that during faulting of large earthquakes the temperature rises high enough creating melting and further reduction of friction coefficient. We created a 3D dynamic rupture model to reproduce this slip reactivation pattern using SPECFEM3D (Galvez et al, 2014) based on a slip-weakening friction with sudden two sequential stress drops . Our model starts like a M7-8 earthquake breaking dimly the trench, then after 40 seconds a second rupture emerges close to the trench producing additional slip capable to fully break the trench and transforming the earthquake into a megathrust event. The resulting sea floor displacements are in agreement with 1Hz GPS displacements (GEONET). The seismograms agree roughly with seismic records along the coast of Japan.The simulated sea floor displacement reaches 8-10 meters of

  6. A Model for Low-Frequency Earthquake Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestler, S. R.; Creager, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Using high-resolution relative low-frequency earthquake (LFE) locations, we calculate the patch areas (Ap) of LFE families. During episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events, we define AT as the area that slips during LFEs and ST as the total amount of summed LFE slip. Using observed and calculated values for AP, AT, and ST, we evaluate two end-member models for LFE slip within an LFE family patch. In the ductile matrix model, LFEs produce 100% of the observed ETS slip (SETS) in distinct subpatches (i.e., AT ≪ AP). In the connected patch model, AT = AP, but ST ≪ SETS. LFEs cluster into 45 LFE families. Spatial gaps (˜10 to 20 km) between LFE family clusters and smaller gaps within LFE family clusters serve as evidence that LFE slip is heterogeneous on multiple spatial scales. We find that LFE slip only accounts for ˜0.2% of the slip within the slow slip zone. There are depth-dependent trends in the characteristic (mean) moment and in the number of LFEs during both ETS events (only) and the entire ETS cycle (Mcets and NTets and Mcall and NTall, respectively). During ETS, Mc decreases with downdip distance but NT does not change. Over the entire ETS cycle, Mc decreases with downdip distance, but NT increases. These observations indicate that deeper LFE slip occurs through a larger number (800-1,200) of small LFEs, while updip LFE slip occurs primarily during ETS events through a smaller number (200-600) of larger LFEs. This could indicate that the plate interface is stronger and has a higher stress threshold updip.

  7. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...

  8. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Malá, Zdeňka; Pantůčková, Pavla; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 3-18 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  9. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  10. Scaling the CERN OpenStack cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.; Bompastor, B.; Bukowiec, S.; Castro Leon, J.; Denis, M. K.; van Eldik, J.; Fermin Lobo, M.; Fernandez Alvarez, L.; Fernandez Rodriguez, D.; Marino, A.; Moreira, B.; Noel, B.; Oulevey, T.; Takase, W.; Wiebalck, A.; Zilli, S.

    2015-12-01

    CERN has been running a production OpenStack cloud since July 2013 to support physics computing and infrastructure services for the site. In the past year, CERN Cloud Infrastructure has seen a constant increase in nodes, virtual machines, users and projects. This paper will present what has been done in order to make the CERN cloud infrastructure scale out.

  11. Stacking non-BPS D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Caceres, Elena; Goldstein, Kevin; Lowe, David A. . lowe@het.brown.edu

    2001-08-01

    We present a candidate supergravity solution for a stacked configuration of stable non-BPS D-branes in Type II string theory compactified on T 4 /Z 2 . This gives a supergravity description of nonabelian tachyon condensation on the brane woldvolume. (author)

  12. Trace interpolation by slant-stack migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, M.

    1990-01-01

    The slant-stack migration formula based on the radon transform is studied with respect to the depth steep Δz of wavefield extrapolation. It can be viewed as a generalized trace-interpolation procedure including wave extrapolation with an arbitrary step Δz. For Δz > 0 the formula yields the familiar plane-wave decomposition, while for Δz > 0 it provides a robust tool for migration transformation of spatially under sampled wavefields. Using the stationary phase method, it is shown that the slant-stack migration formula degenerates into the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral in the far-field approximation. Consequently, even a narrow slant-stack gather applied before the diffraction stack can significantly improve the representation of noisy data in the wavefield extrapolation process. The theory is applied to synthetic and field data to perform trace interpolation and dip reject filtration. The data examples presented prove that the radon interpolator works well in the dip range, including waves with mutual stepouts smaller than half the dominant period

  13. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, Zdeňka; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2015), s. 15-35 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015

  14. 40 CFR 61.53 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.53 Section 61.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Mercury ore processing facility. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under...

  15. 40 CFR 61.33 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.33 Section 61.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, each owner or operator...

  16. OpenStack cloud computing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook full of practical and applicable recipes that will enable you to use the full capabilities of OpenStack like never before.This book is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments with familiarity of cloud computing platforms. Knowledge of virtualization and managing linux environments is expected.

  17. Toward advising SME's on stacked funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwerda, Kirsten; van Teeffelen, Lex; de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses new funding issues faced by SMEs. Over a period of nine months, the authors conducted a preliminary study into the problems surrounding stacked funding faced by SMEs and their financial advisers. The study includes a short literature review, the outcomes of three round table

  18. Photoswitchable Intramolecular H-Stacking of Perylenebisimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Kulago, Artem; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control over the formation of H- or J-type aggregates of chromophores is of fundamental importance for developing responsive organic optoelectronic materials. In this study, the first example of photoswitching between a nonstacked and an intramolecularly H-stacked arrangement of

  19. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  20. OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Amar; Varma, Sreedhar

    2015-01-01

    If you are an IT administrator and you want to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Linux and server technology is beneficial to get the most out of the book.

  1. Stability of fault submitted to fluid injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; Passelegue, F. X.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated pore pressure can lead to slip reactivation on pre-existing fractures and faults when the coulomb failure point is reached. From a static point of view, the reactivation of fault submitted to a background stress (τ0) is a function of the peak strength of the fault, i.e. the quasi-static effective friction coefficient (µeff). However, this theory is valid only when the entire fault is affected by fluid pressure, which is not the case in nature, and during human induced-seismicity. In this study, we present new results about the influence of the injection rate on the stability of faults. Experiments were conducted on a saw-cut sample of westerly granite. The experimental fault was 8 cm length. Injections were conducted through a 2 mm diameter hole reaching the fault surface. Experiments were conducted at four different order magnitudes fluid pressure injection rates (from 1 MPa/minute to 1 GPa/minute), in a fault system submitted to 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure. Our results show that the peak fluid pressure leading to slip depends on injection rate. The faster the injection rate, the larger the peak fluid pressure leading to instability. Wave velocity surveys across the fault highlighted that decreasing the injection-rate leads to an increase of size of the fluid pressure perturbation. Our result demonstrate that the stability of the fault is not only a function of the fluid pressure requires to reach the failure criterion, but is mainly a function of the ratio between the length of the fault affected by fluid pressure and the total fault length. In addition, we show that the slip rate increases with the background effective stress and with the intensity of the fluid pressure pertubation, i.e. with the excess shear stress acting on the part of the fault pertubated by fluid injection. Our results suggest that crustal fault can be reactivated by local high fluid overpressures. These results could explain the "large" magnitude human-induced earthquakes

  2. Prediction of fluid velocity slip at solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter

    2011-01-01

    methods, it allows us to directly compute the intrinsic wall-fluid friction coefficient rather than an empirical friction coefficient that includes all sources of friction for planar shear flow. The slip length predicted by our method is in excellent agreement with the slip length obtained from direct...

  3. Multiparameter Monitoring and Prevention of Fault-Slip Rock Burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-chao Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault-slip rock burst is one type of the tectonic rock burst during mining. A detailed understanding of the precursory information of fault-slip rock burst and implementation of monitoring and early warning systems, as well as pressure relief measures, are essential to safety production in deep mines. This paper first establishes a mechanical model of stick-slip instability in fault-slip rock bursts and then reveals the failure characteristics of the instability. Then, change rule of mining-induced stress and microseismic signals before the occurrence of fault-slip rock burst are proposed, and multiparameter integrated early warning methods including mining-induced stress and energy are established. Finally, pressure relief methods targeting large-diameter boreholes and coal seam infusion are presented in accordance with the occurrence mechanism of fault-slip rock burst. The research results have been successfully applied in working faces 2310 of the Suncun Coal Mine, and the safety of the mine has been enhanced. These research results improve the theory of fault-slip rock burst mechanisms and provide the basis for prediction and forecasting, as well as pressure relief, of fault-slip rock bursts.

  4. A Transformational Approach to Slip-Slide Factoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckroth, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    In this "Delving Deeper" article, the author introduces the slip-slide method for solving Algebra 1 mathematics problems. This article compares the traditional method approach of trial and error to the slip-slide method of factoring. Tools that used to be taken for granted now make it possible to investigate relationships visually,…

  5. Earthquake source properties from instrumented laboratory stick-slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Brian D.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Lockner, David A.; Thomas, Marion Y.; Mitchell, Thomas M.; Bhat, Harsha S.

    2017-01-01

    Stick-slip experiments were performed to determine the influence of the testing apparatus on source properties, develop methods to relate stick-slip to natural earthquakes and examine the hypothesis of McGarr [2012] that the product of stiffness, k, and slip duration, Δt, is scale-independent and the same order as for earthquakes. The experiments use the double-direct shear geometry, Sierra White granite at 2 MPa normal stress and a remote slip rate of 0.2 µm/sec. To determine apparatus effects, disc springs were added to the loading column to vary k. Duration, slip, slip rate, and stress drop decrease with increasing k, consistent with a spring-block slider model. However, neither for the data nor model is kΔt constant; this results from varying stiffness at fixed scale.In contrast, additional analysis of laboratory stick-slip studies from a range of standard testing apparatuses is consistent with McGarr's hypothesis. kΔt is scale-independent, similar to that of earthquakes, equivalent to the ratio of static stress drop to average slip velocity, and similar to the ratio of shear modulus to wavespeed of rock. These properties result from conducting experiments over a range of sample sizes, using rock samples with the same elastic properties as the Earth, and scale-independent design practices.

  6. Stability Analysis of Static Slip-Energy Recovery Drive via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability of the sub synchronous static slip energy recovery scheme for the speed control of slip-ring induction motor is presented. A set of nonlinear differential equations which describe the system dynamics are derived and linearized about an operating point using perturbation technique. The Eigenvalue analysis of the ...

  7. Steady Boundary Layer Slip Flow along with Heat and Mass Transfer over a Flat Porous Plate Embedded in a Porous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Asim; Siddique, J. I.; Aziz, Taha

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified model of an incompressible fluid flow along with heat and mass transfer past a porous flat plate embedded in a Darcy type porous medium is investigated. The velocity, thermal and mass slip conditions are utilized that has not been discussed in the literature before. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) into a nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The resulting system of ODEs is then reduced to a system of first order differential equations which was solved numerically by using Matlab bvp4c code. The effects of permeability, suction/injection parameter, velocity parameter and slip parameter on the structure of velocity, temperature and mass transfer rates are examined with the aid of several graphs. Moreover, observations based on Schmidt number and Soret number are also presented. The result shows, the increase in permeability of the porous medium increase the velocity and decrease the temperature profile. This happens due to a decrease in drag of the fluid flow. In the case of heat transfer, the increase in permeability and slip parameter causes an increase in heat transfer. However for the case of increase in thermal slip parameter there is a decrease in heat transfer. An increase in the mass slip parameter causes a decrease in the concentration field. The suction and injection parameter has similar effect on concentration profile as for the case of velocity profile. PMID:25531301

  8. Steady boundary layer slip flow along with heat and mass transfer over a flat porous plate embedded in a porous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Asim; Siddique, J I; Aziz, Taha

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified model of an incompressible fluid flow along with heat and mass transfer past a porous flat plate embedded in a Darcy type porous medium is investigated. The velocity, thermal and mass slip conditions are utilized that has not been discussed in the literature before. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) into a nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The resulting system of ODEs is then reduced to a system of first order differential equations which was solved numerically by using Matlab bvp4c code. The effects of permeability, suction/injection parameter, velocity parameter and slip parameter on the structure of velocity, temperature and mass transfer rates are examined with the aid of several graphs. Moreover, observations based on Schmidt number and Soret number are also presented. The result shows, the increase in permeability of the porous medium increase the velocity and decrease the temperature profile. This happens due to a decrease in drag of the fluid flow. In the case of heat transfer, the increase in permeability and slip parameter causes an increase in heat transfer. However for the case of increase in thermal slip parameter there is a decrease in heat transfer. An increase in the mass slip parameter causes a decrease in the concentration field. The suction and injection parameter has similar effect on concentration profile as for the case of velocity profile.

  9. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient (μ). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 μ. If μ > 2/7 tan θ, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  10. Analysis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Sponseller, P.D.; Griffin, P.P.

    1988-01-01

    CT with multiplanar reconstruction (CT/MPR) was used to assess 25 adolescents with known or suspected slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). CT/MPR localizes the epiphysis in three planes, establishing its relationship to the acetabulum and the metaphyseal neck. MPR facilitates measurements of head-neck angles, residusal head-neck contact, and relative retrovision. CT/MPR may establish the true age of the epiphyseal failure and can reveal subtle SCFE in the face of normal plain films. Patients often present with confusing histories; clues to the true age of failure include subtle signs of healing, remodeling, or new bone buttressing. Characterization of acute versus chronic conditions influences preoperative planning. Postoperatively, CT/MPR confirms early results and follows epiphyseal fusion and remodelling. It also detects complications, such as pin or graft migration avascular necrosis (AVN), or chondrolysis

  11. Simulating spontaneous aseismic and seismic slip events on evolving faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrendörfer, Robert; van Dinther, Ylona; Pranger, Casper; Gerya, Taras

    2017-04-01

    Plate motion along tectonic boundaries is accommodated by different slip modes: steady creep, seismic slip and slow slip transients. Due to mainly indirect observations and difficulties to scale results from laboratory experiments to nature, it remains enigmatic which fault conditions favour certain slip modes. Therefore, we are developing a numerical modelling approach that is capable of simulating different slip modes together with the long-term fault evolution in a large-scale tectonic setting. We extend the 2D, continuum mechanics-based, visco-elasto-plastic thermo-mechanical model that was designed to simulate slip transients in large-scale geodynamic simulations (van Dinther et al., JGR, 2013). We improve the numerical approach to accurately treat the non-linear problem of plasticity (see also EGU 2017 abstract by Pranger et al.). To resolve a wide slip rate spectrum on evolving faults, we develop an invariant reformulation of the conventional rate-and-state dependent friction (RSF) and adapt the time step (Lapusta et al., JGR, 2000). A crucial part of this development is a conceptual ductile fault zone model that relates slip rates along discrete planes to the effective macroscopic plastic strain rates in the continuum. We test our implementation first in a simple 2D setup with a single fault zone that has a predefined initial thickness. Results show that deformation localizes in case of steady creep and for very slow slip transients to a bell-shaped strain rate profile across the fault zone, which suggests that a length scale across the fault zone may exist. This continuum length scale would overcome the common mesh-dependency in plasticity simulations and question the conventional treatment of aseismic slip on infinitely thin fault zones. We test the introduction of a diffusion term (similar to the damage description in Lyakhovsky et al., JMPS, 2011) into the state evolution equation and its effect on (de-)localization during faster slip events. We compare

  12. Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-10-15

    The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220 μm wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ∼100 m/s, which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

  13. Learning and Prediction of Slip from Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To address this problem, terrain appearance and geometry information about map cells are correlated to the slip measured by the rover while traversing each cell. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted remotely from visual information only. The proposed method consists of terrain type recognition and nonlinear regression modeling. The method has been implemented and tested offline on several off-road terrains including: soil, sand, gravel, and woodchips. The final slip prediction error is about 20%. The system is intended for improved navigation on steep slopes and rough terrain for Mars rovers.

  14. Axisymmetric Tornado Simulations with a Semi-Slip Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Fiedler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of natural tornadoes and simulated analogs are sensitive to the lower boundary condition for friction. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of storms require a choice for turbulence parameterizations and resolution of wind near the lower boundary. This article explores some of the consequences of choices of a surface drag coefficient on the structure of a mature simulated tornado, using a conventional axisymmetric model. The surface drag parameterization is explored over the range of the semi-slip condition, including the extremes of no-slip and free-slip. A moderate semi-slip condition allows for an extreme pressure deficit, but without the unrealistic vortex breakdown of the no-slip condition.

  15. Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Nguyen, H. D.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220 μm wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ∼100 m/s, which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

  16. How informative are slip models for aftershock forecasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Christoph; Hainzl, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    Coulomb stress changes (ΔCFS) have been recognized as a major trigger mechanism for earthquakes, in particular aftershock distributions and the spatial patterns of ΔCFS are often found to be correlated. However, the Coulomb stress calculations are based on slip inversions and the receiver fault mechanisms which both contain large uncertainties. In particular, slip inversions are usually non-unique and often differ strongly for the same earthquakes. Here we want to address the information content of those inversions with respect to aftershock forecasting. Therefore we compare the slip models to randomized fractal slip models which are only constrained by fault information and moment magnitude. The uncertainty of the aftershock mechanisms is considered by using many receiver fault orientations, and by calculating ΔCFS at several depth layers. The stress change is then converted into an aftershock probability map utilizing a clock advance model. To estimate the information content of the slip models, we use an Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model approach introduced by Bach and Hainzl (2012), where the spatial probability density of direct aftershocks is related to the ΔCFS calculations. Besides the directly triggered aftershocks, this approach also takes secondary aftershock triggering into account. We quantify our results by calculating the information gain of the randomized slip models relative to the corresponding published slip model. As case studies, we investigate the aftershock sequences of several well-known main shocks such as 1992 Landers, 1999 Hector Mine, 2004 Parkfield, 2002 Denali. First results show a huge difference in the information content of slip models. For some of the cases up to 90% of the random slip models are found to perform better than the originally published model, for some other cases only few random models are found performing better than the published slip model.

  17. PROCESSING OF CONCENTRATED AQUEOUS ZIRCONIA-BIOGLASS SLIPS BY SLIP CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltina Leon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available 3 mol% yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP powder and a sol-gel derived CaO- P₂O₅- SiO₂ (64S bioglass, were used to produce Y-TZP- bioglass slip cast compacts. The rheological properties of concentrated aqueous Y-TZP- 64S suspensions prepared with two different glass contents: 10.5 vol% and 19.9 vol%, and ammonium polyacrylate (NH₄PA as dispersant, were investigated and compared with those of Y-TZP. The density of green cast samples was related to the degree of slip dispersion. The substitution of Y-TZP by 64S glass in the mixtures resulted in greater adsorption of NH₄PA; however, the viscosity and yield stress values of Y-TZP-64S slips were higher than those of Y-TZP ones for the solid loadings studied. The increase in the glass content from 10.5 to 19.9 vol% increased the viscosity and yield stress values. The presence of 64S glass in the mixtures resulted in a less dense packing of cast samples.

  18. Spatiotemporal evolution of premonitory fault slip prior to stick-slip instability: New insight into the earthquake preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Y. Q.; Liu, P.; Guo, Y.; Ji, Y.; Ma, J.

    2017-12-01

    Premonitory fault slip, which begins with quasistatic propagation followed by quasidynamic propagation, may be a key clue bridging the "stick" state and "slip" state of a fault. More attentions have been paid for a long time to the temporal resolution of measurement than the spatial resolution, leading to the incomplete interpretation for the spatial evolution of premonitory slip, particularly during the quasistatic phase. In the present study, measurement of the quasistatic propagation of premonitory slip is achieved at an ultrahigh spatial resolution via a digital image correlation method. Multiple premonitory slip zones are observed and found to be controlled spatially by the fault contact heterogeneity, particularly the strong contact patches that prevent the propagation of premonitory slip and accumulate strain. As a result, premonitory slip is accelerated within constrained week contact spaces and consequently triggers the breakout of quasidynamic propagation. The results provide new insights into the quasistatic propagation of premonitory slip and may offer new interpretations for the earthquake nucleation process. This work is fund by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41572181), the Basic Scientific Funding of Chinese National Nonprofit Institutes (Grant No. IGCEA1415, IGCEA1525), and the Early-Stage Work of Key Breakthrough Plan in Seismology from China Earthquake Administration.

  19. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  20. Stress-induced formation mechanism of stacking fault tetrahedra in nano-cutting of single crystal copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quanlong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Bai, Qingshun [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Jiaxuan, E-mail: wangquanlong0@hit.edu.cn [Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Guo, Yongbo [Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xie, Wenkun [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the distribution of dislocation defects and local atomic crystal structure of single crystal copper. The stress distribution is investigated which is calculated by virial stress and analyzed by static pressure. The results are shown in (a)–(d). It is indicated that the compressive stress mainly spreads over the shear-slip zone, and the tensile stress is consisted in flank friction zone, shown in (a). The high tensile stress in subsurface is the source of stress, shown in (b). By the driven action of the stress source, the initial stair-rod dislocation nucleates. Then the dislocation climbs along four {1 1 1} planes under the stress driven action, shown in (d). Finally, the SFT is formed by the interaction of the compressive stress and the tensile stress which come from the shear-slip zone and friction zone, respectively. Besides, stair-rod dislocation, stacking faults and dislocation loop are also nucleated in the subsurface, shown in (c). Dislocation distribution, local atomic crystal structure state and stress-induced formation process of SFT by atomic. - Highlights: • A novel defect structure “stress-induced stacking fault tetrahedra” is revealed. • Atomic structural evolution and stress state distribution of the SFT are studied. • The stress-induced formation mechanism of the SFT is proposed. - Abstract: Stacking fault tetrahedra commonly existed in subsurface of deformed face center cubic metals, has great influence on machining precision and surface roughness in nano-cutting. Here we report, a stacking fault tetrahedra is formed in subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting. The variation of cutting force and subsurface defects distribution are studied by using molecular dynamics simulation. The stress distribution is investigated which is calculated by virial stress and analyzed by static compression. The result shows that the cutting force has a rapidly

  1. Stress-induced formation mechanism of stacking fault tetrahedra in nano-cutting of single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Quanlong; Bai, Qingshun; Chen, Jiaxuan; Guo, Yongbo; Xie, Wenkun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the distribution of dislocation defects and local atomic crystal structure of single crystal copper. The stress distribution is investigated which is calculated by virial stress and analyzed by static pressure. The results are shown in (a)–(d). It is indicated that the compressive stress mainly spreads over the shear-slip zone, and the tensile stress is consisted in flank friction zone, shown in (a). The high tensile stress in subsurface is the source of stress, shown in (b). By the driven action of the stress source, the initial stair-rod dislocation nucleates. Then the dislocation climbs along four {1 1 1} planes under the stress driven action, shown in (d). Finally, the SFT is formed by the interaction of the compressive stress and the tensile stress which come from the shear-slip zone and friction zone, respectively. Besides, stair-rod dislocation, stacking faults and dislocation loop are also nucleated in the subsurface, shown in (c). Dislocation distribution, local atomic crystal structure state and stress-induced formation process of SFT by atomic. - Highlights: • A novel defect structure “stress-induced stacking fault tetrahedra” is revealed. • Atomic structural evolution and stress state distribution of the SFT are studied. • The stress-induced formation mechanism of the SFT is proposed. - Abstract: Stacking fault tetrahedra commonly existed in subsurface of deformed face center cubic metals, has great influence on machining precision and surface roughness in nano-cutting. Here we report, a stacking fault tetrahedra is formed in subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting. The variation of cutting force and subsurface defects distribution are studied by using molecular dynamics simulation. The stress distribution is investigated which is calculated by virial stress and analyzed by static compression. The result shows that the cutting force has a rapidly

  2. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks

  3. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  4. Effect of viscous dissipation of a magneto hydrodynamic micropolar fluid with momentum and temperature dependent slip flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, K.; Kumar, Sathies; Lakshmi Narayana, K.; Subhakar, M. J.; Rushi Kumar, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, MHD flow and heat transfer of electrically conducting micro polar fluid over a permeable stretching surface with slip flow in the existence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent slip flow are investigated. With the help of similarity transformations, the fundamental equations have been altered into a system of ordinary differential equations. It is difficult to solve these equations methodically. That’s why we used bvp4c MATLAB solver. We found the Numerical values for the wall couple stress, skin-friction coefficient, and the local Nusselt number in addition to the micro rotation, velocity, and temperature reports for diverse values of the principal parameters like thermal slip parameter, material parameter, magnetic parameter, heat generation/absorption parameter, velocity slip parameter and Eckert number It is observed that the values of suction/injection parameters rise corresponding to the lessening in the values of velocity, angular velocity, and temperature. Moreover, the change in the values of the Eckert number is opposite to the change in the values of the local Nusselt number.

  5. Stacking multiple connecting functional materials in tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Deng-Ke; Jiang, Nan; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-02-01

    Tandem device is an important architecture in fabricating high performance organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. The key element in making a high performance tandem device is the connecting materials stack, which plays an important role in electric field distribution, charge generation and charge injection. For a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a simple Liq/Al/MoO3 stack, we discovered that there is a significant current lateral spreading causing light emission over an extremely large area outside the OLED pixel when the Al thickness exceeds 2 nm. This spread light emission, caused by an inductive electric field over one of the device unit, limits one’s ability to fabricate high performance tandem devices. To resolve this issue, a new connecting materials stack with a C60 fullerene buffer layer is reported. This new structure permits optimization of the Al metal layer in the connecting stack and thus enables us to fabricate an efficient tandem OLED having a high 155.6 cd/A current efficiency and a low roll-off (or droop) in current efficiency.

  6. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  7. Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware

  8. Development of on-site PAFC stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, K.; Matsumoto, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki (Japan); Horiuchi, H.; Ohtani, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) has been researched for commercial use and demonstration plants have been installed in various sites. However, PAFC don`t have a enough stability yet, so more research and development must be required in the future. Especially, cell stack needs a proper state of three phases (liquid, gas and solid) interface. It is very difficult technology to keep this condition for a long time. In the small size cell with the electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}, gas flow and temperature distributions show uniformity. But in the large size cell with the electrode area of 4000 cm{sup 2}, the temperature distributions show non-uniformity. These distributions would cause to be shorten the cell life. Because these distributions make hot-spot and gas poverty in limited parts. So we inserted thermocouples in short-stack for measuring three-dimensional temperature distributions and observed effects of current density and gas utilization on temperature.

  9. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  10. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  11. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  12. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  13. On-line stacking techniques for the nonaqueous capillary electrophoretic determination of acrylamide in processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezcan, Filiz; Erim, F. Bedia

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, field amplified sample stacking (FASS) techniques in the nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis method (NACE) were introduced for the on-line concentration of the acrylamide to improve acrylamide detection at 210 nm by diode-array detection. Acetonitrile (ACN) as a nonaqueous solvent permits acrylamide to be protonated through the change of its acid-base chemistry, allowing capillary electrophoretic separation of this compound. Choosing 30 mmol L -1 HClO 4 , 20 mmol L -1 NaClO 4 , 218 mmol L -1 CH 3 COOH in ACN as the separation electrolyte and employing sample stacking methods, the LOD value of acrylamide was decreased to 2.6 ng mL -1 with electrokinetic injection and 4.4 ng mL -1 with hydrodynamic injection. Optimized stacking conditions were applied to the determination of acrylamide in several foodstuffs. The method is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and widely applicable for the determination of acrylamide in food samples

  14. Experimental investigation of electron cooling and stacking of lead ions in a low energy accumulation ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; Chanel, M; Hill, C; Lombardi, A M; MacCaferri, R; Maury, S; Möhl, D; Molinari, G; Rossi, S; Tanke, E; Tranquille, G; Vretenar, Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    This report gives the results of a programme of experimental investigations, which were carried out to test stacking of lead ions in a storage ring (the former Low Energy Antiproton Ring, LEAR) at 4.2 MeV per nucleon. The motivation was to demonstrate the feasibility of gaining the large factor in the phase-space density required for injection into the LHC. In the first part of the report, the layout of the experiments is described, the choice of the parameters of the electron cooling system used for stacking is reported and the multi-turn injection using horizontal- and longitudinal- (and in the final project also vertical-) phase space is discussed. In the second part the experimental results are presented. Factors of vital importance are the stacking efficiency, the beam life-time and the cooling time of the ions. The beam decay owing to charge exchange with the residual gas and to recombination by the capture of cooling electrons was intensively studied. Beam instabilities and space-charge effects in the ...

  15. 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the operation of a 30 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. This prototype stack has been developed at the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, as a proof-of-concept for a low pressure cathode air cooled HTPEM stack. The membranes used are Celtec...

  16. Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Peters, Baron; Grünwald, Michael; Gotchy Mullen, Ryan; Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-11-08

    The freezing of water affects the processes that determine Earth's climate. Therefore, accurate weather and climate forecasts hinge on good predictions of ice nucleation rates. Such rate predictions are based on extrapolations using classical nucleation theory, which assumes that the structure of nanometre-sized ice crystallites corresponds to that of hexagonal ice, the thermodynamically stable form of bulk ice. However, simulations with various water models find that ice nucleated and grown under atmospheric temperatures is at all sizes stacking-disordered, consisting of random sequences of cubic and hexagonal ice layers. This implies that stacking-disordered ice crystallites either are more stable than hexagonal ice crystallites or form because of non-equilibrium dynamical effects. Both scenarios challenge central tenets of classical nucleation theory. Here we use rare-event sampling and free energy calculations with the mW water model to show that the entropy of mixing cubic and hexagonal layers makes stacking-disordered ice the stable phase for crystallites up to a size of at least 100,000 molecules. We find that stacking-disordered critical crystallites at 230 kelvin are about 14 kilojoules per mole of crystallite more stable than hexagonal crystallites, making their ice nucleation rates more than three orders of magnitude higher than predicted by classical nucleation theory. This effect on nucleation rates is temperature dependent, being the most pronounced at the warmest conditions, and should affect the modelling of cloud formation and ice particle numbers, which are very sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice nucleation rates. We conclude that classical nucleation theory needs to be corrected to include the dependence of the crystallization driving force on the size of the ice crystallite when interpreting and extrapolating ice nucleation rates from experimental laboratory conditions to the temperatures that occur in clouds.

  17. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt Rachel M; Lisiecki Lorraine E

    2016-01-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal componen...

  18. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  19. Extended Life PZT Stack Test Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Jones, C.

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric stacks are being sought to be used as actuators for precision positioning and deployment of mechanisms in future planetary missions. Beside the requirement for very high operation reliability, these actuators are required for operation at space environments that are considered harsh compared to normal terrestrial conditions.These environmental conditions include low and high temperatures and vacuum or high pressure. Additionally, the stacks are subjected to high stress and in some applications need to operate with a very long lifetime durability.Many of these requirements are beyond the current industry design margins for nominal terrestrial applications. In order to investigate some of the properties that will indicate the durability of such actuators and their limitations we have developed a new type of test fixture that can be easily integrated in various test chambers for simulating environmental conditions, can provide access for multiple measurements while being exposed to adjustable stress levels. We designed and built two test fixtures and these fixtures were made to be adjustable for testing stacks with different dimensions and can be easily used in small or large numbers. The properties that were measured using these fixtures include impedance, capacitance, dielectric loss factor, leakage current, displacement, breakdown voltage, and lifetime performance. The fixtures characteristics and the test capabilities are presented in this paper.

  20. Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. Velocity- and slip-dependent weakening on the Tohoku plate boundary fault: shallow coseismic slip facilitated by foreshock afterslip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y.; Ikari, M.; Ujiie, K.; Kopf, A.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding of role of slow earthquakes as they relate to the occurrence of both megathrust earthquakes and tsunami earthquakes is necessary to mitigate these disasters in the near future. Laboratory shearing experiments is one of important approach to evaluate these relationships. Here, we use powdered gouge samples from JFAST (IODP Expedition 343) Hole C0019E, core sample 17R-1, which is the plate boundary fault zone in the Japan Trench subduction zone. In this region, both large coseismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake as well as discrete slow slip events (SSE) have occurred. Experiments were conducted in a single-direct shear apparatus under normal stress of 16 MPa, with total shear displacements of up to 16 mm. We evaluate both the velocity- and slip-dependence of friction by extracting the velocity-dependent friction parameters a, b, and Dc, and measuring the rate of change in friction coefficient with shear displacement as the slip-dependence of friction. We report that in friction experiments using the Tohoku fault zone samples, an increase in sliding velocity exceeding that of earthquake afterslip can induce a change from steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening friction to slip-weakening frictional behavior. Our results show that the slip weakening is observed when the slip velocity exceeds 1 x 10-6 m/s during our experiments, while steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening is observed below 1x10-6 m/s. In the Japan Trench region, two slow events were observed at the downdip edge of the mainshock coseismic slip zone (< 30 m) were observed. These are an episodic SSE with a slip velocity of 0.1 x 10-6, and afterslip after the largest foreshock with a slip velocity of 2 x 10-6 m/s. This suggests that the afterslip may have facilitated the large coseismic slip during the mainshock on the plate boundary fault of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

  2. Stick-slip friction and wear of articular joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Woog; Banquy, Xavier; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2013-01-01

    Stick-slip friction was observed in articular cartilage under certain loading and sliding conditions and systematically studied. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus, we show that stick-slip friction can induce permanent morphological changes (a change in the roughness indicative of wear/damage) in cartilage surfaces, even under mild loading and sliding conditions. The different load and speed regimes can be represented by friction maps—separating regimes of smooth and stick-slip sliding; damage generally occurs within the stick-slip regimes. Prolonged exposure of cartilage surfaces to stick-slip sliding resulted in a significant increase of surface roughness, indicative of severe morphological changes of the cartilage superficial zone. To further investigate the factors that are conducive to stick-slip and wear, we selectively digested essential components of cartilage: type II collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Compared with the normal cartilage, HA and GAG digestions modified the stick-slip behavior and increased surface roughness (wear) during sliding, whereas collagen digestion decreased the surface roughness. Importantly, friction forces increased up to 2, 10, and 5 times after HA, GAGs, and collagen digestion, respectively. Also, each digestion altered the friction map in different ways. Our results show that (i) wear is not directly related to the friction coefficient but (ii) more directly related to stick-slip sliding, even when present at small amplitudes, and that (iii) the different molecular components of joints work synergistically to prevent wear. Our results also suggest potential noninvasive diagnostic tools for sensing stick-slip in joints. PMID:23359687

  3. Factors associated with worker slipping in limited-service restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Li, Kai Way; Filiaggi, Alfred J

    2010-02-01

    Slips, trips and falls (STF) are responsible for a substantial injury burden in the global workplace. Restaurant environments are challenged by STF. This study assessed individual and work environment factors related to slipping in US limited-service restaurant workers. Workers in 10 limited-service restaurants in Massachusetts were recruited to participate. Workers' occupational slip and/or fall history within the past 4 weeks was collected by multilingual written questionnaires. Age, gender, job tenure, work hours per week and work shift were also collected. Shoe type, condition and gross shoe contamination were visually assessed. Floor friction was measured and each restaurant's overall mean coefficient of friction (COF) was calculated. The logistic generalised estimating equations model was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (OR). Of 125 workers, 42 reported one or more slips in the past 4 weeks with two reporting a resultant fall. Results from multivariable regression showed that higher restaurant mean COF was significantly associated with a decreased risk of self-reported slipping (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.82). From the highest to the lowest COF restaurant, the odds of a positive slip history increased by a factor of more than seven. Younger age, male gender, lower weekly work hours and the presence of gross contamination on worker's shoe sole were also associated with increased odds of slip history. Published findings of an association between friction and slipping and falling in actual work environments are rare. The findings suggest that effective intervention strategies to reduce the risk of slips and falls in restaurant workers could include increasing COF and improving housekeeping practices.

  4. Perception of slipperiness and prospective risk of slipping at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K; Verma, Santosh K; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Falls are a leading cause of injury at work, and slipping is the predominant cause of falling. Prior research has suggested a modest correlation between objective measures (such as coefficient of friction, COF) and subjective measures of slipperiness (such as worker perceptions) in the workplace. However, the degree of association between subjective measures and the actual risk of slipping at the workplace is unknown. This study examined the association between perception of slipperiness and the risk of slipping. Methods 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants participated in a 12-week prospective cohort study. At baseline, demographic information was collected, participants rated floor slipperiness in eight areas of the restaurant, and work environment factors, such as COF, were measured. Restaurant-level and area-level mean perceptions of slipperiness were calculated. Participants then reported their slip experience at work on a weekly basis for the next 12 weeks. The associations between perception of slipperiness and the rate of slipping were assessed. Results Adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education, primary language, mean COF, use of slip-resistant shoes, and restaurant chain, each 1-point increase in mean restaurant-level perception of slipperiness (4-point scale) was associated with a 2.71 times increase in the rate of slipping (95% CI 1.25 to 5.87). Results were similar for area-level perception within the restaurant (rate ratios (RR) 2.92, 95% CI 2.41 to 3.54). Conclusions Perceptions of slipperiness and the subsequent rate of slipping were strongly associated. These findings suggest that safety professionals, risk managers and employers could use aggregated worker perceptions of slipperiness to identify slipping hazards and, potentially, to assess intervention effectiveness. PMID:22935953

  5. Guanine base stacking in G-quadruplex nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes constitute a class of nucleic acid structures defined by stacked guanine tetrads (or G-tetrads) with guanine bases from neighboring tetrads stacking with one another within the G-tetrad core. Individual G-quadruplexes can also stack with one another at their G-tetrad interface leading to higher-order structures as observed in telomeric repeat-containing DNA and RNA. In this study, we investigate how guanine base stacking influences the stability of G-quadruplexes and their stacked higher-order structures. A structural survey of the Protein Data Bank is conducted to characterize experimentally observed guanine base stacking geometries within the core of G-quadruplexes and at the interface between stacked G-quadruplex structures. We couple this survey with a systematic computational examination of stacked G-tetrad energy landscapes using quantum mechanical computations. Energy calculations of stacked G-tetrads reveal large energy differences of up to 12 kcal/mol between experimentally observed geometries at the interface of stacked G-quadruplexes. Energy landscapes are also computed using an AMBER molecular mechanics description of stacking energy and are shown to agree quite well with quantum mechanical calculated landscapes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a structural explanation for the experimentally observed preference of parallel G-quadruplexes to stack in a 5′–5′ manner based on different accessible tetrad stacking modes at the stacking interfaces of 5′–5′ and 3′–3′ stacked G-quadruplexes. PMID:23268444

  6. Numerical Simulation of Methane Slip in Dual Fuel Marine Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jaehyun; Jensen, Michael Vincent; Pang, Kar Mun; Walther, Jens Honore; Schramm, Jesper; Bae, Choongsik

    2017-01-01

    The methane slip is the problematic issue for the engines using natural gas(NG). Because methane is more powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) than CO2, understanding of the methane slip during gas exchange process of the engines is essential. In this study, the influence of the gas pipe geometry and the valve timings on the methane slip was investigated. MAN L28/32DF engine was modeled to simulate the gas exchange process of the four stroke NG-diesel dual fuel engines. The mesh size of the model was...

  7. Frictional melting and stick-slip behavior in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie Evan; Lavallee, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; di Toro, Giulio; Hornby, Adrian Jakob; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Dome-building eruptions have catastrophic potential, with dome collapse leading to devastating pyroclastic flows with almost no precursory warning. During dome growth, the driving forces of the buoyant magma may be superseded by controls along conduit margins; where brittle fracture and sliding can lead to formation of lubricating cataclasite and gouge. Under extreme friction, pseudotachylyte may form at the conduit margin. Understanding the conduit margin processes is vital to understanding the continuation of an eruption and we postulate that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic "drumbeats", which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes. This view is supported by field evidence in the form of pseudotachylytes identified in lava dome products at Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) and Mount St. Helens (USA). Both eruptions were characterised by repetitive, periodic seismicity and lava spine extrusion of highly viscous magma. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for melting of the andesitic and dacitic material (from Soufrière Hills and Mount St. Helens respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions (HVR experiments which mimic rapid velocity fluctuations in stick-slip behavior demonstrate velocity-weakening behavior of melt, with a tendency for unstable slip. During ascent, magma may slip and undergo melting along the conduit margin. In the process the shear resistance of the slip zone is increased, acting as a viscous brake halting slip (the "stick" of stick-slip motion). Sufficient buoyancy-driven pressures from ascending magma below eventually overcome resistance to produce a rapid slip event (the "slip") along the melt-bearing slip zone, which is temporarily lubricated due to velocity-weakening. New magma below experiences the same slip event more slowly (as the magma decompresses) to produce a viscous brake and the process is repeated. This allows a

  8. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  9. Rate-Dependent Slip of Newtonian Liquid at Smooth Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yingxi; Granick, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Newtonian fluids were placed between molecularly smooth surfaces whose spacing was vibrated at spacings where the fluid responded as a continuum. Hydrodynamic forces agreed with predictions from the no-slip boundary condition only provided that flow rate (peak velocity normalized by spacing) was low, but implied partial slip when it exceeded a critical level, different in different systems, correlated with contact angle (surface wettability). With increasing flow rate and partially wetted surfaces, hydrodynamic forces became up to 2--4 orders of magnitude less than expected by assuming the no-slip boundary condition that is commonly stated in textbooks

  10. Detection of slip from multiple sites in an artificial finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muridan, N; Chappell, P H; Cranny, A; White, N M [Electronic Systems and Devices Group, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Cotton, D P J, E-mail: nm07r@ecs.soton.ac.u [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    A Piezoelectric thick-film sensor is a good candidate for the extraction of information from object slip in hand prosthesis. Five slip sensors were fabricated on different linkages of an artificial hand. The signals from each sensor were compared to the output from the sensor mounted on the fingertip. An analysis of the output signals from all the sensors indicates that the linkage sensors also produce similar output signals to the fingertip sensor. In the next phase of the research, velocity and acceleration of the slipped object will be considered in the analysis.

  11. Local void and slip model used in BODYFIT-2PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lellouche, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    A local void and slip model has been proposed for a two-phase flow without the need of fitting any empirical parameters. This model is based on the assumption that all bubbles have reached their terminal rise velocities in the two-phase region. This simple model seems to provide reasonable calculational results when compared with the experimental data and other void and slip models. It provides a means to account for the void and slip of a two-phase flow on a local basis. This is particularly suitable for a fine mesh thermal-hydraulic computer program such as BODYFIT-2PE

  12. The use of Stress Tensor Discriminator Faults in separating heterogeneous fault-slip data with best-fit stress inversion methods. II. Compressional stress regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranos, Markos D.

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic heterogeneous fault-slip data as driven by Andersonian compressional stress tensors were used to examine the efficiency of best-fit stress inversion methods in separating them. Heterogeneous fault-slip data are separated only if (a) they have been driven by stress tensors defining 'hybrid' compression (R constitute a necessary discriminatory tool for the establishment and comparison of two compressional stress tensors determined by a best-fit stress inversion method. The best-fit stress inversion methods are not able to determine more than one 'real' compressional stress tensor, as far as the thrust stacking in an orogeny is concerned. They can only possibly discern stress differences in the late-orogenic faulting processes, but not between the main- and late-orogenic stages.

  13. Nanomechanics of slip avalanches in amorphous plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Penghui; Dahmen, Karin A.; Kushima, Akihiro; Wright, Wendelin J.; Park, Harold S.; Short, Michael P.; Yip, Sidney

    2018-05-01

    Discrete stress relaxations (slip avalanches) in a model metallic glass under uniaxial compression are studied using a metadynamics algorithm for molecular simulation at experimental strain rates. The onset of yielding is observed at the first major stress drop, accompanied, upon analysis, by the formation of a single localized shear band region spanning the entire system. During the elastic response prior to yielding, low concentrations of shear transformation deformation events appear intermittently and spatially uncorrelated. During serrated flow following yielding, small stress drops occur interspersed between large drops. The simulation results point to a threshold value of stress dissipation as a characteristic feature separating major and minor avalanches consistent with mean-field modeling analysis and mechanical testing experiments. We further interpret this behavior to be a consequence of a nonlinear interplay of two prevailing mechanisms of amorphous plasticity, thermally activated atomic diffusion and stress-induced shear transformations, originally proposed by Spaepen and Argon, respectively. Probing the atomistic processes at widely separate strain rates gives insight to different modes of shear band formation: percolation of shear transformations versus crack-like propagation. Additionally a focus on crossover avalanche size has implications for nanomechanical modeling of spatially and temporally heterogeneous dynamics.

  14. Laboratory study of electromagnetic initiation of slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chikhladze

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently Russian seismologists reported the triggering effect of MHD soundings on microseismic activity in the Central Asia test area.The paper focuses on an experimental test of the possibility of triggering the mechanical instability of a system that is close to critical state by a series of electromagnetic pulses.The mechanical system consisted of two pieces of rock;the upper piece can slip on the fixed supporting sample if the latter one is tilted up to the critical angle.In this state,the triggering of mechanical instability by some weak impact such as electrical pulse became more probable.The slope of support in the experiment is an analogue of tectonic stress in natural conditions.The preliminary experiments,carried out in a dry environment,at the humidity of atmosphere 30-50%,show that a strong EM-pulse induces sliding of a sample of rock (granite,basalt,labradoriteplaced on the supporting sample which is inclined at the slope close to,but less than,the critical angle with a probability 0.07.

  15. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. Thus, the devices may be white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. Each sub-element comprises at least one organic layer which is an emissive layer--i.e., the layer is capable of emitting light when a voltage is applied across the stacked device. The sub-elements are vertically stacked and are separated by charge generating layers. The charge-generating layers are layers that inject charge carriers into the adjacent layer(s) but do not have a direct external connection.

  16. A Novel Kind of Transverse Micro-Stack High-Power Diode Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Zhang; Bi-Feng, Cui; Jian-Jun, Li; Wei-Lling, Guo; Zhi-Qun, Wang; Guang-Di, Shen

    2008-01-01

    Novel transverse micro-stack semiconductor laser bars are put forward to improve the output optical power of semiconductor laser bars at low injection current. More importantly, the novel laser bars have a coupled large optical cavity, which can overcome the problem of catastrophic optical damage and improve light beam quality due to the coherently coupled emitting along the transverse direction. The micro-stack tunnel regeneration tri-active region laser structure was grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. For a weakly coupled uncoated device, the optical power exceeds 60W under 50A driving current and the slope efficiency reaches 1.55W/A. Further experiments show that the perpendicular divergence of 23° is achieved from transverse strongly coupled devices

  17. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running......The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...

  18. Shape fabric development in rigid clast populations under pure shear: The influence of no-slip versus slip boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Meere, Patrick A.

    2015-09-01

    Shape fabrics of elliptical objects in rocks are usually assumed to develop by passive behavior of inclusions with respect to the surrounding material leading to shape-based strain analysis methods belonging to the Rf/ϕ family. A probability density function is derived for the orientational characteristics of populations of rigid ellipses deforming in a pure shear 2D deformation with both no-slip and slip boundary conditions. Using maximum likelihood a numerical method is developed for estimating finite strain in natural populations deforming for both mechanisms. Application to a natural example indicates the importance of the slip mechanism in explaining clast shape fabrics in deformed sediments.

  19. Generalized-stacking-fault energy and twin-boundary energy of hexagonal close-packed Au: A first-principles calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Wang, Huiyuan; Huang, Tianlong; Xue, Xuena; Qiu, Feng; Jiang, Qichuan

    2015-05-22

    Although solid Au is usually most stable as a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, pure hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Au has been successfully fabricated recently. However, the phase stability and mechanical property of this new material are unclear, which may restrict its further applications. Here we present the evidence that hcp → fcc phase transformation can proceed easily in Au by first-principles calculations. The extremely low generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy in the basal slip system implies a great tendency to form basal stacking faults, which opens the door to phase transformation from hcp to fcc. Moreover, the Au lattice extends slightly within the superficial layers due to the self-assembly of alkanethiolate species on hcp Au (0001) surface, which may also contribute to the hcp → fcc phase transformation. Compared with hcp Mg, the GSF energies for non-basal slip systems and the twin-boundary (TB) energies for and twins are larger in hcp Au, which indicates the more difficulty in generating non-basal stacking faults and twins. The findings provide new insights for understanding the nature of the hcp → fcc phase transformation and guide the experiments of fabricating and developing materials with new structures.

  20. Stick-slip and Torsional Friction Factors in Inclined Wellbores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarsnes Ulf Jakob F.

    2018-01-01

    The model is shown to have a good match with the surface and downhole behavior of two deviated wellbores for depths ranging from 1500 to 3000 meters. In particular, the model replicates the amplitude and period of the oscillations, in both the topside torque and the downhole RPM, as caused by the along-string stick slip. It is further shown that by using the surface behavior of the drill-string during rotational startup, an estimate of the static and dynamic friction factors along the wellbore can be obtained, even during stick-slip oscillations, if axial tension in the drillstring is considered. This presents a possible method to estimate friction factors in the field when off-bottom stick slip is encountered, and points in the direction of avoiding stick slip through the design of an appropriate torsional start-up procedure without the need of an explicit friction test.

  1. Wheel slip dump valve for railway braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, LiHao; Li, QingXuan; Shi, YanTao

    2017-09-01

    As we all know, pneumatic braking system plays an important role in the safety of the whole vehicle. In the anti slip braking system, the pressure of braking cylinder can be adjusted by the quick power response of wheel slip dump valve, so that the lock situation won’t occur during vehicle service. During the braking of railway vehicles, the braking force provided by braking disc reduces vehicle’s speed. But the locking slip will happen due to the oversize of braking force or the reduction of sticking coefficient between wheel and rail. It will cause not only the decline of braking performance but also the increase of braking distance. In the meanwhile, it will scratch the wheel and influence the stable running of vehicles. Now, the speed of passenger vehicle has been increased. In order to shorten the braking distance as far as possible, sticking stickiness must be fully applied. So the occurrence probability of wheel slip is increased.

  2. Non-slipping domains of a pulled spool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Clemens; Vaterlaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the pulled spool by considering pulling angles up to 360 ∘ . Our focus was on downward pulling forces with pulling angles in the range of 180 ∘ to 360 ∘ . In this range we have found a domain of pulling angles where the spool never starts to slip independent of the strength of the pulling force. The size of the domain depends on the static friction coefficient and on the moment of inertia of the spool. The non-slipping domain is mainly formed around the critical angle where the static friction force becomes zero. For low static friction the non-slipping domain decays into two different domains. We have determined the limiting angles of the non-slipping domains and explored the transitions from a single domain to two separated domains in parameter space. (paper)

  3. Assessment of slip factor models at off-design condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung Ho; Baek, Je Hyun

    2000-01-01

    Slip factor is defined as an empirical factor being multiplied to theoretical energy transfer for the estimation of real work input of a centrifugal compressor. Researchers have tried to develop a simple empirical model, for a century, to predict a slip factor. However most these models were developed on the condition of design point assuming inviscid flow. So these models often fail to predict a correct slip factor at off-design condition. In this study, we summarized various slip factor models and compared these models with experimental and numerical data at off-design condition. As a result of this study, Wiesner's and Paeng and Chung's models are applicable for radial impeller, but all the models are not suitable for backswept impeller. Finally, the essential avenues for future study is discussed

  4. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  5. Foreshocks during the nucleation of stick-slip instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Kilgore, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on laboratory experiments which investigate interactions between aseismic slip, stress changes, and seismicity on a critically stressed fault during the nucleation of stick-slip instability. We monitor quasi-static and dynamic changes in local shear stress and fault slip with arrays of gages deployed along a simulated strike-slip fault (2 m long and 0.4 m deep) in a saw cut sample of Sierra White granite. With 14 piezoelectric sensors, we simultaneously monitor seismic signals produced during the nucleation phase and subsequent dynamic rupture. We observe localized aseismic fault slip in an approximately meter-sized zone in the center of the fault, while the ends of the fault remain locked. Clusters of high-frequency foreshocks (Mw ~ −6.5 to −5.0) can occur in this slowly slipping zone 5–50 ms prior to the initiation of dynamic rupture; their occurrence appears to be dependent on the rate at which local shear stress is applied to the fault. The meter-sized nucleation zone is generally consistent with theoretical estimates, but source radii of the foreshocks (2 to 70 mm) are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the theoretical minimum length scale over which earthquake nucleation can occur. We propose that frictional stability and the transition between seismic and aseismic slip are modulated by local stressing rate and that fault sections, which would typically slip aseismically, may radiate seismic waves if they are rapidly stressed. Fault behavior of this type may provide physical insight into the mechanics of foreshocks, tremor, repeating earthquake sequences, and a minimum earthquake source dimension.

  6. Entropy Stability and the No-Slip Wall Boundary Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Svä rd, Magnus; Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    We present an entropy stable numerical scheme subject to no-slip wall boundary conditions. To enforce entropy stability only the no-penetration boundary condition and a temperature condition are needed at a wall, and this leads to an L bound on the conservative variables. In this article, we take the next step and design a finite difference scheme that also bounds the velocity gradients. This necessitates the use of the full no-slip conditions.

  7. Entropy Stability and the No-Slip Wall Boundary Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Svärd, Magnus

    2018-01-18

    We present an entropy stable numerical scheme subject to no-slip wall boundary conditions. To enforce entropy stability only the no-penetration boundary condition and a temperature condition are needed at a wall, and this leads to an L bound on the conservative variables. In this article, we take the next step and design a finite difference scheme that also bounds the velocity gradients. This necessitates the use of the full no-slip conditions.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Slip on Curved Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D.A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations of liquid water confined within nanoscale geometries, including slit-like and cylindrical graphitic pores. These equilibrium results are used for calculating friction coefficients, which in turn can be used to calculate slip lengths. The slip length is a material property independent of the fluid flow rate. It is therefore a better quantity for study than the fluid velocity at the wall, also known as the slip velocity. Once the slip length has been found as a function of surface curvature, it can be used to parameterise Lattice Boltzmann (LB simulations. These larger scale simulations are able to tell us about how fluid transport is affected by slip in complex geometries; not just limited to single pores. Applications include flow and transport in nano-porous engine valve deposits and gas shales. The friction coefficient is found to be a function of curvature and is higher for fluid on convex surfaces and lower for concave surfaces. Both concave and convex surfaces approach the same value of the friction coefficient, which is constant above some critical radius of curvature, here found to be 7.4 ± 2.9 nm. The constant value of the friction coefficient is 10,000 ± 600 kg m−2 s−1, which is equivalent to a slip length of approximately 67 ± 4 nm.

  9. A flexible slip sensor using triboelectric nanogenerator approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Liang, Jiaming; Xiao, Yuxiang; Wu, Yichuan; Deng, Yang; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Min

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of robotic technology, tactile sensors for robots have gained great attention from academic and industry researchers. Tactile sensors for slip detection are essential for human-like steady control in dexterous robot hand. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a flexible slip sensor based on triboelectric nanogenerator with a seesaw structure. The sensor is composed of two porous PDMS layers separated by an inverted trapezoid structure with a height of 500 μm. In order to customize the sensitivity of the sensor, porous PDMS was fabricated by mixing PDMS with deionized water thoroughly and then removing water with heat. Laser-induced porous graphene and aluminium are served as the pair of contact materials. To detect slip from different directions, two sets of the electrode pair were used. Experimental results show a distinct difference between static state and the moment when a slip happens was detected. In addition, the output voltage of the sensors increased as the increase of slip velocity from 0.25 mm/s to 2.5 mm/s. The flexible slip sensor proposed here shows the potential applications in smart robotics and prosthesis.

  10. Development of roller type side slip tester; Roller shiki side slip tester no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, S [Hiroshima City Industrial Technology Institute, Hiroshima (Japan); Harada, S; Harada, K

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a new development of roller type side slip tester (RTSSI). The test equipment consists of four parts, which are developed in this research. These are a roller part, a control part, a remote control part and a CRT part. In this study, we especially investigated the mechanism and performance between tire and roller. We analyzed the amount of side slip with various toe angles. The developed tester is examined under the conditions that is considered in industrial applications. We investigated the influences of toe angle, size of tire, pressure of tire, coefficient of friction between tire and roller, pushing force of tire, revolution velocity of roller, axle load and so on. The validity of the developed RTSST is confirmed under these conditions. It was found that the RTSST can be used in practical use. Some measurement results are presented in the form of parametric plots. And we also compared measurements data between the RTSST and that of flat type using several automobiles. 4 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Optical and structural characterization of self-organized stacked GaN/AlN quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salviati, G; Rossi, F; Armani, N; Grillo, V; Martinez, O; Vinattieri, A; Damilano, B; Matsuse, A; Grandjean, N

    2004-01-01

    Self-organized GaN/AlN stacked quantum dots (QDs) have been studied by means of cathodoluminescence (CL), near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), photoluminescence, μ-Raman, and transmission electron microscopy. Assignment of the optical emissions was made on the basis of the structural parameters, power-dependent optical studies and depth-resolved CL. Power-dependent studies allowed us to distinguish between quantum confined and buffer emissions. On increasing the power injection conditions, a QD-size-dependent blue shift due to the screening of the internal electric fields was found together with a trend to saturation observed in the high injection limit. The possible evidence of excited states has also been shown by power-dependent photoluminescence and CL. Different blue shifts in specimens with different numbers of stacked layers suggested possible different residual strain values as confirmed by μ-Raman studies. Depth-resolved CL investigations performed at constant power injection per unit volume allowed us to distinguish between QD layers with different nominal GaN coverages and a linear dependence of peak energy versus GaN monolayer number has also been found. Adding 1 ML of GaN resulted in an average shift of about 150 meV. The existence of QDs with different size distributions along the growth axis was also found. The observations were confirmed by NSOM spectroscopy

  12. NSF tandem stack support structure deflection characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-12-01

    Results are reported of load tests carried out on the glass legs of the insulating stack of the 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator now under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The tests to investigate the vulnerability of the legs when subjected to tensile stresses were designed to; establish the angle of rotation of the pads from which the stresses in the glass legs may be calculated, proof-test the structure and at the same time reveal any asymmetry in pad rotations or deflections, and to confirm the validity of the computer design analysis. (UK)

  13. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  14. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  15. Displacive phase transformations and generalized stacking faults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav; Ostapovets, Andriy; Duparc, O. H.; Khalfallah, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 490-492 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ab-initio calculations * close-packed structures * generalized stacking faults * homogeneous deformation * lattice deformation * many-body potentials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  16. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  17. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  18. Fault slip and earthquake recurrence along strike-slip faults — Contributions of high-resolution geomorphic data

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf; Klinger, Yann; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon

    2015-01-01

    to contribute to better-informed models of EQ recurrence and slip-accumulation patterns. After reviewing motivation and background, we outline requirements to successfully reconstruct a fault's offset accumulation pattern from geomorphic evidence. We address

  19. Half-cycle slip activity of persistent slip bands at different stages of fatigue life of polycrystalline nickel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weidner, A.; Man, Jiří; Tirschler, W.; Klapetek, P.; Blochwitz, C.; Polák, Jaroslav; Skrotzki, W.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 492, č. 1-2 (2008), s. 118-127 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/1096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : persistent slip band * slip activity * half-cycle deformation * atomic force microscopy * scanning electron microscopy * nickel Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  20. What causes an icy fault to slip? Investigating strike-slip failure conditions on Ganymede at Dardanus and Tiamat Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M. E.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Burkhard, L. M.; Collins, G. C.; Seifert, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    Ganymede exhibits two geologically distinct terrains known as dark and light (grooved) terrain. The mechanism for a transition from dark to light terrain remains unclear; however, inferences of strike-slip faulting and distributed shear zones suggest that strike-slip tectonism may be important to the structural development of Ganymede's surface and in this transition. Here we investigate the role of tidal stresses on Ganymede in the formation and evolution of strike-slip structures in both dark and grooved terrains. Using numerical code SatStress, we calculate both diurnal and non-synchronous rotation (NSR) tidal stresses at Ganymede's surface. Specifically, we investigate the role of fault friction and orbital eccentricity in the development of ~45 km of right-lateral offset at Dardanus Sulcus and a possible case of study with a detailed morphological mapping of strike-slip morphologies (en echelon structures, strike-slip duplexes, laterally offset pre-existing features, and possible strained craters) at Nun Sulcus and several other locations. These structures serve as example regions to provide improved constraints for global stress mechanisms responsible for strike-slip fault evolution on Ganymede.

  1. [Analysis of phthalate esters in plastic-packaging bags on-line sample stacking-microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Minyi; Chen, Guonan

    2012-09-01

    Two convenient, effective, and reproducible methods using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)-normal stacking mode (NSM) and reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) were developed for the on-line sample stacking of phthalate esters (PAEs). REPSM coupled with MEEKC increased the sensitivity of 937.5 to 7,143 times for four PAEs compared to the conventional MEEKC. The separating conditions in the MEEKC method were studied, and many factors influencing the two sample stacking processes were investigated in detail. The optimum sample matrices for the two stacking methods were as follows: 30 mmol/L sodium cholate (SC) and 30.0 mmol/L borate (pH 8.5). Additionally, sample injections as large as 3.45 kPa x 40 s and 3.45 kPa x 90 s were applied for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The linear relationship and reproducibility were also examined. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the PAEs were in the ranges of 0.021 - 0.33 mg/L and 0.7 - 4 microg/L for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The proposed REPSM-MEEKC has been successfully applied to determine PAEs in plastic-packaging bags, and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 89.1% - 105.6% with satisfactory results.

  2. Stacking and Analysis of Melamine in Milk Products with Acetonitrile-Salt Stacking Technique in Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melamine was measured in real milk products with capillary electrophoresis (CE based on acetonitrile-salt stacking (ASS method. Real milk samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile at a final concentration of 60% (v/v and then injected hydrodynamically at 50 mBar for 40.0 s. The optimized buffer contains 80.0 mmol/L pH 2.8 phosphates. Melamine could be detected within 20.0 min at +10 kV with a low limit of detection (LOD of 0.03 μmol/L. Satisfactory reproducibility (inter- and intraday RSD% both for migration time and peak area was lower than 5.0% and a wide linearity range of 0.05 μmol/L ~ 10.0 μmol/L were achieved. The proposed method was suitable for routine assay of MEL in real milk samples that was subjected to a simple treatment step.

  3. Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; DeVore, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas

  4. Control of heteroepitaxial stacking by substrate miscut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonham, S.W.; Flynn, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    We report studies of fcc epitaxial crystals, grown on Nb(110), in which the Nb surface offers a template for selection between the two alternative stackings, ABCA hor-ellipsis and ACBA hor-ellipsis of the fcc close-packed planes. The Nb templates were grown epitaxially about 500 Angstrom thick on sapphire (11 bar 20), and the fcc material studied was Cu 3 Au. From symmetry it is not possible for the perfect bcc (110) surface to cause any such selection, which is here attributed instead to vicinal miscut: the logarithm of the stacking ratio must be even in miscut along [001] and odd in miscut along [1 bar 10]. We find that the measured selectivity is small for miscuts less than about 0.5 degree, but approaches a factor 10 3 for miscuts along [1 bar 10] greater than about 1 degree. A mechanism for the selection process is discussed in terms of fingered mesostructures that grow on Nb(110) in this regime, as observed first by Zhou, Bonham, and Flynn. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  5. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-02

    The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.

  6. Slip transmission in bcc FeCr polycrystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patriarca, Luca, E-mail: luca.patriarca@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via La Masa 34, I-20156 Milano (Italy); Abuzaid, Wael; Sehitoglu, Huseyin [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Maier, Hans J. [Institut für Werkstoffkunde, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, D-30823 Garbsen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    Grain boundaries induce heterogeneities in the deformation response of polycrystals. Studying these local variations in response, measured through high resolution strain measurement techniques, is important and can improve our understanding of fatigue damage initiation in the vicinity of grain boundaries and material hardening. In this work, strain fields across grain boundaries were measured using advanced digital image correlation techniques. In conjunction with strain measurements, grain orientations from electron back-scattered diffraction were used to establish the dislocation reactions at each boundary, providing the corresponding residual Burgers vectors due to slip transmission across the interfaces. A close correlation was found between the magnitude of the residual Burgers vector and the local strain change across the boundary. When the residual Burgers vector magnitude (with respect to the lattice spacing) exceeds 1.0, the high strains on one side of the boundary are paired with low strains across the boundary, indicating the difficulties for slip dislocations to penetrate the grain interfaces. When the residual Burgers vector approaches zero, the strain fields vary smoothly across the boundary due to limited resistance to slip transmission. The results suggest that the residual Burgers vector magnitude, which relates to the GB (Grain Boundary) resistance to slip transmission, enables a quantitative analysis of the accumulation of strain at the microstructural level and the development of strain heterogeneities across grain boundaries. The results are presented for FeCr bcc alloy which exhibits single slip per grain making the measurements and dislocation reactions rather straightforward. The work points to the need to incorporate details of slip dislocation–grain boundary interaction (slip transmission) in modeling research.

  7. Description of gasket failure in a 7 cell PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husar, Attila; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Parc Tecnologic de Barcelona, Edifici U, C. Llorens i Artigas, 4-6, 2a Planta, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kunusch, Cristian [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP (Argentina)

    2007-06-10

    This article presents the data and the description of a fuel cell stack that failed due to gasket degradation. The fuel cell under study is a 7 cell stack. The unexpected change in several variables such as temperature, pressure and voltage indicated the possible failure of the stack. The stack was monitored over a 6 h period in which data was collected and consequently analyzed to conclude that the fuel cell stack failed due to a crossover leak on the anode inlet port located on the cathode side gasket of cell 2. This stack failure analysis revealed a series of indicators that could be used by a super visional controller in order to initiate a shutdown procedure. (author)

  8. Simple Stacking Methods for Silicon Micro Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmario Scotti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two simple methods, with parallel and serial gas flows, for the stacking of microfabricated silicon fuel cells with integrated current collectors, flow fields and gas diffusion layers. The gas diffusion layer is implemented using black silicon. In the two stacking methods proposed in this work, the fluidic apertures and gas flow topology are rotationally symmetric and enable us to stack fuel cells without an increase in the number of electrical or fluidic ports or interconnects. Thanks to this simplicity and the structural compactness of each cell, the obtained stacks are very thin (~1.6 mm for a two-cell stack. We have fabricated two-cell stacks with two different gas flow topologies and obtained an open-circuit voltage (OCV of 1.6 V and a power density of 63 mW·cm−2, proving the viability of the design.

  9. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  10. Stacked Heterogeneous Neural Networks for Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Leon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid model for time series forecasting is proposed. It is a stacked neural network, containing one normal multilayer perceptron with bipolar sigmoid activation functions, and the other with an exponential activation function in the output layer. As shown by the case studies, the proposed stacked hybrid neural model performs well on a variety of benchmark time series. The combination of weights of the two stack components that leads to optimal performance is also studied.

  11. Turbostratic stacked CVD graphene for high-performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo

    2018-03-01

    We have fabricated turbostratic stacked graphene with high-transport properties by the repeated transfer of CVD monolayer graphene. The turbostratic stacked CVD graphene exhibited higher carrier mobility and conductivity than CVD monolayer graphene. The electron mobility for the three-layer turbostratic stacked CVD graphene surpassed 10,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, which is five times greater than that for CVD monolayer graphene. The results indicate that the high performance is derived from maintenance of the linear band dispersion, suppression of the carrier scattering, and parallel conduction. Therefore, turbostratic stacked CVD graphene is a superior material for high-performance devices.

  12. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  13. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  14. Relating stick-slip friction experiments to earthquake source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.

    2012-01-01

    Analytical results for parameters, such as static stress drop, for stick-slip friction experiments, with arbitrary input parameters, can be determined by solving an energy-balance equation. These results can then be related to a given earthquake based on its seismic moment and the maximum slip within its rupture zone, assuming that the rupture process entails the same physics as stick-slip friction. This analysis yields overshoots and ratios of apparent stress to static stress drop of about 0.25. The inferred earthquake source parameters static stress drop, apparent stress, slip rate, and radiated energy are robust inasmuch as they are largely independent of the experimental parameters used in their estimation. Instead, these earthquake parameters depend on C, the ratio of maximum slip to the cube root of the seismic moment. C is controlled by the normal stress applied to the rupture plane and the difference between the static and dynamic coefficients of friction. Estimating yield stress and seismic efficiency using the same procedure is only possible when the actual static and dynamic coefficients of friction are known within the earthquake rupture zone.

  15. Numerical study of effects of accommodation coefficients on slip phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Jae; Kwon, Oh Joon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    An unstructured mesh Navier-Stokes solver employing a Maxwell slip boundary condition was developed. The present flow solver was applied to the simulation of flows around an axisymmetric hollow cylinder in a Mach 10.4 free stream, known as Calspan-UB Research Center (CUBRC) Run 14 case, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump on the cylinder surface were investigated. The effect of tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients used in the Maxwell condition was also investigated by adjusting their values. The results show that the reverse flow region is developed on the body surface due to the interaction between the shock and the boundary layer. Also, the shock impingement makes pressure high. The flow properties on the surface agree well with the experimental data, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump vary consistently with the local Knudsen number change. The accommodation coefficients affect the slip phenomena and the size of the flow region. The slip phenomena become larger when both tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients are decreased. However, the range of the reverse flow region decreases when the momentum accommodation coefficient is decreased. The characteristics of the momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients also are overlapped when they are altered together.

  16. Technological control of slip casting by the method of PMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental', O.M.; Toropov, Yu.S.; Sobolev, A.S.; Pliner, S.Yu.; Demina, T.E.; Permikina, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    The method of proton magnetic resonance (PMR) is suggested for operational chemico-technological control of slip casting made of oxides of metals in the technology of technical ceramics. PMR spectra of finely dispersed slip casting made of aluminium and zirconium oxides (0.9 mol. of the ZrO 2 shake + 0.1 V 2 O 3 ) are analysed. It is shown that the quality of slip casting out of aqueous suspensions of aluminium and zirconium oxides is abruptly reduced if dP/dW (P - parameter of the PMR line shape, W - humidity) decrease. It is established that slip casting made of zirconium oxide should not be kept in the air more than 5 days, and that of aluminium oxide, more than 3 days at room temperature and should not be exposed to high (> 105 deg C) temperatures. The quality of slip casting is reduced in the regime of too energetic electrosedimentation the optimum regime of electrosedimentation is approximately 5/3 under the conditions of the above experiment

  17. Dynamic Behavior of Fault Slip Induced by Stress Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-an Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault slip burst is a serious dynamic hazard in coal mining. A static and dynamic analysis for fault slip was performed to assess the risk of rock burst. A numerical model FLAC3D was established to understand the stress state and mechanical responses of fault rock system. The results obtained from the analysis show that the dynamic behavior of fault slip induced by stress waves is significantly affected by mining depth, as well as dynamic disturbance intensity and the distance between the stope and the fault. The isolation effect of the fault is also discussed based on the numerical results with the fault angle appearing to have the strongest influence on peak vertical stress and velocity induced by dynamic disturbance. By taking these risks into account, a stress-relief technology using break-tip blast was used for fault slip burst control. This technique is able to reduce the stress concentration and increase the attenuation of dynamic load by fracturing the structure of coal and rock. The adoption of this stress-relief method leads to an effective reduction of fault slip induced rock burst (FSIRB occurrence.

  18. Seismic and Aseismic Slip on the Cascadia Megathrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, S. G. R. M.; Gualandi, A.; Avouac, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of the dynamics governing aseismic and seismic slip hinges on our ability to image the time evolution of fault slip during and in between earthquakes and transients. Such kinematic descriptions are also pivotal to assess seismic hazard as, on the long term, elastic strain accumulating around a fault should be balanced by elastic strain released by seismic slip and aseismic transients. In this presentation, we will discuss how such kinematic descriptions can be obtained from the analysis and modelling of geodetic time series. We will use inversion methods based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) decomposition of the time series to extract and model the aseismic slip (afterslip and slow slip events). We will show that this approach is very effective to identify, and filter out, non-tectonic sources of geodetic strain such as the strain due to surface loads, which can be estimated using gravimetric measurements from GRACE, and thermal strain. We will discuss in particular the application to the Cascadia subduction zone.

  19. Soil slips and debris flows on terraced slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G. B.; Dal Negro, P.; Frattini, P.

    Terraces cover large areas along the flanks of many alpine and prealpine valleys. Soil slips and soil slips-debris flows are recurrent phenomena along terraced slopes. These landslides cause damages to people, settlements and cultivations. This study investigates the processes related to the triggering of soil slip-debris flows in these settings, analysing those occurred in Valtellina (Central Alps, Italy) on November 2000 after heavy prolonged rainfalls. 260 landslides have been recognised, mostly along the northern valley flank. About 200 soil slips and slumps occurred in terraced areas and a third of them evolved into debris flows. Field work allowed to recognise the settings at soil slip-debris flow source areas. Landslides affected up to 2.5 m of glacial, fluvioglacial and anthropically reworked deposits overlying metamorphic basement. Laboratory and in situ tests allowed to characterise the geotechnical and hydraulic properties of the terrains involved in the initial failure. Several stratigraphic and hydrogeologic factors have been individuated as significant in determining instabilities on terraced slopes. They are the vertical changes of physical soil properties, the presence of buried hollows where groundwater convergence occurs, the rising up of perched groundwater tables, the overflow and lateral infiltration from superficial drainage network, the runoff concentration by means of pathways and the insufficient drainage of retaining walls.

  20. Basics of ammonia slip measurement at the flue gas exit of boilers; Grundlagen zur Ammoniak-Schlupfmessung am Kesselende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Sascha [IBK-Verfahrenstechnik, Bad Berka (Germany); Krueger, Joerg [VWT Ing.-Buero, Schwandorf (Germany); Karau, Friedrich [Industrieberatung Karau, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    When using SNCR in WtE-, biomass- and RDF combustion plants, it is not only the reduction rate of nitrogen oxide in the flue gas which is important to control but also the adherence to the limiting values for ammonia slip. Ammonia concentration in the flue gas upstream of stack is of course always in the operators' focus as limiting values have to be hold. Measuring ammonia in the flue gas downstream of boiler is not trivial due to behaviour of ammonia which occurs in bonded state (compounds) in significant amounts also at flue gas temperatures above 400 C. Ammonia compounds can occur on one hand as chemical compounds e.g. to chlorine as ammonium chlorine (chemical bonding) and on the other hand they can occur bonded to surfaces (physically adsorbed). Basic additives of the dry and quasi dry flue gas treatment cause the fractional release of bounded ammonia, therefore, after flue gas treatment, the ammonia slip can be partially measured. (orig.)

  1. Durable solid oxide electrolysis cells and stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Chen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this project was to make a substantial contribution to development of a cost competitive electrolysis technology based on solid oxide cells. The strategy was to address what had been identified as the key issues in previous research projects. Accordingly five lines of work were carried out in the here reported project: 1) Cell and stack element testing and post test characterization to identify major degradation mechanisms under electrolysis operation. 2) Development of interconnects and coatings to allow stable electrolysis operation at approx850 deg. C or above. 3) Development of seals with reduced Si emission. 4) Development of durable SOEC cathodes. 5) Modeling. Good progress has been made on several of the planned activities. The outcome and most important achievements of the current project are listed for the five lines of the work. (LN)

  2. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00529764; The ATLAS collaboration; Stewart, Graeme; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  3. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Stewart, Graeme A.; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  4. Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Balzer, Laura B

    2018-04-10

    Stacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the "Super Learner". Super Learner uses V-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple in nature, use of Super Learner by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding conceptual and technical details. We work step-by-step through two examples to illustrate concepts and address common concerns.

  5. Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.

  6. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  7. Rapid subsidence and stacked Gilbert-type fan deltas, Pliocene Loreto basin, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Umhoefer, Paul J.; Renne, Paul R.

    1995-08-01

    Pliocene nonmarine to marine sedimentary rocks exposed in the Loreto basin, Baja California Sur, provide a record of syntectonic subsidence and sedimentation in a transform-rift basin that developed along the western margin of the Gulf of California. A thick sequence of twelve Gilbert-type fan deltas, having a total measured thickness of about 615 m, accumulated near the fault-bounded southwestern margin of this basin. Based on stratal geometries and lithofacies associations, sedimentary rocks are divided into Gilbert-delta topset, foreset and bottomset strata, shell beds and background shallow-marine shelf deposits. Topset strata of each Gilbert-type delta cycle are capped by laterally persistent molluscan shell beds containing diverse assemblages of bivalves, pectens, oysters, gastropods and echinoids. These shell beds are interpreted to be condensed intervals that record sediment starvation during abandonment of the fan-delta plain. Delta abandonment may have been caused by large episodic faulting events, which submerged each pre-existing fan-delta plain, substantially slowed detrital input by drowning of alluvial feeder channels, and created new accommodation space for each new Gilbert-type fan delta. Alternatively, it is possible that delta-plain abandonment was caused by upstream avulsions and autocyclic lateral switching of fan-delta lobes during relatively uniform rates of slip along the basin-bounding fault. Two contrasting, plausible basin models are proposed for the Loreto basin: (1) asymmetric subsidence along a high-angle oblique-slip normal fault, producing a classic half-graben basin geometry with vertically stacked Gilbert-type fan deltas; or (2) lateral stacking and horizontal displacement of strata away from a relatively fixed depocenter due to fault movement in the releasing bend of a listric strike-slip fault. We favor the first model because field relations and simple geometric constraints suggest that most of the total measured section

  8. Observing and modeling the spectrum of a slow slip event: Constraints on the scaling of slow slip and tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Bartlow, N. M.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the normalized moment rate spectrum of a slow slip event in Cascadia and then attempt to reproduce it. Our goal is to further assess whether a single physical mechanism could govern slow slip and tremor events, with durations that span 6 orders of magnitude, so we construct the spectrum by parameterizing a large slow slip event as the sum of a number of subevents with various durations. The spectrum estimate uses data from three sources: the GPS-based slip inversion of Bartlow et al (2011), PBO borehole strain measurements, and beamforming-based tremor moment estimates of Ghosh et al (2009). We find that at periods shorter than 1 day, the moment rate power spectrum decays as frequencyn, where n is between 0.7 and 1.4 when measured from strain and between 1.2 and 1.4 when inferred from tremor. The spectrum appears roughly flat at periods of 1 to 10 days, as both the 1-day-period strain and tremor data and the 6-day-period slip inversion data imply a moment rate power of 0.02 times the the total moment squared. We demonstrate one way to reproduce this spectrum: by constructing the large-scale slow slip event as the sum of a series of subevents. The shortest of these subevents could be interpreted as VLFEs or even LFEs, while longer subevents might represent the aseismic slip that drives rapid tremor reverals, streaks, or rapid tremor migrations. We pick the subevent magnitudes from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution and place the events randomly throughout a 30-day interval. Then we assign each subevent a duration that scales with its moment to a specified power. Finally, we create a moment rate function for each subevent and sum all of the moment rates. We compute the summed slow slip moment rate spectra with two approaches: a time-domain numerical computation and a frequency-domain analytical summation. Several sets of subevent parameters can allow the constructed slow slip event to match the observed spectrum. One allowable set of parameters is of

  9. Wavelets solution of MHD 3-D fluid flow in the presence of slip and thermal radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M.; Zubair, T.; Hamid, M.; Haq, Rizwan Ul; Wang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    This article is devoted to analyze the magnetic field, slip, and thermal radiations effects on generalized three-dimensional flow, heat, and mass transfer in a channel of lower stretching wall. We supposed two various lateral direction rates for the lower stretching surface of the wall while the upper wall of the channel is subjected to constant injection. Moreover, influence of thermal slip on the temperature profile beside the viscous dissipation and Joule heating is also taken into account. The governing set of partial differential equations of the heat transfer and flow are transformed to nonlinear set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by using the compatible similarity transformations. The obtained nonlinear ODE set tackled by means of a new wavelet algorithm. The outcomes obtained via modified Chebyshev wavelet method are compared with Runge-Kutta (order-4). The worthy comparison, error, and convergence analysis shows an excellent agreement. Additionally, the graphical representation for various physical parameters including the skin friction coefficient, velocity, the temperature gradient, and the temperature profiles are plotted and discussed. It is observed that for a fixed value of velocity slip parameter a suitable selection of stretching ratio parameter can be helpful in hastening the heat transfer rate and in reducing the viscous drag over the stretching sheet. Finally, the convergence analysis is performed which endorsing that this proposed method is well efficient.

  10. Preliminary soil-slip susceptibility maps, southwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas M.; Alvarez, Rachel M.; Campbell, Russell H.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; Brown, D.T.; Corriea, K.M.; Lesser, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    This group of maps shows relative susceptibility of hill slopes to the initiation sites of rainfall-triggered soil slip-debris flows in southwestern California. As such, the maps offer a partial answer to one part of the three parts necessary to predict the soil-slip/debris-flow process. A complete prediction of the process would include assessments of “where”, “when”, and “how big”. These maps empirically show part of the “where” of prediction (i.e., relative susceptibility to sites of initiation of the soil slips) but do not attempt to show the extent of run out of the resultant debris flows. Some information pertinent to “when” the process might begin is developed. “When” is determined mostly by dynamic factors such as rainfall rate and duration, for which local variations are not amenable to long-term prediction. “When” information is not provided on the maps but is described later in this narrative. The prediction of “how big” is addressed indirectly by restricting the maps to a single type of landslide process—soil slip-debris flows. The susceptibility maps were created through an iterative process from two kinds of information. First, locations of sites of past soil slips were obtained from inventory maps of past events. Aerial photographs, taken during six rainy seasons that produced abundant soil slips, were used as the basis for soil slip-debris flow inventory. Second, digital elevation models (DEM) of the areas that were inventoried were used to analyze the spatial characteristics of soil slip locations. These data were supplemented by observations made on the ground. Certain physical attributes of the locations of the soil-slip debris flows were found to be important and others were not. The most important attribute was the mapped bedrock formation at the site of initiation of the soil slip. However, because the soil slips occur in surficial materials overlying the bedrocks units, the bedrock formation can only serve as

  11. Creep and slip: Seismic precursors to the Nuugaatsiaq landslide (Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Piero

    2017-09-01

    Precursory signals to material's failure are predicted by numerical models and observed in laboratory experiments or using field data. These precursory signals are a marker of slip acceleration on weak regions, such as crustal faults. Observation of these precursory signals of catastrophic natural events, such as earthquakes and landslides, is necessary for improving our knowledge about the physics of the nucleation process. Furthermore, observing such precursory signals may help to forecast these catastrophic events or reduce their hazard. I report here the observation of seismic precursors to the Nuugaatsiaq landslide in Greenland. Time evolution of the detected precursors implies that an aseismic slip event is taking place for hours before the landslide, with an exponential increase of slip velocity. Furthermore, time evolution of the precursory signals' amplitude sheds light on the evolution of the fault physics during the nucleation process.

  12. SLIP VELOCITY IN PULSED DISC AND DOUGHNUT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Outokesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, slip velocity has been measured in a 76 mm diameter pulsed disc and doughnut extraction column for four different liquid-liquid systems. The effects of operating variables including pulsation intensity and dispersed and continuous phase flow rates on slip velocity have been investigated. The existence of three different operational regimes, namely mixersettler, transition, and emulsion regimes, was observed when the energy input was changed. Empirical correlations are derived for prediction of the slip velocity in terms of operating variables, physical properties of the liquid systems, and column geometry for different regimes. Good agreement between prediction and experiments was found for all operating conditions that were investigated.

  13. Slip-stick excitation and travelling waves excite silo honking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warburton Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silo honking is the harmonic sound generated by the discharge of a silo filled with a granular material. In industrial storage silos, the acoustic emission during discharge of PET-particles forms a nuisance for the environment and may ultimately result in structural failure. This work investigates the phenomenon experimentally using a laboratory-scale silo, and successfully correlates the frequency of the emitted sound with the periodicity of the mechanical motion of the grains. The key driver is the slip-stick interaction between the wall and the particles, characterized as a wave moving upwards through the silo. A quantitative correlation is established for the first time between the frequency of the sound, measured with an electret microphone, and the slip-frequency, measured with a high-speed camera. In the lower regions of the tube, both the slip-stick motion and the honking sound disappear.

  14. Slip analysis of squeezing flow using doubly stratified fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Farooq, M.; Javed, M.; Anjum, Aisha

    2018-06-01

    The non-isothermal flow is modeled and explored for squeezed fluid. The influence of velocity, thermal and solutal slip effects on transport features of squeezed fluid are analyzed through Darcy porous channel when fluid is moving due to squeezing of upper plate towards the stretchable lower plate. Dual stratification effects are illustrated in transport equations. A similarity analysis is performed and reduced governing flow equations are solved using moderated and an efficient convergent approach i.e. Homotopic technique. The significant effects of physical emerging parameters on flow velocity, temperature and fluid concentration are reporting through various plots. Graphical explanations for drag force, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are stated and examined. The results reveal that minimum velocity field occurs near the plate, whereas it increases far away from the plate for strong velocity slip parameter. Furthermore, temperature and fluid concentration significantly decreases with increased slip effects. The current analysis is applicable in some advanced technological processes and industrial fluid mechanics.

  15. Slip-stick excitation and travelling waves excite silo honking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Katarzyna; Porte, Elze; Vriend, Nathalie

    2017-06-01

    Silo honking is the harmonic sound generated by the discharge of a silo filled with a granular material. In industrial storage silos, the acoustic emission during discharge of PET-particles forms a nuisance for the environment and may ultimately result in structural failure. This work investigates the phenomenon experimentally using a laboratory-scale silo, and successfully correlates the frequency of the emitted sound with the periodicity of the mechanical motion of the grains. The key driver is the slip-stick interaction between the wall and the particles, characterized as a wave moving upwards through the silo. A quantitative correlation is established for the first time between the frequency of the sound, measured with an electret microphone, and the slip-frequency, measured with a high-speed camera. In the lower regions of the tube, both the slip-stick motion and the honking sound disappear.

  16. Effects of Spine Motion on Foot Slip in Quadruped Bounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation and bend of the spine in the sagittal plane during high-speed quadruped running were investigated. The effect of the two spine motions on slip between the foot and the ground was also explored. First, three simplified sagittal plane models of quadruped mammals were studied in symmetric bounding. The first model’s trunk allowed no relative motion, the second model allowed only trunk bend, and the third model allowed both bend and translation. Next, torque was introduced to equivalently replace spine motion and the possibility of foot slip of the three models was analyzed theoretically. The results indicate that the third model has the least possibility of slip. This conclusion was further confirmed by simulation experiments. Finally, the conclusion was verified by the reductive model crawling robot.

  17. Friction, slip and structural inhomogeneity of the buried interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Y; Wu, J; Martini, A; Li, Q

    2011-01-01

    An atomistic model of metallic contacts using realistic interatomic potentials is used to study the connection between friction, slip and the structure of the buried interface. Incommensurability induced by misalignment and lattice mismatch is modeled with contact sizes that are large enough to observe superstructures formed by the relative orientations of the surfaces. The periodicity of the superstructures is quantitatively related to inhomogeneous shear stress distributions in the contact area, and a reduced order model is used to clarify the connection between friction and structural inhomogeneity. Finally, the movement of atoms is evaluated before, during and after slip in both aligned and misaligned contacts to understand how the interfacial structure affects the mechanisms of slip and the corresponding frictional behavior

  18. Quantitative numerical method for analysing slip traces observed by AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselý, J; Cieslar, M; Coupeau, C; Bonneville, J

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used more and more routinely to study, at the nanometre scale, the slip traces produced on the surface of deformed crystalline materials. Taking full advantage of the quantitative height data of the slip traces, which can be extracted from these observations, requires however an adequate and robust processing of the images. In this paper an original method is presented, which allows the fitting of AFM scan-lines with a specific parameterized step function without any averaging treatment of the original data. This yields a quantitative and full description of the changes in step shape along the slip trace. The strength of the proposed method is established on several typical examples met in plasticity by analysing nano-scale structures formed on the sample surface by emerging dislocations. (paper)

  19. The Slip Behavior and Source Parameters for Spontaneous Slip Events on Rough Faults Subjected to Slow Tectonic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.

    2018-02-01

    We study the response to slow tectonic loading of rough faults governed by velocity weakening rate and state friction, using a 2-D plane strain model. Our numerical approach accounts for all stages in the seismic cycle, and in each simulation we model a sequence of two earthquakes or more. We focus on the global behavior of the faults and find that as the roughness amplitude, br, increases and the minimum wavelength of roughness decreases, there is a transition from seismic slip to aseismic slip, in which the load on the fault is released by more slip events but with lower slip rate, lower seismic moment per unit length, M0,1d, and lower average static stress drop on the fault, Δτt. Even larger decreases with roughness are observed when these source parameters are estimated only for the dynamic stage of the rupture. For br ≤ 0.002, the source parameters M0,1d and Δτt decrease mutually and the relationship between Δτt and the average fault strain is similar to that of a smooth fault. For faults with larger values of br that are completely ruptured during the slip events, the average fault strain generally decreases more rapidly with roughness than Δτt.

  20. Post-Injection Induced Seismicity in EGS: Triggering Mechanisms and Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, S.; Carrera, J.; Vilarrasa, V.

    2017-12-01

    Induced microseismicity is a controversial issue related to Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and in general with fluid injection into deep geological formations. The occurring of felt earthquakes after stopping injection especially generates concern, because the correlation between injection and seismic activity is unclear. The aim of this work is to advance in the understanding of the processes that may induce or trigger co- and post-injection seismicity. To this end we investigate the thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling by means of numerical simulations of hydraulic stimulation of deep geothermal systems. We find that preferential flow through conductive fractures or fault zones provokes pressure and temperature perturbations that result in not only heterogeneous variation of the stress field, but also highly anisotropic variations of the local stress tensor. Anisotropic variations tend to stabilize some fractures, but destabilize others. Moreover, activation of shear slip causes a significant variation of the stress field that enlarges the range of critical fracture orientations. We find that post-injection seismicity may occur on non-critically oriented faults that were originally stable. During injection, such faults become destabilized by thermal and shear slip stress changes, but remain static by the superposition of the stabilizing effect of pressure forces. However, these fractures become unstable and fail when the pressure forcing dissipates shortly after injection stops abruptly, which suggests that a slow reduction in injection rate may mitigate post-injection seismicity.

  1. Back analysis of fault-slip in burst prone environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainoki, Atsushi; Mitri, Hani S.

    2016-11-01

    In deep underground mines, stress re-distribution induced by mining activities could cause fault-slip. Seismic waves arising from fault-slip occasionally induce rock ejection when hitting the boundary of mine openings, and as a result, severe damage could be inflicted. In general, it is difficult to estimate fault-slip-induced ground motion in the vicinity of mine openings because of the complexity of the dynamic response of faults and the presence of geological structures. In this paper, a case study is conducted for a Canadian underground mine, herein called "Mine-A", which is known for its seismic activities. Using a microseismic database collected from the mine, a back analysis of fault-slip is carried out with mine-wide 3-dimensional numerical modeling. A back analysis is conducted to estimate the physical and mechanical properties of the causative fracture or shear zones. One large seismic event has been selected for the back analysis to detect a fault-slip related seismic event. In the back analysis, the shear zone properties are estimated with respect to moment magnitude of the seismic event and peak particle velocity (PPV) recorded by a strong ground motion sensor. The estimated properties are then validated through comparison with peak ground acceleration recorded by accelerometers. Lastly, ground motion in active mining areas is estimated by conducting dynamic analysis with the estimated values. The present study implies that it would be possible to estimate the magnitude of seismic events that might occur in the near future by applying the estimated properties to the numerical model. Although the case study is conducted for a specific mine, the developed methodology can be equally applied to other mines suffering from fault-slip related seismic events.

  2. Limits of recovery against slip-induced falls while walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Bhatt, Tanvi; Pai, Yi-Chung

    2011-10-13

    Slip-induced falls in gait often have devastating consequences. The purposes of this study were 1) to select the determinants that can best discriminate the outcomes (recoveries or falls) of an unannounced slip induced in gait (and to find their corresponding threshold, i.e., the limits of recovery, which can clearly separate these two outcomes), and 2) to verify these results in a subset of repeated-slip trials. Based on the data collected from 69 young subjects during a slip induced in gait, nine different ways of combining the center of mass (COM) stability, the hip height, and its vertical velocity were investigated with the aid of logistic regression. The results revealed that the COM stability (s) and limb support (represented by the quotient of hip vertical velocity to hip height, S(hip)) recorded at the instant immediately prior to the recovery step touchdown were sufficiently sensitive to account for all (100%) variance in falls, and specific enough to account for nearly all (98.3%) variability in recoveries. This boundary (S(hip)=-0.22s-0.25), which quantifies the risk of falls in the stability-limb support quotient (s-S(hip)) domain, was fully verified using second-slip and third-slip trials (n=76) with classification of falls at 100% and recoveries at 98.6%. The severity of an actual fall is likely to be greater further below the boundary, while the likelihood of a fall diminishes above it. Finally, the slope of the boundary also indicates the tradeoff between the stability and limb support, whereby high stability can compensate for the insufficiency in limb support, or vice versa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Active strike-slip faulting in El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Carminati, Eugenio; Mazzarini, Francesco; Oziel Garcia, Marvyn

    2005-12-01

    Several major earthquakes have affected El Salvador, Central America, during the Past 100 yr as a consequence of oblique subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate, which is partitioned between trench-orthogonal compression and strike-slip deformation parallel to the volcanic arc. Focal mechanisms and the distribution of the most destructive earthquakes, together with geomorphologic evidence, suggest that this transcurrent component of motion may be accommodated by a major strike-slip fault (El Salvador fault zone). We present field geological, structural, and geomorphological data collected in central El Salvador that allow the constraint of the kinematics and the Quaternary activity of this major seismogenic strike-slip fault system. Data suggest that the El Salvador fault zone consists of at least two main ˜E-W fault segments (San Vicente and Berlin segments), with associated secondary synthetic (WNW-ESE) and antithetic (NNW-SSE) Riedel shears and NW-SE tensional structures. The two main fault segments overlap in a dextral en echelon style with the formation of an intervening pull-apart basin. Our original geological and geomorphologic data suggest a late Pleistocene Holocene slip rate of ˜11 mm/yr along the Berlin segment, in contrast with low historical seismicity. The kinematics and rates of deformation suggested by our new data are consistent with models involving slip partitioning during oblique subduction, and support the notion that a trench-parallel component of motion between the Caribbean and Cocos plates is concentrated along E-W dextral strike-slip faults parallel to the volcanic arc.

  4. Investigation of Floor Surface Finishes for Optimal Slip Resistance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ju Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing the slip resistance of floor surfaces would be desirable, but there is a lack of evidence on whether traction properties are linearly correlated with the topographic features of the floor surfaces or what scales of surface roughness are required to effectively control the slipperiness of floors. Objective: This study expands on earlier findings on the effects of floor surface finishes against slip resistance performance and determines the operative ranges of floor surface roughness for optimal slip resistance controls under different risk levels of walking environments. Methods: Dynamic friction tests were conducted among three shoes and nine floor specimens under wet and oily environments and compared with a soapy environment. Results: The test results showed the significant effects of floor surface roughness on slip resistance performance against all the lubricated environments. Compared with the floor-type effect, the shoe-type effect on slip resistance performance was insignificant against the highly polluted environments. The study outcomes also indicated that the oily environment required rougher surface finishes than the wet and soapy ones in their lower boundary ranges of floor surface roughness. Conclusion: The results of this study with previous findings confirm that floor surface finishes require different levels of surface coarseness for different types of environmental conditions to effectively manage slippery walking environments. Collected data on operative ranges of floor surface roughness seem to be a valuable tool to develop practical design information and standards for floor surface finishes to efficiently prevent pedestrian fall incidents. Keywords: floor surface finishes, operational levels of floor surface roughness, slip resistance, wet, soapy and oily environments

  5. Factors associated with use of slip-resistant shoes in US limited-service restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Courtney, Theodore K; Corns, Helen L; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    Slips and falls are a leading cause of injury at work. Several studies have indicated that slip-resistant shoes can reduce the risk of occupational slips and falls. Few studies, however, have examined the determinants of slip-resistant shoe use. This study examined the individual and workplace factors associated with slip-resistant shoe use. 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in the USA participated in a study of workplace slipping. Demographic and job characteristic information about each participant was collected. Restaurant managers provided information on whether slip-resistant shoes were provided and paid for by the employer and whether any guidance was given regarding slip-resistant shoe use when they were not provided. Kitchen floor coefficient of friction was measured. Slip-resistant status of the shoes was determined by noting the presence of a 'slip-resistant' marking on the sole. Poisson regression with robust SE was used to calculate prevalence ratios. 320 participants wore slip-resistant shoes (67%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lowest in 15-19-year age group. Women were more likely to wear slip-resistant shoes (prevalence ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31). The prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lower when no guidance regarding slip-resistant shoes was given as compared to when they were provided by the employer (prevalence ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79). Education level, job tenure and the mean coefficient of friction had no significant effects on the use of slip-resistant shoes. Provision of slip-resistant shoes was the strongest predictor of their use. Given their effectiveness and low cost, employers should consider providing slip-resistant shoes at work.

  6. Co-seismic slip, post-seismic slip, and largest aftershock associated with the 1994 Sanriku-haruka-oki, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yuji; Kikuchi, Masayuki; Nishimura, Takuya

    2003-11-01

    We analyzed continuous GPS data to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of co-seismic slip, post-seismic slip, and largest aftershock associated with the 1994 Sanriku-haruka-oki, Japan, earthquake (Mw = 7.7). To get better resolution for co-seismic and post-seismic slip distribution, we imposed a weak constraint as a priori information of the co-seismic slip determined by seismic wave analyses. We found that the post-seismic slip during 100 days following the main-shock amount to as much moment release as the main-shock, and that the sites of co-seismic slip and post-seismic slip are partitioning on a plate boundary region in complimentary fashion. The major post-seismic slip was triggered by the mainshock in western side of the co-seismic slip, and the extent of the post-seismic slip is almost unchanged with time. It rapidly developed a shear stress concentration ahead of the slip area, and triggered the largest aftershock.

  7. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  8. Case of slipped capital femoral epiphysis following radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Hiroshi; Usui, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yutaka; Chiba, Masahiro; Yamaji, Shushin; Oba, Yoshihiro

    1987-06-01

    A 12-year-old boy presented with pain of the right hip joint and claudication. At the age of 7 months, the patient had received prophylactic irradiation of 30 Gy to the pelvic area including lumbar vertebrae and bilateral hip joints following extirpation of the right undescended testicle for embryonal carcinoma. Roentgenograph showed slipped capial femoral epiphysis. A review of the literature suggests that bone growth and hormonal changes in the early stage of puberty are involved, in addition to radiation damaged epiphyseal cartilage, in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of radiation induced slipped capital femoral epiphysis. (Namekawa, K.).

  9. A dual shared stack for FSLM in Erika Enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, S.M.N.; Afshar, S.; Gai, P.; Behnam, M.; Bril, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the flexible spin-lock model (FSLM) has been introduced, unifying spin-based and suspension-based resource sharing protocols for real-time multi-core platforms. Unlike the multiprocessor stack resource policy (MSRP), FSLM doesn’t allow tasks on a core to share a single stack, however. In

  10. Long Josephson Junction Stack Coupled to a Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Groenbech-Jensen, N.

    2007-01-01

    A stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions are modeled as a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. One boundary of the stack is coupled electrically to a resonant cavity. With one fluxon in each Josephson junction, the inter-junction fluxon forces are repulsive. We look at a possible...... transition, induced by the cavity, to a bunched state....

  11. Efficient Context Switching for the Stack Cache: Implementation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Naji, Amine

    2015-01-01

    , the analysis of the stack cache was limited to individual tasks, ignoring aspects related to multitasking. A major drawback of the original stack cache design is that, due to its simplicity, it cannot hold the data of multiple tasks at the same time. Consequently, the entire cache content needs to be saved...

  12. Analysis of preemption costs for the stack cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Amine; Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian

    2018-01-01

    , the analysis of the stack cache was limited to individual tasks, ignoring aspects related to multitasking. A major drawback of the original stack cache design is that, due to its simplicity, it cannot hold the data of multiple tasks at the same time. Consequently, the entire cache content needs to be saved...

  13. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  14. A Software Managed Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In a real-time system, the use of a scratchpad memory can mitigate the difficulties related to analyzing data caches, whose behavior is inherently hard to predict. We propose to use a scratchpad memory for stack allocated data. While statically allocating stack frames for individual functions...

  15. Morphology of single Shockley-type stacking faults generated by recombination enhanced dislocation glide in 4H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhata, Hirofumi; Sekiguchi, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Morphology of single Shockley-type stacking faults (SFs) generated by recombination enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) in 4H-SiC are discussed and analysed. A complete set of the 12 different dissociated states of basal-plane dislocation loops is obtained using the crystallographic space group operations. From this set, six different double rhombic-shaped SFs are derived. These tables indicate the rules that connect shapes of SFs with the locations of partial dislocations having different core structures, the positions of slip planes in a unit cell, and the Burgers vectors of partial dislocations. We applied these tables for the analysis of SFs generated by the REDG effect reported in the past articles. Shapes, growing process of SFs and perfect dislocations for origins of SFs were well analysed systematically.

  16. Routes to a commercially viable PEM fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, J.; Foster, S.E.; Hodgson, D.; Marrett, A.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the results of a project to design and build a 10 kW{sub e} proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, including membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), bipolar plates and stack hardware. The aim was to prove the design concept and to demonstrate functionality by operating the stack at >1 kW{sub e}/L and 500 W/kg for 200 hours operation. The project was extended to include the assembly and testing of two additional 1 kW{sub e} PEMFC stacks based on coated metal components. Low equivalent weight perfluorinated ionomer ion exchange membranes were prepared and were found to give a superior electrochemical performance to commercial materials. A technique to etch various stainless steel grades and control processes was successfully developed and optimised. Coatings for stainless steel and titanium were successfully developed and met the required performance criteria. All PEMFC stack components were selected and designed to enable subsequent commercial manufacture.

  17. High-Density Stacked Ru Nanocrystals for Nonvolatile Memory Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Mao; Zhi-Gang, Zhang; Li-Yang, Pan; Jun, Xu; Pei-Yi, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Stacked ruthenium (Ru) nanocrystals (NCs) are formed by rapid thermal annealing for the whole gate stacks and embedded in memory structure, which is compatible with conventional CMOS technology. Ru NCs with high density (3 × 10 12 cm −2 ), small size (2–4 nm) and good uniformity both in aerial distribution and morphology are formed. Attributed to the higher surface trap density, a memory window of 5.2 V is obtained with stacked Ru NCs in comparison to that of 3.5 V with single-layer samples. The stacked Ru NCs device also exhibits much better retention performance because of Coulomb blockade and vertical uniformity between stacked Ru NCs

  18. The influence of slip velocity and temperature on permeability during and after high-velocity fault slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, W.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Tadai, O.; Hirose, T.; Lin, W.

    2011-12-01

    Fluid transport properties in fault zones play an important role in dynamic processes during large earthquakes. If the permeability in a fault zone is low, high pore-fluid pressures caused by thermal pressurization (Sibson, 1973) or shear-induced compaction (Blanpied et al., 1992) can lead to an apparent reduction of fault strength. Changes in porosity and permeability of fault rocks within a fault zone during earthquakes and the subsequent progressive recovery of these properties may have a large influence on earthquake recurrence (Sleep and Blanpied, 1992). A rotary shear apparatus was used to investigate changes of fluid transport properties in a fault zone by real-time measurement of gas flow rates during and after shearing of hollow sandstone and granite cylinders at various slip rates. Our apparatus measures permeability parallel to the slip plane in both the slip zone and wall rocks. In all cases, permeability decreased rapidly with an increase of friction, but recovered soon after slip, reaching a steady state within several tens of minutes. The rate of reduction of permeability increased with increasing slip velocity. Permeability did not recover to pre-slip levels after low-velocity tests but recovered to exceed them after high-velocity tests. Frictional heating of gases at the slip surface increased gas viscosity, which increased gas flow rate to produce an apparent permeability increase. The irreversible permeability changes of the low-velocity tests were caused by gouge formation due to wearing and smoothing of the slip surface. The increase of permeability after high-velocity tests was caused by mesoscale fracturing in response to rapid temperature rise. Changes of pore fluid viscosity contributed more to changes of flow rate than did permeability changes caused by shear deformation, although test results from different rocks and pore fluids might be different. References Blanpied, M.L., Lockner, D.A., Byerlee, J.D., 1992. An earthquake mechanism

  19. Pedestrians in wintertime-effects of using anti-slip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggård, Glenn; Johansson, Charlotta

    2010-07-01

    Pedestrians slipping and falling is a major safety problem around the world, not least in countries with long winters such as Sweden. About 25000-30000 people need medical care every year for treatment of fall injuries in Sweden. Use of appropriate shoes and anti-slip devices are examples of individual measures that have been suggested to prevent slipping and falling. An intervention study was performed during the period February to April 2008. The study, which focused on healthy adults in northern Sweden, examined the effect of using anti-slip devices on daily walking journeys and prevention of slip and falls. The respondents were divided into three groups: an Intervention Group, a Control Group, with similar distribution of gender and age, and a Comparison Group. Four questionnaires were distributed: (1) background, (2) daily diary of distance walked and occurrence of incidents or accidents reported weekly, (3) detailed incident or fall report and (4) experiences of using anti-slip devices for those who used these devices during the trial period. Half of the respondents stated that they had previous experience of using anti-slip devices. In this study, 52% of the respondents used anti-slip devices. Anti-slip devices improve the walking capability during wintertime. Among those using appropriate anti-slip devices, the average daily walking distance was found to be statistically significantly longer compared to people not using anti-slip devices. This study indicates that an increase in daily walking distance can be made without increasing the risk of slips/falls when using anti-slip devices. The study also indicates that by using appropriate anti-slip devices and having information about when and where to use them, based on their design, people avoid having slips and falls. The respondents experienced in using anti-slip devices in this study will continue to use them and will also recommend others to use anti-slip devises. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Reflector imaging by diffraction stacking with stacking velocity analysis; Jugo sokudo kaiseki wo tomonau sanran jugoho ni yoru hanshamen imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J; Rokugawa, S; Kato, Y [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokota, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning seismic reflection survey for geometrical arrangement between pits, the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis is compared with the CDP (common depth point horizontal stacking method). The advantages of the CDP supposedly include the following. Since it presumes an average velocity field, it can determine velocities having stacking effects. The method presumes stratification and, since such enables the division of huge quantities of observed data into smaller groups, more data can be calculated in a shorter time period. The method has disadvantages, attributable to its presuming an average velocity field, that accuracy in processing is lower when the velocity field contrast is higher, that accuracy in processing is low unless stratification is employed, and that velocities obtained from stacking velocity analysis are affected by dipped structures. Such shortcomings may be remedied in the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis. Possibilities are that, as far as the horizontal reflection plane is concerned, it may yield stack records higher in S/N ratio than the CDP. Findings relative to dipped reflection planes will be introduced at the presentation. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Role of stacking fault energy on the deformation characteristics of copper alloys processed by plane strain compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Danaf, Ehab A.; Al-Mutlaq, Ayman; Soliman, Mahmoud S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Different compositions of Cu-Zn and Cu-Al alloys are plane strain compressed. → Strain hardening rates, microstructure and texture evolution are documented. → SFE has an indirect effect rather a critical dislocation density controls twinning. → Cu-Al exhibited the need for higher dislocation density for twin initiation. → Onset of twinning occurs in the copper alloys tested with a normalized SFE ≤ 10-3. - Abstract: Samples of Cu-Al and Cu-Zn alloys with different compositions were subjected to large strains under plane strain compression (PSC), a process that simulates the rolling operation. Four compositions in the Cu-Al system, namely 1, 2, 4.7 and 7 wt.% Al and three compositions in the Cu-Zn system of 10, 20 and 30 wt.% Zn, were investigated. Adding Al or Zn to Cu effectively lowers the stacking fault energy (SFE) of the alloy and changes the deformation mechanism from dislocation slipping to dislocation slipping and deformation twinning. True stress-true strain responses in PSC were documented and the strain hardening rates were calculated and correlated to the evolved microstructure. The onset of twinning in low SFE alloys was not directly related to the low value of SFE, but rather to build up of a critical dislocation density during strain hardening in the early stage of deformation (ε < 0.1). The evolution of texture was documented for the Cu-Al samples using X-ray diffraction for samples plane strain compressed to true axial strains of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0. Orientation distribution function (ODF) plots were generated and quantitative information on the volume fraction of ideal rolling orientations were depicted and correlated with the stacking fault energy.

  2. Study of the mechanism of acetonitrile stacking and its application for directly combining liquid-phase microextraction with micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingru; Feng, Jing; Shi, Ludi; Liu, Laping; He, Hui; Fan, Yingying; Hu, Shibin; Liu, Shuhui

    2016-08-26

    Acetonitrile stacking is an online concentration method that is distinctive due to its inclusion of a high proportion of organic solvent in sample matrices. We previously designed a universal methodology for the combination of liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) using acetonitrile stacking and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) mode, thereby achieving large-volume injection of the diluted LPME extractant and the online concentration. In this report, the methodology was extended to the analysis of highly substituted hydrophobic chlorophenols in wines using diethyl carbonate as the extractant. Additionally, the mechanism of acetonitrile stacking was studied. The results indicated that the combination of LPME and MEKC exhibited good analytical performance: with ∼40-fold concentration by LPME, a 20-cm (33% of the total length) sample plug injection of an eight-fold dilution of diethyl carbonate with the organic solvent-saline solution produced enrichments higher by a factor of 260-791. Limits of qualification ranged from 5.5 to 16.0ng/mL. Acceptable reproducibilities of lower than 1.8% for migration time and 8.6% for peak areas were obtained. A dual stacking mechanism of acetonitrile stacking was revealed, involving transient isotachophoresis plus pH-junction stacking. The latter was associated with a pH shift induced by the presence of acetonitrile. The pseudo-stationary phase (Brij-35) played an important role in reducing the CE running time by weakening the isotachophoretic migration of the analyte ions following Cl(-) ions. The combination of acetonitrile stacking and nonionic micelle-based MEKC appears to be a perfect match for introducing water-immiscible LPME extractants into an aqueous CE system and can thus significantly expand the application of LPME-CE in green analytical chemistry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  4. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  5. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  7. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  9. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  10. Deformation twinning in zinc-aluminium single crystals after slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, P.; Kral, F.; Trojanova, Z.; Kral, R.

    1993-01-01

    Deformation twinning in Zn-Al single crystals deformed by slip in the basal system is examined. The influence of temperature and the content of aluminium in zinc on the twinning stress is investigated in the temperature range from 198 to 373 K. It is shown that the twinning stress rises with increasing temperature and increases with the concentration of Al atoms. (orig.)

  11. Atomistic Determination of Cross-Slip Pathway and Energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Leffers, Torben

    1997-01-01

    plane. The transition state and activation energy for cross slip as well as the energies of the involved dislocation constrictions are determined. One constriction has a negative energy compared to parallel partials. The energy vs splitting width for recombination of parallel partials into a perfect...

  12. Analysis of slip flow heat transfer between two unsymmetrically

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an analytical investigation to study the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in the slip flow region for hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed flow between parallel plates.Both upper and lower plates are subjected to asymmetric heat flux boundary conditions. The effect of first ordervelocity ...

  13. Simulating the Evolving Behavior of Secondary Slow Slip Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Rubin, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution tremor catalogs of slow slip events reveal secondary slow slip fronts behind the main front that repetitively occupy the same source area during a single episode. These repetitive fronts are most often observed in regions with high tremor density. Their recurrence intervals gradually increase from being too short to be tidally modulated (tens of minutes) to being close to tidal periods (about 12 or 24 hours). This could be explained by a decreasing loading rate from creep in the surrounding regions (with few or no observable tremor events) as the main front passes by. As the recurrence intervals of the fronts increase, eventually they lock in on the tidal periods. We attempt to simulate this numerically using a rate-and-state friction law that transitions from velocity-weakening at low slip speeds to velocity strengthening at high slip speeds. Many small circular patches with a cutoff velocity an order of magnitude higher than that of the background are randomly placed on the fault, in order to simulate the average properties of the high-density tremor zone. Preliminary results show that given reasonable parameters, this model produces similar propagation speeds of the forward-migrating main front inside and outside the high-density tremor zone, consistent with observations. We will explore the behavior of the secondary fronts that arise in this model, in relation to the local density of the small tremor-analog patches, the overall geometry of the tremor zone and the tides.

  14. Investigation of torque control using a variable slip induction generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossanyi, E A; Gamble, C R

    1991-07-01

    An investigation of the possibilities of using a variable slip induction generator to control wind turbine transmission torque has been carried out. Such a generator consists of a wound rotor induction generator with its rotor winding connected to an external variable resistance circuit. By controlling the external resistance, the torque-slip characteristic of the generator can be modified, allowing efficient, low-slip operation below rated wind speed and compliant, high-slip operation above rated, where the additional losses are of no consequence but the resulting compliance allows a much reduced duty to be specified for the transmission and gearbox. A number of hardware options have been investigated for the variable resistance rotor circuit, the main options being either a rectifier and DC chopper or an AC regulator. Both of these options use semiconductor switching devices, for which the relative merits of thyristors, MOSFETs, GTOs and transistors have been investigated. A favoured scheme consisting of an AC regulator using GTOs has been provisionally selected. This choice uses some non-standard equipment but is expected to give negligible problems with harmonics. A comprehensive simulation model has been set up and used to investigate the behaviour of the whole system. (author).

  15. Evidence Based Prevention of Occupational Slips, Trips and Falls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about one third of the compensated occupational injuries and half of the most serious occupational injuries in merchant seafaring are related to slips, trips and falls (STF)-events. Among the elderly, STF is the risk factor that causes the largest number of inpatient days...

  16. On the Modeling of Contact Interfaces with Frictional Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Munteanu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the contact interfaces between the scatterers and the matrix into the sonic composites, in the presence of the frictional slips. The sonic composite is a sonic liner designed in order to provide suppression of unwanted noise for jet engines, with emphases on the nacelle of turbofan engines for commercial aircraft.

  17. Analysing earthquake slip models with the spatial prediction comparison test

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.; Mai, Paul Martin; Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar; Razafindrakoto, H. N. T.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake rupture models inferred from inversions of geophysical and/or geodetic data exhibit remarkable variability due to uncertainties in modelling assumptions, the use of different inversion algorithms, or variations in data selection and data processing. A robust statistical comparison of different rupture models obtained for a single earthquake is needed to quantify the intra-event variability, both for benchmark exercises and for real earthquakes. The same approach may be useful to characterize (dis-)similarities in events that are typically grouped into a common class of events (e.g. moderate-size crustal strike-slip earthquakes or tsunamigenic large subduction earthquakes). For this purpose, we examine the performance of the spatial prediction comparison test (SPCT), a statistical test developed to compare spatial (random) fields by means of a chosen loss function that describes an error relation between a 2-D field (‘model’) and a reference model. We implement and calibrate the SPCT approach for a suite of synthetic 2-D slip distributions, generated as spatial random fields with various characteristics, and then apply the method to results of a benchmark inversion exercise with known solution. We find the SPCT to be sensitive to different spatial correlations lengths, and different heterogeneity levels of the slip distributions. The SPCT approach proves to be a simple and effective tool for ranking the slip models with respect to a reference model.

  18. Self-similar slip distributions on irregular shaped faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A.; Murphy, S.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a strategy to place a self-similar slip distribution on a complex fault surface that is represented by an unstructured mesh. This is possible by applying a strategy based on the composite source model where a hierarchical set of asperities, each with its own slip function which is dependent on the distance from the asperity centre. Central to this technique is the efficient, accurate computation of distance between two points on the fault surface. This is known as the geodetic distance problem. We propose a method to compute the distance across complex non-planar surfaces based on a corollary of the Huygens' principle. The difference between this method compared to others sample-based algorithms which precede it is the use of a curved front at a local level to calculate the distance. This technique produces a highly accurate computation of the distance as the curvature of the front is linked to the distance from the source. Our local scheme is based on a sequence of two trilaterations, producing a robust algorithm which is highly precise. We test the strategy on a planar surface in order to assess its ability to keep the self-similarity properties of a slip distribution. We also present a synthetic self-similar slip distribution on a real slab topography for a M8.5 event. This method for computing distance may be extended to the estimation of first arrival times in both complex 3D surfaces or 3D volumes.

  19. A temperature dependent slip factor based thermal model for friction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thermal modelling of FSW process by assuming the slip factor as a function of any one of the parameters such as ... Normal load, Fn. 31138 N .... source was moved in discrete steps of 1 mm to simulate the linear motion of the tool. At each load.

  20. Analysing earthquake slip models with the spatial prediction comparison test

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.

    2014-11-10

    Earthquake rupture models inferred from inversions of geophysical and/or geodetic data exhibit remarkable variability due to uncertainties in modelling assumptions, the use of different inversion algorithms, or variations in data selection and data processing. A robust statistical comparison of different rupture models obtained for a single earthquake is needed to quantify the intra-event variability, both for benchmark exercises and for real earthquakes. The same approach may be useful to characterize (dis-)similarities in events that are typically grouped into a common class of events (e.g. moderate-size crustal strike-slip earthquakes or tsunamigenic large subduction earthquakes). For this purpose, we examine the performance of the spatial prediction comparison test (SPCT), a statistical test developed to compare spatial (random) fields by means of a chosen loss function that describes an error relation between a 2-D field (‘model’) and a reference model. We implement and calibrate the SPCT approach for a suite of synthetic 2-D slip distributions, generated as spatial random fields with various characteristics, and then apply the method to results of a benchmark inversion exercise with known solution. We find the SPCT to be sensitive to different spatial correlations lengths, and different heterogeneity levels of the slip distributions. The SPCT approach proves to be a simple and effective tool for ranking the slip models with respect to a reference model.

  1. Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake coseismic slip distribution inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Tan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available By using GPS and gravity data before and after the Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake and combining data from geological surveys and geophysical inversion studies, an initial coseismic fault model is constructed. The dip angle changes of the fault slip distribution on the fault plane are inversed, and the inversion results show that the shape of the fault resembles a double-shovel. The Yingxiu–Beichuan Fault is approximately 330 km long, the surface fault dip angle is 65.1°, which gradually reduces with increasing depth to 0° at the detachment layer at a depth of 19.62 km. The Guanxian–Jiangyou Fault is approximately 90 km long, and its dip angle at the surface is 55.3°, which gradually reduces with increasing depth; the fault joins the Yingxiu–Beichuan Fault at 13.75 km. Coseismic slip mainly occurs above a depth of 19 km. There are five concentrated rupture areas, Yingxiu, Wenchuan, Hanwang, Beichuan, and Pingwu, which are consistent with geological survey results and analyses of the aftershock distribution. The rupture mainly has a thrust component with a small dextral strike–slip component. The maximum slip was more than 10 m, which occurred near Beichuan and Hanwang. The seismic moment is 7.84 × 1020 Nm (Mw7.9, which is consistent with the seismological results.

  2. Break-Even Point for a Proof Slip Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James F.

    1972-01-01

    Break-even analysis is applied to determine what magnitude of titles added per year is sufficient to utilize economically Library of Congress proof slips and a Xerox 914 copying machine in the cataloging operation of a library. A formula is derived, and an example of its use is given. (1 reference) (Author/SJ)

  3. Slip sliding away: Promoting ethical behaviours in soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slip sliding away: Promoting ethical behaviours in soccer. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... after the 2010 Soccer World Cup, has led to increased demands on sport organisations, coaches and players ... While the natural law steers individuals to act morally, a performance ethic motivates many ...

  4. A temperature dependent slip factor based thermal model for friction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper proposes a new slip factor based three-dimensional thermal model to predict the temperature distribution during friction stir welding of 304L stainless steel plates. The proposed model employs temperature and radius dependent heat source to study the thermal cycle, temperature distribution, power required, the ...

  5. Mechanical properties of very thin cover slip glass disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mechanical properties of very thin cover slip glass disk. A SEAL, A K DALUI, M BANERJEE, A K MUKHOPADHYAY* and K K PHANI. Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700 032, India. Abstract. The biaxial flexural strength, Young's modulus, Vicker's microhardness and fracture toughness data for very ...

  6. Shear Stress-Relative Slip Relationship at Concrete Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Hyeok Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a simple and rational shear stress-relative slip model of concrete interfaces with monolithic castings or smooth construction joints. In developing the model, the initial shear cracking stress and relative slip amount at peak stress were formulated from a nonlinear regression analysis using test data for push-off specimens. The shear friction strength was determined from the generalized equations on the basis of the upper-bound theorem of concrete plasticity. Then, a parametric fitting analysis was performed to derive equations for the key parameters determining the shapes of the ascending and descending branches of the shear stress-relative slip curve. The comparisons of predictions and measurements obtained from push-off tests confirmed that the proposed model provides superior accuracy in predicting the shear stress-relative slip relationship of interfacial shear planes. This was evidenced by the lower normalized root mean square error than those in Xu et al.’s model and the CEB-FIB model, which have many limitations in terms of the roughness of the substrate surface along an interface and the magnitude of equivalent normal stress.

  7. Constraining slip rates and spacings for active normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Patience A.; Roberts, Gerald P.

    2001-12-01

    Numerous observations of extensional provinces indicate that neighbouring faults commonly slip at different rates and, moreover, may be active over different time intervals. These published observations include variations in slip rate measured along-strike of a fault array or fault zone, as well as significant across-strike differences in the timing and rates of movement on faults that have a similar orientation with respect to the regional stress field. Here we review published examples from the western USA, the North Sea, and central Greece, and present new data from the Italian Apennines that support the idea that such variations are systematic and thus to some extent predictable. The basis for the prediction is that: (1) the way in which a fault grows is fundamentally controlled by the ratio of maximum displacement to length, and (2) the regional strain rate must remain approximately constant through time. We show how data on fault lengths and displacements can be used to model the observed patterns of long-term slip rate where measured values are sparse. Specifically, we estimate the magnitude of spatial variation in slip rate along-strike and relate it to the across-strike spacing between active faults.

  8. Chaotic mixing in a planar, curved channel using periodic slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, P.; Picardo, J. R.; Pushpavanam, S.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel strategy for designing chaotic micromixers using curved channels confined between two flat planes. The location of the separatrix between the Dean vortices, induced by centrifugal forces, is dependent on the location of the maxima of axial velocity. An asymmetry in the axial velocity profile can change the location of the separatrix. This is achieved physically by introducing slip alternatingly at the top and bottom walls. This leads to streamline crossing and Lagrangian chaos. An approximate analytical solution of the velocity field is obtained using perturbation theory. This is used to find the Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles. Poincare sections taken at periodic locations in the axial direction are used to study the extent of chaos. We study two microchannel designs, called circlet and serpentine, in which the Dean vortices in adjacent half cells are co-rotating and counter-rotating, respectively. The extent of mixing, at low Re and low slip length, is shown to be greater in the serpentine case. Wide channels are observed to have much better mixing than tall channels; an important observation not made for separatrix flows till now. Eulerian indicators are used to gauge the extent of mixing, with varying slip length, and it is shown that an optimum slip length exists which maximizes the mixing in a particular geometry. Once the parameter space of relatively high mixing is identified, detailed variance computations are carried out to identify the detailed features

  9. Chaotic mixing in a planar, curved channel using periodic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, P.; Picardo, J. R.; Pushpavanam, S.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel strategy for designing chaotic micromixers using curved channels confined between two flat planes. The location of the separatrix between the Dean vortices, induced by centrifugal forces, is dependent on the location of the maxima of axial velocity. An asymmetry in the axial velocity profile can change the location of the separatrix. This is achieved physically by introducing slip alternatingly at the top and bottom walls. This leads to streamline crossing and Lagrangian chaos. An approximate analytical solution of the velocity field is obtained using perturbation theory. This is used to find the Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles. Poincare sections taken at periodic locations in the axial direction are used to study the extent of chaos. We study two microchannel designs, called circlet and serpentine, in which the Dean vortices in adjacent half cells are co-rotating and counter-rotating, respectively. The extent of mixing, at low Re and low slip length, is shown to be greater in the serpentine case. Wide channels are observed to have much better mixing than tall channels; an important observation not made for separatrix flows till now. Eulerian indicators are used to gauge the extent of mixing, with varying slip length, and it is shown that an optimum slip length exists which maximizes the mixing in a particular geometry. Once the parameter space of relatively high mixing is identified, detailed variance computations are carried out to identify the detailed features.

  10. Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic extension and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    the formation, evolution and distribution of these strike-slip faults have important. 80 ...... function of coal-derived gas study for natural gas industry development in China; .... Bohai-Zhangjiakou seismotectonic zone based on 3D visco-elastic ...

  11. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  12. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  13. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment explores new hardware and software platforms that, in the future, may be more suited to its data intensive workloads. One such alternative hardware platform is the ARM architecture, which is designed to be extremely power efficient and is found in most smartphones and tablets. CERN openlab recently installed a small cluster of ARM 64-bit evaluation prototype servers. Each server is based on a single-socket ARM 64-bit system on a chip, with 32 Cortex-A57 cores. In total, each server has 128 GB RAM connected with four fast memory channels. This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto these new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the "external" packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adj...

  14. Testing system for a fuel cells stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Stefanescu, Ioan; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen and electricity together represent one of the most promising ways to realize sustainable energy, whilst fuel cells provide the most efficient conversion devices for converting hydrogen and possibly other fuels into electricity. Thus, the development of fuel cell technology is currently being actively pursued worldwide. Due to its simple operation and other fair characteristics, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is especially suitable as a replacement for the internal combustion engine. The PEMFC is also being developed for decentralized electricity and heat generation in buildings and mobile applications. Starting with 2001 the Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT - Rm. Valcea developed research activities supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research within the National Research Program in order to bridge the gap to European competencies in the area of hydrogen and fuel cells. The paper deals with the testing system designed and developed in ICIT Rm. Valcea as a flexible and versatile tool allowing a large scale of parameter settings and measurements on a single cell or on a fuel cells stack onto a wind range of output power values. (authors)

  15. Weyl magnons in noncoplanar stacked kagome antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    Weyl nodes have been experimentally realized in photonic, electronic, and phononic crystals. However, magnonic Weyl nodes are yet to be seen experimentally. In this paper, we propose Weyl magnon nodes in noncoplanar stacked frustrated kagome antiferromagnets, naturally available in various real materials. Most crucially, the Weyl nodes in the current system occur at the lowest excitation and possess a topological thermal Hall effect, therefore they are experimentally accessible at low temperatures due to the population effect of bosonic quasiparticles. In stark contrast to other magnetic systems, the current Weyl nodes do not rely on time-reversal symmetry breaking by the magnetic order. Rather, they result from explicit macroscopically broken time reversal symmetry by the scalar spin chirality of noncoplanar spin textures and can be generalized to chiral spin liquid states. Moreover, the scalar spin chirality gives a real space Berry curvature which is not available in previously studied magnetic Weyl systems. We show the existence of magnon arc surface states connecting projected Weyl magnon nodes on the surface Brillouin zone. We also uncover the first realization of triply-degenerate nodal magnon point in the noncollinear regime with zero scalar spin chirality.

  16. Lithiation-induced shuffling of atomic stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2014-09-10

    In rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, understanding the atomic-scale mechanism of Li-induced structural evolution occurring at the host electrode materials provides essential knowledge for design of new high performance electrodes. Here, we report a new crystalline-crystalline phase transition mechanism in single-crystal Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires upon lithiation. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observed that stacks of atomic planes in an intermediate hexagonal (h-)LiZnSb phase are "shuffled" to accommodate the geometrical confinement stress arising from lamellar nanodomains intercalated by lithium ions. Such atomic rearrangement arises from the anisotropic lithium diffusion and is accompanied by appearance of partial dislocations. This transient structure mediates further phase transition from h-LiZnSb to cubic (c-)Li2ZnSb, which is associated with a nearly "zero-strain" coherent interface viewed along the [001]h/[111]c directions. This study provides new mechanistic insights into complex electrochemically driven crystalline-crystalline phase transitions in lithium-ion battery electrodes and represents a noble example of atomic-level structural and interfacial rearrangements.

  17. Captioning Transformer with Stacked Attention Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Image captioning is a challenging task. Meanwhile, it is important for the machine to understand the meaning of an image better. In recent years, the image captioning usually use the long-short-term-memory (LSTM as the decoder to generate the sentence, and these models show excellent performance. Although the LSTM can memorize dependencies, the LSTM structure has complicated and inherently sequential across time problems. To address these issues, recent works have shown benefits of the Transformer for machine translation. Inspired by their success, we develop a Captioning Transformer (CT model with stacked attention modules. We attempt to introduce the Transformer to the image captioning task. The CT model contains only attention modules without the dependencies of the time. It not only can memorize dependencies between the sequence but also can be trained in parallel. Moreover, we propose the multi-level supervision to make the Transformer achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on the challenging MSCOCO dataset and the proposed Captioning Transformer achieves competitive performance compared with some state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Direct measurement of wall slip and slip layer thickness of non-Brownian hard-sphere suspensions in rectangular channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesinghausen, Steffen; Weiffen, Rene; Schmid, Hans-Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Wall slip is a long-known phenomenon in the field of rheology. Nevertheless, the origin and the evolution are not completely clear yet. Regarding suspensions, the effect becomes even more complicated, because different mechanisms like pure slip or slip due to particle migration have to be taken into account. Furthermore, suspensions themselves show many flow anomalies and the isolation of slip is complicated. In order to develop working physical models, further insight is necessary. In this work, we measured experimentally the wall slip velocities of different highly filled suspensions in a rectangular slit die directly with respect to the particle concentration and the particle size. The slip velocities were obtained using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. The suspensions consisting of a castor oil-cinnamon oil blend and PMMA particles were matched in terms of refractive indexes to appear transparent. Hereby, possible optical path lengths larger than 15 mm were achieved. The slip velocities were found to be in a quadratic relation to the wall shear stress. Furthermore, the overall flow rate as well as the particle concentration has a direct influence on the slip. Concerning the shear stress, there seem to be two regions of slip with different physical characteristics. Furthermore, we estimated the slip layer thickness directly from the velocity profiles and propose a new interpretation. The PIV technique is used to investigate the viscosity and implicit the concentration profile in the slit die. It is shown that the particle migration process is quite fast.

  19. Slip parameters on major thrusts at a convergent plate boundary: regional heterogeneity of potential slip distance at the shallow portion of the subducting plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Kaneki, Shunya; Hirono, Tetsuro

    2018-03-01

    Understanding variations of slip distance along major thrust systems at convergent margins is an important issue for evaluation of near-trench slip and the potential generation of large tsunamis. We derived quantitative estimates of slip along ancient subduction fault systems by using the maturity of carbonaceous material (CM) of discrete slip zones as a proxy for temperature. We first obtained the Raman spectra of CM in ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers in discrete slip zones at depths below the seafloor of 1-4 km and 2.5-5.5 km, respectively. By comparing the area-under-the-peak ratios of graphitic and disordered bands in those Raman spectra with spectra of experimentally heated CM from surrounding rocks, we determined that the ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers had been heated to temperatures of up to 700 and 1300 °C, respectively. Numerical simulation of the thermal history of CM extracted from rocks near the two slip zones, taking into consideration these temperature constraints, indicated that slip distances in the ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers were more than 3 and 7 m, respectively. Thus, potential distance of coseismic slip along the subduction-zone fault system could have regional variations even at shallow depth (≤ 5.5 km). The slip distances we determined probably represent minimum slips for subduction-zone thrusts and thus provide an important contribution to earthquake preparedness plans in coastal areas facing the Nankai and Sagami Troughs.

  20. Duration of slip-resistant shoe usage and the rate of slipping in limited-service restaurants: results from a prospective and crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Zhao, Zhe; Courtney, Theodore K; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Lombardi, David A; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that slip-resistant shoes may have a positive effect on reducing the risk of slips and falls, a leading cause of injury at work. Few studies, however, have examined how duration of shoe usage affects their slip-resistance properties. This study examined the association between the duration of slip-resistant shoes usage and the self-reported rate of slipping in limited-service restaurant workers. A total of 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in the USA were recruited to participate in a 12-week prospective study of workplace slipping. Of the 475 participants, 83 reported changing to a new pair of shoes at least once during the 12-week follow-up. The results show that slip-resistant shoes worn for less than six months were moderately more effective than those worn for more than six months. Changing to a new pair of shoes among those wearing slip-resistant shoes at baseline was associated with a 55% reduction in the rate of slipping (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.23-0.89). Further research is needed to develop criteria for the replacement of slip-resistant shoes.

  1. Rheological properties of alumina injection feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Alexandra Krauss

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of alumina molding feedstocks containing polyethylene glycol (PEG, polyvinylbutyral (PVB and stearic acid (SA and having different powder loads were analyzed using a capillary rheometer. Some of the feedstocks showed a pseudoplastic behavior of n < 0, which can lead to the appearance of weld lines on molded parts. Their viscosity also displayed a strong dependence on the shear rate. The slip phenomenon, which can cause an unsteady front flow, was also observed. The results indicate that the feedstock containing a lower powder load displayed the best rheological behavior. The 55 vol. % powder loaded feedstock presented the best rheological behavior, thus appearing to be more suitable than the formulation containing a vol. 59% powder load, which attained viscosities exceeding 10³ Pa.s at low shear rates, indicating its unsuitability for injection molding.

  2. Investigation into slipping and falling accidents and materials handling in the South African mining industry.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze information on slipping and falling accidents and materials handling activities in the South African mining industry. Accident data pertaining to slipping, falling and materials handling accidents...

  3. Slip estimation methods for proprioceptive terrain classification using tracked mobile robots

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masha, Ditebogo F

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that proprioceptive measurements such as terrain slip can be used for terrain classification. This paper investigates the suitability of four simple slip estimation methods for differentiating between indoor and outdoor terrain...

  4. Anionic microemulsion to solvent stacking for on-line sample concentration of cationic analytes in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, Chunyapuk; Srijaranai, Supalax; Quirino, Joselito P

    2014-05-01

    The common SDS microemulsion (i.e. 3.3% SDS, 0.8% octane, and 6.6% butanol) and organic solvents were investigated for the stacking of cationic drugs in capillary zone electrophoresis using a low pH separation electrolyte. The sample was prepared in the acidic microemulsion and a high percentage of organic solvent was included in the electrolyte at anodic end of capillary. The stacking mechanism was similar to micelle to solvent stacking where the micelles were replaced by the microemulsion for the transport of analytes to the organic solvent rich boundary. This boundary is found between the microemulsion and anodic electrolyte. The effective electrophoretic mobility of the cations reversed from the direction of the anode in the microemulsion to the cathode in the boundary. Microemulsion to solvent stacking was successfully achieved with 40% ACN in the anodic electrolyte and hydrodynamic sample injection of 21 s at 1000 mbar (equivalent to 30% of the effective length). The sensitivity enhancement factors in terms of peak height and corrected peak area were 15 to 35 and 21 to 47, respectively. The linearity R(2) in terms of corrected peak area were >0.999. Interday precisions (%RSD, n = 6) were 3.3-4.0% for corrected peak area and 2.0-3.0% for migration time. Application to spiked real sample is also presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Interfacial Cation-Defect Charge Dipoles in Stacked TiO2/Al2O3 Gate Dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Janotti, Anderson; Meng, Andrew C; Tang, Kechao; Van de Walle, Chris G; McIntyre, Paul C

    2018-02-14

    Layered atomic-layer-deposited and forming-gas-annealed TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 dielectric stacks, with the Al 2 O 3 layer interposed between the TiO 2 and a p-type germanium substrate, are found to exhibit a significant interface charge dipole that causes a ∼-0.2 V shift of the flat-band voltage and suppresses the leakage current density for gate injection of electrons. These effects can be eliminated by the formation of a trilayer dielectric stack, consistent with the cancellation of one TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 interface dipole by the addition of another dipole of opposite sign. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the observed interface-dependent properties of TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 dielectric stacks are consistent in sign and magnitude with the predicted behavior of Al Ti and Ti Al point-defect dipoles produced by local intermixing of the Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 layers across the interface. Evidence for such intermixing is found in both electrical and physical characterization of the gate stacks.

  6. Triggered surface slips in the Salton Trough associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, M.J.; Boatwright, J.; Seekins, L.C.; Yule, J.D.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Surface fracturing occurred along the southern San Andreas, Superstition Hills, and Imperial faults in association with the 16 October 1999 (Mw 7.1) Hector Mine earthquake, making this at least the eighth time in the past 31 years that a regional earthquake has triggered slip along faults in the Salton Trough. Fractures associated with the event formed discontinuous breaks over a 39-km-long stretch of the San Andreas fault, from the Mecca Hills southeastward to Salt Creek and Durmid Hill, a distance from the epicenter of 107 to 139 km. Sense of slip was right lateral; only locally was there a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 13 mm. Maximum slip values in 1999 and earlier triggered slips are most common in the central Mecca Hills. Field evidence indicates a transient opening as the Hector Mine seismic waves passed the southern San Andreas fault. Comparison of nearby strong-motion records indicates several periods of relative opening with passage of the Hector Mine seismic wave-a similar process may have contributed to the field evidence of a transient opening. Slip on the Superstition Hills fault extended at least 9 km, at a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 188 to 196 km. This length of slip is a minimum value, because we saw fresh surface breakage extending farther northwest than our measurement sites. Sense of slip was right lateral; locally there was a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 18 mm, with the largest amounts found distributed (or skewed) away from the Hector Mine earthquake source. Slip triggered on the Superstition Hills fault commonly is skewed away from the earthquake source, most notably in 1968, 1979, and 1999. Surface slip on the Imperial fault and within the Imperial Valley extended about 22 km, representing a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 204 to 226 km. Sense of slip dominantly was right lateral; the right-lateral component of slip

  7. Efficiency of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Bosma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a feedforward control of optimal oxygen excess ratio that maximize net power (improve efficiency of a NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack (FCS system. Net powers profile as a function of oxygen excess ratio for some points of operation are analyzed by using FCS model. The relationships between stack current and the corresponding control input voltage that gives an optimal oxygen excess ratio are used to design a feedforward control scheme. The results of this scheme are compared to the results of a feedforward control using a constant oxygen excess ratio. Simulation results show that optimal oxygen excess ratio improves fuel cell performance compared to the results of constant oxygen excess ratio. The same procedures are performed experimentally for the FCS system. The behaviour of the net power of the fuel cell stack with respect to the variation of oxygen excess ratio is analyzed to obtain optimal values. Data of stack current and the corresponding voltage input to the compressor that gives optimal values of oxygen excess ratio are used to develop a feedforward control. Feedforward control based on constant and optimal oxygen excess ratio control, are implemented in the NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack system by using LabVIEW. Implementation results shows that optimal oxygen excess ratio control improves the fuel cell performance compared to the constant oxygen excess ratio control.

  8. Slip and fall risk on ice and snow:identification, evaluation and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chuansi

    2004-01-01

    Slip and fall accidents and associated injuries on ice and snow are prevalent among outdoor workers and the general public in winter in many regions of the world. To understand and tackle this multi-factorial problem, a multidisciplinary approach was used to identify and evaluate slip and fall risks, and to propose recommendations for prevention of slips and falls on icy and snowy surfaces. Objectives were to present a systems perspective of slip and fall accidents and related risk factors; t...

  9. Paleomagnetic and structural evidence for oblique slip in a fault-related fold, Grayback monocline, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, J.; Jones, C.H.; Erslev, E.; Larson, S.; Hudson, M.; Holdaway, S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant fold-axis-parallel slip is accommodated in the folded strata of the Grayback monocline, northeastern Front Range, Colorado, without visible large strike-slip displacement on the fold surface. In many cases, oblique-slip deformation is partitioned; fold-axis-normal slip is accommodated within folds, and fold-axis-parallel slip is resolved onto adjacent strike-slip faults. Unlike partitioning strike-parallel slip onto adjacent strike-slip faults, fold-axis-parallel slip has deformed the forelimb of the Grayback monocline. Mean compressive paleostress orientations in the forelimb are deflected 15??-37?? clockwise from the regional paleostress orientation of the northeastern Front Range. Paleomagnetic directions from the Permian Ingleside Formation in the forelimb are rotated 16??-42?? clockwise about a bedding-normal axis relative to the North American Permian reference direction. The paleostress and paleomagnetic rotations increase with the bedding dip angle and decrease along strike toward the fold tip. These measurements allow for 50-120 m of fold-axis-parallel slip within the forelimb, depending on the kinematics of strike-slip shear. This resolved horizontal slip is nearly equal in magnitude to the ???180 m vertical throw across the fold. For 200 m of oblique-slip displacement (120 m of strike slip and 180 m of reverse slip), the true shortening direction across the fold is N90??E, indistinguishable from the regionally inferred direction of N90??E and quite different from the S53??E fold-normal direction. Recognition of this deformational style means that significant amounts of strike slip can be accommodated within folds without axis-parallel surficial faulting. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  10. Viscous slip coefficients for binary gas mixtures measured from mass flow rates through a single microtube

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, H.; Takamori, K.; Perrier, P.; Graur, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Niimi, T.

    2016-01-01

    The viscous slip coefficient for helium-argon binary gas mixture is extracted from the experimental values of the mass flow rate through a microtube. The mass flow rate is measured by the constant-volume method. The viscous slip coefficient was obtained by identifying the measured mass flow rate through a microtube with the corresponding analytical expression, which is a function of the Knudsen number. The measurements were carried out in the slip flow regime where the first-order slip bounda...

  11. Leakage flow-induced vibration of an eccentric tube-in-tube slip joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1985-08-01

    Eccentricity of a specific slip-joint design separating two cantilevered, telescoping tubes did not create any self-excited lateral vibrations that had not been observed previously for a concentric slip joint. In fact, the eccentricity made instabilities less likely to occur, but only marginally. Most important, design rules previously established to avoid instabilities for the concentric slip joint remain valid for the eccentric slip joint. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Reliability analysis and initial requirements for FC systems and stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, K.; Fontell, E.; Virtanen, S.

    In the year 2000 Wärtsilä Corporation started an R&D program to develop SOFC systems for CHP applications. The program aims to bring to the market highly efficient, clean and cost competitive fuel cell systems with rated power output in the range of 50-250 kW for distributed generation and marine applications. In the program Wärtsilä focuses on system integration and development. System reliability and availability are key issues determining the competitiveness of the SOFC technology. In Wärtsilä, methods have been implemented for analysing the system in respect to reliability and safety as well as for defining reliability requirements for system components. A fault tree representation is used as the basis for reliability prediction analysis. A dynamic simulation technique has been developed to allow for non-static properties in the fault tree logic modelling. Special emphasis has been placed on reliability analysis of the fuel cell stacks in the system. A method for assessing reliability and critical failure predictability requirements for fuel cell stacks in a system consisting of several stacks has been developed. The method is based on a qualitative model of the stack configuration where each stack can be in a functional, partially failed or critically failed state, each of the states having different failure rates and effects on the system behaviour. The main purpose of the method is to understand the effect of stack reliability, critical failure predictability and operating strategy on the system reliability and availability. An example configuration, consisting of 5 × 5 stacks (series of 5 sets of 5 parallel stacks) is analysed in respect to stack reliability requirements as a function of predictability of critical failures and Weibull shape factor of failure rate distributions.

  13. Mixed Mechanism of Lubrication by Lipid Bilayer Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boţan, Alexandru; Joly, Laurent; Fillot, Nicolas; Loison, Claire

    2015-11-10

    Although the key role of lipid bilayer stacks in biological lubrication is generally accepted, the mechanisms underlying their extreme efficiency remain elusive. In this article, we report molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayer stacks undergoing load and shear. When the hydration level is reduced, the velocity accommodation mechanism changes from viscous shear in hydration water to interlayer sliding in the bilayers. This enables stacks of hydrated lipid bilayers to act as efficient boundary lubricants for various hydration conditions, structures, and mechanical loads. We also propose an estimation for the friction coefficient; thanks to the strong hydration forces between lipid bilayers, the high local viscosity is not in contradiction with low friction coefficients.

  14. Fabrication of high gradient insulators by stack compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John Richardson; Sanders, Dave; Hawkins, Steven Anthony; Norona, Marcelo

    2014-04-29

    Individual layers of a high gradient insulator (HGI) are first pre-cut to their final dimensions. The pre-cut layers are then stacked to form an assembly that is subsequently pressed into an HGI unit with the desired dimension. The individual layers are stacked, and alignment is maintained, using a sacrificial alignment tube that is removed after the stack is hot pressed. The HGI's are used as high voltage vacuum insulators in energy storage and transmission structures or devices, e.g. in particle accelerators and pulsed power systems.

  15. Study and Development of an OpenStack solution

    OpenAIRE

    Jorba Brosa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Estudi i desenvolupament d'una solució de virtualització amb Openstack. Es farà un especial èmfasi en la part de seguretat. Deployment of a solution based in OpenStack for the creation of an Infrastructure service cloud. Implementación de una solución basada en OpenStack para la creación de una infrastructura de servicios cloud. Implementació d'una solució basada en OpenStack per la creació d'una infrastructura de serveis cloud.

  16. Loop Entropy Assists Tertiary Order: Loopy Stabilization of Stacking Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Aalberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The free energy of an RNA fold is a combination of favorable base pairing and stacking interactions competing with entropic costs of forming loops. Here we show how loop entropy, surprisingly, can promote tertiary order. A general formula for the free energy of forming multibranch and other RNA loops is derived with a polymer-physics based theory. We also derive a formula for the free energy of coaxial stacking in the context of a loop. Simulations support the analytic formulas. The effects of stacking of unpaired bases are also studied with simulations.

  17. Consolidity: Stack-based systems change pathway theory elaborated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an elaborated analysis for investigating the stack-based layering processes during the systems change pathway. The system change pathway is defined as the path resulting from the combinations of all successive changes induced on the system when subjected to varying environments, activities, events, or any excessive internal or external influences and happenings “on and above” its normal stands, situations or set-points during its course of life. The analysis is essentially based on the important overall system paradigm of “Time driven-event driven-parameters change”. Based on this paradigm, it is considered that any affected activity, event or varying environment is intelligently self-recorded inside the system through an incremental consolidity-scaled change in system parameters of the stack-based layering types. Various joint stack-based mathematical and graphical approaches supported by representable case studies are suggested for the identification, extraction, and processing of various stack-based systems changes layering of different classifications and categorizations. Moreover, some selected real life illustrative applications are provided to demonstrate the (infinite stack-based identification and recognition of the change pathway process in the areas of geology, archeology, life sciences, ecology, environmental science, engineering, materials, medicine, biology, sociology, humanities, and other important fields. These case studies and selected applications revealed that there are general similarities of the stack-based layering structures and formations among all the various research fields. Such general similarities clearly demonstrate the global concept of the “fractals-general stacking behavior” of real life systems during their change pathways. Therefore, it is recommended that concentrated efforts should be expedited toward building generic modular stack-based systems or blocks for the mathematical

  18. Static analysis of worst-case stack cache behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a stack cache in a real-time system can aid predictability by avoiding interference that heap memory traffic causes on the data cache. While loads and stores are guaranteed cache hits, explicit operations are responsible for managing the stack cache. The behavior of these operations can......-graph, the worst-case bounds can be efficiently yet precisely determined. Our evaluation using the MiBench benchmark suite shows that only 37% and 21% of potential stack cache operations actually store to and load from memory, respectively. Analysis times are modest, on average running between 0.46s and 1.30s per...

  19. Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric

  20. Fuel flow distribution in SOFC stacks revealed by impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation. An oper......As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation...... utilizations. The fuel flow distribution provides important information about the operating limits of the stack when high electrical efficiency is required....

  1. Production and Reliability Oriented SOFC Cell and Stack Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauth, Martin; Lawlor, Vincent; Cartellieri, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an innovative development methodology for a production and reliability oriented SOFC cell and stack design aiming at improving the stacks robustness, manufacturability, efficiency and cost. Multi-physics models allowed a probabilistic approach to consider statistical variations...... in production, material and operating parameters for the optimization phase. A methodology for 3D description of spatial distribution of material properties based on a random field models was developed and validated by experiments. Homogenized material models on multiple levels of the SOFC stack were...... and output parameters and to perform a sensitivity analysis were developed and implemented. The capabilities of the methodology is illustrated on two practical cases....

  2. Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting...... allowing for overcritical current densities to be considered. The method presented here allowed for a computational speedup factor of up to 2 orders of magnitude when compared to full 2-D simulations taking into account the actual structure of the stacks without compromising accuracy....

  3. Optimized stacked RADFETs for milli-rad dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, B.; Lane, B.; Mohammadzadeh, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper details the improvements in the design of stacked RADFETs for increased radiation sensitivity. The issues of high read-out voltage has been shown to be a draw-back. It is the body (bulk)effect factor that is responsible for the increased overall stack Threshold voltage (V T ), which is greater than the sum of the individual devices V T . From extensive process and device simulation and resultant circuit simulation, modified stack structures have been proposed and designed. New and exciting result of lower initial (pre-irradiation) output voltage as well as increased radiation sensitivity will be presented. (author)

  4. Ablation of film stacks in solar cell fabrication processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-04-02

    A dielectric film stack of a solar cell is ablated using a laser. The dielectric film stack includes a layer that is absorptive in a wavelength of operation of the laser source. The laser source, which fires laser pulses at a pulse repetition rate, is configured to ablate the film stack to expose an underlying layer of material. The laser source may be configured to fire a burst of two laser pulses or a single temporally asymmetric laser pulse within a single pulse repetition to achieve complete ablation in a single step.

  5. Systematic deficiency of aftershocks in areas of high coseismic slip for large subduction zone earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Nadav; Lay, Thorne; Brodsky, Emily E.; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2018-01-01

    Fault slip during plate boundary earthquakes releases a portion of the shear stress accumulated due to frictional resistance to relative plate motions. Investigation of 101 large [moment magnitude (Mw) ≥ 7] subduction zone plate boundary mainshocks with consistently determined coseismic slip distributions establishes that 15 to 55% of all master event–relocated aftershocks with Mw ≥ 5.2 are located within the slip regions of the mainshock ruptures and few are located in peak slip regions, allowing for uncertainty in the slip models. For the preferred models, cumulative deficiency of aftershocks within the central three-quarters of the scaled slip regions ranges from 15 to 45%, increasing with the total number of observed aftershocks. The spatial gradients of the mainshock coseismic slip concentrate residual shear stress near the slip zone margins and increase stress outside the slip zone, driving both interplate and intraplate aftershock occurrence near the periphery of the mainshock slip. The shear stress reduction in large-slip regions during the mainshock is generally sufficient to preclude further significant rupture during the aftershock sequence, consistent with large-slip areas relocking and not rupturing again for a substantial time. PMID:29487902

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic peristaltic motion of a Newtonian fluid through porous walls through suction and injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaiah, R.; Hemadri Reddy, R.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the peristaltic transport of a conducting Newtonian fluid bounded by permeable walls with suction and injection moving with constant velocity of the wave in the wave frame of reference under the consideration of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. The analytical solution for the velocity field, pressure gradient and the frictional force are obtained. The effect of suction/injection parameter, amplitude ratio and the permeability parameter including slip on the flow quantities are discussed graphically. It is found that the greater the suction/injection parameter, the smaller the pressure rise against the pump works. Further, the pressure rise increases with increasing Magnetic parameter.

  7. First-principles study of secondary slip in zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaari, Nermine; Clouet, Emmanuel; Rodney, David

    2014-01-01

    Although the favored glide planes in hexagonal close-packed Zr are prismatic, screw dislocations can escape their habit plane to glide in either pyramidal or basal planes. Using ab initio calculations within the nudged elastic band method, we show that, surprisingly, both events share the same thermally activated process with an unusual conservative motion of the prismatic stacking fault perpendicularly to itself. Halfway through the migration, the screw dislocation adopts a nonplanar metastable configuration with stacking faults in adjacent prismatic planes joined by a two-layer pyramidal twin. (authors)

  8. On the Rheology of Slow Slip Events Around Continental Moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Wang, K.; Wada, I.; He, J.

    2015-12-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) occur in various tectonic settings but are the most abundant around the depth of upper-plate Moho in warm-slab subduction zones such as Cascadia and Nankai, accompanied with non-valcanic tremor. The paucity or absence of these near-Moho SSEs in many other subduction zones and the relationship of these SSEs with the megathrust seismogenic zone are intriguing questions of fundamental importance. We address these questions by examining Frictional-Viscous Transitions (FVTs) along subduction faults. Our key hypothesis is that there is a sharp decrease in the frictional stength of subduction faults across its intersection with the continental Moho for two reasons: (1) Enrichment of weak hydrous minerals such as talc due to the hydration of the base of the mantle wedge, and (2) elevated pore fluid pressure in the fault zone because of serpentine (antigorite) saturation of the mantle wedge corner which retards further fluid consumption and decreases permeability. Through thermal modelling using heat flow data as constraints, we found that for Cascadia, Nankai, and Hikurangi, there are two FVTs, with the first one being shallower than the Moho. At the Moho, the fault returns to the friction mode, but with slip behaviour affected by the presence of hydrous minerals and high fluid pressure. We propose this is where near-Moho SSEs occur. Farther downdip, the second FVT occurs and serves to limit the depth extent of the SSEs. Coseismic slip is limited to be shallower than the first FVT, such that frictional slip around the Moho occurs interseismically as SSEs. This mechanism also explains the occurrence of tremor, believed to represent very small SSEs, along the San Andreas fault around the Moho depth. In a way, this mechanism is akin to the "jelly-sandwich" rheology model of the continental lithosphere, but the onset of the lower slice of bread is due to a decrease in frictional strength as opposed to an increase in viscous strength. For the other

  9. Is Slow Slip a Cause or a Result of Tremor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    While various modeling efforts have been conducted to reproduce subsets of observations of tremor and slow-slip events (SSE), a fundamental but yet unanswered question is whether slow slip is a cause or a result of tremor. Tremor is commonly regarded as driven by SSE. This view is mainly based on observations of SSE without detected tremors and on (frequency-limited) estimates of total tremor seismic moment being lower than 1% of their concomitant SSE moment. In previous studies we showed that models of heterogeneous faults, composed of seismic asperities embedded in an aseismic fault zone matrix, reproduce quantitatively the hierarchical patterns of tremor migration observed in Cascadia and Shikoku. To address the title question, we design two end-member models of a heterogeneous fault. In the SSE-driven-tremor model, slow slip events are spontaneously generated by the matrix (even in the absence of seismic asperities) and drive tremor. In the Tremor-driven-SSE model the matrix is stable (it slips steadily in the absence of asperities) and slow slip events result from the collective behavior of tremor asperities interacting via transient creep (local afterslip fronts). We study these two end-member models through 2D quasi-dynamic multi-cycle simulations of faults governed by rate-and-state friction with heterogeneous frictional properties and effective normal stress, using the earthquake simulation software QDYN (https://zenodo.org/record/322459). We find that both models reproduce first-order observations of SSE and tremor and have very low seismic to aseismic moment ratio. However, the Tremor-driven-SSE model assumes a simpler rheology than the SSE-driven-tremor model and matches key observations better and without fine tuning, including the ratio of propagation speeds of forward SSE and rapid tremor reversals and the decay of inter-event times of Low Frequency Earthquakes. These modeling results indicate that, in contrast to a common view, SSE could be a result

  10. Dual megathrust slip behaviors of the 2014 Iquique earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingsen; Huang, Hui; Bürgmann, Roland; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Strader, Anne

    2015-02-01

    The transition between seismic rupture and aseismic creep is of central interest to better understand the mechanics of subduction processes. A Mw 8.2 earthquake occurred on April 1st, 2014 in the Iquique seismic gap of northern Chile. This event was preceded by a long foreshock sequence including a 2-week-long migration of seismicity initiated by a Mw 6.7 earthquake. Repeating earthquakes were found among the foreshock sequence that migrated towards the mainshock hypocenter, suggesting a large-scale slow-slip event on the megathrust preceding the mainshock. The variations of the recurrence times of the repeating earthquakes highlight the diverse seismic and aseismic slip behaviors on different megathrust segments. The repeaters that were active only before the mainshock recurred more often and were distributed in areas of substantial coseismic slip, while repeaters that occurred both before and after the mainshock were in the area complementary to the mainshock rupture. The spatiotemporal distribution of the repeating earthquakes illustrates the essential role of propagating aseismic slip leading up to the mainshock and illuminates the distribution of postseismic afterslip. Various finite fault models indicate that the largest coseismic slip generally occurred down-dip from the foreshock activity and the mainshock hypocenter. Source imaging by teleseismic back-projection indicates an initial down-dip propagation stage followed by a rupture-expansion stage. In the first stage, the finite fault models show an emergent onset of moment rate at low frequency ( 0.5 Hz). This indicates frequency-dependent manifestations of seismic radiation in the low-stress foreshock region. In the second stage, the rupture expands in rich bursts along the rim of a semi-elliptical region with episodes of re-ruptures, suggesting delayed failure of asperities. The high-frequency rupture remains within an area of local high trench-parallel gravity anomaly (TPGA), suggesting the presence of

  11. Tactile detection of slip: surface microgeometry and peripheral neural codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M A; Whitehouse, J M; LaMotte, R H

    1990-06-01

    1. The role of the microgeometry of planar surfaces in the detection of sliding of the surfaces on human and monkey fingerpads was investigated. By the use of a servo-controlled tactile stimulator to press and stroke glass plates on passive fingerpads of human subjects, the ability of humans to discriminate the direction of skin stretch caused by friction and to detect the sliding motion (slip) of the plates with or without micrometer-sized surface features was determined. To identify the associated peripheral neural codes, evoked responses to the same stimuli were recorded from single, low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferent fibers innervating the fingerpads of anesthetized macaque monkeys. 2. Humans could not detect the slip of a smooth glass plate on the fingerpad. However, the direction of skin stretch was perceived based on the information conveyed by the slowly adapting afferents that respond differentially to the stretch directions. Whereas the direction of skin stretch signaled the direction of impending slip, the perception of relative motion between the plate and the finger required the existence of detectable surface features. 3. Barely detectable micrometer-sized protrusions on smooth surfaces led to the detection of slip of these surfaces, because of the exclusive activation of rapidly adapting fibers of either the Meissner (RA) or the Pacinian (PC) type to specific geometries of the microfeatures. The motion of a smooth plate with a very small single raised dot (4 microns high, 550 microns diam) caused the sequential activation of neighboring RAs along the dot path, thus providing a reliable spatiotemporal code. The stroking of the plate with a fine homogeneous texture composed of a matrix of dots (1 microns high, 50 microns diam, and spaced at 100 microns center-to-center) induced vibrations in the fingerpad that activated only the PCs and resulted in an intensive code. 4. The results show that surprisingly small features on smooth surfaces are

  12. Surgical hip dislocation in treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarghany Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most surgeons advocate in situ fixation of the slipped epiphysis with acceptance of any persistent deformity in the proximal femur [Aronsson DD, Loder RT, Breur GJ, Weinstein SL (2006 Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: current concepts. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 14, 666–679]. This residual deformity can lead to osteoarthritis due to femoroacetabular cam impingement (FAI [Leunig M, Slongo T, Ganz R (2008 Subcapital realignment in slipped capital femoral epiphysis: surgical hip dislocation and trimming of the stable trochanter to protect the perfusion of the epiphysis. Instr Course Lect 57, 499–507]. Objective: The primary aim of our study was to report the results of the technique of capital realignment with Ganz surgical hip dislocation and its reproducibility to restore hip anatomy and function. Patients and methods: This prospective case series study included 30 patients (32 hips, 13 left (Lt hips, 19 right (Rt hips with stable chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE after surgical correction with a modified Dunn procedure. This study included 22 males and eight females. The mean age of our patients was 14 years (10–18 years. The mean follow-up period was 14.5 months (6–36 months. Results: Thirty hips had excellent and good clinical and radiographic outcomes with respect to hip function and radiographic parameters. Two patients had fair to poor clinical outcome including three patients who developed Avascular Necrosis (AVN. The difference between those who developed AVN and those who did not develop AVN was statistically significant in postoperative clinical scores (p = 0.0000. The mean slip angle of the femoral head was 52.5° ± 14.6 preoperatively and was corrected to a mean value of 5.6° ± 8.2° with mean correction of 46.85° ± 14.9° (p = 0.0000. The mean postoperative alpha angle was 51.15° ± 4.2° with mean correction of 46.70 ± 14.20 (p = 0.0000. In our series, the mean postoperative

  13. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A.; Audiffred, M.; Heine, T.; Niehaus, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  14. Fast principal component analysis for stacking seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Bai, Min

    2018-04-01

    Stacking seismic data plays an indispensable role in many steps of the seismic data processing and imaging workflow. Optimal stacking of seismic data can help mitigate seismic noise and enhance the principal components to a great extent. Traditional average-based seismic stacking methods cannot obtain optimal performance when the ambient noise is extremely strong. We propose a principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm for stacking seismic data without being sensitive to noise level. Considering the computational bottleneck of the classic PCA algorithm in processing massive seismic data, we propose an efficient PCA algorithm to make the proposed method readily applicable for industrial applications. Two numerically designed examples and one real seismic data are used to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  15. Sample Stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis : Principles, advantages and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.L.; Bocek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The principles of stacking procedures are described and their properties are discussed, including the fundamentals of the behavior of zone boundaries and the consequences of the self-correcting properties of boundaries in moving boundary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis.

  16. DBaaS with OpenStack Trove

    CERN Document Server

    Giardini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the Trove component for OpenStack, understand if it can be used with the CERN infrastructure and report the benefits and disadvantages of this software. Currently, databases for CERN projects are provided by a DbaaS software developed inside the IT-DB group. This solution works well with the actual infrastructure but it is not easy to maintain. With the migration of the CERN infrastructure to OpenStack the Database group started to evaluate the Trove component. Instead of mantaining an own DbaaS service it can be interesting to migrate everything to OpenStack and replace the actual DbaaS software with Trove. This way both virtual machines and databases will be managed by OpenStack itself.

  17. Development and preliminary experimental study on micro-stacked insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Chengyan; Yuan Weiqun; Zhang Dongdong; Yan Ping; Wang Jue

    2009-01-01

    High gradient insulating technology is one of the key technologies in new type dielectric wall accelerator(DWA). High gradient insulator, namely micro-stacked insulator, was developed and preliminary experimental study was done. Based on the finite element and particle simulating method, surface electric field distribution and electron movement track of micro-stacked insulator were numerated, and then the optimized design proposal was put forward. Using high temperature laminated method, we developed micro-stacked insulator samples which uses exhaustive fluorinated ethylene propylene(FEP) as dielectric layer and stainless steel as metal layer. Preliminary experiment of vacuum surface flashover in nanosecond pulse voltage was done and micro-stacked insulator exhibited favorable vacuum surface flashover performance with flashover field strength of near 180 kV/cm. (authors)

  18. Simulation of magnetization and levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anischenko, I. V.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Mineev, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work it is presented a computational model of a magnetic levitation system based on stacks of high-temperature second generation superconducting tapes (HTS) GdBa2Cu3O7-x. Calculated magnetic field and the current distributions in the system for different stacks geometries in the zero-field cooling mode are also presented. The magnetization curves of the stacks in the external field of a permanent NdFeB magnet and the levitation force dependence on the gap between the magnet and the HTS tapes stack were obtained. A model of the magnetic system, oriented to levitation application, is given. Results of modeling were compared with the experimental data.

  19. Sport stacking activities in school children's motor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.

  20. Stacking faults and microstructural parameters in non-mulberry silk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rameters like crystal size (〈N〉), lattice strain (g) and stacking faults in polymer materials ... metal oxide compounds, but may be inadequate for describing diffraction patterns .... Further, with these model parameters for individual Bragg reflec-.