WorldWideScience

Sample records for slice pattern model

  1. Slices

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James

    2011-01-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies. © 2011 ACM.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Thin Layer Microwave Drying of Taro Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, H. K.; Singh, K.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the drying kinetics of taro slices precooked in different medium viz water (WC), steam (SC) and Lemon Solution (LC) and dried at different microwave power 360, 540 and 720 W. Drying curves of all precooked slices at all microwave powers showed falling rate period along with a very short accelerating period at the beginning of the drying. At all microwave powers, higher drying rate was observed for LC slices as compared to WC and SC slices. To select a suitable drying curve, seven thin-layer drying models were fitted to the experimental data. The data revealed that the Page model was most adequate in describing the microwave drying behavior of taro slices precooked in different medium. The highest effective moisture diffusivity value of 2.11 × 10-8 m2/s was obtained for LC samples while the lowest 0.83 × 10-8 m2/s was obtained for WC taro slices. The activation energy (E a ) of LC taro slices was lower than the E a of WC and SC taro slices.

  3. Verification-Driven Slicing of UML/OCL Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Asadullah; Clarisó Viladrosa, Robert; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2010-01-01

    computational complexity can limit their scalability. In this paper, we consider a specific static model (UML class diagrams annotated with unrestricted OCL constraints) and a specific property to verify (satisfiability, i.e., “is it possible to create objects without violating any constraint?”). Current...... approaches to this problem have an exponential worst-case runtime. We propose a technique to improve their scalability by partitioning the original model into submodels (slices) which can be verified independently and where irrelevant information has been abstracted. The definition of the slicing procedure...

  4. Slicing AADL specifications for model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odenbrett, M.R.; Nguyen, V.Y.; Noll, T.

    2010-01-01

    To combat the state-space explosion problem in model checking larger systems, abstraction techniques can be employed. Here, methods that operate on the system specification before constructing its state space are preferable to those that try to minimize the resulting transition system as they

  5. Real-time slicing algorithm for Stereolithography (STL) CAD model applied in additive manufacturing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, F. A.; Romlay, F. R. M.; Shafiq, M.

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the advent of the industrial revolution 4.0, the need for further evaluating processes applied in the additive manufacturing application particularly the computational process for slicing is non-trivial. This paper evaluates a real-time slicing algorithm for slicing an STL formatted computer-aided design (CAD). A line-plane intersection equation was applied to perform the slicing procedure at any given height. The application of this algorithm has found to provide a better computational time regardless the number of facet in the STL model. The performance of this algorithm is evaluated by comparing the results of the computational time for different geometry.

  6. Modeling and Realization of a Bearingless Flux-Switching Slice Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gruber

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces a novel bearingless slice motor design: the bearingless flux-switching slice motor. In contrast to state-of-the-art bearingless slice motors, the rotor in this new design does not include any permanent rotor magnets. This offers advantages for disposable devices, such as those used in the medical industry, and extends the range of bearingless slice motors toward high-temperature applications. In this study, our focus is on the analytical modeling of the suspension force torque generation of a single coil and the bearingless motor. We assessed motor performance in relation to motor topology by applying performance factors. A prototype motor was optimized, designed, and manufactured. We also presented the state-of-the-art nonlinear feedback control scheme used. The motor was operated, and both static and dynamic measurements were taken on a test bench, thus successfully demonstrating the functionality and applicability of the novel bearingless slice motor concept.

  7. Fluidized bed drying characteristics and modeling of ginger ( zingiber officinale) slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Nezaket

    2015-08-01

    In this study fluidized bed drying characteristics of ginger have been investigated. The effects of the fluidizing air temperature, velocity, humidity and bed height on the drying performance of ginger slices have been found. The experimental moisture loss data of ginger slices has been fitted to the eight thin layer drying models. Two-term model drying model has shown a better fit to the experimental data with R2 of 0.998 as compared to others.

  8. Shape determinative slice localization for patient-specific masseter modeling using shape-based interpolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H.P. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (Singapore); Biomedical Imaging Lab., Agency for Science Technology and Research (Singapore); Foong, K.W.C. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (Singapore); Dept. of Preventive Dentistry, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Ong, S.H. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Div. of Bioengineering, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Liu, J.; Nowinski, W.L. [Biomedical Imaging Lab., Agency for Science Technology and Research (Singapore); Goh, P.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-06-15

    The masseter plays a critical role in the mastication system. A hybrid method to shape-based interpolation is used to build the masseter model from magnetic resonance (MR) data sets. The main contribution here is the localizing of determinative slices in the data sets where clinicians are required to perform manual segmentations in order for an accurate model to be built. Shape-based criteria were used to locate the candidates for determinative slices and fuzzy-c-means (FCM) clustering technique was used to establish the determinative slices. Five masseter models were built in our work and the average overlap indices ({kappa}) achieved is 85.2%. This indicates that there is good agreement between the models and the manual contour tracings. In addition, the time taken, as compared to manually segmenting all the slices, is significantly lesser. (orig.)

  9. Shape determinative slice localization for patient-specific masseter modeling using shape-based interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, H.P.; Foong, K.W.C.; Ong, S.H.; Liu, J.; Nowinski, W.L.; Goh, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    The masseter plays a critical role in the mastication system. A hybrid method to shape-based interpolation is used to build the masseter model from magnetic resonance (MR) data sets. The main contribution here is the localizing of determinative slices in the data sets where clinicians are required to perform manual segmentations in order for an accurate model to be built. Shape-based criteria were used to locate the candidates for determinative slices and fuzzy-c-means (FCM) clustering technique was used to establish the determinative slices. Five masseter models were built in our work and the average overlap indices (κ) achieved is 85.2%. This indicates that there is good agreement between the models and the manual contour tracings. In addition, the time taken, as compared to manually segmenting all the slices, is significantly lesser. (orig.)

  10. Constructing a Computer Model of the Human Eye Based on Tissue Slice Images

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Peishan; Wang, Boliang; Bao, Chunbo; Ju, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Computer simulation of the biomechanical and biological heat transfer in ophthalmology greatly relies on having a reliable computer model of the human eye. This paper proposes a novel method on the construction of a geometric model of the human eye based on tissue slice images. Slice images were obtained from an in vitro Chinese human eye through an embryo specimen processing methods. A level set algorithm was used to extract contour points of eye tissues while a principle component analysi...

  11. Establishing a pattern of 64-multi slice CT of polytraumatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Walecka, A.; Burak, M.; Pakulski, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Due to great technological progress made over the last decade in computer tomography, CT Has become a very successful tool for diagnostic imaging in polytraumatic patients. The purpose of this study is an optimum selection of parameters to detect all post-traumatic pathologies in polytraumatic patients, with the application of minimum ionizing radiation. Material/Methods: 131 patients with a suspected polytrauma were studied following various scanning patterns with a 64-slice CT of the head, neck, thorax and abdominal cavity with pelvis. The patients were divided into three groups in accordance with the chosen scheme. Materials were analyzed with the following in view: increasing the efficacy of detecting pathologies, decreasing radiation dose, simplifying assessment and facilitating image archiving. Results: The following mean numbers of serious post-traumatic pathologies were diagnosed during one examination: group I - 1.8, group II - 2.8, and group III - 2.1. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of reconstructions performed during one examination from 11.8 in group I, 8.3 in group II, to 7.2 in group III. Additionally, statistically significant reductions were obtained in the mean values of the dose-length product (DLP): 3361 mGy · cm (group I), 2805 mGy 8· cm (group II), 2583 mGy · cm (group III). Conclusions: The third scanning pattern, which comprised multiple adjacent sections scanned jointly, including a single trunk scan following the administration of a contrast material, is best in terms of evaluation comfort and the lowest radiation dose absorbed by the patient. Patterns II and III are most effective in detecting pathologies. (authors)

  12. The virtual slice setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, William W; Neymotin, Samuel A; Hines, Michael L

    2008-06-30

    In an effort to design a simulation environment that is more similar to that of neurophysiology, we introduce a virtual slice setup in the NEURON simulator. The virtual slice setup runs continuously and permits parameter changes, including changes to synaptic weights and time course and to intrinsic cell properties. The virtual slice setup permits shocks to be applied at chosen locations and activity to be sampled intra- or extracellularly from chosen locations. By default, a summed population display is shown during a run to indicate the level of activity and no states are saved. Simulations can run for hours of model time, therefore it is not practical to save all of the state variables. These, in any case, are primarily of interest at discrete times when experiments are being run: the simulation can be stopped momentarily at such times to save activity patterns. The virtual slice setup maintains an automated notebook showing shocks and parameter changes as well as user comments. We demonstrate how interaction with a continuously running simulation encourages experimental prototyping and can suggest additional dynamical features such as ligand wash-in and wash-out-alternatives to typical instantaneous parameter change. The virtual slice setup currently uses event-driven cells and runs at approximately 2 min/h on a laptop.

  13. Use of pattern recognition for unaliasing simultaneously acquired slices in simultaneous multislice MR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Bhat, Himanshu; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L; Setsompop, Kawin; Griswold, Mark A

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to accelerate an MR fingerprinting (MRF) acquisition by using a simultaneous multislice method. A multiband radiofrequency (RF) pulse was designed to excite two slices with different flip angles and phases. The signals of two slices were driven to be as orthogonal as possible. The mixed and undersampled MRF signal was matched to two dictionaries to retrieve T 1 and T 2 maps of each slice. Quantitative results from the proposed method were validated with the gold-standard spin echo methods in a phantom. T 1 and T 2 maps of in vivo human brain from two simultaneously acquired slices were also compared to the results of fast imaging with steady-state precession based MRF method (MRF-FISP) with a single-band RF excitation. The phantom results showed that the simultaneous multislice imaging MRF-FISP method quantified the relaxation properties accurately compared to the gold-standard spin echo methods. T 1 and T 2 values of in vivo brain from the proposed method also matched the results from the normal MRF-FISP acquisition. T 1 and T 2 values can be quantified at a multiband acceleration factor of two using our proposed acquisition even in a single-channel receive coil. Further acceleration could be achieved by combining this method with parallel imaging or iterative reconstruction. Magn Reson Med 78:1870-1876, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Mathematical modeling of hot air/electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying kinetics of mushroom slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghian Dinani, Somayeh; Hamdami, Nasser; Shahedi, Mohammad; Havet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot air/EHD drying behavior of thin layer mushroom slices was evaluated. • A new empirical model was proposed for drying kinetics modeling of mushroom slices. • The new model presents excellent predictions for hot air/EHD drying of mushroom. - Abstract: Researches about mathematical modeling of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying are rare. In this study, hot air combined with electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying behavior of thin layer mushroom slices was evaluated in a laboratory scale dryer at voltages of 17, 19, and 21 kV and electrode gaps of 5, 6, and 7 cm. The drying curves were fitted to ten different mathematical models (Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Two-term exponential, Midilli and Kucuk, Wang and Singh, Weibull and Parabolic models) and a proposed new empirical model to select a suitable drying equation for drying mushroom slices in a hot air combined with EHD dryer. Coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis and the models were compared based on their coefficient of determination (R 2 ), sum of square errors (SSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) between experimental and predicted moisture ratios. According to the results, the proposed model that contains only three parameters provided the best fit with the experimental data. It was closely followed by the Midilli and Kucuk model that contains four parameters. Therefore, the proposed model can present comfortable usage and excellent predictions for the moisture content changes of mushroom slices in the hot air combined with EHD drying system

  15. Model of CSR Induced Bursts in Slicing Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, G.; Heifets, S.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a model describing the CSR bursts observed in recent experiments at the Advanced Light Source at the LBL. The model is based on the linear theory of the CSR instability in electron rings. We describe how an initial perturbation of the beam generated by the laser pulse evolves in time when the beam is unstable due to the CSR wakefield

  16. Biotransformation of vinclozolin in rat precision-cut liver slices: comparison with in vivo metabolic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyka, Julian; Debrauwer, Laurent; Perdu, Elisabeth; Jouanin, Isabelle; Jaeg, Jean-Philippe; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-25

    Vinclozolin is a dicarboxymide fungicide that presents antiandrogenic properties through its two hydrolysis products M1 and M2, which bind to the androgen receptor. Because of the lack of data on the biotransformation of vinclozolin, its metabolism was investigated in vitro in precision-cut rat liver slices and in vivo in male rat using [ (14)C]-vinclozolin. Incubations were performed using different concentrations of substrate, and the kinetics of formation of the major metabolites were studied. Three male Wistar rats were fed by gavage with [ (14)C]-VZ. Urine was collected for 24 h and analyzed by radio-HPLC for metabolic profiling. Metabolite identification was carried out on a LCQ ion trap mass spectrometer. In rat liver slices and in vivo, the major primary metabolite has been identified as 3',5'-dichloro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutyranilide (M5) and was mainly present as glucuronoconjugates. M5 is produced by dihydroxylation of the vinyl group of M2. Other metabolites have been identified as 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione (M4), a dihydroxylated metabolite of vinclozolin, which undergoes further conjugation to glucuronic acid, and 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-butanoic acid (M6), a dihydroxylated metabolite of M1.

  17. A novel method for oxygen glucose deprivation model in organotypic spinal cord slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jie; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Sheng-Li

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to establish a model to closely mimic spinal cord hypoxic-ischemic injury with high production and high reproducibility. Fourteen-day cultured organotypic spinal cord slices were divided into 4 groups: control (Ctrl), oxygen glucose deprived for 30min (OGD 30min), OGD 60min, and OGD 120min. The Ctrl slices were incubated with 1ml propidium iodide (PI) solution (5μg/ml) for 30min. The OGD groups were incubated with 1ml glucose-free DMEM/F12 medium and 5μl PI solution (1mg/ml) for 30min, 60min and 120min, respectively. Positive control slice was fixed by 4% paraformaldehyde for 20min. The culture medium in each group was then collected and the Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) level in the medium was tested using Multi-Analyte ELISArray kits. Structure and refraction of the spinal cord slices were observed by light microscope. Fluorescence intensity of PI was examined by fluorescence microscopy and was tested by IPP Software. Morphology of astrocytes was observed by immunofluorescence histochemistry. Caspase 3 and caspase 3 active in different groups were tested by Western blot. In the OGD groups, the refraction of spinal cord slices decreased and the structure was unclear. The changes of refraction and structure in the OGD 120min group were similar to that in the positive control slice. Astrocyte morphology changed significantly. With the increase of OGD time, processes became thick and twisted, and nuclear condensations became more apparent. Obvious changes in morphology were observed in the OGD 60min group, and normal morphology disappeared in the OGD 120min group. Fluorescence intensity of PI increased along with the extension of OGD time. The difference was significant between 30min and 60min, but not significant between 60min and 120min. The intensity at OGD 120min was close to that in the positive control. Compare with the Ctrl group, the OGD groups had significantly higher LDH levels and caspase 3 active/caspase 3 ratios. The values increased

  18. Numerical simulation of potato slices drying using a two-dimensional finite element model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical study was conducted to investigate the process of potato slices drying. For simulating the moisture transfer in the samples and predict the dehydration curves, a two-dimensional finite element model was developed and programmed in Compaq Visual Fortran, version 6.5. The model solved the Fick’s second law for slab in a shrinkage system to calculate the unsteady two-dimensional moisture transmission in rectangular coordinates (x,y. Moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient were determined by minimizing the sum squares of residuals between experimental and numerical predicted data. Shrinkage kinetics of the potato slices during dehydration was determined experimentally and found to be a linear function of removed moisture. The determined parameters were used in the mathematical model. The predicted moisture content values were compared to the experimental data and the validation results demonstrated that the dynamic drying curves were predicted by the methodology very well.

  19. Parallel and patterned optogenetic manipulation of neurons in the brain slice using a DMD-based projector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Seiichiro; Ueno, Kenichi; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu

    2013-01-01

    Optical manipulation technologies greatly advanced the understanding of the neuronal network and its dysfunctions. To achieve patterned and parallel optical switching, we developed a microscopic illumination system using a commercial DMD-based projector and a software program. The spatiotemporal patterning of the system was evaluated using acute slices of the hippocampus. The neural activity was optically manipulated, positively by the combination of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and blue light, and negatively by the combination of archaerhodopsin-T (ArchT) and green light. It is suggested that our projector-managing optical system (PMOS) would effectively facilitate the optogenetic analyses of neurons and their circuits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling glioblastoma tumour-host cell interactions using adult brain organotypic slice co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Marques-Torrejon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is an aggressive incurable brain cancer. The cells that fuel the growth of tumours resemble neural stem cells found in the developing and adult mammalian forebrain. These are referred to as glioma stem cells (GSCs. Similar to neural stem cells, GSCs exhibit a variety of phenotypic states: dormant, quiescent, proliferative and differentiating. How environmental cues within the brain influence these distinct states is not well understood. Laboratory models of GBM can be generated using either genetically engineered mouse models, or via intracranial transplantation of cultured tumour initiating cells (mouse or human. Unfortunately, these approaches are expensive, time-consuming, low-throughput and ill-suited for monitoring live cell behaviours. Here, we explored whole adult brain coronal organotypic slices as an alternative model. Mouse adult brain slices remain viable in a serum-free basal medium for several weeks. GSCs can be easily microinjected into specific anatomical sites ex vivo, and we demonstrate distinct responses of engrafted GSCs to diverse microenvironments in the brain tissue. Within the subependymal zone – one of the adult neural stem cell niches – injected tumour cells could effectively engraft and respond to endothelial niche signals. Tumour-transplanted slices were treated with the antimitotic drug temozolomide as proof of principle of the utility in modelling responses to existing treatments. Engraftment of mouse or human GSCs onto whole brain coronal organotypic brain slices therefore provides a simplified, yet flexible, experimental model. This will help to increase the precision and throughput of modelling GSC-host brain interactions and complements ongoing in vivo studies. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

  1. Mathematical modelling of temperature effect on growth kinetics of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlak, Fatih; Ozdemir, Murat; Melikoglu, Mehmet

    2018-02-02

    The growth data of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) stored between 4 and 28°C were obtained and fitted to three different primary models, known as the modified Gompertz, logistic and Baranyi models. The goodness of fit of these models was compared by considering the mean squared error (MSE) and the coefficient of determination for nonlinear regression (pseudo-R 2 ). The Baranyi model yielded the lowest MSE and highest pseudo-R 2 values. Therefore, the Baranyi model was selected as the best primary model. Maximum specific growth rate (r max ) and lag phase duration (λ) obtained from the Baranyi model were fitted to secondary models namely, the Ratkowsky and Arrhenius models. High pseudo-R 2 and low MSE values indicated that the Arrhenius model has a high goodness of fit to determine the effect of temperature on r max . Observed number of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushrooms from independent experiments was compared with the predicted number of Pseudomonas spp. with the models used by considering the B f and A f values. The B f and A f values were found to be 0.974 and 1.036, respectively. The correlation between the observed and predicted number of Pseudomonas spp. was high. Mushroom spoilage was simulated as a function of temperature with the models used. The models used for Pseudomonas spp. growth can provide a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional microbiological techniques to determine the effect of storage temperature on product shelf-life. The models can be used to evaluate the growth behaviour of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushroom, set limits for the quantitative detection of the microbial spoilage and assess product shelf-life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Organotypic brain slice cultures of adult transgenic P301S mice--a model for tauopathy studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Mewes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organotypic brain slice cultures represent an excellent compromise between single cell cultures and complete animal studies, in this way replacing and reducing the number of animal experiments. Organotypic brain slices are widely applied to model neuronal development and regeneration as well as neuronal pathology concerning stroke, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD. AD is characterized by two protein alterations, namely tau hyperphosphorylation and excessive amyloid β deposition, both causing microglia and astrocyte activation. Deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau, called neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, surrounded by activated glia are modeled in transgenic mice, e.g. the tauopathy model P301S. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we explore the benefits and limitations of organotypic brain slice cultures made of mature adult transgenic mice as a potential model system for the multifactorial phenotype of AD. First, neonatal (P1 and adult organotypic brain slice cultures from 7- to 10-month-old transgenic P301S mice have been compared with regard to vitality, which was monitored with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH- and the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays over 15 days. Neonatal slices displayed a constant high vitality level, while the vitality of adult slice cultures decreased significantly upon cultivation. Various preparation and cultivation conditions were tested to augment the vitality of adult slices and improvements were achieved with a reduced slice thickness, a mild hypothermic cultivation temperature and a cultivation CO(2 concentration of 5%. Furthermore, we present a substantial immunohistochemical characterization analyzing the morphology of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in comparison to neonatal tissue. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Until now only adolescent animals with a maximum age of two months have been used to prepare organotypic brain slices. The current study

  3. Modelling the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 64 Multi-Slice CT (MSCT) Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A T Mohd; Rahni, A A Abd

    2017-01-01

    Reconstructing large volumetric 3D images with minimal radiation dosage exposure with reduced scanning time has been one of the main objectives in the advancement of CT development. One of its advancement is the introduction of multi-slice arc detector geometry from a cone-beam source in third generation scanners. In solving this complex geometry, apart from the known vast computations in CT image reconstruction due to large CT images, iterative reconstruction methods are preferred compared to analytic methods due to its flexibility in image reconstruction. A scanner of interest that has this type of geometry is the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 64 Multi-Slice CT (MSCT) Scanner , which has a total of 32 slices with 672 detector elements on each slice. In this paper, the scanner projection is modelled via the intersecting lengths between each ray (exhibited from the source to the detector elements) with the scanned image voxels, which are evaluated using the classical Siddon’s algorithm to generate the system matrix, H . This is a prerequisite to perform various iterative reconstruction methods, which involves solving the inverse problem arising from the linear equation: S = H· I; where S is the projections produced from the image, I. Due to the ‘cone-beam geometry’ along the z -axis, the effective field-of-view (FOV) with voxel dimensions (0.4×0.4×0.4) mm 3 is 512×512×32 voxels. The scanner model is demonstrated by reconstructing an image from simulated projections using the analytic Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) method against basic iterative image reconstruction methods. (paper)

  4. Estimating intratidal nonlinearity of respiratory system mechanics: a model study using the enhanced gliding-SLICE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Stefan; Burcza, Boris; Guttmann, Josef; Haberthür, Christoph; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the clinical situation and in most research work, the analysis of respiratory system mechanics is limited to the estimation of single-value compliances during static or quasi-static conditions. In contrast, our SLICE method analyses intratidal nonlinearity under the dynamic conditions of mechanical ventilation by calculating compliance and resistance for six conjoined volume portions (slices) of the pressure–volume loop by multiple linear regression analysis. With the gliding-SLICE method we present a new approach to determine continuous intratidal nonlinear compliance. The performance of the gliding-SLICE method was tested both in computer simulations and in a physical model of the lung, both simulating different intratidal compliance profiles. Compared to the original SLICE method, the gliding-SLICE method resulted in smaller errors when calculating the compliance or pressure course (all p 2 O s L −1 to 0.8 ± 0.3 cmH 2 O s L −1 (mathematical model) and from 7.2 ± 3.9 cmH 2 O s L −1 to 0.4 ± 0.2 cmH 2 O s L −1 (physical model) (all p < 0.001). We conclude that the new gliding-SLICE method allows detailed assessment of intratidal nonlinear respiratory system mechanics without discontinuity error

  5. Mathematical modeling of dehydration of 'Fuji' and 'Gala' apples slices using infrared

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    Emílio de Souza Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine and model the infrared dehydration curves of apple slices - Fuji and Gala varieties. The slices were dehydrated until constant mass, in a prototype dryer with infrared heating source. The applied temperatures ranged from 50 to 100 °C. Due to the physical characteristics of the product, the dehydration curve was divided in two periods, constant and falling, separated by the critical moisture content. A linear model was used to describe the constant dehydration period. Empirical models traditionally used to model the drying behavior of agricultural products were fitted to the experimental data of the falling dehydration period. Critical moisture contents of 2.811 and 3.103 kgw kgs-1 were observed for the Fuji and Gala varieties, respectively. Based on the results, it was concluded that the constant dehydration rates presented a direct relationship with the temperature; thus, it was possible to fit a model that describes the moisture content variation in function of time and temperature. Among the tested models, which describe the falling dehydration period, the model proposed by Midilli presented the best fit for all studied conditions.

  6. Influence of slice thickness of computed tomography and type of rapid protyping on the accuracy of 3-dimensional medical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Ki Doo; Lee, Byung Do

    2004-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the influence of slice thickness of computed tomography (CT) and rapid protyping (RP) type on the accuracy of 3-dimensional medical model. Transaxial CT data of human dry skull were taken from multi-detector spiral CT. Slice thickness were 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm respectively. Three-dimensional image model reconstruction using 3-D visualization medical software (V-works 3.0) and RP model fabrication were followed. 2-RP models were 3D printing (Z402, Z Corp., Burlington, USA) and Stereolithographic Apparatus model. Linear measurements of anatomical landmarks on dry skull, 3-D image model, and 2-RP models were done and compared according to slice thickness and RP model type. There were relative error percentage in absolute value of 0.97, 1.98, 3.83 between linear measurements of dry skull and image models of 1, 2, 3 mm slice thickness respectively. There was relative error percentage in absolute value of 0.79 between linear measurements of dry skull and SLA model. There was relative error difference in absolute value of 2.52 between linear measurements of dry skull and 3D printing model. These results indicated that 3-dimensional image model of thin slice thickness and stereolithographic RP model showed relative high accuracy.

  7. Influence of slice thickness of computed tomography and type of rapid protyping on the accuracy of 3-dimensional medical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Ki Doo; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    This study was to evaluate the influence of slice thickness of computed tomography (CT) and rapid protyping (RP) type on the accuracy of 3-dimensional medical model. Transaxial CT data of human dry skull were taken from multi-detector spiral CT. Slice thickness were 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm respectively. Three-dimensional image model reconstruction using 3-D visualization medical software (V-works 3.0) and RP model fabrication were followed. 2-RP models were 3D printing (Z402, Z Corp., Burlington, USA) and Stereolithographic Apparatus model. Linear measurements of anatomical landmarks on dry skull, 3-D image model, and 2-RP models were done and compared according to slice thickness and RP model type. There were relative error percentage in absolute value of 0.97, 1.98, 3.83 between linear measurements of dry skull and image models of 1, 2, 3 mm slice thickness respectively. There was relative error percentage in absolute value of 0.79 between linear measurements of dry skull and SLA model. There was relative error difference in absolute value of 2.52 between linear measurements of dry skull and 3D printing model. These results indicated that 3-dimensional image model of thin slice thickness and stereolithographic RP model showed relative high accuracy.

  8. Patterns of data modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Best-selling author and database expert with more than 25 years of experience modeling application and enterprise data, Dr. Michael Blaha provides tried and tested data model patterns, to help readers avoid common modeling mistakes and unnecessary frustration on their way to building effective data models. Unlike the typical methodology book, "Patterns of Data Modeling" provides advanced techniques for those who have mastered the basics. Recognizing that database representation sets the path for software, determines its flexibility, affects its quality, and influences whether it succ

  9. [Simulation and data analysis of stereological modeling based on virtual slices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Shen, Hong; Bai, Xiao-yan

    2008-05-01

    To establish a computer-assisted stereological model for simulating the process of slice section and evaluate the relationship between section surface and estimated three-dimensional structure. The model was designed by mathematic method as a win32 software based on the MFC using Microsoft visual studio as IDE for simulating the infinite process of sections and analysis of the data derived from the model. The linearity of the fitting of the model was evaluated by comparison with the traditional formula. The win32 software based on this algorithm allowed random sectioning of the particles distributed randomly in an ideal virtual cube. The stereological parameters showed very high throughput (>94.5% and 92%) in homogeneity and independence tests. The data of density, shape and size of the section were tested to conform to normal distribution. The output of the model and that from the image analysis system showed statistical correlation and consistency. The algorithm we described can be used for evaluating the stereologic parameters of the structure of tissue slices.

  10. Limitations of Single Slice Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MR in Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Bone Sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toms, Andoni P. (Dept. of Radiology, The Norfolk and Norwich Univ. Hospital, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)); White, Lawrence M.; Bleakney, Robert R. (Dept. of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Kandel, Rita (Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Noseworthy, Michael (Health Sciences Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)); Lee, Shepstone (Institute of Health, Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)); Blackstein, Martin E. (Dept. of Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Wunder, Jay (Musculoskeletal Oncology Unit, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    2009-06-15

    Background: Single slice dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) appears to provide perfusion data about sarcomas in vivo that correlate with tumor necrosis on equivalent pathological sections. However, sarcomas are heterogeneous and therefore single slice DCE-MRI may not correlate with total tumor necrosis. Purpose: To determine whether changes in pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE-MRI, during chemotherapy for primary bone sarcomas correlated with histological measures of total tumor necrosis. Material and Methods: Twelve patients with appendicular primary bone sarcomas were included in the study. Each patient had DCE-MRI before, and after completion, of pre-operative chemotherapy. The mean arterial slope (A), endothelial permeability coefficient (Ktrans), and extravascular extracellular volume (Ve) were derived from each data set using a modified two compartment pharmacokinetic model. Total tumor necrosis rates were compared with changes in A, Ktrans, and Ve. Results: Six patients had total tumor necrosis of =90% and six had a measure of <90%. The median percentage changes in A, Ktrans, and Ve for the =90% necrosis group were -52.5% (-83 to 6), -66% (-82 to 26), and 23.5% (-26 to 40), respectively. For the <90% necrosis group, A = - 35% (-75 to 132), Ktrans= - 53 (-66 to 149) and Ve= - 14.5% (-42 to 40). One patient with >90% necrosis had increases in all three measures. Comparison of the two groups generated P-values of 0.699 for A, 0.18 for Ktrans, and 0.31 for Ve. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant correlation between changes in pharmacokinetic perfusion parameters and total tumor necrosis. When using single slice DCE-MRI heterogeneous histology of primary bone sarcomas and repair mediated angiogenesis might both be confounding factors

  11. Heat and mass transfer coefficients and modeling of infrared drying of banana slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Baptestini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, having a large part of its production performed in tropical countries. This product possesses a wide range of vitamins and minerals, being an important component of the alimentation worldwide. However, the shelf life of bananas is short, thus requiring procedures to prevent the quality loss and increase the shelf life. One of these procedures widely used is drying. This work aimed to study the infrared drying process of banana slices (cv. Prata and determine the heat and mass transfer coefficients of this process. In addition, effective diffusion coefficient and relationship between ripening stages of banana and drying were obtained. Banana slices at four different ripening stages were dried using a dryer with infrared heating source with four different temperatures (65, 75, 85, and 95 ºC. Midilli model was the one that best represented infrared drying of banana slices. Heat and mass transfer coefficients varied, respectively, between 46.84 and 70.54 W m-2 K-1 and 0.040 to 0.0632 m s-1 for temperature range, at the different ripening stages. Effective diffusion coefficient ranged from 1.96 to 3.59 × 10-15 m² s-1. Activation energy encountered were 16.392, 29.531, 23.194, and 25.206 kJ mol-1 for 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 7th ripening stages, respectively. Ripening stages did not affect the infrared drying of bananas.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells support neuronal fiber growth in an organotypic brain slice co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygnecka, Katja; Heider, Andreas; Scherf, Nico; Alt, Rüdiger; Franke, Heike; Heine, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified as promising candidates for neuroregenerative cell therapies. However, the impact of different isolation procedures on the functional and regenerative characteristics of MSC populations has not been studied thoroughly. To quantify these differences, we directly compared classically isolated bulk bone marrow-derived MSCs (bulk BM-MSCs) to the subpopulation Sca-1(+)Lin(-)CD45(-)-derived MSCs(-) (SL45-MSCs), isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from bulk BM-cell suspensions. Both populations were analyzed with respect to functional readouts, that are, frequency of fibroblast colony forming units (CFU-f), general morphology, and expression of stem cell markers. The SL45-MSC population is characterized by greater morphological homogeneity, higher CFU-f frequency, and significantly increased nestin expression compared with bulk BM-MSCs. We further quantified the potential of both cell populations to enhance neuronal fiber growth, using an ex vivo model of organotypic brain slice co-cultures of the mesocortical dopaminergic projection system. The MSC populations were cultivated underneath the slice co-cultures without direct contact using a transwell system. After cultivation, the fiber density in the border region between the two brain slices was quantified. While both populations significantly enhanced fiber outgrowth as compared with controls, purified SL45-MSCs stimulated fiber growth to a larger degree. Subsequently, we analyzed the expression of different growth factors in both cell populations. The results show a significantly higher expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and basic fibroblast growth factor in the SL45-MSCs population. Altogether, we conclude that MSC preparations enriched for primary MSCs promote neuronal regeneration and axonal regrowth, more effectively than bulk BM-MSCs, an effect that may be mediated by a higher BDNF secretion.

  13. Evaluation of some thin-layer drying models of persimmon slices (Diospyros kaki L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study, convective drying (50–70 °C) was applied as a preservation technology for persimmon slices. ► The highest drying and rehydration rates obtained with blanched slices. ► The Midilli et al., Page and Weibull models were determined as the suitable models. ► Effective moisture diffusivity, diffusivity constant and activation energy for drying process were determined. - Abstract: The effect of blanching and drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C) on drying kinetics and rehydration ratio of persimmons under hot-air drying was investigated. It was observed that both the drying temperature and blanching affected the drying time. The shortest drying times and highest rehydration ratios were obtained from blanched samples. Six thin-layer drying models were evaluated in the kinetics research. The fit quality of the proposed models was evaluated by using the determination of coefficient (R 2 ), reduced chi-square (χ 2 ) and root means square error (RMSE). The Midilli et al., Page and Weibull models showed a better fit to experimental drying data as compared to other models. Effective moisture diffusivity (D eff ) ranged from 7.05 × 10 −11 to 2.34 × 10 −10 m 2 /s calculated using the Fick’s second law. The activation energies of blanched and control samples determined from slope of the Arrhenius plot, ln(D eff ) versus 1/(T + 273.15), was 30.64 and 43.26 kJ/mol, respectively.

  14. Modelling and experimental validation of thin layer indirect solar drying of mango slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissa, A.O.; Bathiebo, J.; Kam, S.; Koulidiati, J. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l' Environnement (LPCE), Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences Exactes et Appliquee (UFR/SEA), Universite de Ouagadougou, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, BP 7021 Kadiogo (Burkina Faso); Savadogo, P.W. [Laboratoire Sol Eau Plante, Institut de l' Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 01 BP 476, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso); Desmorieux, H. [Laboratoire d' Automatisme et de Genie des Procedes (LAGEP), UCBL1-CNRS UMR 5007-CPE Lyon, Bat.308G, 43 bd du 11 Nov. 1918 Villeurbanne, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France)

    2009-04-15

    The thin layer solar drying of mango slices of 8 mm thick was simulated and experimented using a solar dryer designed and constructed in laboratory. Under meteorological conditions of harvest period of mangoes, the results showed that 3 'typical days' of drying were necessary to reach the range of preservation water contents. During these 3 days of solar drying, 50%, 40% and 5% of unbound water were eliminated, respectively, at the first, second and the third day. The final water content obtained was about 16 {+-} 1.33% d.b. (13.79% w.b.). This final water content and the corresponding water activity (0.6 {+-} 0.02) were in accordance with previous work. The drying rates with correction for shrinkage and the critical water content were experimentally determined. The critical water content was close to 70% of the initial water content and the drying rates were reduced almost at 6% of their maximum value at night. The thin layer drying model made it possible to simulate suitably the solar drying kinetics of mango slices with a correlation coefficient of r{sup 2} = 0.990. This study thus contributed to the setting of solar drying time of mango and to the establishment of solar drying rates' curves of this fruit. (author)

  15. Architectural slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given...... a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  16. Precision-cut intestinal slices: alternative model for drug transport, metabolism, and toxicology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; de Graaf, Inge A M; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2016-01-01

    The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-tox) processes of drugs are of importance and require preclinical investigation intestine in addition to the liver. Various models have been developed for prediction of ADME-tox in the intestine. In this review, precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) are discussed and highlighted as model for ADME-tox studies. This review provides an overview of the applications and an update of the most recent research on PCIS as an ex vivo model to study the transport, metabolism and toxicology of drugs and other xenobiotics. The unique features of PCIS and the differences with other models as well as the translational aspects are also discussed. PCIS are a simple, fast, and reliable ex vivo model for drug ADME-tox research. Therefore, PCIS are expected to become an indispensable link in the in vitro-ex vivo-in vivo extrapolation, and a bridge in translation of animal data to the human situation. In the future, this model may be helpful to study the effects of interorgan interactions, intestinal bacteria, excipients and drug formulations on the ADME-tox properties of drugs. The optimization of culture medium and the development of a (cryo)preservation technique require more research.

  17. A 3D Printing Model Watermarking Algorithm Based on 3D Slicing and Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao N. Pham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of three-dimensional (3D printing applications in many areas of life, a large amount of 3D printing data is copied, shared, and used several times without any permission from the original providers. Therefore, copyright protection and ownership identification for 3D printing data in communications or commercial transactions are practical issues. This paper presents a novel watermarking algorithm for 3D printing models based on embedding watermark data into the feature points of a 3D printing model. Feature points are determined and computed by the 3D slicing process along the Z axis of a 3D printing model. The watermark data is embedded into a feature point of a 3D printing model by changing the vector length of the feature point in OXY space based on the reference length. The x and y coordinates of the feature point will be then changed according to the changed vector length that has been embedded with a watermark. Experimental results verified that the proposed algorithm is invisible and robust to geometric attacks, such as rotation, scaling, and translation. The proposed algorithm provides a better method than the conventional works, and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is much higher than previous methods.

  18. Differential patterns of injury to the proximal tubule of renal cortical slices following in vitro exposure to mercuric chloride, potassium dichromate, or hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, C E; Gandolfi, A J; Nagle, R B; Brendel, K

    1987-09-15

    The innate susceptibility of renal cell types to these agents was investigated using precision-cut rabbit renal cortical slices made perpendicular to the cortical-papillary axis. Slices were incubated in DME/F12 medium containing 10 microM, 100 microM, or 1 mM concentrations of either metal for 12 hr or in Krebs-Hepes buffer gassed with nitrogen (100%) for 0.75 to 5 hr of hypoxic exposure. To simulate postischemic reperfusion, some slices were transferred to vessels gassed with oxygen after an initial hypoxic period. Mercuric chloride (100 microM) exposure resulted in damage to the straight regions of proximal tubules by 12 hr leaving convoluted regions unaffected. Hypoxia (2.25 hr) and potassium dichromate (100 microM for 12 hr) both caused injury to the convoluted proximal tubules without affecting straight proximal tubular regions. Mercury concentrations of 10 microM and 1 mM had no effect or injured all cell types within the slice, respectively. Similar results were observed for hypoxic periods less than 1.5 hr or greater than 3 hr of exposure. Potassium dichromate had no measurable affect at 10 microM, but at 1 mM focal lesions were observed after 4 hr of exposure, and by 12 hr all cell types within the slice were affected. Intracellular potassium content normalized to DNA correlated well, but always preceded the pathological lesions observed. These results demonstrate that injury to specific regions of the proximal tubule by these agents relates to an innate susceptibility of the intoxicated cell type independent of physiologic feedback or blood delivery patterns proposed as mechanisms of selective injury from in vivo studies.

  19. Blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules with enhancement: clinical value of multi-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shenjiang; Xiao Xiangsheng; Liu Shiyuan; Liu Huimin; Li Yuli; Li Huimin; Li Chengzhou; Zhang Chenshi; Tao Zhiwei; Yang Chunshan; Jiang Qingjun; Ouyang Lin; Yu Hong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of dynamic multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for providing quantitative information about blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) and the correlation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-positive tumor angiogenesis and the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern in solitary bronchogenic adenocarcinoma. Methods Seventy-eight patients with SPNs (with strong enhancement) (diameter ≤4 cm; 68 malignant; 10 active inflammatory) underwent multi-location dynamic contrast enhanced (nonionic contrast material was administrated via the antecubital vein at a rate of 4 ml/s by using an autoinjector) serial CT. Precontrast and postcontrast attenuation on every scan was recorded. Perfusion, peak height, and ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta were calculated. Perfusion was calculated from the maximum gradient of the time-attenuation curve and the peak height of the aorta. The quantifiable parameters (perfusion, peak height, ratio of peak height of the bronchogenic adenocarcinoma to that of the aorta and mean transit time) of blood flow pattern in 30 VEGF-positive solitary bronchogenic adenocarcinoma were compared with microvessel densities (MVD) and VEGF expression by immunohistochemistry. Results: No statistically significant difference in the peak height was found between malignant (35.79 ± 10.76) HU and active inflammatory (39.76 ± 4.59) HU nodules (t=1.148, P=0.255). SPN-to-aorta ratio (14.27 ± 4.37)% and perfusion value (3.02 ± 0.96)ml -1 ·min -1 ·kg -1 in malignant SPNs were significantly lower than those of active inflammatory nodules(18.51 ± 2.71)%, (6.34 ± 4.39)ml -1 ·min -1 ·kg -1 (t=2.978, P=0.004, t=5.590, P -1 ·min -1 ·kg -1 , mean transit time (14.86 ± 5.84) s, and MVD (70.15 ± 20.03). Each of peak height, ratio of peak height of the bronchogenic adenocarcinoma to that of the aorta, and perfusion correlated positively with MVD (r=0.781, P<0.0001; r=0

  20. Precision cut intestinal slices are an appropriate ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; van der Bij, Hendrik A.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used therapeutic agents, however, they are associated with a high prevalence of intestinal side effects. In this investigation, rat precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were evaluated as an ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal

  1. Precision-cut liver slices as a model for the early onset of liver fibrosis to test antifibrotic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Inge M.; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Olinga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Induction of fibrosis during prolonged culture of precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) was reported. In this study, the use of rat PCLS was investigated to further characterize the mechanism of early onset of fibrosis in this model and the effects of antifibrotic compounds. Rat PCLS were incubated for

  2. Human precision-cut liver slices as a model to test antifibrotic drugs in the early onset of liver fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Inge M.; Mutsaers, Henricus A. M.; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Hadi, Mackenzie; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; de Jong, Koert P.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Olinga, Peter

    Liver fibrosis is the progressive accumulation of connective tissue ultimately resulting in loss of organ function. Currently, no effective antifibrotics are available due to a lack of reliable human models. Here we investigated the fibrotic process in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) and

  3. Device for positioning and generation of an element of track model and slice of the MELAS automatic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryutchenko, E.V.; Fedotov, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    The structure and organization of the device for positioning and generation of element of track model and slice of the MELAS automatic equipment which is developed for measuring films from big bubble chambers, is described. Main features of the device are studied and characteristics are given as well

  4. Slice simulation from a model of the parenchymous vascularization to evaluate texture features: work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Y; Bézy-Wendling, J; Duvauferrier, R; Coatrieux, J L

    1999-03-01

    To demonstrate the usefulness of a model of the parenchymous vascularization to evaluate texture analysis methods. Slices with thickness varying from 1 to 4 mm were reformatted from a 3D vascular model corresponding to either normal tissue perfusion or local hypervascularization. Parameters of statistical methods were measured on 16128x128 regions of interest, and mean values and standard deviation were calculated. For each parameter, the performances (discrimination power and stability) were evaluated. Among 11 calculated statistical parameters, three (homogeneity, entropy, mean of gradients) were found to have a good discriminating power to differentiate normal perfusion from hypervascularization, but only the gradient mean was found to have a good stability with respect to the thickness. Five parameters (run percentage, run length distribution, long run emphasis, contrast, and gray level distribution) were found to have intermediate results. In the remaining three, curtosis and correlation was found to have little discrimination power, skewness none. This 3D vascular model, which allows the generation of various examples of vascular textures, is a powerful tool to assess the performance of texture analysis methods. This improves our knowledge of the methods and should contribute to their a priori choice when designing clinical studies.

  5. Convective Drying of Osmo-Treated Abalone (Haliotis rufescens Slices: Diffusion, Modeling, and Quality Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lemus-Mondaca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was based on the application of an osmotic pretreatment (15% NaCl for drying abalone slices, and it evaluates the influence of hot-air drying temperature (40–80°C on the product quality. In addition, the mass transfer kinetics of salt and water was also studied. The optimal time of the osmotic treatment was established until reaching a pseudo equilibrium state of the water and salt content (290 min. The water effective diffusivity values during drying ranged from 3.76 to 4.75 × 10−9 m2/s for three selected temperatures (40, 60, and 80°C. In addition, experimental data were fitted by Weibull distribution model. The modified Weibull model provided good fitting of experimental data according to applied statistical tests. Regarding the evaluated quality parameters, the color of the surface showed a change more significant at high temperature (80°C, whereas the nonenzymatic browning and texture showed a decrease during drying process mainly due to changes in protein matrix and rehydration rates, respectively. In particular, working at 60°C resulted in dried samples with the highest quality parameters.

  6. Quality assessment and shelf life modeling of pulsed electric field pretreated osmodehydrofrozen kiwifruit slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimia Dermesonlouoglou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this workwas to investigate the potential use of pulsed electric field (PEF in combination with osmotic dehydration (OD as a pre-freezing step and to evaluate the effect on quality characteristics and shelf life of frozen kiwifruit. Peeled kiwifruit was subjected to PEF (1.8 kV/cm, sliced and treated in OD-solution [containing glycerol, maltodextrin, trehalose, ascorbic acid, calcium chloride, citric acid, sodium chloride; 1/5 (wfruit/wsolution] for 30 and 60 min at 35 °C. Combined, PEF only and OD only treated samples as well as nontreated and blanched (80 °C, 60 s samples were frozen and stored at constant (-5, -10, -15, -25 °C and dynamic temperature conditions (-18 °C-3 d, -8 °C-2.5 d, -15 °C-3 d. Quality of frozen samples was evaluated by means of drip loss, colour, texture, vitamin C and sensory evaluation (1-9 scale; and shelf life (SL was calculated. Nontreated and blanched samples presented high drip loss and tissue softening (instrumentally measured as Fmax decrease. The tissue integrity was well retained in all osmotically pretreated samples. PEF pretreatment caused increase of fruit whiteness (increase of L value and yellowness (a and/or b value increase; SL calculation was based on colour change. All OD samples had high vitamin content (24.6 mg/100 g fresh material compared to 138-154 mg/100 g osmodehydrated material; PEF led to 93% (of the initial vitamin retention; blanched samples showed the lowest retention (86.9% of the initial (criteria for SL calculation. OD and combined PEF-OD treatment increased the shelf life of frozen kiwifruit (up to 3 times; based on sensorial criteria. The developed kinetic models for colour change, vitamin loss, and sensory quality deterioration were validated at dynamic temperature conditions. PEF pretreated OD (at significantly shorter time, 30 min compared to 60 min kiwifruits retained optimum quality and sensory characteristics. PEF and OD could be used as a preprocessing

  7. Implantation of glioblastoma spheroids into organotypic brain slice cultures as a model for investigating effects of irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petterson, Stine Asferg; Jakobsen, Ida Pind; Jensen, Stine Skov

    2016-01-01

    , models for studying the effects of radiotherapy in combination with novel strategies are lacking but important since radiotherapy is the most successful non-surgical treatment of brain tumors. The aim of this study was to establish a glioblastoma spheroid-organotypic rat brain slice culture model...... comprising both tumors, tumor-brain interface and brain tissue to provide a proof of concept that this model is useful for studying effects of radiotherapy. Organotypic brain slice cultures cultured for 1-2 days or 11-16 days corresponding to immature brain and mature brain respectively were irradiated...... with doses between 10 and 50 Gy. There was a high uptake of the cell death marker propidium iodide in the immature cultures. In addition, MAP2 expression decreased whereas GFAP expression increased in these cultures suggesting neuronal death and astrogliosis. We therefore proceeded with the mature cultures...

  8. Rosiglitazone Suppresses In Vitro Seizures in Hippocampal Slice by Inhibiting Presynaptic Glutamate Release in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bing Wong

    Full Text Available Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor whose agonist, rosiglitazone has a neuroprotective effect to hippocampal neurons in pilocarpine-induced seizures. Hippocampal slice preparations treated in Mg2+ free medium can induce ictal and interictal-like epileptiform discharges, which is regarded as an in vitro model of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. We applied rosiglitazone in hippocampal slices treated in Mg2+ free medium. The effects of rosiglitazone on hippocampal CA1-Schaffer collateral synaptic transmission were tested. We also examined the neuroprotective effect of rosiglitazone toward NMDA excitotoxicity on cultured hippocampal slices. Application of 10 μM rosiglitazone significantly suppressed amplitude and frequency of epileptiform discharges in CA1 neurons. Pretreatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not block the effect of rosiglitazone on suppressing discharge frequency, but reverse the effect on suppressing discharge amplitude. Application of rosiglitazone suppressed synaptic transmission in the CA1-Schaffer collateral pathway. By miniature excitatory-potential synaptic current (mEPSC analysis, rosiglitazone significantly suppressed presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This phenomenon can be reversed by pretreating PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Also, rosiglitazone protected cultured hippocampal slices from NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. The protective effect of 10 μM rosiglitazone was partially antagonized by concomitant high dose GW9662 treatment, indicating that this effect is partially mediated by PPARγ receptors. In conclusion, rosiglitazone suppressed NMDA receptor-mediated epileptiform discharges by inhibition of presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Rosiglitazone protected hippocampal slice from NMDA excitotoxicity partially by PPARγ activation. We suggest that rosiglitazone could be a potential agent to treat patients with TLE.

  9. Does brain slices from pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice provide a more predictive screening model for antiepileptic drugs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Suzanne L.; Sterjev, Zoran; Werngreen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The cortical wedge is a commonly applied model for in vitro screening of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and has been extensively used in characterization of well-known AEDs. However, the predictive validity of this model as a screening model has been questioned as, e.g., carbamazepine has been...... screening model for AEDs. To this end, we compared the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of several selected AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, tiagabine, fosphenytoin, valproate, and carbamazepine) along with citalopram using the PTZ-kindled model and brain slices from naïve, saline...

  10. Slice-based supine to standing postured deformation for chinese anatomical models and the dosimetric results by wide band frequency electromagnetic field exposure: Morphing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Tan, L.; Shao, Q.; Li, Y.; Yang, L.; Zhao, C.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, S.

    2013-01-01

    Digital human models are frequently obtained from supine-postured medical images or cadaver slices, but many applications require standing models. This paper presents the work of reconstructing standing Chinese adult anatomical models from supine postured slices. Apart from the previous studies, the deformation works on 2-D segmented slices. The surface profile of the standing posture is adjusted by population measurement data. A non-uniform texture amplification approach is applied on the 2-D slices to recover the skin contour and to redistribute the internal tissues. Internal organ shift due to postures is taken into account. The feet are modified by matrix rotation. Then, the supine and standing models are utilised for the evaluation of electromagnetic field exposure over wide band frequency and different incident directions. . (authors)

  11. A model for the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The notion of relatedness loci in the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps is introduced. They are counterparts of the disconnectedness or escape locus in the slice of quadratic polynomials. A model for these loci is presented, and a strategy of proof of the f......The notion of relatedness loci in the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps is introduced. They are counterparts of the disconnectedness or escape locus in the slice of quadratic polynomials. A model for these loci is presented, and a strategy of proof...... of the faithfulness of the model is given....

  12. Chopper model of pattern recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, J.L.; Enter, A.C.D. van

    A simple model is proposed that allows an efficient storage and retrieval of random patterns. Also correlated patterns can be handled. The data are stored in an Ising-spin system with ferromagnetic interactions between all the spins and the main idea is to "chop" the system along the boundaries

  13. Time-slice analysis of the Australian summer monsoon during the late Quaternary using the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A. G.; Lynch, A. H.

    2006-10-01

    We use the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) to investigate the variation in the Australian summer monsoon over the last 55 000 years. A synthesis of palaeoenvironmental observations is used to constrain the model for six time slices: 55, 35, 21, 11, 6 and 0 ka. Both inter-hemispheric forcing and the seasonal timing of local insolation changes play key, and interacting, roles on the evolution and intensity of the monsoon.During the onset to the monsoon, a heat low develops to the west of Australia over the Indian Ocean in all time slices, but with varying strengths. Divergent outflow from Asia converges with the cyclonic flow to bring increased rainfall to northern Australia and the maritime continent. The relative importance of a low pressure pull and the high pressure push varies according to the strength of the pressure anomalies. Only in the middle Holocene is the low pressure pull the dominant forcing mechanism. At 21 ka, the climate shift to colder mean temperatures determines the large-scale dynamics of the monsoon.The general picture that emerges from these results is consistent with available palaeodata but highlights the importance of a broad regional perspective to ascribe the driving mechanisms at different times. Copyright

  14. A Slicing Tree Representation and QCP-Model-Based Heuristic Algorithm for the Unequal-Area Block Facility Layout Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Shiang Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The facility layout problem is a typical combinational optimization problem. In this research, a slicing tree representation and a quadratically constrained program model are combined with harmony search to develop a heuristic method for solving the unequal-area block layout problem. Because of characteristics of slicing tree structure, we propose a regional structure of harmony memory to memorize facility layout solutions and two kinds of harmony improvisation to enhance global search ability of the proposed heuristic method. The proposed harmony search based heuristic is tested on 10 well-known unequal-area facility layout problems from the literature. The results are compared with the previously best-known solutions obtained by genetic algorithm, tabu search, and ant system as well as exact methods. For problems O7, O9, vC10Ra, M11*, and Nug12, new best solutions are found. For other problems, the proposed approach can find solutions that are very similar to previous best-known solutions.

  15. Modelling the Thin-Layer Drying Kinetics of Untreated and Blanch-Osmotic Pre-treated Tomato Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment and drying temperature on the drying kinetics and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L. under hot air drying. Tomato samples were blanched at 80oC and osmotically dehydrated using 20% w/w sodium chloride solutions at 30oC for 20 min. The blanch-osmotic pre-treated and untreated tomato slices were dried at temperature of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80oC, respectively in a hot air-dryer. The results showed that blanch-osmotic pre-treatment offered a higher drying rate and lower or faster drying time than untreated condition. The tomato drying regime was characteristically in the constant and falling rate period. The tomato drying rate curve showed characteristics of porous hygroscopic solids. The optimum drying temperature for tomato was found to be 60oC. Four semi-empirical drying models of Newton, Page, Henderson and Pabis, and Logarithmic were fitted to the drying data using non-linear regression analysis. The most appropriate model was selected using the coefficient of determination (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE. The Page model has shown a better fit to the drying kinetics data of tomato in comparison with other tested models. Transport of moisture during drying was described by Fick’s diffusion model application and the effective moisture diffusivity (Deff thus estimated. The Deff at 60oC was 4.43 × 10-11m2/s and 6.33 × 10-11m2/s for blanch-osmotic pre-treated and untreated tomato slices, respectively.

  16. Osmotic dehydration and convective drying of coconut slices: Experimental determination and description using one-dimensional diffusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Pereira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass migrations in coconut slices during osmotic dehydration and drying are described using a diffusion model with boundary condition of the third kind. The osmotic dehydration experiment was performed at 35°Brix (water and sucrose and 40 °C. The convective drying experiments were performed at 50, 60 and 70 °C. The one-dimensional solution of the diffusion equation for an infinite slab was coupled with an optimizer to determine the effective mass diffusivities D and convective mass transfer coefficients h of the five processes studied. The analyses of the obtained results indicate that there is a good agreement between each experimental dataset and the corresponding simulation using D and h determined by optimization.

  17. Cardiac tissue slices: preparation, handling, and successful optical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken; Lee, Peter; Mirams, Gary R; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Borg, Thomas K; Gavaghan, David J; Kohl, Peter; Bollensdorff, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac tissue slices are becoming increasingly popular as a model system for cardiac electrophysiology and pharmacology research and development. Here, we describe in detail the preparation, handling, and optical mapping of transmembrane potential and intracellular free calcium concentration transients (CaT) in ventricular tissue slices from guinea pigs and rabbits. Slices cut in the epicardium-tangential plane contained well-aligned in-slice myocardial cell strands ("fibers") in subepicardial and midmyocardial sections. Cut with a high-precision slow-advancing microtome at a thickness of 350 to 400 μm, tissue slices preserved essential action potential (AP) properties of the precutting Langendorff-perfused heart. We identified the need for a postcutting recovery period of 36 min (guinea pig) and 63 min (rabbit) to reach 97.5% of final steady-state values for AP duration (APD) (identified by exponential fitting). There was no significant difference between the postcutting recovery dynamics in slices obtained using 2,3-butanedione 2-monoxime or blebistatin as electromechanical uncouplers during the cutting process. A rapid increase in APD, seen after cutting, was caused by exposure to ice-cold solution during the slicing procedure, not by tissue injury, differences in uncouplers, or pH-buffers (bicarbonate; HEPES). To characterize intrinsic patterns of CaT, AP, and conduction, a combination of multipoint and field stimulation should be used to avoid misinterpretation based on source-sink effects. In summary, we describe in detail the preparation, mapping, and data analysis approaches for reproducible cardiac tissue slice-based investigations into AP and CaT dynamics. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Thin slices and Sherlock Holmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based on very little information, and often in a matter of seconds. This is partly based on very narrow slices of our experience, and involves pattern recognition, as well as the memory banks of our senses. It is also partly a heuristic process whereby one rapidly discards ideas or notions, or promotes other hypotheses, as one.

  19. Rat brain sagittal organotypic slice cultures as an ex vivo dopamine cell loss system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey-Chapman, Amy; Connor, Bronwen

    2017-02-01

    Organotypic brain slice cultures are a useful tool to study neurological function as they provide a more complex, 3-dimensional system than standard 2-dimensional in vitro cell cultures. Building on a previously developed mouse brain slice culture protocol, we have developed a rat sagittal brain slice culture system as an ex vivo model of dopamine cell loss. We show that rat brain organotypic slice cultures remain viable for up to 6 weeks in culture. Using Fluoro-Gold axonal tracing, we demonstrate that the slice 3-dimensional cytoarchitecture is maintained over a 4 week culturing period, with particular focus on the nigrostriatal pathway. Treatment of the cultures with 6-hydroxydopamine and desipramine induces a progressive loss of Fluoro-Gold-positive nigral cells with a sustained loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nigral cells. This recapitulates the pattern of dopaminergic degeneration observed in the rat partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model and, most importantly, the progressive pathology of Parkinson's disease. Our slice culture platform provides an advance over other systems, as we demonstrate for the first time 3-dimensional cytoarchitecture maintenance of rat nigrostriatal sagittal slices for up to 6 weeks. Our ex vivo organotypic slice culture system provides a long term cellular platform to model Parkinson's disease, allowing for the elucidation of mechanisms involved in dopaminergic neuron degeneration and the capability to study cellular integration and plasticity ex vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…

  1. Conversion of Synthetic Aβ to In Vivo Active Seeds and Amyloid Plaque Formation in a Hippocampal Slice Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Renata; Langer, Franziska; Mahler, Jasmin; Skodras, Angelos; Vlachos, Andreas; Wegenast-Braun, Bettina M; Kaeser, Stephan A; Neher, Jonas J; Eisele, Yvonne S; Pietrowski, Marie J; Nilsson, K Peter R; Deller, Thomas; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Heimrich, Bernd; Jucker, Mathias

    2016-05-04

    The aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in brain is an early event and hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We combined the advantages of in vitro and in vivo approaches to study cerebral β-amyloidosis by establishing a long-term hippocampal slice culture (HSC) model. While no Aβ deposition was noted in untreated HSCs of postnatal Aβ precursor protein transgenic (APP tg) mice, Aβ deposition emerged in HSCs when cultures were treated once with brain extract from aged APP tg mice and the culture medium was continuously supplemented with synthetic Aβ. Seeded Aβ deposition was also observed under the same conditions in HSCs derived from wild-type or App-null mice but in no comparable way when HSCs were fixed before cultivation. Both the nature of the brain extract and the synthetic Aβ species determined the conformational characteristics of HSC Aβ deposition. HSC Aβ deposits induced a microglia response, spine loss, and neuritic dystrophy but no obvious neuron loss. Remarkably, in contrast to in vitro aggregated synthetic Aβ, homogenates of Aβ deposits containing HSCs induced cerebral β-amyloidosis upon intracerebral inoculation into young APP tg mice. Our results demonstrate that a living cellular environment promotes the seeded conversion of synthetic Aβ into a potent in vivo seeding-active form. In this study, we report the seeded induction of Aβ aggregation and deposition in long-term hippocampal slice cultures. Remarkably, we find that the biological activities of the largely synthetic Aβ aggregates in the culture are very similar to those observed in vivo This observation is the first to show that potent in vivo seeding-active Aβ aggregates can be obtained by seeded conversion of synthetic Aβ in a living (wild-type) cellular environment. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/365084-10$15.00/0.

  2. Precision-cut liver slices as a model for the early onset of liver fibrosis to test antifibrotic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, Inge M. [Division of Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology and Targeting, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Oosterhuis, Dorenda [Division of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Groothuis, Geny M.M. [Division of Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology and Targeting, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Olinga, Peter, E-mail: p.olinga@rug.nl [Division of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15

    Induction of fibrosis during prolonged culture of precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) was reported. In this study, the use of rat PCLS was investigated to further characterize the mechanism of early onset of fibrosis in this model and the effects of antifibrotic compounds. Rat PCLS were incubated for 48 h, viability was assessed by ATP and gene expression of PDGF-B and TGF-β1 and the fibrosis markers Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1 and collagen1 protein expressions were determined. The effects of the antifibrotic drugs imatinib, sorafenib and sunitinib, PDGF-pathway inhibitors, and perindopril, valproic acid, rosmarinic acid, tetrandrine and pirfenidone, TGFβ-pathway inhibitors, were determined. After 48 h of incubation, viability of the PCLS was maintained and gene expression of PDGF-B was increased while TGF-β1 was not changed. Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1 gene expressions were significantly elevated in PCLS after 48 h, which was further increased by PDGF-BB and TGF-β1. The increased gene expression of fibrosis markers was inhibited by all three PDGF-inhibitors, while TGFβ-inhibitors showed marginal effects. The protein expression of collagen 1 was inhibited by imatinib, perindopril, tetrandrine and pirfenidone. In conclusion, the increased gene expression of PDGF-B and the down-regulation of fibrosis markers by PDGF-pathway inhibitors, together with the absence of elevated TGF-β1 gene expression and the limited effect of the TGFβ-pathway inhibitors, indicated the predominance of the PDGF pathway in the early onset of fibrosis in PCLS. PCLS appear a useful model for research of the early onset of fibrosis and for testing of antifibrotic drugs acting on the PDGF pathway. - Highlights: • During culture, fibrosis markers increased in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). • Gene expression of PDGF-β was increased, while TGFβ was not changed in rat PCLS. • PDGF-pathway inhibitors down-regulated this increase of fibrosis markers. • TGFβ-pathway inhibitors had only

  3. Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2005-01-01

    Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that

  4. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Cammarano, A.; Capri, E.

    2007-01-01

    of water, potato tissue, and carrot tissue. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene served as model substances. Their transfer from source to sink disk was measured by HPLC to determine a velocity rate constant proportional to the diffusive conductivity. The diffusive flux through the plant...... of the chemical. The findings of this study provide a convenient method to estimate the diffusion of nonvolatile organic chemicals through various plant materials. The application to a radial diffusion model suggests that "growth dilution" renders the concentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in potatoes...... below their equilibrium partitioning level. This is in agreement with field results for the bioconcentration of PAHs in potatoes....

  5. Determination of the optimal dose reduction level via iterative reconstruction using 640-slice volume chest CT in a pig model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Liu

    Full Text Available To determine the optimal dose reduction level of iterative reconstruction technique for paediatric chest CT in pig models.27 infant pigs underwent 640-slice volume chest CT with 80kVp and different mAs. Automatic exposure control technique was used, and the index of noise was set to SD10 (Group A, routine dose, SD12.5, SD15, SD17.5, SD20 (Groups from B to E to reduce dose respectively. Group A was reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP, and Groups from B to E were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction (IR. Objective and subjective image quality (IQ among groups were compared to determine an optimal radiation reduction level.The noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in Group D had no significant statistical difference from that in Group A (P = 1.0. The scores of subjective IQ in Group A were not significantly different from those in Group D (P>0.05. There were no obvious statistical differences in the objective and subjective index values among the subgroups (small, medium and large subgroups of Group D. The effective dose (ED of Group D was 58.9% lower than that of Group A (0.20±0.05mSv vs 0.48±0.10mSv, p <0.001.In infant pig chest CT, using iterative reconstruction can provide diagnostic image quality; furthermore, it can reduce the dosage by 58.9%.

  6. Metabolism of model organic pollutants in canine respiratory tract mucosa slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Gerde, P.; Chen, S.T.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The high incidence of human bronchial tumors has been correlated with the high fractional deposition of inhaled particles in the bronchi. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are frequently bound to airborne particles due to their low vapor pressures. It is thought that tumorigenicity may result from the release and subsequent bioactivation of these particle-associated organic compounds in the respiratory tract. Previous studies at ITRI examined the clearance of organic toxicants from various regions of the canine respiratory tract. Their results indicated that, while clearance of a highly lipophilic PAH such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from the thin alveolar epithelium took only a few minutes, clearance through the thicker epithelium of the conducting airways took hours. Slower, diffusion-limited clearance results in higher concentrations of lipophilic compounds in the epithelium of the bronchi. Hence, the ability of these tissues to metabolize organic compounds to water-soluble metabolites or reactive intermediates may be extremely important in their clearance from the respiratory tract and the potential susceptibility of this region of the respiratory tract to cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of bronchial mucosa to metabolize a model organic pulmonary carcinogen, BaP, to reactive and nonreactive metabolites and to evaluate the diffusion of the parent compound and metabolites through the bronchial mucosa

  7. Immature rat brain slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation as an in vitro model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, David; Martínez-Orgado, José; Casanova, Ignacio; Bonet, Bartolomé; Leza, Juan Carlos; Lorenzo, Pedro; Moro, Maria Angeles; Lizasoain, Ignacio

    2005-06-30

    To analyze whether exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) of immature rat brain slices might reproduce the main pathophysiologic events leading to neuronal death in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (NHIE), 500 microm-thick brain slices were obtained from 7-day-old Wistar rats, and incubated in oxygenated physiological solution. In OGD group, oxygen and glucose were removed from the medium for 10-30 min (n = 25); then, slices were re-incubated in normal medium. In control group the medium composition remained unchanged (CG, n = 30). Medium samples were obtained every 30 min for 3 h. To analyze neuronal damage, slices were stained with Nissl and CA1 area of hippocampus and cortex were observed under microscopy. In addition, neuronal death was quantified as LDH released to the medium determined by spectrophotometry. Additionally, medium glutamate (Glu) levels were determined by HPLC and those of TNFalpha by ELISA, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was determined by Western blot performed on slices homogenate. Optimal OGD time was established in 20 min. After OGD, a significant decrease in the number of neurones in hippocampus and cortex was observed. LDH release was maximal at 30 min, when it was five-fold greater than in CG. Furthermore, medium Glu concentrations were 200 times greater than CG levels at the end of OGD period. A linear relationship between Glu and LDH release was demonstrated. Finally, 3 h after OGD a significant induction of iNOS as well as an increase in TNFalpha release were observed. In conclusion, OGD appears as a feasible and reproducible in vitro model, leading to a neuronal damage, which is physiopathologically similar to that found in NHIE.

  8. Workflow Patterns for Business Process Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thom, Lucineia Heloisa; Lochpe, Cirano; Reichert, M.U.

    For its reuse advantages, workflow patterns (e.g., control flow patterns, data patterns, resource patterns) are increasingly attracting the interest of both researchers and vendors. Frequently, business process or workflow models can be assembeled out of a set of recurrent process fragments (or

  9. The effects of slice thickness and reconstructive parameters on VR image quality in multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhenlong; Wang Qiang; Liu Caixia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of slice thickness, reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval on VR image quality in multi-slice CT, in order to select the best slice thickness and reconstructive parameters for the imaging. Methods: Multi-slice CT scan was applied on a rubber dinosaur model with different slice thickness. VR images were reconstructed with different reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval. Five radiologists were invited to evaluate the quality of the images without knowing anything about the parameters. Results: The slice thickness, reconstructive thickness and reconstructive interval did have effects on VR image quality and the effective degree was different. The effective coefficients were V 1 =1413.033, V 2 =563.733, V 3 =390.533, respectively. The parameters interacted with the others (P<0.05). The smaller of those parameters, the better of the image quality. With a small slice thickness and a reconstructive slice equal to slice thickness, the image quality had no obvious difference when the reconstructive interval was 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 of the slice thickness. Conclusion: A relative small scan slice thickness, a reconstructive slice equal to slice thickness and a reconstructive interval 1/2 of the slice thickness should be selected for the best VR image quality. The image quality depends mostly on the slice thickness. (authors)

  10. Dual activities of the anti-cancer drug candidate PBI-05204 provide neuroprotection in brain slice models for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kanegan, Michael J; Dunn, Denise E; Kaltenbach, Linda S; Shah, Bijal; He, Dong Ning; McCoy, Daniel D; Yang, Peiying; Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Li; Du, Lin; Cichewicz, Robert H; Newman, Robert A; Lo, Donald C

    2016-05-12

    We previously reported neuroprotective activity of the botanical anti-cancer drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, in brain slice and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. We showed that one component of this neuroprotective activity is mediated through its principal cardiac glycoside constituent, oleandrin, via induction of the potent neurotrophic factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, we also noted that the concentration-relation for PBI-05204 in the brain slice oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model is considerably broader than that for oleandrin as a single agent. We thus surmised that PBI-05204 contains an additional neuroprotective component(s), distinct from oleandrin. We report here that neuroprotective activity is also provided by the triterpenoid constituents of PBI-05204, notably oleanolic acid. We demonstrate that a sub-fraction of PBI-05204 (Fraction 0-4) containing oleanolic and other triterpenoids, but without cardiac glycosides, induces the expression of cellular antioxidant gene transcription programs regulated through antioxidant transcriptional response elements (AREs). Finally, we show that Fraction 0-4 provides broad neuroprotection in organotypic brain slice models for neurodegeneration driven by amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau implicated in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementias, respectively, in addition to ischemic injury modeled by OGD.

  11. Slice-based supine-to-standing posture deformation for chinese anatomical models and the dosimetric results with wide band frequency electromagnetic field exposure: Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Tan, L.; Shao, Q.; Li, Y.; Yang, L.; Zhao, C.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, S.

    2013-01-01

    Standing Chinese adult anatomical models are obtained from supine-postured cadaver slices. This paper presents the dosimetric differences between the supine and the standing postures over wide band frequencies and various incident configurations. Both the body level and the tissue/organ level differences are reported for plane wave and the 3T magnetic resonance imaging radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure. The influence of posture on the whole body specific absorption rate and tissue specified specific absorption rate values is discussed. . (authors)

  12. Mathematical modeling the cross-contamination of food pathogens on the surface of ready-to-eat meats while slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The knowledge regarding food pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp.) surface transfer on ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meat and the slicer used for slicing different RTE products are needed to ensure RTE food safety. The objectives of this study were to investigat...

  13. The in vitro isolated whole guinea pig brain as a model to study epileptiform activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Curtis, Marco; Librizzi, Laura; Uva, Laura

    2016-02-15

    Research on ictogenesis is based on the study of activity between seizures and during seizures in animal models of epilepsy (chronic condition) or in in vitro slices obtained from naïve non-epileptic brains after treatment with pro-convulsive drugs, manipulations of the extracellular medium and specific stimulation protocols. The in vitro isolated guinea pig brain retains the functional connectivity between brain structures and maintains interactions between neuronal, glial and vascular compartments. It is a close-to-in vivo preparation that offers experimental advantages not achieved with the use of other experimental models. Neurophysiological and imaging techniques can be utilized in this preparation to study brain activity during and between seizures induced by pharmacological or functional manipulations. Cellular and network determinants of interictal and ictal discharges that reproduce abnormal patterns observed in human focal epilepsies and the associated changes in extracellular ion and blood-brain permeability can be identified and analyzed in the isolated guinea pig brain. Ictal and interictal patterns recorded in in vitro slices may show substantial differences from seizure activity recorded in vivo due to slicing procedure itself. The isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by arterial perfusion combines the typical facilitated access of in vitro preparations, that are difficult to approach during in vivo experiments, with the preservation of larger neuronal networks. The in vitro whole isolated guinea pig brain preparation offers an unique experimental model to study systemic and neurovascular changes during ictogenesis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Multi-slice ultrasound image calibration of an intelligent skin-marker for soft tissue artefact compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, M A; Pickering, M R; Lambert, A J; Scarvell, J M; Smith, P N

    2017-09-06

    In this paper, a novel multi-slice ultrasound (US) image calibration of an intelligent skin-marker used for soft tissue artefact compensation is proposed to align and orient image slices in an exact H-shaped pattern. Multi-slice calibration is complex, however, in the proposed method, a phantom based visual alignment followed by transform parameters estimation greatly reduces the complexity and provides sufficient accuracy. In this approach, the Hough Transform (HT) is used to further enhance the image features which originate from the image feature enhancing elements integrated into the physical phantom model, thus reducing feature detection uncertainty. In this framework, slice by slice image alignment and calibration are carried out and this provides manual ease and convenience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous application of microwave energy and hot air to whole drying process of apple slices: drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2018-02-01

    Drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy indices were investigated in apple slices during drying by a specially designed microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at the following conditions: 120, 150 and 180 W microwave powers coupled with 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperatures. Both sources of energy were applied simultaneously during the whole drying processes. The drying process continued until the moisture content of apple slices reached to 20% from 86.3% (wet basis, w.b). Drying times ranged from 330 to 800 min and decreased with increasing microwave power and air temperatures. The constant rate period was only observed at low microwave powers and air temperatures. Two falling rate periods were observed. Temperature of apple slices sharply increased within the first 60 min, then reached equilibrium with drying medium and finally increased at the end of the drying process. In order to describe drying behavior of apple slices nine empirical models were applied. The Modified Logistic Model fitted the best our experimental data ( R 2 = 0.9955-0.9998; χ 2 = 3.46 × 10-5-7.85 × 10-4 and RMSE = 0.0052-0.0221). The effective moisture and thermal diffusivities were calculated by Fick's second law and ranged from 1.42 × 10-9 to 3.31 × 10-9 m2/s and 7.70 × 10-9 to 12.54 × 10-9 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy ( Ea) values were calculated from effective moisture diffusivity ( Deff), thermal diffusivity ( α) and the rate constant of the best model ( k). The Ea values found from these three terms were similar and varied from 13.04 to 33.52 kJ/mol. Energy consumption and specific energy requirement of the hybrid drying of apple slices decreased and energy efficiency of the drying system increased with increasing microwave power and air temperature. Apples can be dried rapidly and effectively by use of the hybrid technique.

  16. Comparison of iterative model, hybrid iterative, and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in low-dose brain CT: impact of thin-slice imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaura, Takeshi; Iyama, Yuji; Kidoh, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Koichi [Amakusa Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa, Kumamoto (Japan); Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Oda, Seitaro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Tokuyasu, Shinichi [Philips Electronics, Kumamoto (Japan); Harada, Kazunori [Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of iterative model reconstruction (IMR) in brain CT especially with thin-slice images. This prospective study received institutional review board approval, and prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all patients. We enrolled 34 patients who underwent brain CT and reconstructed axial images with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and IMR with 1 and 5 mm slice thicknesses. The CT number, image noise, contrast, and contrast noise ratio (CNR) between the thalamus and internal capsule, and the rate of increase of image noise in 1 and 5 mm thickness images between the reconstruction methods, were assessed. Two independent radiologists assessed image contrast, image noise, image sharpness, and overall image quality on a 4-point scale. The CNRs in 1 and 5 mm slice thickness were significantly higher with IMR (1.2 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.8, respectively) than with FBP (0.4 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.4, respectively) and HIR (0.5 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.4, respectively) (p < 0.01). The mean rate of increasing noise from 5 to 1 mm thickness images was significantly lower with IMR (1.7 ± 0.3) than with FBP (2.3 ± 0.3) and HIR (2.3 ± 0.4) (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in qualitative analysis of unfamiliar image texture between the reconstruction techniques. IMR offers significant noise reduction and higher contrast and CNR in brain CT, especially for thin-slice images, when compared to FBP and HIR. (orig.)

  17. Mouse precision-cut liver slices as an ex vivo model to study idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Mackenzie; Chen, Yixi; Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Merema, Marjolijn T; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2012-09-17

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) has been the top reason for withdrawing drugs from the market or for black box warnings. IDILI may arise from the interaction of a drug's reactive metabolite with a mild inflammation that renders the liver more sensitive to injury resulting in increased toxicity (inflammatory stress hypothesis). Aiming to develop a robust ex vivo screening method to study inflammatory stress-related IDILI mechanisms and to find biomarkers that can detect or predict IDILI, mouse precision-cut liver slices (mPCLS) were coincubated for 24 h with IDILI-related drugs and lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide exacerbated ketoconazole (15 μM) and clozapine (45 μM) toxicity but not their non-IDILI-related comparators, voriconazole (1500 μM) and olanzapine (45 μM). However, the other IDILI-related drugs tested [diclofenac (200 μM), carbamazepine (400 μM), and troglitazone (30 μM)] did not cause synergistic toxicity with lipopolysaccharide after 24 h of incubation. Lipopolysaccharide further decreased the reduced glutathione levels caused by ketoconazole or clozapine in mPCLS after 24 h of incubation, which was not the case for the other drugs. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased nitric oxide (NO), cytokine, and chemokine release into the mPCLS media, while the treatment with the drugs alone did not cause any substantial change. All seven drugs drastically reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production. Interestingly, only ketoconazole and clozapine increased the lipopolysaccharide-induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) release. Pilot experiments showed that diclofenac and troglitazone, but not carbamazepine, demonstrated synergistic toxicity with lipopolysaccharide after a longer incubation of 48 h in mPCLS. In conclusion, we have developed an ex vivo model to detect inflammatory stress-related liver toxicity and identified ketoconazole, clozapine

  18. Slice hyperholomorphic Schur analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel; Sabadini, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book defines and examines the counterpart of Schur functions and Schur analysis in the slice hyperholomorphic setting. It is organized into three parts: the first introduces readers to classical Schur analysis, while the second offers background material on quaternions, slice hyperholomorphic functions, and quaternionic functional analysis. The third part represents the core of the book and explores quaternionic Schur analysis and its various applications. The book includes previously unpublished results and provides the basis for new directions of research.

  19. Modelling the Thin-Layer Drying Kinetics of Untreated and Blanch-Osmotic Pre-treated Tomato Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment and drying temperature on the drying kinetics and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) under hot air drying. Tomato samples were blanched at 80oC and osmotically dehydrated using 20% w/w sodium chloride solutions at 30oC for 20 min. The blanch-osmotic pre-treated and untreated tomato slices were dried at temperature of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80oC, respectively in a hot air-dryer. The results showed th...

  20. Validating EHR clinical models using ontology patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Clinical models are artefacts that specify how information is structured in electronic health records (EHRs). However, the makeup of clinical models is not guided by any formal constraint beyond a semantically vague information model. We address this gap by advocating ontology design patterns as a mechanism that makes the semantics of clinical models explicit. This paper demonstrates how ontology design patterns can validate existing clinical models using SHACL. Based on the Clinical Information Modelling Initiative (CIMI), we show how ontology patterns detect both modeling and terminology binding errors in CIMI models. SHACL, a W3C constraint language for the validation of RDF graphs, builds on the concept of "Shape", a description of data in terms of expected cardinalities, datatypes and other restrictions. SHACL, as opposed to OWL, subscribes to the Closed World Assumption (CWA) and is therefore more suitable for the validation of clinical models. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the approach by manually describing the correspondences between six CIMI clinical models represented in RDF and two SHACL ontology design patterns. Using a Java-based SHACL implementation, we found at least eleven modeling and binding errors within these CIMI models. This demonstrates the usefulness of ontology design patterns not only as a modeling tool but also as a tool for validation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling biomechanics of bark patterning in grasstrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Holly; Runions, Adam; Hobill, David; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2014-09-01

    Bark patterns are a visually important characteristic of trees, typically attributed to fractures occurring during secondary growth of the trunk and branches. An understanding of bark pattern formation has been hampered by insufficient information regarding the biomechanical properties of bark and the corresponding difficulties in faithfully modelling bark fractures using continuum mechanics. This study focuses on the genus Xanthorrhoea (grasstrees), which have an unusual bark-like structure composed of distinct leaf bases connected by sticky resin. Due to its discrete character, this structure is well suited for computational studies. A dynamic computational model of grasstree development was created. The model captures both the phyllotactic pattern of leaf bases during primary growth and the changes in the trunk's width during secondary growth. A biomechanical representation based on a system of masses connected by springs is used for the surface of the trunk, permitting the emergence of fractures during secondary growth to be simulated. The resulting fracture patterns were analysed statistically and compared with images of real trees. The model reproduces key features of grasstree bark patterns, including their variability, spanning elongated and reticulate forms. The patterns produced by the model have the same statistical character as those seen in real trees. The model was able to support the general hypothesis that the patterns observed in the grasstree bark-like layer may be explained in terms of mechanical fractures driven by secondary growth. Although the generality of the results is limited by the unusual structure of grasstree bark, it supports the hypothesis that bark pattern formation is primarily a biomechanical phenomenon.

  2. Modelling the Drying Characteristics and Kinetics of Hot Air-Drying of Unblanched Whole Red Pepper and Blanched Bitter Leaf Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the drying characteristics and kinetics of red pepper and bitter leaf under the influence of different drying temperatures. The drying experiments were carried out at dry bulb temperature of 35, 45, 55 and 75oC, respectively in an oven dryer. The results showed that as drying temperature increased, drying rate also increased and the drying time decreased. It was observed that un-sliced red pepper and sliced bitter leaf would dry within 2.5-12 h and 1.67-7 h, respectively at temperature ranging from 75 to 35oC. The drying of red pepper and bitter leaf was both in the constant and falling rate period. Four semi-empirical mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Henderson and Pabis, and Logarithmic models were fitted to the experimental drying curves. The models were compared using the coefficient of determination (R^2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data of red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively as relatively compared to other tested models. Moisture transport during drying was described by the application of Fick’s diffusion model and the effective moisture diffusivity was estimated. The value ranges from 15.69 to 84.79 × 10-9 m2/s and 0.294 to 1.263 × 10-9 m2/s for red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively. The Arrhenius-type relationship describes the temperature dependence of effective moisture diffusivity and was determined to be 37.11 kJ/mol and 32.86 kJ/mol for red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively. A correlation between the drying time and the heat transfer area was also developed.

  3. Third version of vendor-specific model-based iterativereconstruction (Veo 3.0): evaluation of CT image quality in the abdomen using new noise reduction presets and varied slice optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesmanich, Morgan E; Jensen, Corey T; Enriquez, Jose L; Wagner-Bartak, Nicolaus A; Liu, Xinming; Le, Ott; Wei, Wei; Chandler, Adam G; Tamm, Eric P

    2017-08-01

    To qualitatively and quantitatively compare abdominal CT images reconstructed with a newversion of model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo 3.0; GE Healthcare Waukesha, WI) utilizing varied presetsof resolution preference, noise reduction and slice optimization. This retrospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board and was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant. The raw datafrom 30 consecutive patients who had undergone CT abdomen scanning were used to reconstructfour clinical presets of 3.75mm axial images using Veo 3.0: 5% resolution preference (RP05n), 5%noise reduction (NR05) and 40% noise reduction (NR40) with new 3.75mm "sliceoptimization," as well as one set using RP05 with conventional 0.625mm "slice optimization" (RP05c). The images were reviewed by two independent readers in a blinded, randomized manner using a 5-point Likert scale as well as a 5-point comparative scale. Multiple two-dimensional circular regions of interest were defined for noise and contrast-to-noise ratio measurements. Line profiles were drawn across the 7 lp cm -1 bar pattern of the Catphan 600 phantom for evaluation of spatial resolution. The NR05 image set was ranked as the best series in overall image quality (mean difference inrank 0.48, 95% CI [0.081-0.88], p = 0.01) and with specific reference to liver evaluation (meandifference 0.46, 95% CI [0.030-0.89], p = 0.03), when compared with the secondbest series ineach category. RP05n was ranked as the best for bone evaluation. NR40 was ranked assignificantly inferior across all assessed categories. Although the NR05 and RP05c image setshad nearly the same contrast-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution, NR05 was generally preferred. Image noise and spatial resolution increased along a spectrum with RP05n the highest and NR40the lowest. Compared to RP05n, the average noise was 21.01% lower for NR05, 26.88%lower for RP05c and 50.86% lower for NR40. Veo 3.0 clinical presets allow for

  4. Portable Device Slices Thermoplastic Prepregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beverly A.; Boston, Morton W.; Wilson, Maywood L.

    1993-01-01

    Prepreg slitter designed to slit various widths rapidly by use of slicing bar holding several blades, each capable of slicing strip of preset width in single pass. Produces material evenly sliced and does not contain jagged edges. Used for various applications in such batch processes involving composite materials as press molding and autoclaving, and in such continuous processes as pultrusion. Useful to all manufacturers of thermoplastic composites, and in slicing B-staged thermoset composites.

  5. Pattern formation in superdiffusion Oregonator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fan; Yan, Jia; Liu, Fu-Cheng; He, Ya-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Pattern formations in an Oregonator model with superdiffusion are studied in two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations. Stability analyses are performed by applying Fourier and Laplace transforms to the space fractional reaction-diffusion systems. Antispiral, stable turing patterns, and travelling patterns are observed by changing the diffusion index of the activator. Analyses of Floquet multipliers show that the limit cycle solution loses stability at the wave number of the primitive vector of the travelling hexagonal pattern. We also observed a transition between antispiral and spiral by changing the diffusion index of the inhibitor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11205044 and 11405042), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. Y2012009 and ZD2015025), the Program for Young Principal Investigators of Hebei Province, China, and the Midwest Universities Comprehensive Strength Promotion Project.

  6. Cascading walks model for human mobility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Xiang-Wen; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the mechanism behind the scaling laws and series of anomalies in human trajectories is of fundamental significance in understanding many spatio-temporal phenomena. Recently, several models, e.g. the explorations-returns model (Song et al., 2010) and the radiation model for intercity travels (Simini et al., 2012), have been proposed to study the origin of these anomalies and the prediction of human movements. However, an agent-based model that could reproduce most of empirical observations without priori is still lacking. In this paper, considering the empirical findings on the correlations of move-lengths and staying time in human trips, we propose a simple model which is mainly based on the cascading processes to capture the human mobility patterns. In this model, each long-range movement activates series of shorter movements that are organized by the law of localized explorations and preferential returns in prescribed region. Based on the numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show more than five statistical characters that are well consistent with the empirical observations, including several types of scaling anomalies and the ultraslow diffusion properties, implying the cascading processes associated with the localized exploration and preferential returns are indeed a key in the understanding of human mobility activities. Moreover, the model shows both of the diverse individual mobility and aggregated scaling displacements, bridging the micro and macro patterns in human mobility. In summary, our model successfully explains most of empirical findings and provides deeper understandings on the emergence of human mobility patterns.

  7. Modelling of Patterns in Space and Time

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the work­ shop "Modelling of Patterns in Space and Time", organized by the 80nderforschungsbereich 123, "8tochastische Mathematische Modelle", in Heidelberg, July 4-8, 1983. The main aim of this workshop was to bring together physicists, chemists, biologists and mathematicians for an exchange of ideas and results in modelling patterns. Since the mathe­ matical problems arising depend only partially on the particular field of applications the interdisciplinary cooperation proved very useful. The workshop mainly treated phenomena showing spatial structures. The special areas covered were morphogenesis, growth in cell cultures, competition systems, structured populations, chemotaxis, chemical precipitation, space-time oscillations in chemical reactors, patterns in flames and fluids and mathematical methods. The discussions between experimentalists and theoreticians were especially interesting and effective. The editors hope that these proceedings reflect ...

  8. BUSINESS MODEL PATTERNS FOR DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    BENJAMIN AMSHOFF; CHRISTIAN DÜLME; JULIAN ECHTERFELD; JÜRGEN GAUSEMEIER

    2015-01-01

    Companies nowadays face a myriad of business opportunities as a direct consequence of manifold disruptive technology developments. As a basic characteristic, disruptive technologies lead to a severe shift in value-creation networks giving rise to new market segments. One of the key challenges is to anticipate the business logics within these nascent and formerly unknown markets. Business model patterns promise to tackle this challenge. They can be interpreted as proven business model elements...

  9. A comparative evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and Multi-Slice CT (MSCT). Part II: On 3D model accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xin; Lambrichts, Ivo; Sun Yi; Denis, Kathleen; Hassan, Bassam; Li Limin; Pauwels, Ruben; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The study aim was to compare the geometric accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) surface model reconstructions between five Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scanners and one Multi-Slice CT (MSCT) system. Materials and methods: A dry human mandible was scanned with five CBCT systems (NewTom 3G, Accuitomo 3D, i-CAT, Galileos, Scanora 3D) and one MSCT scanner (Somatom Sensation 16). A 3D surface bone model was created from the six systems. The reference (gold standard) 3D model was obtained with a high resolution laser surface scanner. The 3D models from the five systems were compared with the gold standard using a point-based rigid registration algorithm. Results: The mean deviation from the gold standard for MSCT was 0.137 mm and for CBCT were 0.282, 0.225, 0.165, 0.386 and 0.206 mm for the i-CAT, Accuitomo, NewTom, Scanora and Galileos, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that the accuracy of CBCT 3D surface model reconstructions is somewhat lower but acceptable comparing to MSCT from the gold standard.

  10. Patterns of flavor signals in supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Kyoto Univ. (Japan). YITP; Okada, Y. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba (Japan). Dept. of Particle and Nucelar Physics; Shindou, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Tanaka, M. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-11-15

    Quark and lepton flavor signals are studied in four supersymmetric models, namely the minimal supergravity model, the minimal supersymmetric standard model with right-handed neutrinos, SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory with right-handed neutrinos and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with U(2) flavor symmetry. We calculate b{yields}s(d) transition observables in B{sub d} and B{sub s} decays, taking the constraint from the B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} mixing recently observed at Tevatron into account. We also calculate lepton flavor violating processes {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma} and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} for the models with right-handed neutrinos. We investigate possibilities to distinguish the flavor structure of the supersymmetry breaking sector with use of patterns of various flavor signals which are expected to be measured in experiments such as MEG, LHCb and a future Super B Factory. (orig.)

  11. Patterns of flavor signals in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2007-11-01

    Quark and lepton flavor signals are studied in four supersymmetric models, namely the minimal supergravity model, the minimal supersymmetric standard model with right-handed neutrinos, SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory with right-handed neutrinos and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with U(2) flavor symmetry. We calculate b→s(d) transition observables in B d and B s decays, taking the constraint from the B s - anti B s mixing recently observed at Tevatron into account. We also calculate lepton flavor violating processes μ → eγ, τ → μγ and τ → eγ for the models with right-handed neutrinos. We investigate possibilities to distinguish the flavor structure of the supersymmetry breaking sector with use of patterns of various flavor signals which are expected to be measured in experiments such as MEG, LHCb and a future Super B Factory. (orig.)

  12. Voronoi cell patterns: Theoretical model and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Einstein, T. L.

    2011-11-01

    We use a simple fragmentation model to describe the statistical behavior of the Voronoi cell patterns generated by a homogeneous and isotropic set of points in 1D and in 2D. In particular, we are interested in the distribution of sizes of these Voronoi cells. Our model is completely defined by two probability distributions in 1D and again in 2D, the probability to add a new point inside an existing cell and the probability that this new point is at a particular position relative to the preexisting point inside this cell. In 1D the first distribution depends on a single parameter while the second distribution is defined through a fragmentation kernel; in 2D both distributions depend on a single parameter. The fragmentation kernel and the control parameters are closely related to the physical properties of the specific system under study. We use our model to describe the Voronoi cell patterns of several systems. Specifically, we study the island nucleation with irreversible attachment, the 1D car-parking problem, the formation of second-level administrative divisions, and the pattern formed by the Paris Métro stations.

  13. Minocycline Has Anti-inflammatory Effects and Reduces Cytotoxicity in an Ex Vivo Spinal Cord Slice Culture Model of West Nile Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Eamon D; Seitz, Scott; Clarke, Penny; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2017-11-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that can cause significant neurological disease. Mouse models of WNV infection demonstrate that a proinflammatory environment is induced within the central nervous system (CNS) after WNV infection, leading to entry of activated peripheral immune cells. We utilized ex vivo spinal cord slice cultures (SCSC) to demonstrate that anti-inflammatory mechanisms may also play a role in WNV-induced pathology and/or recovery. Microglia are a type of macrophage that function as resident CNS immune cells. Similar to mouse models, infection of SCSC with WNV induces the upregulation of proinflammatory genes and proteins that are associated with microglial activation, including the microglial activation marker Iba1 and CC motif chemokines CCL2, CCL3, and CCL5. This suggests that microglia assume a proinflammatory phenotype in response to WNV infection similar to the proinflammatory (M1) activation that can be displayed by other macrophages. We now show that the WNV-induced expression of these and other proinflammatory genes was significantly decreased in the presence of minocycline, which has antineuroinflammatory properties, including the ability to inhibit proinflammatory microglial responses. Minocycline also caused a significant increase in the expression of anti-inflammatory genes associated with alternative anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophage activation, including interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-13, and FIZZ1. Minocycline-dependent alterations to M1/M2 gene expression were associated with a significant increase in survival of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes in WNV-infected slices and markedly decreased levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These results demonstrate that an anti-inflammatory environment induced by minocycline reduces viral cytotoxicity during WNV infection in ex vivo CNS tissue. IMPORTANCE West Nile virus (WNV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality, with no specific therapeutic treatments available

  14. Slice sensitivity profiles and pixel noise of multi-slice CT in comparison with single-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorn, C.; Obenauer, S.; Funke, M.; Hermann, K.P.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Presentation and evaluation of slice sensitivity profile and pixel noise of multi-slice CT in comparison to single-slice CT. Methods: Slice sensitivity profiles and pixel noise of a multi-slice CT equiped with a 2D matrix detector array and of a single-slice CT were evaluated in phantom studies. Results: For the single-slice CT the width of the slice sensitivity profiles increased with increasing pitch. In spite of a much higher table speed the slice sensitivity profiles of multi-slice CT were narrower and did not increase with higher pitch. Noise in single-slice CT was independent of pitch. For multi-slice CT noise increased with higher pitch and for the higher pitch decreased slightly with higher detector row collimation. Conclusions: Multi-slice CT provides superior z-resolution and higher volume coverage speed. These qualities fulfill one of the prerequisites for improvement of 3D postprocessing. (orig.) [de

  15. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardaya, P. D., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Noh, K. A. B. M., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Yusoff, W. I. B. W., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my [Petroleum Geosciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Ridha, S. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Nurhandoko, B. E. B. [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Dept. of Physics, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia and Rock Fluid Imaging Lab, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic

  16. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardaya, P. D.; Noh, K. A. B. M.; Yusoff, W. I. B. W.; Ridha, S.; Nurhandoko, B. E. B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave

  17. Electrophysiology of Hypothalamic Magnocellular Neurons In vitro: A Rhythmic Drive in Organotypic Cultures and Acute Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Jean-Marc; Oliet, Stéphane H; Ciofi, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic neurohormones are released in a pulsatile manner. The mechanisms of this pulsatility remain poorly understood and several hypotheses are available, depending upon the neuroendocrine system considered. Among these systems, hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal magnocellular neurons have been early-considered models, as they typically display an electrical activity consisting of bursts of action potentials that is optimal for the release of boluses of the neurohormones oxytocin and vasopressin. The cellular mechanisms underlying this bursting behavior have been studied in vitro, using either acute slices of the adult hypothalamus, or organotypic cultures of neonatal hypothalamic tissue. We have recently proposed, from experiments in organotypic cultures, that specific central pattern generator networks, upstream of magnocellular neurons, determine their bursting activity. Here, we have tested whether a similar hypothesis can be derived from in vitro experiments in acute slices of the adult hypothalamus. To this aim we have screened our electrophysiological recordings of the magnocellular neurons, previously obtained from acute slices, with an analysis of autocorrelation of action potentials to detect a rhythmic drive as we recently did for organotypic cultures. This confirmed that the bursting behavior of magnocellular neurons is governed by central pattern generator networks whose rhythmic drive, and thus probably integrity, is however less satisfactorily preserved in the acute slices from adult brains.

  18. Electrophysiology of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons in vitro: a rhythmic drive in organotypic cultures and acute slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc eIsrael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurohormones are released in a pulsatile manner. The mechanisms of this pulsatility remain poorly understood and several hypotheses are available, depending upon the neuroendocrine system considered. Among these systems, hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal magnocellular neurons have been early-considered models, as they typically display an electrical activity consisting of bursts of action potentials that is optimal for the release of boluses of the neurohormones oxytocin and vasopressin. The cellular mechanisms underlying this bursting behavior have been studied in vitro, using either acute slices of the adult hypothalamus, or organotypic cultures of neonatal hypothalamic tissue. We have recently proposed, from experiments in organotypic cultures, that specific central pattern generator networks, upstream of magnocellular neurons, determine their bursting activity. Here, we have tested whether a similar hypothesis can be derived from in vitro experiments in acute slices of the adult hypothalamus. To this aim we have screened our electrophysiological recordings of the magnocellular neurons, previously obtained from acute slices, with an analysis of autocorrelation of action potentials to detect a rhythmic drive as we recently did for organotypic cultures. This confirmed that the bursting behavior of magnocellular neurons is governed by central pattern generator networks whose rhythmic drive, and thus probably integrity, is however less satisfactorily preserved in the acute slices from adult brains.

  19. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  20. A brain slice culture model for studies of endogenous and exogenous precursor cell migration in the rostral migratory stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Blaabjerg, Morten; Andersen, Rikke K

    2009-01-01

    The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is the main pathway by which newly born subventricular zone (SVZ) cells reach the olfactory bulb (OB) in rodents. This migration has been well studied in vivo, but an organotypic in vitro model would facilitate more experimental investigations. Here we introduce...

  1. TH-EF-BRA-08: A Novel Technique for Estimating Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) From Multi-Slice Sparsely Sampled Cine Images Using Motion Modeling and Free Form Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Wang, C; Chang, Z; Cai, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique to estimate on-board VC-MRI using multi-slice sparsely-sampled cine images, patient prior 4D-MRI, motion-modeling and free-form deformation for real-time 3D target verification of lung radiotherapy. Methods: A previous method has been developed to generate on-board VC-MRI by deforming prior MRI images based on a motion model(MM) extracted from prior 4D-MRI and a single-slice on-board 2D-cine image. In this study, free-form deformation(FD) was introduced to correct for errors in the MM when large anatomical changes exist. Multiple-slice sparsely-sampled on-board 2D-cine images located within the target are used to improve both the estimation accuracy and temporal resolution of VC-MRI. The on-board 2D-cine MRIs are acquired at 20–30frames/s by sampling only 10% of the k-space on Cartesian grid, with 85% of that taken at the central k-space. The method was evaluated using XCAT(computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients with various anatomical and respirational changes from prior 4D-MRI to onboard volume. The accuracy was evaluated using Volume-Percent-Difference(VPD) and Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS) of the estimated tumor volume. Effects of region-of-interest(ROI) selection, 2D-cine slice orientation, slice number and slice location on the estimation accuracy were evaluated. Results: VCMRI estimated using 10 sparsely-sampled sagittal 2D-cine MRIs achieved VPD/COMS of 9.07±3.54%/0.45±0.53mm among all scenarios based on estimation with ROI_MM-ROI_FD. The FD optimization improved estimation significantly for scenarios with anatomical changes. Using ROI-FD achieved better estimation than global-FD. Changing the multi-slice orientation to axial, coronal, and axial/sagittal orthogonal reduced the accuracy of VCMRI to VPD/COMS of 19.47±15.74%/1.57±2.54mm, 20.70±9.97%/2.34±0.92mm, and 16.02±13.79%/0.60±0.82mm, respectively. Reducing the number of cines to 8 enhanced temporal resolution of VC-MRI by 25% while

  2. TH-EF-BRA-08: A Novel Technique for Estimating Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) From Multi-Slice Sparsely Sampled Cine Images Using Motion Modeling and Free Form Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Wang, C; Chang, Z; Cai, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique to estimate on-board VC-MRI using multi-slice sparsely-sampled cine images, patient prior 4D-MRI, motion-modeling and free-form deformation for real-time 3D target verification of lung radiotherapy. Methods: A previous method has been developed to generate on-board VC-MRI by deforming prior MRI images based on a motion model(MM) extracted from prior 4D-MRI and a single-slice on-board 2D-cine image. In this study, free-form deformation(FD) was introduced to correct for errors in the MM when large anatomical changes exist. Multiple-slice sparsely-sampled on-board 2D-cine images located within the target are used to improve both the estimation accuracy and temporal resolution of VC-MRI. The on-board 2D-cine MRIs are acquired at 20–30frames/s by sampling only 10% of the k-space on Cartesian grid, with 85% of that taken at the central k-space. The method was evaluated using XCAT(computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients with various anatomical and respirational changes from prior 4D-MRI to onboard volume. The accuracy was evaluated using Volume-Percent-Difference(VPD) and Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS) of the estimated tumor volume. Effects of region-of-interest(ROI) selection, 2D-cine slice orientation, slice number and slice location on the estimation accuracy were evaluated. Results: VCMRI estimated using 10 sparsely-sampled sagittal 2D-cine MRIs achieved VPD/COMS of 9.07±3.54%/0.45±0.53mm among all scenarios based on estimation with ROI-MM-ROI-FD. The FD optimization improved estimation significantly for scenarios with anatomical changes. Using ROI-FD achieved better estimation than global-FD. Changing the multi-slice orientation to axial, coronal, and axial/sagittal orthogonal reduced the accuracy of VCMRI to VPD/COMS of 19.47±15.74%/1.57±2.54mm, 20.70±9.97%/2.34±0.92mm, and 16.02±13.79%/0.60±0.82mm, respectively. Reducing the number of cines to 8 enhanced temporal resolution of VC-MRI by 25% while

  3. Acute and chronic myocardial infarction in a pig model: Utility of multi-slice cardiac computed tomography in assessing myocardial viability and infarct parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Xinkai; Fang Weiyi; Ye Jianding; Koh, Angela S.; Xu Yingjia; Guan Shaofeng; Li Ruogu; Shen Yan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) biphasic imaging in assessing myocardial viability and infarct parameters in both acutely and chronically infarcted pig models. Materials and methods: Seven pigs underwent ligation of the distal left anterior descending artery. Imaging was performed on the day of infarction and 3 months post-infarct, with contrast infusion followed by MSCT scan acquisition at different time-points. Left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs) were obtained by left ventriculography (LVG) after 3 months. Infarcted locations found using MSCT were compared with those obtained using SPECT. Infarcted areas were also analysed histopathologically and compared with the findings from MSCT. Results: Chronic phase images had perfusion defects with lower CT values relative to normal myocardium (43 ± 10 HU vs. 156 ± 13 HU, p = 0.001) on the early images but no residual defects on delayed images. However, we found hyperenhancing regions on delayed images (244 ± 20 HU vs. 121 ± 25 HU, p = 0.001), and good correlation between MSCT- and LVG-derived LVEFs (60.56 ± 7.56%). The areas identified by MSCT corresponded to the location of 201 Tl SPECT-/pathologic staining-derived regions in all models. Infarct size was in good agreement with MSCT and pathological analyses of chronic phase models. Conclusions: Necrotic myocardium in different stages after infarction could be qualitatively and quantitatively assessed using MSCT biphasic imaging, as could the status of microcirculation formation. MSCT-measured LVEFs matched well with other modalities, and hence MSCT is a useful tool in assessing post-infarct cardiac function.

  4. The time slice system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, J.

    1990-01-01

    We have designed a fast readout system for silicon microstrip detectors which could be used at HERA, LHC, and SSC. The system consists of an analog amplifier-comparator chip (AACC) and a digital time slice chip (DTSC). The analog ship is designed in dielectric isolated bipolar technology for low noise and potential radiation hardness. The DTSC is built in CMOS for low power use and high circuit density. The main implementation aims are low power consumption and compactness. The architectural goal is automatic data reduction, and ease of external interface. The pipelining of event information is done digitally in the DTSC. It has a 64 word deep level 1 buffer acting as a FIFO, and a 16 word deep level 2 buffer acting as a dequeue. The DTSC also includes an asynchronous bus interface. We are first building a scaled up (100 μm instead of 25 μm pitch) and slower (10 MHz instead of 60 MHz) version in 2 μm CMOS and plan to test the principle of operation of this system in the Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) of the ZEUS detector at HERA. Another very important development will be tested there: the radiation hardening of the chips. We have started a collaboration with a rad-hard foundry and with Los Alamos National Laboratories to test and evaluate rad-hard processes and the final rad-hard product. Initial data are very promising, because radiation resistance of up to many Mrad have been achieved. (orig.)

  5. A survey of program slicing for software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    This research concerns program slicing which is used as a tool for program maintainence of software systems. Program slicing decreases the level of effort required to understand and maintain complex software systems. It was first designed as a debugging aid, but it has since been generalized into various tools and extended to include program comprehension, module cohesion estimation, requirements verification, dead code elimination, and maintainence of several software systems, including reverse engineering, parallelization, portability, and reuse component generation. This paper seeks to address and define terminology, theoretical concepts, program representation, different program graphs, developments in static slicing, dynamic slicing, and semantics and mathematical models. Applications for conventional slicing are presented, along with a prognosis of future work in this field.

  6. Enforcing a security pattern in stakeholder goal models

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yijun; Kaiya, Haruhiko; Washizaki, Hironori; Xiong, Yingfei; Hu, Zhenjiang; Yoshioka, Nobukazu

    2008-01-01

    Patterns are useful knowledge about recurring problems and solutions. Detecting a security problem using patterns in requirements models may lead to its early solution. In order to facilitate early detection and resolution of security problems, in this paper, we formally describe a role-based access control (RBAC) as a pattern that may occur in stakeholder requirements models. We also implemented in our goal-oriented modeling tool the formally described pattern using model-driven queries and ...

  7. Modelling the Drying Characteristics and Kinetics of Hot Air-Drying of Unblanched Whole Red Pepper and Blanched Bitter Leaf Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the drying characteristics and kinetics of red pepper and bitter leaf under the influence of different drying temperatures. The drying experiments were carried out at dry bulb temperature of 35, 45, 55 and 75oC, respectively in an oven dryer. The results showed that as drying temperature increased, drying rate also increased and the drying time decreased. It was observed that un-sliced red pepper and sliced bitter leaf would dry within 2.5-12 h a...

  8. A hydroclimatic model of global fire patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Satellite-based earth observation is providing an increasingly accurate picture of global fire patterns. The highest fire activity is observed in seasonally dry (sub-)tropical environments of South America, Africa and Australia, but fires occur with varying frequency, intensity and seasonality in almost all biomes on Earth. The particular combination of these fire characteristics, or fire regime, is known to emerge from the combined influences of climate, vegetation, terrain and land use, but has so far proven difficult to reproduce by global models. Uncertainty about the biophysical drivers and constraints that underlie current global fire patterns is propagated in model predictions of how ecosystems, fire regimes and biogeochemical cycles may respond to projected future climates. Here, I present a hydroclimatic model of global fire patterns that predicts the mean annual burned area fraction (F) of 0.25° x 0.25° grid cells as a function of the climatic water balance. Following Bradstock's four-switch model, long-term fire activity levels were assumed to be controlled by fuel productivity rates and the likelihood that the extant fuel is dry enough to burn. The frequency of ignitions and favourable fire weather were assumed to be non-limiting at long time scales. Fundamentally, fuel productivity and fuel dryness are a function of the local water and energy budgets available for the production and desiccation of plant biomass. The climatic water balance summarizes the simultaneous availability of biologically usable energy and water at a site, and may therefore be expected to explain a significant proportion of global variation in F. To capture the effect of the climatic water balance on fire activity I focused on the upper quantiles of F, i.e. the maximum level of fire activity for a given climatic water balance. Analysing GFED4 data for annual burned area together with gridded climate data, I found that nearly 80% of the global variation in the 0.99 quantile of F

  9. Mathematical modeling the cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the surface of ready-to-eat meat product while slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial cross-contamination either at home or production site is one of the major factors of causing contamination of foods and leading to the foodborne illness. The knowledge regarding Escherichia coli O157:H7 surface transfer on ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meat and the slicer used for slicing diffe...

  10. Flat slices in Minkowski space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchadha, Niall Ó.; Xie, Naqing

    2015-03-01

    Minkowski space, flat spacetime, with a distance measure in natural units of d{{s}2}=-d{{t}2}+d{{x}2}+d{{y}2}+d{{z}2}, or equivalently, with spacetime metric diag(-1, +1, +1, +1), is recognized as a fundamental arena for physics. The Poincaré group, the set of all rigid spacetime rotations and translations, is the symmetry group of Minkowski space. The action of this group preserves the form of the spacetime metric. Each t = constant slice of each preferred coordinate system is flat. We show that there are also nontrivial non-singular representations of Minkowski space with complete flat slices. If the embedding of the flat slices decays appropriately at infinity, the only flat slices are the standard ones. However, if we remove the decay condition, we find non-trivial flat slices with non-vanishing extrinsic curvature. We write out explicitly the coordinate transformation to a frame with such slices.

  11. Iterative model reconstruction: Improved image quality of low-tube-voltage prospective ECG-gated coronary CT angiography images at 256-slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Seitaro, E-mail: seisei0430@nifty.com [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8556 (Japan); Weissman, Gaby, E-mail: Gaby.Weissman@medstar.net [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Vembar, Mani, E-mail: mani.vembar@philips.com [CT Clinical Science, Philips Healthcare, c595 Miner Road, Cleveland, OH 44143 (United States); Weigold, Wm. Guy, E-mail: Guy.Weigold@MedStar.net [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of a new model-based type of iterative reconstruction (M-IR) technique, the iterative model reconstruction, on image quality of prospectively gated coronary CT angiography (CTA) acquired at low-tube-voltage. Methods: Thirty patients (16 men, 14 women; mean age 52.2 ± 13.2 years) underwent coronary CTA at 100-kVp on a 256-slice CT. Paired image sets were created using 3 types of reconstruction, i.e. filtered back projection (FBP), a hybrid type of iterative reconstruction (H-IR), and M-IR. Quantitative parameters including CT-attenuation, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured. The visual image quality, i.e. graininess, beam-hardening, vessel sharpness, and overall image quality, was scored on a 5-point scale. Lastly, coronary artery segments were evaluated using a 4-point scale to investigate the assessability of each segment. Results: There was no significant difference in coronary arterial CT attenuation among the 3 reconstruction methods. The mean image noise of FBP, H-IR, and M-IR images was 29.3 ± 9.6, 19.3 ± 6.9, and 12.9 ± 3.3 HU, respectively, there were significant differences for all comparison combinations among the 3 methods (p < 0.01). The CNR of M-IR was significantly better than of FBP and H-IR images (13.5 ± 5.0 [FBP], 20.9 ± 8.9 [H-IR] and 39.3 ± 13.9 [M-IR]; p < 0.01). The visual scores were significantly higher for M-IR than the other images (p < 0.01), and 95.3% of the coronary segments imaged with M-IR were of assessable quality compared with 76.7% of FBP- and 86.9% of H-IR images. Conclusions: M-IR can provide significantly improved qualitative and quantitative image quality in prospectively gated coronary CTA using a low-tube-voltage.

  12. Thin Sheet Modeling for the Seismogenic Crust of Western North America: How Strong is the top Slice of "Sandwich Bread" Above the "Jelly"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. C.; Holt, W. E.; Flesch, L. M.; Haines, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    level or to a variable depth below sea level constrained by heat flow. For the case of a long-term seismogenic layer with a uniform base 20 km below sea level, the long-term vertically integrated deviatoric stress magnitudes range between 0.05-0.75x10^{12} N/m, while the long-term vertically integrated strength magnitudes of the layer are of the order of 0.05-1.5x10^{12} N/m. These strength values constrain low long-term friction coefficients of 0.02-0.30 under hydrostatic to wet conditions in the Basin and Range region. We test the sensitivity of our solutions to different assumed brittle-ductile transition depths and find that coefficients of friction on faults, along with magnitudes of vertically integrated strength, are relatively insensitive to these assumed layer thicknesses. Moreover, through this sensitivity modeling we find evidence that our assumption of decoupling is valid for most of the Basin and Range region in that we find evidence for diminishing contributions to crustal strength with depth. We model the interface between the upper and lower crust by parameterization of a variable seismogenic thickness in the thin sheet equations. This allows us to estimate the strength of the top slice of "bread" without the incorporation of any "jelly". We find that most of the long-term strength of the crust within the diffuse plate boundary zone of western North America resides in the seismogenic layer of the upper crust.

  13. Modeling Patterns of Activities using Activity Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla N; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-06-01

    Pervasive computing offers an unprecedented opportunity to unobtrusively monitor behavior and use the large amount of collected data to perform analysis of activity-based behavioral patterns. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an activity curve , which represents an abstraction of an individual's normal daily routine based on automatically-recognized activities. We propose methods to detect changes in behavioral routines by comparing activity curves and use these changes to analyze the possibility of changes in cognitive or physical health. We demonstrate our model and evaluate our change detection approach using a longitudinal smart home sensor dataset collected from 18 smart homes with older adult residents. Finally, we demonstrate how big data-based pervasive analytics such as activity curve-based change detection can be used to perform functional health assessment. Our evaluation indicates that correlations do exist between behavior and health changes and that these changes can be automatically detected using smart homes, machine learning, and big data-based pervasive analytics.

  14. The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

  15. The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    1992-03-01

    Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

  16. Modeling urbanization patterns with generative adversarial networks

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Adrian; Strano, Emanuele; Kaur, Jasleen; Gonzalez, Marta

    2018-01-01

    In this study we propose a new method to simulate hyper-realistic urban patterns using Generative Adversarial Networks trained with a global urban land-use inventory. We generated a synthetic urban "universe" that qualitatively reproduces the complex spatial organization observed in global urban patterns, while being able to quantitatively recover certain key high-level urban spatial metrics.

  17. 64-Slice multidetector row CT angiography of the abdomen: comparison of low versus high concentration iodinated contrast media in a porcine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holalkere, N-S; Matthes, K; Kalva, S P; Brugge, W R; Sahani, D V

    2011-01-01

    Objective In this study we aimed to assess the image quality and degree of vascular enhancement using low-concentration contrast media (LCCM) (300 mg I ml–1) and high-concentration contrast media (HCCM) (370 mg I ml–1) on 64-slice multidetector row CT (MDCT) abdominal CT angiography (CTA). In addition, we aimed to study the feasibility of using HCCM with a reduced total iodine dose. Methods CTA of the abdomen on a 64-slice MDCT was performed on 15 anaesthetised pigs. Study pigs were divided into three groups of five each based on the iodine concentration and dose received: Group A (LCCM; 300 mg I ml–1), Group B (HCCM; 370 mg I ml–1) and Group C HCCM with 20% less iodine dose. The total iodine injected was kept constant (600 mg kg–1) in Groups A and B. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to study and compare each group for image quality, visibility of the branch order of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), artefacts, degree of enhancement in the aorta and main stem arteries and uniformity of enhancement in the aorta. Groups were compared using the analysis of variance test. Results The image quality of 64-slice MDCT angiography was excellent with a mean score of 4.63 and confident visualisation of the third to fifth order branches of the SMA in all groups. Group B demonstrated superior vascular enhancement, as compared with Groups A and C (p≤0.05). Uniform aortic enhancement was achieved with the use of LCCM and HCCM with 20% less iodine dose. Conclusion 64-slice MDCT angiography of the abdomen was of excellent quality. HCCM improves contrast enhancement and overall CTA image quality and allows the iodine dose to be reduced. PMID:21081582

  18. Hopfield's Model of Patterns Recognition and Laws of Artistic Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevin, Igor; Koblyakov, Alexander

    The model of patterns recognition or attractor network model of associative memory, offered by J.Hopfield 1982, is the most known model in theoretical neuroscience. This paper aims to show, that such well-known laws of art perception as the Wundt curve, perception of visual ambiguity in art, and also the model perception of musical tonalities are nothing else than special cases of the Hopfield’s model of patterns recognition.

  19. Tumor slices as a model to evaluate doxorubicin in vitro treatment and expression of trios of genes PRSS11, MTSS1, CLPTM1 and PRSS11, MTSS1, SMYD2 in canine mammary gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrão Diogo FC

    2008-07-01

    PRSS11, MTSS1, SMYD2 could not predict doxorubicin in vitro responsiveness. Short term culture of mammary gland cancer slices may be an interesting model to evaluate chemotherapy activity.

  20. Spatio-temporal patterns in simple models of marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudel, U.; Baurmann, M.; Gross, T.

    2009-04-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns in marine systems are a result of the interaction of population dynamics with physical transport processes. These physical transport processes can be either diffusion processes in marine sediments or in the water column. We study the dynamics of one population of bacteria and its nutrient in in a simplified model of a marine sediments, taking into account that the considered bacteria possess an active as well as an inactive state, where activation is processed by signal molecules. Furthermore the nutrients are transported actively by bioirrigation and passively by diffusion. It is shown that under certain conditions Turing patterns can occur which yield heterogeneous spatial patterns of the species. The influence of bioirrigation on Turing patterns leads to the emergence of ''hot spots``, i.e. localized regions of enhanced bacterial activity. All obtained patterns fit quite well to observed patterns in laboratory experiments. Spatio-temporal patterns appear in a predator-prey model, used to describe plankton dynamics. These patterns appear due to the simultaneous emergence of Turing patterns and oscillations in the species abundance in the neighborhood of a Turing-Hopf bifurcation. We observe a large variety of different patterns where i) stationary heterogeneous patterns (e.g. hot and cold spots) compete with spatio-temporal patterns ii) slowly moving patterns are embedded in an oscillatory background iii) moving fronts and spiral waves appear.

  1. Geometry Processing of Conventionally Produced Mouse Brain Slice Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Xu, Xiangmin; Gopi, M

    2018-04-21

    Brain mapping research in most neuroanatomical laboratories relies on conventional processing techniques, which often introduce histological artifacts such as tissue tears and tissue loss. In this paper we present techniques and algorithms for automatic registration and 3D reconstruction of conventionally produced mouse brain slices in a standardized atlas space. This is achieved first by constructing a virtual 3D mouse brain model from annotated slices of Allen Reference Atlas (ARA). Virtual re-slicing of the reconstructed model generates ARA-based slice images corresponding to the microscopic images of histological brain sections. These image pairs are aligned using a geometric approach through contour images. Histological artifacts in the microscopic images are detected and removed using Constrained Delaunay Triangulation before performing global alignment. Finally, non-linear registration is performed by solving Laplace's equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our methods provide significant improvements over previously reported registration techniques for the tested slices in 3D space, especially on slices with significant histological artifacts. Further, as one of the application we count the number of neurons in various anatomical regions using a dataset of 51 microscopic slices from a single mouse brain. To the best of our knowledge the presented work is the first that automatically registers both clean as well as highly damaged high-resolutions histological slices of mouse brain to a 3D annotated reference atlas space. This work represents a significant contribution to this subfield of neuroscience as it provides tools to neuroanatomist for analyzing and processing histological data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Turing patterns in a modified Lotka-Volterra model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGehee, Edward A.; Peacock-Lopez, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we consider a modified Lotka-Volterra model widely known as the Bazykin model, which is the MacArthur-Rosenzweig (MR) model that includes a prey-dependent response function and is modified with the inclusion of intraspecies interactions. We show that a quadratic intra-prey interaction term, which is the most realistic nonlinearity, yields sufficient conditions for Turing patterns. For the Bazykin model we find the Turing region in parameter space and Turing patterns in one dimension

  3. Modeling and analyzing stripe patterns in fish skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yibo; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuan; Liang, Ping; Kang, Junjian

    2009-11-01

    The formation mechanism of stripe patterns in the skin of tropical fishes has been investigated by a coupled two variable reaction diffusion model. Two types of spatial inhomogeneities have been introduced into a homogenous system. Several Turing modes pumped by the Turing instability give rise to a simple stripe pattern. It is found that the Turing mechanism can only determine the wavelength of stripe pattern. The orientation of stripe pattern is determined by the spatial inhomogeneity. Our numerical results suggest that it may be the most possible mechanism for the forming process of fish skin patterns.

  4. Inhomogeneous Markov Models for Describing Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Emil Banning; Møller, Jan K.; Morales, Juan Miguel

    2017-01-01

    . Specifically, an inhomogeneous Markov model that captures the diurnal variation in the use of a vehicle is presented. The model is defined by the time-varying probabilities of starting and ending a trip, and is justified due to the uncertainty associated with the use of the vehicle. The model is fitted to data...... collected from the actual utilization of a vehicle. Inhomogeneous Markov models imply a large number of parameters. The number of parameters in the proposed model is reduced using B-splines....

  5. Inhomogeneous Markov Models for Describing Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    . Specically, an inhomogeneous Markov model that captures the diurnal variation in the use of a vehicle is presented. The model is dened by the time-varying probabilities of starting and ending a trip and is justied due to the uncertainty associated with the use of the vehicle. The model is tted to data...... collected from the actual utilization of a vehicle. Inhomogeneous Markov models imply a large number of parameters. The number of parameters in the proposed model is reduced using B-splines....

  6. Influence of pH on the /sup 14/C-labelling pattern after photosynthesis of suspended leaf slices and isolated mesophyll cells from chenopodium album in NaH/sup 14/CO/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, G; Guenther, G [Paedagogische Hochschule Karl Liebknecht, Potsdam (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Chemie/Biologie

    1983-01-01

    Photosynthetic fixation of /sup 14/C from solutions of NaH/sup 14/CO/sub 3/ (at constant concentrations of free CO/sub 2/) by suspended leaf slices or isolated mesophyll cells from Chenopodium album is increased with increasing pH. Above all, the incorporation of radioactivity into amino acids and malate is stimulated. A direct uptake of HCO/sub 3/ ions and its fixation by PEP carboxylase is suggested. Isolated mesophyll cells showed at pH 7.3 a higher rate of photosynthesis than at pH 5.0.

  7. Modeling of glutamate-induced dynamical patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby-Bentzen, Christian Krefeld; Zhabotinsky, A.M.; Laugesen, Jakob Lund

    2009-01-01

    Based on established physiological mechanisms, the paper presents a detailed computer model, which supports the hypothesis that temporal lobe epilepsy may be caused by failure of glutamate reuptake from the extracellular space. The elevated glutamate concentration causes an increased activation...

  8. Simulating pattern-process relationships to validate landscape genetic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. J. Shirk; S. A. Cushman; E. L. Landguth

    2012-01-01

    Landscapes may resist gene flow and thereby give rise to a pattern of genetic isolation within a population. The mechanism by which a landscape resists gene flow can be inferred by evaluating the relationship between landscape models and an observed pattern of genetic isolation. This approach risks false inferences because researchers can never feasibly test all...

  9. Stripe patterns in a model for block polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, M.A.; Veneroni, M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a pattern-forming system in two space dimensions defined by an energy Ge. The functional Ge models strong phase separation in AB diblock copolymer melts, and patterns are represented by {0, 1}-valued functions; the values 0 and 1 correspond to the A and B phases. The parameter e is the

  10. Stripe patterns in a model for block polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, M.A.; Veneroni, M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a pattern-forming system in two space dimensions defined by an energy Ge. The functional Ge models strong phase separation in AB diblock copolymer melts, and patterns are represented by {0, 1}-valued functions; the values 0 and 1 correspond to the A and B phases. The parameter e is the

  11. An Evaluation of ADLs on Modeling Patterns for Software Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waqas Kamal, Ahmad; Avgeriou, Paris

    2007-01-01

    Architecture patterns provide solutions to recurring design problems at the architecture level. In order to model patterns during software architecture design, one may use a number of existing Architecture Description Languages (ADLs), including the UML, a generic language but also a de facto

  12. Improved biochemical preservation of heart slices during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, D A; Reid, B B; Connors, R C; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-01-01

    Development of myocardial preservation solutions requires the use of whole organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that myocardial slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat hearts were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 200 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in one of the following solutions: Columbia University (CU), University of Wisconsin (UW), D5 0.2% normal saline with 20 meq/l KCL (QNS), normal saline (NS), or a novel cardiac preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Myocardial biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamoles ATP/mg wet weight) and capacity for protein synthesis (counts per minute (cpm)/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 hours), and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as the mean +/- standard deviation. ATP content was higher in the heart slices stored in the NPS compared to all other solutions at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours of cold storage (p cold storage (p cold storage.

  13. Improved biochemical preservation of lung slices during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, D A; Connors, R C; Reid, B B; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-05-15

    Development of lung preservation solutions typically requires whole-organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that lung slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat lungs were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 500 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in the following solutions: University of Wisconsin (UW), Euro-Collins (EC), low-potassium-dextran (LPD), Kyoto (K), normal saline (NS), or a novel lung preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Lung biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamol ATP/mg wet wt) and capacity for protein synthesis (cpm/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as means +/- SD. ATP content was significantly higher in the lung slices stored in NPS compared with all other solutions at each time point (P cold storage. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Slices

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James; Singh, Karan; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2011-01-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours

  15. Regulation of Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) Limb Blastema Cell Proliferation by Nerves and BMP2 in Organotypic Slice Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrberg, Jeffrey; Gardiner, David M

    2015-01-01

    We have modified and optimized the technique of organotypic slice culture in order to study the mechanisms regulating growth and pattern formation in regenerating axolotl limb blastemas. Blastema cells maintain many of the behaviors that are characteristic of blastemas in vivo when cultured as slices in vitro, including rates of proliferation that are comparable to what has been reported in vivo. Because the blastema slices can be cultured in basal medium without fetal bovine serum, it was possible to test the response of blastema cells to signaling molecules present in serum, as well as those produced by nerves. We also were able to investigate the response of blastema cells to experimentally regulated changes in BMP signaling. Blastema cells responded to all of these signals by increasing the rate of proliferation and the level of expression of the blastema marker gene, Prrx-1. The organotypic slice culture model provides the opportunity to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal co-regulation of pathways in order to induce and enhance a regenerative response.

  16. Regulation of Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum Limb Blastema Cell Proliferation by Nerves and BMP2 in Organotypic Slice Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lehrberg

    Full Text Available We have modified and optimized the technique of organotypic slice culture in order to study the mechanisms regulating growth and pattern formation in regenerating axolotl limb blastemas. Blastema cells maintain many of the behaviors that are characteristic of blastemas in vivo when cultured as slices in vitro, including rates of proliferation that are comparable to what has been reported in vivo. Because the blastema slices can be cultured in basal medium without fetal bovine serum, it was possible to test the response of blastema cells to signaling molecules present in serum, as well as those produced by nerves. We also were able to investigate the response of blastema cells to experimentally regulated changes in BMP signaling. Blastema cells responded to all of these signals by increasing the rate of proliferation and the level of expression of the blastema marker gene, Prrx-1. The organotypic slice culture model provides the opportunity to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal co-regulation of pathways in order to induce and enhance a regenerative response.

  17. Emergent patterns of social affiliation in primates, a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Puga-Gonzalez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many patterns of affiliative behaviour have been described for primates, for instance: reciprocation and exchange of grooming, grooming others of similar rank, reconciliation of fights, and preferential reconciliation with more valuable partners. For these patterns several functions and underlying cognitive processes have been suggested. It is, however, difficult to imagine how animals may combine these diverse considerations in their mind. Although the co-variation hypothesis, by limiting the social possibilities an individual has, constrains the number of cognitive considerations an individual has to take, it does not present an integrated theory of affiliative patterns either. In the present paper, after surveying patterns of affiliation in egalitarian and despotic macaques, we use an individual-based model with a high potential for self-organisation as a starting point for such an integrative approach. In our model, called GrooFiWorld, individuals group and, upon meeting each other, may perform a dominance interaction of which the outcomes of winning and losing are self-reinforcing. Besides, if individuals think they will be defeated, they consider grooming others. Here, the greater their anxiety is, the greater their "motivation" to groom others. Our model generates patterns similar to many affiliative patterns of empirical data. By merely increasing the intensity of aggression, affiliative patterns in the model change from those resembling egalitarian macaques to those resembling despotic ones. Our model produces such patterns without assuming in the mind of the individual the specific cognitive processes that are usually thought to underlie these patterns (such as recordkeeping of the acts given and received, a tendency to exchange, memory of the former fight, selective attraction to the former opponent, and estimation of the value of a relationship. Our model can be used as a null model to increase our understanding of affiliative

  18. Temporal-pattern learning in neural models

    CERN Document Server

    Genís, Carme Torras

    1985-01-01

    While the ability of animals to learn rhythms is an unquestionable fact, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are still no more than conjectures. This monograph explores the requirements of such mechanisms, reviews those previously proposed and postulates a new one based on a direct electric coding of stimulation frequencies. Experi­ mental support for the option taken is provided both at the single neuron and neural network levels. More specifically, the material presented divides naturally into four parts: a description of the experimental and theoretical framework where this work becomes meaningful (Chapter 2), a detailed specifica­ tion of the pacemaker neuron model proposed together with its valida­ tion through simulation (Chapter 3), an analytic study of the behavior of this model when submitted to rhythmic stimulation (Chapter 4) and a description of the neural network model proposed for learning, together with an analysis of the simulation results obtained when varying seve­ ral factors r...

  19. Evaluating spatial patterns in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Julian

    the contiguous United Sates (10^6 km2). To this end, the thesis at hand applies a set of spatial performance metrics on various hydrological variables, namely land-surface-temperature (LST), evapotranspiration (ET) and soil moisture. The inspiration for the applied metrics is found in related fields...... is not fully exploited by current modelling frameworks due to the lack of suitable spatial performance metrics. Furthermore, the traditional model evaluation using discharge is found unsuitable to lay confidence on the predicted catchment inherent spatial variability of hydrological processes in a fully...

  20. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2009-01-01

    processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...... consider simulations of this model and compare with real data....

  1. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...... consider simulations of this model and compare with real data....

  2. An overview of 5G network slicing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Wang, Xiaolei; Lv, Yingying

    2018-05-01

    With the development of mobile communication technology, the traditional single network model has been unable to meet the needs of users, and the demand for differentiated services is increasing. In order to solve this problem, the fifth generation of mobile communication technology came into being, and as one of the key technologies of 5G, network slice is the core technology of network virtualization and software defined network, enabling network slices to flexibly provide one or more network services according to users' needs[1]. Each slice can independently tailor the network functions according to the requirements of the business scene and the traffic model and manage the layout of the corresponding network resources, to improve the flexibility of network services and the utilization of resources, and enhance the robustness and reliability of the whole network [2].

  3. A comparative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in prepackaged versus retail-sliced deli meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrikat, Sarah; Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hicks Quesenberry, Heather; Labarre, David; Schroeder, Carl M; Kause, Janell

    2010-04-01

    Deli meat was ranked as the highest-risk ready-to-eat food vehicle of Listeria monocytogenes within the 2003 U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment. The comparative risk of L. monocytogenes in retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was evaluated with a modified version of this model. Other research has found that retail-sliced deli meats have both higher prevalence and levels of L. monocytogenes than have product sliced and packaged at the manufacturer level. The updated risk assessment model considered slicing location as well as the use of growth inhibitors. The per annum comparative risk ratio for the number of deaths from retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was found to be 4.89, and the per-serving comparative risk ratio was 4.27. There was a significant interaction between the use of growth inhibitors and slicing location. Almost 70% of the estimated deaths occurred from retail-sliced product that did not possess a growth inhibitor. A sensitivity analysis, assessing the effect of the model's consumer storage time and shelf life assumptions, found that even if retail-sliced deli meats were stored for a quarter of the time prepackaged deli meats were stored, retail-sliced product is 1.7 times more likely to result in death from listeriosis. Sensitivity analysis also showed that the shelf life assumption had little effect on the comparative risk ratio.

  4. Metabolomics of Therapy Response in Preclinical Glioblastoma: A Multi-Slice MRSI-Based Volumetric Analysis for Noninvasive Assessment of Temozolomide Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Ramos, Nuria; Ferrer-Font, Laura; Lope-Piedrafita, Silvia; Mocioiu, Victor; Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Pumarola, Martí; Arús, Carles; Candiota, Ana Paula

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, with a short survival time even after aggressive therapy. Non-invasive surrogate biomarkers of therapy response may be relevant for improving patient survival. Previous work produced such biomarkers in preclinical GBM using semi-supervised source extraction and single-slice Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI). Nevertheless, GBMs are heterogeneous and single-slice studies could prevent obtaining relevant information. The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether a multi-slice MRSI approach, acquiring consecutive grids across the tumor, is feasible for preclinical models and may produce additional insight into therapy response. Nosological images were analyzed pixel-by-pixel and a relative responding volume, the Tumor Responding Index (TRI), was defined to quantify response. Heterogeneous response levels were observed and treated animals were ascribed to three arbitrary predefined groups: high response (HR, n = 2), TRI = 68.2 ± 2.8%, intermediate response (IR, n = 6), TRI = 41.1 ± 4.2% and low response (LR, n = 2), TRI = 13.4 ± 14.3%, producing therapy response categorization which had not been fully registered in single-slice studies. Results agreed with the multi-slice approach being feasible and producing an inverse correlation between TRI and Ki67 immunostaining. Additionally, ca. 7-day oscillations of TRI were observed, suggesting that host immune system activation in response to treatment could contribute to the responding patterns detected. PMID:28524099

  5. Metabolomics of Therapy Response in Preclinical Glioblastoma: A Multi-Slice MRSI-Based Volumetric Analysis for Noninvasive Assessment of Temozolomide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Arias-Ramos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, with a short survival time even after aggressive therapy. Non-invasive surrogate biomarkers of therapy response may be relevant for improving patient survival. Previous work produced such biomarkers in preclinical GBM using semi-supervised source extraction and single-slice Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI. Nevertheless, GBMs are heterogeneous and single-slice studies could prevent obtaining relevant information. The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether a multi-slice MRSI approach, acquiring consecutive grids across the tumor, is feasible for preclinical models and may produce additional insight into therapy response. Nosological images were analyzed pixel-by-pixel and a relative responding volume, the Tumor Responding Index (TRI, was defined to quantify response. Heterogeneous response levels were observed and treated animals were ascribed to three arbitrary predefined groups: high response (HR, n = 2, TRI = 68.2 ± 2.8%, intermediate response (IR, n = 6, TRI = 41.1 ± 4.2% and low response (LR, n = 2, TRI = 13.4 ± 14.3%, producing therapy response categorization which had not been fully registered in single-slice studies. Results agreed with the multi-slice approach being feasible and producing an inverse correlation between TRI and Ki67 immunostaining. Additionally, ca. 7-day oscillations of TRI were observed, suggesting that host immune system activation in response to treatment could contribute to the responding patterns detected.

  6. The hypothalamic slice approach to neuroendocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, G I

    1983-07-01

    The magnocellular peptidergic cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei comprise much of what is known as the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system and is involved in several functions, including body fluid balance, parturition and lactation. While we have learned much from experiments in vivo, they have not produced a clear understanding of some of the crucial features associated with the functioning of this system. In particular, questions relating to the osmosensitivity of magnocellular neurones and the mechanism(s) by which their characteristic firing patterns are generated have not been answered using the older approaches. Electrophysiological studies with brain slices present direct evidence for osmosensitivity, and perhaps even osmoreceptivity, of magnocellular neurones. Other evidence indicates that the phasic bursting patterns of activity associated with vasopressin-releasing neurones (a) occur in the absence of patterned chemical synaptic input, (b) may be modulated by electrotonic conduction across gap junctions connecting magnocellular neurones and (c) are likely to be generated by endogenous membrane currents. These results make untenable the formerly held idea that phasic bursting activity is dependent upon recurrent synaptic inhibition.

  7. Fluidic system for long-term in vitro culturing and monitoring of organotypic brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmand, Tanya; Troels-Smith, Ane R.; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brain slice preparations cultured in vitro have long been used as a simplified model for studying brain development, electrophysiology, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. In this paper an open fluidic system developed for improved long term culturing of organotypic brain slices is presented....... The positive effect of continuous flow of growth medium, and thus stability of the glucose concentration and waste removal, is simulated and compared to the effect of stagnant medium that is most often used in tissue culturing. Furthermore, placement of the tissue slices in the developed device was studied...... by numerical simulations in order to optimize the nutrient distribution. The device was tested by culturing transverse hippocampal slices from 7 days old NMRI mice for a duration of 14 days. The slices were inspected visually and the slices cultured in the fluidic system appeared to have preserved...

  8. Pattern formation of a nonlocal, anisotropic interaction model

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2017-11-24

    We consider a class of interacting particle models with anisotropic, repulsive–attractive interaction forces whose orientations depend on an underlying tensor field. An example of this class of models is the so-called Kücken–Champod model describing the formation of fingerprint patterns. This class of models can be regarded as a generalization of a gradient flow of a nonlocal interaction potential which has a local repulsion and a long-range attraction structure. In contrast to isotropic interaction models the anisotropic forces in our class of models cannot be derived from a potential. The underlying tensor field introduces an anisotropy leading to complex patterns which do not occur in isotropic models. This anisotropy is characterized by one parameter in the model. We study the variation of this parameter, describing the transition between the isotropic and the anisotropic model, analytically and numerically. We analyze the equilibria of the corresponding mean-field partial differential equation and investigate pattern formation numerically in two dimensions by studying the dependence of the parameters in the model on the resulting patterns.

  9. Pattern formation of a nonlocal, anisotropic interaction model

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Dü ring, Bertram; Kreusser, Lisa Maria; Markowich, Peter A.; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2017-01-01

    We consider a class of interacting particle models with anisotropic, repulsive–attractive interaction forces whose orientations depend on an underlying tensor field. An example of this class of models is the so-called Kücken–Champod model describing the formation of fingerprint patterns. This class of models can be regarded as a generalization of a gradient flow of a nonlocal interaction potential which has a local repulsion and a long-range attraction structure. In contrast to isotropic interaction models the anisotropic forces in our class of models cannot be derived from a potential. The underlying tensor field introduces an anisotropy leading to complex patterns which do not occur in isotropic models. This anisotropy is characterized by one parameter in the model. We study the variation of this parameter, describing the transition between the isotropic and the anisotropic model, analytically and numerically. We analyze the equilibria of the corresponding mean-field partial differential equation and investigate pattern formation numerically in two dimensions by studying the dependence of the parameters in the model on the resulting patterns.

  10. Generative models versus underlying symmetries to explain biological pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A

    2014-06-01

    Mathematical models play an increasingly important role in the interpretation of biological experiments. Studies often present a model that generates the observations, connecting hypothesized process to an observed pattern. Such generative models confirm the plausibility of an explanation and make testable hypotheses for further experiments. However, studies rarely consider the broad family of alternative models that match the same observed pattern. The symmetries that define the broad class of matching models are in fact the only aspects of information truly revealed by observed pattern. Commonly observed patterns derive from simple underlying symmetries. This article illustrates the problem by showing the symmetry associated with the observed rate of increase in fitness in a constant environment. That underlying symmetry reveals how each particular generative model defines a single example within the broad class of matching models. Further progress on the relation between pattern and process requires deeper consideration of the underlying symmetries. © 2014 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Mixed time slicing in path integral simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, Ryan P.; Zwickl, Jill; Shushkov, Philip; Tully, John C.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and efficient scheme is presented for using different time slices for different degrees of freedom in path integral calculations. This method bridges the gap between full quantization and the standard mixed quantum-classical (MQC) scheme and, therefore, still provides quantum mechanical effects in the less-quantized variables. Underlying the algorithm is the notion that time slices (beads) may be 'collapsed' in a manner that preserves quantization in the less quantum mechanical degrees of freedom. The method is shown to be analogous to multiple-time step integration techniques in classical molecular dynamics. The algorithm and its associated error are demonstrated on model systems containing coupled high- and low-frequency modes; results indicate that convergence of quantum mechanical observables can be achieved with disparate bead numbers in the different modes. Cost estimates indicate that this procedure, much like the MQC method, is most efficient for only a relatively few quantum mechanical degrees of freedom, such as proton transfer. In this regime, however, the cost of a fully quantum mechanical simulation is determined by the quantization of the least quantum mechanical degrees of freedom.

  12. A Multiscale Survival Process for Modeling Human Activity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Peng; Song, Chaoming; Zhu, Wenwu; Yang, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Human activity plays a central role in understanding large-scale social dynamics. It is well documented that individual activity pattern follows bursty dynamics characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. Here we study a large-scale online chatting dataset consisting of 5,549,570 users, finding that individual activity pattern varies with timescales whereas existing models only approximate empirical observations within a limited timescale. We propose a novel approach that models the intensity rate of an individual triggering an activity. We demonstrate that the model precisely captures corresponding human dynamics across multiple timescales over five orders of magnitudes. Our model also allows extracting the population heterogeneity of activity patterns, characterized by a set of individual-specific ingredients. Integrating our approach with social interactions leads to a wide range of implications.

  13. Pattern-based approach for logical traffic isolation forensic modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, I

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available reusability and flexibility of the LTI model. This model is viewed as a three-tier architecture, which for experimental purposes is composed of the following components: traffic generator, DiffServ network and the sink server. The Mediator pattern is used...

  14. Indole and synthetic derivative activate chaperone expression to reduce polyQ aggregation in SCA17 neuronal cell and slice culture models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung PJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pin-Jui Kung,1,* Yu-Chen Tao,1,* Ho-Chiang Hsu,1 Wan-Ling Chen,1 Te-Hsien Lin,1 Donala Janreddy,2 Ching-Fa Yao,2 Kuo-Hsuan Chang,3 Jung-Yaw Lin,1 Ming-Tsan Su,1 Chung-Hsin Wu,1 Guey-Jen Lee-Chen,1 Hsiu-Mei Hsieh-Li1 1Department of Life Science, 2Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17, the expansion of a translated CAG repeat in the TATA box binding protein (TBP gene results in a long polyglutamine (polyQ tract in the TBP protein, leading to intracellular accumulation of aggregated TBP and cell death. The molecular chaperones act in preventing protein aggregation to ameliorate downstream harmful events. In this study, we used Tet-On SH-SY5Y cells with inducible SCA17 TBP/Q79-green fluorescent protein (GFP expression to test indole and synthetic derivative NC001-8 for neuroprotection. We found that indole and NC001-8 up-regulated chaperone expression to reduce polyQ aggregation in neuronal differentiated TBP/Q79 cells. The effects on promoting neurite outgrowth and on reduction of aggregation on Purkinje cells were also confirmed with cerebellar primary and slice cultures of SCA17 transgenic mice. Our results demonstrate how indole and derivative NC001-8 reduce polyQ aggregation to support their therapeutic potentials in SCA17 treatment. Keywords: spinocerebellar ataxia type 17, TATA box binding protein, polyQ aggregation, indole and derivative, therapeutics

  15. Radiation sterilization and identification of gizzard slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, S.; Fu, C.; Jiang, W.; Yao, D.; Zhao, K.; Zhang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    An orthogonal test of 4 factors of radiation dose, storage temperature, storage time, and sanitation of cutting places was carried out to optimize the conditions for disinfection of gizzard slices. In the optimized condition, both the sanitary quality and the shelf-life of gizzard slices were improved. To identify irradiated gizzard slices, the sensory change, and the levels of water-soluble nitrogen, amino acid, total volatile basic nitrogen, peroxide value, vitamin C consumption and KMnO 4 consumption were determinated. No significant change was observed except for the color which was light brown on the surface of irradiated slices

  16. Investigation of the slice sensitivity profile for step-and-shoot mode multi-slice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh Jiang

    2001-01-01

    Multislice computed tomography (MCT) is one of the recent technology advancements in CT. Compared to single slice CT, MCT significantly improves examination time, x-ray tube efficiency, and contrast material utilization. Although the scan mode of MCT is predominately helical, step-and-shoot (axial) scans continue to be an important part of routine clinical protocols. In this paper, we present a detailed investigation on the slice sensitivity profile (SSP) of MCT in the step-and-shoot mode. Our investigation shows that, unlike single slice CT, the SSP for MCT exhibits multiple peaks and valleys resulting from intercell gaps between detector rows. To fully understand the characteristics of the SSP, we developed an analytical model to predict the behavior of MCT. We propose a simple experimental technique that can quickly and accurately measure SSP. The impact of the SSP on image artifacts and low contrast detectability is also investigated

  17. SOA Modeling Patterns for Service Oriented Discovery and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Learn the essential tools for developing a sound service-oriented architecture. SOA Modeling Patterns for Service-Oriented Discovery and Analysis introduces a universal, easy-to-use, and nimble SOA modeling language to facilitate the service identification and examination life cycle stage. This business and technological vocabulary will benefit your service development endeavors and foster organizational software asset reuse and consolidation, and reduction of expenditure. Whether you are a developer, business architect, technical architect, modeler, business analyst, team leader, or manager,

  18. Modelling Behaviour Patterns of Pedestrians for Mobile Robot Trajectory Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tamura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Robots are expected to be operated in environments where they coexist with humans, such as shopping malls and offices. Both the safety and efficiency of a robot are necessary in such environments. To achieve this, pedestrian behaviour should be accurately predicted. However, the behaviour is uncertain and cannot be easily predicted. This paper proposes a probabilistic method of determining pedestrian trajectory based on an estimation of pedestrian behaviour patterns. The proposed method focuses on the specific behaviour of pedestrians around the robot. The proposed model classifies the behaviours of pedestrians into definite patterns. The behaviour patterns, distribution of the positions of the pedestrians, and the direction of each behaviour pattern are determined by learning through observation. The behaviour pattern of a pedestrian can be estimated correctly by a likelihood calculation. A robot decides to move with an emphasis on either safety or efficiency depending on the result of the pattern estimation. If the pedestrian trajectory follows a known behaviour pattern, the robot would move with an emphasis on efficiency because the pedestrian trajectory can be predicted. Otherwise, the robot would move with an emphasis on safety because the behaviour of the pedestrian cannot be predicted. Experimental results show that robots can move efficiently and safely when passing by a pedestrian by applying the proposed method.

  19. Computational design of patterned interfaces using reduced order models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattre, A.J.; Abdolrahim, N.; Kolluri, K.; Demkowicz, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Patterning is a familiar approach for imparting novel functionalities to free surfaces. We extend the patterning paradigm to interfaces between crystalline solids. Many interfaces have non-uniform internal structures comprised of misfit dislocations, which in turn govern interface properties. We develop and validate a computational strategy for designing interfaces with controlled misfit dislocation patterns by tailoring interface crystallography and composition. Our approach relies on a novel method for predicting the internal structure of interfaces: rather than obtaining it from resource-intensive atomistic simulations, we compute it using an efficient reduced order model based on anisotropic elasticity theory. Moreover, our strategy incorporates interface synthesis as a constraint on the design process. As an illustration, we apply our approach to the design of interfaces with rapid, 1-D point defect diffusion. Patterned interfaces may be integrated into the microstructure of composite materials, markedly improving performance. (authors)

  20. Preservation of low slice emittance in bunch compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bettoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the dilution of the electron beam emittance is crucial for the performance of accelerators, in particular for free electron laser facilities, where the length of the machine and the efficiency of the lasing process depend on it. Measurements performed at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility revealed an increase in slice emittance after compressing the bunch even for moderate compression factors. The phenomenon was experimentally studied by characterizing the dependence of the effect on beam and machine parameters relevant for the bunch compression. The reproduction of these measurements in simulation required the use of a 3D beam dynamics model along the bunch compressor that includes coherent synchrotron radiation. Our investigations identified transverse effects, such as coherent synchrotron radiation and transverse space charge as the sources of the observed emittance dilution, excluding other effects, such as chromatic effects on single slices or spurious dispersion. We also present studies, both experimental and simulation based, on the effect of the optics mismatch of the slices on the variation of the slice emittance along the bunch. After a corresponding reoptimization of the beam optics in the test facility we reached slice emittances below 200 nm for the central slices along the longitudinal dimension with a moderate increase up to 300 nm in the head and tail for a compression factor of 7.5 and a bunch charge of 200 pC, equivalent to a final current of 150 A, at about 230 MeV energy.

  1. Modeling and inferring cleavage patterns in proliferating epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit B Patel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cleavage plane orientation is one of the key mechanisms driving epithelial morphogenesis. Still, many aspects of the relationship between local cleavage patterns and tissue-level properties remain poorly understood. Here we develop a topological model that simulates the dynamics of a 2D proliferating epithelium from generation to generation, enabling the exploration of a wide variety of biologically plausible cleavage patterns. We investigate a spectrum of models that incorporate the spatial impact of neighboring cells and the temporal influence of parent cells on the choice of cleavage plane. Our findings show that cleavage patterns generate "signature" equilibrium distributions of polygonal cell shapes. These signatures enable the inference of local cleavage parameters such as neighbor impact, maternal influence, and division symmetry from global observations of the distribution of cell shape. Applying these insights to the proliferating epithelia of five diverse organisms, we find that strong division symmetry and moderate neighbor/maternal influence are required to reproduce the predominance of hexagonal cells and low variability in cell shape seen empirically. Furthermore, we present two distinct cleavage pattern models, one stochastic and one deterministic, that can reproduce the empirical distribution of cell shapes. Although the proliferating epithelia of the five diverse organisms show a highly conserved cell shape distribution, there are multiple plausible cleavage patterns that can generate this distribution, and experimental evidence suggests that indeed plants and fruitflies use distinct division mechanisms.

  2. Numerical approaches to model perturbation fire in turing pattern formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, R.; Brancaccio, M.; Cuomo, S.; Mazzoleni, S.; Russo, L.; Siettos, K.; Giannino, F.

    2017-11-01

    Turing patterns were observed in chemical, physical and biological systems described by coupled reaction-diffusion equations. Several models have been formulated proposing the water as the causal mechanism of vegetation pattern formation, but this isn't an exhaustive hypothesis in some natural environments. An alternative explanation has been related to the plant-soil negative feedback. In Marasco et al. [1] the authors explored the hypothesis that both mechanisms contribute in the formation of regular and irregular vegetation patterns. The mathematical model consists in three partial differential equations (PDEs) that take into account for a dynamic balance between biomass, water and toxic compounds. A numerical approach is mandatory also to investigate on the predictions of this kind of models. In this paper we start from the mathematical model described in [1], set the model parameters such that the biomass reaches a stable spatial pattern (spots) and present preliminary studies about the occurrence of perturbing events, such as wildfire, that can affect the regularity of the biomass configuration.

  3. Large-Scale Patterns in a Minimal Cognitive Flocking Model: Incidental Leaders, Nematic Patterns, and Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Lucas; Peruani, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    We study a minimal cognitive flocking model, which assumes that the moving entities navigate using the available instantaneous visual information exclusively. The model consists of active particles, with no memory, that interact by a short-ranged, position-based, attractive force, which acts inside a vision cone (VC), and lack velocity-velocity alignment. We show that this active system can exhibit—due to the VC that breaks Newton's third law—various complex, large-scale, self-organized patterns. Depending on parameter values, we observe the emergence of aggregates or millinglike patterns, the formation of moving—locally polar—files with particles at the front of these structures acting as effective leaders, and the self-organization of particles into macroscopic nematic structures leading to long-ranged nematic order. Combining simulations and nonlinear field equations, we show that position-based active models, as the one analyzed here, represent a new class of active systems fundamentally different from other active systems, including velocity-alignment-based flocking systems. The reported results are of prime importance in the study, interpretation, and modeling of collective motion patterns in living and nonliving active systems.

  4. Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

  5. A TESSELLATION MODEL FOR CRACK PATTERNS ON SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Nagel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of random tessellations that reflect several features of crack pattern. There are already several theoretical results derivedwhich indicate that thismodel can be an appropriate referencemodel. Some potential applications are presented in a tentative statistical study.

  6. Modelling Global Pattern Formations for Collaborative Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Khaled, Rilla

    2012-01-01

    We present our research towards the design of a computational framework capable of modelling the formation and evolution of global patterns (i.e. group structures) in a population of social individuals. The framework is intended to be used in collaborative environments, e.g. social serious games...

  7. Modeling patterns in count data using loglinear and related models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the use of loglinear and logit models, for analyzing Poisson and binomial counts in the presence of explanatory variables. The explanatory variables may be unordered categorical variables or numerical variables, or both. The report shows how to construct models to fit data, and how to test whether a model is too simple or too complex. The appropriateness of the methods with small data sets is discussed. Several example analyses, using the SAS computer package, illustrate the methods

  8. Simulating discrete models of pattern formation by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Alexander K; Kree, Reiner; Yasseri, Taha

    2009-01-01

    A class of simple, (2+1)-dimensional, discrete models is reviewed, which allow us to study the evolution of surface patterns on solid substrates during ion beam sputtering (IBS). The models are based on the same assumptions about the erosion process as the existing continuum theories. Several distinct physical mechanisms of surface diffusion are added, which allow us to study the interplay of erosion-driven and diffusion-driven pattern formation. We present results from our own work on evolution scenarios of ripple patterns, especially for longer timescales, where nonlinear effects become important. Furthermore we review kinetic phase diagrams, both with and without sample rotation, which depict the systematic dependence of surface patterns on the shape of energy depositing collision cascades after ion impact. Finally, we discuss some results from more recent work on surface diffusion with Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers as the driving force for pattern formation during IBS and on Monte Carlo simulations of IBS with codeposition of surfactant atoms.

  9. Measurement of slice sensitivity profile for a 64-slice spiral CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuanya; Qin Weichang; Wang Wei; Lu Chuanyou

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure and evaluate slice sensitivity profile (SSP) and the full width at half-maximum(FWHM) for a 64-slice spiral CT system. Methods: Using the same CT technique and body mode as those used for clinical CT, delta phantom was scanned with Somatom Sensation 64-slice spiral CT. SSPs and FWHM were measured both with reconstruction slice width of 0.6 mm at pitch=0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and with reconstruction slice width of 0.6, 1.0, 1.5 mm at pitch=1 respectively. Results: For normal slice width of 0. 6 mm, the measured FWHM, i.e. effective slice width, is 0.67, 0.67, 0.66, 0.69, 0.69 mm at different pitch. All the measured FWHM deviate less than 0.1 mm from the nominal slice width. The measured SSPs are symmetrical, bell-shaped curves without far-reaching tails, and show only slight variations as a function of the spiral pitch. When reconstruction slice width increase, relative SSP become wider. Conclusions: The variation of pitch hardly has effect all on SSP, effective slice width, and z-direction spatial resolution for Sensation 64-slice spiral CT system, which is helpful to optimize CT scanning protocol. (authors)

  10. Turing and Non-Turing patterns in diffusive plankton model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Thakur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate a Rosenzweig-McAurthur model and its variant for phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish population dynamics with Holling type II and III functional responses. We present the theoretical analysis of processes of pattern formation that involves organism distribution and their interaction of spatially distributed population with local diffusion. The choice of parameter values is important to study the effect of diffusion, also it depends more on the nonlinearity of the system. With the help of numerical simulations, we observe the formation of spatiotemporal patterns both inside and outside the Turing space.

  11. The physiology of rodent beta-cells in pancreas slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnik, M

    2009-01-01

    Beta-cells in pancreatic islets form complex syncytia. Sufficient cell-to-cell electrical coupling seems to ensure coordinated depolarization pattern and insulin release that can be further modulated by rich innervation. The complex structure and coordinated action develop after birth during fast proliferation of the endocrine tissue. These emergent properties can be lost due to various reasons later in life and can lead to glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus. Pancreas slice is a novel method of choice to study the physiology of beta-cells still embedded in their normal cellulo-social context. I present major advantages, list drawbacks and provide an overview on recent advances in our understanding of the physiology of beta-cells using the pancreas slice approach.

  12. A testbed to explore the optimal electrical stimulation parameters for suppressing inter-ictal spikes in human hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min-Chi Hsiao; Pen-Ning Yu; Dong Song; Liu, Charles Y; Heck, Christi N; Millett, David; Berger, Theodore W

    2014-01-01

    New interventions using neuromodulatory devices such as vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation and responsive neurostimulation are available or under study for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Since the actual mechanisms of the onset and termination of the seizure are still unclear, most researchers or clinicians determine the optimal stimulation parameters through trial-and-error procedures. It is necessary to further explore what types of electrical stimulation parameters (these may include stimulation frequency, amplitude, duration, interval pattern, and location) constitute a set of optimal stimulation paradigms to suppress seizures. In a previous study, we developed an in vitro epilepsy model using hippocampal slices from patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Using a planar multi-electrode array system, inter-ictal activity from human hippocampal slices was consistently recorded. In this study, we have further transferred this in vitro seizure model to a testbed for exploring the possible neurostimulation paradigms to inhibit inter-ictal spikes. The methodology used to collect the electrophysiological data, the approach to apply different electrical stimulation parameters to the slices are provided in this paper. The results show that this experimental testbed will provide a platform for testing the optimal stimulation parameters of seizure cessation. We expect this testbed will expedite the process for identifying the most effective parameters, and may ultimately be used to guide programming of new stimulating paradigms for neuromodulatory devices.

  13. Modelling survival: exposure pattern, species sensitivity and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight; Cedergreen, Nina; Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Focks, Andreas; Gabsi, Faten; Gergs, André; Goussen, Benoit; Jager, Tjalling; Kramer, Nynke I; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Poulsen, Veronique; Reichenberger, Stefan; Schäfer, Ralf B; Van den Brink, Paul J; Veltman, Karin; Vogel, Sören; Zimmer, Elke I; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-07-06

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates to build species sensitivity distributions for different exposure patterns. We find that GUTS adequately predicts survival across exposure patterns that vary over time. When toxicity is assessed for time-variable concentrations species may differ in their responses depending on the exposure profile. This can result in different species sensitivity rankings and safe levels. The interplay of exposure pattern and species sensitivity deserves systematic investigation in order to better understand how organisms respond to stress, including humans.

  14. Modeling patterns in data using linear and related models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    This report considers the use of linear models for analyzing data related to reliability and safety issues of the type usually associated with nuclear power plants. The report discusses some of the general results of linear regression analysis, such as the model assumptions and properties of the estimators of the parameters. The results are motivated with examples of operational data. Results about the important case of a linear regression model with one covariate are covered in detail. This case includes analysis of time trends. The analysis is applied with two different sets of time trend data. Diagnostic procedures and tests for the adequacy of the model are discussed. Some related methods such as weighted regression and nonlinear models are also considered. A discussion of the general linear model is also included. Appendix A gives some basic SAS programs and outputs for some of the analyses discussed in the body of the report. Appendix B is a review of some of the matrix theoretic results which are useful in the development of linear models

  15. Type-2 fuzzy graphical models for pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jia

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses how to combine type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models to solve a range of real-world pattern recognition problems such as speech recognition, handwritten Chinese character recognition, topic modeling as well as human action recognition. It covers these recent developments while also providing a comprehensive introduction to the fields of type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models. Though primarily intended for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in fuzzy logic and pattern recognition, the book can also serve as a valuable reference work for researchers without any previous knowledge of these fields. Dr. Jia Zeng is a Professor at the School of Computer Science and Technology, Soochow University, China. Dr. Zhi-Qiang Liu is a Professor at the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong, China.

  16. Onset patterns in a simple model of localized parametric forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J; Tinao, I; Laverón-Simavilla, A; Rodríguez, J

    2013-10-01

    We investigate pattern selection at onset in a parametrically and inhomogeneously forced partial differential equation obtained by generalizing Mathieu's equation to include spatial interactions. No separation of scales is assumed. The proposed model is directly relevant to the case of parametrically forced surface waves, such as cross-waves, excited by the horizontal vibration of a fluid, where the forcing is localized to a finite region near the endwall or wavemaker. The availability of analytical solutions in the limit of piecewise constant forcing allows us investigate in detail the dependence of selected eigenfunctions on spatial detuning, forcing width, damping, boundary conditions, and container size. A wide range of onset patterns are located and described, many of which are rotated, modulated, or both, and deviate far from simple crosswise oriented standing waves. The linear selection mechanisms governing this multiplicity of potential onset patterns are discussed.

  17. Slice image pretreatment for cone-beam computed tomography based on adaptive filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kuidong; Zhang Dinghua; Jin Yanfang

    2009-01-01

    According to the noise properties and the serial slice image characteristics in Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) system, a slice image pretreatment for CBCT based on adaptive filter was proposed. The judging criterion for the noise is established firstly. All pixels are classified into two classes: adaptive center weighted modified trimmed mean (ACWMTM) filter is used for the pixels corrupted by Gauss noise and adaptive median (AM) filter is used for the pixels corrupted by impulse noise. In ACWMTM filtering algorithm, the estimated Gauss noise standard deviation in the current slice image with offset window is replaced by the estimated standard deviation in the adjacent slice image to the current with the corresponding window, so the filtering accuracy of the serial images is improved. The pretreatment experiment on CBCT slice images of wax model of hollow turbine blade shows that the method makes a good performance both on eliminating noises and on protecting details. (authors)

  18. Sugar uptake and starch biosynthesis by slices of developing maize endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Liu, Kangchien; Shannon, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    14 C-Sugar uptake and incorporation into starch by slices of developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm were examined and compared with sugar uptake by maize endosperm-derived suspension cultures. Rates of sucrose, fructose, and D- and L-glucose uptake by slices were similar, whereas uptake rates for these sugars differed greatly in suspension cultures. Concentration dependence of sucrose, fructose, and D-glucose uptake was biphasic (consisting of linear plus saturable components) with suspension cultures but linear with slices. These and other differences suggest that endosperm slices are freely permeable to sugars. After diffusion into the slices, sugars were metabolized and incorporated into starch. Starch synthesis, but not sugar accumulation, was greatly reduced by 2.5 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid and 0.1 millimolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Starch synthesis was dependent on kernel age and incubation temperature, but not on external pH (5 through 8). Competing sugars generally did not affect the distribution of 14 C among the soluble sugars extracted from endosperm slices incubated in 14 C-sugars. Competing hexoses reduced the incorporation of 14 C into starch, but competing sucrose did not, suggesting that sucrose is not a necessary intermediate in starch biosynthesis. The bidirectional permeability of endosperm slices to sugars makes the characterization of sugar transport into endosperm slices impossible, however the model system is useful for experiments dealing with starch biosynthesis which occurs in the metabolically active tissue

  19. Simple models for studying complex spatiotemporal patterns of animal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyutyunov, Yuri V.; Titova, Lyudmila I.

    2017-06-01

    Minimal mathematical models able to explain complex patterns of animal behavior are essential parts of simulation systems describing large-scale spatiotemporal dynamics of trophic communities, particularly those with wide-ranging species, such as occur in pelagic environments. We present results obtained with three different modelling approaches: (i) an individual-based model of animal spatial behavior; (ii) a continuous taxis-diffusion-reaction system of partial-difference equations; (iii) a 'hybrid' approach combining the individual-based algorithm of organism movements with explicit description of decay and diffusion of the movement stimuli. Though the models are based on extremely simple rules, they all allow description of spatial movements of animals in a predator-prey system within a closed habitat, reproducing some typical patterns of the pursuit-evasion behavior observed in natural populations. In all three models, at each spatial position the animal movements are determined by local conditions only, so the pattern of collective behavior emerges due to self-organization. The movement velocities of animals are proportional to the density gradients of specific cues emitted by individuals of the antagonistic species (pheromones, exometabolites or mechanical waves of the media, e.g., sound). These cues play a role of taxis stimuli: prey attract predators, while predators repel prey. Depending on the nature and the properties of the movement stimulus we propose using either a simplified individual-based model, a continuous taxis pursuit-evasion system, or a little more detailed 'hybrid' approach that combines simulation of the individual movements with the continuous model describing diffusion and decay of the stimuli in an explicit way. These can be used to improve movement models for many species, including large marine predators.

  20. The impact of different cone beam computed tomography and multi-slice computed tomography scan parameters on virtual three-dimensional model accuracy using a highly precise ex vivo evaluation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Ragai-Edward; von Wilmowsky, Cornelius; Neuhuber, Winfried; Lell, Michael; Neukam, Friedrich W; Adler, Werner; Wichmann, Manfred; Bergauer, Bastian

    2016-05-01

    Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are indispensable imaging techniques in advanced medicine. The possibility of creating virtual and corporal three-dimensional (3D) models enables detailed planning in craniofacial and oral surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different scan protocols for CBCT and MSCT on virtual 3D model accuracy using a software-based evaluation method that excludes human measurement errors. MSCT and CBCT scans with different manufacturers' predefined scan protocols were obtained from a human lower jaw and were superimposed with a master model generated by an optical scan of an industrial noncontact scanner. To determine the accuracy, the mean and standard deviations were calculated, and t-tests were used for comparisons between the different settings. Averaged over 10 repeated X-ray scans per method and 19 measurement points per scan (n = 190), it was found that the MSCT scan protocol 140 kV delivered the most accurate virtual 3D model, with a mean deviation of 0.106 mm compared to the master model. Only the CBCT scans with 0.2-voxel resolution delivered a similar accurate 3D model (mean deviation 0.119 mm). Within the limitations of this study, it was demonstrated that the accuracy of a 3D model of the lower jaw depends on the protocol used for MSCT and CBCT scans. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tilted dipole model for bias-dependent photoluminescence pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujieda, Ichiro, E-mail: fujieda@se.ritsumei.ac.jp; Suzuki, Daisuke; Masuda, Taishi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu 525-8577 (Japan)

    2014-12-14

    In a guest-host system containing elongated dyes and a nematic liquid crystal, both molecules are aligned to each other. An external bias tilts these molecules and the radiation pattern of the system is altered. A model is proposed to describe this bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns. It divides the liquid crystal/dye layer into sub-layers that contain electric dipoles with specific tilt angles. Each sub-layer emits linearly polarized light. Its radiation pattern is toroidal and is determined by the tilt angle. Its intensity is assumed to be proportional to the power of excitation light absorbed by the sub-layer. This is calculated by the Lambert-Beer's Law. The absorption coefficient is assumed to be proportional to the cross-section of the tilted dipole moment, in analogy to the ellipsoid of refractive index, to evaluate the cross-section for each polarized component of the excitation light. Contributions from all the sub-layers are added to give a final expression for the radiation pattern. Self-absorption is neglected. The model is simplified by reducing the number of sub-layers. Analytical expressions are derived for a simple case that consists of a single layer with tilted dipoles sandwiched by two layers with horizontally-aligned dipoles. All the parameters except for the tilt angle can be determined by measuring transmittance of the excitation light. The model roughly reproduces the bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns of a cell containing 0.5 wt. % coumarin 6. It breaks down at large emission angles. Measured spectral changes suggest that the discrepancy is due to self-absorption and re-emission.

  2. Patterns of glycogen turnover in liver characterized by computer modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, J.H.; Bergman, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a computer model of liver glycogen turnover to reexamine the data of Devos and Hers, who reported the time course of accumulation in and loss from glycogen of label originating in [1- 14 C]galactose injected at different times after the start of refeeding of 40-h fasted mice or rats. In the present study computer representation of individual glycogen molecules was utilized to account for growth and degradation of glycogen according to specific hypothetical patterns. Using this model they could predict the accumulation and localization within glycogen of labeled glucose residues and compare the predictions with the previously published data. They considered three specific hypotheses of glycogen accumulation during refeeding: (1) simultaneous, (2) sequential, and (3) accelerating growth. Hypothetical patterns of glycogen degradation were (1) ordered and (2) random degradation. The pattern of glycogen synthesis consistent with experimental data was a steadily increasing number of growing glycogen molecules, whereas during degradation glycogen molecules are exposed to degrading enzymes randomly, rather than in a specific reverse order of synthesis. These patterns predict the existence of a specific mechanism for the steadily increasing seeding of new glycogen molecules during synthesis

  3. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  4. Influence of model boundary conditions on blood flow patterns in a patient specific stenotic right coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Biyue; Zheng, Jie; Bach, Richard; Tang, Dalin

    2015-01-01

    In literature, the effect of the inflow boundary condition was investigated by examining the impact of the waveform and the shape of the spatial profile of the inlet velocity on the cardiac hemodynamics. However, not much work has been reported on comparing the effect of the different combinations of the inlet/outlet boundary conditions on the quantification of the pressure field and flow distribution patterns in stenotic right coronary arteries. Non-Newtonian models were used to simulate blood flow in a patient-specific stenotic right coronary artery and investigate the influence of different boundary conditions on the phasic variation and the spatial distribution patterns of blood flow. The 3D geometry of a diseased artery segment was reconstructed from a series of IVUS slices. Five different combinations of the inlet and the outlet boundary conditions were tested and compared. The temporal distribution patterns and the magnitudes of the velocity, the wall shear stress (WSS), the pressure, the pressure drop (PD), and the spatial gradient of wall pressure (WPG) were different when boundary conditions were imposed using different pressure/velocity combinations at inlet/outlet. The maximum velocity magnitude in a cardiac cycle at the center of the inlet from models with imposed inlet pressure conditions was about 29% lower than that from models using fully developed inlet velocity data. Due to the fact that models with imposed pressure conditions led to blunt velocity profile, the maximum wall shear stress at inlet in a cardiac cycle from models with imposed inlet pressure conditions was about 29% higher than that from models with imposed inlet velocity boundary conditions. When the inlet boundary was imposed by a velocity waveform, the models with different outlet boundary conditions resulted in different temporal distribution patterns and magnitudes of the phasic variation of pressure. On the other hand, the type of different boundary conditions imposed at the

  5. Morphogenesis and pattern formation in biological systems experiments and models

    CERN Document Server

    Noji, Sumihare; Ueno, Naoto; Maini, Philip

    2003-01-01

    A central goal of current biology is to decode the mechanisms that underlie the processes of morphogenesis and pattern formation. Concerned with the analysis of those phenomena, this book covers a broad range of research fields, including developmental biology, molecular biology, plant morphogenesis, ecology, epidemiology, medicine, paleontology, evolutionary biology, mathematical biology, and computational biology. In Morphogenesis and Pattern Formation in Biological Systems: Experiments and Models, experimental and theoretical aspects of biology are integrated for the construction and investigation of models of complex processes. This collection of articles on the latest advances by leading researchers not only brings together work from a wide spectrum of disciplines, but also provides a stepping-stone to the creation of new areas of discovery.

  6. Exchange bias of patterned systems: Model and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Griselda; Kiwi, Miguel; Mejia-Lopez, Jose; Ramirez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of the exchange bias field of patterned systems exhibits a notable increase in relation to the usual bilayer systems, where a continuous ferromagnetic film is deposited on an antiferromagnet insulator. Here we develop a model, and implement a Monte Carlo calculation, to interpret the experimental observations which is consistent with experimental results, on the basis of assuming a small fraction of spins pinned ferromagnetically in the antiferromagnetic interface layer.

  7. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.facchinetti@hslu.ch; Sulzer, Sabine [Lucerne Competence Center for Energy Research, Lucerne University of Applied Science and Arts, Horw (Switzerland)

    2016-03-03

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  8. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Sulzer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  9. A hidden Markov model approach to neuron firing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Saunier, F; Chouvet, G; Thalabard, J C; Thomas, G

    1996-11-01

    Analysis and characterization of neuronal discharge patterns are of interest to neurophysiologists and neuropharmacologists. In this paper we present a hidden Markov model approach to modeling single neuron electrical activity. Basically the model assumes that each interspike interval corresponds to one of several possible states of the neuron. Fitting the model to experimental series of interspike intervals by maximum likelihood allows estimation of the number of possible underlying neuron states, the probability density functions of interspike intervals corresponding to each state, and the transition probabilities between states. We present an application to the analysis of recordings of a locus coeruleus neuron under three pharmacological conditions. The model distinguishes two states during halothane anesthesia and during recovery from halothane anesthesia, and four states after administration of clonidine. The transition probabilities yield additional insights into the mechanisms of neuron firing.

  10. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  12. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-01-01

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future

  13. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyoun [Department of radiation oncology, Inha University, 7-206, 3-ga, Shinheumg-dong, Jung-gu, Incheon, 400-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Choonsik [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Chung, Min Suk [Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5 Wonchon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chkim@hanyang.ac.kr

    2008-08-07

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

  14. Specimen-specific modeling of hip fracture pattern and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azhar A; Cristofolini, Luca; Schileo, Enrico; Hu, Haixiang; Taddei, Fulvia; Kim, Raymond H; Rullkoetter, Paul J; Laz, Peter J

    2014-01-22

    Hip fracture remains a major health problem for the elderly. Clinical studies have assessed fracture risk based on bone quality in the aging population and cadaveric testing has quantified bone strength and fracture loads. Prior modeling has primarily focused on quantifying the strain distribution in bone as an indicator of fracture risk. Recent advances in the extended finite element method (XFEM) enable prediction of the initiation and propagation of cracks without requiring a priori knowledge of the crack path. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to predict femoral fracture in specimen-specific models using the XFEM approach, to perform one-to-one comparisons of predicted and in vitro fracture patterns, and to develop a framework to assess the mechanics and load transfer in the fractured femur when it is repaired with an osteosynthesis implant. Five specimen-specific femur models were developed from in vitro experiments under a simulated stance loading condition. Predicted fracture patterns closely matched the in vitro patterns; however, predictions of fracture load differed by approximately 50% due to sensitivity to local material properties. Specimen-specific intertrochanteric fractures were induced by subjecting the femur models to a sideways fall and repaired with a contemporary implant. Under a post-surgical stance loading, model-predicted load sharing between the implant and bone across the fracture surface varied from 59%:41% to 89%:11%, underscoring the importance of considering anatomic and fracture variability in the evaluation of implants. XFEM modeling shows potential as a macro-level analysis enabling fracture investigations of clinical cohorts, including at-risk groups, and the design of robust implants. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Using Petri nets for modeling enterprise integration patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.; Gierds, C.

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise Integration Patterns are a collection of widely used patterns for integrating enterprise applications and business processes. These patterns informally represent typical design decisions for connecting enterprise applications. For the set of patterns collected by Hohpe and Woolf in

  16. Outline and handling manual of experimental data time slice monitoring software 'SLICE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Toshio; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Tani, Keiji; Azumi, Masafumi; Hirai, Ken-ichiro; Konno, Satoshi; Takase, Keizou.

    1993-02-01

    We have developed a software 'SLICE' which maps various kinds of plasma experimental data measured at the different geometrical position of JT-60U and JFT-2M onto the equilibrium magnetic configuration and treats them as a function of volume averaged minor radius ρ. Experimental data can be handled uniformly by using 'SLICE'. Plenty of commands of 'SLICE' make it easy to process the mapped data. The experimental data measured as line integrated values are also transformed by Abel inversion. The mapped data are fitted to a functional form and saved to the database 'MAPDB'. 'SLICE' can read the data from 'MAPDB' and re-display and transform them. Still more 'SLICE' creates run data of orbit following Monte-Carlo code 'OFMC' and tokamak predictive and interpretation code system 'TOPICS'. This report summarizes an outline and the usage of 'SLICE'. (author)

  17. Spiking patterns of a hippocampus model in electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men Cong; Wang Jiang; Qin Ying-Mei; Wei Xi-Le; Deng Bin; Che Yan-Qiu

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model of CA3 neurons embedded in a resistive array to mimic the effects of electric fields from a new perspective. Effects of DC and sinusoidal electric fields on firing patterns in CA3 neurons are investigated in this study. The firing patterns can be switched from no firing pattern to burst or from burst to fast periodic firing pattern with the increase of DC electric field intensity. It is also found that the firing activities are sensitive to the frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal electric field. Different phase-locking states and chaotic firing regions are observed in the parameter space of frequency and amplitude. These findings are qualitatively in accordance with the results of relevant experimental and numerical studies. It is implied that the external or endogenous electric field can modulate the neural code in the brain. Furthermore, it is helpful to develop control strategies based on electric fields to control neural diseases such as epilepsy. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Modeling of metal nanocluster growth on patterned substrates and surface pattern formation under ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, Satoshi

    2012-11-01

    This work addresses the metal nanocluster growth process on prepatterned substrates, the development of atomistic simulation method with respect to an acceleration of the atomistic transition states, and the continuum model of the ion-beam inducing semiconductor surface pattern formation mechanism. Experimentally, highly ordered Ag nanocluster structures have been grown on pre-patterned amorphous SiO{sub 2} surfaces by oblique angle physical vapor deposition at room temperature. Despite the small undulation of the rippled surface, the stripe-like Ag nanoclusters are very pronounced, reproducible and well-separated. The first topic is the investigation of this growth process with a continuum theoretical approach to the surface gas condensation as well as an atomistic cluster growth model. The atomistic simulation model is a lattice-based kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) method using a combination of a simplified inter-atomic potential and experimental transition barriers taken from the literature. An effective transition event classification method is introduced which allows a boost factor of several thousand compared to a traditional KMC approach, thus allowing experimental time scales to be modeled. The simulation predicts a low sticking probability for the arriving atoms, millisecond order lifetimes for single Ag monomers and {approx}1 nm square surface migration ranges of Ag monomers. The simulations give excellent reproduction of the experimentally observed nanocluster growth patterns. The second topic specifies the acceleration scheme utilized in the metallic cluster growth model. Concerning the atomistic movements, a classical harmonic transition state theory is considered and applied in discrete lattice cells with hierarchical transition levels. The model results in an effective reduction of KMC simulation steps by utilizing a classification scheme of transition levels for thermally activated atomistic diffusion processes. Thermally activated atomistic movements

  19. Modeling of metal nanocluster growth on patterned substrates and surface pattern formation under ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, Satoshi

    2012-11-01

    This work addresses the metal nanocluster growth process on prepatterned substrates, the development of atomistic simulation method with respect to an acceleration of the atomistic transition states, and the continuum model of the ion-beam inducing semiconductor surface pattern formation mechanism. Experimentally, highly ordered Ag nanocluster structures have been grown on pre-patterned amorphous SiO{sub 2} surfaces by oblique angle physical vapor deposition at room temperature. Despite the small undulation of the rippled surface, the stripe-like Ag nanoclusters are very pronounced, reproducible and well-separated. The first topic is the investigation of this growth process with a continuum theoretical approach to the surface gas condensation as well as an atomistic cluster growth model. The atomistic simulation model is a lattice-based kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) method using a combination of a simplified inter-atomic potential and experimental transition barriers taken from the literature. An effective transition event classification method is introduced which allows a boost factor of several thousand compared to a traditional KMC approach, thus allowing experimental time scales to be modeled. The simulation predicts a low sticking probability for the arriving atoms, millisecond order lifetimes for single Ag monomers and {approx}1 nm square surface migration ranges of Ag monomers. The simulations give excellent reproduction of the experimentally observed nanocluster growth patterns. The second topic specifies the acceleration scheme utilized in the metallic cluster growth model. Concerning the atomistic movements, a classical harmonic transition state theory is considered and applied in discrete lattice cells with hierarchical transition levels. The model results in an effective reduction of KMC simulation steps by utilizing a classification scheme of transition levels for thermally activated atomistic diffusion processes. Thermally activated atomistic movements

  20. A comparative study of precision cut liver slices, hepatocytes, and liver microsomes from the Wistar rat using metronidazole as a model substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, U. G.; Cornett, Claus; Tjornelund, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Metronidazole is metabolized by rat liver in vitro models to form a hydroxy metabolite, an acetic acid metabolite, a glucuronic acid conjugate, and a sulphate conjugate. 2. Four different in vitro systems for investigation of drug metabolism based on liver preparations from the male Wistar rat...

  1. Study on the Construction of a High-definition Whole-body Voxel Model based on Cadaver's Color Photographic Anatomical Slice Images and Monte Carlo Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Hyoun

    2007-08-01

    Ajou University School of Medicine made the serially sectioned anatomical images from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) Project in Korea. The VKH images, which are the high-resolution color photographic images, show the organs and tissues in the human body very clearly at 0.2 mm intervals. In this study, we constructed a high-quality voxel model (VKH-Man) with a total of 30 organs and tissues by manual and automatic segmentation method using the serially sectioned anatomical image data from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) project in Korea. The height and weight of VKH-Man voxel model is 164 cm and 57.6 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.875 x 1.875 x 2 mm 3 . However, this voxel phantom can be used to calculate the organ and tissue doses of only one person. Therefore, in this study, we adjusted the voxel phantom to the 'Reference Korean' data to construct the voxel phantom that represents the radiation workers in Korea. The height and weight of the voxel model (HDRK-Man) that is finally developed are 171 cm and 68 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.981 x 1.981 x 2.0854 mm 3 . VKH-Man and HDRK-Man voxel model were implemented in a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code for calculation of the organ and tissue doses in various irradiation geometries. The calculated values were compared with each other to see the effect of the adjustment and also compared with other computational models (KTMAN-2, ICRP-74 and VIP-Man). According to the results, the adjustment of the voxel model was found hardly affect the dose calculations and most of the organ and tissue equivalent doses showed some differences among the models. These results shows that the difference in figure, and organ topology affects the organ doses more than the organ size. The calculated values of the effective dose from VKH-Man and HDRK-Man according to the ICRP-60 and upcoming ICRP recommendation were compared. For the other radiation geometries (AP, LLAT, RLAT) except for PA

  2. Modelling and predicting biogeographical patterns in river networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabela Lois

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Statistical analysis and interpretation of biogeographical phenomena in rivers is now possible using a spatially explicit modelling framework, which has seen significant developments in the past decade. I used this approach to identify a spatial extent (geostatistical range in which the abundance of the parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera L. is spatially autocorrelated in river networks. I show that biomass and abundance of host fish are a likely explanation for the autocorrelation in mussel abundance within a 15-km spatial extent. The application of universal kriging with the empirical model enabled precise prediction of mussel abundance within segments of river networks, something that has the potential to inform conservation biogeography. Although I used a variety of modelling approaches in my thesis, I focus here on the details of this relatively new spatial stream network model, thus advancing the study of biogeographical patterns in river networks.

  3. A simplified memory network model based on pattern formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kesheng; Zhang, Xiyun; Wang, Chaoqing; Liu, Zonghua

    2014-12-01

    Many experiments have evidenced the transition with different time scales from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM) in mammalian brains, while its theoretical understanding is still under debate. To understand its underlying mechanism, it has recently been shown that it is possible to have a long-period rhythmic synchronous firing in a scale-free network, provided the existence of both the high-degree hubs and the loops formed by low-degree nodes. We here present a simplified memory network model to show that the self-sustained synchronous firing can be observed even without these two necessary conditions. This simplified network consists of two loops of coupled excitable neurons with different synaptic conductance and with one node being the sensory neuron to receive an external stimulus signal. This model can be further used to show how the diversity of firing patterns can be selectively formed by varying the signal frequency, duration of the stimulus and network topology, which corresponds to the patterns of STM and LTM with different time scales. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the underlying mechanism of firing patterns.

  4. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Porto, Isabel M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FOP/UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia; Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Rieirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia; Costa, Fanny N. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10{sup -1}0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  5. Analysis of aliasing artifacts in 16-slice helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Liu Jingkang; Ou Xiaoguang; Li Wenzheng; Liao Weihua; Yan Ang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To recognize the features of aliasing artifacts on CT images, and to investigate the effects of imaging parameters on the magnitude of this artifacts. Methods: An adult dry skull was placed in a plastic water-filled container and scanned with a PHILIPS 16-slice helical CT. All the acquired transaxial images by using several different acquisition or reconstruction parameters were examined for comparative assessment of the aliasing artifacts. Results: The aliasing artifacts could be seen in most instances and characterized as the spokewise patterns emanating from the edges of high contrast structure as its radius varies sharply in the longitudinal direction. The images that scanned with pitch of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9, respectively, showed aliasing artifacts, and its severities increased with pitches escalated (detector combination 16 x 1.5, reconstruction thickness 2 mm); There were more significant aliasing artifacts on the images reconstructed with 0.8 mm slice width compared with 1-mm slice width, and no aliasing artifacts were observed on the images reconstructed with 2-mm slice width (detector combination 16 x 0.75, pitch 0.6); No artifacts were perceived on the images scanned with detector combination 16 x 0.75, while presented evidently with the use of detector combination 16 x 1.5 (pitch 0.6, reconstruction thickness 2 mm); The degrees of aliasing artifacts were unaltered when reconstruction interval and tube current changed. Conclusions: Aliasing artifacts are caused by undersampling. When the operator choose the thinner sampling thickness, lower pitch and a much wider reconstruction thickness judiciously, aliasing artifacts could be effectively mitigated or suppressed. (authors)

  6. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C.; Porto, Isabel M.; Gerlach, Raquel F.; Costa, Fanny N.

    2011-01-01

    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10 -1 0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics of unsteady viscous fluid on boundary layer past a sliced sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursalim, Rahmat; Widodo, Basuki; Imron, Chairul

    2017-10-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is important study in engineering and industrial fields. By study on MHD, we can reach the fluid flow characteristics that can be used to minimize its negative effect to an object. In decades, MHD has been widely studied in various geometry forms and fluid types. The sliced sphere is a geometry form that has not been investigated. In this paper we study magnetohydrodynamics of unsteady viscous fluid on boundary layer past a sliced sphere. Assumed that the fluid is incompressible, there is no magnetic field, there is no electrical voltage, the sliced sphere is fix and there is no barrier around the object. In this paper we focus on velocity profile at stagnation point (x = 0°). Mathematical model is governed by continuity and momentum equation. It is converted to non-dimensional, stream function, and similarity equation. Solution of the mathematical model is obtained by using Keller-Box numerical method. By giving various of slicing angle and various of magnetic parameter we get the simulation results. The simulation results show that increasing the slicing angle causes the velocity profile be steeper. Also, increasing the value of magnetic parameter causes the velocity profile be steeper. On the large slicing angle there is no significant effect of magnetic parameter to velocity profile, and on the high the value of magnetic parameter there is no significant effect of slicing angle to velocity profile.

  8. Voronoi Cell Patterns: theoretical model and application to submonolayer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-02-01

    We use a simple fragmentation model to describe the statistical behavior of the Voronoi cell patterns generated by a homogeneous and isotropic set of points in 1D and in 2D. In particular, we are interested in the distribution of sizes of these Voronoi cells. Our model is completely defined by two probability distributions in 1D and again in 2D, the probability to add a new point inside an existing cell and the probability that this new point is at a particular position relative to the preexisting point inside this cell. In 1D the first distribution depends on a single parameter while the second distribution is defined through a fragmentation kernel; in 2D both distributions depend on a single parameter. The fragmentation kernel and the control parameters are closely related to the physical properties of the specific system under study. We apply our model to describe the Voronoi cell patterns of island nucleation for critical island sizes i=0,1,2,3. Experimental results for the Voronoi cells of InAs/GaAs quantum dots are also described by our model.

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Formal Cross-Coupling of Diaryl Ethers with Amines: Slicing the 4-O-5 Linkage in Lignin Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huiying; Cao, Dawei; Qiu, Zihang; Li, Chao-Jun

    2018-03-26

    Lignin is the second most abundant organic matter on Earth, and is an underutilized renewable source for valuable aromatic chemicals. For future sustainable production of aromatic compounds, it is highly desirable to convert lignin into value-added platform chemicals instead of using fossil-based resources. Lignins are aromatic polymers linked by three types of ether bonds (α-O-4, β-O-4, and 4-O-5 linkages) and other C-C bonds. Among the ether bonds, the bond dissociation energy of the 4-O-5 linkage is the highest and the most challenging to cleave. To date, 4-O-5 ether linkage model compounds have been cleaved to obtain phenol, cyclohexane, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexanol. The first example of direct formal cross-coupling of diaryl ether 4-O-5 linkage models with amines is reported, in which dual C(Ar)-O bond cleavages form valuable nitrogen-containing derivatives. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Analog electronic model of the lobster pyloric central pattern generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkovskii, A [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Brugioni, S [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata Largo E. Fermi 6 50125 Florence (Italy); Levi, R [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Rabinovich, M [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Selverston, A [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Abarbane, H D I [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    An electronic circuit intended to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of a simplified 3-cell model of the pyloric central pattern generator in California spiny lobster stomato gastric ganglion is presented. The model employs the synaptic phase locked loop (SPLL) concept where the frequency of oscillations of a postsynaptic cell is mainly controlled by the synaptic current which depends on the phase shift between the oscillations. The theoretical study showed that the system has a stable steady state with correct phase shifts between the oscillations and that this regime is stable when the frequency of the pacemaker cell is varied over a wide range. The main bifurcations in the system were studied analytically, in computer simulations, and in experiments with the electronic circuit. The experimental measurements are in good agreement with the expectations of the theoretical model.

  11. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  12. CHF Enhancement by Surface Patterning based on Hydrodynamic Instability Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    If the power density of a device exceeds the CHF point, bubbles and vapor films will be covered on the whole heater surface. Because vapor films have much lower heat transfer capabilities compared to the liquid layer, the temperature of the heater surface will increase rapidly, and the device could be damaged due to the heater burnout. Therefore, the prediction and the enhancement of the CHF are essential to maximizing the efficient heat removal region. Numerous studies have been conducted to describe the CHF phenomenon, such as hydrodynamic instability theory, macrolayer dryout theory, hot/dry spot theory, and bubble interaction theory. The hydrodynamic instability model, proposed by Zuber, is the predominant CHF model that Helmholtz instability attributed to the CHF. Zuber assumed that the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability wavelength is related to the Helmholtz wavelength. Lienhard and Dhir proposed a CHF model that Helmholtz instability wavelength is equal to the most dangerous RT wavelength. In addition, they showed the heater size effect using various heater surfaces. Lu et al. proposed a modified hydrodynamic theory that the Helmholtz instability was assumed to be the heater size and the area of the vapor column was used as a fitting factor. The modified hydrodynamic theories were based on the change of Helmholtz wavelength related to the RT instability wavelength. In the present study, the change of the RT instability wavelength, based on the heater surface modification, was conducted to show the CHF enhancement based on the heater surface patterning in a plate pool boiling. Sapphire glass was used as a base heater substrate, and the Pt film was used as a heating source. The patterning surface was based on the change of RT instability wavelength. In the present work the study of the CHF was conducted using bare Pt and patterned heating surfaces.

  13. A Unified Approach to Diffusion Direction Sensitive Slice Registration and 3-D DTI Reconstruction From Moving Fetal Brain Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Kroenke, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    to the underlying anatomy. Previous image registration techniques have been described to estimate the between slice fetal head motion, allowing the reconstruction of 3D a diffusion estimate on a regular grid using interpolation. We propose Approach to Unified Diffusion Sensitive Slice Alignment and Reconstruction...... (AUDiSSAR) that explicitly formulates a process for diffusion direction sensitive DW-slice-to-DTI-volume alignment. This also incorporates image resolution modeling to iteratively deconvolve the effects of the imaging point spread function using the multiple views provided by thick slices acquired...

  14. Mathematics in Nature Modeling Patterns in the Natural World

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, John A

    2011-01-01

    From rainbows, river meanders, and shadows to spider webs, honeycombs, and the markings on animal coats, the visible world is full of patterns that can be described mathematically. Examining such readily observable phenomena, this book introduces readers to the beauty of nature as revealed by mathematics and the beauty of mathematics as revealed in nature.Generously illustrated, written in an informal style, and replete with examples from everyday life, Mathematics in Nature is an excellent and undaunting introduction to the ideas and methods of mathematical modeling. It illustrates how mathem

  15. Active patterning and asymmetric transport in a model actomyosin network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shenshen [Department of Chemical Engineering and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Wolynes, Peter G. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    Cytoskeletal networks, which are essentially motor-filament assemblies, play a major role in many developmental processes involving structural remodeling and shape changes. These are achieved by nonequilibrium self-organization processes that generate functional patterns and drive intracellular transport. We construct a minimal physical model that incorporates the coupling between nonlinear elastic responses of individual filaments and force-dependent motor action. By performing stochastic simulations we show that the interplay of motor processes, described as driving anti-correlated motion of the network vertices, and the network connectivity, which determines the percolation character of the structure, can indeed capture the dynamical and structural cooperativity which gives rise to diverse patterns observed experimentally. The buckling instability of individual filaments is found to play a key role in localizing collapse events due to local force imbalance. Motor-driven buckling-induced node aggregation provides a dynamic mechanism that stabilizes the two-dimensional patterns below the apparent static percolation limit. Coordinated motor action is also shown to suppress random thermal noise on large time scales, the two-dimensional configuration that the system starts with thus remaining planar during the structural development. By carrying out similar simulations on a three-dimensional anchored network, we find that the myosin-driven isotropic contraction of a well-connected actin network, when combined with mechanical anchoring that confers directionality to the collective motion, may represent a novel mechanism of intracellular transport, as revealed by chromosome translocation in the starfish oocyte.

  16. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tass, P. A.; Barnikol, U. B.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  17. Morphodynamic modeling of the river pattern continuum (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Numerical models provide valuable tools for integrating understanding of fluvial processes and morphology. Moreover, they have considerable potential for use in investigating river responses to environmental change and catchment management, and for aiding the interpretation of alluvial deposits and landforms. For this potential to be realised fully, such models must be capable of representing diverse river styles and the spatial and temporal transitions between styles that are driven by changes in environmental forcing. However, while numerical modeling of rivers has advanced considerable over the past few decades, this has been accomplished largely by developing separate approaches to modeling single and multi-thread channels. Results are presented here from numerical simulations undertaken using a new model of river and floodplain co-evolution, applied to investigate the morphodynamics of large sand-bed rivers. This model solves the two-dimensional depth-averaged shallow water equations using a Godunov-type finite volume scheme, with a two-fraction representation of sediment transport, and includes the effects of secondary circulation, bank erosion and floodplain development due to the colonization of bar surfaces by vegetation. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of representing a wide range of fluvial styles (including braiding, meandering and anabranching channels) using relatively simple physics-based models, and provide insight into the controls on channel pattern diversity in large sand-bed rivers. Analysis of model sensitivity illustrates the important role of upstream boundary conditions as a control on channel dynamics. Moreover, this analysis highlights key uncertainties in model process representation and their implications for modelling river evolution in response to natural and anthropogenic-induced river disturbance.

  18. 3D physical modeling for patterning process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Chandra; Abdo, Amr; Bailey, Todd; Conley, Will; Dunn, Derren; Marokkey, Sajan; Talbi, Mohamed

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we will demonstrate how a 3D physical patterning model can act as a forensic tool for OPC and ground-rule development. We discuss examples where the 2D modeling shows no issues in printing gate lines but 3D modeling shows severe resist loss in the middle. In absence of corrective measure, there is a high likelihood of line discontinuity post etch. Such early insight into process limitations of prospective ground rules can be invaluable for early technology development. We will also demonstrate how the root cause of broken poly-line after etch could be traced to resist necking in the region of STI step with the help of 3D models. We discuss different cases of metal and contact layouts where 3D modeling gives an early insight in to technology limitations. In addition such a 3D physical model could be used for early resist evaluation and selection for required ground-rule challenges, which can substantially reduce the cycle time for process development.

  19. Drying of carrot slices in a triple pass solar dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshachalam Kesavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An indirect triple pass forced convection solar dryer was developed and its performance was evaluated for drying of carrot slices. The drying experiments were carried out under the meteorological conditions of Coimbatore city in India during the year 2016. The experimental set-up consists of a blower, triple pass packed bed air collector (using sand with wire mesh absorber plate, and a drying chamber. The air mass flow rate was optimized to 0.062 kg/s. The initial moisture content of the carrot slices was reduced from 87.5% (on wet basis to the final moisture content of 10% (wet basis in 6 h duration. The thin layer drying characteristics were analyzed using twelve mathematical models available in open literature. The results showed that the pick-up efficiency of the dryer was varied in the range between 14 and 43% with an average air collector thermal efficiency of 44% during the experimentation. The drying characteristics of carrot slices was predicted with good degree of accuracy using Wang and Singh drying model.

  20. Pitch dependence of longitudinal sampling and aliasing effects in multi-slice helical computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Riviere, Patrick J.; Pan Xiaochuan

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we investigate longitudinal sampling and aliasing effects in multi-slice helical CT. We demonstrate that longitudinal aliasing can be a significant, complicated, and potentially detrimental effect in multi-slice helical CT reconstructions. Multi-slice helical CT scans are generally undersampled longitudinally for all pitches of clinical interest, and the resulting aliasing effects are spatially variant. As in the single-slice case, aliasing is shown to be negligible at the isocentre for circularly symmetric objects due to a fortuitous aliasing cancellation phenomenon. However, away from the isocentre, aliasing effects can be significant, spatially variant, and highly pitch dependent. This implies that measures more sophisticated than isocentre slice sensitivity profiles are needed to characterize longitudinal properties of multi-slice helical CT systems. Such measures are particularly important in assessing the question of whether there are preferred pitches in helical CT. Previous analyses have generally focused only on isocentre sampling patterns, and our more global analysis leads to somewhat different conclusions than have been reached before, suggesting that pitches 3, 4, 5, and 6 are favourable, and that half-integer pitches are somewhat suboptimal. (author)

  1. Drying characteristics of pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata) slices in convective and freeze dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Gulsah; Dirim, Safiye Nur

    2017-06-01

    This study was intended to determine the drying and rehydration kinetics of convective and freeze dried pumpkin slices (0.5 × 3.5 × 0.5 cm). A pilot scale tray drier (at 80 ± 2 °C inlet temperature, 1 m s-1 air velocity) and freeze drier (13.33 kPa absolute pressure, condenser temperature of -48 ± 2 °C) were used for the drying experiments. Drying curves were fitted to six well-known thin layer drying models. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to evaluate the parameters of the selected models by using statistical software SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., USA). For the convective and freeze drying processes of pumpkin slices, the highest R2 values, and the lowest RMSE as well as χ2 values were obtained from Page model. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of the convective and freeze dried pumpkin slices were obtained from the Fick's diffusion model, and they were found to be 2.233 × 10-7 and 3.040 × 10-9 m2s-1, respectively. Specific moisture extraction rate, moisture extraction rate, and specific energy consumption values were almost twice in freeze drying process. Depending on the results, moisture contents and water activity values of pumpkin slices were in acceptable limits for safe storage of products. The rehydration behaviour of [at 18 ± 2 and 100 ± 2 °C for 1:25, 1:50, 1:75, 1:100, and 1:125 solid:liquid ratios (w:w)] dried pumpkin slices was determined by Peleg's model with the highest R2. The highest total soluble solid loss of pumpkin slices was observed for the rehydration experiment which performed at 1:25 solid: liquid ratio (w:w). Rehydration ratio of freeze dried slices was found 2-3 times higher than convective dried slices.

  2. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures for studies of brain damage, neuroprotection and neurorepair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, Jens; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Blaabjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Slices of developing brain tissue can be grown for several weeks as so-called organotypic slice cultures. Here we summarize and review studies using hippocampal slice cultures to investigate mechanisms and treatment strategies for the neurodegenerative disorders like stroke (cerebral ischemia......), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and epilepsia. Studies of non-excitotoxic neurotoxic compounds and the experimental use of slice cultures in studies of HIV neurotoxicity, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and neurogenesis are included. For cerebral ischemia, experimental models with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD......) and exposure to glutamate receptor agonists (excitotoxins) are reviewed. For epilepsia, focus is on induction of seizures with effects on neuronal loss, axonal sprouting and neurogenesis. For Alzheimer's disease, the review centers on the use of beta-amyloid (Abeta) in different models, while the section...

  3. Aggregation patterns from nonlocal interactions: Discrete stochastic and continuum modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Hackett-Jones, Emily J.

    2012-04-17

    Conservation equations governed by a nonlocal interaction potential generate aggregates from an initial uniform distribution of particles. We address the evolution and formation of these aggregating steady states when the interaction potential has both attractive and repulsive singularities. Currently, no existence theory for such potentials is available. We develop and compare two complementary solution methods, a continuous pseudoinverse method and a discrete stochastic lattice approach, and formally show a connection between the two. Interesting aggregation patterns involving multiple peaks for a simple doubly singular attractive-repulsive potential are determined. For a swarming Morse potential, characteristic slow-fast dynamics in the scaled inverse energy is observed in the evolution to steady state in both the continuous and discrete approaches. The discrete approach is found to be remarkably robust to modifications in movement rules, related to the potential function. The comparable evolution dynamics and steady states of the discrete model with the continuum model suggest that the discrete stochastic approach is a promising way of probing aggregation patterns arising from two- and three-dimensional nonlocal interaction conservation equations. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  4. A simple model for research interest evolution patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tao; Wang, Dashun; Szymanski, Boleslaw

    Sir Isaac Newton supposedly remarked that in his scientific career he was like ``...a boy playing on the sea-shore ...finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary''. His remarkable modesty and famous understatement motivate us to seek regularities in how scientists shift their research focus as the career develops. Indeed, despite intensive investigations on how microscopic factors, such as incentives and risks, would influence a scientist's choice of research agenda, little is known on the macroscopic patterns in the research interest change undertaken by individual scientists throughout their careers. Here we make use of over 14,000 authors' publication records in physics. By quantifying statistical characteristics in the interest evolution, we model scientific research as a random walk, which reproduces patterns in individuals' careers observed empirically. Despite myriad of factors that shape and influence individual choices of research subjects, we identified regularities in this dynamical process that are well captured by a simple statistical model. The results advance our understanding of scientists' behaviors during their careers and open up avenues for future studies in the science of science.

  5. Interactive Slice of the CMS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Davis, Siona Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This slice shows a colorful cross-section of the CMS detector with all parts of the detector labelled. Viewers are invited to click on buttons associated with five types of particles to see what happens when each type interacts with the sections of the detector. The five types of particles users can select to send through the slice are muons, electrons, neutral hadrons, charged hadrons and photons. Supplementary information on each type of particles is given. Useful for inclusion into general talks on CMS etc. *Animated CMS "slice" for Powerpoint (Mac & PC) Original version - 2004 Updated version - July 2010 *Six slides required - first is a set of buttons; others are for each particle type (muon, electron, charged/neutral hadron, photon) Recommend putting slide 1 anywhere in your presentation and the rest at the end

  6. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasillo, N.J.; Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Kapp, O.H.; Sosnowski, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  7. Introduction to bit slices and microprogramming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, A.

    1981-01-01

    Bit-slice logic blocks are fourth-generation LSI components which are natural extensions of traditional mulitplexers, registers, decoders, counters, ALUs, etc. Their functionality is controlled by microprogramming, typically to implement CPUs and peripheral controllers where both speed and easy programmability are required for flexibility, ease of implementation and debugging, etc. Processors built from bit-slice logic give the designer an alternative for approaching the programmibility of traditional fixed-instruction-set microprocessors with a speed closer to that of hardwired random logic. (orig.)

  8. Slice through an LHC bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Slice through an LHC superconducting dipole (bending) magnet. The slice includes a cut through the magnet wiring (niobium titanium), the beampipe and the steel magnet yokes. Particle beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have the same energy as a high-speed train, squeezed ready for collision into a space narrower than a human hair. Huge forces are needed to control them. Dipole magnets (2 poles) are used to bend the paths of the protons around the 27 km ring. Quadrupole magnets (4 poles) focus the proton beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams’ paths cross. There are 1232 15m long dipole magnets in the LHC.

  9. Drought Patterns Forecasting using an Auto-Regressive Logistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Jesus, M.; Sheffield, J.; Méndez Incera, F. J.; Losada, I. J.; Espejo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is characterized by a water deficit that may manifest across a large range of spatial and temporal scales. Drought may create important socio-economic consequences, many times of catastrophic dimensions. A quantifiable definition of drought is elusive because depending on its impacts, consequences and generation mechanism, different water deficit periods may be identified as a drought by virtue of some definitions but not by others. Droughts are linked to the water cycle and, although a climate change signal may not have emerged yet, they are also intimately linked to climate.In this work we develop an auto-regressive logistic model for drought prediction at different temporal scales that makes use of a spatially explicit framework. Our model allows to include covariates, continuous or categorical, to improve the performance of the auto-regressive component.Our approach makes use of dimensionality reduction (principal component analysis) and classification techniques (K-Means and maximum dissimilarity) to simplify the representation of complex climatic patterns, such as sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP), while including information on their spatial structure, i.e. considering their spatial patterns. This procedure allows us to include in the analysis multivariate representation of complex climatic phenomena, as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. We also explore the impact of other climate-related variables such as sun spots. The model allows to quantify the uncertainty of the forecasts and can be easily adapted to make predictions under future climatic scenarios. The framework herein presented may be extended to other applications such as flash flood analysis, or risk assessment of natural hazards.

  10. Ripple artifact reduction using slice overlap in slice encoding for metal artifact correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Harder, J Chiel; van Yperen, Gert H; Blume, Ulrike A; Bos, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) significantly reduces metal artifacts. Yet, especially in techniques that use gradient selection, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC), a residual ripple artifact may be prominent. Here, an analysis is presented of the ripple artifact and of slice overlap as an approach to reduce the artifact. The ripple artifact was analyzed theoretically to clarify its cause. Slice overlap, conceptually similar to spectral bin overlap in multi-acquisition with variable resonances image combination (MAVRIC), was achieved by reducing the selection gradient and, thus, increasing the slice profile width. Time domain simulations and phantom experiments were performed to validate the analyses and proposed solution. Discontinuities between slices are aggravated by signal displacement in the frequency encoding direction in areas with deviating B0. Specifically, it was demonstrated that ripple artifacts appear only where B0 varies both in-plane and through-plane. Simulations and phantom studies of metal implants confirmed the efficacy of slice overlap to reduce the artifact. The ripple artifact is an important limitation of gradient selection based MSI techniques, and can be understood using the presented simulations. At a scan-time penalty, slice overlap effectively addressed the artifact, thereby improving image quality near metal implants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sleep patterning changes in a prenatal stress model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Skoven, C; Bastlund, Jesper F

    2018-01-01

    /wakefulness behavior around the change from light-to-dark phase. Control and PNS Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electrodes for continuous monitoring of electroencephalic activity used to determine behavioral state. The distribution of slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and wakefulness......Clinical depression is accompanied by changes in sleep patterning, which is controlled in a circadian fashion. It is thus desirable that animal models of depression mirror such diurnally-specific state alterations, along with other behavioral and physiological changes. We previously found several...... changes in behavior indicative of a depression-like phenotype in offspring of rats subjected to repeated, variable prenatal stress (PNS), including increased locomotor activity during specific periods of the circadian cycle. We, therefore, investigated whether PNS rats also exhibit alterations in sleep...

  12. Modelling human mobility patterns using photographic data shared online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiesi, Daniele; Preis, Tobias; Bishop, Steven; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2015-08-01

    Humans are inherently mobile creatures. The way we move around our environment has consequences for a wide range of problems, including the design of efficient transportation systems and the planning of urban areas. Here, we gather data about the position in space and time of about 16 000 individuals who uploaded geo-tagged images from locations within the UK to the Flickr photo-sharing website. Inspired by the theory of Lévy flights, which has previously been used to describe the statistical properties of human mobility, we design a machine learning algorithm to infer the probability of finding people in geographical locations and the probability of movement between pairs of locations. Our findings are in general agreement with official figures in the UK and on travel flows between pairs of major cities, suggesting that online data sources may be used to quantify and model large-scale human mobility patterns.

  13. Effects of Temperature and Slice Thickness on Drying Kinetics of Pumpkin Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Kongdej LIMPAIBOON

    2011-01-01

    Dried pumpkin slice is an alternative crisp food product. In this study, the effects of temperature and slice thickness on the drying characteristics of pumpkin were studied in a lab-scale tray dryer, using hot air temperatures of 55, 60 and 65 °C and 2, 3 and 4 mm slice thickness at a constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The initial moisture content of the pumpkin samples was 900.5 % (wb). The drying process was carried out until the final moisture content of product was 100.5 % (wb). The resul...

  14. Thin-Slice Perception Develops Slowly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Body language and facial gesture provide sufficient visual information to support high-level social inferences from "thin slices" of behavior. Given short movies of nonverbal behavior, adults make reliable judgments in a large number of tasks. Here we find that the high precision of adults' nonverbal social perception depends on the slow…

  15. Adaptive slices for acquisition of anisotropic BRDF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Radomír; Filip, Jiří

    (2018) ISSN 2096-0433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-18407S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : anisotropic BRDF * slice * sampling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/RO/vavra-0486116.pdf

  16. Detecting Psychopathy from Thin Slices of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that features of psychopathy can be reliably and validly detected by lay raters from "thin slices" (i.e., small samples) of behavior. Brief excerpts (5 s, 10 s, and 20 s) from interviews with 96 maximum-security inmates were presented in video or audio form or in both modalities combined. Forty raters used…

  17. Contextual snowflake modelling for pattern warehouse logical design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    being managed by the pattern warehouse management system (PWMS) ... The authors pointed out that the necessity to find out the relationship between patterns .... (i) Some customer queries can only be satisfied by specific DM technique.

  18. A Slice of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schmickle

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project for second-grade students based on American Regionalist Grant Wood's most famous painting, "American Gothic," which was modeled by his sister, Nan, and his dentist. This well-loved painting depicting a hard-working farmer and his daughter standing in front of their farmhouse is the project's…

  19. Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose–response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, C; Thor, M; Apte, A; Deasy, J O; Liu, M; Moissenko, V; Petersen, S E; Høyer, M

    2014-01-01

    When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose–response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to either 74 Gy (N = 159) or 78 Gy (N = 159) at 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ≥2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3 mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman–Kutcher–Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (≤18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (≤0.8 and ≤4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ≤1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose–response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice

  20. Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose-response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, C.; Thor, M.; Liu, M.; Moissenko, V.; Petersen, S. E.; Høyer, M.; Apte, A.; Deasy, J. O.

    2014-07-01

    When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose-response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to either 74 Gy (N = 159) or 78 Gy (N = 159) at 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ≥2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3 mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (≤18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (≤0.8 and ≤4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ≤1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose-response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice thickness

  1. Trimethyltin (TMT) neurotoxicity in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Gramsbergen, J B; Fonnum, F

    1998-01-01

    ) propidium iodide (PI) uptake, (b) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux into the culture medium, (c) cellular cobalt uptake as an index of calcium influx, (d) ordinary Nissl cell staining, and (e) immunohistochemical staining for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2). Cellular degeneration as assessed...... to in vivo cell stain observations of rats acutely exposed to TMT. The mean PI uptake of the cultures and the LDH efflux into the medium were highly correlated. The combined results obtained by the different markers indicate that the hippocampal slice culture method is a feasible model for further studies...

  2. Development of a bread slicing machine from locally sourced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the development of a bread slicing machine which is a mechanical device that is used for slicing bread instead of the crude cumbersome and unhygienic method of manual slicing of bread. In an attempt to facilitate the final processing of bread which is a common daily food requirement of most Nigerians ...

  3. Slice through an LHC focusing magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Slice through an LHC superconducting quadrupole (focusing) magnet. The slice includes a cut through the magnet wiring (niobium titanium), the beampipe and the steel magnet yokes. Particle beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have the same energy as a high-speed train, squeezed ready for collision into a space narrower than a human hair. Huge forces are needed to control them. Dipole magnets (2 poles) are used to bend the paths of the protons around the 27 km ring. Quadrupole magnets (4 poles) focus the proton beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams’ paths cross. Bringing beams into collision requires a precision comparable to making two knitting needles collide, launched from either side of the Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Velocity slice imaging for dissociative electron attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Dhananjay; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Krishnakumar, E.; Chatterjee, A.

    2005-05-01

    A velocity slice imaging method is developed for measuring the angular distribution of fragment negative ions arising from dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to molecules. A low energy pulsed electron gun, a pulsed field ion extraction, and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector consisting of microchannel plates and a wedge-and-strip anode are used for this purpose. Detection and storage of each ion separately for its position and flight time allows analysis of the data offline for any given time slice, without resorting to pulsing the detector bias. The performance of the system is evaluated by measuring the angular distribution of O- from O2 and comparing it with existing data obtained using conventional technique. The capability of this technique in obtaining forward and backward angular distribution data is shown to have helped in resolving one of the existing problems in the electron scattering on O2.

  5. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent...

  6. A Novel Slicing Method for Thin Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Fu, Xuemei; Xie, Songlin; Jiang, Yishu; Guan, Guozhen; Wang, Bingjie; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-08-01

    Thin and flexible supercapacitors with low cost and individual variation are fabricated by a new and efficient slicing method. Tunable output voltage and energy can be realized with a high specific capacitance of 248.8 F g(-1) or 150.8 F cm(-3) , which is well maintained before and after bending. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  8. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko; Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G.; Zorec, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  9. Pattern formation through spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Primavera, Leonardo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    The Daisyworld model is based on a hypothetical planet, like the Earth, which receives the radiant energy coming from a Sun-like star, and populated by two kinds of identical plants differing by their colour: white daisies reflecting light and black daisies absorbing light. The interactions and feedbacks between the collective biota of the planet and the incoming radiation form a self-regulating system where the conditions for life are maintained. We investigate a modified version of the Daisyworld model where a spatial dependency on latitude is introduced, and both a variable heat diffusivity along latitude and a simple greenhouse model are included. We show that the spatial interactions between the variables of the system can generate some equilibrium patterns which can locally stabilize the coexistence of the two vegetation types. The feedback on albedo is able to generate new equilibrium solutions which can efficiently self-regulate the planet climate, even for values of the solar luminosity relatively far from the current Earth conditions. The extension to spatial Daisyworld gives room to the possibility of inhomogeneous solar forcing in a curved planet, with explicit differences between poles and equator and the direct use of the heat diffusion equation. As a first approach, to describe a spherical planet, we consider the temperature T(θ,t) and the surface coverage as depending only on time and on latitude θ (-90° ≤ θ ≤ 90°). A second step is the introduction of the greenhouse effect in the model, the process by which outgoing infrared radiation is partly screened by greenhouse gases. This effect can be described by relaxing the black-body radiation hypothesis and by introducing a grayness function g(T) in the heat equation. As a third step, we consider a latitude dependence of the Earth's conductivity, χ = χ(θ). Considering these terms, using spherical coordinates and symmetry with respect to θ, the modified Daisyworld equations reduce to the

  10. Turing patterns and long-time behavior in a three-species food-chain model

    KAUST Repository

    Parshad, Rana D.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a spatially explicit three-species food chain model, describing generalist top predator-specialist middle predator-prey dynamics. We investigate the long-time dynamics of the model and show the existence of a finite dimensional global attractor in the product space, L2(Ω). We perform linear stability analysis and show that the model exhibits the phenomenon of Turing instability, as well as diffusion induced chaos. Various Turing patterns such as stripe patterns, mesh patterns, spot patterns, labyrinth patterns and weaving patterns are obtained, via numerical simulations in 1d as well as in 2d. The Turing and non-Turing space, in terms of model parameters, is also explored. Finally, we use methods from nonlinear time series analysis to reconstruct a low dimensional chaotic attractor of the model, and estimate its fractal dimension. This provides a lower bound, for the fractal dimension of the attractor, of the spatially explicit model. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Assessing elders using the functional health pattern assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyea, S; Matzo, M

    1989-01-01

    The impact of older Americans on the health care system requires we increase our students' awareness of their unique needs. The authors discuss strategies to develop skills using Gordon's Functional Health Patterns Assessment for assessing older clients.

  12. RETROSPECTIVE DETECTION OF INTERLEAVED SLICE ACQUISITION PARAMETERS FROM FMRI DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Rotival, Georges; Laine, Andrew; Razlighi, Qolamreza R.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize slice excitation leakage to adjacent slices, interleaved slice acquisition is nowadays performed regularly in fMRI scanners. In interleaved slice acquisition, the number of slices skipped between two consecutive slice acquisitions is often referred to as the ‘interleave parameter’; the loss of this parameter can be catastrophic for the analysis of fMRI data. In this article we present a method to retrospectively detect the interleave parameter and the axis in which it is applied. Our method relies on the smoothness of the temporal-distance correlation function, which becomes disrupted along the axis on which interleaved slice acquisition is applied. We examined this method on simulated and real data in the presence of fMRI artifacts such as physiological noise, motion, etc. We also examined the reliability of this method in detecting different types of interleave parameters and demonstrated an accuracy of about 94% in more than 1000 real fMRI scans. PMID:26161244

  13. Fresh Slice Self-Seeding and Fresh Slice Harmonic Lasing at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2018-04-01

    We present results from the successful demonstration of fresh slice self-seeding at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).* The performance is compared with SASE and regular self-seeding at photon energy of 5.5 keV, resulting in a relative average brightness increase of a factor of 12 and a factor of 2 respectively. Following this proof-of-principle we discuss the forthcoming plans to use the same technique** for fresh slice harmonic lasing in an upcoming experiment. The demonstration of fresh slice harmonic lasing provides an attractive solution for future XFELs aiming to achieve high efficiency, high brightness X-ray pulses at high photon energies (>12 keV).***

  14. Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, Bartłomiej; Takara, Hidehiko; Tsukishima, Yukio; Yoshimatsu, Toshihide; Yonenaga, Kazushige; Jinno, Masahiko

    2010-10-11

    We describe experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE) architecture. We employ optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation format and bandwidth-variable optical cross-connects (OXC) to generate, transmit and receive optical paths with bandwidths of up to 1 Tb/s. We experimentally demonstrate elastic optical path setup and spectrally-efficient transmission of multiple channels with bit rates ranging from 40 to 140 Gb/s between six nodes of a mesh network. We show dynamic bandwidth scalability for optical paths with bit rates of 40 to 440 Gb/s. Moreover, we demonstrate multihop transmission of a 1 Tb/s optical path over 400 km of standard single-mode fiber (SMF). Finally, we investigate the filtering properties and the required guard band width for spectrally-efficient allocation of optical paths in SLICE.

  15. Unsupervised motion-compensation of multi-slice cardiac perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Larsson, Henrik B. W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for registration of single and multi-slice cardiac perfusion MRI. Utilising computer intensive analyses of variance and clustering in an annotated training set off-line, the presented method is capable of providing registration without any manual interaction...... in less than a second per frame. Changes in image intensity during the bolus passage are modelled by a slice-coupled active appearance model, which is augmented with a cluster analysis of the training set. Landmark correspondences are optimised using the MDL framework due to Davies et al. Image search...

  16. Induksi Ginogenesis melalui Kultur Multi Ovule Slice dan Kultur Ovary Slice Dianthus chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suskandari Kartikaningrum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction was studied in five genotypes of Dianthus chinensis using 2.4 D and NAA. Calluses can be obtainedfrom unfertilized ovule culture and ovary culture. The aim of the research was to study gynogenic potential and responseof Dianthus chinensis through ovule slice and ovary slice culture for obtaining haploid plants. Five genotypes of Dianthuschinensis and five media were used in ovule slice culture and two genotypes and three medium were used in ovary culture.Flower buds in the 7th stage were incubated for the purpose of dark pre-treatment at 4 oC for one day. Ovules and ovaries wereisolated and cultured in induction medium. Cultures were incubated for the purpose of dark pre-treatment at 4 oC for seven days, followed by 25 oC light incubation. The result showed that 2.4D was better than NAA in inducing callus. Percentage of regenerated calluses were produced in V11, V13 and V15 genotypes in M7 medium (MS + 2 mg L-1 2.4D + 1 mg L-1 BAP + 30 g L-1 sucrose and M10 medium (MS + 1 mg L-1 2.4D + 1 mg L-1 BAP + 20 g L-1 sucrose. All calluses originated from ovule and ovary cultures flowered prematurely. Double haploid (V11-34 were obtained from ovule slice culture based on PER (peroksidase and EST (esterase isoenzym marker.Keywords: ovule slice culture, ovary slice culture, callus, Dianthus sp., haploid

  17. Evaluation of methylmercury biotransformation using rat liver slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutake, A. [Biochemistry Section, National Inst. for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto (Japan); Hirayama, K. [Kumamoto University College of Medical Science, Kuhonji (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    effective in cleaving the C-Hg bond in the aqueous media, might be minimal. Here, we also demonstrated that liver slices are a useful experimental model for mimicking the MeHg biotransformation reaction. (orig.)

  18. A model to explain joint patterns found in ignimbrite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Bonali, F. L.

    2018-03-01

    The study of fracture systems is of paramount importance for economic applications, such as CO2 storage in rock successions, geothermal and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, and also for a better knowledge of seismogenic fault formation. Understanding the origin of joints can be useful for tectonic studies and for a geotechnical characterisation of rock masses. Here, we illustrate a joint pattern discovered in ignimbrite deposits of South America, which can be confused with conjugate tectonic joint sets but which have another origin. The pattern is probably common, but recognisable only in plan view and before tectonic deformation obscures and overprints it. Key sites have been mostly studied by field surveys in Bolivia and Chile. The pattern is represented by hundreds-of-meters up to kilometre-long swarms of master joints, which show circular to semi-circular geometries and intersections that have "X" and "Y" patterns. Inside each swarm, joints are systematic, rectilinear or curvilinear in plan view, and as much as 900 m long. In section view, they are from sub-vertical to vertical and do not affect the underlying deposits. Joints with different orientation mostly interrupt each other, suggesting they have the same age. This joint architecture is here interpreted as resulting from differential contraction after emplacement of the ignimbrite deposit above a complex topography. The set of the joint pattern that has suitable orientation with respect to tectonic stresses may act to nucleate faults.

  19. Chimera patterns in the Kuramoto–Battogtokh model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Lev; Osipov, Grigory; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2017-01-01

    Kuramoto and Battogtokh (2002 Nonlinear Phenom. Complex Syst . 5 380) discovered chimera states represented by stable coexisting synchrony and asynchrony domains in a lattice of coupled oscillators. After a reformulation in terms of a local order parameter, the problem can be reduced to partial differential equations. We find uniformly rotating, spatially periodic chimera patterns as solutions of a reversible ordinary differential equation, and demonstrate a plethora of such states. In the limit of neutral coupling they reduce to analytical solutions in the form of one- and two-point chimera patterns as well as localized chimera solitons. Patterns at weakly attracting coupling are characterized by virtue of a perturbative approach. Stability analysis reveals that only the simplest chimeras with one synchronous region are stable. (letter)

  20. Chimera patterns in the Kuramoto-Battogtokh model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Lev; Osipov, Grigory; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2017-02-01

    Kuramoto and Battogtokh (2002 Nonlinear Phenom. Complex Syst. 5 380) discovered chimera states represented by stable coexisting synchrony and asynchrony domains in a lattice of coupled oscillators. After a reformulation in terms of a local order parameter, the problem can be reduced to partial differential equations. We find uniformly rotating, spatially periodic chimera patterns as solutions of a reversible ordinary differential equation, and demonstrate a plethora of such states. In the limit of neutral coupling they reduce to analytical solutions in the form of one- and two-point chimera patterns as well as localized chimera solitons. Patterns at weakly attracting coupling are characterized by virtue of a perturbative approach. Stability analysis reveals that only the simplest chimeras with one synchronous region are stable.

  1. Modeling activity patterns of wildlife using time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Ouyang, Zhiyun; He, Liang; Connor, Thomas; Yang, Hongbo; Huang, Jinyan; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Zejun; Zhou, Caiquan; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-04-01

    The study of wildlife activity patterns is an effective approach to understanding fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes. However, traditional statistical approaches used to conduct quantitative analysis have thus far had limited success in revealing underlying mechanisms driving activity patterns. Here, we combine wavelet analysis, a type of frequency-based time-series analysis, with high-resolution activity data from accelerometers embedded in GPS collars to explore the effects of internal states (e.g., pregnancy) and external factors (e.g., seasonal dynamics of resources and weather) on activity patterns of the endangered giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ). Giant pandas exhibited higher frequency cycles during the winter when resources (e.g., water and forage) were relatively poor, as well as during spring, which includes the giant panda's mating season. During the summer and autumn when resources were abundant, pandas exhibited a regular activity pattern with activity peaks every 24 hr. A pregnant individual showed distinct differences in her activity pattern from other giant pandas for several months following parturition. These results indicate that animals adjust activity cycles to adapt to seasonal variation of the resources and unique physiological periods. Wavelet coherency analysis also verified the synchronization of giant panda activity level with air temperature and solar radiation at the 24-hr band. Our study also shows that wavelet analysis is an effective tool for analyzing high-resolution activity pattern data and its relationship to internal and external states, an approach that has the potential to inform wildlife conservation and management across species.

  2. Pattern Formation in Predator-Prey Model with Delay and Cross Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the effect of time delay and cross diffusion on the dynamics of a modified Leslie-Gower predator-prey model incorporating a prey refuge. Based on the stability analysis, we demonstrate that delayed feedback may generate Hopf and Turing instability under some conditions, resulting in spatial patterns. One of the most interesting findings is that the model exhibits complex pattern replication: the model dynamics exhibits a delay and diffusion controlled formation growth not only to spots, stripes, and holes, but also to spiral pattern self-replication. The results indicate that time delay and cross diffusion play important roles in pattern formation.

  3. Prediction of Annual Rainfall Pattern Using Hidden Markov Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Hidden Markov model is very influential in stochastic world because of its ... the earth from the clouds. The usual ... Rainfall modelling and ... Markov Models have become popular tools ... environment sciences, University of Jos, plateau state,.

  4. Pattern formation in the bistable Gray-Scott model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazin, W.; Rasmussen, K.E.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a computer simulation study of a variety of far-from-equilibrium phenomena that can arise in a bistable chemical reaction-diffusion system which also displays Turing and Hopf instabilities. The Turing bifurcation curve and the wave number for the patterns of maximum linear grow...

  5. Slicing Method for curved façade and window extraction from point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman Zolanvari, S. M.; Laefer, Debra F.

    2016-09-01

    Laser scanning technology is a fast and reliable method to survey structures. However, the automatic conversion of such data into solid models for computation remains a major challenge, especially where non-rectilinear features are present. Since, openings and the overall dimensions of the buildings are the most critical elements in computational models for structural analysis, this article introduces the Slicing Method as a new, computationally-efficient method for extracting overall façade and window boundary points for reconstructing a façade into a geometry compatible for computational modelling. After finding a principal plane, the technique slices a façade into limited portions, with each slice representing a unique, imaginary section passing through a building. This is done along a façade's principal axes to segregate window and door openings from structural portions of the load-bearing masonry walls. The method detects each opening area's boundaries, as well as the overall boundary of the façade, in part, by using a one-dimensional projection to accelerate processing. Slices were optimised as 14.3 slices per vertical metre of building and 25 slices per horizontal metre of building, irrespective of building configuration or complexity. The proposed procedure was validated by its application to three highly decorative, historic brick buildings. Accuracy in excess of 93% was achieved with no manual intervention on highly complex buildings and nearly 100% on simple ones. Furthermore, computational times were less than 3 sec for data sets up to 2.6 million points, while similar existing approaches required more than 16 hr for such datasets.

  6. Thin-Slice Measurement of Wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao S. Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Measurement of Wisdom within a short period of time is vital for both the public interest (e.g., understanding a presidential election and research (e.g., testing factors that facilitate wisdom development. A measurement of emotion associated with wisdom would be especially informative; therefore, a novel Thin-Slice measurement of wisdom was developed based on the Berlin Paradigm. For about 2 min, participants imagined the lens of a camera as the eyes of their friend/teacher whom they advised about a life dilemma. Verbal response and facial expression were both recorded by a camera: verbal responses were then rated on both the Berlin Wisdom criteria and newly developed Chinese wisdom criteria; facial expressions were analyzed by the software iMotion FACET module. Results showed acceptable inter-rater and inter-item reliability for this novel paradigm. Moreover, both wisdom ratings were not significantly correlated with Social desirability, and the Berlin wisdom rating was significantly negatively correlated with Neuroticism; feeling of surprise was significantly positively correlated with both wisdom criteria ratings. Our results provide the first evidence of this Thin-slice Wisdom Paradigm’s reliability, its immunity to social desirability, and its validity for assessing candidates’ wisdom within a short timeframe. Although still awaiting further development, this novel Paradigm contributes to an emerging Universal Wisdom Paradigm applicable across cultures.

  7. Comparison of 640-Slice Multidetector Computed Tomography Versus 32-Slice MDCT for Imaging of the Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis Lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Joseph M; Kishikova, Lyudmila; Avadhanam, Venkata S; Koumellis, Panos; Francis, Ian S; Liu, Christopher S C

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 640-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for detecting osteo-odonto laminar resorption in the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) compared with the current standard 32-slice MDCT. Explanted OOKP laminae and bone-dentine fragments were scanned using 640-slice MDCT (Aquilion ONE; Toshiba) and 32-slice MDCT (LightSpeed Pro32; GE Healthcare). Pertinent comparisons including image quality, radiation dose, and scanning parameters were made. Benefits of 640-slice MDCT over 32-slice MDCT were shown. Key comparisons of 640-slice MDCT versus 32-slice MDCT included the following: percentage difference and correlation coefficient between radiological and anatomical measurements, 1.35% versus 3.67% and 0.9961 versus 0.9882, respectively; dose-length product, 63.50 versus 70.26; rotation time, 0.175 seconds versus 1.000 seconds; and detector coverage width, 16 cm versus 2 cm. Resorption of the osteo-odonto lamina after OOKP surgery can result in potentially sight-threatening complications, hence it warrants regular monitoring and timely intervention. MDCT remains the gold standard for radiological assessment of laminar resorption, which facilitates detection of subtle laminar changes earlier than the onset of clinical signs, thus indicating when preemptive measures can be taken. The 640-slice MDCT exhibits several advantages over traditional 32-slice MDCT. However, such benefits may not offset cost implications, except in rare cases, such as in young patients who might undergo years of radiation exposure.

  8. Model driven design of distribution patterns for web service compositions

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, distributed systems are being constructed by composing a number of discrete components. This practice, termed composition, is particularly prevalent within the Web service domain. Here, enterprise systems are built from many existing discrete applications, often legacy applications exposed using Web service interfaces. There are a number of architectural configurations or distribution patterns, which express how a composed system is to be deployed. However, the amount o...

  9. Time-space modal logic for verification of bit-slice circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, Hiromi

    1996-03-01

    The major goal of this paper is to propose a new modal logic aiming at formal verification of bit-slice circuits. The new logic is called as time-space modal logic and its major feature is that it can handle two transition relations: one for time transition and the other for space transition. As for a verification algorithm, a symbolic model checking algorithm of the new logic is shown. This could be applicable to verification of bit-slice microprocessor of infinite bit width and 1D systolic array of infinite length. A simple benchmark result shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Modeling how shark and dolphin skin patterns control transitional wall-turbulence vorticity patterns using spatiotemporal phase reset mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R; Hellum, Aren M

    2014-10-23

    Many slow-moving biological systems like seashells and zebrafish that do not contend with wall turbulence have somewhat organized pigmentation patterns flush with their outer surfaces that are formed by underlying autonomous reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms. In contrast, sharks and dolphins contend with wall turbulence, are fast swimmers, and have more organized skin patterns that are proud and sometimes vibrate. A nonlinear spatiotemporal analytical model is not available that explains the mechanism underlying control of flow with such proud patterns, despite the fact that shark and dolphin skins are major targets of reverse engineering mechanisms of drag and noise reduction. Comparable to RD, a minimal self-regulation model is given for wall turbulence regeneration in the transitional regime--laterally coupled, diffusively--which, although restricted to pre-breakdown durations and to a plane close and parallel to the wall, correctly reproduces many experimentally observed spatiotemporal organizations of vorticity in both laminar-to-turbulence transitioning and very low Reynolds number but turbulent regions. We further show that the onset of vorticity disorganization is delayed if the skin organization is treated as a spatiotemporal template of olivo-cerebellar phase reset mechanism. The model shows that the adaptation mechanisms of sharks and dolphins to their fluid environment have much in common.

  11. Tumor Slice Culture: A New Avatar in Personalized Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0149 TITLE: Tumor Slice Culture: A New Avatar in Personalized Oncology PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Raymond Yeung...CONTRACT NUMBER Tumor Slice Culture: A New Avatar in Personalized Oncology 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0149 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...10 Annual Report 2017: Tumor Slice Culture: A new avatar for personalized oncology 1. INTRODUCTION: The goal of this research is to advance our

  12. Isoproterenol effects evaluated in heart slices of human and rat in comparison to rat heart in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Julia E.; Heale, Jason; Bieraugel, Mike; Ramos, Meg; Fisher, Robyn L.; Vickers, Alison E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury was evaluated by gene and protein pathway changes in human heart slices, and compared to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM) altered human and rat heart slice markers of oxidative stress (ATP and GSH) at 24 h. In this in vivo rat study (0.5 mg/kg), serum troponin concentrations increased with lesion severity, minimal to mild necrosis at 24 and 48 h. In the rat and the human heart, isoproterenol altered pathways for apoptosis/necrosis, stress/energy, inflammation, and remodeling/fibrosis. The rat and human heart slices were in an apoptotic phase, while the in vivo rat heart exhibited necrosis histologically and further progression of tissue remodeling. In human heart slices genes for several heat shock 70 kD members were altered, indicative of stress to mitigate apoptosis. The stress response included alterations in energy utilization, fatty acid processing, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of increased oxidative stress in both species. Inflammation markers linked with remodeling included IL-1α, Il-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in both species. Tissue remodeling changes in both species included increases in the TIMP proteins, inhibitors of matrix degradation, the gene/protein of IL-4 linked with cardiac fibrosis, and the gene Ccl7 a chemokine that induces collagen synthesis, and Reg3b a growth factor for cardiac repair. This study demonstrates that the initial human heart slice response to isoproterenol cardiac injury results in apoptosis, stress/energy status, inflammation and tissue remodeling at concentrations similar to that in rat heart slices. - Highlights: • Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury evaluated in heart slices. • Isoproterenol altered apoptosis, energy, inflammation and remodeling pathways. • Human model verified by comparison to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. • Human and rat respond to isoproterenol

  13. From lag synchronization to pattern formation in one-dimensional open flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zengrong; Luo Jigui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between synchronization and pattern formation in one-dimensional discrete and continuous open flow models is investigated in detail. Firstly a sufficient condition for globally asymptotical stability of lag/anticipating synchronization among lattices of these models is proved by analytic method. Then, by analyzing and simulating lag/anticipating synchronization in discrete case, three kinds of pattern of wave (it is called wave pattern) travelling in the lattices are discovered. Finally, a proper definition for these kinds of pattern is proposed

  14. Gravitational collapse of charged dust shell and maximal slicing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    1980-01-01

    The maximal slicing condition is a good time coordinate condition qualitatively when pursuing the gravitational collapse by the numerical calculation. The analytic solution of the gravitational collapse under the maximal slicing condition is given in the case of a spherical charged dust shell and the behavior of time slices with this coordinate condition is investigated. It is concluded that under the maximal slicing condition we can pursue the gravitational collapse until the radius of the shell decreases to about 0.7 x (the radius of the event horizon). (author)

  15. Thin slices of child personality: Perceptual, situational, and behavioral contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Kushner, Shauna C; Rule, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether thin-slice ratings of child personality serve as a resource-efficient and theoretically valid measurement of child personality traits. We extended theoretical work on the observability, perceptual accuracy, and situational consistency of childhood personality traits by examining intersource and interjudge agreement, cross-situational consistency, and convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of thin-slice ratings. Forty-five unacquainted independent coders rated 326 children's (ages 8-12) personality in 1 of 15 thin-slice behavioral scenarios (i.e., 3 raters per slice, for over 14,000 independent thin-slice ratings). Mothers, fathers, and children rated children's personality, psychopathology, and competence. We found robust evidence for correlations between thin-slice and mother/father ratings of child personality, within- and across-task consistency of thin-slice ratings, and convergent and divergent validity with psychopathology and competence. Surprisingly, thin-slice ratings were more consistent across situations in this child sample than previously found for adults. Taken together, these results suggest that thin slices are a valid and reliable measure to assess child personality, offering a useful method of measurement beyond questionnaires, helping to address novel questions of personality perception and consistency in childhood. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Influence of γ-irradiation on drying of slice potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Chao Yan; Fu Junjie; Wang Jianping

    2001-01-01

    A new technology is introduced to dry food products by hot-air after pretreated by irradiation. The influence of different dosage of irradiation, temperature of hot air, thickness of the slice potato on the rate of dehydration temperature of irradiated potato were studied. A conclusion is reached that the 3 factors, irradiation dosage, hot-air temperature and thickness of slice potato, affect the rate of dehydration and temperature of slice potato. The higher the dosage is, the greater the rate of dehydration of potato becomes, and the higher the temperature of the slice potato gets. (authors)

  17. Assessment of errors and uncertainty patterns in GIA modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Spada, G.

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade many efforts have been devoted to the assessment of global sea level rise and to the determination of the mass balance of continental ice sheets. In this context, the important role of glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) has been clearly recognized. Yet, in many cases only one......, such as time-evolving shorelines and paleo-coastlines. In this study we quantify these uncertainties and their propagation in GIA response using a Monte Carlo approach to obtain spatio-temporal patterns of GIA errors. A direct application is the error estimates in ice mass balance in Antarctica and Greenland...

  18. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.

    2010-04-01

    We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.

  19. A model for optimizing file access patterns using spatio-temporal parallelism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonthanome, Nouanesengsy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Patchett, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Ahrens, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Andy [Kitware Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Chaudhary, Aashish [Kitware Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Miller, Ross G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For many years now, I/O read time has been recognized as the primary bottleneck for parallel visualization and analysis of large-scale data. In this paper, we introduce a model that can estimate the read time for a file stored in a parallel filesystem when given the file access pattern. Read times ultimately depend on how the file is stored and the access pattern used to read the file. The file access pattern will be dictated by the type of parallel decomposition used. We employ spatio-temporal parallelism, which combines both spatial and temporal parallelism, to provide greater flexibility to possible file access patterns. Using our model, we were able to configure the spatio-temporal parallelism to design optimized read access patterns that resulted in a speedup factor of approximately 400 over traditional file access patterns.

  20. Spiking and bursting patterns of fractional-order Izhikevich model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Wondimu W.; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Mondal, Argha

    2018-03-01

    Bursting and spiking oscillations play major roles in processing and transmitting information in the brain through cortical neurons that respond differently to the same signal. These oscillations display complex dynamics that might be produced by using neuronal models and varying many model parameters. Recent studies have shown that models with fractional order can produce several types of history-dependent neuronal activities without the adjustment of several parameters. We studied the fractional-order Izhikevich model and analyzed different kinds of oscillations that emerge from the fractional dynamics. The model produces a wide range of neuronal spike responses, including regular spiking, fast spiking, intrinsic bursting, mixed mode oscillations, regular bursting and chattering, by adjusting only the fractional order. Both the active and silent phase of the burst increase when the fractional-order model further deviates from the classical model. For smaller fractional order, the model produces memory dependent spiking activity after the pulse signal turned off. This special spiking activity and other properties of the fractional-order model are caused by the memory trace that emerges from the fractional-order dynamics and integrates all the past activities of the neuron. On the network level, the response of the neuronal network shifts from random to scale-free spiking. Our results suggest that the complex dynamics of spiking and bursting can be the result of the long-term dependence and interaction of intracellular and extracellular ionic currents.

  1. Color Mixing Correction for Post-printed Patterns on Colored Background Using Modified Particle Density Model

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa , Misako; Fujimoto , Katsuhito

    2006-01-01

    http://www.suvisoft.com; Color mixing occurs between background and foreground colors when a pattern is post-printed on a colored area because ink is not completely opaque. This paper proposes a new method for the correction of color mixing in line pattern such as characters and stamps, by using a modified particle density model. Parameters of the color correction can be calculated from two sets of foreground and background colors. By employing this method, the colors of foreground patterns o...

  2. Stationary Patterns in One-Predator Two-Prey Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael; Zhigui, Lin

    1999-01-01

    Weakly-coupled elliptic system decribing models of simple three-species food webs such as the one-predator, two-prey model is discussed. We show that there is no non-constant solution if diffusions or inter-specific competitions are strong, or if the intrinsic growths of the prey are slow...

  3. Analyzing Interaction Patterns to Verify a Simulation/Game Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Rodney Dean

    2012-01-01

    In order for simulations and games to be effective for learning, instructional designers must verify that the underlying computational models being used have an appropriate degree of fidelity to the conceptual models of their real-world counterparts. A simulation/game that provides incorrect feedback is likely to promote misunderstanding and…

  4. Pattern formation in flocking models: A hydrodynamic description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Bartolo, Denis; Chaté, Hugues; Tailleur, Julien

    2015-12-01

    We study in detail the hydrodynamic theories describing the transition to collective motion in polar active matter, exemplified by the Vicsek and active Ising models. Using a simple phenomenological theory, we show the existence of an infinity of propagative solutions, describing both phase and microphase separation, that we fully characterize. We also show that the same results hold specifically in the hydrodynamic equations derived in the literature for the active Ising model and for a simplified version of the Vicsek model. We then study numerically the linear stability of these solutions. We show that stable ones constitute only a small fraction of them, which, however, includes all existing types. We further argue that, in practice, a coarsening mechanism leads towards phase-separated solutions. Finally, we construct the phase diagrams of the hydrodynamic equations proposed to qualitatively describe the Vicsek and active Ising models and connect our results to the phenomenology of the corresponding microscopic models.

  5. Immediate effects of modified landing pattern on a probabilistic tibial stress fracture model in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T L; An, W W; Chan, Z Y S; Au, I P H; Zhang, Z H; Cheung, R T H

    2016-03-01

    Tibial stress fracture is a common injury in runners. This condition has been associated with increased impact loading. Since vertical loading rates are related to the landing pattern, many heelstrike runners attempt to modify their footfalls for a lower risk of tibial stress fracture. Such effect of modified landing pattern remains unknown. This study examined the immediate effects of landing pattern modification on the probability of tibial stress fracture. Fourteen experienced heelstrike runners ran on an instrumented treadmill and they were given augmented feedback for landing pattern switch. We measured their running kinematics and kinetics during different landing patterns. Ankle joint contact force and peak tibial strains were estimated using computational models. We used an established mathematical model to determine the effect of landing pattern on stress fracture probability. Heelstrike runners experienced greater impact loading immediately after landing pattern switch (Ptibial strains and the risk of tibial stress fracture in runners with different landing patterns (P>0.986). Immediate transitioning of the landing pattern in heelstrike runners may not offer timely protection against tibial stress fracture, despite a reduction of impact loading. Long-term effects of landing pattern switch remains unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Drying kinetics of whole and sliced turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa L. in a solar conduction dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying of turmeric was carried out in a solar conduction dryer (SCD. Drying air temperature was achieved around 39–51 °C for an ambient temperature in the range of 25–28 °C. Moisture content from 78.65% (wb, was reduced to 6.36% (wb and 5.50% (wb for solid and sliced samples respectively in 12 h effective drying time. Drying curve of sliced samples showed more uniform falling in comparison to that of whole samples. The average effective moisture diffusivity was found to be 1.852 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for slab samples and 1.456 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for solid samples. Out of four models tried for simulation, Page model was found as best fitted thin layer drying model when simulation was done for all the drying data. The overall thermal efficiency of the dryer was found to be 55%. Drying of sliced rhizomes showed better drying kinetics and effective drying time could be reduced by slicing instead of drying in whole form.

  7. Knowledge Management through the Equilibrium Pattern Model for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarirete, Akila; Noble, Elizabeth; Chikh, Azeddine

    Contemporary students are characterized by having very applied learning styles and methods of acquiring knowledge. This behavior is consistent with the constructivist models where students are co-partners in the learning process. In the present work the authors developed a new model of learning based on the constructivist theory coupled with the cognitive development theory of Piaget. The model considers the level of learning based on several stages and the move from one stage to another requires learners' challenge. At each time a new concept is introduced creates a disequilibrium that needs to be worked out to return back to its equilibrium stage. This process of "disequilibrium/equilibrium" has been analyzed and validated using a course in computer networking as part of Cisco Networking Academy Program at Effat College, a women college in Saudi Arabia. The model provides a theoretical foundation for teaching especially in a complex knowledge domain such as engineering and can be used in a knowledge economy.

  8. Testing a Conceptual Model of Working through Self-Defeating Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2007-01-01

    The present study developed and examined a conceptual model of working through self-defeating patterns. Participants were 390 college students at a large midwestern university. Results indicated that self-defeating patterns mediated the relations between attachment and distress. Also, self-esteem mediated the link between self-defeating patterns…

  9. Modeling future power plant location patterns. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagles, T.W.; Cohon, J.L.; ReVelle, C.

    1979-04-01

    The locations of future energy facilities must be specified to assess the potential environmental impact of those facilities. A computer model was developed to generate probable locations for the energy facilities needed to meet postulated future energy requirements. The model is designed to cover a very large geographical region. The regional demand for baseload electric generating capacity associated with a postulated demand growth rate over any desired time horizon is specified by the user as an input to the model. The model uses linear programming to select the most probable locations within the region, based on physical and political factors. The linear program is multi-objective, with four objective functions based on transmission, coal supply, population proximity, and water supply considerations. Minimizing each objective function leads to a distinct set of locations. The user can select the objective function or weighted combination of objective functions most appropriate to his interest. Users with disparate interests can use the model to see the locational changes which result from varying weighting of the objective functions. The model has been implemented in a six-state mid-Atlantic region. The year 2000 was chosen as the study year, and a test scenario postulating 2.25% growth in baseload generating capacity between 1977 and 2000 was chosen. The scenario stipulatedthat this capacity be 50% nuclear and 50% coal-fired. Initial utility reaction indicates the objective based on transmission costs is most important for such a large-scale analysis

  10. Design and Development of a tomato Slicing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaldeen Oladimeji Salaudeen; Awagu E. F.

    2012-01-01

    Principle of slicing was reviewed and tomato slicing machine was developed based on appropriate technology. Locally available materials like wood, stainless steel and mild steel were used in the fabrication. The machine was made to cut tomatoes in 2cm thickness. The capacity of the machine is 540.09g per minute and its performance efficiency is 70%.

  11. Model Building – A Circular Approach to Evaluate Multidimensional Patterns and Operationalized Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz HAAS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Managers operate in highly different fields. Decision-making can be based on models reflecting in part these differences. The challenge is to connect the respective models without too great a disruption. A threefold procedural approach is proposed by chaining a scheme of modeling in a complex field to an operationalized model to statistical multivariate methods. Multivariate pattern-detecting methods offer the chance to evaluate patterns within the complex field partly. This step completes the cycle of research and improved models can be used in a further cycle.

  12. Pattern-oriented modelling: a 'multi-scope' for predictive systems ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Volker; Railsback, Steven F

    2012-01-19

    Modern ecology recognizes that modelling systems across scales and at multiple levels-especially to link population and ecosystem dynamics to individual adaptive behaviour-is essential for making the science predictive. 'Pattern-oriented modelling' (POM) is a strategy for doing just this. POM is the multi-criteria design, selection and calibration of models of complex systems. POM starts with identifying a set of patterns observed at multiple scales and levels that characterize a system with respect to the particular problem being modelled; a model from which the patterns emerge should contain the right mechanisms to address the problem. These patterns are then used to (i) determine what scales, entities, variables and processes the model needs, (ii) test and select submodels to represent key low-level processes such as adaptive behaviour, and (iii) find useful parameter values during calibration. Patterns are already often used in these ways, but a mini-review of applications of POM confirms that making the selection and use of patterns more explicit and rigorous can facilitate the development of models with the right level of complexity to understand ecological systems and predict their response to novel conditions.

  13. Performance evaluation of a 64-slice CT system with z-flying focal spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, T; Stierstorfer, K; Raupach, R; Ulzheimer, S; Bruder, H

    2004-12-01

    The meanwhile established generation of 16-slice CT systems enables routine sub-millimeter imaging at short breath-hold times. Clinical progress in the development of multidetector row CT (MDCT) technology beyond 16 slices can more likely be expected from further improvement in spatial and temporal resolution rather than from a mere increase in the speed of volume coverage. We present an evaluation of a recently introduced 64-slice CT system (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany), which uses a periodic motion of the focal spot in longitudinal direction (z-flying focal spot) to double the number of simultaneously acquired slices. This technique acquires 64 overlapping 0.6 mm slices per rotation. The sampling scheme corresponds to that of a 64 x 0.3 mm detector, with the goal of improved longitudinal resolution and reduced spiral artifacts. After an introduction to the detector design, we discuss the basics of z-flying focal spot technology (z-Sharp). We present phantom and specimen scans for performance evaluation. The measured full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the thinnest spiral slice is 0.65 mm. All spiral slice widths are almost independent of the pitch, with deviations of less than 0.1 mm from the nominal value. Using a high-resolution bar pattern phantom (CATPHAN, Phantom Laboratories, Salem, NY), the longitudinal resolution can be demonstrated to be up to 15 lp/cm at the isocenter independent of the pitch, corresponding to a bar diameter of 0.33 mm. Longitudinal resolution is only slightly degraded for off-center locations. At a distance of 100 mm from the isocenter, 14 lp/cm can be resolved in the z-direction, corresponding to a bar diameter of 0.36 mm. Spiral "windmill" artifacts presenting as hyper- and hypodense structures around osseous edges are effectively reduced by the z-flying focal spot technique. Cardiac scanning benefits from the short gantry rotation time of 0.33 s, providing up to 83 ms temporal resolution with 2-segment ECG

  14. Cellular automaton modeling of biological pattern formation characterization, examples, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsch, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This text explores the use of cellular automata in modeling pattern formation in biological systems. It describes several mathematical modeling approaches utilizing cellular automata that can be used to study the dynamics of interacting cell systems both in simulation and in practice. New in this edition are chapters covering cell migration, tissue development, and cancer dynamics, as well as updated references and new research topic suggestions that reflect the rapid development of the field. The book begins with an introduction to pattern-forming principles in biology and the various mathematical modeling techniques that can be used to analyze them. Cellular automaton models are then discussed in detail for different types of cellular processes and interactions, including random movement, cell migration, adhesive cell interaction, alignment and cellular swarming, growth processes, pigment cell pattern formation, tissue development, tumor growth and invasion, and Turing-type patterns and excitable media. In ...

  15. Thermoluminescence results on slices from a Hiroshima tile UHFSFT03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneham, Doreen

    1987-01-01

    As was reported at the May 1984 Utah thermoluminescence (TL) workshop, high fired tiles and porcelain fragments can be sliced into 200 μm sections with constant surface area. When conventional pre-dose measurements were carried out on these slices the doses evaluated were in good agreement with results obtained by other workers using conventional quartz separation techniques. There are several advantages in using slices. First, less sample is needed as about 50 consecutive slices can be cut from a block measuring typically 1 cm 2 cross section and 2 cm in length. There are no problems with securing grains to the plate or loss of grains during measurement. Hypothetically there is less damage to the grains when they are cut slowly under cold water than when they are crushed. The disadvantage is that other minerals besides quartz are present in the slice and the signal is weaker than that obtained using quartz inclusions

  16. Correlation of NTD-silicon rod and slice resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron transmutation doped silicon is an electronic material which presents an opportunity to explore a high level of resistivity characterization. This is due to its excellent uniformity of dopant concentration. Appropriate resistivity measurements on the ingot raw material can be used as a predictor of slice resistivity. Correlation of finished NTD rod (i.e. ingot) resistivity to as-cut slice resistivity (after the sawing process) is addressed in the scope of this paper. Empirical data show that the shift of slice-center resistivity compared to rod-end center resistivity is a function of a new kind of rod radial-resistivity gradient. This function has two domains, and most rods are in domain ''A''. Correlating equations show how to significantly improve the prediction of slice resistivity of rods in domain ''A''. The new rod resistivity specifications have resulted in manufacturing economies in the production of NTD silicon slices

  17. RF slice profile effects in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Taehwa; Han, Dongyeob; Kim, Min-Oh; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The radio frequency (RF) slice profile effects on T1 and T2 estimation in magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) are investigated with respect to time-bandwidth product (TBW), flip angle (FA) level and field inhomogeneities. Signal evolutions are generated incorporating the non-ideal slice selective excitation process using Bloch simulation and matched to the original dictionary with and without the non-ideal slice profile taken into account. For validation, phantom and in vivo experiments are performed at 3T. Both simulations and experiments results show that T1 and T2 error from non-ideal slice profile increases with increasing FA level, off-resonance, and low TBW values. Therefore, RF slice profile effects should be compensated for accurate determination of the MR parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Computer modeling of dosimetric pattern in aquatic environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... solving the dose rates to aquatic organisms with emphasis on the coastal areas of Nigeria where oil exploration activities involve the use of radioactive materials. Solution of the dose function representing the baseline have been modeled the result of which can be employed in assessing future contamination in the area.

  19. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 389, č. 8 (2010), s. 1708-1720 ISSN 0378-4371 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : EPC * Agent based model * Phase transition Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2010

  20. Stationary Patterns in One-Predator Two-Prey Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael; Zhigui, Lin

    1999-01-01

    Weakly-coupled elliptic system decribing models of simple three-species food webs such as the one-predator, two-prey modelis discussed. We show thatthere is no non-constant solution if diffusions or inter-specific competitions are strong, or if the intrinsic growths of the prey are slow...

  1. Modeling on bubbly to churn flow pattern transition in narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanlin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping; Wang Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model based on some reasonable concepts was developed to predict the bubbly flow to churn flow pattern transition in vertical narrow rectangular channel under flow boiling condition. The maximum size of ideal bubble in narrow rectangular channel was calculated based on previous literature. The thermal hydraulics boundary condition of bubbly to churn flow pattern transition was exported from Helmholtz and maximum size of ideal bubble. The theoretical model was validated by existent experimental data. (authors)

  2. Data Mining and Pattern Recognition Models for Identifying Inherited Diseases: Challenges and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Iddamalgoda, Lahiru; Das, Partha S.; Aponso, Achala; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava S.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Valadi, Jayaraman K.

    2016-01-01

    Data mining and pattern recognition methods reveal interesting findings in genetic studies, especially on how the genetic makeup is associated with inherited diseases. Although researchers have proposed various data mining models for biomedical approaches, there remains a challenge in accurately prioritizing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with the disease. In this commentary, we review the state-of-art data mining and pattern recognition models for identifying inherited ...

  3. Effects of Modeling and Tempo Patterns as Practice Techniques on the Performance of High School Instrumentalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Paul T.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effect of modeling conditions and tempo patterns on high school instrumentalists' performance. Focuses on high school students (n=60) who play wind instruments. Reports that the with-model condition was superior in rhythm and tempo percentage gain when compared to the no-model condition. Includes references. (CMK)

  4. Physical optics modeling of modal patterns in a crossed porro prism resonator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A physical optics model is proposed to describe the transverse modal patterns in crossed Porro prism resonators. The model departs from earlier attempts in that the prisms are modeled as non-classical rotating elements with amplitude and phase...

  5. Spatial pattern evaluation of a calibrated national hydrological model - a remote-sensing-based diagnostic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguren, Gorka; Koch, Julian; Stisen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Distributed hydrological models are traditionally evaluated against discharge stations, emphasizing the temporal and neglecting the spatial component of a model. The present study widens the traditional paradigm by highlighting spatial patterns of evapotranspiration (ET), a key variable at the land-atmosphere interface, obtained from two different approaches at the national scale of Denmark. The first approach is based on a national water resources model (DK-model), using the MIKE-SHE model code, and the second approach utilizes a two-source energy balance model (TSEB) driven mainly by satellite remote sensing data. Ideally, the hydrological model simulation and remote-sensing-based approach should present similar spatial patterns and driving mechanisms of ET. However, the spatial comparison showed that the differences are significant and indicate insufficient spatial pattern performance of the hydrological model.The differences in spatial patterns can partly be explained by the fact that the hydrological model is configured to run in six domains that are calibrated independently from each other, as it is often the case for large-scale multi-basin calibrations. Furthermore, the model incorporates predefined temporal dynamics of leaf area index (LAI), root depth (RD) and crop coefficient (Kc) for each land cover type. This zonal approach of model parameterization ignores the spatiotemporal complexity of the natural system. To overcome this limitation, this study features a modified version of the DK-model in which LAI, RD and Kc are empirically derived using remote sensing data and detailed soil property maps in order to generate a higher degree of spatiotemporal variability and spatial consistency between the six domains. The effects of these changes are analyzed by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to evaluate spatial patterns. The EOF analysis shows that including remote-sensing-derived LAI, RD and Kc in the distributed hydrological model adds

  6. Charging stations location model based on spatiotemporal electromobility use patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagany, Raphaela; Marquardt, Anna; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges for mainstream adoption of electric vehicles is the provision of infrastructure for charging the batteries of the vehicles. The charging stations must not only be located dense enough to allow users to complete their journeys, but the electric energy must also be provided from renewable sources in order to truly offer a transportation with less CO2 emissions. The examination of potential locations for the charging of electric vehicles can facilitate the adaption of electromobility and the integration of electronic vehicles in everyday life. A geographic information system (GIS) based model for optimal location of charging stations in a small and regional scale is presented. This considers parameters such as the forecast of electric vehicle use penetration, the relevant weight of diverse point of interests and the distance between parking area and destination for different vehicle users. In addition to the spatial scale the temporal modelling of the energy demand at the different charging locations has to be considerate. Depending on different user profiles (commuters, short haul drivers etc.) the frequency of charging vary during the day, the week and the year. In consequence, the spatiotemporal variability is a challenge for a reliable energy supply inside a decentralized renewable energy system. The presented model delivers on the one side the most adequate identified locations for charging stations and on the other side the interaction between energy supply and demand for electromobility under the consideration of temporal aspects. Using ESRI ArcGIS Desktop, first results for the case study region of Lower Bavaria are generated. The aim of the concept is to keep the model transferable to other regions and also open to integrate further and more detailed user profiles, derived from social studies about i.e. the daily behavior and the perception of electromobility in a next step.

  7. A scan for models with realistic fermion mass patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijnens, J.; Wetterich, C.

    1986-03-01

    We consider models which have no small Yukawa couplings unrelated to symmetry. This situation is generic in higher dimensional unification where Yukawa couplings are predicted to have strength similar to the gauge couplings. Generations have then to be differentiated by symmetry properties and the structure of fermion mass matrices is given in terms of quantum numbers alone. We scan possible symmetries leading to realistic mass matrices. (orig.)

  8. Spatiotemporal Patterns in a Ratio-Dependent Food Chain Model with Reaction-Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Predator-prey models describe biological phenomena of pursuit-evasion interaction. And this interaction exists widely in the world for the necessary energy supplement of species. In this paper, we have investigated a ratio-dependent spatially extended food chain model. Based on the bifurcation analysis (Hopf and Turing, we give the spatial pattern formation via numerical simulation, that is, the evolution process of the system near the coexistence equilibrium point (u2*,v2*,w2*, and find that the model dynamics exhibits complex pattern replication. For fixed parameters, on increasing the control parameter c1, the sequence “holes → holes-stripe mixtures → stripes → spots-stripe mixtures → spots” pattern is observed. And in the case of pure Hopf instability, the model exhibits chaotic wave pattern replication. Furthermore, we consider the pattern formation in the case of which the top predator is extinct, that is, the evolution process of the system near the equilibrium point (u1*,v1*,0, and find that the model dynamics exhibits stripes-spots pattern replication. Our results show that reaction-diffusion model is an appropriate tool for investigating fundamental mechanism of complex spatiotemporal dynamics. It will be useful for studying the dynamic complexity of ecosystems.

  9. Pattern-oriented modelling: a ‘multi-scope’ for predictive systems ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Volker; Railsback, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Modern ecology recognizes that modelling systems across scales and at multiple levels—especially to link population and ecosystem dynamics to individual adaptive behaviour—is essential for making the science predictive. ‘Pattern-oriented modelling’ (POM) is a strategy for doing just this. POM is the multi-criteria design, selection and calibration of models of complex systems. POM starts with identifying a set of patterns observed at multiple scales and levels that characterize a system with respect to the particular problem being modelled; a model from which the patterns emerge should contain the right mechanisms to address the problem. These patterns are then used to (i) determine what scales, entities, variables and processes the model needs, (ii) test and select submodels to represent key low-level processes such as adaptive behaviour, and (iii) find useful parameter values during calibration. Patterns are already often used in these ways, but a mini-review of applications of POM confirms that making the selection and use of patterns more explicit and rigorous can facilitate the development of models with the right level of complexity to understand ecological systems and predict their response to novel conditions. PMID:22144392

  10. Long-time integration methods for mesoscopic models of pattern-forming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Katsoulakis, Markos; Plexousakis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spectral methods for simulation of a mesoscopic diffusion model of surface pattern formation are evaluated for long simulation times. Backwards-differencing time-integration, coupled with an underlying Newton-Krylov nonlinear solver (SUNDIALS-CVODE), is found to substantially accelerate simulations, without the typical requirement of preconditioning. Quasi-equilibrium simulations of patterned phases predicted by the model are shown to agree well with linear stability analysis. Simulation results of the effect of repulsive particle-particle interactions on pattern relaxation time and short/long-range order are discussed.

  11. Pattern solutions of the Klausmeier Model for banded vegetation in semi-arid environments I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherratt, Jonathan A

    2010-01-01

    In many semi-arid environments, vegetation cover is sparse, and is self-organized into large-scale spatial patterns. In particular, banded vegetation is typical on hillsides. Mathematical modelling is widely used to study these banded patterns, and many models are effectively extensions of a coupled reaction–diffusion–advection system proposed by Klausmeier (1999 Science 284 1826–8). However, there is currently very little mathematical theory on pattern solutions of these equations. This paper is the first in a series whose aim is a comprehensive understanding of these solutions, which can act as a springboard both for future simulation-based studies of the Klausmeier model, and for analysis of model extensions. The author focusses on a particular part of parameter space, and derives expressions for the boundaries of the parameter region in which patterns occur. The calculations are valid to leading order at large values of the 'slope parameter', which reflects a comparison of the rate of water flow downhill with the rate of vegetation dispersal. The form of the corresponding patterns is also studied, and the author shows that the leading order equations change close to one boundary of the parameter region in which there are patterns, leading to a homoclinic solution. Conclusions are drawn on the way in which changes in mean annual rainfall affect pattern properties, including overall biomass productivity

  12. Combining satellite data and appropriate objective functions for improved spatial pattern performance of a distributed hydrologic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; Mai, Juliane; Mendiguren Gonzalez, Gorka

    2018-01-01

    Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target...... and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance...

  13. Assessment of immunotoxicity using precision-cut tissue slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    1. When the immune system encounters incoming infectious agents, this generally leads to immunity. The evoked immune response is usually robust, but can be severely perturbed by potentially harmful environmental agents such as chemicals, pharmaceuticals and allergens. 2. Immunosuppression, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity may occur due to changed immune activity. Evaluation of the immunotoxic potency of agents as part of risk assessment is currently established in vivo with animal models and in vitro with cell lines or primary cells. 3. Although in vivo testing is usually the most relevant situation for many agents, more and more in vitro models are being developed for assessment of immunotoxicity. In this context, hypersensitivity and immunosuppression are considered to be a primary focus for developing in vitro methods. Three-dimensional organotypic tissue models are also part of current research in immunotoxicology. 4. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in organotypic tissue models. In the context of immunotoxicity testing, precision-cut lung slices in particular have been intensively studied. Therefore, this review is very much focused on pulmonary immunotoxicology. Respiratory hypersensitivity and inflammation are further highlighted aspects of this review. Immunotoxicity assessment currently is of limited use in other tissue models, which are therefore described only briefly within this review. PMID:23199366

  14. The Role of Different Plant Soil-Water Feedbacks in Models of Dryland Vegetation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, M.; Bonetti, S.; Gandhi, P.; Gowda, K.; Iams, S.; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes underlying the formation of regular vegetation patterns in arid and semi-arid regions is important to assessing desertification risk under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Various modeling frameworks have been proposed, which are all capable of generating similar patterns through self-organizing mechanisms that stem from assumptions about plant feedbacks on surface/subsurface water transport. We critically discuss a hierarchy of hydrology-vegetation models for the coupled dynamics of surface water, soil moisture, and vegetation biomass on a hillslope. We identify distinguishing features and trends for the periodic traveling wave solutions when there is an imposed idealized topography and make some comparisons to satellite images of large-scale banded vegetation patterns in drylands of Africa, Australia and North America. This work highlights the potential for constraining models by considerations of where the patterns may lie on a landscape, such as whether on a ridge or in a valley.

  15. Crossover patterning by the beam-film model: analysis and implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangran Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossing-over is a central feature of meiosis. Meiotic crossover (CO sites are spatially patterned along chromosomes. CO-designation at one position disfavors subsequent CO-designation(s nearby, as described by the classical phenomenon of CO interference. If multiple designations occur, COs tend to be evenly spaced. We have previously proposed a mechanical model by which CO patterning could occur. The central feature of a mechanical mechanism is that communication along the chromosomes, as required for CO interference, can occur by redistribution of mechanical stress. Here we further explore the nature of the beam-film model, its ability to quantitatively explain CO patterns in detail in several organisms, and its implications for three important patterning-related phenomena: CO homeostasis, the fact that the level of zero-CO bivalents can be low (the "obligatory CO", and the occurrence of non-interfering COs. Relationships to other models are discussed.

  16. A novel spatial performance metric for robust pattern optimization of distributed hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stisen, S.; Demirel, C.; Koch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of performance is an integral part of model development and calibration as well as it is of paramount importance when communicating modelling results to stakeholders and the scientific community. There exists a comprehensive and well tested toolbox of metrics to assess temporal model performance in the hydrological modelling community. On the contrary, the experience to evaluate spatial performance is not corresponding to the grand availability of spatial observations readily available and to the sophisticate model codes simulating the spatial variability of complex hydrological processes. This study aims at making a contribution towards advancing spatial pattern oriented model evaluation for distributed hydrological models. This is achieved by introducing a novel spatial performance metric which provides robust pattern performance during model calibration. The promoted SPAtial EFficiency (spaef) metric reflects three equally weighted components: correlation, coefficient of variation and histogram overlap. This multi-component approach is necessary in order to adequately compare spatial patterns. spaef, its three components individually and two alternative spatial performance metrics, i.e. connectivity analysis and fractions skill score, are tested in a spatial pattern oriented model calibration of a catchment model in Denmark. The calibration is constrained by a remote sensing based spatial pattern of evapotranspiration and discharge timeseries at two stations. Our results stress that stand-alone metrics tend to fail to provide holistic pattern information to the optimizer which underlines the importance of multi-component metrics. The three spaef components are independent which allows them to complement each other in a meaningful way. This study promotes the use of bias insensitive metrics which allow comparing variables which are related but may differ in unit in order to optimally exploit spatial observations made available by remote sensing

  17. Application of pattern mixture models to address missing data in longitudinal data analysis using SPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Heesook; Friedmann, Erika; Thomas, Sue A

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are used in nursing research to examine changes over time in health indicators. Traditional approaches to longitudinal analysis of means, such as analysis of variance with repeated measures, are limited to analyzing complete cases. This limitation can lead to biased results due to withdrawal or data omission bias or to imputation of missing data, which can lead to bias toward the null if data are not missing completely at random. Pattern mixture models are useful to evaluate the informativeness of missing data and to adjust linear mixed model (LMM) analyses if missing data are informative. The aim of this study was to provide an example of statistical procedures for applying a pattern mixture model to evaluate the informativeness of missing data and conduct analyses of data with informative missingness in longitudinal studies using SPSS. The data set from the Patients' and Families' Psychological Response to Home Automated External Defibrillator Trial was used as an example to examine informativeness of missing data with pattern mixture models and to use a missing data pattern in analysis of longitudinal data. Prevention of withdrawal bias, omitted data bias, and bias toward the null in longitudinal LMMs requires the assessment of the informativeness of the occurrence of missing data. Missing data patterns can be incorporated as fixed effects into LMMs to evaluate the contribution of the presence of informative missingness to and control for the effects of missingness on outcomes. Pattern mixture models are a useful method to address the presence and effect of informative missingness in longitudinal studies.

  18. Location Contexts of User Check-Ins to Model Urban Geo Life-Style Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Samiul; Ukkusuri, Satish V.

    2015-01-01

    Geo-location data from social media offers us information, in new ways, to understand people's attitudes and interests through their activity choices. In this paper, we explore the idea of inferring individual life-style patterns from activity-location choices revealed in social media. We present a model to understand life-style patterns using the contextual information (e. g. location categories) of user check-ins. Probabilistic topic models are developed to infer individual geo life-style patterns from two perspectives: i) to characterize the patterns of user interests to different types of places and ii) to characterize the patterns of user visits to different neighborhoods. The method is applied to a dataset of Foursquare check-ins of the users from New York City. The co-existence of several location contexts and the corresponding probabilities in a given pattern provide useful information about user interests and choices. It is found that geo life-style patterns have similar items—either nearby neighborhoods or similar location categories. The semantic and geographic proximity of the items in a pattern reflects the hidden regularity in user preferences and location choice behavior. PMID:25970430

  19. Multiple single-unit long-term tracking on organotypic hippocampal slices using high-density microelectrode arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel system to cultivate and record from organotypic brain slices directly on high-density microelectrode arrays (HD-MEA was developed. This system allows for continuous recording of electrical activity of specific individual neurons at high spatial resolution while monitoring at the same time, neuronal network activity. For the first time, the electrical activity patterns of single neurons and the corresponding neuronal network in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture were studied during several consecutive weeks at daily intervals. An unsupervised iterative spike-sorting algorithm, based on PCA and k-means clustering, was developed to assign the activities to the single units. Spike-triggered average extracellular waveforms of an action potential recorded across neighboring electrodes, termed ‘footprints’ of single-units were generated and tracked over weeks. The developed system offers the potential to study chronic impacts of drugs or genetic modifications on individual neurons in slice preparations over extended times.

  20. Vortex rope patterns at different load of hydro turbine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skripkin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of hydraulic turbines beyond optimal conditions leads to formation of precessing vortex core in a draft tube that generates powerful pressure pulsations in a hydraulic system. In case of resonance it leads to stability decreasing of hydraulic unit and electrical grid on the whole. In present work, such regimes are explored in a conical part of simplified turbine model. Studies are performed at constant flowrate Q = 70 m3/h and varying the runner rotational speed to explore different loads of the hydroturbine unit. The experiments involve pressure measurements, high speed-visualization and velocity measurements by means of laser Doppler anemometer technique. Interesting finding is related with abrupt increasing precession frequency at low swirl parameter of flow near optimal regime.

  1. Numerical modelling of flow pattern for high swirling flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the interaction of two coaxial swirling jets. High swirl burners are suitable for lean flames and produce low emissions. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the isothermal behaviour of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model is a Total Variation Diminishing and PISO is used to pressure velocity coupling. Transient analysis let identify the non-axisymmetric region of reverse flow. The center of instantaneous azimuthal velocities is not located in the axis of the chamber. The temporal sampling evidences this center spins around the axis of the device forming the precessing vortex core (PVC whose Strouhal numbers are more than two for Swirl numbers of one. Influence of swirl number evidences strong swirl numbers are precursor of large vortex breakdown. Influence of conical diffusers evidence the reduction of secondary flows associated to boundary layer separation.

  2. Bulk Fields and Supersymmetry in a Slice of AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Gherghetta, Tony; Gherghetta, Tony; Pomarol, Alex

    2000-01-01

    Five-dimensional models where the bulk is a slice of AdS have the virtue of solving the hierarchy problem. The electroweak scale is generated by a ``warp'' factor of the induced metric on the brane where the standard model fields live. However, it is not necessary to confine the standard model fields on the brane and we analyze the possibility of having the fields actually living in the slice of AdS. Specifically, we study the behaviour of fermions, gauge bosons and scalars in this geometry and their implications on electroweak physics. These scenarios can provide an explanation of the fermion mass hierarchy by warp factors. We also consider the case of supersymmetry in the bulk, and analyze the conditions on the mass spectrum. Finally, a model is proposed where the warp factor generates a small (TeV) supersymmetry-breaking scale, with the gauge interactions mediating the breaking to the scalar sector.

  3. Influence of the slice thickness in CT to clinical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kazue; Katakura, Toshihiko; Ito, Masami; Okuaki, Okihisa; Suzuki, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    CT is a kind of tomography. Therefore, what thickness of tissue is being observed in the picture - this is important in the clinical application of CT. The influence of slice thickness on the pictures, especially its clinical effect, was examined. The apparatus used is EMI CT 5005. For varying the slice thickness, it cannot be any larger than the thickness essential to the apparatus. Therefore, to make it thinner than the essential 14 mm, collimators were specially prepared, which were used on the sides of an X-ray tube and a detector. As basic observation, the revelation ability of form owing to the difference of slice thickness using acryl pipes, and the revelation ability of slice face owing to the difference of slice thickness, were examined. About clinical observation, the results for certain cases of cancer were compared with the CT images for the slice thickness of 14 mm essential to EMI CT 5005 and the slice thickness of 7 mm achieved by means of the collimators. (J.P.N.)

  4. Integument pattern formation involves genetic and epigenetic controls: feather arrays simulated by digital hormone models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall B; Shen, Wei-Min; Will, Peter; Wu, Da-Yu; Lin, Chih-Min; Jung, Han-Sung; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Pattern formation is a fundamental morphogenetic process. Models based on genetic and epigenetic control have been proposed but remain controversial. Here we use feather morphogenesis for further evaluation. Adhesion molecules and/or signaling molecules were first expressed homogenously in feather tracts (restrictive mode, appear earlier) or directly in bud or inter-bud regions ( de novo mode, appear later). They either activate or inhibit bud formation, but paradoxically colocalize in the bud. Using feather bud reconstitution, we showed that completely dissociated cells can reform periodic patterns without reference to previous positional codes. The patterning process has the characteristics of being self-organizing, dynamic and plastic. The final pattern is an equilibrium state reached by competition, and the number and size of buds can be altered based on cell number and activator/inhibitor ratio, respectively. We developed a Digital Hormone Model which consists of (1) competent cells without identity that move randomly in a space, (2) extracellular signaling hormones which diffuse by a reaction-diffusion mechanism and activate or inhibit cell adhesion, and (3) cells which respond with topological stochastic actions manifested as changes in cell adhesion. Based on probability, the results are cell clusters arranged in dots or stripes. Thus genetic control provides combinational molecular information which defines the properties of the cells but not the final pattern. Epigenetic control governs interactions among cells and their environment based on physical-chemical rules (such as those described in the Digital Hormone Model). Complex integument patterning is the sum of these two components of control and that is why integument patterns are usually similar but non-identical. These principles may be shared by other pattern formation processes such as barb ridge formation, fingerprints, pigmentation patterning, etc. The Digital Hormone Model can also be applied to

  5. Analysis and classification of commercial ham slice images using directional fractal dimension features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Fernando; Valous, Nektarios A; Allen, Paul; Kenny, Tony A; Ward, Paddy; Sun, Da-Wen

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a novel and non-destructive approach to the appearance characterization and classification of commercial pork, turkey and chicken ham slices. Ham slice images were modelled using directional fractal (DF(0°;45°;90°;135°)) dimensions and a minimum distance classifier was adopted to perform the classification task. Also, the role of different colour spaces and the resolution level of the images on DF analysis were investigated. This approach was applied to 480 wafer thin ham slices from four types of hams (120 slices per type): i.e., pork (cooked and smoked), turkey (smoked) and chicken (roasted). DF features were extracted from digitalized intensity images in greyscale, and R, G, B, L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), H, S, and V colour components for three image resolution levels (100%, 50%, and 25%). Simulation results show that in spite of the complexity and high variability in colour and texture appearance, the modelling of ham slice images with DF dimensions allows the capture of differentiating textural features between the four commercial ham types. Independent DF features entail better discrimination than that using the average of four directions. However, DF dimensions reveal a high sensitivity to colour channel, orientation and image resolution for the fractal analysis. The classification accuracy using six DF dimension features (a(90°)(∗),a(135°)(∗),H(0°),H(45°),S(0°),H(90°)) was 93.9% for training data and 82.2% for testing data.

  6. Patterns of coral bleaching: Modeling the adaptive bleaching hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J.R.; Fautin, D.G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Bleaching - the loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) from animals normally possessing them - can be induced by a variety of stresses, of which temperature has received the most attention. Bleaching is generally considered detrimental, but Buddemeier and Fautin have proposed that bleaching is also adaptive, providing an opportunity for recombining hosts with alternative algal types to form symbioses that might be better adapted to altered circumstances. Our mathematical model of this "adaptive bleaching hypothesis" provides insight into how animal-algae symbioses might react under various circumstances. It emulates many aspects of the coral bleaching phenomenon including: corals bleaching in response to a temperature only slightly greater than their average local maximum temperature; background bleaching; bleaching events being followed by bleaching of lesser magnitude in the subsequent one to several years; higher thermal tolerance of corals subject to environmental variability compared with those living under more constant conditions; patchiness in bleaching; and bleaching at temperatures that had not previously resulted in bleaching. ?? 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling on bubbly to churn flow pattern transition for vertical upward flows in narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanlin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping; Wang Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to predict the bubbly to churn flow pattern transition for vertical upward flows in narrow rectangular channel. The model was developed based on the imbalance theory of Helmholtz and some reasonable assumptions. The maximum ideal bubble in narrow rectangular channel and the thermal hydraulics boundary condition leading to bubbly flow to churn flow pattern transition was calculated. The model was validated by experimental data from previous researches. Comparison between predicted result and experimental result shows a reasonable good agreement. (author)

  8. A Pattern-Oriented Approach to a Methodical Evaluation of Modeling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Amberg

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a pattern-oriented approach to evaluate modeling methods and to compare various methods with each other from a methodical viewpoint. A specific set of principles (the patterns is defined by investigating the notations and the documentation of comparable modeling methods. Each principle helps to examine some parts of the methods from a specific point of view. All principles together lead to an overall picture of the method under examination. First the core ("method neutral" meaning of each principle is described. Then the methods are examined regarding the principle. Afterwards the method specific interpretations are compared with each other and with the core meaning of the principle. By this procedure, the strengths and weaknesses of modeling methods regarding methodical aspects are identified. The principles are described uniformly using a principle description template according to descriptions of object oriented design patterns. The approach is demonstrated by evaluating a business process modeling method.

  9. A Theoretical Model of Jigsaw-Puzzle Pattern Formation by Plant Leaf Epidermal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Akita, Kae; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Yoshimura, Kenji; Miura, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Plant leaf epidermal cells exhibit a jigsaw puzzle-like pattern that is generated by interdigitation of the cell wall during leaf development. The contribution of two ROP GTPases, ROP2 and ROP6, to the cytoskeletal dynamics that regulate epidermal cell wall interdigitation has already been examined; however, how interactions between these molecules result in pattern formation remains to be elucidated. Here, we propose a simple interface equation model that incorporates both the cell wall remodeling activity of ROP GTPases and the diffusible signaling molecules by which they are regulated. This model successfully reproduces pattern formation observed in vivo, and explains the counterintuitive experimental results of decreased cellulose production and increased thickness. Our model also reproduces the dynamics of three-way cell wall junctions. Therefore, this model provides a possible mechanism for cell wall interdigitation formation in vivo.

  10. DYNAMIC MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF URBAN SPATIAL PATTERN (RESIDENTIAL CHOICE OF LOCATION: MOBILITY VS EXTERNALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Fitriani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Household’s residential choice of location determines urban spatial pattern (e.g sprawl. The static model which assumes that the choice has been affected by distance to the CBD and location specific externality, fails to capture the evoution of the pattern over time. Therefore this study proposes a dynamic version of the model. It analyses the effects of externalities on the optimal solution of development decision as function of time. It also derives the effect of mobility and externality on the rate of change of development pattern through time. When the increasing rate of utility is not as significant as the increasing rate of income, the externalities will delay the change of urban spatial pattern over time. If the mobility costs increase by large amount relative to the increase of income and inflation rate, then the mobility effect dominates the effects of externalities in delaying the urban expansion.

  11. Analyzing Unsaturated Flow Patterns in Fractured Rock Using an Integrated Modeling Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y.S. Wu; G. Lu; K. Zhang; L. Pan; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2006-01-01

    Characterizing percolation patterns in unsaturated fractured rock has posed a greater challenge to modeling investigations than comparable saturated zone studies, because of the heterogeneous nature of unsaturated media and the great number of variables impacting unsaturated flow. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology for quantitatively characterizing percolation patterns in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. The modeling approach integrates a wide variety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical field data into a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model for modeling analyses. It takes into account the coupled processes of fluid and heat flow and chemical isotopic transport in Yucca Mountain's highly heterogeneous, unsaturated fractured tuffs. Modeling results are examined against different types of field-measured data and then used to evaluate different hydrogeological conceptualizations and their results of flow patterns in the unsaturated zone. In particular, this model provides a much clearer understanding of percolation patterns and flow behavior through the unsaturated zone, both crucial issues in assessing repository performance. The integrated approach for quantifying Yucca Mountain's flow system is demonstrated to provide a practical modeling tool for characterizing flow and transport processes in complex subsurface systems

  12. Detecting Aberrant Response Patterns in the Rasch Model. Rapport 87-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Jan

    In this paper, the detection of response patterns aberrant from the Rasch model is considered. For this purpose, a new person fit index, recently developed by I. W. Molenaar (1987) and an iterative estimation procedure are used in a simulation study of Rasch model data mixed with aberrant data. Three kinds of aberrant response behavior are…

  13. Simulated small-angle scattering patterns for a plastically deformed model composite material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shenoy, V.B.; Cleveringa, H.H.M.; Phillips, R.; Giessen, E. van der; Needleman, A.

    2000-01-01

    The small-angle scattering patterns predicted by discrete dislocation plasticity versus local and non-local continuum plasticity theory are compared in a model problem. The problem considered is a two-dimensional model composite with elastic reinforcements in a crystalline matrix subject to

  14. Exploring the Argumentation Pattern in Modeling-Based Learning about Apparent Motion of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    This study proposed an analytic framework for coding students' dialogic argumentation and investigated the characteristics of the small-group argumentation pattern observed in modeling-based learning. The participants were 122 second grade high school students in South Korea divided into an experimental and a comparison group. Modeling-based…

  15. Dynamical patterns of calcium signaling in a functional model of neuron-astrocyte networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Koreshkov, R.N.; Brazhe, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a functional mathematical model for neuron-astrocyte networks. The model incorporates elements of the tripartite synapse and the spatial branching structure of coupled astrocytes. We consider glutamate-induced calcium signaling as a specific mode of excitability and transmission...... in astrocytic-neuronal networks. We reproduce local and global dynamical patterns observed experimentally....

  16. Inter-dependent tissue growth and Turing patterning in a model for long bone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Simon; Iber, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    The development of long bones requires a sophisticated spatial organization of cellular signalling, proliferation, and differentiation programs. How such spatial organization emerges on the growing long bone domain is still unresolved. Based on the reported biochemical interactions we developed a regulatory model for the core signalling factors IHH, PTCH1, and PTHrP and included two cell types, proliferating/resting chondrocytes and (pre-)hypertrophic chondrocytes. We show that the reported IHH–PTCH1 interaction gives rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing kinetics, and that inclusion of PTHrP is important to achieve robust patterning when coupling patterning and tissue dynamics. The model reproduces relevant spatiotemporal gene expression patterns, as well as a number of relevant mutant phenotypes. In summary, we propose that a ligand–receptor based Turing mechanism may control the emergence of patterns during long bone development, with PTHrP as an important mediator to confer patterning robustness when the sensitive Turing system is coupled to the dynamics of a growing and differentiating tissue. We have previously shown that ligand–receptor based Turing mechanisms can also result from BMP–receptor, SHH–receptor, and GDNF–receptor interactions, and that these reproduce the wildtype and mutant patterns during digit formation in limbs and branching morphogenesis in lung and kidneys. Receptor–ligand interactions may thus constitute a general mechanism to generate Turing patterns in nature. (paper)

  17. Inter-dependent tissue growth and Turing patterning in a model for long bone development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Simon; Iber, Dagmar

    2013-10-01

    The development of long bones requires a sophisticated spatial organization of cellular signalling, proliferation, and differentiation programs. How such spatial organization emerges on the growing long bone domain is still unresolved. Based on the reported biochemical interactions we developed a regulatory model for the core signalling factors IHH, PTCH1, and PTHrP and included two cell types, proliferating/resting chondrocytes and (pre-)hypertrophic chondrocytes. We show that the reported IHH-PTCH1 interaction gives rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing kinetics, and that inclusion of PTHrP is important to achieve robust patterning when coupling patterning and tissue dynamics. The model reproduces relevant spatiotemporal gene expression patterns, as well as a number of relevant mutant phenotypes. In summary, we propose that a ligand-receptor based Turing mechanism may control the emergence of patterns during long bone development, with PTHrP as an important mediator to confer patterning robustness when the sensitive Turing system is coupled to the dynamics of a growing and differentiating tissue. We have previously shown that ligand-receptor based Turing mechanisms can also result from BMP-receptor, SHH-receptor, and GDNF-receptor interactions, and that these reproduce the wildtype and mutant patterns during digit formation in limbs and branching morphogenesis in lung and kidneys. Receptor-ligand interactions may thus constitute a general mechanism to generate Turing patterns in nature.

  18. Liver Effects of Clinical Drugs Differentiated in Human Liver Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E. M. Vickers

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drugs with clinical adverse effects are compared in an ex vivo 3-dimensional multi-cellular human liver slice model. Functional markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, glutathione GSH and ATP levels, were affected by acetaminophen (APAP, 1 mM, diclofenac (DCF, 1 mM and etomoxir (ETM, 100 μM. Drugs targeting mitochondria more than GSH were dantrolene (DTL, 10 μM and cyclosporin A (CSA, 10 μM, while GSH was affected more than ATP by methimazole (MMI, 500 μM, terbinafine (TBF, 100 μM, and carbamazepine (CBZ 100 μM. Oxidative stress genes were affected by TBF (18%, CBZ, APAP, and ETM (12%–11%, and mitochondrial genes were altered by CBZ, APAP, MMI, and ETM (8%–6%. Apoptosis genes were affected by DCF (14%, while apoptosis plus necrosis were altered by APAP and ETM (15%. Activation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial energy, heat shock, ER stress, apoptosis, necrosis, DNA damage, immune and inflammation genes ranked CSA (75%, ETM (66%, DCF, TBF, MMI (61%–60%, APAP, CBZ (57%–56%, and DTL (48%. Gene changes in fatty acid metabolism, cholestasis, immune and inflammation were affected by DTL (51%, CBZ and ETM (44%–43%, APAP and DCF (40%–38%, MMI, TBF and CSA (37%–35%. This model advances multiple dosing in a human ex vivo model, plus functional markers and gene profile markers of drug induced human liver side-effects.

  19. Data mining and Pattern Recognizing Models for Identifying Inherited Diseases: Challenges and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiru Iddamalgoda; Partha Sarathi Das; Partha Sarathi Das; Achala Aponso; Vijayaraghava Seshadri Sundararajan; Prashanth Suravajhala; Prashanth Suravajhala; Prashanth Suravajhala; Jayaraman K Valadi

    2016-01-01

    Data mining and pattern recognition methods reveal interesting findings in genetic studies, especially on how genetic makeup is associated with inherited diseases. Although researchers have proposed various data mining models for biomedical approaches, there remains a challenge in accurately determining the responsible genetic factors for prioritizing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with the disease. In this commentary, we review the state-of-art data mining and pattern r...

  20. Predicting Neural Activity Patterns Associated with Sentences Using a Neurobiologically Motivated Model of Semantic Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew James; Binder, Jeffrey R; Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Conant, Lisa L; Aguilar, Mario; Wang, Xixi; Doko, Donias; Raizada, Rajeev D S

    2017-09-01

    We introduce an approach that predicts neural representations of word meanings contained in sentences then superposes these to predict neural representations of new sentences. A neurobiological semantic model based on sensory, motor, social, emotional, and cognitive attributes was used as a foundation to define semantic content. Previous studies have predominantly predicted neural patterns for isolated words, using models that lack neurobiological interpretation. Fourteen participants read 240 sentences describing everyday situations while undergoing fMRI. To connect sentence-level fMRI activation patterns to the word-level semantic model, we devised methods to decompose the fMRI data into individual words. Activation patterns associated with each attribute in the model were then estimated using multiple-regression. This enabled synthesis of activation patterns for trained and new words, which were subsequently averaged to predict new sentences. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that prediction accuracy was highest using voxels in the left temporal and inferior parietal cortex, although a broad range of regions returned statistically significant results, showing that semantic information is widely distributed across the brain. The results show how a neurobiologically motivated semantic model can decompose sentence-level fMRI data into activation features for component words, which can be recombined to predict activation patterns for new sentences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Coupled variable selection for regression modeling of complex treatment patterns in a clinical cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtmann, I; Elsäßer, A; Weinmann, A; Binder, H

    2014-12-30

    For determining a manageable set of covariates potentially influential with respect to a time-to-event endpoint, Cox proportional hazards models can be combined with variable selection techniques, such as stepwise forward selection or backward elimination based on p-values, or regularized regression techniques such as component-wise boosting. Cox regression models have also been adapted for dealing with more complex event patterns, for example, for competing risks settings with separate, cause-specific hazard models for each event type, or for determining the prognostic effect pattern of a variable over different landmark times, with one conditional survival model for each landmark. Motivated by a clinical cancer registry application, where complex event patterns have to be dealt with and variable selection is needed at the same time, we propose a general approach for linking variable selection between several Cox models. Specifically, we combine score statistics for each covariate across models by Fisher's method as a basis for variable selection. This principle is implemented for a stepwise forward selection approach as well as for a regularized regression technique. In an application to data from hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the coupled stepwise approach is seen to facilitate joint interpretation of the different cause-specific Cox models. In conditional survival models at landmark times, which address updates of prediction as time progresses and both treatment and other potential explanatory variables may change, the coupled regularized regression approach identifies potentially important, stably selected covariates together with their effect time pattern, despite having only a small number of events. These results highlight the promise of the proposed approach for coupling variable selection between Cox models, which is particularly relevant for modeling for clinical cancer registries with their complex event patterns. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  2. In vitro burn model illustrating heat conduction patterns using compressed thermal papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No; Kwon, Ho

    2015-01-01

    To date, heat conduction from heat sources to tissue has been estimated by complex mathematical modeling. In the present study, we developed an intuitive in vitro skin burn model that illustrates heat conduction patterns inside the skin. This was composed of tightly compressed thermal papers with compression frames. Heat flow through the model left a trace by changing the color of thermal papers. These were digitized and three-dimensionally reconstituted to reproduce the heat conduction patterns in the skin. For standardization, we validated K91HG-CE thermal paper using a printout test and bivariate correlation analysis. We measured the papers' physical properties and calculated the estimated depth of heat conduction using Fourier's equation. Through contact burns of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 seconds on porcine skin and our burn model using a heated brass comb, and comparing the burn wound and heat conduction trace, we validated our model. The heat conduction pattern correlation analysis (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.846, p < 0.001) and the heat conduction depth correlation analysis (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.93, p < 0.001) showed statistically significant high correlations between the porcine burn wound and our model. Our model showed good correlation with porcine skin burn injury and replicated its heat conduction patterns. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  3. The Slice Algorithm For Irreducible Decomposition of Monomial Ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    2009-01-01

    Irreducible decomposition of monomial ideals has an increasing number of applications from biology to pure math. This paper presents the Slice Algorithm for computing irreducible decompositions, Alexander duals and socles of monomial ideals. The paper includes experiments showing good performance...

  4. Study of Energy Consumption of Potato Slices During Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafezi Negar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the new methods of food drying using infrared heating under vacuum is to increase the drying rate and maintain the quality of dried product. In this study, potato slices were dried using vacuum-infrared drying. Experiments were performed with the infrared lamp power levels 100, 150 and 200 W, absolute pressure levels 20, 80, 140 and 760 mmHg, and with three thicknesses of slices 1, 2 and 3 mm, in three repetitions. The results showed that the infrared lamp power, absolute pressure and slice thickness have important effects on the drying of potato. With increasing the radiation power, reducing the absolute pressure (acts of vacuum in the dryer chamber and also reducing the thickness of potato slices, drying time and the amount of energy consumed is reduced. In relation to thermal utilization efficiency, results indicated that with increasing the infrared radiation power and decreasing the absolute pressure, thermal efficiency increased.

  5. Understanding Activation Patterns in Shared Circuits: Toward a Value Driven Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Aziz-Zadeh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade many studies indicate that we utilize our own motor system to understand the actions of other people. This mirror neuron system (MNS has been proposed to be involved in social cognition and motor learning. However, conflicting findings regarding the underlying mechanisms that drive these shared circuits make it difficult to decipher a common model of their function. Here we propose adapting a “value-driven” model to explain discrepancies in the human mirror system literature and to incorporate this model with existing models. We will use this model to explain discrepant activation patterns in multiple shared circuits in the human data, such that a unified model may explain reported activation patterns from previous studies as a function of value.

  6. Resource slicing in virtual wireless networks: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Richart, Matias; Baliosian De Lazzari, Javier Ernesto; Serrat Fernández, Juan; Gorricho Moreno, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    New architectural and design approaches for radio access networks have appeared with the introduction of network virtualization in the wireless domain. One of these approaches splits the wireless network infrastructure into isolated virtual slices under their own management, requirements, and characteristics. Despite the advances in wireless virtualization, there are still many open issues regarding the resource allocation and isolation of wireless slices. Because of the dynamics and share...

  7. Capacity for patterns and sequences in Kanerva's SDM as compared to other associative memory models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, James D.

    1987-01-01

    The information capacity of Kanerva's Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) and Hopfield-type neural networks is investigated. Under the approximations used, it is shown that the total information stored in these systems is proportional to the number connections in the network. The proportionality constant is the same for the SDM and Hopfield-type models independent of the particular model, or the order of the model. The approximations are checked numerically. This same analysis can be used to show that the SDM can store sequences of spatiotemporal patterns, and the addition of time-delayed connections allows the retrieval of context dependent temporal patterns. A minor modification of the SDM can be used to store correlated patterns.

  8. Mathematical modeling of high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on granular packing patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chong-Jian; He, Rui; Zheng, Ping; Chai, Li-Yuan; Min, Xiao-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel model was conducted to estimate volumetric nitrogen conversion rates. ► The packing patterns of the granules in Anammox reactor are investigated. ► The simple cubic packing pattern was simulated in high-rate Anammox UASB reactor. ► Operational strategies concerning sludge concentration were proposed by the modeling. -- Abstract: A novel mathematical model was developed to estimate the volumetric nitrogen conversion rates of a high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on the packing patterns of granular sludge. A series of relationships among granular packing density, sludge concentration, hydraulic retention time and volumetric conversion rate were constructed to correlate Anammox reactor performance with granular packing patterns. It was suggested that the Anammox granules packed as the equivalent simple cubic pattern in high-rate UASB reactor with packing density of 50–55%, which not only accommodated a high concentration of sludge inside the reactor, but also provided large pore volume, thus prolonging the actual substrate conversion time. Results also indicated that it was necessary to improve Anammox reactor performance by enhancing substrate loading when sludge concentration was higher than 37.8 gVSS/L. The established model was carefully calibrated and verified, and it well simulated the performance of granule-based high-rate Anammox UASB reactor

  9. Mathematical modeling of high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on granular packing patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chong-Jian, E-mail: chjtangzju@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Control and Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, Changsha 410083 (China); He, Rui; Zheng, Ping [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chai, Li-Yuan; Min, Xiao-Bo [Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Control and Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A novel model was conducted to estimate volumetric nitrogen conversion rates. ► The packing patterns of the granules in Anammox reactor are investigated. ► The simple cubic packing pattern was simulated in high-rate Anammox UASB reactor. ► Operational strategies concerning sludge concentration were proposed by the modeling. -- Abstract: A novel mathematical model was developed to estimate the volumetric nitrogen conversion rates of a high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on the packing patterns of granular sludge. A series of relationships among granular packing density, sludge concentration, hydraulic retention time and volumetric conversion rate were constructed to correlate Anammox reactor performance with granular packing patterns. It was suggested that the Anammox granules packed as the equivalent simple cubic pattern in high-rate UASB reactor with packing density of 50–55%, which not only accommodated a high concentration of sludge inside the reactor, but also provided large pore volume, thus prolonging the actual substrate conversion time. Results also indicated that it was necessary to improve Anammox reactor performance by enhancing substrate loading when sludge concentration was higher than 37.8 gVSS/L. The established model was carefully calibrated and verified, and it well simulated the performance of granule-based high-rate Anammox UASB reactor.

  10. A simple method for multiday imaging of slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Armin H; Rubel, Edwin W

    2010-01-01

    The organotypic slice culture (Stoppini et al. A simple method for organotypic cultures of nervous tissue. 1991;37:173-182) has become the method of choice to answer a variety of questions in neuroscience. For many experiments, however, it would be beneficial to image or manipulate a slice culture repeatedly, for example, over the course of many days. We prepared organotypic slice cultures of the auditory brainstem of P3 and P4 mice and kept them in vitro for up to 4 weeks. Single cells in the auditory brainstem were transfected with plasmids expressing fluorescent proteins by way of electroporation (Haas et al. Single-cell electroporation for gene transfer in vivo. 2001;29:583-591). The culture was then placed in a chamber perfused with oxygenated ACSF and the labeled cell imaged with an inverted wide-field microscope repeatedly for multiple days, recording several time-points per day, before returning the slice to the incubator. We describe a simple method to image a slice culture preparation during the course of multiple days and over many continuous hours, without noticeable damage to the tissue or photobleaching. Our method uses a simple, inexpensive custom-built insulator constructed around the microscope to maintain controlled temperature and uses a perfusion chamber as used for in vitro slice recordings. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. NMR surprizes with thin slices and strong gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaedke, Achim; Kresse, Benjamin [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Nestle, Nikolaus

    2008-07-01

    In the context of our work on diffusion-relaxation-coupling in thin excited slices, we perform NMR experiments in static magnetic field gradients up to 200 T/m. For slice thicknesses in the range of 10{mu}m, the frequency bandwidth of the excited slices becomes sufficiently narrow that free induction decays (FIDs) become observable despite the presence of the strong static gradient. The observed FIDs were also simulated using standard methods from MRI physics. Possible effects of diffusion during the FID duration are still minor at this slice thickness in water but might become dominant for smaller slices or more diffusive media. Furthermore, the detailed excitation structure of the RF pulses was studied in profiling experiments over the edge of a plane liquid cell. Side lobe effects to the slices will be discussed along with approaches to control them. The spatial resolution achieved in the profiling experiments furthermore allows the identification of thermal expansion phenomena in the NMR magnet. Measures to reduce the temperature drift problems are presented.

  12. Generalized Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang-Ren; Jiang, Dazong; Yang, Kevin; Yang, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The cone-beam reconstruction theory has been proposed by Kirillov in 1961, Tuy in 1983, Feldkamp in 1984, Smith in 1985, Pierre Grangeat in 1990. The Fourier slice theorem is proposed by Bracewell 1956, which leads to the Fourier image reconstruction method for parallel-beam geometry. The Fourier slice theorem is extended to fan-beam geometry by Zhao in 1993 and 1995. By combining the above mentioned cone-beam image reconstruction theory and the above mentioned Fourier slice theory of fan-beam geometry, the Fourier slice theorem in cone-beam geometry is proposed by Zhao 1995 in short conference publication. This article offers the details of the derivation and implementation of this Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam geometry. Especially the problem of the reconstruction from Fourier domain has been overcome, which is that the value of in the origin of Fourier space is 0/0. The 0/0 type of limit is proper handled. As examples, the implementation results for the single circle and two perpendicular circle source orbits are shown. In the cone-beam reconstruction if a interpolation process is considered, the number of the calculations for the generalized Fourier slice theorem algorithm is O(N^4), which is close to the filtered back-projection method, here N is the image size of 1-dimension. However the interpolation process can be avoid, in that case the number of the calculations is O(N5).

  13. N* resonances from KΛ amplitudes in sliced bins in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisovich, A.V.; Nikonov, V.A.; Sarantsev, A.V. [Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Particle and Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Burkert, V. [Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Hadzimehmedovic, M.; Omerovic, R.; Stahov, J. [University of Tuzla, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Ireland, D.G. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Klempt, E. [Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Svarc, A. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Thoma, U. [Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    The two reactions γp → K{sup +}Λ and π{sup -}p → K{sup 0}Λ are analyzed to determine the leading photoproduction multipoles and the pion-induced partial wave amplitudes in slices of the invariant mass. The multipoles and the partial-wave amplitudes are simultaneously fitted in a multichannel Laurent+Pietarinen model (L+P model), which determines the poles in the complex energy plane on the second Riemann sheet close to the physical axes. The results from the L+P fit are compared with the results of an energy-dependent fit based on the Bonn-Gatchina (BnGa) approach. The study confirms the existence of several poles due to nucleon resonances in the region at about 1.9 GeV with quantum numbers J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +}, 1/2{sup -}, 3/2{sup -}, 5/2{sup -}. (orig.)

  14. Color changes kinetics during deep fat frying of carrot slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin

    2018-05-01

    Heat and mass transfer phenomena take place during frying cause physicochemical changes, which affect the colour and surface of the fried products. The effect of frying temperature on the colour changes and heat transfer during deep fat frying of carrot has been investigated. The colour scale parameters redness (a*), yellowness (b*) and lightness (L*), and color change intensity (ΔE) were used to estimate colour changes during frying as a function of oil temperature. L* value of fried carrot decreased during frying. The redness of fried carrot decreased during the early stages of frying, while it increased afterwards (become more red). A first-order kinetic equation was used for each one of the three colour parameters, in which the rate constant is a function of oil temperatures. The results showed that oil temperature has a significant effect on the colour parameters. Different kinetic models were used to fit the experimental data and the results revealed that the quadratic model was the most suitable to describe the color change intensity (ΔE) (R > 0.96). Center temperature of carrot slice increased with increase in oil temperature and time during frying.

  15. Slicing, sampling, and distance-dependent effects affect network measures in simulated cortical circuit structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carl Miner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The neuroanatomical connectivity of cortical circuits is believed to follow certain rules, the exact origins of which are still poorly understood. In particular, numerous nonrandom features, such as common neighbor clustering, overrepresentation of reciprocal connectivity, and overrepresentation of certain triadic graph motifs have been experimentally observed in cortical slice data. Some of these data, particularly regarding bidirectional connectivity are seemingly contradictory, and the reasons for this are unclear. Here we present a simple static geometric network model with distance-dependent connectivity on a realistic scale that naturally gives rise to certain elements of these observed behaviors, and may provide plausible explanations for some of the conflicting findings. Specifically, investigation of the model shows that experimentally measured nonrandom effects, especially bidirectional connectivity, may depend sensitively on experimental parameters such as slice thickness and sampling area, suggesting potential explanations for the seemingly conflicting experimental results.

  16. Slicing, sampling, and distance-dependent effects affect network measures in simulated cortical circuit structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Daniel C; Triesch, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The neuroanatomical connectivity of cortical circuits is believed to follow certain rules, the exact origins of which are still poorly understood. In particular, numerous nonrandom features, such as common neighbor clustering, overrepresentation of reciprocal connectivity, and overrepresentation of certain triadic graph motifs have been experimentally observed in cortical slice data. Some of these data, particularly regarding bidirectional connectivity are seemingly contradictory, and the reasons for this are unclear. Here we present a simple static geometric network model with distance-dependent connectivity on a realistic scale that naturally gives rise to certain elements of these observed behaviors, and may provide plausible explanations for some of the conflicting findings. Specifically, investigation of the model shows that experimentally measured nonrandom effects, especially bidirectional connectivity, may depend sensitively on experimental parameters such as slice thickness and sampling area, suggesting potential explanations for the seemingly conflicting experimental results.

  17. Gait pattern recognition in cerebral palsy patients using neural network modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, J.; Gibbs, S.; Abboud, R.; Anand, S.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of gait data obtained from modern 3D gait analysis is a challenging and time consuming task. The aim of this study was to create neural network models which can recognise the gait patterns from pre- and post-treatment and the normal ones. Neural network is a method which works on the principle of learning from experience and then uses the obtained knowledge to predict the unknown. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with cerebral palsy were recruited as subjects whose gait was analysed in pre- and post-treatment. A group of twenty-six normal subjects also participated in this study as control group. All subjects gait was analysed using Vicon Nexus to obtain the gait parameters and kinetic and kinematic parameters of hip, knee and ankle joints in three planes of both limbs. The gait data was used as input to create neural network models. A total of approximately 300 trials were split into 70% and 30% to train and test the models, respectively. Different models were built using different parameters. The gait was categorised as three patterns, i.e., normal, pre- and post-treatments. Result: The results showed that the models using all parameters or using the joint angles and moments could predict the gait patterns with approximately 95% accuracy. Some of the models e.g., the models using joint power and moments, had lower rate in recognition of gait patterns with approximately 70-90% successful ratio. Conclusion: Neural network model can be used in clinical practice to recognise the gait pattern for cerebral palsy patients. (author)

  18. SensibleSleep: A Bayesian Model for Learning Sleep Patterns from Smartphone Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuttone, Andrea; Bækgaard, Per; Sekara, Vedran

    2017-01-01

    We propose a Bayesian model for extracting sleep patterns from smartphone events. Our method is able to identify individuals' daily sleep periods and their evolution over time, and provides an estimation of the probability of sleep and wake transitions. The model is fitted to more than 400...... to quantify uncertainty and encode prior knowledge about sleep patterns. Compared with existing smartphone-based systems, our method requires only screen on/off events, and is therefore much less intrusive in terms of privacy and more battery-efficient....

  19. Automatic pattern identification of rock moisture based on the Staff-RF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Tao, Kai; Jiang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Studies on the moisture and damage state of rocks generally focus on the qualitative description and mechanical information of rocks. This method is not applicable to the real-time safety monitoring of rock mass. In this study, a musical staff computing model is used to quantify the acoustic emission signals of rocks with different moisture patterns. Then, the random forest (RF) method is adopted to form the staff-RF model for the real-time pattern identification of rock moisture. The entire process requires only the computing information of the AE signal and does not require the mechanical conditions of rocks.

  20. Post-Hoc Pattern-Oriented Testing and Tuning of an Existing Large Model: Lessons from the Field Vole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Dalkvist, Trine; Grimm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Pattern-oriented modeling (POM) is a general strategy for modeling complex systems. In POM, multiple patterns observed at different scales and hierarchical levels are used to optimize model structure, to test and select sub-models of key processes, and for calibration. So far, POM has been used f...

  1. Effects of early afterdepolarizations on excitation patterns in an accurate model of the human ventricles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Gunnar; Panfilov, Alexander V.; Vandersickel, Nele

    2017-01-01

    Early Afterdepolarizations, EADs, are defined as the reversal of the action potential before completion of the repolarization phase, which can result in ectopic beats. However, the series of mechanisms of EADs leading to these ectopic beats and related cardiac arrhythmias are not well understood. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of this single cell behavior on the whole heart level. For this study we used a modified version of the Ten Tusscher-Panfilov model of human ventricular cells (TP06) which we implemented in a 3D ventricle model including realistic fiber orientations. To increase the likelihood of EAD formation at the single cell level, we reduced the repolarization reserve (RR) by reducing the rapid delayed rectifier Potassium current and raising the L-type Calcium current. Varying these parameters defined a 2D parametric space where different excitation patterns could be classified. Depending on the initial conditions, by either exciting the ventricles with a spiral formation or burst pacing protocol, we found multiple different spatio-temporal excitation patterns. The spiral formation protocol resulted in the categorization of a stable spiral (S), a meandering spiral (MS), a spiral break-up regime (SB), spiral fibrillation type B (B), spiral fibrillation type A (A) and an oscillatory excitation type (O). The last three patterns are a 3D generalization of previously found patterns in 2D. First, the spiral fibrillation type B showed waves determined by a chaotic bi-excitable regime, i.e. mediated by both Sodium and Calcium waves at the same time and in same tissue settings. In the parameter region governed by the B pattern, single cells were able to repolarize completely and different (spiral) waves chaotically burst into each other without finishing a 360 degree rotation. Second, spiral fibrillation type A patterns consisted of multiple small rotating spirals. Single cells failed to repolarize to the resting membrane potential hence

  2. Exploring the patterns and evolution of self-organized urban street networks through modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yikang; Ban, Yifang; Wang, Jiechen; Haas, Jan

    2013-03-01

    As one of the most important subsystems in cities, urban street networks have recently been well studied by using the approach of complex networks. This paper proposes a growing model for self-organized urban street networks. The model involves a competition among new centers with different values of attraction radius and a local optimal principle of both geometrical and topological factors. We find that with the model growth, the local optimization in the connection process and appropriate probability for the loop construction well reflect the evolution strategy in real-world cities. Moreover, different values of attraction radius in centers competition process lead to morphological change in patterns including urban network, polycentric and monocentric structures. The model succeeds in reproducing a large diversity of road network patterns by varying parameters. The similarity between the properties of our model and empirical results implies that a simple universal growth mechanism exists in self-organized cities.

  3. Haunted Kaluza universe with four-dimensional Lorentzian flat, Kerr, and Taub-NUT slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Rossen I.; Prodanov, Emil M.

    2005-01-01

    The duality between the original Kaluza's theory and Klein's subsequent modification is duality between slicing and threading decomposition of the five-dimensional spacetime. The field equations of the original Kaluza's theory lead to the interpretation of the four-dimensional Lorentzian Kerr and Taub-NUT solutions as resulting from static electric and magnetic charges and dipoles in the presence of ghost matter and constant dilaton, which models Newton's constant

  4. Mechanochemical pattern formation in simple models of active viscoelastic fluids and solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sergio; Radszuweit, Markus; Engel, Harald; Bär, Markus

    2017-11-01

    The cytoskeleton of the organism Physarum polycephalum is a prominent example of a complex active viscoelastic material wherein stresses induce flows along the organism as a result of the action of molecular motors and their regulation by calcium ions. Experiments in Physarum polycephalum have revealed a rich variety of mechanochemical patterns including standing, traveling and rotating waves that arise from instabilities of spatially homogeneous states without gradients in stresses and resulting flows. Herein, we investigate simple models where an active stress induced by molecular motors is coupled to a model describing the passive viscoelastic properties of the cellular material. Specifically, two models for viscoelastic fluids (Maxwell and Jeffrey model) and two models for viscoelastic solids (Kelvin-Voigt and Standard model) are investigated. Our focus is on the analysis of the conditions that cause destabilization of spatially homogeneous states and the related onset of mechano-chemical waves and patterns. We carry out linear stability analyses and numerical simulations in one spatial dimension for different models. In general, sufficiently strong activity leads to waves and patterns. The primary instability is stationary for all active fluids considered, whereas all active solids have an oscillatory primary instability. All instabilities found are of long-wavelength nature reflecting the conservation of the total calcium concentration in the models studied.

  5. A model-based exploration of the role of pattern generating circuits during locomotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjaninejad, Ali; Finley, James M

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we used a model-based approach to explore the potential contributions of central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) during adaptation to external perturbations during locomotion. We constructed a neuromechanical modeled of locomotion using a reduced-phase CPG controller and an inverted pendulum mechanical model. Two different forms of locomotor adaptation were examined in this study: split-belt treadmill adaptation and adaptation to a unilateral, elastic force field. For each simulation, we first examined the effects of phase resetting and varying the model's initial conditions on the resulting adaptation. After evaluating the effect of phase resetting on the adaptation of step length symmetry, we examined the extent to which the results from these simple models could explain previous experimental observations. We found that adaptation of step length symmetry during split-belt treadmill walking could be reproduced using our model, but this model failed to replicate patterns of adaptation observed in response to force field perturbations. Given that spinal animal models can adapt to both of these types of perturbations, our findings suggest that there may be distinct features of pattern generating circuits that mediate each form of adaptation.

  6. Enterprise Pattern: integrating the business process into a unified enterprise model of modern service company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Luo, Zhiling; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Lida; Yin, Yuyu; Wu, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Modern service company (MSC), the enterprise involving special domains, such as the financial industry, information service industry and technology development industry, depends heavily on information technology. Modelling of such enterprise has attracted much research attention because it promises to help enterprise managers to analyse basic business strategies (e.g. the pricing strategy) and even optimise the business process (BP) to gain benefits. While the existing models proposed by economists cover the economic elements, they fail to address the basic BP and its relationship with the economic characteristics. Those proposed in computer science regardless of achieving great success in BP modelling perform poorly in supporting the economic analysis. Therefore, the existing approaches fail to satisfy the requirement of enterprise modelling for MSC, which demands simultaneous consideration of both economic analysing and business processing. In this article, we provide a unified enterprise modelling approach named Enterprise Pattern (EP) which bridges the gap between the BP model and the enterprise economic model of MSC. Proposing a language named Enterprise Pattern Description Language (EPDL) covering all the basic language elements of EP, we formulate the language syntaxes and two basic extraction rules assisting economic analysis. Furthermore, we extend Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) to support EPDL, named BPMN for Enterprise Pattern (BPMN4EP). The example of mobile application platform is studied in detail for a better understanding of EPDL.

  7. Latent Feature Models for Uncovering Human Mobility Patterns from Anonymized User Location Traces with Metadata

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed

    2017-04-10

    In the mobile era, data capturing individuals’ locations have become unprecedentedly available. Data from Location-Based Social Networks is one example of large-scale user-location data. Such data provide a valuable source for understanding patterns governing human mobility, and thus enable a wide range of research. However, mining and utilizing raw user-location data is a challenging task. This is mainly due to the sparsity of data (at the user level), the imbalance of data with power-law users and locations check-ins degree (at the global level), and more importantly the lack of a uniform low-dimensional feature space describing users. Three latent feature models are proposed in this dissertation. Each proposed model takes as an input a collection of user-location check-ins, and outputs a new representation space for users and locations respectively. To avoid invading users privacy, the proposed models are designed to learn from anonymized location data where only IDs - not geophysical positioning or category - of locations are utilized. To enrich the inferred mobility patterns, the proposed models incorporate metadata, often associated with user-location data, into the inference process. In this dissertation, two types of metadata are utilized to enrich the inferred patterns, timestamps and social ties. Time adds context to the inferred patterns, while social ties amplifies incomplete user-location check-ins. The first proposed model incorporates timestamps by learning from collections of users’ locations sharing the same discretized time. The second proposed model also incorporates time into the learning model, yet takes a further step by considering time at different scales (hour of a day, day of a week, month, and so on). This change in modeling time allows for capturing meaningful patterns over different times scales. The last proposed model incorporates social ties into the learning process to compensate for inactive users who contribute a large volume

  8. Using species distribution modeling to delineate the botanical richness patterns and phytogeographical regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Gang; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2016-03-01

    The millions of plant specimens that have been collected and stored in Chinese herbaria over the past ~110 years have recently been digitized and geo-referenced. Here we use this unique collection data set for species distribution modeling exercise aiming at mapping & explaining the botanical richness; delineating China’s phytogeographical regions and investigating the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We modeled distributions of 6,828 woody plants using MaxEnt and remove the collection bias using null model. The continental China was divided into different phytogeographical regions based on the dissimilarity patterns. An ordination and Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics were used to analysis the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We found that the annual precipitation and temperature stability were responsible for observed species diversity. The mechanisms causing dissimilarity pattern seems differ among biogeographical regions. The identified environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns for southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast are annual precipitation, topographic & temperature stability, water deficit and temperature instability, respectively. For effective conservation of China’s plant diversity, identifying the historical refuge and protection of high diversity areas in each of the identified floristic regions and their subdivisions will be essential.

  9. A Physics-Inspired Mechanistic Model of Migratory Movement Patterns in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Christopher; Somveille, Marius

    2017-08-29

    In this paper, we introduce a mechanistic model of migratory movement patterns in birds, inspired by ideas and methods from physics. Previous studies have shed light on the factors influencing bird migration but have mainly relied on statistical correlative analysis of tracking data. Our novel method offers a bottom up explanation of population-level migratory movement patterns. It differs from previous mechanistic models of animal migration and enables predictions of pathways and destinations from a given starting location. We define an environmental potential landscape from environmental data and simulate bird movement within this landscape based on simple decision rules drawn from statistical mechanics. We explore the capacity of the model by qualitatively comparing simulation results to the non-breeding migration patterns of a seabird species, the Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophris). This minimal, two-parameter model was able to capture remarkably well the previously documented migration patterns of the Black-browed Albatross, with the best combination of parameter values conserved across multiple geographically separate populations. Our physics-inspired mechanistic model could be applied to other bird and highly-mobile species, improving our understanding of the relative importance of various factors driving migration and making predictions that could be useful for conservation.

  10. Conditional Stochastic Models in Reduced Space: Towards Efficient Simulation of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodov, B.

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic simulation of realistic and statistically robust patterns of Tropical Cyclone (TC) induced precipitation is a challenging task. It is even more challenging in a catastrophe modeling context, where tens of thousands of typhoon seasons need to be simulated in order to provide a complete view of flood risk. Ultimately, one could run a coupled global climate model and regional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, but this approach is not feasible in the catastrophe modeling context and, most importantly, may not provide TC track patterns consistent with observations. Rather, we propose to leverage NWP output for the observed TC precipitation patterns (in terms of downscaled reanalysis 1979-2015) collected on a Lagrangian frame along the historical TC tracks and reduced to the leading spatial principal components of the data. The reduced data from all TCs is then grouped according to timing, storm evolution stage (developing, mature, dissipating, ETC transitioning) and central pressure and used to build a dictionary of stationary (within a group) and non-stationary (for transitions between groups) covariance models. Provided that the stochastic storm tracks with all the parameters describing the TC evolution are already simulated, a sequence of conditional samples from the covariance models chosen according to the TC characteristics at a given moment in time are concatenated, producing a continuous non-stationary precipitation pattern in a Lagrangian framework. The simulated precipitation for each event is finally distributed along the stochastic TC track and blended with a non-TC background precipitation using a data assimilation technique. The proposed framework provides means of efficient simulation (10000 seasons simulated in a couple of days) and robust typhoon precipitation patterns consistent with observed regional climate and visually undistinguishable from high resolution NWP output. The framework is used to simulate a catalog of 10000 typhoon

  11. Radiation exposure in multi-slice versus single-slice spiral CT: results of a nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, G.; Nagel, H.D.; Stamm, G.; Veit, R.; Lechel, U.; Griebel, J.; Galanski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Multi-slice (MS) technology increases the efficacy of CT procedures and offers new promising applications. The expanding use of MSCT, however, may result in an increase in both frequency of procedures and levels of patient exposure. It was, therefore, the aim of this study to gain an overview of MSCT examinations conducted in Germany in 2001. All MSCT facilities were requested to provide information about 14 standard examinations with respect to scan parameters and frequency. Based on this data, dosimetric quantities were estimated using an experimentally validated formalism. Results are compared with those of a previous survey for single-slice (SS) spiral CT scanners. According to the data provided for 39 dual- and 73 quad-slice systems, the average annual number of patients examined at MSCT is markedly higher than that examined at SSCT scanners (5500 vs 3500). The average effective dose to patients was changed from 7.4 mSv at single-slice to 5.5 mSv and 8.1 mSv at dual- and quad-slice scanners, respectively. There is a considerable potential for dose reduction at quad-slice systems by an optimisation of scan protocols and better education of the personnel. To avoid an increase in the collective effective dose from CT procedures, a clear medical justification is required in each case. (orig.)

  12. Image registration under translation and rotation in two-dimensional planes using Fourier slice theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohit, M; Sharma, J

    2015-05-10

    Image recognition in the presence of both rotation and translation is a longstanding problem in correlation pattern recognition. Use of log polar transform gives a solution to this problem, but at a cost of losing the vital phase information from the image. The main objective of this paper is to develop an algorithm based on Fourier slice theorem for measuring the simultaneous rotation and translation of an object in a 2D plane. The algorithm is applicable for any arbitrary object shift for full 180° rotation.

  13. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  14. Predicting spiral wave patterns from cell properties in a model of biological self-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, Daniel; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2008-09-01

    In many biological systems, biological variability (i.e., systematic differences between the system components) can be expected to outrank statistical fluctuations in the shaping of self-organized patterns. In principle, the distribution of single-element properties should thus allow predicting features of such patterns. For a mathematical model of a paradigmatic and well-studied pattern formation process, spiral waves of cAMP signaling in colonies of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, we explore this possibility and observe a pronounced anticorrelation between spiral waves and cell properties (namely, the firing rate) and particularly a clustering of spiral wave tips in regions devoid of spontaneously firing (pacemaker) cells. Furthermore, we observe local inhomogeneities in the distribution of spiral chiralities, again induced by the pacemaker distribution. We show that these findings can be explained by a simple geometrical model of spiral wave generation.

  15. Numerical comparison of grid pattern diffraction effects through measurement and modeling with OptiScan software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ian B.; Densmore, Victor; Bora, Vaibhav; Pieratt, Matthew W.; Hibbard, Douglas L.; Milster, Tom D.

    2011-06-01

    Coatings of various metalized patterns are used for heating and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding applications. Previous work has focused on macro differences between different types of grids, and has shown good correlation between measurements and analyses of grid diffraction. To advance this work, we have utilized the University of Arizona's OptiScan software, which has been optimized for this application by using the Babinet Principle. When operating on an appropriate computer system, this algorithm produces results hundreds of times faster than standard Fourier-based methods, and allows realistic cases to be modeled for the first time. By using previously published derivations by Exotic Electro-Optics, we compare diffraction performance of repeating and randomized grid patterns with equivalent sheet resistance using numerical performance metrics. Grid patterns of each type are printed on optical substrates and measured energy is compared against modeled energy.

  16. Comparison of Modeling Grassland Degradation with and without Considering Localized Spatial Associations in Vegetation Changing Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassland ecosystems worldwide are confronted with degradation. It is of great importance to understand long-term trajectory patterns of grassland vegetation by advanced analytical models. This study proposes a new approach called a binary logistic regression model with neighborhood interactions, or BLR-NIs, which is based on binary logistic regression (BLR, but fully considers the spatio-temporally localized spatial associations or characterization of neighborhood interactions (NIs in the patterns of grassland vegetation. The BLR-NIs model was applied to a modeled vegetation degradation of grasslands in the Xilin river basin, Inner Mongolia, China. Residual trend analysis on the normalized difference vegetation index (RESTREND-NDVI, which excluded the climatic impact on vegetation dynamics, was adopted as a preprocessing step to derive three human-induced trajectory patterns (vegetation degradation, vegetation recovery, and no significant change in vegetation during two consecutive periods, T1 (2000–2008 and T2 (2007–2015. Human activities, including livestock grazing intensity and transportation accessibility measured by road network density, were included as explanatory variables for vegetation degradation, which was defined for locations if vegetation recovery or no significant change in vegetation in T1 and vegetation degradation in T2 were observed. Our work compared the results of BLR-NIs and the traditional BLR model that did not consider NIs. The study showed that: (1 both grazing intensity and road density had a positive correlation to vegetation degradation based on the traditional BLR model; (2 only road density was found to positively correlate to vegetation degradation by the BLR-NIs model; NIs appeared to be critical factors to predict vegetation degradation; and (3 including NIs in the BLR model improved the model performance substantially. The study provided evidence for the importance of including localized spatial

  17. Dynamic model based on voltage transfer curve for pattern formation in dielectric barrier glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ben; He, Feng; Ouyang, Jiting, E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Duan, Xiaoxi [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Simulation work is very important for understanding the formation of self-organized discharge patterns. Previous works have witnessed different models derived from other systems for simulation of discharge pattern, but most of these models are complicated and time-consuming. In this paper, we introduce a convenient phenomenological dynamic model based on the basic dynamic process of glow discharge and the voltage transfer curve (VTC) to study the dielectric barrier glow discharge (DBGD) pattern. VTC is an important characteristic of DBGD, which plots the change of wall voltage after a discharge as a function of the initial total gap voltage. In the modeling, the combined effect of the discharge conditions is included in VTC, and the activation-inhibition effect is expressed by a spatial interaction term. Besides, the model reduces the dimensionality of the system by just considering the integration effect of current flow. All these greatly facilitate the construction of this model. Numerical simulations turn out to be in good accordance with our previous fluid modeling and experimental result.

  18. Hybrid model for forecasting time series with trend, seasonal and salendar variation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartono; Rahayu, S. P.; Prastyo, D. D.; Wijayanti, D. G. P.; Juliyanto

    2017-09-01

    Most of the monthly time series data in economics and business in Indonesia and other Moslem countries not only contain trend and seasonal, but also affected by two types of calendar variation effects, i.e. the effect of the number of working days or trading and holiday effects. The purpose of this research is to develop a hybrid model or a combination of several forecasting models to predict time series that contain trend, seasonal and calendar variation patterns. This hybrid model is a combination of classical models (namely time series regression and ARIMA model) and/or modern methods (artificial intelligence method, i.e. Artificial Neural Networks). A simulation study was used to show that the proposed procedure for building the hybrid model could work well for forecasting time series with trend, seasonal and calendar variation patterns. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid model is applied for forecasting real data, i.e. monthly data about inflow and outflow of currency at Bank Indonesia. The results show that the hybrid model tend to provide more accurate forecasts than individual forecasting models. Moreover, this result is also in line with the third results of the M3 competition, i.e. the hybrid model on average provides a more accurate forecast than the individual model.

  19. A fingertip force prediction model for grasp patterns characterised from the chaotic behaviour of EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rinku; Sikdar, Debdeep; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Kumar, C S

    2018-05-19

    A stable grasp is attained through appropriate hand preshaping and precise fingertip forces. Here, we have proposed a method to decode grasp patterns from motor imagery and subsequent fingertip force estimation model with a slippage avoidance strategy. We have developed a feature-based classification of electroencephalography (EEG) associated with imagination of the grasping postures. Chaotic behaviour of EEG for different grasping patterns has been utilised to capture the dynamics of associated motor activities. We have computed correlation dimension (CD) as the feature and classified with "one against one" multiclass support vector machine (SVM) to discriminate between different grasping patterns. The result of the analysis showed varying classification accuracies at different subband levels. Broad categories of grasping patterns, namely, power grasp and precision grasp, were classified at a 96.0% accuracy rate in the alpha subband. Furthermore, power grasp subtypes were classified with an accuracy of 97.2% in the upper beta subband, whereas precision grasp subtypes showed relatively lower 75.0% accuracy in the alpha subband. Following assessment of fingertip force distributions while grasping, a nonlinear autoregressive (NAR) model with proper prediction of fingertip forces was proposed for each grasp pattern. A slippage detection strategy has been incorporated with automatic recalibration of the regripping force. Intention of each grasp pattern associated with corresponding fingertip force model was virtualised in this work. This integrated system can be utilised as the control strategy for prosthetic hand in the future. The model to virtualise motor imagery based fingertip force prediction with inherent slippage correction for different grasp types ᅟ.

  20. Simulation of organ patterning on the floral meristem using a polar auxin transport model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Mourik

    Full Text Available An intriguing phenomenon in plant development is the timing and positioning of lateral organ initiation, which is a fundamental aspect of plant architecture. Although important progress has been made in elucidating the role of auxin transport in the vegetative shoot to explain the phyllotaxis of leaf formation in a spiral fashion, a model study of the role of auxin transport in whorled organ patterning in the expanding floral meristem is not available yet. We present an initial simulation approach to study the mechanisms that are expected to play an important role. Starting point is a confocal imaging study of Arabidopsis floral meristems at consecutive time points during flower development. These images reveal auxin accumulation patterns at the positions of the organs, which strongly suggests that the role of auxin in the floral meristem is similar to the role it plays in the shoot apical meristem. This is the basis for a simulation study of auxin transport through a growing floral meristem, which may answer the question whether auxin transport can in itself be responsible for the typical whorled floral pattern. We combined a cellular growth model for the meristem with a polar auxin transport model. The model predicts that sepals are initiated by auxin maxima arising early during meristem outgrowth. These form a pre-pattern relative to which a series of smaller auxin maxima are positioned, which partially overlap with the anlagen of petals, stamens, and carpels. We adjusted the model parameters corresponding to properties of floral mutants and found that the model predictions agree with the observed mutant patterns. The predicted timing of the primordia outgrowth and the timing and positioning of the sepal primordia show remarkable similarities with a developing flower in nature.

  1. Mapping vegetation patterns in arable land using the models STICS and DAISY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Antje; Casper, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Several statistical methods exist to detect spatial and / or temporal variability with regard to ecological data-analysis: Semivariance-analysis, Trend surface analysis, Kriging, Voronoi polygons, Moran's I and Mantel-test, to mention just some of them. In this contribution, we concentrate on spatial vegetation patterns within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVAT) system. Using variography, spatial analysis with a geographic information system and self-organizing maps, spatial patterns of yield have been isolated in an agro-ecosystem (see poster contribution EGU 2009, EGU2009-8948). Data were derived from two agricultural plots, each about 5 hectare, in the area of Newel, located in Western Palatinate, Germany. The plots have been conventionally cultivated with a crop rotation of winter rape, winter wheat and spring barley. The aim of the present study is to find out if the existing natural spatial patterns can be mapped by means of SVAT models. If so, the discretization of a landscape according to its spatial patterns could be the basis for parameterization of SVAT models in order to model soil-vegetation-atmosphere interaction over a large area, that is for up-scaling. For this purpose the SVAT models STICS (developed by INRA, France) and DAISY (developed at Tåstrup University, Denmark) are applied. After a wide sensitivity analysis both models are parameterized with field data according to the given situation of each of the detected spatial patterns. The results of the simulation per representative location of a pattern are validated first with field data concerning yield, soil water content and soil nitrogen; besides, above ground dry matter, root depth and specific stress indices are used for validation. The conclusions that can be made with regard to up-scaling are discussed in detail. In a second step the results of the STICS model are compared with those of the DAISY model to analyse the models' behaviour, to get further knowledge about the inner structure

  2. SensibleSleep: A Bayesian Model for Learning Sleep Patterns from Smartphone Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuttone, Andrea; Bækgaard, Per; Sekara, Vedran

    2017-01-01

    We propose a Bayesian model for extracting sleep patterns from smartphone events. Our method is able to identify individuals' daily sleep periods and their evolution over time, and provides an estimation of the probability of sleep and wake transitions. The model is fitted to more than 400...... to quantify uncertainty and encode prior knowledge about sleep patterns. Compared with existing smartphone-based systems, our method requires only screen on/off events, and is therefore much less intrusive in terms of privacy and more battery-efficient....... participants from two different datasets, and we verify the results against ground truth from dedicated armband sleep trackers. We show that the model is able to produce reliable sleep estimates with an accuracy of 0.89, both at the individual and at the collective level. Moreover the Bayesian model is able...

  3. SensibleSleep: A Bayesian Model for Learning Sleep Patterns from Smartphone Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttone, Andrea; Bækgaard, Per; Sekara, Vedran; Jonsson, Håkan; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune

    2017-01-01

    We propose a Bayesian model for extracting sleep patterns from smartphone events. Our method is able to identify individuals' daily sleep periods and their evolution over time, and provides an estimation of the probability of sleep and wake transitions. The model is fitted to more than 400 participants from two different datasets, and we verify the results against ground truth from dedicated armband sleep trackers. We show that the model is able to produce reliable sleep estimates with an accuracy of 0.89, both at the individual and at the collective level. Moreover the Bayesian model is able to quantify uncertainty and encode prior knowledge about sleep patterns. Compared with existing smartphone-based systems, our method requires only screen on/off events, and is therefore much less intrusive in terms of privacy and more battery-efficient.

  4. SensibleSleep: A Bayesian Model for Learning Sleep Patterns from Smartphone Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cuttone

    Full Text Available We propose a Bayesian model for extracting sleep patterns from smartphone events. Our method is able to identify individuals' daily sleep periods and their evolution over time, and provides an estimation of the probability of sleep and wake transitions. The model is fitted to more than 400 participants from two different datasets, and we verify the results against ground truth from dedicated armband sleep trackers. We show that the model is able to produce reliable sleep estimates with an accuracy of 0.89, both at the individual and at the collective level. Moreover the Bayesian model is able to quantify uncertainty and encode prior knowledge about sleep patterns. Compared with existing smartphone-based systems, our method requires only screen on/off events, and is therefore much less intrusive in terms of privacy and more battery-efficient.

  5. Federated Access Control in Heterogeneous Intercloud Environment: Basic Models and Architecture Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Lee, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents on-going research to define the basic models and architecture patterns for federated access control in heterogeneous (multi-provider) multi-cloud and inter-cloud environment. The proposed research contributes to the further definition of Intercloud Federation Framework (ICFF)

  6. Analysis of 3D Modeling Software Usage Patterns for K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Chieh; Liao, Wen-Hung; Chi, Ming-Te; Li, Tsai-Yen

    2016-01-01

    In response to the recent trend in maker movement, teachers are learning 3D techniques actively and bringing 3D printing into the classroom to enhance variety and creativity in designing lectures. This study investigates the usage pattern of a 3D modeling software, Qmodel Creator, which is targeted at K-12 students. User logs containing…

  7. Spatial patterns of biodiversity conservation in a multiregional general equilibrium model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppink, F.V.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Migration dynamics and local biodiversity are interrelated in a way that is likely to affect patterns of regional specialisation. We assess this relationship with a New Economic Geography model that has been extended with biodiversity. Biodiversity is heterogeneous, and responds to habitat

  8. A Multi-Agent Modelling Approach to Simulate Dynamic Activity-Travel Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.; Bazzan, A.L.C.; Klügl, F.

    2009-01-01

    Contributing to the recent interest in the dynamics of activity-travel patterns, this chapter discusses a framework of an agent-based modeling approach focusing on the dynamic formation of (location) choice sets. Individual travelers are represented as agents, each with their cognition of the

  9. Continental rift architecture and patterns of magma migration: a dynamic analysis based on centrifuge models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corti, G.; Bonini, M.; Sokoutis, D.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Mulugeta, G.

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale centrifuge models were used to investigate the role of continental rift structure in controlling patterns of magma migration and emplacement. Experiments considered the reactivation of weakness zones in the lower crust and the presence of magma at Moho depths. Results suggest that

  10. An economic theory-based explanatory model of agricultural land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; Koomen, E.; Kuhlman, T.

    2015-01-01

    An economic theory-based land-use modelling framework is presented aiming to explain the causal link between economic decisions and resulting spatial patterns of agricultural land use. The framework assumes that farmers pursue utility maximisation in agricultural production systems, while

  11. Stochastic Modeling of Usage Patterns in a Web-Based Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Cooper, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    Uses continuous-time stochastic models, mainly based on semi-Markov chains, to derive user state transition patterns, both in rates and in probabilities, in a Web-based information system. Describes search sessions from transaction logs of the University of California's MELVYL library catalog system and discusses sequential dependency. (Author/LRW)

  12. Metabolic therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy in a dish: investigating mechanisms of ketogenic diet using electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Kawamura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1 direct application of ketone bodies, (2 mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and (3 reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet–fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including ATP-sensitive potassium channels, vesicular glutamate transporter, pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy.

  13. Metabolic Therapy for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in a Dish: Investigating Mechanisms of Ketogenic Diet using Electrophysiological Recordings in Hippocampal Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Masahito Jr.; Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1) direct application of ketone bodies; (2) mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique; and (3) reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet–fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT), pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy. PMID:27847463

  14. On Input Vector Representation for the SVR model of Reactor Core Loading Pattern Critical Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.

    2008-01-01

    Determination and optimization of reactor core loading pattern is an important factor in nuclear power plant operation. The goal is to minimize the amount of enriched uranium (fresh fuel) and burnable absorbers placed in the core, while maintaining nuclear power plant operational and safety characteristics. The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. Recently, we proposed a new method for fast loading pattern evaluation based on general robust regression model relying on the state of the art research in the field of machine learning. We employed Support Vector Regression (SVR) technique. SVR is a supervised learning method in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The preliminary tests revealed a good potential of the SVR method application for fast and accurate reactor core loading pattern evaluation. However, some aspects of model development are still unresolved. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to conduct additional tests and analyses required for full clarification of the SVR applicability for loading pattern evaluation. We focused our attention on the parameters defining input vector, primarily its structure and complexity, and parameters defining kernel functions. All the tests were conducted on the NPP Krsko reactor core, using MCRAC code for the calculation of reactor core loading pattern critical parameters. The tested input vector structures did not influence the accuracy of the models suggesting that the initially tested input vector, consisted of the number of IFBAs and the k-inf at the beginning of the cycle, is adequate. The influence of kernel function specific parameters (σ for RBF kernel

  15. Risk attitudes in a changing environment: An evolutionary model of the fourfold pattern of risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallpress, Dave E W; Fawcett, Tim W; Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M

    2015-04-01

    A striking feature of human decision making is the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes, involving risk-averse behavior in situations of unlikely losses and likely gains, but risk-seeking behavior in response to likely losses and unlikely gains. Current theories to explain this pattern assume particular psychological processes to reproduce empirical observations, but do not address whether it is adaptive for the decision maker to respond to risk in this way. Here, drawing on insights from behavioral ecology, we build an evolutionary model of risk-sensitive behavior, to investigate whether particular types of environmental conditions could favor a fourfold pattern of risk attitudes. We consider an individual foraging in a changing environment, where energy is needed to prevent starvation and build up reserves for reproduction. The outcome, in terms of reproductive value (a rigorous measure of evolutionary success), of a one-off choice between a risky and a safe gain, or between a risky and a safe loss, determines the risk-sensitive behavior we should expect to see in this environment. Our results show that the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes may be adaptive in an environment in which conditions vary stochastically but are autocorrelated in time. In such an environment the current options provide information about the likely environmental conditions in the future, which affect the optimal pattern of risk sensitivity. Our model predicts that risk preferences should be both path dependent and affected by the decision maker's current state. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups: Considering random avoidance patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuping; Cai, Yifei; Ke, Ruimin; Yang, Jiwei

    2017-06-01

    Grouping is a common phenomenon in pedestrian crowds and group modeling is still an open challenging problem. When grouping pedestrians avoid each other, different patterns can be observed. Pedestrians can keep close with group members and avoid other groups in cluster. Also, they can avoid other groups separately. Considering this randomness in avoidance patterns, we propose a collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups. In our model, the avoidance model is proposed based on velocity obstacle method at first. Then grouping model is established using Distance constrained line (DCL), by transforming DCL into the framework of velocity obstacle, the avoidance model and grouping model are successfully put into one unified calculation structure. Within this structure, an algorithm is developed to solve the problem when solutions of the two models conflict with each other. Two groups of bidirectional pedestrian experiments are designed to verify the model. The accuracy of avoidance behavior and grouping behavior is validated in the microscopic level, while the lane formation phenomenon and fundamental diagrams is validated in the macroscopic level. The experiments results show our model is convincing and has a good expansibility to describe three or more pedestrian groups.

  17. Integrated model for characterization of spatiotemporal building energy consumption patterns in neighborhoods and city districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Jimeno A.; Schlueter, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model to describe spatiotemporal building energy demand patterns was developed. • The model integrates existing methods in urban and energy planning domains. • The model is useful to analyze energy efficiency strategies in neighborhoods. • Applicability in educational, urban and energy planning practices was found. - Abstract: We introduce an integrated model for characterization of spatiotemporal building energy consumption patterns in neighborhoods and city districts. The model addresses the need for a comprehensive method to identify present and potential states of building energy consumption in the context of urban transformation. The focus lies on determining the spatiotemporal variability of energy services in both standing and future buildings in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. This detailed characterization facilitates the assessment of potential energy efficiency measures at the neighborhood and city district scales. In a novel approach we integrated existing methods in urban and energy planning domains such as spatial analysis, dynamic building energy modeling and energy mapping to provide a comprehensive, multi-scale and multi-dimensional model of analysis. The model is part of a geographic information system (GIS), which serves as a platform for the allocation and future dissemination of spatiotemporal data. The model is validated against measured data and a peer model for a city district in Switzerland. In this context, we present practical applications in the analysis of energy efficiency measures in buildings and urban zoning. We furthermore discuss potential applications in educational, urban and energy planning practices

  18. Targeting neurotransmitter receptors with nanoparticles in vivo allows single-molecule tracking in acute brain slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Juan A.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Etchepare, Laetitia; Espana, Agnès; Cognet, Laurent; Groc, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Single-molecule imaging has changed the way we understand many biological mechanisms, particularly in neurobiology, by shedding light on intricate molecular events down to the nanoscale. However, current single-molecule studies in neuroscience have been limited to cultured neurons or organotypic slices, leaving as an open question the existence of fast receptor diffusion in intact brain tissue. Here, for the first time, we targeted dopamine receptors in vivo with functionalized quantum dots and were able to perform single-molecule tracking in acute rat brain slices. We propose a novel delocalized and non-inflammatory way of delivering nanoparticles (NPs) in vivo to the brain, which allowed us to label and track genetically engineered surface dopamine receptors in neocortical neurons, revealing inherent behaviour and receptor activity regulations. We thus propose a NP-based platform for single-molecule studies in the living brain, opening new avenues of research in physiological and pathological animal models.

  19. The mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic acid, induces extracellular Zn2+ accumulation in rat hippocampus slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Hough, Christopher J; Sarvey, John M

    2004-11-11

    3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), a suicide inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; complex II), has been used to provide useful experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD) and "chemical hypoxia" in rodents. The trace ion Zn2+ has been shown to cause neurodegeneration. Employing real-time Newport Green fluorescence imaging of extracellular Zn2+, we found that 3-NPA (10-100 microM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in the concentration of extracellular Zn2+ ([Zn2+]o) in acute rat hippocampus slices. This increase in [Zn2+]o was abolished by 10 mM CaEDTA. The increase of [Zn2+]o was also accompanied by a rapid increase of cytoplasmic-free Zn2+ concentration ([Zn2+]i). The induction of Zn2+ release by 3-MPA in hippocampus slices points to a potential mechanism by which 3-NPA might induce neurodegeneration.

  20. Bronchoconstriction Induces TGF-β Release and Airway Remodelling in Guinea Pig Lung Slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjitske A Oenema

    Full Text Available Airway remodelling, including smooth muscle remodelling, is a primary cause of airflow limitation in asthma. Recent evidence links bronchoconstriction to airway remodelling in asthma. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A possible player is the multifunctional cytokine TGF-β, which plays an important role in airway remodelling. Guinea pig lung slices were used as an in vitro model to investigate mechanisms involved in bronchoconstriction-induced airway remodelling. To address this aim, mechanical effects of bronchoconstricting stimuli on contractile protein expression and TGF-β release were investigated. Lung slices were viable for at least 48 h. Both methacholine and TGF-β1 augmented the expression of contractile proteins (sm-α-actin, sm-myosin, calponin after 48 h. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that increased sm-myosin expression was enhanced in the peripheral airways and the central airways. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction mediated the release of biologically active TGF-β, which caused the increased contractile protein expression, as inhibition of actin polymerization (latrunculin A or TGF-β receptor kinase (SB431542 prevented the methacholine effects, whereas other bronchoconstricting agents (histamine and KCl mimicked the effects of methacholine. Collectively, bronchoconstriction promotes the release of TGF-β, which induces airway smooth muscle remodelling. This study shows that lung slices are a useful in vitro model to study mechanisms involved in airway remodelling.

  1. Long-term potentiation protects rat hippocampal slices from the effects of acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, F F; Addae, J I; McRae, A; Stone, T W

    2001-07-13

    compound. We conclude that LTP causes an appreciable protection of hippocampal slices to various models of acute hypoxia. This phenomenon does not appear to involve desensitisation of AMPA receptors or mediation by NO, but may account for the recognised inverse relationship between educational attainment and the development of dementia.

  2. [Standardization of production of process Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen-Yang; Wang, Ying-Zi; Nie, Rui-Jie; Zhang, Jing-Zhen; Wang, Si-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Notopterol, isoimperatorin, volatile oil and extract (water and ethanol) were used as the research objects in this study to investigate the effects of different softening method, slice thickness and drying methods on the quality of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices, and the experimental data were analyzed by homogeneous distance evaluation method. The results showed that different softening, cutting and drying processes could affect the content of five components in Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix incisum. The best processing technology of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices was as follows: non-medicinal parts were removed; mildewed and rot as well as moth-eaten parts were removed; washed by the flowing drinking water; stacked in the drug pool; moistening method was used for softening, where 1/8 volume of water was sprayed for every 1 kg of herbs every 2 h; upper part of herbs covered with clean and moist cotton, and cut into thick slices (2-4 mm) after 12 h moistening until appropriate softness, then received blast drying for 4 h at 50 ℃, and turned over for 2 times during the drying. The process is practical and provides the experimental basis for the standardization of the processing of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, with great significance to improve the quality of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Time-slicing subsystem of the biology small-angle x-ray scattering station at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    The time-slicing subsystem of the Biology Small-Angle X-ray Scattering divides the time period during which the data for small-angle x-ray diffraction patterns from biological samples is collected into time slices (or frames). The subsystem, being part of a multiprocessor experiment control and data acquisition system, has its own dedicated processor; it also has special-purpose front-end electronics sufficient to generate the gating and other control signals required to produce a sequence of as many as 256 time slices, measured with a basic time unit of 1 μsec. The electronics also synchronizes with execution of the time slice sequence the application of stimuli to the biological sample, the measurement of voltages generated by the sample, and the application of auxiliary device trigger pulses and routes detector data and auxiliary scaler data into appropriate time-slice-indexed buffers in a large external data memory array. The structure of the entire experiment control and data acquisition system is briefly reviewed. Details of the structure and operation of the time slice subsystem are presented. 7 refs., 5 figs

  4. Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Model Data Mining For Recognizing Stock Data Sampling Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Jane Annatje Sumarauw

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Capital market has been beneficial to companies and investor. For investors, the capital market provides two economical advantages, namely deviden and capital gain, and a non-economical one that is a voting .} hare in Shareholders General Meeting. But, it can also penalize the share owners. In order to prevent them from the risk, the investors should predict the prospect of their companies. As a consequence of having an abstract commodity, the share quality will be determined by the validity of their company profile information. Any information of stock value fluctuation from Jakarta Stock Exchange can be a useful consideration and a good measurement for data analysis. In the context of preventing the shareholders from the risk, this research focuses on stock data sample category or stock data sample pattern by using Fuzzy c-Me, MS Clustering Model which providing any useful information jar the investors. lite research analyses stock data such as Individual Index, Volume and Amount on Property and Real Estate Emitter Group at Jakarta Stock Exchange from January 1 till December 31 of 204. 'he mining process follows Cross Industry Standard Process model for Data Mining (CRISP,. DM in the form of circle with these steps: Business Understanding, Data Understanding, Data Preparation, Modelling, Evaluation and Deployment. At this modelling process, the Fuzzy c-Means Clustering Model will be applied. Data Mining Fuzzy c-Means Clustering Model can analyze stock data in a big database with many complex variables especially for finding the data sample pattern, and then building Fuzzy Inference System for stimulating inputs to be outputs that based on Fuzzy Logic by recognising the pattern. Keywords: Data Mining, AUz..:y c-Means Clustering Model, Pattern Recognition

  5. Color-pattern analysis of eyespots in butterfly wings: a critical examination of morphogen gradient models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Joji M

    2011-06-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns consist of many color-pattern elements such as eyespots. It is believed that eyespot patterns are determined by a concentration gradient of a single morphogen species released by diffusion from the prospective eyespot focus in conjunction with multiple thresholds in signal-receiving cells. As alternatives to this single-morphogen model, more flexible multiple-morphogen model and induction model can be proposed. However, the relevance of these conceptual models to actual eyespots has not been examined systematically. Here, representative eyespots from nymphalid butterflies were analyzed morphologically to determine if they are consistent with these models. Measurement of ring widths of serial eyespots from a single wing surface showed that the proportion of each ring in an eyespot is quite different among homologous rings of serial eyespots of different sizes. In asymmetric eyespots, each ring is distorted to varying degrees. In extreme cases, only a portion of rings is expressed remotely from the focus. Similarly, there are many eyespots where only certain rings are deleted, added, or expanded. In an unusual case, the central area of an eyespot is composed of multiple "miniature eyespots," but the overall macroscopic eyespot structure is maintained. These results indicate that each eyespot ring has independence and flexibility to a certain degree, which is less consistent with the single-morphogen model. Considering a "periodic eyespot", which has repeats of a set of rings, damage-induced eyespots in mutants, and a scale-size distribution pattern in an eyespot, the induction model is the least incompatible with the actual eyespot diversity.

  6. Decay patterns of multi-quasiparticle bands—a model independent test of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, E A

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear chiral systems exhibit chiral symmetry bands, built on left-handed and right-handed angular momentum nucleon configurations. The experimental search for such chiral systems revealed a number of suitable candidates, however an unambiguous identification of nuclear chiral symmetry is still outstanding. In this work it is shown that the decay patterns of chiral bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations are different from those involving different single-particle configurations. It is suggested to use the observed decay patterns of chiral candidates as a new model-independent test of chiral symmetry. (paper)

  7. Formalization of the classification pattern: survey of classification modeling in information systems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Chris; de Cesare, Sergio; Mitchell, Andrew; Odell, James

    2018-01-01

    Formalization is becoming more common in all stages of the development of information systems, as a better understanding of its benefits emerges. Classification systems are ubiquitous, no more so than in domain modeling. The classification pattern that underlies these systems provides a good case study of the move toward formalization in part because it illustrates some of the barriers to formalization, including the formal complexity of the pattern and the ontological issues surrounding the "one and the many." Powersets are a way of characterizing the (complex) formal structure of the classification pattern, and their formalization has been extensively studied in mathematics since Cantor's work in the late nineteenth century. One can use this formalization to develop a useful benchmark. There are various communities within information systems engineering (ISE) that are gradually working toward a formalization of the classification pattern. However, for most of these communities, this work is incomplete, in that they have not yet arrived at a solution with the expressiveness of the powerset benchmark. This contrasts with the early smooth adoption of powerset by other information systems communities to, for example, formalize relations. One way of understanding the varying rates of adoption is recognizing that the different communities have different historical baggage. Many conceptual modeling communities emerged from work done on database design, and this creates hurdles to the adoption of the high level of expressiveness of powersets. Another relevant factor is that these communities also often feel, particularly in the case of domain modeling, a responsibility to explain the semantics of whatever formal structures they adopt. This paper aims to make sense of the formalization of the classification pattern in ISE and surveys its history through the literature, starting from the relevant theoretical works of the mathematical literature and gradually shifting focus

  8. Ionizing radiation action of transport systems of Na+ and K+ of neutronal membranes. Potassium ions reaccumulation with brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoretsky, A.I.; Shainskaya, A.M.; Ananyeva, T.V.; Kulikova, I.A.

    1990-01-01

    The biological effect of ionizing radiation (IR) on the Na,K pump of the surviving brain cortex slices was investigated. It was shown that IR leads to marked disturbances in the Na,K pump activity and causes essential phasic changes in potassium ion reaccumulation by brain slices in different time after exposure. The possibility of modelling the radiation effect with the help of phospholipase A2 and decylenic acid was shown. The mechanisms of the functional disturbance of Na-K pump of nerve cells after irradiation are under discussion. (author)

  9. The effects of drying on physical properties of bilimbi slices (Averrhoa bilimbi l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Nursabrina, M.; Suhairah, A. Zai

    2015-05-01

    Physical appearance analyses of fruits are used to maintain food quality throughout and at the end of processing. However, control variables have to be designed to obtained the desired food quality. In the present study, the effects of pretreatment and drying air temperatures of 50°C, 60°C and 70°C on the drying kinetics of belimbi slices were investigated using a hot-air dryer. In order to investigate and select the appropriate drying model, seven experiment based mathematical drying models were fitted to the experimental data. According to the statistical criteria (R2, SSE and RMSE), a Logarithmic model was found to be the best model to describe the drying behaviour of belimbi slices at 40°C for control; The Page/modified Page model was the best model to describe drying behaviour at 40°C, 60°C pre-treatment and 50°C for the control and the Wang and Singh model fitted well for 50°C pre-treatment and 60°C for the control. Comparison between experiment based mathematical modelling with a single phase mathematical model shows that close agreement was produced. The qualities of belimbi slices in terms of colour, texture and shrinkage with different air temperature and pre-treatment were also investigated. Higher drying temperatures gives less drying time, a lighter colour but greater product shrinkage, whilst pre-treatment can reduce product shrinkage and drying time and can also give good texture properties. The results show that pre-treatment and the drying temperature are important to improve mass and heat transfer as well as the product characteristics such as colour, shrinkage and texture.

  10. A model of hygiene practices and consumption patterns in the consumer phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented, which addresses individual hygiene practices during food preparation and consumption patterns in private homes. Further, the model links food preparers and consumers based on their relationship to household types. For different age and gender groups, the model...... was highest for young males (aged 18-29 years) and lowest for the elderly above 60 years of age. Children aged 0-4 years had a higher probability of ingesting a risk meal than children aged 5-17 years. This difference between age and gender groups was ascribed to the variations in the hygiene levels of food....... The simulated results show that the probability of ingesting a chicken risk meal at home does not only depend on the hygiene practices of the persons preparing the food, but also on the consumption patterns of consumers, and the relationship between people preparing and ingesting food. This finding supports...

  11. Calibration of a distributed hydrologic model using observed spatial patterns from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; González, Gorka M.; Mai, Juliane; Stisen, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Distributed hydrologic models are typically calibrated against streamflow observations at the outlet of the basin. Along with these observations from gauging stations, satellite based estimates offer independent evaluation data such as remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration (aET) and land surface temperature. The primary objective of the study is to compare model calibrations against traditional downstream discharge measurements with calibrations against simulated spatial patterns and combinations of both types of observations. While the discharge based model calibration typically improves the temporal dynamics of the model, it seems to give rise to minimum improvement of the simulated spatial patterns. In contrast, objective functions specifically targeting the spatial pattern performance could potentially increase the spatial model performance. However, most modeling studies, including the model formulations and parameterization, are not designed to actually change the simulated spatial pattern during calibration. This study investigates the potential benefits of incorporating spatial patterns from MODIS data to calibrate the mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM). This model is selected as it allows for a change in the spatial distribution of key soil parameters through the optimization of pedo-transfer function parameters and includes options for using fully distributed daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) values directly as input. In addition the simulated aET can be estimated at a spatial resolution suitable for comparison to the spatial patterns observed with MODIS data. To increase our control on spatial calibration we introduced three additional parameters to the model. These new parameters are part of an empirical equation to the calculate crop coefficient (Kc) from daily LAI maps and used to update potential evapotranspiration (PET) as model inputs. This is done instead of correcting/updating PET with just a uniform (or aspect driven) factor used in the mHM model

  12. Energy deposition patterns within limb models heated with a mini annular phased array (MAPA) applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerquin-Kern, J.L.; Hagmann, M.J.; Charny, C.K.; Levin, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out in order to characterize a MAPA applicator prior to possible clinical implementation. The energy deposition patterns were determined in several human limb models of different complexities. The maximum energy deposition observed in a homogeneous cylindrical phantom was found to be at the middle of the applicator. For more realistically shaped, homogeneous limb models, the point of maximum energy deposition was shifted towards a smaller cross-sectional region; this was also the case for isolated human legs. Furthermore, significant heating was observed in the bone of the isolated legs. Such phenomena illustrate the limitation of using classical 2-D numerical models for predicting the energy deposition patterns in heterogeneous bodies

  13. Pattern Classification Using an Olfactory Model with PCA Feature Selection in Electronic Noses: Study and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Zheng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically-inspired models and algorithms are considered as promising sensor array signal processing methods for electronic noses. Feature selection is one of the most important issues for developing robust pattern recognition models in machine learning. This paper describes an investigation into the classification performance of a bionic olfactory model with the increase of the dimensions of input feature vector (outer factor as well as its parallel channels (inner factor. The principal component analysis technique was applied for feature selection and dimension reduction. Two data sets of three classes of wine derived from different cultivars and five classes of green tea derived from five different provinces of China were used for experiments. In the former case the results showed that the average correct classification rate increased as more principal components were put in to feature vector. In the latter case the results showed that sufficient parallel channels should be reserved in the model to avoid pattern space crowding. We concluded that 6~8 channels of the model with principal component feature vector values of at least 90% cumulative variance is adequate for a classification task of 3~5 pattern classes considering the trade-off between time consumption and classification rate.

  14. A General Model of Negative Frequency Dependent Selection Explains Global Patterns of Human ABO Polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Villanea

    Full Text Available The ABO locus in humans is characterized by elevated heterozygosity and very similar allele frequencies among populations scattered across the globe. Using knowledge of ABO protein function, we generated a simple model of asymmetric negative frequency dependent selection and genetic drift to explain the maintenance of ABO polymorphism and its loss in human populations. In our models, regardless of the strength of selection, models with large effective population sizes result in ABO allele frequencies that closely match those observed in most continental populations. Populations must be moderately small to fall out of equilibrium and lose either the A or B allele (N(e ≤ 50 and much smaller (N(e ≤ 25 for the complete loss of diversity, which nearly always involved the fixation of the O allele. A pattern of low heterozygosity at the ABO locus where loss of polymorphism occurs in our model is consistent with small populations, such as Native American populations. This study provides a general evolutionary model to explain the observed global patterns of polymorphism at the ABO locus and the pattern of allele loss in small populations. Moreover, these results inform the range of population sizes associated with the recent human colonization of the Americas.

  15. Simple model for polar cap convection patterns and generation of theta auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The simple addition of a uniform interplanetary magnetic field and the Earth's dipole magnetic field is used to evaluate electric field convection patterns over the polar caps that result from solar wind flow across open geomagnetic field lines. This model is found to account for observed polar-cap convection patterns as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field components B/sub y/ and B/sub z/. In particular, the model offers an explanation for sunward and antisunward convection over the polar caps for B/sub z/>0. Observed field-aligned current patterns within the polar cap and observed auroral arcs across the polar cap are also explained by the model. In addition, the model gives several predictions concerning the polar cap that should be testable. Effects of solar wind pressure and magnetospheric currents on magnetospheric electric and magnetic fields are neglected. That observed polar cap features are reproduced suggests that the neglected effects do not modify the large-scale topology of magnetospheric electric and magnetic fields along open polar cap field lines. Of course, the neglected effects significantly modify the magnetic geometry, so that the results of this paper are not quantitatively realistic and many details may be incorrect. Nevertheless, the model provides a simple explanation for many qualitative features of polar cap convection

  16. Unstable patterns and robust synchronization in a model of motor pathway in birdsong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moukam Kakmeni, F.M.; Bowong, S.; Nana, L.; Kofane, T.C.

    2006-10-01

    This paper investigates the fundamental dynamical mechanism responsible for transition to chaos in periodically modulated Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator. It is shown that a modulationally unstable pattern appears into an initially stable motionless state. A further spatiotemporal transition occurs with a sharp interface from the selected stable pattern to a stabilized pattern or chaotic state. Also, the synchronization of the chaotic state of the model is investigated. The results are discussed in the context of generalized synchronization. The main idea is to construct an augmented dynamical system from the synchronization error system, which is itself uncertain. The advantage of this method over existing results is that the synchronization time is explicitly computed. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the operation of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  17. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of browning during deep-fat frying of blanched and unblanched potato chips by using the dynamic method and to find a relationship between browning development and acrylamide formation. Prior to frying, potato slices were blanched in hot water...... at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...... were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a(*). Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical...

  18. Stochastic modelling of the monthly average maximum and minimum temperature patterns in India 1981-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha Murthy, K. V.; Saravana, R.; Vijaya Kumar, K.

    2018-04-01

    The paper investigates the stochastic modelling and forecasting of monthly average maximum and minimum temperature patterns through suitable seasonal auto regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model for the period 1981-2015 in India. The variations and distributions of monthly maximum and minimum temperatures are analyzed through Box plots and cumulative distribution functions. The time series plot indicates that the maximum temperature series contain sharp peaks in almost all the years, while it is not true for the minimum temperature series, so both the series are modelled separately. The possible SARIMA model has been chosen based on observing autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and inverse autocorrelation function (IACF) of the logarithmic transformed temperature series. The SARIMA (1, 0, 0) × (0, 1, 1)12 model is selected for monthly average maximum and minimum temperature series based on minimum Bayesian information criteria. The model parameters are obtained using maximum-likelihood method with the help of standard error of residuals. The adequacy of the selected model is determined using correlation diagnostic checking through ACF, PACF, IACF, and p values of Ljung-Box test statistic of residuals and using normal diagnostic checking through the kernel and normal density curves of histogram and Q-Q plot. Finally, the forecasting of monthly maximum and minimum temperature patterns of India for the next 3 years has been noticed with the help of selected model.

  19. Describing Growth Pattern of Bali Cows Using Non-linear Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafiz A.W

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the best fit non-linear regression model to describe the growth pattern of Bali cows. Estimates of asymptotic mature weight, rate of maturing and constant of integration were derived from Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Logistic models which were fitted to cross-sectional data of body weight taken from 74 Bali cows raised in MARDI Research Station Muadzam Shah Pahang. Coefficient of determination (R2 and residual mean squares (MSE were used to determine the best fit model in describing the growth pattern of Bali cows. Von Bertalanffy model was the best model among the four growth functions evaluated to determine the mature weight of Bali cattle as shown by the highest R2 and lowest MSE values (0.973 and 601.9, respectively, followed by Gompertz (0.972 and 621.2, respectively, Logistic (0.971 and 648.4, respectively and Brody (0.932 and 660.5, respectively models. The correlation between rate of maturing and mature weight was found to be negative in the range of -0.170 to -0.929 for all models, indicating that animals of heavier mature weight had lower rate of maturing. The use of non-linear model could summarize the weight-age relationship into several biologically interpreted parameters compared to the entire lifespan weight-age data points that are difficult and time consuming to interpret.

  20. Variability in modeled cloud feedback tied to differences in the climatological spatial pattern of clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Nicholas; Po-Chedley, Stephen; Bretherton, Christopher S.

    2018-02-01

    Despite the increasing sophistication of climate models, the amount of surface warming expected from a doubling of atmospheric CO_2 (equilibrium climate sensitivity) remains stubbornly uncertain, in part because of differences in how models simulate the change in global albedo due to clouds (the shortwave cloud feedback). Here, model differences in the shortwave cloud feedback are found to be closely related to the spatial pattern of the cloud contribution to albedo (α) in simulations of the current climate: high-feedback models exhibit lower (higher) α in regions of warm (cool) sea-surface temperatures, and therefore predict a larger reduction in global-mean α as temperatures rise and warm regions expand. The spatial pattern of α is found to be strongly predictive (r=0.84) of a model's global cloud feedback, with satellite observations indicating a most-likely value of 0.58± 0.31 Wm^{-2} K^{-1} (90% confidence). This estimate is higher than the model-average cloud feedback of 0.43 Wm^{-2} K^{-1}, with half the range of uncertainty. The observational constraint on climate sensitivity is weaker but still significant, suggesting a likely value of 3.68 ± 1.30 K (90% confidence), which also favors the upper range of model estimates. These results suggest that uncertainty in model estimates of the global cloud feedback may be substantially reduced by ensuring a realistic distribution of clouds between regions of warm and cool SSTs in simulations of the current climate.

  1. Integrating Entropy and Closed Frequent Pattern Mining for Social Network Modelling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhaimenul; Alhajj, Reda; Rokne, Jon

    The recent increase in the explicitly available social networks has attracted the attention of the research community to investigate how it would be possible to benefit from such a powerful model in producing effective solutions for problems in other domains where the social network is implicit; we argue that social networks do exist around us but the key issue is how to realize and analyze them. This chapter presents a novel approach for constructing a social network model by an integrated framework that first preparing the data to be analyzed and then applies entropy and frequent closed patterns mining for network construction. For a given problem, we first prepare the data by identifying items and transactions, which arc the basic ingredients for frequent closed patterns mining. Items arc main objects in the problem and a transaction is a set of items that could exist together at one time (e.g., items purchased in one visit to the supermarket). Transactions could be analyzed to discover frequent closed patterns using any of the well-known techniques. Frequent closed patterns have the advantage that they successfully grab the inherent information content of the dataset and is applicable to a broader set of domains. Entropies of the frequent closed patterns arc used to keep the dimensionality of the feature vectors to a reasonable size; it is a kind of feature reduction process. Finally, we analyze the dynamic behavior of the constructed social network. Experiments were conducted on a synthetic dataset and on the Enron corpus email dataset. The results presented in the chapter show that social networks extracted from a feature set as frequent closed patterns successfully carry the community structure information. Moreover, for the Enron email dataset, we present an analysis to dynamically indicate the deviations from each user's individual and community profile. These indications of deviations can be very useful to identify unusual events.

  2. Effect of different tree mortality patterns on stand development in the forest model SIBYLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trombik Jiří

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest mortality critically affects stand structure and the quality of ecosystem services provided by forests. Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus generates rather complex infestation and mortality patterns, and implementation of such patterns in forest models is challenging. We present here the procedure, which allows to simulate the bark beetle-related tree mortality in the forest dynamics model Sibyla. We explored how sensitive various production and stand structure indicators are to tree mortality patterns, which can be generated by bark beetles. We compared the simulation outputs for three unmanaged forest stands with 40, 70 and 100% proportion of spruce as affected by the disturbance-related mortality that occurred in a random pattern and in a patchy pattern. The used tree species and age class-specific mortality rates were derived from the disturbance-related mortality records from Slovakia. The proposed algorithm was developed in the SQLite using the Python language, and the algorithm allowed us to define the degree of spatial clustering of dead trees ranging from a random distribution to a completely clustered distribution; a number of trees that died in either mode is set to remain equal. We found significant differences between the long-term developments of the three investigated forest stands, but we found very little effect of the tested mortality modes on stand increment, tree species composition and diversity, and tree size diversity. Hence, our hypothesis that the different pattern of dead trees emergence should affect the competitive interactions between trees and regeneration, and thus affect selected productivity and stand structure indicators was not confirmed.

  3. Model uncertainties do not affect observed patterns of species richness in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Neves, Olívia Viana; De Marco, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Background Climate change is arguably a major threat to biodiversity conservation and there are several methods to assess its impacts on species potential distribution. Yet the extent to which different approaches on species distribution modeling affect species richness patterns at biogeographical scale is however unaddressed in literature. In this paper, we verified if the expected responses to climate change in biogeographical scale—patterns of species richness and species vulnerability to climate change—are affected by the inputs used to model and project species distribution. Methods We modeled the distribution of 288 vertebrate species (amphibians, birds and mammals), all endemic to the Amazon basin, using different combinations of the following inputs known to affect the outcome of species distribution models (SDMs): 1) biological data type, 2) modeling methods, 3) greenhouse gas emission scenarios and 4) climate forecasts. We calculated uncertainty with a hierarchical ANOVA in which those different inputs were considered factors. Results The greatest source of variation was the modeling method. Model performance interacted with data type and modeling method. Absolute values of variation on suitable climate area were not equal among predictions, but some biological patterns were still consistent. All models predicted losses on the area that is climatically suitable for species, especially for amphibians and primates. All models also indicated a current East-western gradient on endemic species richness, from the Andes foot downstream the Amazon river. Again, all models predicted future movements of species upwards the Andes mountains and overall species richness losses. Conclusions From a methodological perspective, our work highlights that SDMs are a useful tool for assessing impacts of climate change on biodiversity. Uncertainty exists but biological patterns are still evident at large spatial scales. As modeling methods are the greatest source of

  4. Pattern dynamics of vortex ripples in sand: Nonlinear modeling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Abel, M.; Krug, J.

    2002-01-01

    Vortex ripples in sand are studied experimentally in a one-dimensional setup with periodic boundary conditions. The nonlinear evolution, far from the onset of instability, is analyzed in the framework of a simple model developed for homogeneous patterns. The interaction function describing the mass...... transport between neighboring ripples is extracted from experimental runs using a recently proposed method for data analysis, and the predictions of the model are compared to the experiment. An analytic explanation of the wavelength selection mechanism in the model is provided, and the width of the stable...... band of ripples is measured....

  5. Methods to induce primary and secondary traumatic damage in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchik, Y; Frantseva, M V; Weisspapir, M; Carlen, P L; Perez Velazquez, J L

    2000-04-01

    Organotypic brain slice cultures have been used in a variety of studies on neurodegenerative processes [K.M. Abdel-Hamid, M. Tymianski, Mechanisms and effects of intracellular calcium buffering on neuronal survival in organotypic hippocampal cultures exposed to anoxia/aglycemia or to excitotoxins, J. Neurosci. 17, 1997, pp. 3538-3553; D.W. Newell, A. Barth, V. Papermaster, A.T. Malouf, Glutamate and non-glutamate receptor mediated toxicity caused by oxygen and glucose deprivation in organotypic hippocampal cultures, J. Neurosci. 15, 1995, pp. 7702-7711; J.L. Perez Velazquez, M.V. Frantseva, P.L. Carlen, In vitro ischemia promotes glutamate mediated free radical generation and intracellular calcium accumulation in pyramidal neurons of cultured hippocampal slices, J. Neurosci. 23, 1997, pp. 9085-9094; L. Stoppini, L.A. Buchs, D. Muller, A simple method for organotypic cultures of nervous tissue, J. Neurosci. Methods 37, 1991, pp. 173-182; R.C. Tasker, J.T. Coyle, J.J. Vornov, The regional vulnerability to hypoglycemia induced neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal culture: protection by early tetrodotoxin or delayed MK 801, J. Neurosci. 12, 1992, pp. 4298-4308.]. We describe two methods to induce traumatic cell damage in hippocampal organotypic cultures. Primary trauma injury was achieved by rolling a stainless steel cylinder (0.9 g) on the organotypic slices. Secondary injury was followed after dropping a weight (0.137 g) on a localised area of the organotypic slice, from a height of 2 mm. The time course and extent of cell death were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the viability indicator propidium iodide (PI) at several time points after the injury. The initial localised impact damage spread 24 and 67 h after injury, cell death being 25% and 54%, respectively, when slices were kept at 37 degrees C. To validate these methods as models to assess neuroprotective strategies, similar insults were applied to slices at relatively low temperatures (30

  6. Domestic dog roaming patterns in remote northern Australian indigenous communities and implications for disease modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G; Brookes, Victoria J; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2017-10-01

    Although Australia is canine rabies free, the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA), Queensland and other northern Australian communities are at risk of an incursion due to proximity to rabies infected islands of Indonesia and existing disease spread pathways. Northern Australia also has large populations of free-roaming domestic dogs, presenting a risk of rabies establishment and maintenance should an incursion occur. Agent-based rabies spread models are being used to predict potential outbreak size and identify effective control strategies to aid incursion preparedness. A key component of these models is knowledge of dog roaming patterns to inform contact rates. However, a comprehensive understanding of how dogs utilise their environment and the heterogeneity of their movements to estimate contact rates is lacking. Using a novel simulation approach - and GPS data collected from 21 free-roaming domestic dogs in the NPA in 2014 and 2016 - we characterised the roaming patterns within this dog population. Multiple subsets from each individual dog's GPS dataset were selected representing different monitoring durations and a utilisation distribution (UD) and derived core (50%) and extended (95%) home ranges (HR) were estimated for each duration. Three roaming patterns were identified, based on changes in mean HR over increased monitoring durations, supported by assessment of maps of daily UDs of each dog. Stay-at-home dogs consolidated their HR around their owner's residence, resulting in a decrease in mean HR (both core and extended) as monitoring duration increased (median peak core and extended HR 0.336 and 3.696ha, respectively). Roamer dogs consolidated their core HR but their extended HR increased with longer monitoring durations, suggesting that their roaming patterns based on place of residence were more variable (median peak core and extended HR 0.391 and 6.049ha, respectively). Explorer dogs demonstrated large variability in their roaming patterns, with both core and

  7. Maintenance of drug metabolism and transport functions in human precision-cut liver slices during prolonged incubation for 5 days

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Vatakuti, Suresh; Schievink, Bauke; Merema, Marjolijn T.; Asplund, Annika; Synnergren, Jane; Aspegren, Anders; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    Human precision-cut liver slices (hPCLS) are a valuable ex vivo model that can be used in acute toxicity studies. However, a rapid decline in metabolic enzyme activity limits their use in studies that require a prolonged xenobiotic exposure. The aim of the study was to extend the viability and

  8. Firing patterns in the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Richard; Marcille, Nicolas; Clopath, Claudia; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2008-11-01

    For simulations of large spiking neuron networks, an accurate, simple and versatile single-neuron modeling framework is required. Here we explore the versatility of a simple two-equation model: the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron. We show that this model generates multiple firing patterns depending on the choice of parameter values, and present a phase diagram describing the transition from one firing type to another. We give an analytical criterion to distinguish between continuous adaption, initial bursting, regular bursting and two types of tonic spiking. Also, we report that the deterministic model is capable of producing irregular spiking when stimulated with constant current, indicating low-dimensional chaos. Lastly, the simple model is fitted to real experiments of cortical neurons under step current stimulation. The results provide support for the suitability of simple models such as the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron for large network simulations.

  9. (Non)perturbative gravity, nonlocality, and nice slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    Perturbative dynamics of gravity is investigated for high-energy scattering and in black hole backgrounds. In the latter case, a straightforward perturbative analysis fails, in a close parallel to the failure of the former when the impact parameter reaches the Schwarzschild radius. This suggests a flaw in a semiclassical description of physics on spatial slices that intersect both outgoing Hawking radiation and matter that has carried information into a black hole; such slices are instrumental in a general argument for black hole information loss. This indicates a possible role for the proposal that nonperturbative gravitational physics is intrinsically nonlocal

  10. Novel culturing platform for brain slices and neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel culturing system for brain slices and neuronal cells, which can control the concentration of nutrients and the waste removal from the culture by adjusting the fluid flow within the device. The entire system can be placed in an incubator. The system has been...... tested successfully with brain slices and PC12 cells. The culture substrate can be modified using metal electrodes and/or nanostructures for conducting electrical measurements while culturing and for better mimicking the in vivo conditions....

  11. A mechanical model for deformable and mesh pattern wheel of lunar roving vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongchao; Wang, Yongfu; Chen, Gang (Sheng); Gao, Haibo

    2015-12-01

    As an indispensable tool for astronauts on lunar surface, the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) is of great significance for manned lunar exploration. An LRV moves on loose and soft lunar soil, so the mechanical property of its wheels directly affects the mobility performance. The wheels used for LRV have deformable and mesh pattern, therefore, the existing mechanical theory of vehicle wheel cannot be used directly for analyzing the property of LRV wheels. In this paper, a new mechanical model for LRV wheel is proposed. At first, a mechanical model for a rigid normal wheel is presented, which involves in multiple conventional parameters such as vertical load, tangential traction force, lateral force, and slip ratio. Secondly, six equivalent coefficients are introduced to amend the rigid normal wheel model to fit for the wheels with deformable and mesh-pattern in LRV application. Thirdly, the values of the six equivalent coefficients are identified by using experimental data obtained in an LRV's single wheel testing. Finally, the identified mechanical model for LRV's wheel with deformable and mesh pattern are further verified and validated by using additional experimental results.

  12. A Novel Biped Pattern Generator Based on Extended ZMP and Extended Cart-Table Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on planning patterns for biped walking on complex terrains. Two problems are solved: ZMP (zero moment point cannot be used on uneven terrain, and the conventional cart-table model does not allow vertical CM (centre of mass motion. For the ZMP definition problem, we propose the extended ZMP (EZMP concept as an extension of ZMP to uneven terrains. It can be used to judge dynamic balance on universal terrains. We achieve a deeper insight into the connection and difference between ZMP and EZMP by adding different constraints. For the model problem, we extend the cart-table model by using a dynamic constraint instead of constant height constraint, which results in a mathematically symmetric set of three equations. In this way, the vertical motion is enabled and the resultant equations are still linear. Based on the extended ZMP concept and extended cart-table model, a biped pattern generator using triple preview controllers is constructed and implemented simultaneously to three dimensions. Using the proposed pattern generator, the Atlas robot is simulated. The simulation results show the robot can walk stably on rather complex terrains by accurately tracking extended ZMP.

  13. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF MUELLER MATRIX PATTERNS FOR POLARIZATION SCATTERING MODEL OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E DU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a model to describe polarized photon scattering in biological tissues. In this model, tissues are simplified to a mixture of scatterers and surrounding medium. There are two types of scatterers in the model: solid spheres and infinitely long solid cylinders. Variables related to the scatterers include: the densities and sizes of the spheres and cylinders, the orientation and angular distribution of cylinders. Variables related to the surrounding medium include: the refractive index, absorption coefficient and birefringence. In this paper, as a development we introduce an optical activity effect to the model. By comparing experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, we analyze the backscattering Mueller matrix patterns of several tissue-like media, and summarize the different effects coming from anisotropic scattering and optical properties. In addition, we propose a possible method to extract the optical activity values for tissues. Both the experimental and simulated results show that, by analyzing the Mueller matrix patterns, the microstructure and optical properties of the medium can be obtained. The characteristic features of Mueller matrix patterns are potentially powerful tools for studying the contrast mechanisms of polarization imaging for medical diagnosis.

  14. A Computational Model of Pattern Separation Efficiency in the Dentate Gyrus with Implications in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz eFaghihi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information processing in the hippocampus begins by transferring spiking activity of the Entorhinal Cortex (EC into the Dentate Gyrus (DG. Activity pattern in the EC is separated by the DG such that it plays an important role in hippocampal functions including memory. The structural and physiological parameters of these neural networks enable the hippocampus to be efficient in encoding a large number of inputs that animals receive and process in their life time. The neural encoding capacity of the DG depends on its single neurons encoding and pattern separation efficiency. In this study, encoding by the DG is modelled such that single neurons and pattern separation efficiency are measured using simulations of different parameter values. For this purpose, a probabilistic model of single neurons efficiency is presented to study the role of structural and physiological parameters. Known neurons number of the EC and the DG is used to construct a neural network by electrophysiological features of neuron in the DG. Separated inputs as activated neurons in the EC with different firing probabilities are presented into the DG. For different connectivity rates between the EC and DG, pattern separation efficiency of the DG is measured. The results show that in the absence of feedback inhibition on the DG neurons, the DG demonstrates low separation efficiency and high firing frequency. Feedback inhibition can increase separation efficiency while resulting in very low single neuron’s encoding efficiency in the DG and very low firing frequency of neurons in the DG (sparse spiking. This work presents a mechanistic explanation for experimental observations in the hippocampus, in combination with theoretical measures. Moreover, the model predicts a critical role for impaired inhibitory neurons in schizophrenia where deficiency in pattern separation of the DG has been observed.

  15. A computational model of pattern separation efficiency in the dentate gyrus with implications in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Information processing in the hippocampus begins by transferring spiking activity of the entorhinal cortex (EC) into the dentate gyrus (DG). Activity pattern in the EC is separated by the DG such that it plays an important role in hippocampal functions including memory. The structural and physiological parameters of these neural networks enable the hippocampus to be efficient in encoding a large number of inputs that animals receive and process in their life time. The neural encoding capacity of the DG depends on its single neurons encoding and pattern separation efficiency. In this study, encoding by the DG is modeled such that single neurons and pattern separation efficiency are measured using simulations of different parameter values. For this purpose, a probabilistic model of single neurons efficiency is presented to study the role of structural and physiological parameters. Known neurons number of the EC and the DG is used to construct a neural network by electrophysiological features of granule cells of the DG. Separated inputs as activated neurons in the EC with different firing probabilities are presented into the DG. For different connectivity rates between the EC and DG, pattern separation efficiency of the DG is measured. The results show that in the absence of feedback inhibition on the DG neurons, the DG demonstrates low separation efficiency and high firing frequency. Feedback inhibition can increase separation efficiency while resulting in very low single neuron’s encoding efficiency in the DG and very low firing frequency of neurons in the DG (sparse spiking). This work presents a mechanistic explanation for experimental observations in the hippocampus, in combination with theoretical measures. Moreover, the model predicts a critical role for impaired inhibitory neurons in schizophrenia where deficiency in pattern separation of the DG has been observed. PMID:25859189

  16. A sequence identification measurement model to investigate the implicit learning of metrical temporal patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin G Schultz

    Full Text Available Implicit learning (IL occurs unconsciously and without intention. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing elicited by previous exposure to a stimulus. It has been assumed that perceptual fluency is associated with IL. However, the role of perceptual fluency following IL has not been investigated in temporal pattern learning. Two experiments by Schultz, Stevens, Keller, and Tillmann demonstrated the IL of auditory temporal patterns using a serial reaction-time task and a generation task based on the process dissociation procedure. The generation task demonstrated that learning was implicit in both experiments via motor fluency, that is, the inability to suppress learned information. With the aim to disentangle conscious and unconscious processes, we analyze unreported recognition data associated with the Schultz et al. experiments using the sequence identification measurement model. The model assumes that perceptual fluency reflects unconscious processes and IL. For Experiment 1, the model indicated that conscious and unconscious processes contributed to recognition of temporal patterns, but that unconscious processes had a greater influence on recognition than conscious processes. In the model implementation of Experiment 2, there was equal contribution of conscious and unconscious processes in the recognition of temporal patterns. As Schultz et al. demonstrated IL in both experiments using a generation task, and the conditions reported here in Experiments 1 and 2 were identical, two explanations are offered for the discrepancy in model and behavioral results based on the two tasks: 1 perceptual fluency may not be necessary to infer IL, or 2 conscious control over implicitly learned information may vary as a function of perceptual fluency and motor fluency.

  17. Biogeographic patterns in ocean microbes emerge in a neutral agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweger, Ferdi L; van Sebille, Erik; Fredrick, Neil D

    2014-09-12

    A key question in ecology and evolution is the relative role of natural selection and neutral evolution in producing biogeographic patterns. We quantify the role of neutral processes by simulating division, mutation, and death of 100,000 individual marine bacteria cells with full 1 million-base-pair genomes in a global surface ocean circulation model. The model is run for up to 100,000 years and output is analyzed using BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) alignment and metagenomics fragment recruitment. Simulations show the production and maintenance of biogeographic patterns, characterized by distinct provinces subject to mixing and periodic takeovers by neighbors (coalescence), after which neutral evolution reestablishes the province and the patterns reorganize. The emergent patterns are substantial (e.g., down to 99.5% DNA identity between North and Central Pacific provinces) and suggest that microbes evolve faster than ocean currents can disperse them. This approach can also be used to explore environmental selection. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Computational model-informed design and bioprinting of cell-patterned constructs for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Aurélie; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Hafezi, Forough; Ferraris, Eleonora; Patterson, Jennifer; Koç, Bahattin; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2016-05-17

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a rapidly advancing tissue engineering technology that holds great promise for the regeneration of several tissues, including bone. However, to generate a successful 3D bone tissue engineering construct, additional complexities should be taken into account such as nutrient and oxygen delivery, which is often insufficient after implantation in large bone defects. We propose that a well-designed tissue engineering construct, that is, an implant with a specific spatial pattern of cells in a matrix, will improve the healing outcome. By using a computational model of bone regeneration we show that particular cell patterns in tissue engineering constructs are able to enhance bone regeneration compared to uniform ones. We successfully bioprinted one of the most promising cell-gradient patterns by using cell-laden hydrogels with varying cell densities and observed a high cell viability for three days following the bioprinting process. In summary, we present a novel strategy for the biofabrication of bone tissue engineering constructs by designing cell-gradient patterns based on a computational model of bone regeneration, and successfully bioprinting the chosen design. This integrated approach may increase the success rate of implanted tissue engineering constructs for critical size bone defects and also can find a wider application in the biofabrication of other types of tissue engineering constructs.

  19. Experimental study of multi-slice CT for the evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiang; Lv Bin; Wu Wenhui; Lu Jinguo; Dai Ruping; Bai Hua; Tang Yue; Lv Fengying; Jiang Shiliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic values of MSCT for detecting atherosclerotic plaques on New Zealand rabbits models in comparison with pathologic results. Methods: Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were enrolled in this study, including 5 with balloon injury and high-fat diet (group A), 5 with high-fat diet only (group B) and 5 with regular feed (group C). 16th week late, contrast-enhanced MSCT scan was performed in all rabbits with 16 slice MSCT (16-MSCT) in group A and 64 slice MSCT (64-MSCT) in group B and C. The CT and pathological findings were compared in a double-blind manner. The sensitivities and specificities of 16-MSCT and 64-MSCT for detecting atherosclerotic plaques were evaluated by using Fisher test and χ 2 test. Results: Sixty and seventy-five images on 16-MSCT and 64-MSCT had corresponding pathological slices. The sensitivities for the detection of plaques on 16-MSCT and 64-MSCT were 41.5% (22/53) and 64.9% (24/37), and specificities of 85.7% (6/7) and 89.5% (34/38), respectively. Conclusions: 64-MSCT has a higher sensitivity in the detection of atherosclerotic plaques than 16-MSCT. Both scanners can be used to preclude the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. (authors)

  20. mIoT Slice for 5G Systems: Design and Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivisonno, Riccardo; Condoluci, Massimo; An, Xueli; Mahmoodi, Toktam

    2018-02-21

    Network slicing is a key feature of the upcoming 5G networks allowing the design and deployment of customized communication systems to integrate services provided by vertical industries. In this context, massive Internet of Things (mIoT) is regarded as a compelling use case, both for its relevance from business perspective, and for the technical challenges it poses to network design. With their envisaged massive deployment of devices requiring sporadic connectivity and small data transmission, yet Quality of Service (QoS) constrained, mIoT services will need an ad-hoc end-to-end (E2E) slice, i.e., both access and core network with enhanced Control and User planes (CP/UP). After revising the key requirements of mIoT and identifying major shortcomings of previous generation networks, this paper presents and evaluates an E2E mIoT network slicing solution, featuring a new connectivity model overcoming the load limitations of legacy systems. Unique in its kind, this paper addresses mIoT requirements from an end-to-end perspective highlighting and solving, unlike most prior related work, the connectivity challenges posed to the core network. Results demonstrate that the proposed solution, reducing CP signaling and optimizing UP resource utilization, is a suitable candidate for next generation network standards to efficiently handle massive device deployment.

  1. Visualizing form and function in organotypic slices of the adult mouse parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jennifer D; Peters, Christian G; Saunders, Rudel; Won, Jong Hak; Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Gunning, William T; Yule, David I; Giovannucci, David R

    2008-09-01

    An organotypic slice preparation of the adult mouse parotid salivary gland amenable to a variety of optical assessments of fluid and protein secretion dynamics is described. The semi-intact preparation rendered without the use of enzymatic treatment permitted live-cell imaging and multiphoton analysis of cellular and supracellular signals. Toward this end we demonstrated that the parotid slice is a significant addition to the repertoire of tools available to investigators to probe exocrine structure and function since there is currently no cell culture system that fully recapitulates parotid acinar cell biology. Importantly, we show that a subpopulation of the acinar cells of parotid slices can be maintained in short-term culture and retain their morphology and function for up to 2 days. This in vitro model system is a significant step forward compared with enzymatically dispersed acini that rapidly lose their morphological and functional characteristics over several hours, and it was shown to be long enough for the expression and trafficking of exogenous protein following adenoviral infection. This system is compatible with a variety of genetic and physiological approaches used to study secretory function.

  2. Automated fetal brain segmentation from 2D MRI slices for motion correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keraudren, K; Kuklisova-Murgasova, M; Kyriakopoulou, V; Malamateniou, C; Rutherford, M A; Kainz, B; Hajnal, J V; Rueckert, D

    2014-11-01

    Motion correction is a key element for imaging the fetal brain in-utero using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Maternal breathing can introduce motion, but a larger effect is frequently due to fetal movement within the womb. Consequently, imaging is frequently performed slice-by-slice using single shot techniques, which are then combined into volumetric images using slice-to-volume reconstruction methods (SVR). For successful SVR, a key preprocessing step is to isolate fetal brain tissues from maternal anatomy before correcting for the motion of the fetal head. This has hitherto been a manual or semi-automatic procedure. We propose an automatic method to localize and segment the brain of the fetus when the image data is acquired as stacks of 2D slices with anatomy misaligned due to fetal motion. We combine this segmentation process with a robust motion correction method, enabling the segmentation to be refined as the reconstruction proceeds. The fetal brain localization process uses Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER), which are classified using a Bag-of-Words model with Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. The segmentation process is a patch-based propagation of the MSER regions selected during detection, combined with a Conditional Random Field (CRF). The gestational age (GA) is used to incorporate prior knowledge about the size and volume of the fetal brain into the detection and segmentation process. The method was tested in a ten-fold cross-validation experiment on 66 datasets of healthy fetuses whose GA ranged from 22 to 39 weeks. In 85% of the tested cases, our proposed method produced a motion corrected volume of a relevant quality for clinical diagnosis, thus removing the need for manually delineating the contours of the brain before motion correction. Our method automatically generated as a side-product a segmentation of the reconstructed fetal brain with a mean Dice score of 93%, which can be used for further processing. Copyright

  3. Regression models for linking patterns of growth to a later outcome: infant growth and childhood overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Wills

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regression models are widely used to link serial measures of anthropometric size or changes in size to a later outcome. Different parameterisations of these models enable one to target different questions about the effect of growth, however, their interpretation can be challenging. Our objective was to formulate and classify several sets of parameterisations by their underlying growth pattern contrast, and to discuss their utility using an expository example. Methods We describe and classify five sets of model parameterisations in accordance with their underlying growth pattern contrast (conditional growth; being bigger v being smaller; becoming bigger and staying bigger; growing faster v being bigger; becoming and staying bigger versus being bigger. The contrasts are estimated by including different sets of repeated measures of size and changes in size in a regression model. We illustrate these models in the setting of linking infant growth (measured on 6 occasions: birth, 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months in weight-for-height-for-age z-scores to later childhood overweight at 8y using complete cases from the Norwegian Childhood Growth study (n = 900. Results In our expository example, conditional growth during all periods, becoming bigger in any interval and staying bigger through infancy, and being bigger from birth were all associated with higher odds of later overweight. The highest odds of later overweight occurred for individuals who experienced high conditional growth or became bigger in the 3 to 6 month period and stayed bigger, and those who were bigger from birth to 24 months. Comparisons between periods and between growth patterns require large sample sizes and need to consider how to scale associations to make comparisons fair; with respect to the latter, we show one approach. Conclusion Studies interested in detrimental growth patterns may gain extra insight from reporting several sets of growth pattern

  4. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeyeong Choe

    Full Text Available Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS multi-response species distribution model to overcome species' data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species' ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species' presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the

  5. Data Mining and Pattern Recognition Models for Identifying Inherited Diseases: Challenges and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddamalgoda, Lahiru; Das, Partha S; Aponso, Achala; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava S; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Valadi, Jayaraman K

    2016-01-01

    Data mining and pattern recognition methods reveal interesting findings in genetic studies, especially on how the genetic makeup is associated with inherited diseases. Although researchers have proposed various data mining models for biomedical approaches, there remains a challenge in accurately prioritizing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with the disease. In this commentary, we review the state-of-art data mining and pattern recognition models for identifying inherited diseases and deliberate the need of binary classification- and scoring-based prioritization methods in determining causal variants. While we discuss the pros and cons associated with these methods known, we argue that the gene prioritization methods and the protein interaction (PPI) methods in conjunction with the K nearest neighbors' could be used in accurately categorizing the genetic factors in disease causation.

  6. Data mining and Pattern Recognizing Models for Identifying Inherited Diseases: Challenges and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahiru Iddamalgoda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Data mining and pattern recognition methods reveal interesting findings in genetic studies, especially on how genetic makeup is associated with inherited diseases. Although researchers have proposed various data mining models for biomedical approaches, there remains a challenge in accurately determining the responsible genetic factors for prioritizing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP associated with the disease. In this commentary, we review the state-of-art data mining and pattern recognition models for identifying inherited diseases and deliberate the need of binary classification and scoring based prioritization methods for determining causal variants. While we discuss the pros and cons associated with these methods known, we argue that the gene prioritization methods and the protein interaction (PPI methods in conjunction with the K nearest neighbors’ could be used in accurately categorizing the genetic factors in disease causation

  7. Imaging skeletal anatomy of injured cervical spine specimens: comparison of single-slice vs multi-slice helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenauer, S.; Alamo, L.; Herold, T.; Funke, M.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E. [Department of Radiology, Georg August-University Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Our objective was to compare a single-slice CT (SS-CT) scanner with a multi-slice CT (MS-CT) scanner in the depiction of osseous anatomic structures and fractures of the upper cervical spine. Two cervical spine specimens with artificial trauma were scanned with a SS-CT scanner (HighSpeed, CT/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various collimations (1, 3, 5 mm) and pitch factors (1, 1.5, 2, 3) and a four-slice helical CT scanner (LightSpeed, QX/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various table speeds ranging from 3.75 to 15 mm/rotation for a pitch of 0.75 and from 7.5 to 30 mm/rotation for a pitch of 1.5. Images were reconstructed with an interval of 1 mm. Sagittal and coronal multiplanar reconstructions of the primary and reconstructed data set were performed. For MS-CT a tube current resulting in equivalent image noise as with SS-CT was used. All images were judged by two observers using a 4-point scale. The best image quality for SS-CT was achieved with the smallest slice thickness (1 mm) and a pitch smaller than 2 resulting in a table speed of up to 2 mm per gantry rotation (4 points). A reduction of the slice thickness rather than of the table speed proved to be beneficial at MS-CT. Therefore, the optimal scan protocol in MS-CT included a slice thickness of 1.25 mm with a table speed of 7.5 mm/360 using a pitch of 1.5 (4 points), resulting in a faster scan time than when a pitch of 0.75 (4 points) was used. This study indicates that MS-CT could provide equivalent image quality at approximately four times the volume coverage speed of SS-CT. (orig.)

  8. A Model of Bus Bunching under Reliability-based Passenger Arrival Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fonzone, Achille; Schmöcker, Jan-Dirk; Liu, Ronghui

    2015-01-01

    If bus service departure times are not completely unknown to the passengers, non-uniform passenger arrival patterns can be expected. We propose that passengers decide their arrival time at stops based on a continuous logit model that considers the risk of missing services. Expected passenger waiting times are derived in a bus system that allows also for overtaking between bus services. We then propose an algorithm to derive the dwell time of subsequent buses serving a stop in order to illustr...

  9. Statistical Methods for Detecting and Modeling General Patterns and Relationships in Lifetime Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvaloey, Jan Terje

    1999-04-01

    In this thesis, the author tries to develop methods of detecting and modeling general patterns and relationships in lifetime data. Tests with power against nonmonotonic trends and nonmonotonic co variate effects are considered, and nonparametric regression methods which allow estimation of fairly general nonlinear relationships are studied. Practical uses of some of the methods are illustrated although in a medical rather than engineering or technological context.

  10. SESAM – a new framework integrating macroecological and species distribution models for predicting spatio-temporal patterns of species assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guisan, Antoine; Rahbek, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Two different approaches currently prevail for predicting spatial patterns of species assemblages. The first approach (macroecological modelling, MEM) focuses directly on realized properties of species assemblages, whereas the second approach (stacked species distribution modelling, S-SDM) starts...

  11. Modeling the Geographic Consequence and Pattern of Dengue Fever Transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Collins; Pansombut, Tatdow; Riyapan, Pakwan; Kakchapati, Sampurna; Phon-On, Aniruth

    2017-05-04

    Dengue fever is one of the infectious diseases that is still a public health problem in Thailand. This study considers in detail, the geographic consequence, seasonal and pattern of dengue fever transmission among the 76 provinces of Thailand from 2003 to 2015. A cross-sectional study. The data for the study was from the Department of Disease Control under the Bureau of Epidemiology, Thailand. The quarterly effects and location on the transmission of dengue was modeled using an alternative additive log-linear model. The model fitted well as illustrated by the residual plots and the  Again, the model showed that dengue fever is high in the second quarter of every year from May to August. There was an evidence of an increase in the trend of dengue annually from 2003 to 2015. There was a difference in the distribution of dengue fever within and between provinces. The areas of high risks were the central and southern regions of Thailand. The log-linear model provided a simple medium of modeling dengue fever transmission. The results are very important in the geographic distribution of dengue fever patterns.

  12. A new pattern associative memory model for image recognition based on Hebb rules and dot product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingyue; Deng, Limiao; Wang, Yanjiang

    2018-04-01

    A great number of associative memory models have been proposed to realize information storage and retrieval inspired by human brain in the last few years. However, there is still much room for improvement for those models. In this paper, we extend a binary pattern associative memory model to accomplish real-world image recognition. The learning process is based on the fundamental Hebb rules and the retrieval is implemented by a normalized dot product operation. Our proposed model can not only fulfill rapid memory storage and retrieval for visual information but also have the ability on incremental learning without destroying the previous learned information. Experimental results demonstrate that our model outperforms the existing Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Network (SOINN) and Back Propagation Neuron Network (BPNN) on recognition accuracy and time efficiency.

  13. Patterns of HCI design and HCI design of patterns bridging HCI design and model-driven software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Seffah, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    As interactive systems are quickly becoming integral to our everyday lives, this book investigates how we can make these systems, from desktop and mobile apps to more wearable and immersive applications, more usable and maintainable by using HCI design patterns. It also examines how we can facilitate the reuse of design practices in the development lifecycle of multi-devices, multi-platforms and multi-contexts user interfaces. Effective design tools are provided for combining HCI design patterns and User Interface (UI) driven engineering to enhance design whilst differentiating between UI

  14. Bifurcation analysis of oscillating network model of pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Bill

    1986-08-01

    A neural network model describing pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb is analysed to explain the changes in neural activity observed experimentally during classical Pavlovian conditioning. EEG activity recorded from an 8×8 arry of 64 electrodes directly on the surface on the bulb shows distinct spatial patterns of oscillation that correspond to the animal's recognition of different conditioned odors and change with conditioning to new odors. The model may be considered a variant of Hopfield's model of continuous analog neural dynamics. Excitatory and inhibitory cell types in the bulb and the anatomical architecture of their connection requires a nonsymmetric coupling matrix. As the mean input level rises during each breath of the animal, the system bifurcates from homogenous equilibrium to a spatially patterned oscillation. The theory of multiple Hopf bifurcations is employed to find coupled equations for the amplitudes of these unstable oscillatory modes independent of frequency. This allows a view of stored periodic attractors as fixed points of a gradient vector field and thereby recovers the more familiar dynamical systems picture of associative memory.

  15. SKA aperture array verification system: electromagnetic modeling and beam pattern measurements using a micro UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lera Acedo, E.; Bolli, P.; Paonessa, F.; Virone, G.; Colin-Beltran, E.; Razavi-Ghods, N.; Aicardi, I.; Lingua, A.; Maschio, P.; Monari, J.; Naldi, G.; Piras, M.; Pupillo, G.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present the electromagnetic modeling and beam pattern measurements of a 16-elements ultra wideband sparse random test array for the low frequency instrument of the Square Kilometer Array telescope. We discuss the importance of a small array test platform for the development of technologies and techniques towards the final telescope, highlighting the most relevant aspects of its design. We also describe the electromagnetic simulations and modeling work as well as the embedded-element and array pattern measurements using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle system. The latter are helpful both for the validation of the models and the design as well as for the future instrumental calibration of the telescope thanks to the stable, accurate and strong radio frequency signal transmitted by the UAV. At this stage of the design, these measurements have shown a general agreement between experimental results and numerical data and have revealed the localized effect of un-calibrated cable lengths in the inner side-lobes of the array pattern.

  16. Introducing a rainfall compound distribution model based on weather patterns sub-sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Garavaglia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic model for daily rainfall, using sub-sampling based on meteorological circulation. We classified eight typical but contrasted synoptic situations (weather patterns for France and surrounding areas, using a "bottom-up" approach, i.e. from the shape of the rain field to the synoptic situations described by geopotential fields. These weather patterns (WP provide a discriminating variable that is consistent with French climatology, and allows seasonal rainfall records to be split into more homogeneous sub-samples, in term of meteorological genesis.

    First results show how the combination of seasonal and WP sub-sampling strongly influences the identification of the asymptotic behaviour of rainfall probabilistic models. Furthermore, with this level of stratification, an asymptotic exponential behaviour of each sub-sample appears as a reasonable hypothesis. This first part is illustrated with two daily rainfall records from SE of France.

    The distribution of the multi-exponential weather patterns (MEWP is then defined as the composition, for a given season, of all WP sub-sample marginal distributions, weighted by the relative frequency of occurrence of each WP. This model is finally compared to Exponential and Generalized Pareto distributions, showing good features in terms of robustness and accuracy. These final statistical results are computed from a wide dataset of 478 rainfall chronicles spread on the southern half of France. All these data cover the 1953–2005 period.

  17. Evaluation of small peripheral pulmonary lesions with thin slice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kouzo

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the morphology of small peripheral pulmonary lesions, we studied thin-slice CT (TS-CT) images of 47 small peripheral pulmonary lesions (24 lung cancers, 23 benign lesions) in 47 patients. CT images were examined by two different window and level settings (window level; -600, window width; 1900 and window level; 50, window width; 300). In TS-CT images, findings of all lesions were classified into 3 different patterns (infiltrative type, solid with air-bronchogram type, homogeneous solid type) which were useful in diagnosing histology based on the growth pattern of the lesion. There was no lung cancer case in which calcification was diagnosed to be present on TS-CT. On the other hand, 5 of 9 inflammatory granulomas were recognized to contain calcium which was never seen on conventional CT. The results suggest that TS-CT may have a significant clinical role in diagnosing small peripheral pulmonary lesion by demonstrating macroscopic features and calcification. (author)

  18. A pilot study of planar coil based magnetic stimulation using acute hippocampal slice in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Kang, H K; Wang, M; Jo, J; Chung, E; Kim, S

    2017-07-01

    Micromagnetic stimulation using small-sized implantable coils has recently been studied. The main advantage of this method is that it can provide sustainable stimulation performance even if a fibrotic encapsulation layer is formed around the implanted coil by inflammation response, because indirectly induced currents are used to induce neural responses. In previous research, we optimized the geometrical and control parameters used in implantable magnetic stimulation. Based on those results, we fabricated the planar coil and studied the LTP effect in the hippocampal slice by two different magnetic stimulation protocols using the quadripulse stimulation (QPS) pattern. We found that direct magnetic stimulation (DMS) induced insignificant LTP effect and priming magnetic stimulation (PMS) occluded LTP effect after tetanic stimulation, when QPS patterned magnetic stimulation with 1 A current pulse was applied to the planar coil.

  19. Microtome Sliced Block Copolymers and Nanoporous Polymers as Masks for Nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta; Schulte, Lars; Ndoni, Sokol

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Block copolymers self-assembling properties are commonly used for creation of very fine nanostructures [1]. Goal of our project is to test new methods of the block-copolymer lithography mask preparation: macroscopic pieces of block-copolymers or nanoporous polymers with cross...... PDMS can be chemically etched from the PB matrix by tetrabutylammonium fluoride in tetrahydrofuran and macroscopic nanoporous PB piece is obtained. Both block-copolymer piece and nanoporous polymer piece were sliced with cryomicrotome perpendicular to the axis of cylinder alignment and flakes...... of etching patterns appear only under the certain parts of thick flakes and are not continuous. Although flakes from block copolymer are thinner and more uniform in thickness than flakes from nanoporous polymer, quality of patterns under nanoporous flakes appeared to be better than under block copolymer...

  20. The pattern of eigenfrequencies of radial overtones which is predicted for a specified Earth-model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. LAPWOOD

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1974 Anderssen and Cleary examined the distribution of eigenfrequencies
    of radial overtones in torsional oscillations of Earth-models.
    They pointed out that according to Sturm-Liouville theory this distribution
    should approach asymptotically, for large overtone number m,
    the value nnz/y, where y is the time taken by a shear-wave to travel
    along a radius from the core-mantle interface to the surface, provided
    elastic parameters vary continuously along the radius. They found that,
    for all the models which they considered, the distributions of eigenfrequencies
    deviated from the asymptote by amounts which depended on
    the existence and size of internal discontinuities. Lapwood (1975 showed
    that such deviations were to be expected from Sturm-Liouville theory,
    and McNabb, Anderssen and Lapwood (1976 extended Sturm-Liouville
    theory to apply to differential equations with discontinuous coefficients.
    Anderssen (1977 used their results to show how to predict the pattern
    of deviations —called by McNabb et al. the solotone effect— for a
    given discontinuity in an Earth-model.
    Recently Sato and Lapwood (1977, in a series of papers which will
    be referred to here simply as I, II, III, have explored the solotone effect
    for layered spherical shells, using approximations derived from an exacttheory which holds for uniform layering. They have shown how the
    form of the pattern of eigenfrequencies, which is the graph of
    S — YMUJI/N — m against m, where ,„CJI is the frequency of the m"'
    overtone in the I"' (Legendre mode of torsional oscillation, is determined
    as to periodicity (or quasi-periodicity by the thicknesses and velocities
    of the layers, and as to amplitude by the amounts of the discontinuities
    (III. The pattern of eigenfrequencies proves to be extremely sensitive
    to small changes in layer-thicknesses in a model.
    In

  1. Drying characteristics of garlic ( Allium sativum L) slices in a convective hot air dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2014-06-01

    The effects of drying temperatures on the drying kinetics of garlic slices were investigated using a cabinet-type dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to the Page and Modified Page models apart from other theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivities varied from 4.214 × 10-10 to 2.221 × 10-10 m2 s-1 over the temperature range studied, and activation energy was 30.582 kJ mol-1.

  2. A slice through a prototype LHC bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This slice through a prototype LHC magnet clearly shows the superconducting cable in several blocks around the central hole – the beam pipe in which the LHC’s accelerated beams will travel. Magnet design is crucial to the LHC’s success and this sample is among the first to be built to the final cable configuration.

  3. Continuous Slice Functional Calculus in Quaternionic Hilbert Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiloni, Riccardo; Moretti, Valter; Perotti, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to define a continuous functional calculus in quaternionic Hilbert spaces, starting from basic issues regarding the notion of spherical spectrum of a normal operator. As properties of the spherical spectrum suggest, the class of continuous functions to consider in this setting is the one of slice quaternionic functions. Slice functions generalize the concept of slice regular function, which comprises power series with quaternionic coefficients on one side and that can be seen as an effective generalization to quaternions of holomorphic functions of one complex variable. The notion of slice function allows to introduce suitable classes of real, complex and quaternionic C*-algebras and to define, on each of these C*-algebras, a functional calculus for quaternionic normal operators. In particular, we establish several versions of the spectral map theorem. Some of the results are proved also for unbounded operators. However, the mentioned continuous functional calculi are defined only for bounded normal operators. Some comments on the physical significance of our work are included.

  4. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  5. A slicing-based approach for locating type errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Dinesh; F. Tip (Frank)

    1998-01-01

    htmlabstractThe effectiveness of a type checking tool strongly depends on the accuracy of the positional information that is associated with type errors. We present an approach where the location associated with an error message e is defined as a slice P_e of the program P being type checked. We

  6. A slicing-based approach for locating type errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Dinesh; F. Tip (Frank)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe effectiveness of a type checking tool strongly depends on the accuracy of the positional information that is associated with type errors. We present an approach where the location associated with an error message e is defined as a slice P_e of the program P being type checked. We

  7. Bacteriological Quality of Dried Sliced Beef (Kilishi) Sold In Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The bacteriological quality of dried sliced beef (kilishi) obtained from three selling points in. Ilorin metropolis was determined in order to ascertain its safety. The total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Staphylococcus aureus count and E.coli counts were used as index of bacteriological quality. Samples.

  8. Thin slice impressions : How advertising evaluation depends on exposure duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Rik; Elsen, M.; Wedel, M.

    The duration of exposures to advertising is often brief. Then, consumers can only obtain “thin slices” of information from the ads, such as which product and brand are being promoted. This research is the first to examine the influence that such thin slices of information have on ad and brand

  9. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, S.J.; Adam, A.; Cohen, G.M. (Univ. of London (England)); Smith, L.L. (Imperial Chemical Industries PLC, Cheshire (England))

    1990-04-01

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 {mu}M) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP{sup +}, and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from D-({sup 14}C(U))-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone.

  10. Automatic Solitary Lung Nodule Detection in Computed Tomography Images Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentana, I. W. B.; Jawas, N.; Asri, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Lung nodule is an early indicator of some lung diseases, including lung cancer. In Computed Tomography (CT) based image, nodule is known as a shape that appears brighter than lung surrounding. This research aim to develop an application that automatically detect lung nodule in CT images. There are some steps in algorithm such as image acquisition and conversion, image binarization, lung segmentation, blob detection, and classification. Data acquisition is a step to taking image slice by slice from the original *.dicom format and then each image slices is converted into *.tif image format. Binarization that tailoring Otsu algorithm, than separated the background and foreground part of each image slices. After removing the background part, the next step is to segment part of the lung only so the nodule can localized easier. Once again Otsu algorithm is use to detect nodule blob in localized lung area. The final step is tailoring Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the nodule. The application has succeed detecting near round nodule with a certain threshold of size. Those detecting result shows drawback in part of thresholding size and shape of nodule that need to enhance in the next part of the research. The algorithm also cannot detect nodule that attached to wall and Lung Chanel, since it depend the searching only on colour differences.

  11. The Sliced Pineapple Grid Feature for Predicting Grasping Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The problem of grasping unknown objects utilising vision is addressed in this work by introducing a novel feature, the Sliced Pineapple Grid Feature (SPGF). The SPGF encode semi-local surfaces and allows for distinguishing structures such as “walls”,“edges” and “rims”. These structures are shown...

  12. Water-activity of dehydrated guava slices sweeteners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, M.; Zeb, A.; Ullah, J.

    2005-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the individual and combined effect of caloric sweeteners (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and non-caloric sweeteners (saccharine, cyclamate and aspartame) along with antioxidants (citric acid and ascorbic acid) and chemical preservatives (potassium metabisulphite and potassium sorbate) on the water-activity (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. Different dilutions of caloric sweeteners (20, 30, 40 and 50 degree brix (bx) and non-caloric sweeteners (equivalent to sucrose sweetness) were used. Guava slices were osmotically dehydrated in these solutions and then dehydrated initially at 0 and then at 60 degree C to final moisture-content of 20-25%. Guava slices prepared with sucrose: glucose 7:3 potassium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid and citric acid produced best quality products, which have minimum (a/sub w/) and best overall sensory characteristics. The analysis showed that treatments and their various concentrations had a significant effect (p=0.05) on (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. (author)

  13. Colour behaviour on mango ( Mangifera indica ) slices self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the syrup composition on behaviour colour of self stabilized mango slices in glass jars by hurdle technology during 180 days of storage was studied through 26-2 fractional factorial design. L* (lightness), a* (redness and greenness), and b* (yellowness and blueness) values were measured with a colorimeter ...

  14. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, S.J.; Adam, A.; Cohen, G.M.; Smith, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 μM) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP + , and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of 14 CO 2 from D-[ 14 C(U)]-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone

  15. Three-dimensional electrode array for brain slice culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Rodriguez, Patricia

    Multielektroder arrays (MEA) er rækker af elektroder mest i mikrometer størrelse, som er blevet brugt i stor omfang til at stimulere og måle elektrisk aktivitet fra neuronale netværker. Brug af disse for at analysere hjerne slices (hjerneskiver) kan give indsigt i interaktioner mellem neuroner, e...

  16. Gravitational clustering of galaxies in the CfA slice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, P.; Saslaw, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The clustering properties of the Galaxies in the CfA slice have been analyzed by comparing the properties of the neighbor distributions to the predictions of gravitational clustering theory. The agreement is excellent and implies that the observed structures can be explained by gravitational effects alone and do not require exotic explanations

  17. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain sli...

  18. Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eells, J.T.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ([R,S]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl[R,S]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine or [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions

  19. Sensitivity analysis of discharge patterns of subthalamic nucleus in the model of basal ganglia in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyotsna; Singh, Phool; Malik, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease alters the information patterns in movement related pathways in brain. Experimental results performed on rats show that the activity patterns changes from single spike activity to mixed burst mode in Parkinson disease. However the cause of this change in activity pattern is not yet completely understood. Subthalamic nucleus is one of the main nuclei involved in the origin of motor dysfunction in Parkinson disease. In this paper, a single compartment conductance based model is considered which focuses on subthalamic nucleus and synaptic input from globus pallidus (external). This model shows highly nonlinear behavior with respect to various intrinsic parameters. Behavior of model has been presented with the help of activity patterns generated in healthy and Parkinson condition. These patterns have been compared by calculating their correlation coefficient for different values of intrinsic parameters. Results display that the activity patterns are very sensitive to various intrinsic parameters and calcium shows some promising results which provide insights into the motor dysfunction.

  20. An equilibrium-point model of electromyographic patterns during single-joint movements based on experimentally reconstructed control signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L; Goodman, S R

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work has been to develop a model of electromyographic (EMG) patterns during single-joint movements based on a version of the equilibrium-point hypothesis, a method for experimental reconstruction of the joint compliant characteristics, the dual-strategy hypothesis, and a kinematic model of movement trajectory. EMG patterns are considered emergent properties of hypothetical control patterns that are equally affected by the control signals and peripheral feedback reflecting actual movement trajectory. A computer model generated the EMG patterns based on simulated movement kinematics and hypothetical control signals derived from the reconstructed joint compliant characteristics. The model predictions have been compared to published recordings of movement kinematics and EMG patterns in a variety of movement conditions, including movements over different distances, at different speeds, against different-known inertial loads, and in conditions of possible unexpected decrease in the inertial load. Changes in task parameters within the model led to simulated EMG patterns qualitatively similar to the experimentally recorded EMG patterns. The model's predictive power compares it favourably to the existing models of the EMG patterns. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Image decomposition model Shearlet-Hilbert-L2 with better performance for denoising in ESPI fringe patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun; Tang, Chen; Su, Yonggang; Li, Biyuan; Lei, Zhenkun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an image decomposition model Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 with better performance for denoising in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) fringe patterns. In our model, the low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise are, respectively, described by shearlet smoothness spaces, adaptive Hilbert space, and L 2 space and processed individually. Because the shearlet transform has superior directional sensitivity, our proposed Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 model achieves commendable filtering results for various types of ESPI fringe patterns, including uniform density fringe patterns, moderately variable density fringe patterns, and greatly variable density fringe patterns. We evaluate the performance of our proposed Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 model via application to two computer-simulated and nine experimentally obtained ESPI fringe patterns with various densities and poor quality. Furthermore, we compare our proposed model with windowed Fourier filtering and coherence-enhancing diffusion, both of which are the state-of-the-art methods for ESPI fringe patterns denoising in transform domain and spatial domain, respectively. We also compare our proposed model with the previous image decomposition model BL-Hilbert-L 2 .

  2. Exploratory graphical models of functional and structural connectivity patterns for Alzheimer's Disease diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eOrtiz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s Disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative disease in elderly people. Itsdevelopment has been shown to be closely related to changes in the brain connectivity networkand in the brain activation patterns along with structural changes caused by the neurodegenerativeprocess.Methods to infer dependence between brain regions are usually derived from the analysis ofcovariance between activation levels in the different areas. However, these covariance-basedmethods are not able to estimate conditional independence between variables to factor out theinfluence of other regions. Conversely, models based on the inverse covariance, or precisionmatrix, such as Sparse Gaussian Graphical Models allow revealing conditional independencebetween regions by estimating the covariance between two variables given the rest as constant.This paper uses Sparse Inverse Covariance Estimation (SICE methods to learn undirectedgraphs in order to derive functional and structural connectivity patterns from Fludeoxyglucose(18F-FDG Position Emission Tomography (PET data and segmented Magnetic Resonanceimages (MRI, drawn from the ADNI database, for Control, MCI (Mild Cognitive ImpairmentSubjects and AD subjects. Sparse computation fits perfectly here as brain regions usually onlyinteract with a few other areas.The models clearly show different metabolic covariation patters between subject groups, revealingthe loss of strong connections in AD and MCI subjects when compared to Controls. Similarly,the variance between GM (Grey Matter densities of different regions reveals different structuralcovariation patterns between the different groups. Thus, the different connectivity patterns forcontrols and AD are used in this paper to select regions of interest in PET and GM images withdiscriminative power for early AD diagnosis. Finally, functional an structural models are combinedto leverage the classification accuracy.The results obtained in this work show the usefulness

  3. Models for positional signalling, the threefold subdivision of segments and the pigmentation pattern of molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, H

    1984-11-01

    Models of biological pattern formation are discussed. The regulatory features expected from the models are compared to those observed experimentally. It will be shown that: (i) Stable gradients appropriate to supply positional information can be produced by local autocatalysis and long-range inhibition. (ii) Spatially ordered sequences of differentiated cell states can emerge if these cell states mutually activate each other on long range but exclude each other locally. Segmentation results from the repetition of three such cell states, S, A and P (and not of only two, as is usually assumed). With a repetition of three states, each segment has a defined polarity. The confrontation of P cells and S cells lead to the formation of a segment border (...P/SAP/SAP/S...) while the A-P confrontation is a prerequisite for appendage formation. Mutations of Drosophila affecting larval segmentation are discussed in terms of this model. (iii) The two models for the generation of sequences of structures in space (positional information including interpretation versus mutual activation) lead to different predictions with respect to intercalary regeneration. This allows a distinction between the two models on the basis of experiments. (iv) The pigmentation patterns of certain molluscs emerge from a coupled oscillation of cells (that is, a lateral inhibition in time, instead of space). The oblique lines result from a chain of triggering events.

  4. A Buffer Model Account of Behavioral and ERP Patterns in the Von Restorff Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri-Maria Kamp

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We combined a mechanistic model of episodic encoding with theories on the functional significance of two event-related potential (ERP components to develop an integrated account for the Von Restorff effect, which refers to the enhanced recall probability for an item that deviates in some feature from other items in its study list. The buffer model of Lehman and Malmberg (2009, 2013 can account for this effect such that items encountered during encoding enter an episodic buffer where they are actively rehearsed. When a deviant item is encountered, in order to re-allocate encoding resources towards this item the buffer is emptied from its prior content, a process labeled “compartmentalization”. Based on theories on their functional significance, the P300 component of the ERP may co-occur with this hypothesized compartmentalization process, while the frontal slow wave may index rehearsal. We derived predictions from this integrated model for output patterns in free recall, systematic variance in ERP components, as well as associations between the two types of measures in a dataset of 45 participants who studied and freely recalled lists of the Von Restorff type. Our major predictions were confirmed and the behavioral and physiological results were consistent with the predictions derived from the model. These findings demonstrate that constraining mechanistic models of episodic memory with brain activity patterns and generating predictions for relationships between brain activity and behavior can lead to novel insights into the relationship between the brain, the mind, and behavior.

  5. On the Modelling of Biological Patterns with Mechanochemical Models: Insights from Analysis and Computation

    KAUST Repository

    Moreo, P.

    2009-11-14

    The diversity of biological form is generated by a relatively small number of underlying mechanisms. Consequently, mathematical and computational modelling can, and does, provide insight into how cellular level interactions ultimately give rise to higher level structure. Given cells respond to mechanical stimuli, it is therefore important to consider the effects of these responses within biological self-organisation models. Here, we consider the self-organisation properties of a mechanochemical model previously developed by three of the authors in Acta Biomater. 4, 613-621 (2008), which is capable of reproducing the behaviour of a population of cells cultured on an elastic substrate in response to a variety of stimuli. In particular, we examine the conditions under which stable spatial patterns can emerge with this model, focusing on the influence of mechanical stimuli and the interplay of non-local phenomena. To this end, we have performed a linear stability analysis and numerical simulations based on a mixed finite element formulation, which have allowed us to study the dynamical behaviour of the system in terms of the qualitative shape of the dispersion relation. We show that the consideration of mechanotaxis, namely changes in migration speeds and directions in response to mechanical stimuli alters the conditions for pattern formation in a singular manner. Furthermore without non-local effects, responses to mechanical stimuli are observed to result in dispersion relations with positive growth rates at arbitrarily large wavenumbers, in turn yielding heterogeneity at the cellular level in model predictions. This highlights the sensitivity and necessity of non-local effects in mechanically influenced biological pattern formation models and the ultimate failure of the continuum approximation in their absence. © 2009 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  6. Fan beam image reconstruction with generalized Fourier slice theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    For parallel beam geometry the Fourier reconstruction works via the Fourier slice theorem (or central slice theorem, projection slice theorem). For fan beam situation, Fourier slice can be extended to a generalized Fourier slice theorem (GFST) for fan-beam image reconstruction. We have briefly introduced this method in a conference. This paper reintroduces the GFST method for fan beam geometry in details. The GFST method can be described as following: the Fourier plane is filled by adding up the contributions from all fanbeam projections individually; thereby the values in the Fourier plane are directly calculated for Cartesian coordinates such avoiding the interpolation from polar to Cartesian coordinates in the Fourier domain; inverse fast Fourier transform is applied to the image in Fourier plane and leads to a reconstructed image in spacial domain. The reconstructed image is compared between the result of the GFST method and the result from the filtered backprojection (FBP) method. The major differences of the GFST and the FBP methods are: (1) The interpolation process are at different data sets. The interpolation of the GFST method is at projection data. The interpolation of the FBP method is at filtered projection data. (2) The filtering process are done in different places. The filtering process of the GFST is at Fourier domain. The filtering process of the FBP method is the ramp filter which is done at projections. The resolution of ramp filter is variable with different location but the filter in the Fourier domain lead to resolution invariable with location. One advantage of the GFST method over the FBP method is in short scan situation, an exact solution can be obtained with the GFST method, but it can not be obtained with the FBP method. The calculation of both the GFST and the FBP methods are at O(N^3), where N is the number of pixel in one dimension.

  7. Assessing regional cerebral blood flow in depression using 320-slice computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Wang

    Full Text Available While there is evidence that the development and course of major depressive disorder (MDD symptomatology is associated with vascular disease, and that there are changes in energy utilization in the disorder, the extent to which cerebral blood flow is changed in this condition is not clear. This study utilized a novel imaging technique previously used in coronary and stroke patients, 320-slice Computed-Tomography (CT, to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in those with MDD and examine the pattern of regional cerebral perfusion. Thirty nine participants with depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 24 (HAMD24 score > 20, and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS score > 53 and 41 healthy volunteers were studied. For all subjects, 3 ml of venous blood was collected to assess hematological parameters. Transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasound was utilized to measure parameters of cerebral artery rCBFV and analyse the Pulsatility Index (PI. 16 subjects (8 =  MDD; 8 =  healthy also had rCBF measured in different cerebral artery regions using 320-slice CT. Differences among groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Pearson's tests were employed in our statistical analyses. Compared with the control group, whole blood viscosity (including high\\middle\\low shear rateand hematocrit (HCT were significantly increased in the MDD group. PI values in different cerebral artery regions and parameters of rCBFV in the cerebral arteries were decreased in depressive participants, and there was a positive relationship between rCBFV and the corresponding vascular rCBF in both gray and white matter. rCBF of the left gray matter was lower than that of the right in MDD. Major depression is characterized by a wide range of CBF impairments and prominent changes in gray matter blood flow. 320-slice CT appears to be a valid and promising tool for measuring rCBF, and could thus be employed in psychiatric settings for biomarker and treatment response purposes.

  8. A generalized linear-quadratic model incorporating reciprocal time pattern of radiation damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhibin; Mayr, Nina A.; Lo, Simon S.; Wang, Jian Z.; Jia Guang; Yuh, William T. C.; Johnke, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It has been conventionally assumed that the repair rate for sublethal damage (SLD) remains constant during the entire radiation course. However, increasing evidence from animal studies suggest that this may not the case. Rather, it appears that the repair rate for radiation-induced SLD slows down with increasing time. Such a slowdown in repair would suggest that the exponential repair pattern would not necessarily accurately predict repair process. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate a new generalized linear-quadratic (LQ) model incorporating a repair pattern with reciprocal time. The new formulas were tested with published experimental data. Methods: The LQ model has been widely used in radiation therapy, and the parameter G in the surviving fraction represents the repair process of sublethal damage with T r as the repair half-time. When a reciprocal pattern of repair process was adopted, a closed form of G was derived analytically for arbitrary radiation schemes. The published animal data adopted to test the reciprocal formulas. Results: A generalized LQ model to describe the repair process in a reciprocal pattern was obtained. Subsequently, formulas for special cases were derived from this general form. The reciprocal model showed a better fit to the animal data than the exponential model, particularly for the ED50 data (reduced χ 2 min of 2.0 vs 4.3, p = 0.11 vs 0.006), with the following gLQ parameters: α/β = 2.6-4.8 Gy, T r = 3.2-3.9 h for rat feet skin, and α/β = 0.9 Gy, T r = 1.1 h for rat spinal cord. Conclusions: These results of repair process following a reciprocal time suggest that the generalized LQ model incorporating the reciprocal time of sublethal damage repair shows a better fit than the exponential repair model. These formulas can be used to analyze the experimental and clinical data, where a slowing-down repair process appears during the course of radiation therapy.

  9. Patterns and causes of species richness: a general simulation model for macroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Anderson, Marti J; Arita, Hector T

    2009-01-01

    to a mechanistic understanding of the patterns. During the past two decades, macroecologists have successfully addressed technical problems posed by spatial autocorrelation, intercorrelation of predictor variables and non-linearity. However, curve-fitting approaches are problematic because most theoretical models...... in macroecology do not make quantitative predictions, and they do not incorporate interactions among multiple forces. As an alternative, we propose a mechanistic modelling approach. We describe computer simulation models of the stochastic origin, spread, and extinction of species' geographical ranges...... in an environmentally heterogeneous, gridded domain and describe progress to date regarding their implementation. The output from such a general simulation model (GSM) would, at a minimum, consist of the simulated distribution of species ranges on a map, yielding the predicted number of species in each grid cell...

  10. Global stability and pattern formation in a nonlocal diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenjie; Shi, Junping; Wang, Mingxin

    2018-06-01

    A diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition model with nonlocal intraspecific and interspecific competition between species is formulated and analyzed. The nonlocal competition strength is assumed to be determined by a diffusion kernel function to model the movement pattern of the biological species. It is shown that when there is no nonlocal intraspecific competition, the dynamics properties of nonlocal diffusive competition problem are similar to those of classical diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition model regardless of the strength of nonlocal interspecific competition. Global stability of nonnegative constant equilibria are proved using Lyapunov or upper-lower solution methods. On the other hand, strong nonlocal intraspecific competition increases the system spatiotemporal dynamic complexity. For the weak competition case, the nonlocal diffusive competition model may possess nonconstant positive equilibria for some suitably large nonlocal intraspecific competition coefficients.

  11. Coupled Particle Transport and Pattern Formation in a Nonlinear Leaky-Box Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; El-Nemr, K. W.; Baird, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of particle-particle coupling on particle characteristics in nonlinear leaky-box type descriptions of the acceleration and transport of energetic particles in space plasmas are examined in the framework of a simple two-particle model based on the Fokker-Planck equation in momentum space. In this model, the two particles are assumed coupled via a common nonlinear source term. In analogy with a prototypical mathematical system of diffusion-driven instability, this work demonstrates that steady-state patterns with strong dependence on the magnetic turbulence but a rather weak one on the coupled particles attributes can emerge in solutions of a nonlinearly coupled leaky-box model. The insight gained from this simple model may be of wider use and significance to nonlinearly coupled leaky-box type descriptions in general.

  12. Model sparsity and brain pattern interpretation of classification models in neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Churchill, Nathan W

    2012-01-01

    Interest is increasing in applying discriminative multivariate analysis techniques to the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. Model interpretation is of great importance in the neuroimaging context, and is conventionally based on a ‘brain map’ derived from the classification model. In this ...

  13. Dynamic model updating based on strain mode shape and natural frequency using hybrid pattern search technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Yang, Zhichun; Wang, Le; Ouyang, Yan; Zhang, Xinping

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at providing a precise dynamic structural finite element (FE) model for dynamic strength evaluation in addition to dynamic analysis. A dynamic FE model updating method is presented to correct the uncertain parameters of the FE model of a structure using strain mode shapes and natural frequencies. The strain mode shape, which is sensitive to local changes in structure, is used instead of the displacement mode for enhancing model updating. The coordinate strain modal assurance criterion is developed to evaluate the correlation level at each coordinate over the experimental and the analytical strain mode shapes. Moreover, the natural frequencies which provide the global information of the structure are used to guarantee the accuracy of modal properties of the global model. Then, the weighted summation of the natural frequency residual and the coordinate strain modal assurance criterion residual is used as the objective function in the proposed dynamic FE model updating procedure. The hybrid genetic/pattern-search optimization algorithm is adopted to perform the dynamic FE model updating procedure. Numerical simulation and model updating experiment for a clamped-clamped beam are performed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the present method. The results show that the proposed method can be used to update the uncertain parameters with good robustness. And the updated dynamic FE model of the beam structure, which can correctly predict both the natural frequencies and the local dynamic strains, is reliable for the following dynamic analysis and dynamic strength evaluation.

  14. Toward robust phase-locking in Melibe swim central pattern generator models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Sajiya; Allen, Dane; Youker, Joseph; Shilnikov, Andrey

    2013-12-01

    Small groups of interneurons, abbreviated by CPG for central pattern generators, are arranged into neural networks to generate a variety of core bursting rhythms with specific phase-locked states, on distinct time scales, which govern vital motor behaviors in invertebrates such as chewing and swimming. These movements in lower level animals mimic motions of organs in higher animals due to evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Hence, various neurological diseases can be linked to abnormal movement of body parts that are regulated by a malfunctioning CPG. In this paper, we, being inspired by recent experimental studies of neuronal activity patterns recorded from a swimming motion CPG of the sea slug Melibe leonina, examine a mathematical model of a 4-cell network that can plausibly and stably underlie the observed bursting rhythm. We develop a dynamical systems framework for explaining the existence and robustness of phase-locked states in activity patterns produced by the modeled CPGs. The proposed tools can be used for identifying core components for other CPG networks with reliable bursting outcomes and specific phase relationships between the interneurons. Our findings can be employed for identifying or implementing the conditions for normal and pathological functioning of basic CPGs of animals and artificially intelligent prosthetics that can regulate various movements.

  15. Multivariate Cholesky models of human female fertility patterns in the NLSY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Bard, David E; Miller, Warren B

    2007-03-01

    Substantial evidence now exists that variables measuring or correlated with human fertility outcomes have a heritable component. In this study, we define a series of age-sequenced fertility variables, and fit multivariate models to account for underlying shared genetic and environmental sources of variance. We make predictions based on a theory developed by Udry [(1996) Biosocial models of low-fertility societies. In: Casterline, JB, Lee RD, Foote KA (eds) Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories. The Population Council, New York] suggesting that biological/genetic motivations can be more easily realized and measured in settings in which fertility choices are available. Udry's theory, along with principles from molecular genetics and certain tenets of life history theory, allow us to make specific predictions about biometrical patterns across age. Consistent with predictions, our results suggest that there are different sources of genetic influence on fertility variance at early compared to later ages, but that there is only one source of shared environmental influence that occurs at early ages. These patterns are suggestive of the types of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions for which we must account to better understand individual differences in fertility outcomes.

  16. Sensing Urban Land-Use Patterns by Integrating Google Tensorflow and Scene-Classification Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y.; Liang, H.; Li, X.; Zhang, J.; He, J.

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid progress of China's urbanization, research on the automatic detection of land-use patterns in Chinese cities is of substantial importance. Deep learning is an effective method to extract image features. To take advantage of the deep-learning method in detecting urban land-use patterns, we applied a transfer-learning-based remote-sensing image approach to extract and classify features. Using the Google Tensorflow framework, a powerful convolution neural network (CNN) library was created. First, the transferred model was previously trained on ImageNet, one of the largest object-image data sets, to fully develop the model's ability to generate feature vectors of standard remote-sensing land-cover data sets (UC Merced and WHU-SIRI). Then, a random-forest-based classifier was constructed and trained on these generated vectors to classify the actual urban land-use pattern on the scale of traffic analysis zones (TAZs). To avoid the multi-scale effect of remote-sensing imagery, a large random patch (LRP) method was used. The proposed method could efficiently obtain acceptable accuracy (OA = 0.794, Kappa = 0.737) for the study area. In addition, the results show that the proposed method can effectively overcome the multi-scale effect that occurs in urban land-use classification at the irregular land-parcel level. The proposed method can help planners monitor dynamic urban land use and evaluate the impact of urban-planning schemes.

  17. Integrated fMRI Preprocessing Framework Using Extended Kalman Filter for Estimation of Slice-Wise Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Pinsard

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI acquisition is sensitive to subjects' motion that cannot be fully constrained. Therefore, signal corrections have to be applied a posteriori in order to mitigate the complex interactions between changing tissue localization and magnetic fields, gradients and readouts. To circumvent current preprocessing strategies limitations, we developed an integrated method that correct motion and spatial low-frequency intensity fluctuations at the level of each slice in order to better fit the acquisition processes. The registration of single or multiple simultaneously acquired slices is achieved online by an Iterated Extended Kalman Filter, favoring the robust estimation of continuous motion, while an intensity bias field is non-parametrically fitted. The proposed extraction of gray-matter BOLD activity from the acquisition space to an anatomical group template space, taking into account distortions, better preserves fine-scale patterns of activity. Importantly, the proposed unified framework generalizes to high-resolution multi-slice techniques. When tested on simulated and real data the latter shows a reduction of motion explained variance and signal variability when compared to the conventional preprocessing approach. These improvements provide more stable patterns of activity, facilitating investigation of cerebral information representation in healthy and/or clinical populations where motion is known to impact fine-scale data.

  18. Hidden Markov model analysis of maternal behavior patterns in inbred and reciprocal hybrid mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Carola

    Full Text Available Individual variation in maternal care in mammals shows a significant heritable component, with the maternal behavior of daughters resembling that of their mothers. In laboratory mice, genetically distinct inbred strains show stable differences in maternal care during the first postnatal week. Moreover, cross fostering and reciprocal breeding studies demonstrate that differences in maternal care between inbred strains persist in the absence of genetic differences, demonstrating a non-genetic or epigenetic contribution to maternal behavior. In this study we applied a mathematical tool, called hidden Markov model (HMM, to analyze the behavior of female mice in the presence of their young. The frequency of several maternal behaviors in mice has been previously described, including nursing/grooming pups and tending to the nest. However, the ordering, clustering, and transitions between these behaviors have not been systematically described and thus a global description of maternal behavior is lacking. Here we used HMM to describe maternal behavior patterns in two genetically distinct mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c, and their genetically identical reciprocal hybrid female offspring. HMM analysis is a powerful tool to identify patterns of events that cluster in time and to determine transitions between these clusters, or hidden states. For the HMM analysis we defined seven states: arched-backed nursing, blanket nursing, licking/grooming pups, grooming, activity, eating, and sleeping. By quantifying the frequency, duration, composition, and transition probabilities of these states we were able to describe the pattern of maternal behavior in mouse and identify aspects of these patterns that are under genetic and nongenetic inheritance. Differences in these patterns observed in the experimental groups (inbred and hybrid females were detected only after the application of HMM analysis whereas classical statistical methods and analyses were not able to

  19. Modelling ground deformation patterns associated with volcanic processes at the Okataina Volcanic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, L.; Cas, R.; Fournier, N.; Ailleres, L.

    2017-09-01

    The Okataina Volcanic Centre (OVC) is one of two large active rhyolite centres in the modern Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in the North Island of New Zealand. It is located in a complex section of the Taupo rift, a tectonically active section of the TVZ. The most recent volcanic unrest at the OVC includes the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions. Current monitoring activity at the OVC includes the use of continuous GPS receivers (cGPS), lake levelling and seismographs. The ground deformation patterns preceding volcanic activity the OVC are poorly constrained and restricted to predictions from basic modelling and comparison to other volcanoes worldwide. A better understanding of the deformation patterns preceding renewed volcanic activity is essential to determine if observed deformation is related to volcanic, tectonic or hydrothermal processes. Such an understanding also means that the ability of the present day cGPS network to detect these deformation patterns can also be assessed. The research presented here uses the finite element (FE) modelling technique to investigate ground deformation patterns associated with magma accumulation and diking processes at the OVC in greater detail. A number of FE models are produced and tested using Pylith software and incorporate characteristics of the 1315 CE Kaharoa and 1886 Tarawera eruptions, summarised from the existing body of research literature. The influence of a simple ring fault structure at the OVC on the modelled deformation is evaluated. The ability of the present-day continuous GPS (cGPS) GeoNet monitoring network to detect or observe the modelled deformation is also considered. The results show the modelled horizontal and vertical displacement fields have a number of key features, which include prominent lobe based regions extending northwest and southeast of the OVC. The results also show that the ring fault structure increases the magnitude of the displacements inside the caldera, in particular in the

  20. Spatial pattern of diarrhea based on regional economic and environment by spatial autoregressive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekti, Rokhana Dwi; Nurhadiyanti, Gita; Irwansyah, Edy

    2014-10-01

    The diarrhea case pattern information, especially for toddler, is very important. It is used to show the distribution of diarrhea in every region, relationship among that locations, and regional economic characteristic or environmental behavior. So, this research uses spatial pattern to perform them. This method includes: Moran's I, Spatial Autoregressive Models (SAR), and Local Indicator of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA). It uses sample from 23 sub districts of Bekasi Regency, West Java, Indonesia. Diarrhea case, regional economic, and environmental behavior of households have a spatial relationship among sub district. SAR shows that the percentage of Regional Gross Domestic Product is significantly effect on diarrhea at α = 10%. Therefore illiteracy and health center facilities are significant at α = 5%. With LISA test, sub districts in southern Bekasi have high dependencies with Cikarang Selatan, Serang Baru, and Setu. This research also builds development application that is based on java and R to support data analysis.