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Sample records for sleeping beauty system

  1. Gene Therapy with the Sleeping Beauty Transposon System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebriaei, Partow; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Narayanavari, Suneel A; Singh, Harjeet; Ivics, Zoltán

    2017-11-01

    The widespread clinical implementation of gene therapy requires the ability to stably integrate genetic information through gene transfer vectors in a safe, effective, and economical manner. The latest generation of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors fulfills these requirements, and may overcome limitations associated with viral gene transfer vectors and transient nonviral gene delivery approaches that are prevalent in ongoing clinical trials. The SB system enables high-level stable gene transfer and sustained transgene expression in multiple primary human somatic cell types, thereby representing a highly attractive gene transfer strategy for clinical use. Here, we review the most important aspects of using SB for gene therapy, including vectorization as well as genomic integration features. We also illustrate the path to successful clinical implementation by highlighting the application of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells in cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleeping beauties in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Završnik, Jernej; Kokol, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Sleeping beauties (SBs) in science have been known for few decades; however, it seems that only recently have they become popular. An SB is a publication that "sleeps" for a long time and then almost suddenly awakes and becomes highly cited. SBs present interesting findings in science. Pediatrics research literature has not yet been analyzed for their presence, and 5 pediatrics SBs were discovered in this research. Their prevalence was approximately 0.011%. Some environments or periods are more "SB fertile" than others: 3 of 5 SBs were published in the journal Pediatrics, 4 originated from the United States, and 4 were published in the period from 1992 to 1993. No institutions or authors published more than 1 SB.

  3. When Sleeping Beauty First Awakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David; Peijnenburg, Jeanne

    Ever since its introduction, the Sleeping Beauty Problem has been fought over by the halfers against the thirders. We distinguish three interpretations of the original problem as described in Adam Elga's seminal paper on the subject. Elga's intended interpretation leads to the position of the

  4. Somatic mutagenesis with a Sleeping Beauty transposon system leads to solid tumor formation in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura McGrail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes and mouse transposon-induced tumors has identified a vast number of genes mutated in different cancers. One of the outstanding challenges in this field is to determine which genes, when mutated, contribute to cellular transformation and tumor progression. To identify new and conserved genes that drive tumorigenesis we have developed a novel cancer model in a distantly related vertebrate species, the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The Sleeping Beauty (SB T2/Onc transposon system was adapted for somatic mutagenesis in zebrafish. The carp ß-actin promoter was cloned into T2/Onc to create T2/OncZ. Two transgenic zebrafish lines that contain large concatemers of T2/OncZ were isolated by injection of linear DNA into the zebrafish embryo. The T2/OncZ transposons were mobilized throughout the zebrafish genome from the transgene array by injecting SB11 transposase RNA at the 1-cell stage. Alternatively, the T2/OncZ zebrafish were crossed to a transgenic line that constitutively expresses SB11 transposase. T2/OncZ transposon integration sites were cloned by ligation-mediated PCR and sequenced on a Genome Analyzer II. Between 700-6800 unique integration events in individual fish were mapped to the zebrafish genome. The data show that introduction of transposase by transgene expression or RNA injection results in an even distribution of transposon re-integration events across the zebrafish genome. SB11 mRNA injection resulted in neoplasms in 10% of adult fish at ∼10 months of age. T2/OncZ-induced zebrafish tumors contain many mutated genes in common with human and mouse cancer genes. These analyses validate our mutagenesis approach and provide additional support for the involvement of these genes in human cancers. The zebrafish T2/OncZ cancer model will be useful for identifying novel and conserved genetic drivers of human cancers.

  5. Pig transgenesis by Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    disease models. In this report, we present transgenic pigs created by Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition in primary porcine fibroblasts in combination with somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. Göttingen minipigs expressing green fluorescent protein are produced by transgenesis with DNA...... plasmid DNA. Our findings illustrate critical issues related to DNA transposon-directed transgenesis, including coincidental plasmid insertion and relatively low Sleeping Beauty transposition activity in porcine fibroblasts, but also provide a platform for future development of porcine disease models......Modelling of human disease in genetically engineered pigs provides unique possibilities in biomedical research and in studies of disease intervention. Establishment of methodologies that allow efficient gene insertion by non-viral gene carriers is an important step towards development of new...

  6. Stable, Nonviral Expression of Mutated Tumor Neoantigen-specific T-cell Receptors Using the Sleeping Beauty Transposon/Transposase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniger, Drew C; Pasetto, Anna; Tran, Eric; Parkhurst, Maria R; Cohen, Cyrille J; Robbins, Paul F; Cooper, Laurence JN; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Neoantigens unique to each patient's tumor can be recognized by autologous T cells through their T-cell receptor (TCR) but the low frequency and/or terminal differentiation of mutation-specific T cells in tumors can limit their utility as adoptive T-cell therapies. Transfer of TCR genes into younger T cells from peripheral blood with a high proliferative potential could obviate this problem. We generated a rapid, cost-effective strategy to genetically engineer cancer patient T cells with TCRs using the clinical Sleeping Beauty transposon/transposase system. Patient-specific TCRs reactive against HLA-A*0201-restriced neoantigens AHNAKS2580F or ERBB2H473Y or the HLA-DQB*0601-restricted neoantigen ERBB2IPE805G were assembled with murine constant chains and cloned into Sleeping Beauty transposons. Patient peripheral blood lymphocytes were coelectroporated with SB11 transposase and Sleeping Beauty transposon, and transposed T cells were enriched by sorting on murine TCRβ (mTCRβ) expression. Rapid expansion of mTCRβ+ T cells with irradiated allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes feeders, OKT3, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-15, and IL-21 resulted in a preponderance of effector (CD27−CD45RA−) and less-differentiated (CD27+CD45RA+) T cells. Transposed T cells specifically mounted a polyfunctional response against cognate mutated neoantigens and tumor cell lines. Thus, Sleeping Beauty transposition of mutation-specific TCRs can facilitate the use of personalized T-cell therapy targeting unique neoantigens. PMID:26945006

  7. Dormitory of Physical and Engineering Sciences: Sleeping Beauties May Be Sleeping Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2015-01-01

    A ‘Sleeping Beauty in Science’ is a publication that goes unnoticed (‘sleeps’) for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention (‘is awakened by a prince’). The aim of this paper is to present a general methodology to investigate (1) important properties of Sleeping Beauties such as the time-dependent distribution, author characteristics, journals and fields, and (2) the cognitive environment of Sleeping Beauties. We are particularly interested to find out to what extent Sleeping Beauties are application-oriented and thus are potential Sleeping Innovations. In this study we focus primarily on physics (including materials science and astrophysics) and present first results for chemistry and for engineering & computer science. We find that more than half of the SBs are application-oriented. To study the cognitive environments of Sleeping Beauties we develop a new approach in which the cognitive environment of the SBs is analyzed, based on the mapping of Sleeping Beauties using their citation links and conceptual relations, particularly co-citation mapping. In this way we investigate the research themes in which the SBs are ‘used’ and possible causes of why the premature work in the SBs becomes topical, i.e., the trigger of the awakening of the SBs. This approach is tested with a blue skies SB and an application-oriented SB. We think that the mapping procedures discussed in this paper are not only important for bibliometric analyses. They also provide researchers with useful, interactive tools to discover both relevant older work as well as new developments, for instance in themes related to Sleeping Beauties that are also Sleeping Innovations. PMID:26469987

  8. Phase I trials using Sleeping Beauty to generate CD19-specific CAR T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kebriaei, Partow; Singh, Harjeet; Huls, M. Helen; Figliola, Matthew J.; Bassett, Roland; Olivares, Simon; Jena, Bipulendu; Dawson, Margaret J.; Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R.; Su, Shihuang; Maiti, Sourindra; Dai, Jianliang; Moriarity, Branden; Forget, Marie-Andrée; Senyukov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. T cells expressing antigen-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) improve outcomes for CD19-expressing B cell malignancies. We evaluated a human application of T cells that were genetically modified using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system to express a CD19-specific CAR.

  9. Wide Awake and Ready to Move: 20 Years of Non-Viral Therapeutic Genome Engineering with the Sleeping Beauty Transposon System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Russ; Narayanavari, Suneel A; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2017-10-01

    Gene therapies will only become a widespread tool in the clinical treatment of human diseases with the advent of gene transfer vectors that integrate genetic information stably, safely, effectively, and economically. Two decades after the discovery of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon, it has been transformed into a vector system that is fulfilling these requirements. SB may well overcome some of the limitations associated with viral gene transfer vectors and transient non-viral gene delivery approaches that are being used in the majority of ongoing clinical trials. The SB system has achieved a high level of stable gene transfer and sustained transgene expression in multiple primary human somatic cell types, representing crucial steps that may permit its clinical use in the near future. This article reviews the most important aspects of SB as a tool for gene therapy, including aspects of its vectorization and genomic integration. As an illustration, the clinical development of the SB system toward gene therapy of age-related macular degeneration and cancer immunotherapy is highlighted.

  10. Do younger Sleeping Beauties prefer a technological prince?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J; Winnink, Jos J

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we investigate recent Sleeping Beauties cited in patents (SB-SNPRs). We find that the increasing trend of the relative number of SBs stopped around 1998. Moreover, we find that the time lag between the publication year of the SB-SNPRs and their first citation in a patent is becoming shorter in recent years. Our observations also suggest that, on average, in the more recent years SBs are awakened increasingly earlier by a 'technological prince' rather than by a 'scientific prince'. These observations suggest that SBs with technological importance are 'discovered' earlier in an application-oriented context. Then, because of this earlier recognized technological relevance, papers may be cited also earlier in a scientific context. Thus early recognized technological relevance may 'prevent' papers to become an SB. The scientific impact of Sleeping Beauties is generally not necessarily related to the technological importance of the SBs, as far as measured with number and impact of the citing patents. The analysis of the occurrence of inventor-author relations as well as the citation years of inventor-author patents suggest that the scientific awakening of Sleeping Beauties only rarely occurs by inventor-author self-citation.

  11. Manufacture of clinical-grade CD19-specific T cells stably expressing chimeric antigen receptor using Sleeping Beauty system and artificial antigen presenting cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjeet Singh

    Full Text Available Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Our current approach to adoptive immunotherapy is based on a second generation CAR (designated CD19RCD28 that signals through a CD28 and CD3-ζ endodomain. T cells are electroporated with DNA plasmids from the Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon/transposase system to express this CAR. Stable integrants of genetically modified T cells can then be retrieved when co-cultured with designer artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC in the presence of interleukin (IL-2 and 21. Here, we reveal how the platform technologies of SB-mediated transposition and CAR-dependent propagation on aAPC were adapted for human application. Indeed, we have initiated clinical trials in patients with high-risk B-lineage malignancies undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT. We describe the process to manufacture clinical grade CD19-specific T cells derived from healthy donors. Three validation runs were completed in compliance with current good manufacturing practice for Phase I/II trials demonstrating that by 28 days of co-culture on γ-irradiated aAPC ∼10(10 T cells were produced of which >95% expressed CAR. These genetically modified and propagated T cells met all quality control testing and release criteria in support of infusion.

  12. Efficient Sleeping Beauty DNA Transposition From DNA Minicircles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynne Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA transposon-based vectors have emerged as new potential delivery tools in therapeutic gene transfer. Such vectors are now showing promise in hematopoietic stem cells and primary human T cells, and clinical trials with transposon-engineered cells are on the way. However, the use of plasmid DNA as a carrier of the vector raises safety concerns due to the undesirable administration of bacterial sequences. To optimize vectors based on the Sleeping Beauty (SB DNA transposon for clinical use, we examine here SB transposition from DNA minicircles (MCs devoid of the bacterial plasmid backbone. Potent DNA transposition, directed by the hyperactive SB100X transposase, is demonstrated from MC donors, and the stable transfection rate is significantly enhanced by expressing the SB100X transposase from MCs. The stable transfection rate is inversely related to the size of circular donor, suggesting that a MC-based SB transposition system benefits primarily from an increased cellular uptake and/or enhanced expression which can be observed with DNA MCs. DNA transposon and transposase MCs are easily produced, are favorable in size, do not carry irrelevant DNA, and are robust substrates for DNA transposition. In accordance, DNA MCs should become a standard source of DNA transposons not only in therapeutic settings but also in the daily use of the SB system.

  13. Prolonged Expression of Secreted Enzymes in Dogs After Liver-Directed Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposons: Implications for Non-Viral Gene Therapy of Systemic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovich, Elena L; Hyland, Kendra A; Hall, Bryan C; Bell, Jason B; Olson, Erik R; Rusten, Myra Urness; Hunter, David W; Ellinwood, N Matthew; McIvor, R Scott; Hackett, Perry B

    2017-07-01

    The non-viral, integrating Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is efficient in treating systemic monogenic disease in mice, including hemophilia A and B caused by deficiency of blood clotting factors and mucopolysaccharidosis types I and VII caused by α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) and β-glucuronidase (GUSB) deficiency, respectively. Modified approaches of the hydrodynamics-based procedure to deliver transposons to the liver in dogs were recently reported. Using the transgenic canine reporter secreted alkaline phosphatase (cSEAP), transgenic protein in the plasma was demonstrated for up to 6 weeks post infusion. This study reports that immunosuppression of dogs with gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ) prolonged the presence of cSEAP in the circulation up to 5.5 months after a single vector infusion. Transgene expression declined gradually but appeared to stabilize after about 2 months at approximately fourfold baseline level. Durability of transgenic protein expression in the plasma was inversely associated with transient increase of liver enzymes alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in response to the plasmid delivery procedure, which suggests a deleterious effect of hepatocellular toxicity on transgene expression. GdCl 3 treatment was ineffective for repeat vector infusions. In parallel studies, dogs were infused with potentially therapeutic transposons. Activities of transgenic IDUA and GUSB in plasma peaked at 50-350% of wildtype, but in the absence of immunosuppression lasted only a few days. Transposition was detectable by excision assay only when the most efficient transposase, SB100X, was used. Dogs infused with transposons encoding canine clotting factor IX (cFIX) were treated with GdCl 3 and showed expression profiles similar to those in cSEAP-infused dogs, with expression peaking at 40% wt (2 μg/mL). It is concluded that GdCl 3 can support extended transgene expression after hydrodynamic introduction of SB transposons in dogs, but that alternative

  14. Comparison of lentiviral and sleeping beauty mediated αβ T cell receptor gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christine Field

    Full Text Available Transfer of tumour antigen-specific receptors to T cells requires efficient delivery and integration of transgenes, and currently most clinical studies are using gamma retroviral or lentiviral systems. Whilst important proof-of-principle data has been generated for both chimeric antigen receptors and αβ T cell receptors, the current platforms are costly, time-consuming and relatively inflexible. Alternative, more cost-effective, Sleeping Beauty transposon-based plasmid systems could offer a pathway to accelerated clinical testing of a more diverse repertoire of recombinant high affinity T cell receptors. Nucleofection of hyperactive SB100X transposase-mediated stable transposition of an optimised murine-human chimeric T cell receptor specific for Wilm's tumour antigen from a Sleeping Beauty transposon plasmid. Whilst transfer efficiency was lower than that mediated by lentiviral transduction, cells could be readily enriched and expanded, and mediated effective target cells lysis in vitro and in vivo. Integration sites of transposed TCR genes in primary T cells were almost randomly distributed, contrasting the predilection of lentiviral vectors for transcriptionally active sites. The results support exploitation of the Sleeping Beauty plasmid based system as a flexible and adaptable platform for accelerated, early-phase assessment of T cell receptor gene therapies.

  15. Stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNAs by sleeping beauty transposon system to confer HIV-1 resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkina Ramesh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thus far gene therapy strategies for HIV/AIDS have used either conventional retroviral vectors or lentiviral vectors for gene transfer. Although highly efficient, their use poses a certain degree of risk in terms of viral mediated oncogenesis. Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system offers a non-viral method of gene transfer to avoid this possible risk. With respect to conferring HIV resistance, stable knock down of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 by the use of lentiviral vector delivered siRNAs has proved to be a promising strategy to protect cells from HIV-1 infection. In the current studies our aim is to evaluate the utility of SB system for stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNA genes to derive HIV resistant cells as a first step towards using this system for gene therapy. Results Two well characterized siRNAs against the HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 were chosen based on their previous efficacy for the SB transposon gene delivery. The siRNA transgenes were incorporated individually into a modified SB transfer plasmid containing a FACS sortable red fluorescence protein (RFP reporter and a drug selectable neomycin resistance gene. Gene transfer was achieved by co-delivery with a construct expressing a hyperactive transposase (HSB5 into the GHOST-R3/X4/R5 cell line, which expresses the major HIV receptor CD4 and and the co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. SB constructs expressing CCR5 or CXCR4 siRNAs were also transfected into MAGI-CCR5 or MAGI-CXCR4 cell lines, respectively. Near complete downregulation of CCR5 and CXCR4 surface expression was observed in transfected cells. During viral challenge with X4-tropic (NL4.3 or R5-tropic (BaL HIV-1 strains, the respective transposed cells showed marked viral resistance. Conclusion SB transposon system can be used to deliver siRNA genes for stable gene transfer. The siRNA genes against HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are able to downregulate the respective cell surface proteins

  16. Insertional engineering of chromosomes with Sleeping Beauty transposition: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabundzija, Ivana; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Novel genetic tools and mutagenesis strategies based on the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposable element are currently under development with a vision to link primary DNA sequence information to gene functions in vertebrate models. By virtue of its inherent capacity to insert into DNA, the SB transposon can be developed into powerful tools for chromosomal manipulations. Mutagenesis screens based on SB have numerous advantages including high throughput and easy identification of mutated alleles. Forward genetic approaches based on insertional mutagenesis by engineered SB transposons have the advantage of providing insight into genetic networks and pathways based on phenotype. Indeed, the SB transposon has become a highly instrumental tool to induce tumors in experimental animals in a tissue-specific -manner with the aim of uncovering the genetic basis of diverse cancers. Here, we describe a battery of mutagenic cassettes that can be applied in conjunction with SB transposon vectors to mutagenize genes, and highlight versatile experimental strategies for the generation of engineered chromosomes for loss-of-function as well as gain-of-function mutagenesis for functional gene annotation in vertebrate models.

  17. Derivation and characterization of sleeping beauty transposon-mediated porcine induced pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kues, Wilfried A.; Herrmann, Doris; Barg-Kues, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    the nonviral Sleeping Beauty transposon system to deliver the reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc. Successful reprogramming to a pluripotent state was indicated by changes in cell morphology and reactivation of the Oct4-EGFP reporter. The transposon-reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem (i......PS) cells showed long-term proliferation in vitro over >40 passages, expressed transcription factors typical of embryonic stem cells, including OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, REX1, ESRRB, DPPA5, and UTF1 and surface markers of pluripotency, including SSEA-1 and TRA-1-60. In vitro differentiation resulted in derivatives......The domestic pig is an important large animal model for preclinical testing of novel cell therapies. Recently, we produced pluripotency reporter pigs in which the Oct4 promoter drives expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Here, we reprogrammed Oct4-EGFP fibroblasts employing...

  18. The geography of sleeping beauties in patenting: a country-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuestman, M.L.; Frenken, K.; Hoekman, J.; Mas Tur, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores sleeping beauties, i.e. breakthrough inventions that experienced delayed recognition, by means of patent data. References in a patent signal the state of the art on which the patent is based, and they can limit the property rights established by its claims. A patent that is cited

  19. Is it time to awaken Sleeping Beauty? European psychiatry has been sleeping since 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), published in 1980, has led to a dead end, the DSM-V. Following the allegory of Sleeping Beauty, the DSM-III put European psychiatry to sleep; it now must wake up to create a 21st century psychiatric language for descriptive psychopathology and psychiatric nosology. Four topics are reviewed. First, the review of descriptive psychopathology focuses on: a) Chaslin's and Jaspers's books, and b) Schneider's transmittal of Jaspers's ideas and involvement with Kraepelin in incorporating neuroscience into psychiatric nosology. Second, US psychiatry's historic steps include: a) the pseudoscience of psychoanalysis, b) the low level of pre-DSM-III diagnostic expertise, c) the neo-Kraepelinian revolution which led to DSM-III, d) the failure to improve diagnostic skills, and e) the reprise of Kraepelin's marketing ("neuroscience will save psychiatry"). Third, the DSM-III devastated European psychiatry by destroying: a) the national textbooks which increased consistency but eliminated creative European thinking; and b) the Arbeitsgemenschaft fur Methodic und Dokumentation in der Psychiatrie, the most reasonable attempt to reach diagnostic agreement: start with symptoms/signs (first level) rather than disorders (second level). Fourth, Berrios elaborated upon Jaspers, who described psychiatry as a hybrid science and heterogeneous. Berrios affirmed that psychiatric symptoms/signs are hybrid. Some symptoms are in the "semantic space" and cannot be "explained" by neuroscience. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Can a system be beautiful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    By taking the time to consider intelligently designed systems aimed at selling services and providing good user experiences, companies would often do far better than they do by stubbornly holding on to their original products. But how does one design positive experiences?...

  1. Germline transgenesis in rodents by pronuclear microinjection of Sleeping Beauty transposons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivics, Z.; Mátés, L.; Yau, T. Y.; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Bashir, S.; Hoffmann, O. I.; Hiripi, L.; Garrels, W.; Kues, W. A.; Bösze, Z.; Geurts, A.; Pravenec, Michal; Rülicke, T.; Izsvák, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2014), s. 773-793 ISSN 1754-2189 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02010013; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12061; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mouse * rat * transgenesis * Sleeping Beauty * protocol Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.673, year: 2014

  2. Induction of rat liver tumor using the Sleeping Beauty transposon and electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Shine; Kim, Bae-Hwan; Park, Sung Goo; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Do Hee; Son, Woo-Chan

    2013-05-10

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been receiving much attention as a gene transfer method of choice since it allows permanent gene expression after insertion into the host chromosome. However, low transposition frequency in higher eukaryotes limits its use in commonly-used mammalian species. Researchers have therefore attempted to modify gene delivery and expression to overcome this limitation. In mouse liver, tumor induction using SB introduced by the hydrodynamic method has been successfully accomplished. Liver tumor in rat models using SB could also be of great use; however, dose of DNA, injection volume, rate of injection and achieving back pressure limit the use of the hydrodynamics-based gene delivery. In the present study, we combined the electroporation, a relatively simple and easy gene delivery method, with the SB transposon system and as a result successfully induced tumor in rat liver by directly injecting the c-Myc, HRAS and shp53 genes. The tumor phenotype was determined as a sarcomatoid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of induction of tumor in the rat liver using the electroporation-enhanced SB transposon system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Remobilization of Sleeping Beauty transposons in the germline of Xenopus tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yergeau Donald A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system has been used for germline transgenesis of the diploid frog, Xenopus tropicalis. Injecting one-cell embryos with plasmid DNA harboring an SB transposon substrate together with mRNA encoding the SB transposase enzyme resulted in non-canonical integration of small-order concatemers of the transposon. Here, we demonstrate that SB transposons stably integrated into the frog genome are effective substrates for remobilization. Results Transgenic frogs that express the SB10 transposase were bred with SB transposon-harboring animals to yield double-transgenic 'hopper' frogs. Remobilization events were observed in the progeny of the hopper frogs and were verified by Southern blot analysis and cloning of the novel integrations sites. Unlike the co-injection method used to generate founder lines, transgenic remobilization resulted in canonical transposition of the SB transposons. The remobilized SB transposons frequently integrated near the site of the donor locus; approximately 80% re-integrated with 3 Mb of the donor locus, a phenomenon known as 'local hopping'. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrate that SB transposons integrated into the X. tropicalis genome are effective substrates for excision and re-integration, and that the remobilized transposons are transmitted through the germline. This is an important step in the development of large-scale transposon-mediated gene- and enhancer-trap strategies in this highly tractable developmental model system.

  4. Béatrice Laurent (ed.), Sleeping Beauties in Victorian Britain, Cultural, Literary and Artistic Explorations of a Myth

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert-Charbonnier, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Sleeping Beauties in Victorian Britain is a remarkable collection of articles which uses the interdisciplinary approach to examine a whole network of correspondences between the arts, literature and science, thus conjuring up a new powerful picture of Victorian culture and its tensions over the last three decades of the 19th century. In her article “The Strange Case of the Victorian Sleeping Maid”, Béatrice Laurent, who edited the collection, describes the motif of the Sleeping Beauty as “a c...

  5. Full-length Dysferlin Transfer by the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase Restores Dysferlin-deficient Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy is a progressive disease characterized by muscle weakness and wasting for which there is no treatment. It is caused by mutations in DYSF, a large, multiexonic gene that forms a coding sequence of 6.2 kb. Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon is a nonviral gene transfer vector, already used in clinical trials. The hyperactive SB system consists of a transposon DNA sequence and a transposase protein, SB100X, that can integrate DNA over 10 kb into the target genome. We constructed an SB transposon-based vector to deliver full-length human DYSF cDNA into dysferlin-deficient H2K A/J myoblasts. We demonstrate proper dysferlin expression as well as highly efficient engraftment (>1,100 donor-derived fibers of the engineered myoblasts in the skeletal muscle of dysferlin- and immunodeficient B6. Cg-Dysfprmd Prkdcscid/J (Scid/BLA/J mice. Nonviral gene delivery of full-length human dysferlin into muscle cells, along with a successful and efficient transplantation into skeletal muscle are important advances towards successful gene therapy of dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy.

  6. Assessing Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty for transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection into bovine and ovine zygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, R. J.; Fernandez-Martin, R.; Canel, N. G.; Gibbons, A.; Texeira, D.; Lange, F.; Vans Landschoot, G.; Savy, V.; Briski, O.; Hiriart, M. I.; Grueso, E.; Ivics, Z.; Taboga, O.; Kues, W. A.; Ferraris, S.

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic domestic animals represent an alternative to bioreactors for large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and could also provide more accurate biomedical models than rodents. However, their generation remains inefficient. Recently, DNA transposons allowed improved transgenesis efficiencies in mice and pigs. In this work, Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon systems were evaluated for transgenesis by simple cytoplasmic injection in livestock zygotes. In the case of Tn5, the transposome complex of transposon nucleic acid and Tn5 protein was injected. In the case of SB, the supercoiled plasmids encoding a transposon and the SB transposase were co-injected. In vitro produced bovine zygotes were used to establish the cytoplasmic injection conditions. The in vitro cultured blastocysts were evaluated for reporter gene expression and genotyped. Subsequently, both transposon systems were injected in seasonally available ovine zygotes, employing transposons carrying the recombinant human factor IX driven by the beta-lactoglobulin promoter. The Tn5 approach did not result in transgenic lambs. In contrast, the Sleeping Beauty injection resulted in 2 lambs (29%) carrying the transgene. Both animals exhibited cellular mosaicism of the transgene. The extraembryonic tissues (placenta or umbilical cord) of three additional animals were also transgenic. These results show that transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection of SB transposon components can be applied for the production of transgenic lambs of pharmaceutical interest. PMID:28301581

  7. Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axelsson, J.; Ingre, M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Olsson, A.; Lekander, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether sleep deprived people are perceived as less healthy, less attractive, and more tired than after a normal night's sleep. Design Experimental study. Setting Sleep laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants 23 healthy, sleep deprived adults (age 18-31) who were

  8. Sleeping Beauty-baculovirus hybrid vectors for long-term gene expression in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Tytteli Anni Kaarina; Laakkonen, Johanna Päivikki; Alasaarela, Laura; Airenne, Kari Juhani; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    A baculovirus vector is capable of efficiently transducing many nondiving and diving cell types. However, the potential of baculovirus is restricted for many gene delivery applications as a result of the transient gene expression that it mediates. The plasmid-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system integrates transgenes into target cell genome efficiently with a genomic integration pattern that is generally considered safer than the integration of many other integrating vectors; yet efficient delivery of therapeutic genes into cells of target tissues in vivo is a major challenge for nonviral gene therapy. In the present study, SB was introduced into baculovirus to obtain novel hybrid vectors that would combine the best features of the two vector systems (i.e. effective gene delivery and efficient integration into the genome), thus circumventing the major limitations of these vectors. We constructed and optimized SB-baculovirus hybrid vectors that bear either SB100x transposase or SB transposon in the forward or reverse orientations with respect to the viral backbone The functionality of the novel hybrid vectors was investigated in cell cultures and in a proof-of-concept study in the mouse eye. The hybrid vectors showed high and sustained transgene expression that remained stable and demonstrated no signs of decline during the 2 months follow-up in vitro. These results were verified in the mouse eye where persistent transgene expression was detected two months after intravitreal injection. Our results confirm that (i) SB-baculovirus hybrid vectors mediate long-term gene expression in vitro and in vivo, and (ii) the hybrid vectors are potential new tools for the treatment of ocular diseases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Choosing Beauty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning that takes into account self-locating evidence in apparently plausible ways sometimes yields the startling conclusion that rational credences are such as if agents had bizarre causal powers. The present paper introduces a novel version of the Sleeping Beauty problem-Choosing Beauty-for

  10. Conditional gene expression in the mouse using a Sleeping Beauty gene-trap transposon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackett Perry B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insertional mutagenesis techniques with transposable elements have been popular among geneticists studying model organisms from E. coli to Drosophila and, more recently, the mouse. One such element is the Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon that has been shown in several studies to be an effective insertional mutagen in the mouse germline. SB transposon vector studies have employed different functional elements and reporter molecules to disrupt and report the expression of endogenous mouse genes. We sought to generate a transposon system that would be capable of reporting the expression pattern of a mouse gene while allowing for conditional expression of a gene of interest in a tissue- or temporal-specific pattern. Results Here we report the systematic development and testing of a transposon-based gene-trap system incorporating the doxycycline-repressible Tet-Off (tTA system that is capable of activating the expression of genes under control of a Tet response element (TRE promoter. We demonstrate that the gene trap system is fully functional in vitro by introducing the "gene-trap tTA" vector into human cells by transposition and identifying clones that activate expression of a TRE-luciferase transgene in a doxycycline-dependent manner. In transgenic mice, we mobilize gene-trap tTA vectors, discover parameters that can affect germline mobilization rates, and identify candidate gene insertions to demonstrate the in vivo functionality of the vector system. We further demonstrate that the gene-trap can act as a reporter of endogenous gene expression and it can be coupled with bioluminescent imaging to identify genes with tissue-specific expression patterns. Conclusion Akin to the GAL4/UAS system used in the fly, we have made progress developing a tool for mutating and revealing the expression of mouse genes by generating the tTA transactivator in the presence of a secondary TRE-regulated reporter molecule. A vector like the gene

  11. Integration profile and safety of an adenovirus hybrid-vector utilizing hyperactive sleeping beauty transposase for somatic integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhang

    Full Text Available We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We found that in all mice which received the hyperactive SB transposase, transgene expression levels were stabilized in a dose-dependent manner and that the highest vector dose was accompanied by fatalities in mice. To analyze potential genotoxic side-effects due to somatic integration into host chromosomes, we performed a genome-wide integration site analysis using linker-mediated PCR (LM-PCR and linear amplification-mediated PCR (LAM-PCR. Analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from HSB5 treated female and male mice revealed a total of 1327 unique transposition events. Overall the chromosomal distribution pattern was close-to-random and we observed a random integration profile with respect to integration into gene and non-gene areas. Notably, when using the LM-PCR protocol, 27 extra-chromosomal integration events were identified, most likely caused by transposon excision and subsequent transposition into the delivered adenoviral vector genome. In total, this study provides a careful evaluation of the safety profile of adenovirus/Sleeping Beauty transposase hybrid-vectors. The obtained information will be useful when designing future preclinical studies utilizing hybrid-vectors in small and large animal models.

  12. Exploring an Unknown Territory: "Sleeping Beauties" in the Nursing Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokol, Peter; Blažun Vošner, Helena; Vermeulen, Joeri

    Sleeping Beauties (SBs) are publications that are scarcely cited in the years immediately following publication but then suddenly become highly cited later. Such publications have unique citation patterns and can reveal important developments in the field in which they appear. No holistic analysis of nursing SBs has been done yet. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the SB phenomenon in the nursing research literature. The corpus for the nursing SB identification was harvested from the Web of Science Core Collection (Thomas Reuters) for the period 1934-2015. Citation histories of 212,239 publications were screened. From those, 3,209 publications with more than 100 citations were selected for analysis. We used our own software and applied the van Raan (2004) and Baumgartner (2010) criteria for SBs-a 5-year sleeping period with at most 10 citations during that time, an average of at least five citations per year after the first 10 years, with at least 100 citations in total. The knowledge context for SBs was determined using citing papers. All citing papers were analyzed with the help of VOSviewer software. Nine publications were identified as SBs (prevalence of 0.004%). The length of sleep duration ranged from 5 to 10 years (M = 6.8, SD = 2.0), depth of sleep ranged from 0.2 to 0.8 citations (M = 0.6, SD = 0.2), and awake intensity ranged from 6.4 to 15.0 citations (M = 11.0, SD = 3.8). The average number of citations to SBs was 229. Most nursing SBs were produced in the United States (n = 8) from top institutions in journals with high-impact factors. Nursing SBs covered topics including resilience, sampling in qualitative research, metasynthesis, postoperative pain in children, dementia rating scales, care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, nursing theory related to fatigue mechanisms in cancer patients, and family participation during resuscitation. Nursing SBs were cited by authors from a large number of institutions and countries; the number of

  13. Germline transgenic pigs by Sleeping Beauty transposition in porcine zygotes and targeted integration in the pig genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Garrels

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering can expand the utility of pigs for modeling human diseases, and for developing advanced therapeutic approaches. However, the inefficient production of transgenic pigs represents a technological bottleneck. Here, we assessed the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB100X transposon system for enzyme-catalyzed transgene integration into the embryonic porcine genome. The components of the transposon vector system were microinjected as circular plasmids into the cytoplasm of porcine zygotes, resulting in high frequencies of transgenic fetuses and piglets. The transgenic animals showed normal development and persistent reporter gene expression for >12 months. Molecular hallmarks of transposition were confirmed by analysis of 25 genomic insertion sites. We demonstrate germ-line transmission, segregation of individual transposons, and continued, copy number-dependent transgene expression in F1-offspring. In addition, we demonstrate target-selected gene insertion into transposon-tagged genomic loci by Cre-loxP-based cassette exchange in somatic cells followed by nuclear transfer. Transposase-catalyzed transgenesis in a large mammalian species expands the arsenal of transgenic technologies for use in domestic animals and will facilitate the development of large animal models for human diseases.

  14. Long-Term PEDF Release in Rat Iris and Retinal Epithelial Cells after Sleeping Beauty Transposon-Mediated Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Garcia-Garcia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF is a potent antiangiogenic, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective molecule that is the endogenous inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the retina. An ex vivo gene therapy approach based on transgenic overexpression of PEDF in the eye is assumed to rebalance the angiogenic-antiangiogenic milieu of the retina, resulting in growth regression of choroidal blood vessels, the hallmark of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Here, we show that rat pigment epithelial cells can be efficiently transfected with the PEDF-expressing non-viral hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon system delivered in a form free of antibiotic resistance marker miniplasmids. The engineered retinal and iris pigment epithelium cells secrete high (141 ± 13 and 222 ± 14 ng PEDF levels in 72 hr in vitro. In vivo studies showed cell survival and insert expression during at least 4 months. Transplantation of the engineered cells to the subretinal space of a rat model of choroidal neovascularization reduces almost 50% of the development of new vessels.

  15. Administrative Information Systems Design Beautiful Restaurant Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Risman Risman; Drs. Soetirto Sadikin. M.A

    1999-01-01

    Satisfactory service is the key to business done wonderful tourist restaurants. One ofthe restaurant management efforts to meet these demands is to build informationsystems that can handle sales, handling of inventory until the purchase of rawmaterials, so the restaurant will be increasing productivity.To meet these needs, the author conducted the analysis and design of administrativeinformation system that handles its restaurant sales, purchasing, accounts payable andinventory handling. The ...

  16. Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis identifies genes that cooperate with mutant Smad4 in gastric cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Haruna; Rust, Alistair G; Ward, Jerrold M; Yew, Christopher Chin Kuan; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G

    2016-04-05

    Mutations in SMAD4 predispose to the development of gastrointestinal cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. To identify genes driving gastric cancer (GC) development, we performed a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis screen in the stomach of Smad4(+/-) mutant mice. This screen identified 59 candidate GC trunk drivers and a much larger number of candidate GC progression genes. Strikingly, 22 SB-identified trunk drivers are known or candidate cancer genes, whereas four SB-identified trunk drivers, including PTEN, SMAD4, RNF43, and NF1, are known human GC trunk drivers. Similar to human GC, pathway analyses identified WNT, TGF-β, and PI3K-PTEN signaling, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, adherens junctions, and RNA degradation in addition to genes involved in chromatin modification and organization as highly deregulated pathways in GC. Comparative oncogenomic filtering of the complete list of SB-identified genes showed that they are highly enriched for genes mutated in human GC and identified many candidate human GC genes. Finally, by comparing our complete list of SB-identified genes against the list of mutated genes identified in five large-scale human GC sequencing studies, we identified LDL receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B) as a previously unidentified human candidate GC tumor suppressor gene. In LRP1B, 129 mutations were found in 462 human GC samples sequenced, and LRP1B is one of the top 10 most deleted genes identified in a panel of 3,312 human cancers. SB mutagenesis has, thus, helped to catalog the cooperative molecular mechanisms driving SMAD4-induced GC growth and discover genes with potential clinical importance in human GC.

  17. Suicidal autointegration of sleeping beauty and piggyBac transposons in eukaryotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Transposons are discrete segments of DNA that have the distinctive ability to move and replicate within genomes across the tree of life. 'Cut and paste' DNA transposition involves excision from a donor locus and reintegration into a new locus in the genome. We studied molecular events following the excision steps of two eukaryotic DNA transposons, Sleeping Beauty (SB and piggyBac (PB that are widely used for genome manipulation in vertebrate species. SB originates from fish and PB from insects; thus, by introducing these transposons to human cells we aimed to monitor the process of establishing a transposon-host relationship in a naïve cellular environment. Similarly to retroviruses, neither SB nor PB is capable of self-avoidance because a significant portion of the excised transposons integrated back into its own genome in a suicidal process called autointegration. Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BANF1, a cellular co-factor of certain retroviruses, inhibited transposon autointegration, and was detected in higher-order protein complexes containing the SB transposase. Increasing size sensitized transposition for autointegration, consistent with elevated vulnerability of larger transposons. Both SB and PB were affected similarly by the size of the transposon in three different assays: excision, autointegration and productive transposition. Prior to reintegration, SB is completely separated from the donor molecule and followed an unbiased autointegration pattern, not associated with local hopping. Self-disruptive autointegration occurred at similar frequency for both transposons, while aberrant, pseudo-transposition events were more frequently observed for PB.

  18. Involvement of a bifunctional, paired-like DNA-binding domain and a transpositional enhancer in Sleeping Beauty transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Khare, Dheeraj; Behlke, Joachim; Heinemann, Udo; Plasterk, Ronald H; Ivics, Zoltán

    2002-09-13

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is the most active Tc1/mariner-like transposon in vertebrate species. Each of the terminal inverted repeats (IRs) of SB contains two transposase-binding sites (DRs). This feature, termed the IR/DR structure, is conserved in a group of Tc1-like transposons. The DNA-binding region of SB transposase, similar to the paired domain of Pax proteins, consists of two helix-turn-helix subdomains (PAI + RED = PAIRED). The N-terminal PAI subdomain was found to play a dominant role in contacting the DRs. Transposase was able to bind to mutant sites retaining the 3' part of the DRs; thus, primary DNA binding is not sufficient to determine the specificity of the transposition reaction. The PAI subdomain was also found to bind to a transpositional enhancer-like sequence within the left IR of SB, and to mediate protein-protein interactions between transposase subunits. A tetrameric form of the transposase was detected in solution, consistent with an interaction between the IR/DR structure and a transposase tetramer. We propose a model in which the transpositional enhancer and the PAI subdomain stabilize complexes formed by a transposase tetramer bound at the IR/DR. These interactions may result in enhanced stability of synaptic complexes, which might explain the efficient transposition of Sleeping Beauty in vertebrate cells.

  19. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N., E-mail: aravalli@umn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 292, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Park, Chang W. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Steer, Clifford J., E-mail: steer001@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  20. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N.; Park, Chang W.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  1. Awakening sleeping beauty: production of propionic acid in Escherichia coli through the sbm operon requires the activity of a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Ricardo Axayacatl; McCubbin, Tim; Wille, Annalena; Plan, Manuel; Nielsen, Lars Keld; Marcellin, Esteban

    2017-07-17

    Propionic acid is used primarily as a food preservative with smaller applications as a chemical building block for the production of many products including fabrics, cosmetics, drugs, and plastics. Biological production using propionibacteria would be competitive against chemical production through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene if native producers could be engineered to reach near-theoretical yield and good productivity. Unfortunately, engineering propionibacteria has proven very challenging. It has been suggested that activation of the sleeping beauty operon in Escherichia coli is sufficient to achieve propionic acid production. Optimising E. coli production should be much easier than engineering propionibacteria if tolerance issues can be addressed. Propionic acid is produced in E. coli via the sleeping beauty mutase operon under anaerobic conditions in rich medium via amino acid degradation. We observed that the sbm operon enhances amino acids degradation to propionic acid and allows E. coli to degrade isoleucine. However, we show here that the operon lacks an epimerase reaction that enables propionic acid production in minimal medium containing glucose as the sole carbon source. Production from glucose can be restored by engineering the system with a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase from Propionibacterium acidipropionici (0.23 ± 0.02 mM). 1-Propanol production was also detected from the promiscuous activity of the native alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE). We also show that aerobic conditions are favourable for propionic acid production. Finally, we increase titre 65 times using a combination of promoter engineering and process optimisation. The native sbm operon encodes an incomplete pathway. Production of propionic acid from glucose as sole carbon source is possible when the pathway is complemented with a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Although propionic acid via the restored succinate dissimilation pathway is considered a fermentative process, the engineered pathway

  2. Redirecting Specificity of T cells Using the Sleeping Beauty System to Express Chimeric Antigen Receptors by Mix-and-Matching of VL and VH Domains Targeting CD123+ Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Thokala

    Full Text Available Adoptive immunotherapy infusing T cells with engineered specificity for CD19 expressed on B- cell malignancies is generating enthusiasm to extend this approach to other hematological malignancies, such as acute myelogenous leukemia (AML. CD123, or interleukin 3 receptor alpha, is overexpressed on most AML and some lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, and has been an effective target for T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs. The prototypical CAR encodes a VH and VL from one monoclonal antibody (mAb, coupled to a transmembrane domain and one or more cytoplasmic signaling domains. Previous studies showed that treatment of an experimental AML model with CD123-specific CAR T cells was therapeutic, but at the cost of impaired myelopoiesis, highlighting the need for systems to define the antigen threshold for CAR recognition. Here, we show that CARs can be engineered using VH and VL chains derived from different CD123-specific mAbs to generate a panel of CAR+ T cells. While all CARs exhibited specificity to CD123, one VH and VL combination had reduced lysis of normal hematopoietic stem cells. This CAR's in vivo anti-tumor activity was similar whether signaling occurred via chimeric CD28 or CD137, prolonging survival in both AML and ALL models. Co-expression of inducible caspase 9 eliminated CAR+ T cells. These data help support the use of CD123-specific CARs for treatment of CD123+ hematologic malignancies.

  3. Beautiful Math, Part 5: Colorful Archimedean Tilings from Dynamical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Peichang; Zhao, Weiguo; Huang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The art of tiling originated very early in the history of civilization. Almost every known human society has made use of tilings in some form or another. In particular, tilings using only regular polygons have great visual appeal. Decorated regular tilings with continuous and symmetrical patterns were widely used in decoration field, such as mosaics, pavements, and brick walls. In science, these tilings provide inspiration for synthetic organic chemistry. Building on previous CG&A “Beautiful Math” articles, the authors propose an invariant mapping method to create colorful patterns on Archimedean tilings (1-uniform tilings). The resulting patterns simultaneously have global crystallographic symmetry and local cyclic or dihedral symmetry.

  4. Integration of Oncogenes via Sleeping Beauty as a Mouse Model of HPV16+ Oral Tumors and Immunologic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Tseng, Ssu-Hsueh; Jiang, Rosie; Yang, Andrew; Farmer, Emily; Peng, Shiwen; Henkle, Talia; Chang, Yung-Nien; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2018-01-23

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the etiologic factor for cervical cancer and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. Although several prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, no effective therapeutic strategies to control active HPV diseases exist. Tumor implantation models are traditionally used to study HPV-associated buccal tumors. However, they fail to address precancerous phases of disease progression and display tumor microenvironments distinct from those observed in patients. Previously, K14-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models have been used to generate spontaneous tumors. However, the rate of tumor formation is inconsistent, and the host often develops immune tolerance to the viral oncoproteins. We developed a preclinical, spontaneous, HPV16 + buccal tumor model using submucosal injection of oncogenic plasmids expressing HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and sleeping beauty (SB) transposase, followed by electroporation in the buccal mucosa. We evaluated responses to immunization with a pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine and tumor cell migration to distant locations. Mice transfected with plasmids encoding HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and SB transposase developed tumors within 3 weeks. We also found transient anti-CD3 administration is required to generate tumors in immunocompetent mice. Bioluminescence signals from luciferase correlated strongly with tumor growth, and tumors expressed HPV16-associated markers. We showed that pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) administration resulted in antitumor immunity in tumor-bearing mice. Lastly, we demonstrated that the generated tumor could migrate to tumor-draining lymph nodes. Our model provides an efficient method to induce spontaneous HPV + tumor formation, which can be used to identify effective therapeutic interventions, analyze tumor migration, and conduct tumor biology research. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(3); 1-15. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Flexible Biogas in Future Energy Systems—Sleeping Beauty for a Cheaper Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lauer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing proportion of intermittent renewable energies asks for further technologies for balancing demand and supply in the energy system. In contrast to other countries, Germany is characterized by a high installed capacity of dispatchable biogas plants. For this paper, we analyzed the total system costs varying biogas extension paths and modes of operation for the period of 2016–2035 by using a non-linear optimization model. We took variable costs of existing conventional power plants, as well as variable costs and capital investments in gas turbines, Li-ion batteries, and pumped-storage plants into account. Without the consideration of the costs for biogas plants, an increasing proportion of biogas plants, compared to their phase out, reduces the total system costs. Furthermore, their flexible power generation should be as flexible as possible. The lowest total system costs were calculated in an extension path with the highest rate of construction of new biogas plants. However, the highest marginal utility was assessed by a medium proportion of flexible biogas plants. In conclusion, biogas plants can be a cost-effective option to integrate intermittent renewable energies into the electricity system. The optimal extension path of biogas plants depends on the future installed capacities of conventional and renewable energies.

  6. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Superconducting cavities for beauty factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, H.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities and merits of superconducting accelerating cavities for Beauty-factories are considered. There exist already large sc systems of size and frequency comparable to the ones needed for Beauty-factories. Their status and operation experience is discussed. A comparison of normal conducting and superconducting systems is done for two typical Beauty-factory rings

  8. Wireless remote monitoring system for sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Sleep plays the important role of rejuvenating the body, especially the central nervous system. However, more than thirty million people suffer from sleep disorders and sleep deprivation. That can cause serious health consequences by increasing the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart attack and so on. Apart from the physical health risk, sleep disorders can lead to social problems when sleep disorders are not diagnosed and treated. Currently, sleep disorders are diagnosed through sleep study in a sleep laboratory overnight. This involves large expenses in addition to the inconvenience of overnight hospitalization and disruption of daily life activities. Although some systems provide home based diagnosis, most of systems record the sleep data in a memory card, the patient has to face the inconvenience of sending the memory card to a doctor for diagnosis. To solve the problem, we propose a wireless sensor system for sleep apnea, which enables remote monitoring while the patient is at home. The system has 5 channels to measure ECG, Nasal airflow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation. A wireless transmitter unit transmits signals with Zigbee and a receiver unit which has two RF modules, Zigbee and Wi-Fi, receives signals from the transmitter unit and retransmits signals to the remote monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve a low power consumption and wide range coverage. The system's features are presented, as well as continuous monitoring results of vital signals.

  9. The sleeping brain as a complex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrich, Eckehard; Achermann, Peter; Wennekers, Thomas

    2011-10-13

    'Complexity science' is a rapidly developing research direction with applications in a multitude of fields that study complex systems consisting of a number of nonlinear elements with interesting dynamics and mutual interactions. This Theme Issue 'The complexity of sleep' aims at fostering the application of complexity science to sleep research, because the brain in its different sleep stages adopts different global states that express distinct activity patterns in large and complex networks of neural circuits. This introduction discusses the contributions collected in the present Theme Issue. We highlight the potential and challenges of a complex systems approach to develop an understanding of the brain in general and the sleeping brain in particular. Basically, we focus on two topics: the complex networks approach to understand the changes in the functional connectivity of the brain during sleep, and the complex dynamics of sleep, including sleep regulation. We hope that this Theme Issue will stimulate and intensify the interdisciplinary communication to advance our understanding of the complex dynamics of the brain that underlies sleep and consciousness.

  10. Sleep and the Cardiovascular System in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Grace R; Pinto, Swaroop

    2017-06-01

    Subspecialty pediatric practice provides comprehensive medical care for a range of ages, from premature infants to children, and often includes adults with complex medical and surgical issues that warrant multidisciplinary care. Normal physiologic variations involving different body systems occur during sleep and these vary with age, stage of sleep, and underlying health conditions. This article is a concise review of the cardiovascular (CV) physiology and pathophysiology in children, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) contributing to CV morbidity, congenital and acquired CV pathology resulting in SDB, and the relationship between SDB and CV morbidity in different clinical syndromes and systemic diseases in the expanded pediatric population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Portable Prescreening System for Sleep Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guul, Martin Kjær; Jennum, Poul; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2016-01-01

    for sleep apnea is at high risk or low risk of having OSA. A new test setup was developed containing an Android based smartphone, the built in accelerometer, and a microphone. To ease the clinical analysis of the data a MATLAB based graphical user interface has been developed visualizing the data allowing......Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in more than 4 % of the adult population. Diagnoses for OSA in sleep clinics are costly and more than half of those submitted to a sleep clinic do not have OSA. A simple, easy, and portable homebased monitoring system to evaluate who are in high- or low risk...... of suffering from OSA would be beneficial. The system must be able to identify individuals with a high pre-test reliability regarding OSA with the aim of referral and further investigation. We aimed to develop a portable, smartphone, and homebased monitoring system to classify whether a patient screened...

  12. Beauty Photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcato, M.

    2002-01-01

    Beauty photoproduction in ep collisions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA, at a center-of-mass energy of 300 GeV. Beauty quarks are tagged via their semi-leptonic decay into a muon or an electron. Events are selected by requiring the presence of two high-transverse energy jets and one high - p T lepton in the final state. The discrimination between beauty and background events is done by a fit to the p rel T variable, the transverse momentum of the lepton with respect to the jet axis. Total and differential cross sections are presented and compared to leading order Monte Carlo simulations and next-to-leading order QCD predictions. (author)

  13. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  14. Sleeping Beauty Transposition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor-1 (ROR1 into Diverse Memory T-Cell Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew C Deniger

    Full Text Available T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs targeting CD19 demonstrated clinical activity against some B-cell malignancies. However, this is often accompanied by a loss of normal CD19+ B cells and humoral immunity. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor-1 (ROR1 is expressed on sub-populations of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors, but not by healthy B cells or normal post-partum tissues. Thus, adoptive transfer of T cells specific for ROR1 has potential to eliminate tumor cells and spare healthy tissues. To test this hypothesis, we developed CARs targeting ROR1 in order to generate T cells specific for malignant cells. Two Sleeping Beauty transposons were constructed with 2nd generation ROR1-specific CARs signaling through CD3ζ and either CD28 (designated ROR1RCD28 or CD137 (designated ROR1RCD137 and were introduced into T cells. We selected for T cells expressing CAR through co-culture with γ-irradiated activating and propagating cells (AaPC, which co-expressed ROR1 and co-stimulatory molecules. Numeric expansion over one month of co-culture on AaPC in presence of soluble interleukin (IL-2 and IL-21 occurred and resulted in a diverse memory phenotype of CAR+ T cells as measured by non-enzymatic digital array (NanoString and multi-panel flow cytometry. Such T cells produced interferon-γ and had specific cytotoxic activity against ROR1+ tumors. Moreover, such cells could eliminate ROR1+ tumor xenografts, especially T cells expressing ROR1RCD137. Clinical trials will investigate the ability of ROR1-specific CAR+ T cells to specifically eliminate tumor cells while maintaining normal B-cell repertoire.

  15. Sleeping to fuel the immune system: mammalian sleep and resistance to parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opp Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep is an enigma. Why animals forgo eating and reproducing, while potentially increasing their risk of predation remains unknown. Although some may question whether all animals sleep, it is clear that all living organisms possess defenses against attack by pathogens. Immune responses of humans and animals are impaired by sleep loss, and responses to immune challenge include altered sleep. Thus, sleep is hypothesized to be a component of the acute phase response to infection and to function in host defense. Examining phylogenetic relationships among sleep parameters, components of the mammalian immune system and resistance to infection may provide insight into the evolution of sleep and lead to a greater appreciation for the role of sleep in host defense.

  16. Smartphone based monitoring system for long-term sleep assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of sleep disorders, highly prevalent in Western countries, typically involves sophisticated procedures and equipment that are highly intrusive to the patient. The high processing capabilities and storage capacity of current portable devices, together with a big range of available sensors, many of them with wireless capabilities, create new opportunities and change the paradigms in sleep studies. In this work, a smartphone based sleep monitoring system is presented along with the details of the hardware, software and algorithm implementation. The aim of this system is to provide a way for subjects, with no pre-diagnosed sleep disorders, to monitor their sleep habits, and on the initial screening of abnormal sleep patterns.

  17. Development of Home-Based Sleep Monitoring System for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peirong; Chen, Guan-Ting; Cui, Yanyan; Li, Jin-Wei; Kuo, Terry B J; Chang, Polun

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has been proven to increase the risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, obesity, and diabetes. If people would like to know whether they are suffering from this sleep disorder, they need to go to particular hospital with which a sleep center that could perform polysomnography (PSG); however, for most people, this is not convenient. Consequently, the goal of this study is to develop a convenient, lower priced, and easy-to-use home-based sleep monitoring system. The researchers have developed the "Sleep Healthcare Management System" for OSA patients and healthcare providers. It combines smartphone and wearable devices that can perform real-time sleep monitoring. Healthcare providers could apply their professional knowledge to provide customized feedback via a web application. When the patient is diagnosed with an abnormal sleep health condition, healthcare providers may be able to provide appropriate and timely care.

  18. A Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based genetic sensor for functional screening of vitamin D3 analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Sharma, Nynne; Bak, Rasmus Otkjær

    2011-01-01

    Analogues of vitamin D3 are extensively used in the treatment of various illnesses, such as osteoporosis, inflammatory skin diseases, and cancer. Functional testing of new vitamin D3 analogues and formulations for improved systemic and topical administration is supported by sensitive screening me...

  19. Beautiful geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, Eli

    2014-01-01

    If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur

  20. Does sleep quality affect involuntary attention switching system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Juha; Huotilainen, Minna; Pakarinen, Satu; Siren, Teo; Alho, Kimmo; Aronen, Eeva T

    2005-12-30

    We studied the relationship between sleep quality and quantity and subsequently recorded automatically evoked event-related potential (ERP) responses. In previous studies decrement of attentional processing has been associated with changes in sleep. Sleep is shown to associate also with ERPs elicited by unattended sound stream, however, there is no consensus on these effects. A recent study suggested that the early anterior P3a to novel stimuli in attended stream is attenuated and the late parietal P3a is strengthened by total sleep deprivation. We carried out 72-h consecutive actigraphy measurements in a naturalistic setting to collect information about variation in sleep duration, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, and percentage of sleep. MMN and P3a deflections to infrequent changes in sound duration and pitch in unattended sound stream were obtained in a separate recording session from the same subjects when they were awake. No significant correlations were found between sleep and MMN parameters, indicating that MMN is resistant to normal variation in sleep. However, P3a to both pitch and duration changes correlated positively with sleep onset latency, and P3a to duration changes correlated negatively with sleep efficiency and percentage of sleep. The correlation was higher in the posterior scalp areas. Our results suggest that the involuntary attention switching system, reflected by the P3a is sensitized as a function of decreased sleep quality.

  1. How (and why) the immune system makes us sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeri, Luca; Opp, Mark R

    2009-03-01

    Good sleep is necessary for physical and mental health. For example, sleep loss impairs immune function, and sleep is altered during infection. Immune signalling molecules are present in the healthy brain, where they interact with neurochemical systems to contribute to the regulation of normal sleep. Animal studies have shown that interactions between immune signalling molecules (such as the cytokine interleukin 1) and brain neurochemical systems (such as the serotonin system) are amplified during infection, indicating that these interactions might underlie the changes in sleep that occur during infection. Why should the immune system cause us to sleep differently when we are sick? We propose that the alterations in sleep architecture during infection are exquisitely tailored to support the generation of fever, which in turn imparts survival value.

  2. Beauty Redeemed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    /PROAP’s Parque do Tejo e Trancão in Lisbon and Michel Desvigne’s Parc aux Angéliques in Bordeaux. Beauty Redeemed offers a systematic framework for the consideration and use of post-industrial sites. The author, Professor of Landscape Design at Copenhagen University, places these ‘leftovers’ in their broad......Coping with post-industrial sites is a pressing issue throughout Europe and North America. One point of departure for their general rediscovery was the revitalisation by Latz + Partner in the early 1990s of an abandoned steelworks as Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord; industrial relics were...... historical and aesthetic context, proceeding from the 19th-century Romantic fascination with ruins through present-day industrial decline as exemplified by Detroit to a renaissance of the transformed landscape. Transformation, understood as designing with the ‘as found’, forms the basis of this design theory...

  3. The sense of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, George

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes an integrative psychoanalytic model of the sense of beauty. The following definition is used: beauty is an aspect of the experience of idealisation in which an object(s), sound(s) or concept(s) is believed to possess qualities of formal perfection. The psychoanalytic literature regarding beauty is explored in depth and fundamental similarities are stressed. The author goes on to discuss the following topics: (1) beauty as sublimation: beauty reconciles the polarisation of self and world; (2) idealisation and beauty: the love of beauty is an indication of the importance of idealisation during development; (3) beauty as an interactive process: the sense of beauty is interactive and intersubjective; (4) the aesthetic and non-aesthetic emotions: specific aesthetic emotions are experienced in response to the formal design of the beautiful object; (5) surrendering to beauty: beauty provides us with an occasion for transcendence and self-renewal; (6) beauty's restorative function: the preservation or restoration of the relationship to the good object is of utmost importance; (7) the self-integrative function of beauty: the sense of beauty can also reconcile and integrate self-states of fragmentation and depletion; (8) beauty as a defence: in psychopathology, beauty can function defensively for the expression of unconscious impulses and fantasies, or as protection against self-crisis; (9) beauty and mortality: the sense of beauty can alleviate anxiety regarding death and feelings of vulnerability. In closing the paper, the author offers a new understanding of Freud'semphasis on love of beauty as a defining trait of civilisation. For a people not to value beauty would mean that they cannot hope and cannot assert life over the inevitable and ubiquitous forces of entropy and death.

  4. "Sleeping Beauty Gets a Makeover": Using the Retelling of Fairytales to Create an Awareness of Hegemonic Norms and the Social Construction of Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brule, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Media use gender imagery to define "the cultural representations of gender and embodiment of gender in symbolic language and artistic productions that reproduce and legitimate gender statuses." The heroines and heroes in fairytales present images of women being young, beautiful, passive, and helpless while men are portrayed as strong, powerful,…

  5. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...

  6. The relationships between memory systems and sleep stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Foret, Jean; Eustache, Francis

    2005-06-01

    Sleep function remains elusive despite our rapidly increasing comprehension of the processes generating and maintaining the different sleep stages. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that sleep is involved in the off-line reprocessing of recently-acquired memories. In this review, we summarize the main results obtained in the field of sleep and memory consolidation in both animals and humans, and try to connect sleep stages with the different memory systems. To this end, we have collated data obtained using several methodological approaches, including electrophysiological recordings of neuronal ensembles, post-training modifications of sleep architecture, sleep deprivation and functional neuroimaging studies. Broadly speaking, all the various studies emphasize the fact that the four long-term memory systems (procedural memory, perceptual representation system, semantic and episodic memory, according to Tulving's SPI model; Tulving, 1995) benefit either from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) (not just SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, or from both sleep stages. Tulving's classification of memory systems appears more pertinent than the declarative/non-declarative dichotomy when it comes to understanding the role of sleep in memory. Indeed, this model allows us to resolve several contradictions, notably the fact that episodic and semantic memory (the two memory systems encompassed in declarative memory) appear to rely on different sleep stages. Likewise, this model provides an explanation for why the acquisition of various types of skills (perceptual-motor, sensory-perceptual and cognitive skills) and priming effects, subserved by different brain structures but all designated by the generic term of implicit or non-declarative memory, may not benefit from the same sleep stages.

  7. Beauty Requires Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-05-22

    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Neighborhood Stress and Autonomic Nervous System Activity during Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Thomas Alan; Bell, Kimberly Ann; Abu-Bader, Soleman Hassan; Kobayashi, Ihori

    2018-04-04

    Stressful neighborhood environments are known to adversely impact health and contribute to health disparities but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Healthy sleep can provide a respite from sustained sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between neighborhood stress and nocturnal and daytime SNS and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Eighty five urban-residing African Americans (56.5% female; mean age of 23.0) participated. Evaluation included surveys of neighborhood stress and sleep-related vigilance; and continuous ECG and actigraphic recording in participants' homes from which heart rate variability (HRV) analysis for low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio and normalized high frequency (nHF), as indicators of SNS and PNS activity, respectively, and total sleep time (TST), and wake after sleep onset were derived. All significant relationships with HRV measures were from the sleep period. Neighborhood disorder correlated negatively with nHF (r = -.24, p = .035). There were also significant correlations of HRV indices with sleep duration and sleep fears. Among females, LF/HF correlated with exposure to violence, r = .39, p = .008 and nHF with census tract rates for violent crime (r = -.35, p = .035). In a stepwise regression, TST accounted for the variance contributed by violent crime to nHF in the female participants. Further investigation of relationships between neighborhood environments and SNS/PNS balance during sleep and their consequences, and strategies for mitigating such effects would have implications for health disparities.

  9. Free Beauty, Dependent Beauty, and Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Explains the difference between free and dependent beauty. States that these distinctions, formed by Immanuel Kant, have important implications for aesthetic education. Concludes with a defense of Kant's aesthetics. (JDH)

  10. The effects of sleep deprivation on dissociable prototype learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W Todd; Glass, Brian D; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Savarie, Zachary R; Bowen, Christopher; Matthews, Michael D; Schnyer, David M

    2011-03-01

    The cognitive neural underpinnings of prototype learning are becoming clear. Evidence points to 2 different neural systems, depending on the learning parameters. A/not-A (AN) prototype learning is mediated by posterior brain regions that are involved in early perceptual learning, whereas A/B (AB) is mediated by frontal and medial temporal lobe regions. To investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on AN and AB prototype learning and to use established prototype models to provide insights into the cognitive-processing locus of sleep-deprivation deficits. Participants performed an AN and an AB prototype learning task twice, separated by a 24-hour period, with or without sleep between testing sessions. Eighteen West Point cadets participated in the sleep-deprivation group, and 17 West Point cadets participated in a control group. Sleep deprivation led to an AN, but not an AB, performance deficit. Prototype model analyses indicated that the AN deficit was due to changes in attentional focus and a decrease in confidence that is reflected in an increased bias to respond non-A. The findings suggest that AN, but not AB, prototype learning is affected by sleep deprivation. Prototype model analyses support the notion that the effect of sleep deprivation on AN is consistent with lapses in attentional focus that are more detrimental to AN than to AB. This finding adds to a growing body of work that suggests that different performance changes associated with sleep deprivation can be attributed to a common mechanism of changes in simple attention and vigilance.

  11. Beauty production at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shears, Tara

    2008-01-01

    A review of recent measurements of beauty production, based on proton antiproton collision data at √s = 1.96 TeV and using the CDF detector, is given. Previous measurements of beauty (b) quark production at the Tevatron, carried out at centre-of-mass energies √s = 1.8 TeV, have shown discrepancies when compared to Next to Leading Order (NLO) predictions [1]. Improved predictions and experimental procedures have reduced this discrepancy [2]. Improved parton density functions, better fragmentation functions and more complete theoretical calculations have improved theoretical accuracy. Experimentally, measurements of beauty production at √s = 1.96 TeV are now presented in terms of b hadrons or B mesons, to avoid problems unfolding back to the quark level. In this review [3] measurements of inclusive beauty (where one beauty jet or hadron is reconstructed in the event), and beauty + X (where X can be a boson or another beauty jet or hadron), production will be presented: inclusive beauty jet cross-section; semi and fully reconstructed B meson cross-section; beauty dijet cross-section; semi-reconstructed B B meson cross-section; Z boson + beauty jet cross-section. More information concerning other measurements of heavy quark production can be found elsewhere [4

  12. Diffractive beauty production at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, K.; Morsch, A.

    1994-01-01

    Using the framework of Pomeron exchange to describe diffractive pp collisions at the LHC we discuss beauty production in those events. The cross sections for beauty production at different diffractive masses and the topology for the beauty particles and the underlying event are given. When triggering on large diffractive masses, the beauty system is boosted into the Pomeron hemisphere opposite the underlying event, which tends to follow the excited proton direction. This may offer some advantages for the acceptance of beauty and its reconstruction in forward spectrometers. For the identification of diffractive events at the LHC collider, we present a scheme to measure the momentum loss of forward protons in the range 2x10 -3 < Δp/p <0.1. This momentum loss can be determined with a precision of about 10%. ((orig.))

  13. Musings about Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintsch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how cognitive science could illuminate the concept of beauty. Two results from the extensive literature on aesthetics guide my discussion. As the term "beauty" is overextended in general usage, I choose as my starting point the notion of "perfect form." Aesthetic theorists are in reasonable agreement about the criteria for…

  14. Introducing 'beauty and health'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; van der Geest, S.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the concepts ‘beauty’ and ‘health’ and their ambiguous relationship. The quest for beauty is perceived both as an enhancement of health and well-being and as a health risk. The article is an introduction to a collection of six anthropological essays on beauty and health.

  15. Beauty in the Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Most human beings look at erosion as the destruction of a surface, but artists can see that erosion often creates indefinable beauty. Where do you see beauty in the breakdown? In this article, the author presents an innovative lesson that would allow students to observe both human and physical nature. In this activity students will create a work…

  16. Beauty and Hope: A Moral Beauty Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Rust, Teri; Solom, Rebecca C.; Frost, Nellie; Parsons, Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogical intervention regarding engagement with natural, artistic and moral beauty can lead to an increase in trait hope. In a quasi-experimental design with college students the intervention group showed significantly higher gain scores on trait hope than did the comparison group; the effect size was moderate. The experimental group also…

  17. [Beauty and esthetics: juridical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béry, Alain; Delprat, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    Although beauty is increasingly becoming a right mostly as it relates to objects, people are now beginning to make a new demand - the right to personal beauty: the right to live in and surrounded by beauty and the right to be beautiful. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  18. The beauty of simple adaptive control and new developments in nonlinear systems stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkana, Itzhak, E-mail: ibarkana@gmail.com [BARKANA Consulting, Ramat Hasharon (Israel)

    2014-12-10

    Although various adaptive control techniques have been around for a long time and in spite of successful proofs of stability and even successful demonstrations of performance, the eventual use of adaptive control methodologies in practical real world systems has met a rather strong resistance from practitioners and has remained limited. Apparently, it is difficult to guarantee or even understand the conditions that can guarantee stable operations of adaptive control systems under realistic operational environments. Besides, it is difficult to measure the robustness of adaptive control system stability and allow it to be compared with the common and widely used measure of phase margin and gain margin that is utilized by present, mainly LTI, controllers. Furthermore, customary stability analysis methods seem to imply that the mere stability of adaptive systems may be adversely affected by any tiny deviation from the pretty idealistic and assumably required stability conditions. This paper first revisits the fundamental qualities of customary direct adaptive control methodologies, in particular the classical Model Reference Adaptive Control, and shows that some of their basic drawbacks have been addressed and eliminated within the so-called Simple Adaptive Control methodology. Moreover, recent developments in the stability analysis methods of nonlinear systems show that prior conditions that were customarily assumed to be needed for stability are only apparent and can be eliminated. As a result, sufficient conditions that guarantee stability are clearly stated and lead to similarly clear proofs of stability. As many real-world applications show, once robust stability of the adaptive systems can be guaranteed, the added value of using Add-On Adaptive Control along with classical Control design techniques is pushing the desired performance beyond any previous limits.

  19. Ice, rock, and beauty a visual tour of the new solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, David

    2008-01-01

    Imaging techniques from Earth continue to improve, while missions such as Voyager, Galileo and the Hubble Space Telescope have yielded many excellent images. This book collects some 72 main images, showing objects heretofore little seen, to tell a story of the Solar System.

  20. Franchised and Small, the Most Beautiful of All; HRM and Performance in Plural Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, M.J.; Croonen, E.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Franchising is particularly present in industries in which human resources play a vital role. However, little is known about human resource management (HRM) in a franchising context. This study investigates HRM behavior and performance using a sample of 171 units within one plural retailing system.

  1. Triggering on beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three CERN experiments (NA19, WA75 and WA78) are discussed. The aim is to study the hadroproduction of naked ''beauty'' and, in the first two cases, to directly measure the lifetime of the beauty states. A comparison of the relative sensitivity is given and the various on-line and off-line selections which are made to attempt the extraction of a signal

  2. The medicalization of beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Poli Neto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern with body image and medical interventions related to physical beauty has greatly increased in the past few years. The purpose of this study is to investigate how medicine is dealing with the theme of beauty. The 2003/2004 editions of the periodicals Aesthetic Surgery Journal and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery were analyzed, in order to investigate the rationality buttressing their discourse. Three categories were prioritized for this study: definition of aesthetic plastic surgery's study object; beauty patterns guiding interventions; and understanding popular demand for aesthetic corrections. Discourse is sustained by biomedical rationality, structured around a disease theory and a dual construction between normal and pathological, with emphasis on biology. In the articles, the beauty patterns guiding therapeutic practices are anchored in biological norms defined through several anthropometric measures, which refer to abstract concepts of beauty, harmony, proportionality and symmetry. In this discourse, there are no references to patterns or to social norms of beauty; motivation for aesthetic intervention appears to be rooted in low self-esteem related to the aging process or to some bodily nonconformity. As per the meaning of 'medicalization' adopted herein, biomedical rationality appropriates variations or anomalies of physical appearance, thus allowing the theme to be dealt with in terms of health and disease, normal and pathological.

  3. Development of sleep monitoring system for observing the effect of the room ambient toward the quality of sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, W. H. M.; Khoo, C. W.; Rahman, S. I. Ab; Ibrahim, M. M.; Saad, N. H. M.

    2017-06-01

    Getting enough sleep at the right times can help in improving quality of life and protect mental and physical health. This study proposes a portable sleep monitoring device to determine the relationship between the room ambient and quality of sleep. Body condition parameter such as heart rate, body temperature and body movement was used to determine quality of sleep and Audio/video-based monitoring system. The functionality test on all sensors is carried out to make sure that all sensors is working properly. The functionality of the overall system is designed for a better experience with a very minimal intervention to the user. The simple test on the body condition (body temperature and heart rate) while asleep with several different ambient parameters (humidity, brightness and temperature) are varied and the result shows that someone has a better sleep in a dark and colder ambient. This can prove by lower body temperature and lower heart rate.

  4. Targeting the orexinergic system: Mainly but not only for sleep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orexin receptors belong to the big family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that constitute the main targets in the modern pharmacological approaches. Although the orexinergic system is involved in a variety of processes, treating sleep-wakefulness disorders such as narcolepsy and insomnia, remains the main ...

  5. Regulation of sleep by neuropeptide Y-like system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia He

    Full Text Available Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY, a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF, is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1 on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies.

  6. Sleep-monitoring, experiment M133. [electronic recording system for automatic analysis of human sleep patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Salamy, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab sleep-monitoring experiment simulated the timelines and environment expected during a 56-day Skylab mission. Two crewmembers utilized the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and their sleep characteristics were studied in an online fashion during a number of all night recording sessions. Comparison of the results of online automatic analysis with those of postmission visual data analysis was favorable, confirming the feasibility of obtaining reliable objective information concerning sleep characteristics during the Skylab missions. One crewmember exhibited definite changes in certain sleep characteristics (e.g., increased sleep latency, increased time Awake during first third of night, and decreased total sleep time) during the mission.

  7. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  8. Introduction to Beautiful Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri Wieringa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Beautiful Soup is a Python library for getting data out of HTML, XML, and other markup languages. Say you’ve found some webpages that display data relevant to your research, such as date or address information, but that do not provide any way of downloading the data directly. Beautiful Soup helps you pull particular content from a webpage, remove the HTML markup, and save the information. It is a tool for web scraping that helps you clean up and parse the documents you have pulled down from the web.

  9. Introduction to Beautiful Soup

    OpenAIRE

    Jeri Wieringa

    2012-01-01

    Beautiful Soup is a Python library for getting data out of HTML, XML, and other markup languages. Say you’ve found some webpages that display data relevant to your research, such as date or address information, but that do not provide any way of downloading the data directly. Beautiful Soup helps you pull particular content from a webpage, remove the HTML markup, and save the information. It is a tool for web scraping that helps you clean up and parse the documents you have pulled down from t...

  10. Sleeping brain, learning brain. The role of sleep for memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigneux, P; Laureys, S; Delbeuck, X; Maquet, P

    2001-12-21

    The hypothesis that sleep participates in the consolidation of recent memory traces has been investigated using four main paradigms: (1) effects of post-training sleep deprivation on memory consolidation, (2) effects of learning on post-training sleep, (3) effects of within sleep stimulation on the sleep pattern and on overnight memories, and (4) re-expression of behavior-specific neural patterns during post-training sleep. These studies convincingly support the idea that sleep is deeply involved in memory functions in humans and animals. However, the available data still remain too scarce to confirm or reject unequivocally the recently upheld hypothesis that consolidations of non-declarative and declarative memories are respectively dependent upon REM and NREM sleep processes.

  11. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  12. Role of REM Sleep, Melanin Concentrating Hormone and Orexin/Hypocretin Systems in the Sleep Deprivation Pre-Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Marta; Adamantidis, Antoine; Facchin, Laura; Bassetti, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Sleep reduction after stroke is linked to poor recovery in patients. Conversely, a neuroprotective effect is observed in animals subjected to acute sleep deprivation (SD) before ischemia. This neuroprotection is associated with an increase of the sleep, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin/hypocretin (OX) systems. This study aims to 1) assess the relationship between sleep and recovery; 2) test the association between MCH and OX systems with the pathological mechanisms of stroke. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four experimental groups: (i) SD_IS: SD performed before ischemia; (ii) IS: ischemia; (iii) SD_Sham: SD performed before sham surgery; (iv) Sham: sham surgery. EEG and EMG were recorded. The time-course of the MCH and OX gene expression was measured at 4, 12, 24 hours and 3, 4, 7 days following ischemic surgery by qRT-PCR. A reduction of infarct volume was observed in the SD_IS group, which correlated with an increase of REM sleep observed during the acute phase of stroke. Conversely, the IS group showed a reduction of REM sleep. Furthermore, ischemia induces an increase of MCH and OX systems during the acute phase of stroke, although, both systems were still increased for a long period of time only in the SD_IS group. Our data indicates that REM sleep may be involved in the neuroprotective effect of SD pre-ischemia, and that both MCH and OX systems were increased during the acute phase of stroke. Future studies should assess the role of REM sleep as a prognostic marker, and test MCH and OXA agonists as new treatment options in the acute phase of stroke.

  13. Role of REM Sleep, Melanin Concentrating Hormone and Orexin/Hypocretin Systems in the Sleep Deprivation Pre-Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pace

    Full Text Available Sleep reduction after stroke is linked to poor recovery in patients. Conversely, a neuroprotective effect is observed in animals subjected to acute sleep deprivation (SD before ischemia. This neuroprotection is associated with an increase of the sleep, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH and orexin/hypocretin (OX systems. This study aims to 1 assess the relationship between sleep and recovery; 2 test the association between MCH and OX systems with the pathological mechanisms of stroke.Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four experimental groups: (i SD_IS: SD performed before ischemia; (ii IS: ischemia; (iii SD_Sham: SD performed before sham surgery; (iv Sham: sham surgery. EEG and EMG were recorded. The time-course of the MCH and OX gene expression was measured at 4, 12, 24 hours and 3, 4, 7 days following ischemic surgery by qRT-PCR.A reduction of infarct volume was observed in the SD_IS group, which correlated with an increase of REM sleep observed during the acute phase of stroke. Conversely, the IS group showed a reduction of REM sleep. Furthermore, ischemia induces an increase of MCH and OX systems during the acute phase of stroke, although, both systems were still increased for a long period of time only in the SD_IS group.Our data indicates that REM sleep may be involved in the neuroprotective effect of SD pre-ischemia, and that both MCH and OX systems were increased during the acute phase of stroke. Future studies should assess the role of REM sleep as a prognostic marker, and test MCH and OXA agonists as new treatment options in the acute phase of stroke.

  14. On Disinterestedness and Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Immanuel

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses disinterestedness and beauty. To apprehend a regular and appropriate building with one's cognitive faculties, be the mode of representation clear or confused, is quite a different thing from being conscious of this representation with an accompanying sensation of delight. Here the representation is referred wholly to the…

  15. "Soccer": The Beautiful Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Soccer, or football as it is called in the rest of the world, is the most popular and fastest-growing global sport, with an estimated 240 million people regularly playing what Brazilian star Pele called "the beautiful game." Millions, worldwide, watch it on television. In 2006, the average viewership for each match of the month-long World Cup was…

  16. The Beauty of Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…

  17. Beauty in use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeeke, C.J.; Wensveen, S.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Comments on an article by Marc Hassenzahl (see record 2005-00463-002). The main merit of the article is that offers a guiding research model for empirical studies on beauty in the field of human computer interaction (HCI) and he presents it eloquently. From a product design point of view a few

  18. Partial Sleep Deprivation Attenuates the Positive Affective System: Effects Across Multiple Measurement Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Patrick H; Quartana, Phillip J; Remeniuk, Bethany; Garland, Eric L; Rhudy, Jamie L; Hand, Matthew; Irwin, Michael R; Smith, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Ample behavioral and neurobiological evidence links sleep and affective functioning. Recent self-report evidence suggests that the affective problems associated with sleep loss may be stronger for positive versus negative affective state and that those effects may be mediated by changes in electroencepholographically measured slow wave sleep (SWS). In the present study, we extend those preliminary findings using multiple measures of affective functioning. In a within-subject randomized crossover experiment, we tested the effects of one night of sleep continuity disruption via forced awakenings (FA) compared to one night of uninterrupted sleep (US) on three measures of positive and negative affective functioning: self-reported affective state, affective pain modulation, and affect-biased attention. The study was set in an inpatient clinical research suite. Healthy, good sleeping adults (N = 45) were included. Results indicated that a single night of sleep continuity disruption attenuated positive affective state via FA-induced reductions in SWS. Additionally, sleep continuity disruption attenuated the inhibition of pain by positive affect as well as attention bias to positive affective stimuli. Negative affective state, negative affective pain facilitation, nor negative attention bias were altered by sleep continuity disruption. The present findings, observed across multiple measures of affective function, suggest that sleep continuity disruption has a stronger influence on the positive affective system relative to the negative affective affective system. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. ATLAS Potential for Beauty Physics Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smizanska, M.

    2001-01-01

    The main focus of ATLAS b physics has traditionally been on the standard model. In the last few years also the aspects of new physics in B-decays has been addressed. Another new field of studies started recently is a beauty production. We give an overview of the older as well as more recent results. After an introduction outlining selected trigger and detector performance characteristics, we explain methods and goals of CP violation measurements in decay channels of B d 0 meson, physics of B s 0 system and of rare decays. Finally, the ATLAS program for beauty production measurements is presented. (author)

  20. A Beautiful Spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiangdong

    2003-01-01

    Spin is a beautiful concept that plays an ever important role in modern physics. In this talk, I start with a discussion of the origin of spin, and then turn to three themes in which spin has been crucial in subatomic physics: a lab to explore physics beyond the standard model, a tool to measure physical observables that are hard to obtain otherwise, a probe to unravel nonperturbative QCD. I conclude with some remarks on a world without spin

  1. Small is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, E.F.

    1973-01-01

    The author feels that ''an almost universal idolatry of gigantism'' has caused the urgent crisis of today's society. The book expresses his philosophy of the beauty of thinking in less grandiose terms. He offers some smaller-scale yet highly feasible solutions to many of the problems created by bigness--the environmental crisis, the energy shortage, the dehumanization of industrial workers, the flight from rural areas, and the decay of cities. (MCW)

  2. Charmed, beauty hadrons revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabab, M.

    1998-01-01

    Applying two different versions of QCD sum-rules, we reanalyze rigourously the rich spectroscopy of mesons and baryons built from charm and beauty quarks. An improved determination of the masses and the leptonic decay constants of B c (bc-bar), B c *(bc-bar), and Λ(bcu) is presented. Our optimal results, constrained by stability criteria, are consistent in both versions and support the general pattern common to potential models predictions

  3. ON BEAUTY AND THE BEAUTIFUL IN AESTHETIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borce Kostov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We titled our work “On Beauty and the Beautiful in Aesthetic Education” and we analyzed the category beautiful in function of better understanding the issues of aesthetic education.The basic point was the fact that the determination of the term beautiful is being different in both, time aspect and space aspect. Also, the authors involved in this matter have got different understanding on beautiful issue, on its essence, on its role in human development and on the development of the aesthetics and the aesthetic education.Therefore, within our work, there is an attempt to differ the approaches towards the category beautiful, to comment it, to compare it and finally to give our approach.

  4. Two beautiful new particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In beautiful agreement with the Standard Model, two new excited states (see below) of the Λb beauty particle have just been observed by the LHCb Collaboration. Similarly to protons and neutrons, Λb is composed of three quarks. In the Λb’s case, these are up, down and… beauty.   Although discovering new particles is increasingly looking like a routine exercise for the LHC experiments (see previous features), it is far from being an obvious performance, particularly when the mass of the particles is high. Created in the high-energy proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC, these new excited states of the Λb particle have been found to have a mass of, respectively, 5912 MeV/c2 and 5920 MeV/c2. In other words, they are over five times heavier than the proton or the neutron. Physicists only declare a discovery when data significantly show the relevant signal. In order to do that, they often have to analyse large samples of data. To ...

  5. XMM flying beautifully

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  6. A role for the preoptic sleep-promoting system in absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsova, N; Kumar, S; Guzman-Marin, R; Alam, M N; Szymusiak, R; McGinty, D

    2009-10-01

    Absence epilepsy (AE) in humans and the genetic AE model in WAG/Rij rats are both associated with abnormalities in sleep architecture that suggest insufficiency of the sleep-promoting mechanisms. In this study we compared the functionality of sleep-active neuronal groups within two well-established sleep-promoting sites, the ventrolateral and median preoptic nuclei (VLPO and MnPN, respectively), in WAG/Rij and control rats. Neuronal activity was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity and chronic single-unit recording techniques. We found that WAG/Rij rats exhibited a lack of sleep-associated c-Fos activation of GABAergic MnPN and VLPO neurons, a lower percentage of MnPN and VLPO cells increasing discharge during sleep and reduced firing rates of MnPN sleep-active neurons, compared to non-epileptic rats. The role of sleep-promoting mechanisms in pathogenesis of absence seizures was assessed in non-epileptic rats using electrical stimulation and chemical manipulations restricted to the MnPN. We found that fractional activation of the sleep-promoting system in waking was sufficient to elicit absence-like seizures. Given that reciprocally interrelated sleep-promoting and arousal neuronal groups control thalamocortical excitability, we hypothesize that malfunctioning of sleep-promoting system results in impaired ascending control over thalamocortical rhythmogenic mechanisms during wake-sleep transitions thus favoring aberrant thalamocortical oscillations. Our findings suggest a pathological basis for AE-associated sleep abnormalities and a mechanism underlying association of absence seizures with wake-sleep transitions.

  7. Short-term sleep deprivation leads to decreased systemic redox metabolites and altered epigenetic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Malav S; Holger, Dana; Bui, Anh Tuyet; Craddock, Travis J A; Tartar, Jaime L

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is critical for repair as well as the rejuvenation processes in the body and many of these functions are regulated via underlying cellular metabolic homeostasis. Changes in sleep pattern are reported to alter such metabolic function resulting in altered disease susceptibility or behavior. Here, we measured the extent to which overnight total sleep deprivation (SD) in young adult humans can influence systemic (plasma-derived) redox-metabolism including the major antioxidant, glutathione as well as DNA methylation levels. Nineteen participants (n = 19, μ age = 21, SD = 3.09) underwent morning testing before and after overnight total SD. Biochemical measures before and after SD revealed that glutathione, ATP, cysteine, and homocysteine levels were significantly reduced following one night of sleep deprivation (all p's sleep deprivation (maintaining wakefulness) uses up metabolic reserves, we observed that morning cortisol levels were blunted after sleep deprivation. There were no significant correlations between self-reported or actigraphy-measured sleep and the biochemical measurements, strongly indicating that prior sleep behavior did not have any direct influence on the biochemical measures taken at baseline or after sleep deprivation. Results from the current investigation supports the previous literature implicating the induction of oxidative stress and ATP depletion with sleep deprivation. Furthermore, such altered antioxidant status can also induce downstream epigenetic changes. Although we did not measure the specific genes that were altered under the influence of such sleep deprivation, such epigenetic changes could potentially contribute towards disease predisposition.

  8. The Circadian System Contributes to Apnea Lengthening across the Night in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matthew P; Smales, Carolina; Wu, Huijuan; Hussain, Mohammad V; Mohamed, Yusef A; Morimoto, Miki; Shea, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that respiratory event duration exhibits an endogenous circadian rhythm. Within-subject and between-subjects. Inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Seven subjects with moderate/severe sleep apnea and four controls, age 48 (SD = 12) years, 7 males. Subjects completed a 5-day inpatient protocol in dim light. Polysomnography was recorded during an initial control 8-h night scheduled at the usual sleep time, then through 10 recurrent cycles of 2 h 40 min sleep and 2 h 40 min wake evenly distributed across all circadian phases, and finally during another 8-h control sleep period. Event durations, desaturations, and apnea-hypopnea index for each sleep opportunity were assessed according to circadian phase (derived from salivary melatonin), time into sleep, and sleep stage. Average respiratory event durations in NREM sleep significantly lengthened across both control nights (21.9 to 28.2 sec and 23.7 to 30.2 sec, respectively). During the circadian protocol, event duration in NREM increased across the circadian phases that corresponded to the usual sleep period, accounting for > 50% of the increase across normal 8-h control nights. AHI and desaturations were also rhythmic: AHI was highest in the biological day while desaturations were greatest in the biological night. The endogenous circadian system plays an important role in the prolongation of respiratory events across the night, and might provide a novel therapeutic target for modulating sleep apnea. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Sleep System Sensitization: Evidence for Changing Roles of Etiological Factors in Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Anderson, Jason R.; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To test for sensitization of the sleep system in response to insomnia development and major life stress. In addition, to evaluate the impact on depression and anxiety associated with sleep system sensitization. Methods A longitudinal study with three annual assessments. The community-based sample included 262 adults with no history of insomnia or depression who developed insomnia 1 year after baseline (67.6% female; 44.0±13.4y). Measures included the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test to assess sleep reactivity, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Insomnia classification was based on DSM-IV criteria. Sleep system sensitization was operationally defined as significant increases in sleep reactivity. Results Sensitization of the sleep system was observed from baseline to insomnia onset at 1-y follow-up among insomniacs with low premorbid vulnerability (pinsomnia remission (pinsomnia onset. The impact of sensitization on depression was stable at 2-y follow-up (p=.01). Conclusions Evidence supports sensitization of the sleep system as consequence of insomnia development and major life stress among individuals with low premorbid sleep reactivity. Sleep system sensitization may serve as a mechanism by which insomnia is perpetuated. Harmful effects of the sensitization process may increase risk for insomnia-related depression and anxiety. PMID:27448474

  10. Sleep system sensitization: evidence for changing roles of etiological factors in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Anderson, Jason R; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-05-01

    To test for sensitization of the sleep system in response to insomnia development and major life stress. In addition, to evaluate the impact on depression and anxiety associated with sleep system sensitization. A longitudinal study with three annual assessments. The community-based sample included 262 adults with no history of insomnia or depression who developed insomnia one year after baseline (67.6% female; 44.0 ± 13.4 yr). Measures included the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test to assess sleep reactivity, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Insomnia classification was based on DSM-IV criteria. Sleep system sensitization was operationally defined as significant increases in sleep reactivity. Sensitization of the sleep system was observed from baseline to insomnia onset at 1-yr follow-up among insomniacs with low premorbid vulnerability (p insomnia remission (p insomnia onset. The impact of sensitization on depression was stable at 2-yr follow-up (p = 0.01). Evidence supports sensitization of the sleep system as a consequence of insomnia development and major life stress among individuals with low premorbid sleep reactivity. Sleep system sensitization may serve as a mechanism by which insomnia is perpetuated. Harmful effects of the sensitization process may increase risk for insomnia-related depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of bedding systems selected by manual muscle testing on sleep and sleep-related respiratory disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Liu, Hau-Min

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of applying manual muscle testing (MMT) for bedding selection and examined the bedding effect on sleep. Four lay testers with limited training in MMT performed muscle tests for the selection of the bedding systems from five different mattresses and eight different pillows for 14 participants with mild sleep-related respiratory disturbances. For each participant individually, two bedding systems-one inducing stronger muscle forces and the other inducing weaker forces-were selected. The tester-participant pairs showed 85% and 100% agreement, respectively, for the selection of mattresses and pillows that induced the strongest muscle forces. The firmness of the mattress and the height of the pillow were significantly correlated with the body weight and body mass index of the participants for the selected strong bedding system but not for the weak bedding system. Finally, differences were observed between the strong and the weak bedding systems with regard to sleep-related respiratory disturbances and the percentage of slow-wave sleep. It was concluded that MMT can be performed by inexperienced testers for the selection of bedding systems.

  12. Wireless nanosensor system for diagnosis of sleep disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2016-04-01

    A good night's sleep plays a vital role in physical and mental wellbeing by performing the recuperative function for the brain and the body. Notwithstanding the fact that, good sleep is an essential part of a person's life, an increasing number of people are experiencing sleep disorders and loss of sleep. According to the research by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), 50 to 70 million Americans suffer from sleep disorders and sleep deprivation. Although sleep disorder is a highly prevalent condition like diabetes or asthma, 80 to 90 percent of the cases remain undiagnosed. The short-term effects of sleep disorder are morning headaches, excessive daytime sleepiness, shot-term memory loss and depression, but the cumulative long-term effects result in severe health consequences like heart attacks and strokes. In addition, people suffering from sleep disorders are 7.5 times more likely to have a higher body mass index and 2.5 times more likely to have diabetes. Further, undiagnosed and untreated sleep disorders have a significant direct and indirect economic impact. The costs associated with untreated sleep disorders are far higher than the costs for adequate treatment. According to the survey, approximately 16 billion of dollars are spent on medical expenses associated with repeated doctor visits, prescriptions and medications.

  13. Restricted and disrupted sleep : Effects on autonomic function, neuroendocrine stress systems and stress responsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Sgoifo, Andrea; Suchecki, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our modern around-the-clock society. In this context, it is an important question how sleep loss affects the stress systems in our bodies since these systems enable us to deal with everyday challenges. Altered activity

  14. Sleep disturbances in systemic sclerosis: evidence for the role of gastrointestinal symptoms, pain and pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milette, Katherine; Hudson, Marie; Körner, Annett; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D

    2013-09-01

    SSc is a rare autoimmune CTD characterized by thickening and fibrosis of skin and internal organs. There is significant mortality and no cure. Sleep disturbance has been identified as an important contributor to poor quality of life. The objective was to investigate socio-demographic and medical factors potentially associated with sleep disturbance in SSc. The sample consisted of patients from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group's (CSRG) 15-centre, pan-Canadian Registry assessed with the 8-item Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) sleep disturbance scale short form, version 1.0. Pearson's correlations were used to assess bivariate association of socio-demographic and medical variables with PROMIS sleep scores. The independent association of PROMIS sleep disturbance scores and factors previously identified as associated with sleep disturbance in the general population, in SSc and other rheumatic diseases, was assessed using multiple linear regression. Among 397 patients in the study (88% female, mean age 57.5 years), 25% (n = 98) had diffuse cutaneous SSc. Mean duration since onset of non-RP symptoms was 10.6 years. Number of gastrointestinal symptoms (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.19, P = 0.001), pain severity (β = 0.21, P sleep disturbance. Gastrointestinal symptoms, pain and pruritus were associated with sleep disturbance in SSc. Additional research is needed on sleep in SSc so that well-informed sleep interventions can be developed and tested.

  15. BEAUTY'99 Conference Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerola, Paula

    2000-01-01

    Investigations of B hadrons are expected to break new ground in measuring CP-violation effects. This series of BEAUTY conferences, originating from the 1993 conference in Liblice, has contributed significantly in developing ideas of CP-violation measurements using B hadrons and formulating and comparing critically the B-physics experiments. In the '99 conference in Bled we saw the ripening of the field and the first fruit emerging - Tevatron have produced beautiful B-physics results and more are expected to come with the next run, while the B-physics experiments at DESY, SLAC and KEK are starting their operation. The longer-term projects at LHC and Tevatron have taken their shape and detailed prototyping work is going on. Meanwhile, on the phenomenological side, there has been impressive theoretical progress in understanding deeper the 'standard' measurements and proposing new signatures. In this summary, I will highlight the status of the field as presented in the conference, concentrating on signatures, experiments and R and D programmes

  16. Sublime Views and Beautiful Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan; Hatch, Mary Jo

    To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty...

  17. Sleep Deprivation Impairs the Human Central and Peripheral Nervous System Discrimination of Social Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Greer, Stephanie M; Saletin, Jared M; Walker, Matthew P

    2015-07-15

    Facial expressions represent one of the most salient cues in our environment. They communicate the affective state and intent of an individual and, if interpreted correctly, adaptively influence the behavior of others in return. Processing of such affective stimuli is known to require reciprocal signaling between central viscerosensory brain regions and peripheral-autonomic body systems, culminating in accurate emotion discrimination. Despite emerging links between sleep and affective regulation, the impact of sleep loss on the discrimination of complex social emotions within and between the CNS and PNS remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate in humans that sleep deprivation impairs both viscerosensory brain (anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala) and autonomic-cardiac discrimination of threatening from affiliative facial cues. Moreover, sleep deprivation significantly degrades the normally reciprocal associations between these central and peripheral emotion-signaling systems, most prominent at the level of cardiac-amygdala coupling. In addition, REM sleep physiology across the sleep-rested night significantly predicts the next-day success of emotional discrimination within this viscerosensory network across individuals, suggesting a role for REM sleep in affective brain recalibration. Together, these findings establish that sleep deprivation compromises the faithful signaling of, and the "embodied" reciprocity between, viscerosensory brain and peripheral autonomic body processing of complex social signals. Such impairments hold ecological relevance in professional contexts in which the need for accurate interpretation of social cues is paramount yet insufficient sleep is pervasive. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510135-11$15.00/0.

  18. Is better beautiful or is beautiful better? Exploring the relationship between beauty and category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Megan; Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C

    2013-06-01

    We evaluate two competing accounts of the relationship between beauty and category structure. According to the similarity-based view, beauty arises from category structure such that central items are favored due to their increased fluency. In contrast, the theory-based view holds that people's theories of beauty shape their perceptions of categories. In the present study, subjects learned to categorize abstract paintings into meaningfully labeled categories and rated the paintings' beauty, value, and typicality. Inconsistent with the similarity-based view, beauty ratings were highly correlated across conditions despite differences in fluency and assigned category structure. Consistent with the theory-based view, beautiful paintings were treated as central members for categories expected to contain beautiful paintings (e.g., art museum pieces), but not in others (e.g., student show pieces). These results suggest that the beauty of complex, real-world stimuli is not determined by fluency within category structure but, instead, interacts with people's prior knowledge to structure categories.

  19. Experimental shift work studies of permanent night, and rapidly rotating, shift systems. Pt. 1. Behaviour of various characteristics of sleep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauth, P.; Rutenfranz, J.; Romberg, H.P.; Decoster, F.; Kiesswetter, E. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Arbeitsphysiologie); Schulz, H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Klinisches Inst.)

    1980-06-01

    In connection with experimental shift work 20 volunteers were examined while working on different rapidly or slowly rotating shift systems. Sleep was analyzed over a total of 112 days. Sleep was disturbed by children's noise or traffic noise. Sleep duration and sleep quality were particularly badly affected by noise with a high information value (children's noise). The ultradian rhythmicity of sleep did not appear to be disrupted by the change from day to night work. There were no significant differences between morning sleep and afternoon sleep after night work. In the laboratory experiments with fixed sleep durations, no separate effects on sleep quality could be established for different shift systems.

  20. Literary aesthetics: beauty, the brain, and Mrs. Dalloway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Patrick Colm

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research indicates that beauty is in part a matter of prototype approximation. Some research suggests that unanticipated pattern recognition is important as well. This essay begins by briefly outlining an account of beauty based on these factors. It goes on to consider complications. Minor complications include the partial incompatibility of these accounts and the importance of differentiating judgments of beauty from aesthetic response. More serious issues include the relative neglect of literature in neurologically-based discussions of beauty, which tend to focus on music or visual art. There is also a relative neglect of emotion, beyond the reward system. Finally, there is the almost complete absence of the sublime. After considering these problems broadly, the essay turns to Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway, examining its treatment of beauty and sublimity. The aim of this section is not merely to illuminate Woolf's novel by reference to neuroscientific research. It is equally, perhaps more fully, to expand our neuroscientifically grounded account of aesthetic response by drawing on Woolf's novel. In Mrs. Dalloway, there are gestures toward prototypes and patterns in beauty. But the key features are clearly emotional. Specifically, the emotions at issue in feelings of beauty and sublimity appear to be primarily attachment, on the one hand, and a profound sense of isolation, on the other. Woolf's novel also points us toward other features of aesthetic experience, crucially including the emotion-sharing that is a key function of the production and circulation of art. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of bedding system selected by manual muscle testing on sleep-related cardiovascular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Terry B J; Li, Jia-Yi; Lai, Chun-Ting; Huang, Yu-Chun; Hsu, Ya-Chuan; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2013-01-01

    Different types of mattresses affect sleep quality and waking muscle power. Whether manual muscle testing (MMT) predicts the cardiovascular effects of the bedding system was explored using ten healthy young men. For each participant, two bedding systems, one inducing the strongest limb muscle force (strong bedding system) and the other inducing the weakest limb force (weak bedding system), were identified using MMT. Each bedding system, in total five mattresses and eight pillows of different firmness, was used for two continuous weeks at the participant's home in a random and double-blind sequence. A sleep log, a questionnaire, and a polysomnography were used to differentiate the two bedding systems. Heart rate variability and arterial pressure variability analyses showed that the strong bedding system resulted in decreased cardiovascular sympathetic modulation, increased cardiac vagal activity, and increased baroreceptor reflex sensitivity during sleep as compared to the weak bedding system. Different bedding systems have distinct cardiovascular effects during sleep that can be predicted by MMT.

  2. 78 FR 25475 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-879] Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing... States after importation of certain sleep-disordered breathing treatment systems and components thereof... (202) 205-1810. Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to...

  3. 78 FR 52563 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-890] Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing... certain sleep- disordered breathing treatment systems and components thereof by reason of infringement of... terminal on (202) 205-1810. Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining...

  4. Sick/Beautiful/Freak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgen L. Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonmainstream body modification practitioners actively demonstrate a confounding agency that often results in the stigmatization of their physical characteristics, their moral constitution, and their behavior. By inscribing meaning and identity in visible ways rather than allowing society to project expectations onto them based on their gender, age, race, sexual orientation, and so on, nonmainstream body modifiers present a unique challenge to American conceptions of what is healthy, what is beautiful, and what is human. Using Patricia Hill Collins’ idea of controlling images, Erving Goffman’s conceptions of stigma, and Arthur W. Frank’s styles of body usage typology, this article examines constructions of deviance within the embodied framework of unconventional body modification practices.

  5. Smile esthetics: calculated beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Guillaume; Truong Tan Trung, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    Esthetic demand from patients continues to increase. Consequently, the treatments we offer are moving towards more discreet or invisible techniques using lingual brackets in order to achieve harmonious, balanced results in line with our treatment goals. As orthodontists, we act upon relationships between teeth and bone. And the equilibrium they create impacts the entire face via the smile. A balanced smile is essential to an esthetic outcome and is governed by rules, which guide both the practitioner and patient. A smile can be described in terms of mathematical ratios and proportions but beauty cannot be calculated. For the smile to sit harmoniously within the face, we need to take into account facial proportions and the possibility of their being modified by our orthopedic appliances or by surgery. Copyright © 2014 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep characteristics as predictor variables of stress systems markers in insomnia disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floam, Samantha; Simpson, Norah; Nemeth, Emese; Scott-Sutherland, Jennifer; Gautam, Shiva; Haack, Monika

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the extent to which sleep characteristics serve as predictor variables for inflammatory, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and autonomic systems markers. Twenty-nine participants with a diagnosis of insomnia disorder based on the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (age 25.3 ± 1.6 years, insomnia duration 6.6 ± 0.8 years) and 19 healthy control sleepers (age 25.4 ± 1.4 years) underwent a 2-week at-home evaluation keeping a sleep diary and wearing an actigraph, followed by a visit to the Research Center to measure blood pressure, and collect blood and urine samples. The actigraphy- and diary-based variables of sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, wake after sleep onset and sleep fragmentation/number of night-time awakenings were averaged and entered as dependent variables in regression analyses. Composite scores were calculated for the autonomic (blood pressure, norepinephrine), inflammatory (monocyte counts, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems (cortisol), and used as predictor variables in regression models. Compared with controls, individuals with insomnia had a shorter sleep duration (P insomnia disorder, cortisol is upregulated and associated with actigraphy- and diary-based wake after sleep onset, suggesting that wake after sleep onset may serve as a marker to identify individuals at increased risks for disorders associated with a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. The absence of autonomic and pro-inflammatory changes (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein), despite a substantial decrease in actigraphic sleep duration, may relate to a higher resilience to the adverse biological consequences of insomnia in this young age group. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Wireless telemedicine systems for diagnosing sleep disorders with Zigbee star network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-10-01

    Good sleep is critical for one's overall physical and mental health but more than 50 million Americans have experienced or are suffering from sleep disorders. Nevertheless, 85% of them remain undiagnosed or untreated. They can lead to chronic diseases. Sleep disorders are diagnosed through polysomnography, also known as sleep study, performed in a sleep laboratory overnight. This perturbs his/her daily sleep routine, and consequently, an accurate diagnosis cannot be made. Many companies have been developing home sleep test systems to reduce the cost of sleep studies and provide a more convenience solution to patients. The category of the system varies as type II, type III and type IV according to the type of sleep study. Current systems cannot be easily extended from one type to include a higher type. A patient who has a type III system to diagnose sleep apnea should additionally purchase a type II system which has functions that overlap with a type III system, to evaluate sleep stages. In this paper, we propose a wireless telemedicine system for easy extension of channels using the start network topology of the Zigbee protocol. The HST system consists of two wireless HST devices with a Zigbee module, a wireless HST receiver with both a Zigbee and a Wi-Fi module, and a sever which monitors/saves the physiological signals. One transmitter provides 5 channels for 2x EOG, 2x EEG and EMG to evaluate sleep stages. The other transmitter provides 5 additional channels for ECG, nasal air flow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation to diagnose sleep apnea. These two transmitters, acting as routers, and the receiver as a coordinator form a Zigbee star network. The data from each transmitter in the receiver are retransmitted to the monitoring unit through Wi-Fi. By building a star network with Zigbee, channels can be easily extended so that low level systems can be upgraded to higher level systems by simply adding the necessary channels. In addition

  8. The hypocretin/orexin system in sleep disorders: preclinical insights and clinical progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Matthew; Cao, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Much of the understanding of the hypocretin/orexin (HCRT/OX) system in sleep-wake regulation came from narcolepsy-cataplexy research. The neuropeptides hypocretin-1 and -2/orexin-A and -B (HCRT-1 and -2/OX-A and -B, respectively), as we know, are intimately involved in the regulation wakefulness. The HCRT/OX system regulates sleep-wake control through complex interactions between monoaminergic/cholinergic (wake-promoting) and gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (sleep-promoting) neuronal systems. Deficiency of HCRT/OX results in loss of sleep-wake control or stability with consequent unstable transitions between wakefulness to nonrapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep. This manifests clinically as abnormal daytime sleepiness with sleep attacks and cataplexy. Research on the development of HCRT/OX agonists and antagonists for the treatment of sleep disorders has dramatically increased with the US Food and Drug Administration approval of the first-in-class dual HCRT/OX receptor antagonist for the treatment of insomnia. This review focuses on the origin, mechanisms of HCRT/OX receptors, clinical progress, and applications for the treatment of sleep disorders.

  9. A Comparative Study between SVM and Fuzzy Inference System for the Automatic Prediction of Sleep Stages and the Assessment of Sleep Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gialelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two supervised learning algorithms for predicting the sleep stages based on the human brain activity. The first step of the presented work regards feature extraction from real human electroencephalography (EEG data together with its corresponding sleep stages that are utilized for training a support vector machine (SVM, and a fuzzy inference system (FIS algorithm. Then, the trained algorithms are used to predict the sleep stages of real human patients. Extended comparison results are demonstrated which indicate that both classifiers could be utilized as a basis for an unobtrusive sleep quality assessment.

  10. Upregulation of gene expression in reward-modulatory striatal opioid systems by sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A; Hanlon, Erin C; Obermeyer, William; Bremer, Quentin; Paletz, Elliott; Benca, Ruth M

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a link between sleep loss and the obesity 'epidemic,' and several observations indicate that sleep curtailment engenders positive energy balance via increased palatable-food 'snacking.' These effects suggest alterations in reward-modulatory brain systems. We explored the effects of 10 days of sleep deprivation in rats on the expression of striatal opioid peptide (OP) genes that subserve food motivation and hedonic reward, and compared effects with those seen in hypothalamic energy balance-regulatory systems. Sleep-deprived (Sleep-Dep) rats were compared with yoked forced-locomotion apparatus controls (App-Controls), food-restricted rats (Food-Restrict), and unmanipulated controls (Home-Cage). Detection of mRNA levels with in situ hybridization revealed a subregion-specific upregulation of striatal preproenkephalin and prodynorhin gene expression in the Sleep-Dep group relative to all other groups. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and throughout neocortex was also robustly upregulated selectively in the Sleep-Dep group. In contrast, parallel gene expression changes were observed in the Sleep-Dep and Food-Restrict groups in hypothalamic energy-sensing systems (arcuate nucleus NPY was upregulated, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript was downregulated), in alignment with leptin suppression in both groups. Together, these results reveal a novel set of sleep deprivation-induced transcriptional changes in reward-modulatory peptide systems, which are dissociable from the energy-balance perturbations of sleep loss or the potentially stressful effects of the forced-locomotion procedure. The recruitment of telencephalic food-reward systems may provide a feeding drive highly resistant to feedback control, which could engender obesity through the enhancement of palatable feeding.

  11. Sleep-waking states and the endogenous opioid system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.E. Ukponmwan (Otas)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn the general introductory part of this thesis (Chapters and 2) a review of some pertinent literature related to sleep-waking states and opioid peptides is offered. A global view of the neurochemical mechanisms and theories of functions of sleep, as well as the physiological and

  12. Short-term sleep deprivation leads to decreased systemic redox metabolites and altered epigenetic status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malav S Trivedi

    Full Text Available Sleep is critical for repair as well as the rejuvenation processes in the body and many of these functions are regulated via underlying cellular metabolic homeostasis. Changes in sleep pattern are reported to alter such metabolic function resulting in altered disease susceptibility or behavior. Here, we measured the extent to which overnight total sleep deprivation (SD in young adult humans can influence systemic (plasma-derived redox-metabolism including the major antioxidant, glutathione as well as DNA methylation levels. Nineteen participants (n = 19, μ age = 21, SD = 3.09 underwent morning testing before and after overnight total SD. Biochemical measures before and after SD revealed that glutathione, ATP, cysteine, and homocysteine levels were significantly reduced following one night of sleep deprivation (all p's < 0.01. Parallel to the well-recognized fact that sleep deprivation (maintaining wakefulness uses up metabolic reserves, we observed that morning cortisol levels were blunted after sleep deprivation. There were no significant correlations between self-reported or actigraphy-measured sleep and the biochemical measurements, strongly indicating that prior sleep behavior did not have any direct influence on the biochemical measures taken at baseline or after sleep deprivation. Results from the current investigation supports the previous literature implicating the induction of oxidative stress and ATP depletion with sleep deprivation. Furthermore, such altered antioxidant status can also induce downstream epigenetic changes. Although we did not measure the specific genes that were altered under the influence of such sleep deprivation, such epigenetic changes could potentially contribute towards disease predisposition.

  13. Beauty Or Health? A Personal View

    OpenAIRE

    Riji, Haliza Mohd

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of beauty and health in women. It discusses changing definitions of beauty as a result of influences from the entertainment, beauty and health product industries. Advertisements are seen to be major players in defining beauty through promotion of cosmetic, skin, hair and slimming products. Concerns relating to beauty become inculcated in girls through the process of socialisation as they mature into womanhood. The media plays a significant role in portraying...

  14. Materialised Ideals Sizes and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Laitala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s clothing industry is based on a system where clothes are made in ready-to-wear sizes and meant to fit most people. Studies have pointed out that consumers are discontent with the use of these systems: size designations are not accurate enough to find clothing that fits, and different sizes are poorly available. This article discusses in depth who these consumers are, and which consumer groups are the most dissatisfied with today’s sizing systems. Results are based on a web survey where 2834 Nordic consumers responded, complemented with eight in-depth interviews, market analysis on clothing sizes and in-store trouser size measurements. Results indicate that higher shares of the consumers who have a body out of touch with the existing beauty ideals express discontentment with the sizing systems and the poor selection available. In particular, large women, very large men, and thin, short men are those who experience less priority in clothing stores and have more difficulties in finding clothes that fit. Consumers tend to blame themselves when the clothes do not fit their bodies, while our study points out that the industry is to blame as they do not produce clothing for all customers.

  15. Escaping Beauty through moral narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This study investigate through ethnographic studies the shared cultural meanings expressed about human beauty. How is sense making about the notion of beauty constructed, verballized and negotiated in a group of young females between 24 and 26 years old. Furthermore the study discuss and elaborat...... on the concept of a postpostmodern condition, with the Brand Dove as an example of a Brand acting as a Citizen-Artist (Holt 2002)....

  16. Rare beauty and charm decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, T.

    2016-01-01

    Rare beauty and charm decays can provide powerful probes of physics beyond the Standard Model. These proceedings summarise the latest measurements of rare beauty and charm decays from the LHCb experiment at the end of Run 1 of the LHC. Whilst the majority of the measurements are consistent with SM predictions, small differences are seen in the rate and angular distribution of b → sℓ"+ℓ"− decay processes.

  17. Measurement of beauty production from dimuon events at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    Beauty production in events containing two muons in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb{sup -1}. A low transverse-momentum threshold for muon identification, in combination with the large rapidity coverage of the ZEUS muon system, gives access to almost the full phase space for beauty production. The total cross section for beauty production in ep collisions at {radical}(s) = 318 GeV has been measured to be {sigma}{sub tot}(ep {yields} b anti bX) = 13.9 {+-} 1.5(stat.){sub -4.3}{sup +4.0}(syst.) nb. Differential cross sections and a measurement of b anti b correlations are also obtained, and compared to other beauty cross-section measurements, Monte Carlo models and next-to-leading-order QCD predictions. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of beauty production from dimuon events at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Beauty production in events containing two muons in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb -1 . A low transverse-momentum threshold for muon identification, in combination with the large rapidity coverage of the ZEUS muon system, gives access to almost the full phase space for beauty production. The total cross section for beauty production in ep collisions at (s) 1/2 = 318 GeV has been measured to be σ tot (ep → b b-bar X) = 13.9 ± 1.5(stat.) +4.0 -4.3 (syst.) nb. Differential cross sections and a measurement of b b-bar correlations are also obtained, and compared to other beauty cross-section measurements, Monte Carlo models and next-to-leading-order QCD predictions.

  19. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  20. Beautiful economic features of public landscaping in city beautiful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilson Caputo Delfino Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available City beautiful was a movement of great reach and inspiration, which apparently, was initiated in Chicago in 1893 during the World’s Columbian Exposition. The movement’s premises were artistic, architectural, social, political and economic. Among the artistic and architectural aspects of the city beautiful movement, the provision of high quality public landscaping was of paramount importance. As for the economic rationale behind the movement, we encounter the thinking that a beautiful city should increase its residents’ enjoyment of the city’s attributes and hence attachment to the city, raise real estate values as well as expand city business, with larger sales of city goods and services to local and touristic customers. This paper examines the economic rationale behind the city beautiful movement. We consider a “regional” economy consisting of two adjacent cities, which are identical in many of its attributes, such as the sizes of their populations. We build a general equilibrium model for the agents (consumers and producers in this economy and demonstrate that the economic rationale behind the city beautiful movement is sound. Each city’s wealth and welfare are proportional to its quality level and a city’s quality level is proportional to the city’s public landscaping quality.

  1. Beauty Or Health? A Personal View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riji, Haliza Mohd

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of beauty and health in women. It discusses changing definitions of beauty as a result of influences from the entertainment, beauty and health product industries. Advertisements are seen to be major players in defining beauty through promotion of cosmetic, skin, hair and slimming products. Concerns relating to beauty become inculcated in girls through the process of socialisation as they mature into womanhood. The media plays a significant role in portraying the meaning of beauty through its representation of women. These influences largely influence and alter women's perceptions of their body image and in trying to meet the goals of beauty as represented by the media. This may result in dissatisfaction with their body image. Advertisements can encourage women to indulge in smoking as a fashionable trend or opt for plastic surgery in attempts to acquire beauty. This paper concludes with implications of the issues relating to changing perceptions of beauty and suggests recommendations.

  2. TASK-TECHNOLOGY FIT AND PERSON-JOB FIT: A BEAUTY CONTEST TO IMPROVE THE SUCCESS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Suryani, Woro Dwi; Sumiyana, Sumiyana

    2015-01-01

    This study raises the issue that information system success could be enhanced by complementingother factors. This study investigates the success of information systems by inducing2the task-technology fit (TTF) and person-job fit (PJF) into the DeLone and McLean model. Thisstudy aims to examine, among the two induced factors, which one is able to explain andimprove the success of the information systems implementation.The results of this study indicate that the TTF explains the models’ goodnes...

  3. PSG-EXPERT. An expert system for the diagnosis of sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred, A; Filipe, J; Partinen, M; Paiva, T

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes PSG-EXPERT, an expert system in the domain of sleep disorders exploring polysomnographic data. The developed software tool is addressed from two points of view: (1)--as an integrated environment for the development of diagnosis-oriented expert systems; (2)--as an auxiliary diagnosis tool in the particular domain of sleep disorders. Developed over a Windows platform, this software tool extends one of the most popular shells--CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) with the following features: backward chaining engine; graph-based explanation facilities; knowledge editor including a fuzzy fact editor and a rules editor, with facts-rules integrity checking; belief revision mechanism; built-in case generator and validation module. It therefore provides graphical support for knowledge acquisition, edition, explanation and validation. From an application domain point of view, PSG-Expert is an auxiliary diagnosis system for sleep disorders based on polysomnographic data, that aims at assisting the medical expert in his diagnosis task by providing automatic analysis of polysomnographic data, summarising the results of this analysis in terms of a report of major findings and possible diagnosis consistent with the polysomnographic data. Sleep disorders classification follows the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Major features of the system include: browsing on patients data records; structured navigation on Sleep Disorders descriptions according to ASDA definitions; internet links to related pages; diagnosis consistent with polysomnographic data; graphical user-interface including graph-based explanatory facilities; uncertainty modelling and belief revision; production of reports; connection to remote databases.

  4. Cycles of Beauty Culture: Ethnography of Beauty Clinics Commodification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murlianti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin care is not a completely new in beauty treatments. Previously there have been other types of cultural industry which also adopted the medical science, such as cosmetic and beauty salon industries. But, skin care beauty clinic successfully introduces the services of beauty treatments which are considered the healthiest. This paper is a summary of the research on how beauty clinic quickly became a part of everyday life of its consumers. The research focused on Natasha Skin Care, a most popular beauty clinic in Indonesia at the moment. According to Richard Johnson, the process of a culture industry reaches the society through a communication that in form a pattern cyclic communications. The stages in the pattern are interconnected but slipped, each stage is affecting others but are not specified in an uncertain manner; between the producer of culture industry with its consumers. This study is a multidiscipline research using three methods of interpretation namely ethnography, discourses analysis, and social hermeneutic study.Klinik kecantikan bukanlah budaya yang benar-benar baru dalam perawatan kecantikan. Sebelumnya telah ada jenis industri budaya lain yang juga mengadopsi ilmu kedokteran, seperti industri kosmetik dan salon kecantikan. Namun klinik kecantikan sukses menyandang predikat sebagai jasa perawatan kecantikan yang dianggap paling sehat. Tulisan ini merupakan rigkasan penelitian tentang bagaimana klinik kecantikan begitu cepat menjadi bagian hidup sehari–hari masyarakat konsumennya. Fokus penelitian ini adalah Natasha Skin Care, sebuah klinik kecantikan paling popular di Indonesia saat ini. Menurut Richard Johson proses sebuah industri budaya sampai pada masyarakat konsumennya melalui komunikasi yang timpang, membentuk pola komunikasi siklik, saling terhubung namun penuh dengan keterpelesetan, saling mewarnai namun tidak menentukan secara pasti antara produsen industri budaya dengan masyarakat konsumennya. Penelitian ini ditempuh

  5. Sleep deprivation as an experimental model system for psychosis: Effects on smooth pursuit, prosaccades, and antisaccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyhöfer, Inga; Kumari, Veena; Hill, Antje; Petrovsky, Nadine; Ettinger, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Current antipsychotic medications fail to satisfactorily reduce negative and cognitive symptoms and produce many unwanted side effects, necessitating the development of new compounds. Cross-species, experimental behavioural model systems can be valuable to inform the development of such drugs. The aim of the current study was to further test the hypothesis that controlled sleep deprivation is a safe and effective model system for psychosis when combined with oculomotor biomarkers of schizophrenia. Using a randomized counterbalanced within-subjects design, we investigated the effects of 1 night of total sleep deprivation in 32 healthy participants on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades (PS), antisaccades (AS), and self-ratings of psychosis-like states. Compared with a normal sleep control night, sleep deprivation was associated with reduced SPEM velocity gain, higher saccadic frequency at 0.2 Hz, elevated PS spatial error, and an increase in AS direction errors. Sleep deprivation also increased intra-individual variability of SPEM, PS, and AS measures. In addition, sleep deprivation induced psychosis-like experiences mimicking hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, and negative symptoms, which in turn had moderate associations with AS direction errors. Taken together, sleep deprivation resulted in psychosis-like impairments in SPEM and AS performance. However, diverging somewhat from the schizophrenia literature, sleep deprivation additionally disrupted PS control. Sleep deprivation thus represents a promising but possibly unspecific experimental model that may be helpful to further improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in the pathophysiology of psychosis and aid the development of antipsychotic and pro-cognitive drugs.

  6. Determination of toxic elements in beauty creams by X-ray spectrometric techniques (2001-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    War-War-Myo-Aung

    2002-01-01

    This paper is carried out to examine the contents of toxic heavy metals in various kinds of beauty creams by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF). By applying EDXRF system, it si found that most of the beauty creams contained titanium and zinc, and some of the beauty creams contained lead, bismuth, iron and mercury. Among the heavy toxic metals, mercury is the most harmful to human's health. (author)

  7. An Expert System for Diagnosis of Sleep Disorder Using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septem Riza, Lala; Pradini, Mila; Fitrajaya Rahman, Eka; Rasim

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorder is an anomaly that could cause problems for someone’ sleeping pattern. Nowadays, it becomes an issue since people are getting busy with their own business and have no time to visit the doctors. Therefore, this research aims to develop a system used for diagnosis of sleep disorder using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification System (FRBCS). FRBCS is a method based on the fuzzy set concepts. It consists of two steps: (i) constructing a model/knowledge involving rulebase and database, and (ii) prediction over new data. In this case, the knowledge is obtained from experts whereas in the prediction stage, we perform fuzzification, inference, and classification. Then, a platform implementing the method is built with a combination between PHP and the R programming language using the “Shiny” package. To validate the system that has been made, some experiments have been done using data from a psychiatric hospital in West Java, Indonesia. Accuracy of the result and computation time are 84.85% and 0.0133 seconds, respectively.

  8. The hypocretin/orexin system in sleep disorders: preclinical insights and clinical progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Matthew Chow, Michelle CaoDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Sleep Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USAAbstract: Much of the understanding of the hypocretin/orexin (HCRT/OX system in sleep–wake regulation came from narcolepsy–cataplexy research. The neuropeptides hypocretin-1 and -2/orexin-A and -B (HCRT-1 and -2/OX-A and -B, respectively, as we know, are intimately involved in the regulation wakefulness. The HCRT/OX system regulates sleep–wake control through complex interactions between monoaminergic/cholinergic (wake-promoting and gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (sleep-promoting neuronal systems. Deficiency of HCRT/OX results in loss of sleep–wake control or stability with consequent unstable transitions between wakefulness to nonrapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep. This manifests clinically as abnormal daytime sleepiness with sleep attacks and cataplexy. Research on the development of HCRT/OX agonists and antagonists for the treatment of sleep disorders has dramatically increased with the US Food and Drug Administration approval of the first-in-class dual HCRT/OX receptor antagonist for the treatment of insomnia. This review focuses on the origin, mechanisms of HCRT/OX receptors, clinical progress, and applications for the treatment of sleep disorders.Keywords: hypocretin, orexin, narcolepsy, insomnia, orexin antagonist, orexin agonist

  9. Effect of Sleep Deprivation on the Male Reproductive System in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Shim, Ji Sung; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Young Sik; Shin, Chol

    2016-10-01

    There has been no study reporting on the influence of sleep deprivation on the male reproductive system including sperm quality. In this study, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation could lead to adverse effect on the male reproductive system. The rats were divided into three groups: 1) control (home-cage, n = 10); 2) SD4 (sleep deprivation for 4 days, n = 10); and 3) SD7 (sleep deprivation for 7 days, n = 10). Sleep deprivation was performed by a modified multiple platform method. Sperm quality (sperm motion parameters and counts), hormone levels (corticosterone and testosterone), and the histopathology of testis were evaluated and compared between the three groups. A statistically significant reduction (P = 0.018) was observed in sperm motility in the SD7 group compared to those of the control group. However, there were no significant differences in other sperm motion parameters, or in sperm counts of the testis and cauda epididymis between three groups. Compared with the control group, the SD4 (P = 0.033) and SD7 (P = 0.002) groups exhibited significant increases of corticosterone levels, but significant decreases of testosterone levels were found in the SD4 (P = 0.001) and SD7 (P Sleep deprivation may have an adverse effect on the male reproductive system in rats.

  10. Progress in study on central nervous system injuries caused by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xiang-xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic and repetitive intermittent hypoxia and dysfunction of sleep architecture mainly contribute to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. More and more evidences demonstrate it is a systemic disease, which is common encountered in clinic and strongly related to the systemic lesion of central nervous system. The central nervous system complications comprise cognitive impairment, brain atrophy and the growing risk of stroke and so on. Early treatment for OSAS has a positive significance on complications of central nervous system, and even the damage can be completely reversed.

  11. Management of sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are disorders associated with α synuclein-related neurodegeneration. Nonmotor symptoms are common hallmarks of these disorders, and disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle are among the most common nonmotor symptoms. It is only recently that sleep disturbances have received the attention of the medical and research community. Significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of sleep and wake disruption in alphasynucleinopathies during the past few decades. Despite these advancements, treatment options are limited and frequently associated with problematic side effects. Further studies that center on the development of novel treatment approaches are very much needed. In this article, the author discusses the current state of the management of disturbed sleep and alertness in PD and MSA. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Analysis of flavour mixing and CP violation in the strange-beauty meson system using LHCb data

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2244736; Bel, Lennaert; Westra, Ronald

    This research analysed the flavour mixing and CP violation in the $B_s^0$ meson system using LHCb data for the $B_s^0 \\rightarrow D_s^- \\pi^+$ and $B_s^0 \\rightarrow D_s^{\\mp} K^{\\pm}$ decays. The available data was filtered using the available detector reconstruction parameters, and fitted with theoretical functions to extract fundamental parameters of nature. Mass plots for the $B_s^0$ and $D_s^{\\mp}$ mesons were created, together with decay-time distributions, flavour mixing and CP-asymmetry plots. $\\Delta m_s$ was found to be $(17.732 \\pm 0.042)\\cdot10^{12} s^{-1}$ and $\\Delta\\Gamma_s=(0.00 \\pm 0.35)\\cdot10^{12} s^{-1}$, where the natural units $\\hbar \\equiv c \\equiv 1$. The obtained master equation parameters do not deviate significantly from 0, so no CP violation was observed. Further improvements could be the use of more sophisticated fitting software, for example RooFit, and a more extensive background contribution modelling.

  13. Returns to beauty over the life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    ’ facial attractiveness as well as data on SES, marital, and health outcomes from their mid-20s to their mid-60s. I find that beauty has lasting positive returns for women since more beautiful women have higher SES throughout their working life, have a higher probability of being married at age 25......, and marry high-SES husbands. I find no effects of beauty on health and, in general, no returns to beauty for men....

  14. A Place for Beauty in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Robert

    2018-01-01

    For the past 100 years beauty has been marginalised in Western art and regarded as a problematic notion in a range of cultural contexts. Art educators tend to associate experiences of beauty with passive appreciation rather than active engagement, while researchers of children's understanding of art characterise references to beauty as evidence of…

  15. Effects of a night-team system on resident sleep and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kao-Ping; Gordon, Mary Beth; Sectish, Theodore; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Children's Hospital Boston implemented a night-team system on general pediatric wards to reduce extended work shifts. Residents worked 5 consecutive nights for 1 week and worked day shifts for the remainder of the rotation. Of note, resident staffing at night decreased under this system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of this system on resident sleep and work hours. We conducted a prospective cohort study in which residents on the night-team system logged their sleep and work hours on work days. These data were compared with similar data collected in 2004, when there was a traditional call system. In 2004 and 2009, mean shift length was 15.22 ± 6.86 and 12.92 ± 5.70 hours, respectively (P = .161). Daily work hours were 10.49 ± 6.85 and 8.79 ± 6.42 hours, respectively (P = .08). Nightly sleep time decreased from 6.72 ± 2.60 to 4.77 ± 2.46 hours (P team system was unexpectedly associated with decreased sleep hours. As residency programs create work schedules that are compliant with the 2011 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour standards, resident sleep should be monitored carefully.

  16. Instrumentation for the analysis of respiratory system disorders during sleep: Design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Pedro Lopes; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves

    2002-11-01

    Sleep breathing disorders are estimated to be present in 2%-4% of middle-aged adults. Serious adverse consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, myocardial infraction, and cerebrovascular disease, can be related to these conditions. Intellectual deficits associated with attention, memory, and problem-solving have also been associated with a poor quality of sleep. The main causes of these disorders are obstructions resulting from repetitive narrowing and closure of the pharyngeal airway, which have been monitored by indirect measurements of temperature, displacement, and other highly invasive procedures. The measurement of mechanical impedance of the respiratory system by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently been suggested to quantify the respiratory obstruction during sleep. It is claimed that the noninvasive and dynamic characteristics of this technique would allow a noninvasive and accurate analysis of these events. In spite of this high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) describe the development of a new computer-based system for identification of the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during sleep by the FOT and (2) evaluate the performance of this device in the description of respiratory events in conditions including no, mild, serious disease, and therapeutic procedures. These evaluations confirmed the desirable features achieved in laboratory tests and the high scientific and clinical potential of this system.

  17. Quantum Beauty: Real and Ideal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    2011-01-01

    Does the world embody beautiful ideas? Pythagoras and Plato intuited that it should; Newton and Maxwell demonstrated how it could. But modern physics, and especially the quantum physics at its foundation, answers with a much more resounding and definitive 'Yes' I'll bring in history and art, as well as science, to make the case.(author)

  18. Computers, pattern, chaos and beauty

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1980-01-01

    Combining fractal theory with computer art, this book introduces a creative use of computers. It describes graphic methods for detecting patterns in complicated data and illustrates simple techniques for visualizing chaotic behavior. ""Beautiful."" - Martin Gardner, Scientific American. Over 275 illustrations, 29 in color.

  19. Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains…

  20. Health Issues on Beauty Treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    known to have adverse effects on the skin. Some of the constituents of ... of the adverse effects these cosmetic and beauty products which can only ... surgery . The situation predisposes the subjects to poor wound healing, which may invariably lead to a burst abdomen (when the intestines surge out of the failed surgical ...

  1. Beauty and health: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.

    2008-01-01

    This essay, written as a 'teaser' for an up-coming symposium, reflects on how human beauty can be understood from an anthropological and medical anthropological perspective. First, it considers how aesthetic and healing rationales can conflict or merge in a variety of medical technologies and health

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders in clinical practice, and cardiovascular diseases represent a major comorbidity in each disorder. The two disorders coexist (overlap syndrome) in approximately 1% of adults but asymptomatic lower airway obstruction together with sleep-disordered breathing is more prevalent. Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has similar prevalence in COPD as the general population, and vice versa, factors such as body mass index and smoking influence relationships. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation develops in COPD, independent of apnea\\/hypopnea, and is more severe in the overlap syndrome, thus predisposing to pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, upper airway flow limitation contributes to nocturnal desaturation in COPD without apnea\\/hypopnea. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, involving C-reactive protein and IL-6, in addition to nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent pathways involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8, provides insight into potential basic interactions between both disorders. Furthermore, oxidative stress develops in each disorder, in addition to activation and\\/or dysfunction of circulating leukocytes. These findings are clinically relevant because systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and the cell\\/molecular pathways involved are similar to those identified in COPD and sleep apnea. However, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea is not proven, and thus, studies of patients with the overlap syndrome should provide insight into the mechanisms of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  3. Reorganization of neuronal circuits of the central olfactory system during postprandial sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eYamaguchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic changes in neuronal circuits often occur in association with specific behavioral states. In this review, we focus on an emerging view that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are reorganized along the wake-sleep cycle. Olfaction is crucial to sustaining the animals’ life, and odor-guided behaviors have to be newly acquired or updated to successfully cope with a changing odor world. It is therefore likely that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are highly plastic and undergo repeated reorganization in daily life. A remarkably plastic feature of the olfactory system is that newly generated neurons are continually integrated into neuronal circuits of the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life. New neurons in the OB undergo an extensive selection process, during which many are eliminated by apoptosis for the fine tuning of neuronal circuits. The life and death decision of new neurons occurs extensively during a short time window of sleep after food consumption (postprandial sleep, a typical daily olfactory behavior. We review recent studies that explain how olfactory information is transferred between the OB and the olfactory cortex (OC along the course of the wake-sleep cycle. Olfactory sensory input is effectively transferred from the OB to the OC during waking, while synchronized top-down inputs from the OC to the OB are promoted during the slow-wave sleep. We discuss possible neuronal circuit mechanisms for the selection of new neurons in the OB, which involves the encoding of olfactory sensory inputs and memory trace formation during waking and internally generated activities in the OC and OB during subsequent sleep. The plastic changes in the OB and OC are well coordinated along the course of olfactory behavior during wakefulness and postbehavioral rest and sleep. We therefore propose that the olfactory system provides an excellent model in which to understand behavioral state-dependent plastic mechanisms of the neuronal

  4. Sleep and Sedative States Induced by Targeting the Histamine and Noradrenergic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedatives target just a handful of receptors and ion channels. But we have no satisfying explanation for how activating these receptors produces sedation. In particular, do sedatives act at restricted brain locations and circuitries or more widely? Two prominent sedative drugs in clinical use are zolpidem, a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, and dexmedetomidine (DEX, a selective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist. By targeting hypothalamic neuromodulatory systems both drugs induce a sleep-like state, but in different ways: zolpidem primarily reduces the latency to NREM sleep, and is a controlled substance taken by many people to help them sleep; DEX produces prominent slow wave activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG resembling stage 2 NREM sleep, but with complications of hypothermia and lowered blood pressure—it is used for long term sedation in hospital intensive care units—under DEX-induced sedation patients are arousable and responsive, and this drug reduces the risk of delirium. DEX, and another α2 adrenergic agonist xylazine, are also widely used in veterinary clinics to sedate animals. Here we review how these two different classes of sedatives, zolpidem and dexmedetomideine, can selectively interact with some nodal points of the circuitry that promote wakefulness allowing the transition to NREM sleep. Zolpidem enhances GABAergic transmission onto histamine neurons in the hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN to hasten the transition to NREM sleep, and DEX interacts with neurons in the preoptic hypothalamic area that induce sleep and body cooling. This knowledge may aid the design of more precise acting sedatives, and at the same time, reveal more about the natural sleep-wake circuitry.

  5. Filtering the reality: functional dissociation of lateral and medial pain systems during sleep in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastuji, Hélène; Mazza, Stéphanie; Perchet, Caroline; Frot, Maud; Mauguière, François; Magnin, Michel; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2012-11-01

    Behavioral reactions to sensory stimuli during sleep are scarce despite preservation of sizeable cortical responses. To further understand such dissociation, we recorded intracortical field potentials to painful laser pulses in humans during waking and all-night sleep. Recordings were obtained from the three cortical structures receiving 95% of the spinothalamic cortical input in primates, namely the parietal operculum, posterior insula, and mid-anterior cingulate cortex. The dynamics of responses during sleep differed among cortical sites. In sleep Stage 2, evoked potential amplitudes were similarly attenuated relative to waking in all three cortical regions. During paradoxical, or rapid eye movements (REM), sleep, opercular and insular potentials remained stable in comparison with Stage 2, whereas the responses from mid-anterior cingulate abated drastically, and decreasing below background noise in half of the subjects. Thus, while the lateral operculo-insular system subserving sensory analysis of somatic stimuli remained active during paradoxical-REM sleep, mid-anterior cingulate processes related to orienting and avoidance behavior were suppressed. Dissociation between sensory and orienting-motor networks might explain why nociceptive stimuli can be either neglected or incorporated into dreams without awakening the subject. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sleep disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus. Does vitamin D play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamrezaei, A; Bonakdar, Z Sayed; Mirbagher, L; Hosseini, N

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disorders are common among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with unclear underlying mechanisms. We assessed the role of vitamin D in sleep quality of patients with SLE. A retrospective study was conducted on women with SLE for whom the following data were available at the same time; sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)), disease activity, cumulative disease damage, psychological state (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), and serum vitamin D level. Bivariate and regression analyses were computed to find contributors of sleep quality. In total, 63 women were studied. Serum vitamin D level was correlated with physical activity (r=0.310, p=0.015), season of assessment (r=-0.302, p=0.016), the PSQI global score (r=-0.262, p=0.043), anxiety score (r=-0.298, p=0.021), and non-significantly with depression score (r=-0.218, p=0.094). Including all variables into a linear regression model, vitamin D level was independently associated with the global PSQI score (beta=-0.364, p=0.042). Association of vitamin D level with psychological state disappeared after controlling for season of assessment (beta=-0.248, p=0.154). We found a role for vitamin D in sleep quality of SLE patients. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results and to find possible mechanisms of action. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. A systems approach identifies networks and genes linking sleep and stress: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Scarpa, Joseph R; Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Losic, Bojan; Gao, Vance D; Hao, Ke; Summa, Keith C; Yang, He S; Zhang, Bin; Allada, Ravi; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Kasarskis, Andrew

    2015-05-05

    Sleep dysfunction and stress susceptibility are comorbid complex traits that often precede and predispose patients to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we demonstrate multilevel organizations of genetic landscape, candidate genes, and molecular networks associated with 328 stress and sleep traits in a chronically stressed population of 338 (C57BL/6J × A/J) F2 mice. We constructed striatal gene co-expression networks, revealing functionally and cell-type-specific gene co-regulations important for stress and sleep. Using a composite ranking system, we identified network modules most relevant for 15 independent phenotypic categories, highlighting a mitochondria/synaptic module that links sleep and stress. The key network regulators of this module are overrepresented with genes implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Our work suggests that the interplay among sleep, stress, and neuropathology emerges from genetic influences on gene expression and their collective organization through complex molecular networks, providing a framework for interrogating the mechanisms underlying sleep, stress susceptibility, and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a continuous multisite accelerometry system for studying movements during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Mason, David G; Wilson, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Actigraphy has proven to be a useful tool in the assessment of circadian rhythms, and more recently in the automatic staging of sleep and wake states. Whilst accuracy of commercial systems appears good over 24 hour periods, the sensitivity of detecting wake during time in bed is poor. One possible explanation for these poor results is the technical limitations of currently available commercial actigraphs. In particular, raw data is generally not available to the user. Instead, activity counts for each epoch (typically between 10-60 secs) are calculated using various algorithms, from which sleep state is identified. Consequently morphologically different movements observed during sleep and wake states may not be detected as such. In this paper, the development of a continuous multisite, accelerometry system (CMAS) is described. Initial results, comparing data collected using a commercial actigraph (Actiwatch- Mini Motionlogger), and the continuous multisite accelerometry system are presented. The CMAS is able to differentiate brief movement "twitches" from postural changes.

  9. Modeling the scenic beauty of the Highland Scenic Highway, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwar Dhami; Jinyang. Deng

    2010-01-01

    Finding sites with a pleasant view is important to maximize visitors' scenic satisfaction. A geographic information systems analysis of viewsheds is helpful for locating sites with maximum visibility. Viewshed analyses can also be combined with public perceptions of scenic beauty for selecting the most scenic sites. This research modeled the perceived beauty of...

  10. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDiekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  11. [Work schedules in the Hungarian health care system and the sleep quality of nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusz, Katalin; Pakai, Annamária; Kívés, Zsuzsanna; Szunomár, Szilvia; Regős, Annamária; Oláh, András

    2016-03-06

    One way of ensuring the continuity of health care is the shift work, which is burdensome and it can lead to sleep disturbances. The aim of the study was to measure the typical Hungarian nursing shift systems in hospitals, to analyse the causes of irregular work schedules, and to compare the sleep quality of nurses in different work schedules. 236 head nurses filled out the national online survey, and 217 nurses in clinics of the University of Pécs filled the Hungarian version of Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire. The head nurses provided data of 8697 nurses's schedules. 51.89% of nurses work in flexible shift system. 1944 employees work in regular shift system, most of them in the following order: 12-hour day shift and 12-hour night shift, followed by a one- or two-day rest. Where there is no system of shifts, the most frequent causes are the needs of nurses and the nurse shortage. Nurses who are working in irregular shift system had worse sleep quality than nurses who are working in flexible and regular shift system (p = 0.044). It would be helpful if the least burdensome shift system could be established.

  12. The beauty and the beast inside: the american beauty--does cosmetic surgery help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijtmaer, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    American society's feminine ideal has consistently emphasized youth as beauty and getting old as ugly. Feeling unattractive produces several intrapsychic conflicts leading to depression and anxiety. Summary of the literature on beauty and aging, beauty and culture, and theories of physical beauty will be presented. With a clinical example of a female patient, the writer investigates the conscious and unconscious fantasies, conflicts, and sense of self inside and outside that impelled a physically beautiful female patient to bring her own body closer to her perception of idealized beauty with the aid of plastic surgery.

  13. Descending projections of the hamster intergeniculate leaflet: relationship to the sleep/arousal and visuomotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.

    2005-01-01

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), homolog of the primate pregeniculate nucleus, modulates circadian rhythms. However, its extensive anatomical connections suggest that it may regulate other systems, particularly those for visuomotor function and sleep/arousal. Here, descending IGL-efferent pathways are identified with the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, with projections to over 50 brain stem nuclei. Projections of the ventral lateral geniculate are similar, but more limited. Many of the nuclei with IGL afferents contribute to circuitry governing visuomotor function. These include the oculomotor, trochlear, anterior pretectal, Edinger-Westphal, and the terminal nuclei; all layers of the superior colliculus, interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray, nucleus of the optic tract, the inferior olive, and raphe interpositus. Other target nuclei are known to be involved in the regulation of sleep, including the lateral dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmentum. The dorsal raphe also receives projections from the IGL and may contribute to both sleep/arousal and visuomotor function. However, the locus coeruleus and medial vestibular nucleus, which contribute to sleep and eye movement regulation and which send projections to the IGL, do not receive reciprocal projections from it. The potential involvement of the IGL with the sleep/arousal system is further buttressed by existing evidence showing IGL-efferent projections to the ventrolateral preoptic area, dorsomedial, and medial tuberal hypothalamus. In addition, the great majority of all regions receiving IGL projections also receive input from the orexin/hypocretin system, suggesting that this system contributes not only to the regulation of sleep, but to eye movement control as well.

  14. Beautiful Data The Stories Behind Elegant Data Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby

    2009-01-01

    In this insightful book, you'll learn from the best data practitioners in the field just how wide-ranging -- and beautiful -- working with data can be. Join 39 contributors as they explain how they developed simple and elegant solutions on projects ranging from the Mars lander to a Radiohead video. With Beautiful Data, you will: Explore the opportunities and challenges involved in working with the vast number of datasets made available by the WebLearn how to visualize trends in urban crime, using maps and data mashupsDiscover the challenges of designing a data processing system that works wi

  15. Beauty in a multicultural world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, David M; Thomas, J Regan

    2014-08-01

    The increased demand for facial cosmetic surgery has come from a more diverse, informed, and selective patient population from all walks of life. Virtually no two patients have the same background or cosmetic objectives. However, the classic tenets of beauty including phi, symmetry, averageness, youthfulness, and sexual dimorphism can be applied to persons of all ethnicities to assist in objectifying the abstract concept. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of serotonergic system on the sleeping time and EEG in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaei H

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of sleep is an active nervous and biologic rhythm, which is under influence of neurotransmitters of central nervous system. In this study, the influence of serotonergic system on sleeping time have been assessed by agonist-antagonist drugs using two methods of induction and non-induction behavioral and electrophysiology. The method used for measurement of total sleeing time was Angle method. For assessment of drugs impact on brain waves, after opening two holes in frontal and temporal regions, two non-polarized silvery electrodes were fixed in above regions and was connected to physiograph and computer by linkers for waves analysis. Injection intra-ventriculary is done by stereotax apparatus. Results indicate that diazepam (2.5 mg/kg increases sleeping time in two stages of induction and non-induction (P<0.01. 5-HTP (15, 45 mg/kg increases dose-dependence sleeping time. p-CPA (150, 300 mg/kg shows biphasic influence on sleeping time. The 300 mg/kg dose of p-CPA reduces sleeping time while 150 mg/kg dose inverts sleeping time (P<0.05. Interferential affects of drugs with (5-HTP 45 mg/kg and p-CPA (300 mg/kg doses are similar to control groups. Injection of 5-HTP inverts p-CPA affect. Intra-ventriculary Injection of 5-HTP in 150 µg/kg and 300 µg/kg doses, decreases frequency of delta waves and significantly increases the frequencies of other waves but conversely, 500 µg/kg decreases it. Due to findings of this study, interferential affects of agonist-antagonist of 5-HTP, can not invert p-CPA affect. Supported by GABA affects, diazepam induces its inhibitory affect in per-synaptic and post-synaptic membrane through ascending reticular both systems and blocking stimulation of brain cortical and limbic system. Affects of two other drugs on sleeping time and brain waves are probably caused by increment of released serotonin in pre-synaptic neurons. Although their interferential affects with other neurotransmitter system should be

  17. Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Evidence from an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Ce; Tan, Li Hai; Cant, Jonathan S.; Zhong, Luojin; Cupchik, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed to answer this question. Experiment 1 investigated the network of moral aesthetic judgments and facial aesthetic judgments. Participants performed aesthetic judgments and gender judgments on both faces and scenes containing moral acts. The conjunction analysis of the contrasts ‘facial aesthetic judgment > facial gender judgment’ and ‘scene moral aesthetic judgment > scene gender judgment’ identified the common involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), inferior temporal gyrus and medial superior frontal gyrus, suggesting that both types of aesthetic judgments are based on the orchestration of perceptual, emotional and cognitive components. Experiment 2 examined the network of facial beauty and moral beauty during implicit perception. Participants performed a non-aesthetic judgment task on both faces (beautiful vs common) and scenes (containing morally beautiful vs neutral information). We observed that facial beauty (beautiful faces > common faces) involved both the cortical reward region OFC and the subcortical reward region putamen, whereas moral beauty (moral beauty scenes > moral neutral scenes) only involved the OFC. Moreover, compared with facial beauty, moral beauty spanned a larger-scale cortical network, indicating more advanced and complex cerebral representations characterizing moral beauty. PMID:25298010

  18. Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Evidence from an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Lei; Mo, Ce; Tan, Li Hai; Cant, Jonathan S; Zhong, Luojin; Cupchik, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed to answer this question. Experiment 1 investigated the network of moral aesthetic judgments and facial aesthetic judgments. Participants performed aesthetic judgments and gender judgments on both faces and scenes containing moral acts. The conjunction analysis of the contrasts 'facial aesthetic judgment > facial gender judgment' and 'scene moral aesthetic judgment > scene gender judgment' identified the common involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), inferior temporal gyrus and medial superior frontal gyrus, suggesting that both types of aesthetic judgments are based on the orchestration of perceptual, emotional and cognitive components. Experiment 2 examined the network of facial beauty and moral beauty during implicit perception. Participants performed a non-aesthetic judgment task on both faces (beautiful vs common) and scenes (containing morally beautiful vs neutral information). We observed that facial beauty (beautiful faces > common faces) involved both the cortical reward region OFC and the subcortical reward region putamen, whereas moral beauty (moral beauty scenes > moral neutral scenes) only involved the OFC. Moreover, compared with facial beauty, moral beauty spanned a larger-scale cortical network, indicating more advanced and complex cerebral representations characterizing moral beauty. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effects of intrauterine growth restriction on sleep and the cardiovascular system: The use of melatonin as a potential therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Miller, Suzanne L; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, mortality and neurodevelopmental delay. The development of sleep and cardiovascular control are closely coupled and IUGR is known to alter this development. In the long-term, IUGR is associated with altered sleep and an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood. Melatonin plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental animal studies have shown that melatonin therapy has neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in the IUGR fetus. Consequently, clinical trials are currently underway to assess the short and long term effects of antenatal melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Given melatonin's role in sleep regulation, this hormone could affect the developing infants' sleep-wake cycle and cardiovascular function after birth. In this review, we will 1) examine the role of melatonin as a therapy for IUGR pregnancies and the potential implications on sleep and the cardiovascular system; 2) examine the development of sleep-wake cycle in fetal and neonatal life; 3) discuss the development of cardiovascular control during sleep; 4) discuss the effect of IUGR on sleep and the cardiovascular system and 5) discuss the future implications of melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Small is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Italy's annual PV growth will continue to increase over the next few months, but only on the country's rooftops. The Italian government has set out the path: rooftop PV systems with a capacity of up to 1 MW are paid out the highest feed-in tariff in the scope of Conto Energia IV. The market is turning around.

  1. Masses and couplings of open beauty states in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.R.; Reinders, L.J.; Yazaki, S.

    1981-05-01

    Masses and couplings of open beauty states (strange and non-strange) with Jsup(PC) = 0 ++ , 0 -+ , 1 -- . and 1 ++ are calculated using the QCD sum rule formalism. Non-perturbative effects due to quark and gluon condensate operators are shown to be important, confirming earlier calculations for equal quark mass systems. (author)

  2. Detecting beauty baryons and heavy beauty mesons with the j/PSI trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.I.; Clavelli, L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors note that the combination of a vertex detector with a J/Psi trigger should enable one to measure the masses and lifetimes of various beauty baryons and heavy beauty mesons at the SSC or Tevatron II

  3. The large hadron collider beauty experiment calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.; LHCb Collaboration; Martens, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment (LHCb), one of the four largest experiments at the LHC at CERN, is dedicated to precision studies of CP violation and other rare effects, in particular in the b and c quark sectors. It aims at precisely measuring the Standard Model parameters and searching for effects inconsistent with this picture. The LHCb calorimeter system comprises a scintillating pad detector, a pre-shower (PS), electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic calorimeters, all of these employing the principle of transporting the light from scintillating layers with wavelength shifting fibers to photomultipliers. The fast response of the calorimeters ensures their key role in the LHCb trigger, which has to cope with the LHC collision rate of 40MHz. After discussing the design and expected performance of the LHCb calorimeter system, one addresses the time and energy calibration issues. The results obtained with the calorimeter system from the first LHC data will be shown.

  4. Wind: small is beautiful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, E. de

    2005-01-01

    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described

  5. Sleep quality, the neglected outcome variable in clinical studies focusing on locomotor system; a construct validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röder Christoph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to general health and pain, sleep is highly relevant to judging the well-being of an individual. Of these three important outcome variables, however, sleep is neglected in most outcome studies. Sleep is a very important resource for recovery from daily stresses and strains, and any alteration of sleep will likely affect mental and physical health, especially during disease. Sleep assessment therefore should be standard in all population-based or clinical studies focusing on the locomotor system. Yet current sleep assessment tools are either too long or too specific for general use. Methods Based on a literature review and subsequent patient-based rating of items, an expert panel designed a four-item questionnaire about sleep. Construct validation of the questionnaire in a random sample of the German-speaking Swiss population was performed in 2003. Reliability, correlation, and tests for internal consistency and validity were analyzed. Results Overall, 16,634 (70% out of 23,763 eligible individuals participated in the study. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.87, and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83 indicates good internal consistency. Results show a moderate to good correlation between sleep disturbances and health perception, and between sleep disturbances and overall pain. Conclusions The Sleep Standard Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ-Sleep is a reliable and short tool with confirmed construct validity for sleep assessment in population-based observational studies. It is easy to administer and therefore suitable for postal surveys of the general population. Criterion validity remains to be determined.

  6. BEAUTY OR HEALTH? A PERSONAL VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliza Mohd Riji

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of beauty and health in women. It discusses changing definitions of beauty as a result of influences from the entertainment, beauty and health product industries. Advertisements are seen to be major players in defining beauty through promotion of cosmetic, skin, hair and slimming products. Concerns relating to beauty become inculcated in girls through the process of socialisation as they mature into womanhood. The media plays a significant role in portraying the meaning of beauty through its representation of women. These influences largely influence and alter women’s perceptions of their body image and in trying to meet the goals of beauty as represented by the media. This may result in dissatisfaction with their body image. Advertisements can encourage women to indulge in smoking as a fashionable trend or opt for plastic surgery in attempts to acquire beauty. This paper concludes with implications of the issues relating to changing perceptions of beauty and suggests recommendations.

  7. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  8. Value and Payment in Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M; Verma, Tilak

    2018-05-15

    Value, like beauty, exists in the eye of the beholder. This article places the value of clinical sleep medicine services in historical context and presents a vision for the value-based sleep of the future. First, the history of value and payment in sleep medicine is reviewed from the early days of the field, to innovative disruption, to the widespread adoption of home sleep apnea testing. Next, the importance of economic perspective is discussed, with emphasis on cost containment and cost-shifting between payers, employers, providers, and patients. Specific recommendations are made for sleep medicine providers and the field at large to maximize the perceived value of sleep. Finally, alternate payment models and value-based care are presented, with an eye toward the future for clinical service providers as well as integrated health delivery networks. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  9. Combining two model systems of psychosis: The effects of schizotypy and sleep deprivation on oculomotor control and psychotomimetic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyhöfer, Inga; Steffens, Maria; Faiola, Eliana; Kasparbauer, Anna-Maria; Kumari, Veena; Ettinger, Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    Model systems of psychosis, such as schizotypy or sleep deprivation, are valuable in informing our understanding of the etiology of the disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. Schizophrenia patients, high schizotypes, and sleep-deprived subjects are known to share deficits in oculomotor biomarkers. Here, we aimed to further validate the schizotypy and sleep deprivation models and investigated, for the first time, their interactive effects on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades, antisaccades, predictive saccades, and measures of psychotomimetic states, anxiety, depression, and stress. To do so, n = 19 controls and n = 17 high positive schizotypes were examined after both a normal sleep night and 24 h of sleep deprivation. Schizotypes displayed higher SPEM global position error, catch-up saccade amplitude, and increased psychotomimetic states. Sleep deprivation impaired SPEM, prosaccade, antisaccade, and predictive saccade performance and increased levels of psychotomimetic experiences. Additionally, sleep deprivation reduced SPEM gain in schizotypes but not controls. We conclude that oculomotor impairments are observed in relation to schizotypy and following sleep deprivation, supporting their utility as biomarkers in model systems of psychosis. The combination of these models with oculomotor biomarkers may be particularly fruitful in assisting the development of new antipsychotic or pro-cognitive drugs. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Systemic exertion intolerance disease/chronic fatigue syndrome is common in sleep centre patients with hypersomnolence: A retrospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, Caroline; Saini, Prabhjyot; Bliwise, Donald L; Olvera, Victoria; Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn M

    2018-04-06

    Symptoms of the central disorders of hypersomnolence extend beyond excessive daytime sleepiness to include non-restorative sleep, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. They share much in common with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, recently renamed systemic exertion intolerance disease, whose additional features include post-exertional malaise and orthostatic intolerance. We sought to determine the frequency and correlates of systemic exertion intolerance disease in a hypersomnolent population. One-hundred and eighty-seven hypersomnolent patients completed questionnaires regarding sleepiness and fatigue; questionnaires and clinical records were used to assess for systemic exertion intolerance disease. Sleep studies, hypocretin and cataplexy were additionally used to assign diagnoses of hypersomnolence disorders or sleep apnea. Included diagnoses were idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 63), narcolepsy type 2 (n = 25), persistent sleepiness after obstructive sleep apnea treatment (n = 25), short habitual sleep duration (n = 41), and sleepiness with normal sleep study (n = 33). Twenty-one percent met systemic exertion intolerance disease criteria, and the frequency of systemic exertion intolerance disease was not different across sleep diagnoses (p = .37). Patients with systemic exertion intolerance disease were no different from those without this diagnosis by gender, age, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, depressive symptoms, or sleep study parameters. The whole cohort reported substantial fatigue on questionnaires, but the systemic exertion intolerance disease group exhibited more profound fatigue and was less likely to respond to traditional wake-promoting agents (88.6% versus 67.7%, p = .01). Systemic exertion intolerance disease appears to be a common co-morbidity in patients with hypersomnolence, which is not specific to hypersomnolence subtype but may portend a poorer prognosis for treatment response. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 103. ... Blaivas, DO, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, VA New Jersey Health Care System, Clinical Assistant ...

  12. Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example...

  13. Surrounded by Beauty: Arts of Native America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Native American languages have no equivalent for the word "art." Yet the objects Native Americans have used and still use suggest that they are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty. In Native American thought, there is no distinction between what is beautiful or functional, and what is sacred or secular.…

  14. Neural substrates of embodied natural beauty and social endowed beauty: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; He, Xianyou; Lai, Siyan; Wan, Juan; Lai, Shuxian; Zhao, Xueru; Li, Darong

    2017-08-02

    What are the neural mechanisms underlying beauty based on objective parameters and beauty based on subjective social construction? This study scanned participants with fMRI while they performed aesthetic judgments on concrete pictographs and abstract oracle bone scripts. Behavioral results showed both pictographs and oracle bone scripts were judged to be more beautiful when they referred to beautiful objects and positive social meanings, respectively. Imaging results revealed regions associated with perceptual, cognitive, emotional and reward processing were commonly activated both in beautiful judgments of pictographs and oracle bone scripts. Moreover, stronger activations of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and motor-related areas were found in beautiful judgments of pictographs, whereas beautiful judgments of oracle bone scripts were associated with putamen activity, implying stronger aesthetic experience and embodied approaching for beauty were elicited by the pictographs. In contrast, only visual processing areas were activated in the judgments of ugly pictographs and negative oracle bone scripts. Results provide evidence that the sense of beauty is triggered by two processes: one based on the objective parameters of stimuli (embodied natural beauty) and the other based on the subjective social construction (social endowed beauty).

  15. Hormonal status and the orexin system in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Viktorovna Strueva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to estimate the influence of hormone metabolism and sleep apnea on patients with obesity. 76 patients (37 males and 39 females with obesity were included in this study. After night polysomnography all patients were divided in two groups comparableby age, sex ratio and BMI. The first group consisted of 41 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, the second (controls – 35 patients without breath disorders during sleep. OSAS is accompanied by the increase in urinary cortisol during the night, high levels ofbasal insulin, disturbances of hepatic production of IGF-1, dysfunction of the pituitary-gonadal axis. Our results show that sleep-related breathing disorders render markedly and negatively affect on hormonal parameters of patients with obesity. As a reliable difference of basalsecretion of orexin A in obese patients with and without OSAS was not revealed (42,0 [14; 99,5] vs. 18,0 [14,5; 124,5] pg/ml; р=0,9, we were not able to show the existence that the existence of OSAS is followed by any special changes of activity of the orexin system.

  16. Perception of the quality of care, work environment and sleep characteristics of nurses working in the National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Casbas, María Teresa; Alonso-Poncelas, Emma; Gómez-García, Teresa; Martínez-Madrid, María José; Escobar-Aguilar, Gema

    2018-03-19

    To describe nurses' perception in relation to the quality of care and their work environment, as well as to describe their quality of sleep. To analyze the relationship between ward and work shift with nurses' perception of their work environment, sleep quality and day time drowsiness. A multicentre, observational and descriptive study carried out between 2012-2014 in seven hospitals of the Spanish National Health System. Work environment, work satisfaction, sleep quality and quality of patient care were evaluated through validated tools. 635 registered nurses participated in the study. Eighty-three point seven percent perceived the quality of cares as good/excellent, and 55.1% rated the work environment of their hospital as good/excellent. PES-NWI classified 39% of hospitals as unfavourable and 20% as favourable. Fifteen point four percent of the nurses had a high level of burnout and 58.3% had low burnout. Sleep quality was 6.38 for nurses working on day shifts, 6.78 for the rotational shifts and 7.93 for night shifts. Significant differences were found between subjective sleep quality score, sleep duration, sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunction. In the provision of quality care services, there is a multitude of related factors such as shift, ward, satisfaction, and nurses' perceptions of patient safety and sleep quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The present study provides the first systematic immunohistochemical neuroanatomical investigation of the systems involved in the control and regulation of sleep in an odontocete cetacean, the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The odontocete cetaceans show an unusual form of mammalian sleep, with unihemispheric slow waves, suppressed REM sleep, and continuous bodily movement. All the neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals were present in the harbor porpoise, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity of nuclear organization relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and orexinergic systems and is extended to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic elements involved with these nuclei. Quantitative analysis of the cholinergic and noradrenergic nuclei of the pontine region revealed that in comparison with other mammals, the numbers of pontine cholinergic (126,776) and noradrenergic (122,878) neurons are markedly higher than in other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. The diminutive telencephalic commissures (anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and hippocampal commissure) along with an enlarged posterior commissure and supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic neurons indicate that the control of unihemispheric slow-wave sleep is likely to be a function of interpontine competition, facilitated through the posterior commissure, in response to unilateral telencephalic input related to the drive for sleep. In addition, an expanded peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex appears likely to play a role in the suppression of REM sleep in odontocete cetaceans. Thus, the current study provides several clues to the understanding of the neural control of the unusual sleep phenomenology present in odontocete cetaceans. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1999-2017, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  18. chronic sleep deprevation and ventricular arrhythmias: effect of symphatic nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Choopani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We assessed the effect of chronic sleep deprivation on incidence of ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation and the role of the sympathetic nervous system in this respect. Material and methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups; 1 ischemia/reperfusion group (IR: 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion was induced, 2 control group (CON: rats has been placed in large multiple platforms for 72h prior to ischemia and reperfusion, 3 Chronic sleep deprivation group( SD: 72h sleep deprivation was induced by using small  multiple platform prior to ischemia and reperfusion, 4 Sympathectomy group (SYM: chemical sympathectomy was done 24h before to chronic sleep deprivation and then underwent ischemia and reperfusion. The heart isolated and perfused by langendorff apparatus. After thoracotomy and aorta cannulation, the hearts perfused in the langendorff apparatus using krebs-Henseleit buffer. Hearts were allowed to recovery for 15 min. After recovery period, 15 minutes was considered as baseline prior to 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion.Tow thin stainless stell electrodes fixed on the ventricular apex and right atrium for recording the lead II of electrocardiogram (ECG.Results: There were no significant differences between heart rates between groups, and ventricular tachycardia significantly increased in chronic sleep deprivation group As compared with IR group in ischemia period. Sympathectomy significantly reduced ventricular tachycardia incidence when compared with SD. There is no difference in incidence of ventricular tachycardia between control group and IR group. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation during early reperfusion was significantly augmented (P<0.05 in sleep deprivation group as compared with IR group and Sympathectomy significantly could reverse ventricular fibrillation incidence to IR group level as

  19. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  20. The beauty of sensory ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Aldana, Elis

    2017-08-10

    Sensory ecology is a discipline that focuses on how living creatures use information to survive, but not to live. By trans-defining the orthodox concept of sensory ecology, a serious heterodox question arises: how do organisms use their senses to live, i.e. to enjoy or suffer life? To respond to such a query the objective (time-independent) and emotional (non-rational) meaning of symbols must be revealed. Our program is distinct from both the neo-Darwinian and the classical ecological perspective because it does not focus on survival values of phenotypes and their functions, but asks for the aesthetic effect of biological structures and their symbolism. Our message recognizes that sensing apart from having a survival value also has a beauty value. Thus, we offer a provoking and inspiring new view on the sensory relations of 'living things' and their surroundings, where the innovating power of feelings have more weight than the privative power of reason.

  1. Particle identification for beauty physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.

    1987-01-01

    We look briefly at the requirements for particle identification for possible beauty experiments at the Tevatron, both in the fixed target and the collider mode. Techniques presently in use in high energy physics experiments, and under development, should make sensitive experiments feasible. However, in all cases the present state of the art must be advanced to meet the necessary requirements for segmentation andor rate capability. The most fundamentally difficult challenges appear to be the efficient tagging of soft electrons (for the collider experiment) and the need to handle interaction rates up to /approximately/ 10 9 HZ in the fixed target mode. In both cases we can find ''in principle'' demonstrations that the requirements can be met. We have considered only the most basic prooperties of detectors, however, and the real answers will come from careful studies of details. 20 refs., 10 figs

  2. The improvement of movement and speech during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Valérie Cochen; Debs, Rachel; Oudiette, Delphine; Leu, Smaranda; Radji, Fatai; Tiberge, Michel; Yu, Huan; Bayard, Sophie; Roze, Emmanuel; Vidailhet, Marie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Rascol, Olivier; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy is an atypical parkinsonism characterized by severe motor disabilities that are poorly levodopa responsive. Most patients develop rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Because parkinsonism is absent during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease, we studied the movements of patients with multiple system atrophy during rapid eye movement sleep. Forty-nine non-demented patients with multiple system atrophy and 49 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were interviewed along with their 98 bed partners using a structured questionnaire. They rated the quality of movements, vocal and facial expressions during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder as better than, equal to or worse than the same activities in an awake state. Sleep and movements were monitored using video-polysomnography in 22/49 patients with multiple system atrophy and in 19/49 patients with Parkinson's disease. These recordings were analysed for the presence of parkinsonism and cerebellar syndrome during rapid eye movement sleep movements. Clinical rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was observed in 43/49 (88%) patients with multiple system atrophy. Reports from the 31/43 bed partners who were able to evaluate movements during sleep indicate that 81% of the patients showed some form of improvement during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. These included improved movement (73% of patients: faster, 67%; stronger, 52%; and smoother, 26%), improved speech (59% of patients: louder, 55%; more intelligible, 17%; and better articulated, 36%) and normalized facial expression (50% of patients). The rate of improvement was higher in Parkinson's disease than in multiple system atrophy, but no further difference was observed between the two forms of multiple system atrophy (predominant parkinsonism versus cerebellar syndrome). Video-monitored movements during rapid eye movement sleep in patients with multiple system

  3. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  4. The experience of beauty derived from sorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Tomohiro; Zeki, Semir

    2017-08-01

    We studied the neural mechanisms that are engaged during the experience of beauty derived from sorrow and from joy, two experiences that share a common denominator (beauty) but are linked to opposite emotional valences. Twenty subjects viewed and rerated, in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner, 120 images which each had classified into the following four categories: beautiful and sad; beautiful and joyful; neutral; ugly. The medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC) was active during the experience of both types of beauty. Otherwise, the two experiences engaged different parts of the brain: joyful beauty engaged areas linked to positive emotions while sorrowful beauty engaged areas linked to negative experiences. Separate regions of the cerebellum were engaged during experience of the two conditions. A functional connectivity analysis indicated that the activity within the mOFC was modulated by the supplementary motor area/middle cingulate cortex, known to be engaged during empathetic experiences provoked by other peoples' sadness. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4185-4200, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Pharmacology of a new sleep inducer, 1H-1,2,4-triazolyl benzophenone derivative, 450191-S (II). Sleep-inducing activity and effect on the motor system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Matsushita, A; Sawada, T; Naito, Y; Yoshimura, K; Takesue, H; Utsumi, S; Kawasaki, K; Hirono, S; Koshida, H

    1984-07-01

    The sleep-inducing activity and effect on the motor system of the 1H-1,2,4-triazolyl benzophenone derivative 450191-S were examined behaviorally, electroencephalographically and electro-physiologically with various species of animals and were compared with those of diazepam, nitrazepam, estazolam and triazolam. In the rhesus monkey, rabbit and rat with chronically indwelling brain electrodes, 0.6 to 3 mg/kg, p.o. of 450191-S caused a shorter latency of sleep onset, an increase of and a stable continuity of slow wave deep sleep (SWDS) with higher amplitude, and the appearance of clear spindle bursts in the slow wave light sleeping (SWLS) state with little muscle relaxation. Animals treated with nitrazepam and/or estazolam showed a smaller increase in SWDS and its unstable continuity with remarkable disturbance of gait. The doses needed to induce sleep in the rhesus monkey were 0.6 to 1 mg/kg p.o. for 450191-S, 3 mg/kg for nitrazepam, 1 mg/kg for estazolam and 0.3 mg/kg for triazolam. The cat treated with 450191-S showed the phenomena caused by benzodiazepines (BDZ), i.e., behavioral excitation and decrease of frequencies in the hippocampal theta waves. The suppressive effects of 450191-S on the EEG arousal reaction and/or blood pressure elevation induced by hypothalamic stimulation in the rabbit suggested that the inhibitory effects acted on the posterior hypothalamus to the limbic system. The inhibitory effect of 450191-S on the amygdaloid kindling in the rat was as potent as those of diazepam and nitrazepam. Successive daily oral administration of both 3 mg/kg of 450191-S and/or 3 to 6 mg/kg of nitrazepam for 15 days in the rabbit caused slight decrease of SWDS and increase of fast wave (REM) sleep (FWS). During the withdrawal period of both compounds, a slight but insignificant increase in the waking state was noticed for 1 to 2 days, but not a rebound increase of FWS. Intravenously administered 450191-S showed the same action as BDZ on the spinal reflex and the

  6. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Karlsson, Karl Ae; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bathing in Reeking Wounds: The Liberal Arts, Beauty, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Catharine R.

    2014-01-01

    A historic dialectic exists between the beautiful and the bestial. The bestial destroys the beautiful, but in a bloody miracle, the beautiful emerges from the womb of the bestial, the "terrible beauty" of which the poet W. B. Yeats wrote. The liberal arts, so often thought to dwell in a remote ivory tower, embody this dialectic. Wars and…

  8. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  9. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  10. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  11. Positive effects of β-amyrin on pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice via GABAergic neurotransmitter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jin; Park, Ho Jae; Gao, Qingtao; Lee, Hyung Eun; Park, Se Jin; Hong, Eunyoung; Jang, Dae Sik; Shin, Chan Young; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-09-15

    Sleep loss, insomnia, is considered a sign of imbalance of physiological rhythm, which can be used as pre-clinic diagnosis of various neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study is to understand the pharmacological actions of α- or β-amyrin, natural triterpene compound, on the sleep in mice. To analyze the sleeping behavior, we used the well-known pentobarbital-induced sleeping model after single administration of either α- or β-amyrin. The sleeping onset time was remarkably decreased and duration was prolonged by β-amyrin (1, 3, or 10mg/kg) but not by α-amyrin (1, 3, or 10mg/kg). These effects were significantly blocked by GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. Moreover, β-amyrin increased brain GABA level compared to the vehicle administration. Overall, the present study suggests that β-amyrin would enhance the total sleeping behavior in pentobarbital-induced sleeping model via the activation of GABAergic neurotransmitter system through GABA content in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Is beauty skin deep – an approach to a beautiful face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyone dreams of a beautiful and flawless face but true beauty is God given gift. Plastic surgery and various filler techniques can just highlight certain features and are just the temporary procedures. Features that further enhance the attractiveness of a beautiful face are the hair, skin, and teeth. These areas are the easiest to routinely enhance. There are many methods of facial sculpting including botulinum toxin, fillers and various other invasive plastic surgery techniques.

  13. Beauty, Identity and Consumption: A Malay Muslim Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    French, Juliana Angeline

    2017-01-01

    This thesis takes an interactionist perspective in understanding beauty. Beauty starts on the global stage with international beauty pageants, models on runways, magazines, music and entertainment that travel the global circuit and subsequently exert influence over beauty discourses in individual nation states. At the local nation state, beauty discourses are formed as a result of the nation’s own socio-historical past which then intersect with global discourses and are ofte...

  14. Global facial beauty: approaching a unified aesthetic ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Noah B; Adamson, Peter A

    2014-04-01

    Recognition of facial beauty is both inborn and learned through social discourses and exposures. Demographic shifts across the globe, in addition to cross-cultural interactions that typify 21st century globalization in virtually all industries, comprise major active evolutionary forces that reshape our individual notions of facial beauty. This article highlights the changing perceptions of beauty, while defining and distinguishing natural beauty and artificial beauty. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Effects of High Altitude on Sleep and Respiratory System and Theirs Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude (HA environments have adverse effects on the normal functioning body of people accustomed to living at low altitudes because of the change in barometric pressure which causes decrease in the amount of oxygen leading to hypobaric hypoxia. Sustained exposure to hypoxia has adverse effects on body weight, muscle structure and exercise capacity, mental functioning, and sleep quality. The most important step of acclimatization is the hyperventilation which is achieved by hypoxic ventilatory response of the peripheral chemoreceptors. Hyperventilation results in increase in arterial carbondioxide concentration. Altitude also affects sleep and cardiac output, which is the other determinant of oxygen delivery. Upon initial exposure to HA, the resting pulse rate increases rapidly, but with acclimatization, heart rate and cardiac output tend to fall. Another important component that leads to decrease in cardiac output is the reduction in the stroke volume with acclimatization. During sleep at HA, the levels of CO2 in the blood can drop very low and this can switch off the drive to breathe. Only after the body senses a further drop in O2 levels breathing is started again. Periodic breathing is thought to result from instability in the control system through the hypoxic drive or the response to CO2.

  16. The role of local renin-angiotensin system in arterial chemoreceptors in sleep-breathing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Lung eFung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The renin-angiotensin system (RAS plays pivotal roles in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal functions to maintain the fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Experimental studies have demonstrated a locally expressed RAS in the carotid body, which is functional significant in the effect of angiotensin peptides on the regulation of the activity of peripheral chemoreceptors and the chemoreflex. The physiological and pathophysiological implications of the RAS in the carotid body have been proposed upon recent studies showing a significant upregulation of the RAS expression under hypoxic conditions relevant to altitude acclimation and sleep apnea and also in animal model of heart failure. Specifically, the increased expression of angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin AT1 receptors plays significant roles in the augmented carotid chemoreceptor activity and inflammation of the carotid body. This review aims to summarize these results with highlights on the pathophysiological function of the RAS under hypoxic conditions. It is concluded that the maladaptive changes of the RAS in the carotid body plays a pathogenic role in sleep apnea and heart failure, which could potentially be a therapeutic target for the treatment of the pathophysiological consequence of sleep apnea.

  17. Charm, Beauty and Top at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, O.; Geiser, A.; Lisovyi, M.

    2015-06-01

    Results on open charm and beauty production and on the search for top production in high-energy electron-proton collisions at HERA are reviewed. This includes a discussion of relevant theoretical aspects, a summary of the available measurements and measurement techniques, and their impact on improved understanding of QCD and its parameters, such as parton density functions and charm- and beauty-quark masses. The impact of these results on measurements at the LHC and elsewhere is also addressed.

  18. Review of charm and beauty lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Harry W. K.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the latest experimental results on charm and beauty particle lifetimes is presented together with a brief summary of measurement methods used for beauty particle lifetime measurements. There have been significant updates to the D s + /D 0 , B + /B d 0 and Λ b 0 /B d 0 lifetime ratios which have some theoretical implications. However more precise measurements are still needed before one can make conclusive statements about the theory used to calculate the particle lifetimes

  19. Beautiful mesons from QCD spectral sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narison, S.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the beautiful meson from the point of view of the QCD spectral sum rules (QSSR). The bottom quark mass and the mixed light quark-gluon condensates are determined quite accurately. The decay constant f B is estimated and we present some arguments supporting this result. The decay constants and the masses of the other members of the beautiful meson family are predicted. (orig.)

  20. Hadronic couplings of open beauty states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, S.N.; Singh, C.P.

    1982-08-01

    Strong interaction coupling parameters of particles with beauty quantum number are obtained using dispersion sum rules in various forms, e.g. current algebra sum rules, superconvergence sum rules and finite energy sum rules etc. These sum rules lead to a set of algebraic relations among masses and coupling constants. We compare the hadronic couplings of beautiful particles as obtained from various techniques and discuss their implications on the hadronic production of these states. (author)

  1. Introduction to beauty-hadron physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    These lectures discuss methods for analyzing the decay of beauty hadrons (B mesons and beauty baryons) produced in pp interactions. At the c.m. energies around 14 TeV planned for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the B meson production rate is expected to be ca 105 larger than in an e+e- B factory. The pp collider could then offer, in principle, important advantages. However, the detection of beauty hadrons produced in a pp collider will be a task of great complexity. In particular, the triggering difficulties of events in a large background will be one of the major problems. Therefore, it would be useful to discuss the various aspects that can be investigated in beauty physics arising from pp interactions. It is first described the general features of the formalisms of B mixing and search for CP violation in the meson decays. Then the specific problems appearing for beauty hadrons produced in pN interactions are considered. Some comparison between investigations which could be carried out with B factories and pp colliders are also mentioned, although this is not the main concern of these lectures. Finally it is also presented some elements of beauty baryon decays which can only be studied efficiently by means of pN interaction.

  2. Introduction to beauty-hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, A.

    1995-03-01

    These lectures discuss methods for analyzing the decay of beauty hadrons (B mesons and beauty baryons) produced in pp interactions. At the c.m. energies around 14 TeV planned for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the B meson production rate is expected to be ca 105 larger than in an e+e- B factory. The pp collider could then offer, in principle, important advantages. However, the detection of beauty hadrons produced in a pp collider will be a task of great complexity. In particular, the triggering difficulties of events in a large background will be one of the major problems. Therefore, it would be useful to discuss the various aspects that can be investigated in beauty physics arising from pp interactions. It is first described the general features of the formalisms of B mixing and search for CP violation in the meson decays. Then the specific problems appearing for beauty hadrons produced in pN interactions are considered. Some comparison between investigations which could be carried out with B factories and pp colliders are also mentioned, although this is not the main concern of these lectures. Finally it is also presented some elements of beauty baryon decays which can only be studied efficiently by means of pN interaction

  3. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  4. Sleeping Beauty. Revitalisation of the old indoor swimming pool Heidelberg; Sleeping Beauty. Revitalisierung des alten Hallenbads Heidelberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Jochen

    2010-07-01

    Since its closure before nearly 30 years due to safety aspects, the monument protected indoor swimming pool in Heidelberg (Federal Republic of Germany) dilapidated appreciably. Only after moving away of the local council from its demand of the wet use, an investor could be found.

  5. The Ten Most Beautiful Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, George [The New York Times

    2010-10-20

    "Science in the 21st century has become industrialized. The experiments so often celebrated in the newspapers - sequencing the genome, proving the existence of the top quark, discovering a new planet by analyzing the wobble of a distant start - cost millions of dollars. They generate terabytes of data to be analyzed by supercomputers, calculating factories that spew out so much heat that they are equipped with cooling stacks and consume the energy of a small town. The experiments are carried out by research teams that have grown to the size of small corporations. But until very recently the most earth-shaking science came from individual pairs of hands. From a single mind confronting the unknown. The great experiments that mark the edges of our understanding were most often performed by one or two scientists and usually on a tabletop. Computation, if there was any, was carried out on paper or later with a slide rule. These experiments were designed and conducted with such straightforward elegance that they deserve to be called beautiful." (excerpt from the slide presentation accompanying the video)

  6. Differences in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the central nervous system of long sleep and short sleep mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.; Ming, X.; McArdle, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Differences in voluntary ethanol consumption have been noted in various inbred strains of mice and pharmacogenetic approaches have been used to study the mechanisms of action of many drugs such as ethanol. Long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice, selectively bred for differences in ethanol induced narcosis, provide a method by which a relationship between the differential responsiveness of these geno-types and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) may be evaluated. Sleep times after injection of 3ml ethanol/kg (i.p.) verified the higher sensitivity of LS vs. SS. Mean body weights of LS (26.5g) vs. SS (22g) were also significantly (p 3 H](-) quinuclidinylbenzilate ([ 3 H](-)QNB), a specific but nonsubtype selective mAChR antagonist, [ 3 H]pirenzepine ([ 3 H]PZ), a specific M1 mAChR antagonist and [ 3 H]11-2-[[2-[(diethylamino) methyl]-1-piperidinyl] acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4) benzodiazepine-6-one, ([ 3 H]AF-DX 116), an M2 selective antagonist were performed to determine mAChR affinity (K d ) and density (B max ) in CNS regions such as the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, corpus striatum and other areas. Significantly lower (30-40%) [ 3 H](-)QNB binding suggests that SS have fewer mAChR's than LS in many areas. These differences may relate to their differential ethanol sensitivity

  7. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Andy R; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle.

  8. Participation of the cholinergic system in the ethanol-induced suppression of paradoxical sleep in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Papale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbance is among the many consequences of ethanol abuse in both humans and rodents. Ethanol consumption can reduce REM or paradoxical sleep (PS in humans and rats, respectively. The first aim of this study was to develop an animal model of ethanol-induced PS suppression. This model administered intragastrically (by gavage to male Wistar rats (3 months old, 200-250 g 0.5 to 3.5 g/kg ethanol. The 3.5 g/kg dose of ethanol suppressed the PS stage compared with the vehicle group (distilled water during the first 2-h interval (0-2 h; 1.3 vs 10.2; P < 0.001. The second aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which ethanol suppresses PS. We examined the effects of cholinergic drug pretreatment. The cholinergic system was chosen because of the involvement of cholinergic neurotransmitters in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. A second set of animals was pretreated with 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/kg pilocarpine (cholinergic agonist or atropine (cholinergic antagonist. These drugs were administered 1 h prior to ethanol (3.5 g/kg or vehicle. Treatment with atropine prior to vehicle or ethanol produced a statistically significant decrease in PS, whereas pilocarpine had no effect on minutes of PS. Although the mechanism by which ethanol induces PS suppression is not fully understood, these data suggest that the cholinergic system is not the only system involved in this interaction.

  9. Mathematics make microbes beautiful, beneficial, and bountiful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungck, John R

    2012-01-01

    biodiversity by using game theory, of epidemics with algebraic models, bacterial motion by using motion picture analysis and fluid mechanics of motility in multiple dimensions through the physics of "Life at Low Reynolds Numbers," and pattern formation of quorum sensing bacterial populations. Through a developmental model for preprofessional education that emphasizes the beauty, utility, and diversity of microbiological systems, we hope to foster creativity as well as mathematically rigorous reasoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....

  11. Golden ratio beauty as scientific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.

  12. Brain correlates of aesthetic judgment of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Schubotz, Ricarda I; Höfel, Lea; Cramon, D Yves V

    2006-01-01

    Functional MRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of aesthetic judgments of beauty of geometrical shapes. Participants performed evaluative aesthetic judgments (beautiful or not?) and descriptive symmetry judgments (symmetric or not?) on the same stimulus material. Symmetry was employed because aesthetic judgments are known to be often guided by criteria of symmetry. Novel, abstract graphic patterns were presented to minimize influences of attitudes or memory-related processes and to test effects of stimulus symmetry and complexity. Behavioral results confirmed the influence of stimulus symmetry and complexity on aesthetic judgments. Direct contrasts showed specific activations for aesthetic judgments in the frontomedian cortex (BA 9/10), bilateral prefrontal BA 45/47, and posterior cingulate, left temporal pole, and the temporoparietal junction. In contrast, symmetry judgments elicited specific activations in parietal and premotor areas subserving spatial processing. Interestingly, beautiful judgments enhanced BOLD signals not only in the frontomedian cortex, but also in the left intraparietal sulcus of the symmetry network. Moreover, stimulus complexity caused differential effects for each of the two judgment types. Findings indicate aesthetic judgments of beauty to rely on a network partially overlapping with that underlying evaluative judgments on social and moral cues and substantiate the significance of symmetry and complexity for our judgment of beauty.

  13. Hadroproduction characteristics of charm and beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reucroft, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this article the authors review the present status of their knowledge on the hadroproduction characteristics of charm and beauty. During a brief description of the properties of all charm and beauty particles reportedly observed in hadron-hadron experiments they discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the various experimental techniques. In particular they emphasise the quantitative problems associated with nuclear target experiments and show the progress that is being made in understanding the A-dependence problem. Focussing on charm cross sections the authors see that the data are becoming sufficiently good to give us a reliable and coherent picture which provides a serious test of the QCD fusion model. This same fusion model is then used with existing beauty cross section determinations to make some extrapolations. Finally, a few remaining puzzles and curiosities are underlined

  14. Beauty: neglected, but alive and kicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    This article is a commentary on 'Ten years of a model of aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments: The aesthetic episode - developments and challenges in empirical aesthetics' (Leder & Nadal, 2014, this issue). It focuses on the importance of beauty in aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments. Beauty is considered as a formal inherent property of visual stimuli that has the potential to elicit visual pleasure by direct sensory stimulation. It is argued that any comprehensive model of aesthetic experience must account fully for cognitive aspects of aesthetics (cultural, conceptual, psychological, and individual factors) as well as intrinsic properties of beautiful visual stimuli and how they relate to basic mechanisms of visual perception, which are universal among humans. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Perceiving beauty in all women: Psychometric evaluation of the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  17. Fixed Target Beauty Physics Experimental Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbincius, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The current and near term future fixed target physics efforts in observing particles with open beauty are reviewed. This includes a compilation of the non-observation upper limits and the observation of both upsilon and b-states. A short discussion of the theoretical predictions for the hadro-produced beauty pairs is included. The major part of this review is devoted to the techniques and tricks employed, a survey of the current and proposed experiments. A personal summary of the experimental prospects concludes this report. 28 refs., 26 figs

  18. The Connection between Beauty and Morality in Kant's aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali salmani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At first glance it seems that Kant distinguishes beauty from morality because while analyzing the matter of beauty according to quality, he explicitly separates pleasure of beauty from pleasure of agreeable and pleasure of good; and believes that the pleasure of the beauty is neither to satisfy our physical desires nor to achieve a moral purpose. On the other hand, Kant speaks of a connection between beauty and morality in some sections of his critique of judgment. This essay intends to study the mentioned sections and clarifies how one can distinguish beauty from morality and simultaneously believes in the connection between beauty and morality. Following this, we are going to discuss why Kant deems such a connection necessary. Examining this matter, we will find out that morality and aesthetics can be indirectly related to each other. Kant's most major concern with regard to the connection between beauty and morality is the connection between feelings and foredoom.

  19. Health Outcomes of Information System Use Lifestyles among Adolescents: Videogame Addiction, Sleep Curtailment and Cardio-Metabolic Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; Romashkin, Anna; Morrison, Katherine M

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a rising problem among adolescents in modern societies; it results in long-term cardio-metabolic problems. Possible overlooked drivers of obesity and its consequent cardio-metabolic deficits include videogame addiction and the resulting curtailed sleep; both are growing problems among adolescents. The objective of this study is to examine possible associations among these concepts in adolescents, as a means to point to plausible interventions. Data were collected from 94 adolescents who play videogames and are enrolled in outpatient clinics, using surveys, wearable sleep monitors (FitBit), physical exams, and blood tests at three points in time. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses and bootstrapping-based mediation testing procedures. Videogame addiction among adolescents was negatively associated with sleep duration (β = -0.24). Sleep duration was negatively associated with obesity (β = -0.30), which in turn was associated with elevated blood pressure (β = 0.26), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = -0.18), high triglycerides (β = 0.61), and high insulin resistance (β = 0.39). The model explained 36.2% of the variation in sleep duration, 32.7% of the variation in obesity, and between 12.8% and 28.1% of the variation in cardio-metabolic indicators. Post-hoc analyses indicated that curtailed sleep is a possible full mediator of the association between videogame addiction, abdominal obesity and the associated cardio-metabolic deficits. The findings point to possible information systems use lifestyle-health links, which behooves researchers and practitioners to pay closer attention to possible adverse health outcomes of technology-related addictions. Interventions that target problematic video-gaming and sleep should be devised as a possible means for improving adolescents' long-term cardio-metabolic health.

  20. Health Outcomes of Information System Use Lifestyles among Adolescents: Videogame Addiction, Sleep Curtailment and Cardio-Metabolic Deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofir Turel

    Full Text Available Obesity is a rising problem among adolescents in modern societies; it results in long-term cardio-metabolic problems. Possible overlooked drivers of obesity and its consequent cardio-metabolic deficits include videogame addiction and the resulting curtailed sleep; both are growing problems among adolescents. The objective of this study is to examine possible associations among these concepts in adolescents, as a means to point to plausible interventions.Data were collected from 94 adolescents who play videogames and are enrolled in outpatient clinics, using surveys, wearable sleep monitors (FitBit, physical exams, and blood tests at three points in time. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM analyses and bootstrapping-based mediation testing procedures.Videogame addiction among adolescents was negatively associated with sleep duration (β = -0.24. Sleep duration was negatively associated with obesity (β = -0.30, which in turn was associated with elevated blood pressure (β = 0.26, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = -0.18, high triglycerides (β = 0.61, and high insulin resistance (β = 0.39. The model explained 36.2% of the variation in sleep duration, 32.7% of the variation in obesity, and between 12.8% and 28.1% of the variation in cardio-metabolic indicators. Post-hoc analyses indicated that curtailed sleep is a possible full mediator of the association between videogame addiction, abdominal obesity and the associated cardio-metabolic deficits.The findings point to possible information systems use lifestyle-health links, which behooves researchers and practitioners to pay closer attention to possible adverse health outcomes of technology-related addictions. Interventions that target problematic video-gaming and sleep should be devised as a possible means for improving adolescents' long-term cardio-metabolic health.

  1. Evaluation of a Multichannel Non-Contact ECG System and Signal Quality Algorithms for Sleep Apnea Detection and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D. Castro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related conditions require high-cost and low-comfort diagnosis at the hospital during one night or longer. To overcome this situation, this work aims to evaluate an unobtrusive monitoring technique for sleep apnea. This paper presents, for the first time, the evaluation of contactless capacitively-coupled electrocardiography (ccECG signals for the extraction of sleep apnea features, together with a comparison of different signal quality indicators. A multichannel ccECG system is used to collect signals from 15 subjects in a sleep environment from different positions. Reference quality labels were assigned for every 30-s segment. Quality indicators were calculated, and their signal classification performance was evaluated. Features for the detection of sleep apnea were extracted from capacitive and reference signals. Sleep apnea features related to heart rate and heart rate variability achieved high similarity to the reference values, with p-values of 0.94 and 0.98, which is in line with the more than 95% beat-matching obtained. Features related to signal morphology presented lower similarity with the reference, although signal similarity metrics of correlation and coherence were relatively high. Quality-based automatic classification of the signals had a maximum accuracy of 91%. Best-performing quality indicators were based on template correlation and beat-detection. Results suggest that using unobtrusive cardiac signals for the automatic detection of sleep apnea can achieve similar performance as contact signals, and indicates clinical value of ccECG. Moreover, signal segments can automatically be classified by the proposed quality metrics as a pre-processing step. Including contactless respiration signals is likely to improve the performance and provide a complete unobtrusive cardiorespiratory monitoring solution; this is a promising alternative that will allow the screening of more patients with higher comfort, for a longer time, and at

  2. An expert system for fault management assistance on a space sleep experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamer, A.; Delaney, M.; Young, L. R.

    2002-01-01

    The expert system, Principal Investigator-in-a-box, or [PI], was designed to assist astronauts or other operators in performing experiments outside their expertise. Currently, the software helps astronauts calibrate instruments for a Sleep and Respiration Experiment without contact with the investigator on the ground. It flew on the Space Shuttle missions STS-90 and STS-95. [PI] displays electrophysiological signals in real time, alerts astronauts via the indicator lights when a poor signal quality is detected, and advises astronauts how to restore good signal quality. Thirty subjects received training on the sleep instrumentation and the [PI] interface. A beneficial effects of [PI] and training reduced troubleshooting time. [PI] benefited subjects on the most difficult scenarios, even though its lights were not 100% accurate. Further, questionnaires showed that most subjects preferred monitoring waveforms with [PI] assistance rather than monitoring waveforms alone. This study addresses problems of complex troubleshooting and the extended time between training and execution that is common to many human operator situations on earth such as in power plant operation, and marine exploration.

  3. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  4. Walking in Beauty: An American Indian Perspective on Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Evan Allen; Robbins, Rockey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce "walking in beauty," an American Indian spiritual perspective related to social justice that emphasizes beauty, harmony, connectedness/unity of experience, and imagination. Walking in beauty includes 3 processes: embodiment, creativity, and appreciation of the sublime. Recommendations are offered for…

  5. Open beauty production at the CERN SPS collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redelberger, T.

    1988-01-01

    We report here evidence for open beauty production through the observation of high transverse momentum dimuons and single muons. From the dimuon data the beauty quark production cross section has been measured to σ(panti p→banti b; p Tb >5 GeV, vertical strokeη b vertical stroke T beauty production. (orig.)

  6. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  7. Sleep Duration Trajectories and Systemic Inflammation in Young Adults: Results From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Chighaf; Schwartz, Skai; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Wang, Wei; Sappenfield, William; Couluris, Marisa; Chen, Henian

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the effects of short and long sleep duration patterns in young adults on the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as the potential effect modification by sex. Using data from waves III (age 18-26) and IV (age 24-32) of the National Longitudinal study of adolescent to adult health, we examined the association between sleep trajectories in young adults, and the risk of elevated high sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. Short sleep trajectories were associated with significantly elevated log-transformed hs-CRP (coefficient = 0.11, p-value .03) and with significantly higher odds of having hs-CRP levels > 3 mg/L (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.29, 2.67). The association was modified by sex, with the association between short sleep duration and hs-CRP limited to males. Both the continuous (coefficient 0.117, p-value = .0362) and the categorized hs-CRP (OR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.48, 3.30) were significantly elevated with short sleep durations in males, whereas no significant associations were seen in females with short sleep durations. By contrast, log hs-CRP was significantly elevated in females with long sleep durations (coefficient = 0.232, p-value = .0296), with a nonsignificant increase in the odds of having hs-CRP levels greater than 3 mg/L (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 0.75, 2.93), whereas there were no associations with long sleep duration in males. Systemic inflammation, measured by an elevated level of hs-CRP, is seen with persistent short sleep duration in young adult men and persistent long sleep duration in young adult women. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Beauty of Brand Loyalty : – a case study of how marketers view Millennials' brand loyalty in the beauty industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kulle, Julia; Hellsten, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The generation of Millennials is becoming a very important segment in today's beauty market, because of their large size, purchasing power and engagement on social media. The Millennial consumers are heavy buyers of beauty products, but heavy buyers are not always loyal to the beauty brands. The concept of what is considered beautiful constantly changes, and there is an aspect of trendiness to the use of cosmetic products. Brands launch new products on a regular basis to follow fashion and be...

  9. Perspective on Sleep and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Monjan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong body of data directly interrelating sleep problems with mood disorders. There is a growing data base directly associating sleep disorders with attention and memory problems. Motor disorders, especially involving the dopaminergic system, may produce sleep problems, including a possible association between disordered sleep and nocturnal falls. Sleep disorders may be causal conditions for metabolic diseases and increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Sleep and health are directly interrelated. To further probe these issues, especially as related to the aging process, investigators need to utilize tools and concepts from genomics and epigenetics, proteomics, metabolomics, any future ...omics, molecular neuroimaging, and cognitive neuroscience.

  10. [Study of hyperons and beauty particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proposed research program is to study the production and decay properties of the hyperons and the beauty hadrons at Fermilab. Since the project was approved in 1989, a lot of progress has been made. This report is a summary of the achievements

  11. Beautiful Minds—For How Long.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Marino

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Lori Marino reviews the new bookBeautiful Minds, which investigates the "parallel lives" of primates and cetaceans and argues that despite the evolutionary distance of these large-brained mammals, they nevertheless share a capacity for complex communication and social behavior, representing a striking example of convergence in intelligence.

  12. Keep New Mexico Beautiful, Recycling Project Successful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Victor R.

    1975-01-01

    Through the efforts of community groups, the support of local industries, and the state government, Keep New Mexico Beautiful, Inc. (KNMB) is now operating a large-scale recycling business. KNMB has been able to save tons of natural resources, provide local employment, and educate the public to this environmental concern. (MA)

  13. Reconstruction: Meltdown in the Midst of Beauty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    This stir of memory led me to write down my story. ... beauty of courage, time, and deep listening, as examined through the experiences of fear of the new and of my .... Suzy and Marsha, the two studio teachers and long term .... I turn my attention to the video camera and think, ..... Psychology & Psychotherapy, 1(1), 56-64.

  14. Beauty, a road to the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, T.A.F.

    In this article I give a naturalistic-cum-formal analysis of the relation between beauty, empirical success, and truth. The analysis is based on the one hand on a hypothetical variant of the so-called 'mere-exposure effect' which has been more or less established in experimental psychology regarding

  15. Beauty as Fit: A Metaphor in Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Manya; Öhman, Lars-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Beauty, which plays a central role in the practice of mathematics (Sinclair 2002), is almost absent in discussions of school mathematics (Dreyfus and Eisenberg 1986). This is problematic, because students will decide whether or not to continue their studies in mathematics without having an accurate picture of what the subject is about. In order to…

  16. Post-human body and beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Maria Teresa; Di Stefano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The article calls into question the very possibility of a post-human aesthetics, starting from the following premise: rather than post-human, it is more correct to speak of post-natural, indicating by this expression a reality produced through a new type of evolution, which does not simply change human nature, but de-natures it, radically transforming it into an artefact. This post-nature which aspires to be perfect, immortal, invulnerable, is entirely devoid of beauty. In fact, while there may be an aesthetic of the artificial and of the artefact if it is in relation to objects, there is, however, no aesthetic of the post-human body. This is because is configured as a non-body and does not have the characteristics for what is commonly intended as beauty (harmony between matter and form, a reflection of inner life, uniqueness). Also in this case, it is more correct to speak of post-beauty, which in its properties appears to be the mirror image of beauty and ultimately, represents its complete dissolution.

  17. Beauty baryons produced in pp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, A.

    1996-01-01

    For pp interactions, we discuss the beauty-baryon (N b ), production and decay, using cross-section estimates at a c.m. energy corresponding to the LHC project (√s ≅ 14 TeV). The polarization measurement of N b as well as the search for CP violation effects in their decays is discussed. (orig.)

  18. The role of sleep in aesthetic perception and empathy: A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Sara; Tempesta, Daniela; Socci, Valentina; Pino, Maria C; Mazza, Monica; Valenti, Marco; De Gennaro, Luigi; Di Dio, Cinzia; Marchetti, Antonella; Ferrara, Michele

    2018-02-06

    The ability to experience aesthetics plays a fundamental role in human social interactions, as well as the capacity to feel empathy. Some studies have shown that beauty perception shares part of the neural network underlying emotional and empathic abilities, which are also known to affect sleep quality and duration. In this study, we evaluated for the first time the effects of sleep on the relation between aesthetic perception and empathic abilities in healthy subjects using a mediation analysis approach. One-hundred and twenty-six subjects participated in this study. One-hundred and one subjects slept at home (Sleep Group). The remaining 25 subjects were tested as controls after 1 night of sleep deprivation to assess the effects of lack of sleep on aesthetic perception and empathy (Sleep-Deprived Group). All participants underwent one testing session in which they performed a battery of empathy tests and an aesthetic perception task (Golden Beauty). The results showed that sleep duration mediates the relationship between empathy and aesthetic perception in the sleep group. The mediation effect of sleep was more evident on the emotional empathy measures. Conversely, in the sleep deprivation group the lack of correlations among empathy, aesthetic perception and sleep variables did not allow to perform the mediation analysis. These results suggest that adequate sleep duration may play a significant role in improving cognitive and emotional empathic abilities as well as the capability to give accurate aesthetic judgements. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Analysis of Sleep-Mode Downlink Scheduling Operations in EPON Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Energy management strategy has been considered as an important component in the future Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs). In this paper, a sleeping mode operation is studied, and a downlink packet scheduling scheme is analyzed to preserve energy consumption and maintain the required QoS. This paper proposes a novel sleep-mode downlink packet scheduling scheme in order to enhance the sleep control function. Simulation results confirm that the proposed approach offers effective power ma...

  20. A role for the preoptic sleep-promoting system in absence epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Suntsova, N.; Kumar, S.; Guzman-Marin, R.; Alam, M. N.; Szymusiak, R.; McGinty, D.

    2009-01-01

    Absence epilepsy (AE) in humans and the genetic AE model in WAG/Rij rats are both associated with abnormalities in sleep architecture that suggest insufficiency of the sleep-promoting mechanisms. In this study we compared the functionality of sleep-active neuronal groups within two well-established sleep-promoting sites, the ventrolateral and median preoptic nuclei (VLPO and MnPN, respectively), in WAG/Rij and control rats. Neuronal activity was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity and chron...

  1. The challenges and beauty of peripheral nerve regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochodne, Douglas W

    2012-03-01

    This review provides an overview of selected aspects of peripheral nerve regeneration and potential avenues to explore therapeutically. The overall coordinated and orchestrated pattern of recovery from peripheral nerve injury has a beauty of execution and progress that rivals all other forms of neurobiology. It involves changes at the level of the perikaryon, coordination with important peripheral glial partners, the Schwann cells, a controlled inflammatory response, and growth that overcomes surprising intrinsic roadblocks. Both regenerative axon growth and collateral sprouting encompass fascinating aspects of this story. Better understanding of peripheral nerve regeneration may also lead to enhanced central nervous system recovery. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  2. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p  Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  3. Neuronal and molecular mechanisms of sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlea, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol and the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colrain, Ian M; Nicholas, Christian L; Baker, Fiona C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol acts as a sedative that interacts with several neurotransmitter systems important in the regulation of sleep. Acute administration of large amounts of alcohol prior to sleep leads to decreased sleep-onset latency and changes in sleep architecture early in the night, when blood alcohol levels are high, with subsequent disrupted, poor-quality sleep later in the night. Alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with chronic sleep disturbance, lower slow-wave sleep, and more rapid-eye-movement sleep than normal, that last long into periods of abstinence and may play a role in relapse. This chapter outlines the evidence for acute and chronic alcohol effects on sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalogram, evidence for tolerance with repeated administration, and possible underlying neurochemical mechanisms for alcohol's effects on sleep. Also discussed are sex differences as well as effects of alcohol on sleep homeostasis and circadian regulation. Evidence for the role of sleep disruption as a risk factor for developing alcohol dependence is discussed in the context of research conducted in adolescents. The utility of sleep-evoked potentials in the assessment of the effects of alcoholism on sleep and the brain and in abstinence-mediated recovery is also outlined. The chapter concludes with a series of questions that need to be answered to determine the role of sleep and sleep disturbance in the development and maintenance of problem drinking and the potential beneficial effects of the treatment of sleep disorders for maintenance of abstinence in alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce; Xia, Tiansheng; Qin, Kaixin; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes.

  6. Using Actigraphy and mHealth Systems for an Objective Analysis of Sleep Quality on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-Díaz, Sara; Martínez, M Pilar; Guerrero-Contreras, Gabriel; Miró, Elena; Benghazi, Kawtar; Sánchez, Ana I; Garrido, José Luis; Prados, Germán

    2017-03-23

    Although sleep alterations can be an important factor contributing to the clinical state of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, there are no studies to adequately assess sleep quality in this type of disease. The aim of this work is to analyse the sleep quality of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) patients based on more objective information provided by actigraphy and mobile systems. The idea is to carry out a comprehensive study by analysing how environmental conditions and factors can affect sleep quality. In traditional methods the information for assessing sleep quality is obtained through questionnaires. In this work, a novel method is proposed by combining these questionnaires that provide valuable but subjective information with actigraphy and a mobile system to collect more objective information about the patient and their environment. The method provides mechanisms to detect how sleep hygiene could be associated directly with the sleep quality of the subjects, in order to provide a custom intervention to SLE patients. Moreover, this alternative provides ease of use, and non-intrusive ICT (Information and Communication Technology) through a wristband and a mHealth system. The mHealth system has been developed for environmental conditions sensing. This consists of a mobile device with built-in sensors providing input data about the bedroom environment during sleep, and a set of services of the Environmental Monitoring System for properly managing the configuration, registration and fusion of those input data. In previous studies, this information has never been taken into account. However, the information could be relevant in the case of SLE patients. The sample is composed of 9 women with SLE and 11 matched controls with a mean age of 35.78 and 32.18, respectively. Demographic and clinical variables between SLE patients and healthy controls are compared using the Fisher exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Relationships between psychological variables

  7. Development of a home screening system for pediatric respiratory sleep studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel; Lim, Chu Sing

    2006-12-01

    To develop a simple and portable home screening monitor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children. In such a system, identifying the respiratory events and occurrences of motional artifacts are two essential elements that can affect the accuracy of the study. Moreover, such a system needs to be easy to set up and user friendly. The proposed system includes the following: electrocardiogram, pulse oximeter, microcontroller-based computation device, and a tri-axial accelerometer. Three physiologic parameters derived with this device were used to identify central (CE) and obstructive (OE) respiratory events. The criteria used were based on documented evidence and compared against corresponding standard polysomnographic scorings. In addition, a module was constructed in conjunction with a RS232 chip to transmit the recorded data to a personal computer. The accelerometer was used as a motion artifact detector. Detectable signals were acquired from the accelerometer when artifacts were induced on the photoplethysmography by motions in three regulated test activities lasting at least 30 seconds each. In classifying respiratory events, the combined use of oxygen saturation, heart rate, and pulse transit time to produce a complex classification (logic OR) showed promise. For OE, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.828 and 0.859, respectively. For CE, these values were 0.868 and 0.762, respectively. The proposed system potentially fulfils the criterion as a home screening tool and can form an indispensable addition to the SDB investigation in the pediatric population.

  8. A wearable, mobile phone-based respiration monitoring system for sleep apnea syndrome detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Ryoichi; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton

    2005-01-01

    A new wearable respiration monitoring system has been developed for non-invasive detection of sleep apnea syndrome. The system, which is attached to a shirt, consists of a piezoelectric sensor, a low-power 8-bit single chip microcontroller, EEPROM and a 2.4 GHz low-power transmitting mobile phone (PHS). The piezoelectric sensor, whose electrical polarization voltage is produced by body movements, is installed inside the shirt and closely contacts the patient's chest. The low frequency components of body movements recorded by the sensor are mainly generated by respiration. The microcontroller sequentially stores the movement signal to the EEPROM for 5 minutes and detects, by time-frequency analysis, whether the patient has breathed during that time. When the patient is apneic for 10 sseconds, the microcontroller sends the recorded respiration waveform during and one minute before and after the apnea directly to the hospital server computer via the mobile phone. The server computer then creates apnea "filings" automatically for every patient. The system can be used at home and be self-applied by patients. Moreover, the system does not require any extra equipment such as a personal computer, PDA, or Internet connection.

  9. The role of sleep and sleep disorders in the development, diagnosis, and management of neurocognitive disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle A Miller

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that sleep plays an important role in the maintenance, disease prevention, repair and restoration of both mind and body. The sleep and wake cycles are controlled by the pacemaker activity of the superchiasmic nucleus in the hypothalamus but can be disrupted by diseases of the nervous system causing disordered sleep. A lack of sleep has been associated with an increase in all–cause mortality. Likewise, sleep disturbances and sleep disorders may disrupt neu...

  10. On inclusive hadronic widths of beautiful particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoze, V.A.; Shifman, M.A.; Ural'tsev, N.G.; Voloshin, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Preasymptotic (in the heavy quark mass) corrections in the non-leptonic decay rates of beautiful mesons and baryons are considered. The effects of real and virtual gluon emission are taken into account. Main emphasis is put on the difference of the life-times of B s 0 mesons with different CP parity. This difference is found to be the largest in the b-family. Possibilities for experimental study of this phenomenon are briefly discussed

  11. The 2014 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, John D.; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Tuthill, Peter G.; Wittkowski, Markus; Grellmann, Rebekka; Müller, André; Renganswany, Sridhar; Hummel, Christian; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Young, John; Buscher, David; Sanchez-Bermudez, Joel; Alberdi, Antxon; Schoedel, Rainer; Köhler, Rainer; Soulez, Ferréol; Thiébaut, Éric; Kluska, Jacques; Malbet, Fabien; Duvert, Gilles; Kraus, Stefan; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Baron, Fabien; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Rivinius, Thomas; Merand, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    Here we present the results of the 6th biennial optical interferometry imaging beauty contest. Taking advantage of a unique opportunity, the red supergiant VY CMa and the Mira variable R Car were observed in the astronomical H-band with three 4-telescope configurations of the VLTI-AT array using the PIONIER instrument. The community was invited to participate in the subsequent image reconstruction and interpretation phases of the project. Ten groups submitted entries to the beauty contest, and we found reasonable consistency between images obtained from independent workers using quite different algorithms. We also found that significant differences existed between the submitted images, much greater than in past beauty contests that were all based on simulated data. A novel crowd-sourcing" method allowed consensus median images to be constructed, filtering likely artifacts and retaining real features." We definitively detect strong spots on the surfaces of both stars as well as distinct circumstellar shells of emission (likely water/CO) around R Car. In a close contest, Joel Sanchez (IAA-CSIC/Spain) was named the winner of the 2014 interferometric imaging beauty contest. This process has shown that new comers" can use publicly-available imaging software to interpret VLTI/PIONIER imaging data, as long as sufficient observations are taken to have complete uv coverage { a luxury that is often missing. We urge proposers to request adequate observing nights to collect sufficient data for imaging and for time allocation committees to recognise the importance of uv coverage for reliable interpretation of interferometric data. We believe that the result of the proposed broad international project will contribute to inspiring trust in the image reconstruction processes in optical interferometry.

  12. Beauty bloggers' influence on Vietnamese young consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Duyen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the effect of beauty bloggers towards Vietnamese consumers. The theoretical framework was built up by collecting data from academic books, online articles and newspapers as well as precedent research. The consumer decision process model of P. Kotler was emphasized and related factors were presented respectively. Information for empirical data was gathered by both qualitative and quantitative research, mostly through the web-based survey and topic...

  13. "Beauty lies in the eye of the beholder"? Aspects of beauty and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Claudia; Berneburg, Mirjam

    2010-05-01

    Discussing aesthetic issues and their management with patients is a growing area of dermatologic practice. Sometimes treatment options within one's own discipline are rapidly discussed, without a clear idea of the various aspects of the face which all combine to produce beauty and attractiveness. We review various features leading to the impression of beauty and attractiveness. Familiarity with these concepts should facilitate a broader discussion with the patient on the aspects of beauty and attractiveness beyond the borders of one's own discipline and also lead to multidisciplinary treatment options. We also examine the question how much the personality of the beholder himself is involved in the perception of attractiveness and beauty (of the person sitting opposite to him). The "ideal" face has an average profile with slightly protrusive and full lips. Attractiveness increases with average features and symmetry. Moreover, particular features such as the scheme of childlike characteristics combined with aspects of maturity and expression make a female face appear especially beautiful. Which attributes contribute to attractiveness of a man's face are controversial. Clear male signals such as a strong chin are likely not to increase attractiveness.

  14. Measurement of beauty quark production from dimuon events with the ZEUS detector at HERA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bot, Danny

    2011-10-01

    In this thesis, a measurement of beauty quark production via the process ep→e'b anti bX→e'μμX in electron-proton collisions at HERA using a data sample recorded by the ZEUS detector in the years 2003-2007, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 376 pb -1 , is presented. A low transverse momentum threshold for muon identification in combination with the large rapidity coverage of the ZEUS muon-detection system gives access to essentially the full phase space for beauty quark production. Dimuon charge correlations as well as hadronic isolation and the mass of the dimuon system were used to separate the beauty signal from backgrounds. Visible, differential and total cross sections for beauty quark production were measured and compared to next-to-leading order QCD calculations and previous measurements. In addition, a first search for QCD instanton-induced processes containing both a charm- and beauty-quark pair in dimuon events was performed. In order to differentiate between beauty and instanton events, discriminating observables sensitive to the hadronic final state, so-called event shape variables, were used in combination with the dimuon requirement. As technical part of this thesis, the reconstruction algorithm for so-called energy flow objects (EFOs) was modified. EFOs contain the combined information of primary and secondary vertex-fitted tracks as well as CAL energy measurements. The modification considers additional tracks close to but not fitted to the primary vertex and which fulfill reasonable track and impact parameter requirements. As a result, the efficiency to reconstruct muon candidates with high impact parameter values as energy flow objects was increased. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of beauty quark production from dimuon events with the ZEUS detector at HERA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bot, Danny

    2011-10-15

    In this thesis, a measurement of beauty quark production via the process ep{yields}e'b anti bX{yields}e'{mu}{mu}X in electron-proton collisions at HERA using a data sample recorded by the ZEUS detector in the years 2003-2007, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 376 pb{sup -1}, is presented. A low transverse momentum threshold for muon identification in combination with the large rapidity coverage of the ZEUS muon-detection system gives access to essentially the full phase space for beauty quark production. Dimuon charge correlations as well as hadronic isolation and the mass of the dimuon system were used to separate the beauty signal from backgrounds. Visible, differential and total cross sections for beauty quark production were measured and compared to next-to-leading order QCD calculations and previous measurements. In addition, a first search for QCD instanton-induced processes containing both a charm- and beauty-quark pair in dimuon events was performed. In order to differentiate between beauty and instanton events, discriminating observables sensitive to the hadronic final state, so-called event shape variables, were used in combination with the dimuon requirement. As technical part of this thesis, the reconstruction algorithm for so-called energy flow objects (EFOs) was modified. EFOs contain the combined information of primary and secondary vertex-fitted tracks as well as CAL energy measurements. The modification considers additional tracks close to but not fitted to the primary vertex and which fulfill reasonable track and impact parameter requirements. As a result, the efficiency to reconstruct muon candidates with high impact parameter values as energy flow objects was increased. (orig.)

  16. Quality of Life, Health, and Sleep of Air Traffic Controllers with Different Shift Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline; De Martino, Milva; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Érika; Moreira, Edméia; Sanchez, Fernando; De Martino, Gustavo; Sonati, Renato

    2015-10-01

    Air traffic controllers (ATC) work shifts and their work schedules vary according to the characteristics of each airport. The human body adapts to shiftwork differently. These adjustments affect the health-disease process, predisposing ATC to risk conditions associated with sleep deprivation and lack of night sleep, which can lead to conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, mood disorders, anxiety, and obesity. This study investigated the characteristics of health, sleep, and quality of life of ATC exposed to 8-h alternate work shifts and 6-h rotational work shifts. The study was cross-sectional with convenience samples consisting of 84 ATC from two international airports in Brazil. We applied questionnaires to collect data about socioeconomic conditions, quality of life, sleep, and physical activity levels. We also collected health data regarding nutritional status, body composition, and blood pressure. We analyzed the differences between ATC from the two airports considering the variables of sleep, quality of life, and health. Differences were found between the groups in terms of body fat percentage (30.7% and 27.8%), scores of overall quality of life (56.2 and 68), concentration (3.37 and 3.96), energy (3.12 and 3.62), and sleep time on working days (5:20 h and 6:15 h). ATC under 8-h alternate shifts showed lower scores for quality of life, higher body fat, and less sleep time on working days, which characterizes inadequate shiftwork for this population.

  17. Lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, G.; Dornan, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Major breakthroughs have been achieved in the determination of the lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons. Much larger data samples than previously have become available and new experimental devices and techniques have been developed and employed. The lifetimes of all weakly decaying singly charmed hadrons have been measured, some with an accuracy of a few percent. The difference in the shortest lifetime - τ(Ω c ) - and the longest one - τ(D + ) - is given by a factor of close to ten. The experimental status of beauty lifetimes, while less complete, has still reached a new level of quality and is now better than 5% for the commoner states. New theoretical tools, based mainly on heavy quark expansions, have been developed; they incorporate as well as transcend earlier phenomenological descriptions. The observed pattern in the charm lifetime ratios is reproduced in a semi-quantitative manner as well as could be expected; as far as the beauty lifetime ratios are concerned some problems may well be emerging. The maturity level achieved in the measurements bodes quite well for future challenges where reliable and efficient tracking of the decay vertices will be crucial. (orig.)

  18. A novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of central sleep apnea: The remedē{sup ®} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germany, Robin, E-mail: rgermany@respicardia.com [University of Oklahoma School of Medicine (United States); Joseph, Susan [Washington University School of Medicine (United States); James, Kristofer [Respicardia, Inc., Hopkins, MN (United States); Kao, Andrew [University of Missouri School of Medicine, Kansas City (United States); St. Luke' s Mid-America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) occurs primarily in cardiovascular patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The disorder often is unrecognized due to the overlap of symptoms with those of the underlying cardiac disease. CSA can be easily diagnosed with a sleep study. Following optimization of all co-morbidities, the therapeutic approach available currently focuses on mask-based therapies which suffer from poor patient adherence. A new therapy, the remedē{sup ®} System, has been developed; it utilizes a transvenous, fully implantable system providing phrenic nerve stimulation intended to restore a more normal breathing pattern. The therapy demonstrated promising results based on an initial chronic study and a randomized trial is underway to further evaluate safety and efficacy of this novel system in patients with CSA.

  19. A novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of central sleep apnea: The remedē® system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany, Robin; Joseph, Susan; James, Kristofer; Kao, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) occurs primarily in cardiovascular patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The disorder often is unrecognized due to the overlap of symptoms with those of the underlying cardiac disease. CSA can be easily diagnosed with a sleep study. Following optimization of all co-morbidities, the therapeutic approach available currently focuses on mask-based therapies which suffer from poor patient adherence. A new therapy, the remedē ® System, has been developed; it utilizes a transvenous, fully implantable system providing phrenic nerve stimulation intended to restore a more normal breathing pattern. The therapy demonstrated promising results based on an initial chronic study and a randomized trial is underway to further evaluate safety and efficacy of this novel system in patients with CSA

  20. Water as a complex system: its role in ligand diffusion, general anesthesia, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Lemont B

    2007-10-01

    The work and inspiration of Robert Rosen is stated and expressed in personal tones. The concept of passages through water (H2O) near protein surfaces is reviewed in terms of its influence on ligand diffusion to an effector. This is offered as a target for interference by a non-specific general anesthetic agent. In view of the similarities between this anesthetic state and sleep, this mechanism is proposed to be operative for the sleep/wake states. Based on this mechanism and other factors, nitrogen (N2) is proposed as an exogenous sleep factor.

  1. Analysis of Sleep-Mode Downlink Scheduling Operations in EPON Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Energy management strategy has been considered as an important component in the future Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs). In this paper, a sleeping mode operation is studied, and a downlink packet scheduling scheme is analyzed to preserve energy consumption and maintain the required Qo......S. This paper proposes a novel sleep-mode downlink packet scheduling scheme in order to enhance the sleep control function. Simulation results confirm that the proposed approach offers effective power management on the basis of the traffic conditions. The trade-off between network performances and the power...

  2. ''Beauty of Wholeness and Beauty of Partiality.'' New Terms Defining the Concept of Beauty in Architecture in Terms of Sustainability and Computer Aided Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Ayman A.; Zaghloul, Weaam M.; Dewidar, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    The great shift in sustainability and computer aided design in the field of architecture caused a remarkable change in the architecture philosophy, new aspects of beauty and aesthetic values are being introduced, and traditional definitions for beauty cannot fully cover this aspects, which causes a gap between; new architecture works criticism and…

  3. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  6. 78 FR 11981 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Lakeshore (SLBE or Lakeshore) was established in 1970 ``for the benefit, inspiration, education, recreation... home destination. SLBE offers visitors recreational activities such as hiking, backpacking, kayaking...-Benefit and Regulatory Flexibility Analyses Leelanau Scenic Heritage Route Trailway, Sleeping Bear Dunes...

  7. Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  8. The Function of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Barone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of sleep can be ascertained by noting the effects of its loss, which tends to be chronic and partial, on cognition, mood, alertness, and overall health. Many theories have been put forth to explain the function of sleep in humans, including proposals based on energy conservation, ecological adaptations, neurocognitive function, neural plasticity, nervous system and physical health, and performance. Most account for only a portion of sleep behavior and few are based on strong experimental support. In this review, we present theories proposing why sleep is necessary and supporting data demonstrating the effects of inadequate sleep, with the intention of gleaning further information as to its necessity, which remains one of the most perplexing mysteries in biology.

  9. Sleep and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhao Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising global prevalence and incidence of obesity lead to increased cardiovascular-renal complications and cancers. Epidemiological studies reported a worldwide trend towards suboptimal sleep duration and poor sleep quality in parallel with this obesity epidemic. From rodents and human models, it is highly plausible that abnormalities in sleep, both quantity and quality, impact negatively on energy metabolism. While excess dietary intake and physical inactivity are the known drivers of the obesity epidemic, promotion of healthy sleep habits has emerged as a new target to combat obesity. In this light, present review focuses on the existing literature examining the relationship between sleep physiology and energy homeostasis. Notably, sleep dysregulation perturbs the metabolic milieu via alterations in hormones such as leptin and ghrelin, eating behavior, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, shift work and trans-meridian air travel may exert a negative influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trigger circadian misalignment, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation. Amassing evidence has also suggested that uncoupling of the circadian clock can increase the risk of adverse metabolic health. Given the importance of sleep in maintaining energy homeostasis and that it is potentially modifiable, promoting good sleep hygiene may create new avenues for obesity prevention and treatment.

  10. Viewers Motivations for Watching Beauty Videos on You Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Jiroušková, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on motivations for watching beauty videos on YouTube. The aim is to clarify why viewers watch amateur videos that communicate topics related to physical appearance. Assuming the audience as an active actor of media communication the thesis is based on uses and gratification theory. Viewers watch beauty videos consciously to meet their individual needs. Based on an analysis of eleven interviews with regular viewers of beauty videos this thesis reveals five categories...

  11. Charm and beauty decays in the ALEPH experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucrot, J.

    1992-05-01

    Results of the ALEPH experiment at LEP are presented on charm and beauty decays, from data taken in 1990 and 1991. Several exclusive channels of charm and beauty mesons are seen. Evidence is given for the production of beauty baryons from correlations between a high Pt lepton and a Λ 0 or a Λ c baryon. Finally, first evidence is given for the production of the strange B meson, from Ds-lepton correlations. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs

  12. Charm and beauty decays in the ALEPH experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucrot, J.

    1992-01-01

    Results of the ALEPH experiment at LEP are presented on charm and beauty decays, from data taken in 1990 and 1991. Several exclusive channels of charm and beauty mesons are seen. Evidence is given for the production of beauty baryons from correlations between a high Pt lepton and a Λ 0 or a Λ c baryon. Finally, first evidence is given for the production of the strange B meson, from Ds-lepton correlations. (author) 7 refs.; 7 figs

  13. Sleep disorders in cerebellar ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Pedroso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias comprise a wide range of etiologies leading to central nervous system-related motor and non-motor symptoms. Recently, a large body of evidence has demonstrated a high frequency of non-motor manifestations in cerebellar ataxias, specially in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA. Among these non-motor dysfunctions, sleep disorders have been recognized, although still under or even misdiagnosed. In this review, we highlight the main sleep disorders related to cerebellar ataxias focusing on REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, restless legs syndrome (RLS, periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, insomnia and sleep apnea.

  14. Beauty and ugliness in the bodies and faces of others: an fMRI study of person esthetic judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Loeches, M; Hernández-Tamames, J A; Martín, A; Urrutia, M

    2014-09-26

    Whether beauty and ugliness represent two independent judgement categories or, instead, opposite extremes of a single dimension is a matter of debate. In the present 3T-functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, 20 participants were scanned while judging faces and nude bodies of people classified as extremely ugly, extremely beautiful, or indifferent. Certain areas, such as the caudate/nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), exhibited a linear relationship across esthetic judgments supporting ugliness as the lowest extreme of a beauty continuum. Other regions, such as basal occipital areas, displayed an inverse pattern, with the highest activations for ugly and the lowest for beautiful ones. Further, several areas were involved alike by both the very beautiful and the very ugly stimuli. Among these, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), as well as the posterior and medial portions of the cingulate gyrus. This is interpreted as the activation of neural circuits related to self- vs. other-assessment. Beauty and ugliness in the brain, at least in relation to natural and biologically and socially relevant stimuli (faces and bodies), appear tightly related and non-independent. Finally, neutral stimuli elicited strong and wide activations of the somatosensory and somatomotor systems together with longer reaction times and higher error rates, probably reflecting the difficulty of the human brain to classify someone as indifferent. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Achieving Sound Beauty in Chinese Translations of English Songs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶薪平

    2017-01-01

    Song is a kind of combination of language and music. Song achieves its aesthetic information and arouses feeling with its own sentiments and aesthetic effect. However, various kinds of present problems lead to much loss of beauty. Besides, the theoretical works concerning this area is much meager. Translation of English songs into Chinese has been studied from functional equivalence theory or the functionalism. The present thesis offers a new perspective―beauty in sound from Xu Yuanchong's"three beauties principle", aiming to seek possible ways to represent beauty in translation practice, and some typical examples are compared and analyzed.

  16. Beauty in abstract paintings: Perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eMallon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1. Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2. The participants showed significant preferences for certain image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described PHOG self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

  17. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity. PMID:24711791

  18. Fixed target beauty physics from Tevatron to SSC (E771)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.

    1992-01-01

    The E771 beauty experiment at Fermilab is described. The Super Fixed Target Beauty Facility (SFT) proposal to perform fixed target beauty physics at the SSC is a natural evolution. The unique features of SFT include crystal channeling extraction from the SSC main ring, which allows the experiment to operate concurrently with the collider experiments. The slow extraction rate (≅2x10 8 protons/s) does not limit the lifetime of the stored beams. The proposed beauty spectrometer and its capability in CP violation studies are described. (author) 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Towards an Intelligent Monitoring System for Patients with Obstrusive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Rafael-Palou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing incidence of chronic diseases and aging populations, the pressure to control costs and the expectations of continuous improvements in the quality of service have increased the need to understand how healthcare is provided and to determine whether cost-effective improvements to care practices can be made. In the case of people suffering Obstructive Sleep Apnea, patients using self-administer nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP may receive information on the treatment only once they go to a visit with the lung specialist. In this paper, we propose an IoT-based Intelligent Monitoring System that relies on machine learning to achieve a threefold goal: (1 it is aimed at early detecting compliance in order to predict CPAP usage; (2 it monitors the actual adherence degree to the treatment to keep informed both the patient and the lung specialists; and (3 it sends recommendations to the patient to empower her/him and to better follow up.

  20. Brains versus beauty in the knowledge economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ford

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: It is a widely held belief that attractive people generally experience an easier life and that the door to success is opened by perfect bone structure and a sparkling smile. However, attractiveness might play a far lesser role in individual’s achieving their objectives than has previously been thought. Is it possible that an individual’s qualifications may have a greater influence on the perceptions of managers who assess the suitability of a candidate of a knowledge worker? Research purpose: The study sets out to examine the relative predictive power of physical attractiveness and qualifications in the decision to hire a knowledge worker. Motivation for the study: The research was motivated by a desire to explore the presence of bias in the decision-making process when seemingly rational individuals are exposed to factors such as physical attractiveness of a job candidate and then faced with a decision on whether to hire them. Research design, approach and method: A two-phased experimental design was applied to investigate the existence and strength of the beauty premium amongst a group of managers who were provided with fictitious resumes coupled with photographs of the applicants. These managers were requested to make a hiring decision based on the information supplied. Main findings: Although results confirm the existence of a beauty premium, it was relatively weak. It indicated that qualifications have a greater influence on a manager’s perception of the suitability of a candidate to fill a position of a knowledge worker. Practical or managerial implications: The research draws attention to the possibility of bias in selection decisions and proposes ways in which such potential bias can be limited. Contribution: This study contributes to knowledge concerning the existence or otherwise of a so-called beauty premium, with particular reference to its impact in the knowledge economy.

  1. Contemporary Koreans’ Perceptions of Facial Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Rhee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background This article aims to investigate current perceptions of beauty of the general public and physicians without a specialization in plastic surgery performing aesthetic procedures. Methods A cross-sectional and interviewing questionnaire was administered to 290 people in Seoul, South Korea in September 2015. The questionnaire addressed three issues: general attitudes about plastic surgery (Q1, perception of and preferences regarding Korean female celebrities’ facial attractiveness (Q2, and the relative influence of each facial aesthetic subunit on overall facial attractiveness. The survey’s results were gathered by a professional research agency and classified according to a respondent’s gender, age, and job type (95%±5.75% confidence interval. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 10.1, calculating one-way analysis of variance with post hoc analysis and Tukey’s t-test. Results Among the respondents, 38.3% were in favor of aesthetic plastic surgery. The most common source of plastic surgery information was the internet (50.0%. The most powerful factor influencing hospital or clinic selection was the postoperative surgical results of acquaintances (74.9%. We created a composite face of an attractive Korean female, representing the current facial configuration considered appealing to the Koreans. Beauty perceptions differed to some degree based on gender and generational differences. We found that there were certain differences in beauty perceptions between general physicians who perform aesthetic procedures and the general public. Conclusions Our study results provide aesthetic plastic surgeons with detailed information about contemporary Korean people’s attitudes toward and perceptions of plastic surgery and the specific characteristics of female Korean faces currently considered attractive, plus trends in these perceptions, which should inform plastic surgeons within their specialized fields.

  2. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  3. Does it pay to be beautiful?

    OpenAIRE

    Sierminska, Eva

    2015-01-01

    It is a well-established view amongst economists that good-looking people have a better chance of employment and can earn more than those who are less physically attractive. A “beauty premium” is particularly apparent in jobs where there is a productivity gain associated with good looks, though this is different for women and men, and varies across countries. People also sort into occupations according to the relative returns to their physical characteristics; good-looking people take jobs wh...

  4. Beauty physics at e+ e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.

    1989-09-01

    Beauty physics to be performed in the next decade at the resonances Y(4S) and Z 0 are compared. Large similarities are found in the physics program and the reconstruction techniques of Z 0 and asymmetric Y(4S) colliders. The physics potential of the latter is found to be superior at equal luminosity to a symmetric machine, provided a large enough boost (≥ 5). Z 0 machines will probably be the main source of the rich B S 0 physics during that period

  5. Charm and beauty production at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishai, M.; /Brookhaven

    2005-01-01

    Using the data samples collected with the CDF Run II detector during 2002 and early 2003, new measurements of the production cross sections of charm and beauty hadrons at {radical}s = 1960 GeV are presented. New measurements of the cross sections of centrally produced b-hadrons and J/{psi} mesons down to zero transverse momenta have been carried out. The large charm signals made available by the silicon vertex track trigger have enabled the measurement of the cross sections of D{sup 0}, D*, D{sup {+-}}, and D{sub s} mesons.

  6. Weak form factors of beauty baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    Full analysis of semileptonic decays of beauty baryons with J p =1/2 2 and J p =3/2 2 into charmed ones within the Quark Confinement Model is reported. Weak form factors and decay rates are calculated. Also the heavy quark limit m Q →∞ (Isgur-Wise symmetry) is examined. The weak heavy-baryon form factors in the Isgur-Wise limit and 1/m Q -corrections to them are computered. The Ademollo-Gatto theorem is spin-flavour symmetry of heavy quarks is checked. 33 refs.; 1 fig.; 9 tabs

  7. Trigeminal induced arousals during human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Baja, Jan; Lenz, Franziska; Sommer, J Ulrich; Hörmann, Karl; Herr, Raphael M; Stuck, Boris A

    2015-05-01

    Arousals caused by external stimuli during human sleep have been studied for most of the sensorial systems. It could be shown that a pure nasal trigeminal stimulus leads to arousals during sleep. The frequency of arousals increases dependent on the stimulus concentration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of different stimulus durations on arousal frequency during different sleep stages. Ten young healthy volunteers with 20 nights of polysomnography were included in the study. Pure trigeminal stimulation with both different concentrations of CO2 (0, 10, 20, 40% v/v) and different stimulus durations (1, 3, 5, and 10 s) were applied during different sleep stages to the volunteers using an olfactometer. The application was performed during different sleep stages (light sleep, deep sleep, REM sleep). The number of arousals increased with rising stimulus duration and stimulus concentration during each sleep stage. Trigeminal stimuli during sleep led to arousals in dose- and time-dependent manner.

  8. Sleep-Active Neurons: Conserved Motors of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Sleep is crucial for survival and well-being. This behavioral and physiological state has been studied in all major genetically accessible model animals, including rodents, fish, flies, and worms. Genetic and optogenetic studies have identified several neurons that control sleep, making it now possible to compare circuit mechanisms across species. The “motor” of sleep across animal species is formed by neurons that depolarize at the onset of sleep to actively induce this state by directly inhibiting wakefulness. These sleep-inducing neurons are themselves controlled by inhibitory or activating upstream pathways, which act as the “drivers” of the sleep motor: arousal inhibits “sleep-active” neurons whereas various sleep-promoting “tiredness” pathways converge onto sleep-active neurons to depolarize them. This review provides the first overview of sleep-active neurons across the major model animals. The occurrence of sleep-active neurons and their regulation by upstream pathways in both vertebrate and invertebrate species suggests that these neurons are general and ancient components that evolved early in the history of nervous systems. PMID:29618588

  9. Sleep loss and structural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areal, Cassandra C; Warby, Simon C; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-06-01

    Wakefulness and sleep are dynamic states during which brain functioning is modified and shaped. Sleep loss is detrimental to many brain functions and results in structural changes localized at synapses in the nervous system. In this review, we present and discuss some of the latest observations of structural changes following sleep loss in some vertebrates and insects. We also emphasize that these changes are region-specific and cell type-specific and that, most importantly, these structural modifications have functional roles in sleep regulation and brain functions. Selected mechanisms driving structural modifications occurring with sleep loss are also discussed. Overall, recent research highlights that extending wakefulness impacts synapse number and shape, which in turn regulate sleep need and sleep-dependent learning/memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The beauty of the physical world

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Graham Farmelo, author and former particle physicist, visited CERN on 25 March. To the CERNois gathered in the Main Auditorium, he talked about his new book The Strangest Man, a biography of Paul Dirac. Dirac was obsessed by the importance of mathematical beauty in fundamental physics, a belief that was “almost a religion” to him. Farmelo himself has no doubts: among all of the natural phenomena the LHC may unveil, supersymmetry is the most beautiful.   Talking about the life of a physicist to draw the attention of the public to the science: that was the idea behind Graham Farmelo decision to write a biography of Paul Dirac. The book won the 2009 Costa Biography Award. “I chose Paul Dirac because he was the first truly modern theoretical physicist but he is virtually unknown to the public”, explains Graham Farmelo. “Dirac had a fascinating life. He was not born in a wealthy or a particularly brilliant family but he ended up conceiving in his head ...

  11. The neural correlates of beauty comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Mussweiler, Thomas; Mullins, Paul; Linden, David E J

    2014-05-01

    Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. How attractive someone is perceived to be depends on the individual or cultural standards to which this person is compared. But although comparisons play a central role in the way people judge the appearance of others, the brain processes underlying attractiveness comparisons remain unknown. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that attractiveness comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms as comparisons of simple nonsocial magnitudes such as size. We recorded brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants compared the beauty or height of two women or two dogs. Our data support the hypothesis of a common process underlying these different types of comparisons. First, we demonstrate that the distance effect characteristic of nonsocial comparisons also holds for attractiveness comparisons. Behavioral results indicated, for all our comparisons, longer response times for near than far distances. Second, the neural correlates of these distance effects overlapped in a frontoparietal network known for its involvement in processing simple nonsocial quantities. These results provide evidence for overlapping processes in the comparison of physical attractiveness and nonsocial magnitudes.

  12. Repeated sleep restriction in rats leads to homeostatic and allostatic responses during recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Laposky, Aaron D; Bergmann, Bernard M; Turek, Fred W

    2007-06-19

    Recent studies indicate that chronic sleep restriction can have negative consequences for brain function and peripheral physiology and can contribute to the allostatic load throughout the body. Interestingly, few studies have examined how the sleep-wake system itself responds to repeated sleep restriction. In this study, rats were subjected to a sleep-restriction protocol consisting of 20 h of sleep deprivation (SD) followed by a 4-h sleep opportunity each day for 5 consecutive days. In response to the first 20-h SD block on day 1, animals responded during the 4-h sleep opportunity with enhanced sleep intensity [i.e., nonrapid eye movement (NREM) delta power] and increased rapid eye movement sleep time compared with baseline. This sleep pattern is indicative of a homeostatic response to acute sleep loss. Remarkably, after the 20-h SD blocks on days 2-5, animals failed to exhibit a compensatory NREM delta power response during the 4-h sleep opportunities and failed to increase NREM and rapid eye movement sleep times, despite accumulating a sleep debt each consecutive day. After losing approximately 35 h of sleep over 5 days of sleep restriction, animals regained virtually none of their lost sleep, even during a full 3-day recovery period. These data demonstrate that the compensatory/homeostatic sleep response to acute SD does not generalize to conditions of chronic partial sleep loss. We propose that the change in sleep-wake regulation in the context of repeated sleep restriction reflects an allostatic process, and that the allostatic load produced by SD has direct effects on the sleep-wake regulatory system.

  13. Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Beauty and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several epidemiologic studies have investigated the potential carcinogenicity of human exposure to heavy metals from diverse sources but few or none was on African black and beauty soaps. Hence, this study examines the presence of some heavy metals in selected African black and beauty soaps commonly used in ...

  14. The beauty of God in the numerical order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    This present thesis interprets the beauty of God in Augustine’s historical situation and aims to argue that approached from a Pythagorean musical-cosmology, Augustine explains the beauty of God as an unchangeable numerical/harmonic order immanently pervading the realms of nature, logic and ethics.

  15. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.

    1993-10-01

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper we review recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab

  16. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper the author reviews recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab

  17. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial…

  18. Hyperons, charm and beauty hadrons: Conclusion and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, Jose

    2001-01-01

    In this concluding talk, the advances in the Flavour Problem studies are discussed, following the structure of the presentations in the Conference. The subjects touched are organized as follows: Baryons, K-physics, Charm and Beauty production, Charm and Beauty decays, B-Mixing and CP-Violation, Heavy Quarkonium

  19. Beauty: A Concept with Practical Implications for Teacher Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Hillman's (2001) simple affirmation that "an idea of beauty is useful, functional, practical" is one this article attempts to pursue with teacher researchers in mind, based on the belief that to move from the "re"pression of beauty to its "ex"pression--or, at the very least, to its articulation--will enlighten rather than distract individuals. The…

  20. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  1. Strong and weak production of beauty and charm at the CERN p anti p collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransdell, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Beauty and charm production has been studied in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 630 GeV with the UA1 detector at the CERN collider. Clear evidence for strong production of b- and c-quarks has been obtained. The feasibility of observing hadronic decays of the W and Z intermediate vector bosons in the channels W → cs, Z → cc, bb was investigated. Beauty and charm was identified from their semileptonic decays by the presence of a muon in or near a jet. The analysis was performed on a sample of 20,000 muon trigger events containing jets in which the reconstructed muon has a transverse momentum greater than 6 GeV/c. The integrated luminosity of the sample was 573 nb -1 . The detailed kinematics of the muon-jet events are in excellent agreement with the predictions of QCD for beauty and charm strong production. The QCD expectations were calculated with the ISAJET Monte Carlo in conjunction with a full simulation of the UA1 detector. No evidence for W/Z → c/b was observed in the invariant mass distribution of the jet-jet-μ-υ system. The mass resolution achieved was ±20%. The measured strong beauty and charm cross sections imply a signal to noise ratio of 1/50 for standard model W and Z cross sections

  2. The melatonergic system: effects on sleep and implications for the treatment of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Berardis D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Domenico De Berardis1,2, Tiziano Acciavatti1, Giuseppe Di Iorio1, Mariangela Corbo1, Nicola Serroni2, Daniela Campanella2, Fabiola Di Emidio2, Monica Piersanti3, Marilde Cavuto4, Giovanni Martinotti5, Francesco Saverio Moschetta2, Massimo Di Giannantonio11Department of Neurosciences and Imaging, Chair of Psychiatry, University “G. D'Annunzio”, Chieti; 2NHS, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment, Hospital “G. Mazzini”; 3NHS, Pharmaceutical Service, Hospital “G. Mazzini”, Teramo; 4IASM, L'Aquila; 5Institute of Psychiatry, Catholic University Medical School, Rome, ItalyAbstract: The circadian pacemaker or biological clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, is the generation site of circadian rhythms. The light/dark cycle is the circadian pacemaker's dominant synchronizing agent, though it is also influenced by neurotransmitters and the phase-shifting effects of various chemical and pharmacological components, of which melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is the most well established. In recent years, melatonin and melatonin analogs have been commercialized in many countries, mainly with hypnotic purposes. A new compound, agomelatine, has been recently synthesized and studied. Among melatonin analogs, this drug possesses unique pharmacological and clinical features; it is an antagonist at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors and has well established antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Agomelatine opens new perspectives in the chronobiotic treatment of depression. The purpose of the present review was to elucidate the effects of the melatonergic system on sleep and the implications for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.Keywords: melatonin, agomelatine, circadian rhythms, depression

  3. Lifestyles guide and glaucoma (II). Diet, supplements, drugs, sleep, pregnancy, and systemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón-López, A; Moreno-Montañés, J; Duch-Tuesta, S; Corsino Fernández-Vila, P; García-Feijoo, J; Millá-Griñó, E; Muñoz-Negrete, F J; Pablo-Júlvez, L; Rodríguez-Agirretxe, I; Urcelay-Segura, J L; Ussa-Herrera, F; Villegas-Pérez, M P

    2018-02-01

    To establish evidence based guidelines to advise patients on the relationship between habits, diet, certain circumstances, diseases and glaucoma. Review of all published articles on glaucoma and sports or other activities. The papers were classified according to the level of scientific evidence based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine classification. The evidence on the relationship between diet or supplements and the incidence or progression of glaucoma is insufficient to make a general recommendation for glaucoma patients. Although some studies on normal tension glaucoma suggest that Gingko biloba could reduce glaucoma progression, the results do not allow a general recommendation for all these patients. Similarly, the evidence on the usefulness of vitamin supplements is not conclusive. The studies on smoking do not clearly demonstrate the relationship between this habit and incidence of glaucoma. Marihuana is not a useful treatment for glaucoma. Although the results on the relationship between sleep apnoea and glaucoma are heterogeneous, it is recommended that patients with moderate to intense apnoea are tested for glaucoma. Pregnancy does not influence the course of the disease, but several hypotensive drugs may be harmful for the foetus. Nocturnal systemic hypotension is a risk factor for glaucoma progression. Certain habits, circumstances, or diseases may have an influence on the onset or progression of glaucoma. It is important to have adequate information about the scientific evidence in the publications in order to properly advise patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The experience of mathematical beauty and its neural correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki, Semir; Romaya, John Paul; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Atiyah, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Many have written of the experience of mathematical beauty as being comparable to that derived from the greatest art. This makes it interesting to learn whether the experience of beauty derived from such a highly intellectual and abstract source as mathematics correlates with activity in the same part of the emotional brain as that derived from more sensory, perceptually based, sources. To determine this, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to image the activity in the brains of 15 mathematicians when they viewed mathematical formulae which they had individually rated as beautiful, indifferent or ugly. Results showed that the experience of mathematical beauty correlates parametrically with activity in the same part of the emotional brain, namely field A1 of the medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC), as the experience of beauty derived from other sources. PMID:24592230

  5. Beauty production at HERA using the ZEUS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaguees, A

    2008-01-01

    Beauty quark production in ep collisions is being studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The latest measurements of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction regime are presented. The first measurement exploits the potential of the ZEUS microvertex detector to identify beauty in photoproduction dijet events with a muon in the final state. The second is based on statistical methods to determine the fraction of beauty in photoproduction dijet events with an electron in the final state. Finally, the first measurement by ZEUS of the beauty contribution to the proton structure function, F 2 bb, in deep inelastic scattering is presented. The three measurements are compared with QCD predictions as well as with previous results. All the results presented here are preliminary

  6. Sleep and satisfaction in 8- and 12-h forward-rotating shift systems: Industrial employees prefer 12-h shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Ropponen, Annina; Hakola, Tarja; Sallinen, Mikael; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Twelve-hour shift systems have become more popular in industry. Survey data of shift length, shift rotation speed, self-rated sleep, satisfaction and perceived health were investigated for the associations among 599 predominantly male Finnish industrial employees. The studied forward-rotating shift systems were 12-h fast (12fast, DDNN------, n = 268), 8-h fast (8fast, MMEENN----, n = 161) and 8-h slow (8slow, MMMM-EEEE-NNNN, n = 170). Satisfaction with shift system differed between the groups (p effects on sleep and alertness were rare (8%) in the 12fast group (53% 8fast, 66% 8 slow, p effects of the current shift system on general health (12fast 4%, 8fast 30%, 8slow 41%, p work-life balance (12fast 8%, 8fast 52%, 8slow 63%, p effects of shift work were dependent on both shift length and shift rotation speed: employees in the 12-h rapidly forward-rotating shift system were most satisfied, perceived better work-life balance and slept better than the employees in the 8fast or especially the employees in the 8-h slowly rotating systems.

  7. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Staner, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...

  8. Sleep disorders - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  9. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  10. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth / For Parents / Obstructive Sleep Apnea What's ... How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Print What Is Sleep Apnea? Brief pauses in breathing during sleep are ...

  11. Online Responses to a Multilingual Super Bowl Ad: Is "America the Beautiful" by Any Other Language Still America, the Beautiful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Brooke Y.

    2016-01-01

    On 2 February 2014, an advertisement entitled "It's Beautiful" debuted during Super Bowl XLVIII, which was watched by 111.5 million people in the USA. The Coca-Cola advertisement portrayed people of various ethnicities and was accompanied by "America the Beautiful" sung in nine languages. Using critical discourse analysis, I…

  12. Too little sleep gradually desensitizes the serotonin 1A receptor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, Viktor; Walstra, Irene; Luiten, PGM; Meerlo, P

    2005-01-01

    Study Objectives: In our 24-hour society, frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a rapidly increasing problem that may contribute to the development of diseases such as depression. One of the proposed neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression is a disturbance in the brain's serotonergic

  13. Study of charm and beauty production at HERA/H1 using dilepton events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettlich, M.

    2007-04-01

    A measurement is presented which investigates the production of charm and beauty quarks in ep collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. Data taken by the H1 detector at the HERA collider in the years 1999, 2000, 2004 and 2005 are analysed. The collected data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 221.6 pb -1 . This is the rst measurement of charm and beauty cross sections using HERA II data. Events with two or more jets of transverse momentum p t >5(4) GeV in the polar angular range 20 t >2(1) GeV in the polar angular ranges 30 1 2 2 2 , and for inelasticities 0.1 t rel of the leptons with respect to the jet they are associated to and the charge and angle correlation of the leptons are exploited to extract the fractions of charm and beauty events on a statistical basis. For the first time at H1, visible charm and beauty cross sections for the production of dijet and dilepton events are determined: σ(ep→ec anti cX→ejjμeX ' )=4.6±1.0(stat.)±0.5(sys.) pb, σ(ep→ec anti cX→ejjμμX ' )=2.7 ±0.9(stat.)±0.3(sys.) pb, σ(ep→eb anti bX→ejjμeX ' )=9.4±1.2(stat.)±0.9(sys.) pb, and σ(ep →eb anti bX→ejjμμX ' )=10.4 ± 1.5(stat.) ± 1.0(sys.) pb. To gain a deeper understanding of dilepton correlations in beauty events, differential dilepton cross sections are determined using the observable p t rel alone. The invariant mass m(μl), the transverse momentum p t (μl), the polar angle θ(μl) and the charge and angle correlation vertical stroke Δφ(μ 1 ,l 2 ) vertical stroke x Q(μ 1 ) x Q(l 2 ) of the dilepton system are investigated. In addition, differential jet cross sections are determined. The measurements are compared with leading order QCD calculations, supplemented with parton showers. The charm cross sections are consistent with the predictions, while the predicted beauty cross sections are somewhat lower than the measurement. The predicted differential beauty cross sections describe the shape of the measurements. (orig.)

  14. Repeated sleep restriction in rats leads to homeostatic and allostatic responses during recovery sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngsoo; Laposky, Aaron D.; Bergmann, Bernard M.; Turek, Fred W.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that chronic sleep restriction can have negative consequences for brain function and peripheral physiology and can contribute to the allostatic load throughout the body. Interestingly, few studies have examined how the sleep–wake system itself responds to repeated sleep restriction. In this study, rats were subjected to a sleep-restriction protocol consisting of 20 h of sleep deprivation (SD) followed by a 4-h sleep opportunity each day for 5 consecutive days. In respo...

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea: Awakening the hidden truth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-16

    Jan 16, 2014 ... The repetitive nocturnal hypoxemia experienced by patients with OSA is ... etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, associated systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and dental .... Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular diseases ... showing that successful treatment of sleep apnea.

  16. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  17. Truth and beauty in contemporary urban photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Colistra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Does city still need photography? Or does it show itself more effectively through other forms of communication? The question brings us back almost two hundred years ago, at the time of the spread of the first daguerreotypes, when the query was: Does city still need painting? The question raises several other issues - truth and beauty, analogical and digital, truth and photo editing - that this essay examines by comparing some images. We are convinced that “the more we can speak of a picture, the more unlikely it is to speak of photography” (R. Barthes. The essay describes the work of some artists/photographers who have addressed the issue of urban photography. Works in which the figurative and visionary component is based on the interaction of traditional shooting techniques and processes of digital post-production.

  18. Why Beauty Still Cannot Be Measured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossi Naukkarinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the question of whether the latest results achieved in sciences such as evolution studies and brain research can help us understand the nature of aesthetic judgments. It suggests that such approaches may offer interesting insights for understanding many problems in aesthetics, but for clarifying aesthetic judgments one needs a philosophical point of view. Aesthetic judgments cannot be proven right or wrong by scientific methods, and beauty or other aesthetic qualities cannot be directly measured. The “method” of both making and analyzing aesthetic judgments is discussion, and the article clarifies why this is still the case, even if empirical, non-philosophical scientific methods are more accurate than ever before.

  19. THE BEAUTY OF THE WORLD IN PLATO’S TIMAEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Meara, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Timaeus Plato describes the world as the ‘most beautiful’ (kallistos, 29a5 of generated things. Perhaps indeed this is the first systematic description of the beauty of the world. It is, at any rate, one of the most influential statements of the theme. The Stoics were deeply convinced by it and later, in the third century A.D., at a time when contempt and hate for the world were propagated by Gnostic movements, Plotinus, interpreting the Timaeus, would write magnificent passages on the beauty and value of the world. But what does Plato mean by the ‘beauty’ of the world? What makes the world beautiful? In this paper these questions are approached first (1 by a brief discussion of the distinction which Plato appears to make in the Timaeus between beauty and the good. In one passage (Tim. 87c ‘measure’ seems to relate to this distinction. It is suitable then (2 to look at a section of another late work of Plato, the Philebus, where the themes of beauty, goodness and measure may be compared in more detail. The theme of measure then takes us back (3 to the Timaeus, in order to examine the role played by measure, in particular mathematical measure, in constituting the beauty of the world. I discuss in detail the way in which mathematical structures make for the beauty of soul and body in the living whole that is the world.

  20. Topical review: sleep bruxism, headaches, and sleep-disordered breathing in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Maria Clotilde; Bruni, Olivero; Huynh, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    Sleep bruxism, a well-known burden for dentists, is commonly observed in pediatric populations. Dentists are responsible for the detection and prevention of the detrimental consequences on the stomatognathic system that may occur in some patients with sleep bruxism. However, sleep bruxism is much more than tooth wear, since it is frequently associated with orofacial pain, headaches, and other more severe sleep disorders, such as sleep-disordered breathing. Although the mechanisms underlying the possible interactions among sleep bruxism, headaches, and sleep-disordered breathing need further research, these conditions are often concomitant. A literature search was performed to identify relevant publications related to the topic, which have been integrated in this topical review. The aim of this article was to provide a brief overview on sleep bruxism, headaches, and sleep-disordered breathing in pediatric patients and to promote a multispecialist approach (including dentists, sleep specialist physicians, and psychologists) in the diagnosis and management of these frequently associated disorders.

  1. ENN-ICS - quality assurance and online evaluation of a multilingual learning management system for sleep medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knobl, Brigitte

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development and implementation of a multilingual interactive communication system the e-health project ENN-ICS, funded by the European Union, aims at the improvement of health care in Europe. The field of application is sleep physiology and sleep medicine. ENN-ICS Centre offers direct access to medical information for multiple users, i.e. health authorities, health care professionals, patients and citizen. Using XML technologies the new web based network integrates advanced e-learning and e-publishing methods for the training of healthcare professionals. Editorial and distributive processes are supported by customized central editorial, content management and learning management systems (CMS, LMS. ENN-ICS e-health services are evaluated by selected user groups in North, Middle and Southern Europe using reliable and scientifically accepted validation instruments. The compliance with essential quality requirements and criteria is tested and verified by using adapted online questionnaires based on the DISCERN questionnaire for evaluating patient information, on the HON principles for evaluating health-related websites and on the GMDS catalogue of quality criteria for electronic publications in medicine. The system architecture and its exemplary applications can be used as a model for future e-health services dealing with neurological and other medical topics.

  2. Reactivations of emotional memory in the hippocampus-amygdala system during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardeau, Gabrielle; Inema, Ingrid; Buzsáki, György

    2017-11-01

    The consolidation of context-dependent emotional memory requires communication between the hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but the mechanisms of this process are unknown. We recorded neuronal ensembles in the hippocampus and BLA while rats learned the location of an aversive air puff on a linear track, as well as during sleep before and after training. We found coordinated reactivations between the hippocampus and the BLA during non-REM sleep following training. These reactivations peaked during hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SPW-Rs) and involved a subgroup of BLA cells positively modulated during hippocampal SPW-Rs. Notably, reactivation was stronger for the hippocampus-BLA correlation patterns representing the run direction that involved the air puff than for the 'safe' direction. These findings suggest that consolidation of contextual emotional memory occurs during ripple-reactivation of hippocampus-amygdala circuits.

  3. An attempt to observe directly beauty particles in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, J.P.; Arnold, R.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musset, P.; Piuz, F.; Poulard, G.; Price, M.J.; Ramello, L.; Sletten, H.; Allasia, D.; Bisi, V.; Gamba, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Riccati, L.; Romero, A.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Lavopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Baroni, G.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Liberto, S.; Manfredini, A.; Meddi, F.; Petrera, S.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Santonico, R.; Sebastiani, F.; Barth, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Roosen, R.; Sacton, J.; Schorochoff, G.; Wickens, J.; Breslin, A.C.; Montwill, A.; O'Connor, A.; Davis, D.G.; Davis, D.H.; Downes, J.K.; Duff, B.G.; Esten, M.J.; Gjerpe, I.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Tovee, D.N.; Hazama, M.; Isokane, Y.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Maeda, Y.; Tasaka, S.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt at the direct observation of the cascade decay of beauty particles, produced by π - of 350 GeV/c leading to 3 muons or 4 muons in the final state, has been made in an emulsion/counter hybrid experiment at CERN. Under the assumption that the lifetime of beauty particles is of the order of 10 - 13 s the non-observation of any candidates provides an upper limit for beauty production of approx.=90 nb at the 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  4. Sleep in Patients with Chronic Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Pai; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2017-09-01

    The biological and pathophysiological interaction between sleep and chronic migraine (CM) remains to be fully elucidated. In this article, we provide a narrative review of the literature on sleep disturbance and CM, highlighting recent advances in sleep research and insights into mechanisms that could mediate a role of sleep disturbances in migraine chronification. We discuss the potential for cognitive-behavioral insomnia therapy (CBTi) as an intervention for CM with comorbid insomnia. Finally, we propose a model of the mechanisms underlying the interactions among sleep physiology, maladaptive migraine-coping behaviors, and coexisting factors which contribute to sleep disturbances in CM based on conceptual models used in sleep research. Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint among patients with CM. CM patients experience more frequent and severe insomnia symptoms than patients with episodic migraine (EM). It has been suggested that sleep disturbances may predispose individuals to migraine attacks, which may affect the pain-processing trigeminovascular system and thus play a role in migraine progression. Encouraging but limited evidence suggests that management of insomnia via behavioral sleep therapy may reverse CM to EM and possibly prevent migraine chronification. Migraine has a complex relationship with sleep. The use of objective sleep study such as polysomnographic microstructural sleep analysis and actigraphy could help connect sleep disturbances and processes related to CM. Future longitudinal studies should examine whether effective behavioral treatments such as CBTi can reverse migraine chronification.

  5. The environmental injustice of beauty: framing chemical exposures from beauty products as a health disparities concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Shamasunder, Bhavna

    2017-10-01

    The obstetrics-gynecology community has issued a call to action to prevent toxic environmental chemical exposures and their threats to healthy human reproduction. Recent committee opinions recognize that vulnerable and underserved women may be impacted disproportionately by environmental chemical exposures and recommend that reproductive health professionals champion policies that secure environmental justice. Beauty product use is an understudied source of environmental chemical exposures. Beauty products can include reproductive and developmental toxicants such as phthalates and heavy metals; however, disclosure requirements are limited and inconsistent. Compared with white women, women of color have higher levels of beauty product-related environmental chemicals in their bodies, independent of socioeconomic status. Even small exposures to toxic chemicals during critical periods of development (such as pregnancy) can trigger adverse health consequences (such as impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer). In this commentary, we seek to highlight the connections between environmental justice and beauty product-related chemical exposures. We describe racial/ethnic differences in beauty product use (such as skin lighteners, hair straighteners, and feminine hygiene products) and the potential chemical exposures and health risks that are associated with these products. We also discuss how targeted advertising can take advantage of mainstream beauty norms to influence the use of these products. Reproductive health professionals can use this information to advance environmental justice by being prepared to counsel patients who have questions about toxic environmental exposures from beauty care products and other sources. Researchers and healthcare providers can also promote health-protective policies such as improved ingredient testing and disclosure for the beauty product industry. Future clinical and public health research should consider beauty

  6. Beauty at a glance: The feeling of beauty and the amplitude of pleasure are independent of stimulus duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Vale, Lauren; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-12-01

    Over time, how does beauty develop and decay? Common sense suggests that beauty is intensely felt only after prolonged experience of the object. Here, we present one of various stimuli for a variable duration (1-30 s), measure the observers' pleasure over time, and, finally, ask whether they felt beauty. On each trial, participants (N = 21) either see an image that they had chosen as "movingly beautiful," see an image with prerated valence, or suck a candy. During the stimulus and a further 60 s, participants rate pleasure continuously using a custom touchscreen web app, EmotionTracker.com. After each trial, participants judge whether they felt beauty. Across all stimulus kinds, durations, and beauty responses, the dynamic pleasure rating has a stereotypical time course that is well fit by a one-parameter model with a brief exponential onset (roughly 2.5 s), a sustained plateau during stimulus presentation, and a long exponential decay (roughly 70 s). Across conditions, only the plateau amplitude varies. Beauty and pleasure amplitude are nearly independent of stimulus duration. The final beauty rating is positively correlated with pleasure amplitude (r = 0.60), and nearly independent of duration (r = 0.10). Beauty's independence from duration is unlike Bentham's 18th-century notion of value (utility), which he supposed to depend on the product of pleasure amplitude and duration. Participants report having felt pleasure as strongly after a mere 1 s stimulus as after longer durations, up to 30 s. Thus, we find that amplitude of pleasure is independent of stimulus duration.

  7. [Relationships between sleep and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.

  8. Signs in Architecture: Beauty in the Ordinary

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    In Japan, the basics of living are described as three main elements; clothing, food, and shelter. These elements involve simple daily activities such as changing clothes in the morning, eating lunch, and sleeping at night. It may easily become a mundane topic since they are woven into our daily routines. Nevertheless, a moment in one's day may become joyful when we reconsider and play with the ordinary. The first trace of a dwelling in Japan is a pit shelter. People dug a circular ...

  9. Can sleep deprivation studies explain why human adults sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee K

    2012-11-01

    This review will concentrate on the consequences of sleep deprivation in adult humans. These findings form a paradigm that serves to demonstrate many of the critical functions of the sleep states. The drive to obtain food, water, and sleep constitutes important vegetative appetites throughout the animal kingdom. Unlike nutrition and hydration, the reasons for sleep have largely remained speculative. When adult humans are nonspecifically sleep-deprived, systemic effects may include defects in cognition, vigilance, emotional stability, risk-taking, and, possibly, moral reasoning. Appetite (for foodstuffs) increases and glucose intolerance may ensue. Procedural, declarative, and emotional memory are affected. Widespread alterations of immune function and inflammatory regulators can be observed, and functional MRI reveals profound changes in regional cerebral activity related to attention and memory. Selective deprivation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, on the contrary, appears to be more activating and to have lesser effects on immunity and inflammation. The findings support a critical need for sleep due to the widespread effects on the adult human that result from nonselective sleep deprivation. The effects of selective REM deprivation appear to be different and possibly less profound, and the functions of this sleep state remain enigmatic.

  10. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Derrick J; Schei, Jennifer L; Rector, David M

    2013-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65 dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80 cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma.

  11. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  12. THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael D.; Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the discovery of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep in the late 1950s, identification of the neural circuitry underlying wakefulness, sleep onset and the alternation between REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep has been an active area of investigation. Synchronization and desynchronization of cortical activity as detected in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is due to a corticothalamocortical loop, intrinsic cortical oscillators, monoaminergic and cholinergic afferent input to the thalamus, and the basal forebrain cholinergic input directly to the cortex. The monoaminergic and cholinergic systems are largely wake-promoting; the brainstem cholinergic nuclei are also involved in REM sleep regulation. These wake-promoting systems receive excitatory input from the hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin system. Sleep-promoting nuclei are GABAergic in nature and found in the preoptic area, brainstem and lateral hypothalamus. Although the pons is critical for the expression of REM sleep, recent research has suggested that melanin-concentrating hormone/GABAergic cells in the lateral hypothalamus "gate" REM sleep. The temporal distribution of sleep and wakefulness is due to interaction between the circadian system and the sleep homeostatic system. Although the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei contain the circadian pacemaker, the neural circuitry underlying the sleep homeostat is less clear. Prolonged wakefulness results in the accumulation of extracellular adenosine, possibly from glial sources, which is an important feedback molecule for the sleep homeostatic system. Cortical neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) neurons may also play a role in propagating slow waves through the cortex in NREM sleep. Several neuropeptides and other neurochemicals likely play important roles in sleep/wake control. Although the control of sleep and wakefulness seemingly involves multiple redundant systems, each of these systems provides a vulnerability that can result in sleep/wake dysfunction that may

  13. Can we measure beauty? Computational evaluation of coral reef aesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, A.F.; Guibert, M.; Foerschner, A.; Co, T.; Calhoun, S.; George, E.; Hatay, M.; Dinsdale, E.; Sandin, S.A.; Smith, J.E.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Felts, B.; Dustan, P.; Salamon, P.; Rohwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    The natural beauty of coral reefs attracts millions of tourists worldwide resulting in substantial revenues for the adjoining economies. Although their visual appearance is a pivotal factor attracting humans to coral reefs current monitoring protocols exclusively target biogeochemical parameters,

  14. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  15. Collider phenomenology of light strange-beauty squarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Kingman; Hou Weizshu

    2004-01-01

    Strong mixing between right-handed strange and beauty squarks is a possible solution to the CP violation discrepancy in B→φK S decay as recently suggested by the Belle data. In this scenario, thanks to the strong mixing one of the strange-beauty squarks can be as light as 200 GeV, even though the generic supersymmetry scale is at TeV. In this work, we study the production of this light right-handed strange-beauty squark at hadronic colliders and discuss the detection in various decay scenarios. Detection prospect at the Tevatron run II is good for the strange-beauty squark mass up to about 300 GeV

  16. Beauty production measurements in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions with the ALICE detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Beauty production has been measured in the ALICE experiment via its semi-electronic decays and non-prompt J/Ψ at mid-rapidity. A review of results on beauty production at mid-rapidity in pp collisions at √s = 7TeV and at √s = 2.76TeV. in p-Pb collisions at = 5.02 TeV and in Pb-Pb collisions at q= 2.76TeV are reported, along with the current status of b-jet tagging studies in ALICE. Prospects of beauty production measurements with RUN2 and RUN3-4 are outlined, focusing on the upgraded Inner Tracking System (ITS) and the new Muon Forward Tracker (MFT).

  17. Transvenous stimulation of the phrenic nerve for the treatment of central sleep apnoea: 12 months' experience with the remedē® System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, Dariusz; Ponikowski, Piotr; Augostini, Ralph; Kolodziej, Adam; Khayat, Rami; Abraham, William T

    2016-11-01

    Patients with central sleep apnoea (CSA) often have poor quality of life and are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study sought to evaluate the 12-month clinical outcomes of patients with CSA treated with unilateral transvenous phrenic nerve stimulation in the prospective, multicentre, non-randomized remedē ® System pilot study. Forty-seven patients with CSA were treated with the remedē ® System (Respicardia Inc., Minnetonka, MN, USA) for a minimum of 3 months. Sleep-disordered breathing parameters were evaluated by polysomnography (PSG) at 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up. Sleep symptoms and quality of life were also evaluated. Forty-one patients completed all follow-up PSGs and were included in the analysis. At 12 months, there was sustained improvement compared with baseline in the apnoea-hypopnoea index (49.9 ± 15.1 vs. 27.5 ± 18.3 events/h, P phrenic nerve stimulation is associated with sustained improvement in key sleep parameters, sleep symptoms, and quality of life over 12 months of follow-up. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  18. Nurses' sleep quality, work environment and quality of care in the Spanish National Health System: observational study among different shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, Teresa; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Martínez-Madrid, María José; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the characteristics of nurses' work environments in hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) with nurse reported quality of care, and how care was provided by using different shifts schemes. The study also examined the relationship between job satisfaction, burnout, sleep quality and daytime drowsiness of nurses and shift work. Methods This was a multicentre, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study, centred on a self-administered questionnaire. The study was conducted in seven SNHS hospitals of different sizes. We recruited 635 registered nurses who worked on day, night and rotational shifts on surgical, medical and critical care units. Their average age was 41.1 years, their average work experience was 16.4 years and 90% worked full time. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was carried out to study the relationship between work environment, quality and safety care, and sleep quality of nurses working different shift patterns. Results 65.4% (410) of nurses worked on a rotating shift. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index classification ranked 20% (95) as favourable, showing differences in nurse manager ability, leadership and support between shifts (p=0.003). 46.6% (286) were sure that patients could manage their self-care after discharge, but there were differences between shifts (p=0.035). 33.1% (201) agreed with information being lost in the shift change, showing differences between shifts (p=0.002). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index reflected an average of 6.8 (SD 3.39), with differences between shifts (p=0.017). Conclusions Nursing requires shift work, and the results showed that the rotating shift was the most common. Rotating shift nurses reported worse perception in organisational and work environmental factors. Rotating and night shift nurses were less confident about patients' competence of self-care after discharge. The

  19. Betel Nut Beauty in Taiwan: Chinese Tourists- Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shwu-Huey Wang; Hsiu-Yuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Tourists- eyes will often be attracted by the unique phenomenon of the roadsides: betel nut beauties (pronounced as binlang xishi in Mandarin), if they drive on the roads of Taiwan. Sitting in the neon-lit glass stalls with attractive dress on the roadsides, betel nut beauties usually sell betel nuts to the passing truckers or car drivers with much of their efforts. Moreover, in order to attract peoples- eyesight and increase the sales volume, the young girls are in skimp...

  20. Toward a brain-based theory of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Tomohiro; Zeki, Semir

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to learn whether activity in the same area(s) of the brain correlate with the experience of beauty derived from different sources. 21 subjects took part in a brain-scanning experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Prior to the experiment, they viewed pictures of paintings and listened to musical excerpts, both of which they rated on a scale of 1-9, with 9 being the most beautiful. This allowed us to select three sets of stimuli--beautiful, indifferent and ugly--which subjects viewed and heard in the scanner, and rated at the end of each presentation. The results of a conjunction analysis of brain activity showed that, of the several areas that were active with each type of stimulus, only one cortical area, located in the medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC), was active during the experience of musical and visual beauty, with the activity produced by the experience of beauty derived from either source overlapping almost completely within it. The strength of activation in this part of the mOFC was proportional to the strength of the declared intensity of the experience of beauty. We conclude that, as far as activity in the brain is concerned, there is a faculty of beauty that is not dependent on the modality through which it is conveyed but which can be activated by at least two sources--musical and visual--and probably by other sources as well. This has led us to formulate a brain-based theory of beauty.

  1. Charmed and beauty baryon in hyper central model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Bhavin; Vinodkumar, P.C.; Rai, Ajay Kumar

    2006-01-01

    For the present study the hyper central description of the three-body problem has been employed for the baryons constituting one or more charm and beauty quarks. The confinement potential is assumed in the hyper central co-ordinates as hyper central coulomb plus power potential. The charm and beauty baryons under this potential has been studied for different power indices starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The methods and results are briefly described

  2. Blood Pressure, Sleep Quality and Fatigue in Shift Working Police Officers: Effects of a Twelve Hour Roster System on Cardiovascular and Sleep Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaymen L. Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Police officers have been reported to exhibit a high incidence of pathologies, which present prematurely in an otherwise healthy population. Shift work has also been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and sleep disorders, attributable to its propensity for circadian rhythm dysfunction. However, contention exists as to whether shift work has a direct effect upon blood pressure (BP regulation. Methods: This cross-sectional study sought to determine changes in BP and associations with the overall sleep quality and fatigue in 206 general duties police officers (n = 140 males of the New South Wales Police Force in Australia. The subjects’ BP was assessed before and after their twelve hour shift, during which time they also completed the Lifestyle Appraisal Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Results: Poor sleep quality (PSQI and fatigue severity (FSS were found to predominate in the sample (69% and 51% respectively. Although there was no change in BP for male participants, female officers’ systolic blood pressure (SBP was found to increase significantly across the shift (p < 0.001, but with no change found in females’ diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Finally, higher pre and post-shift SBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.25, p = 0.001, respectively and DBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.26, p = 0.001, respectively were significantly correlated with lower FSS scores after accounting for age, waist-hip ratio and lifestyle risk factors. Conclusions: Based on these preliminary findings, there was a significant increase in SBP of female police officers after shift work, while BP and fatigue levels in all police officers were strongly related. Moreover, the predominating poor sleep quality and impact of fatigue in this sample remain a concern. Further research is required to ensure the physiological welfare of police officers, while strategies

  3. A beautiful question finding nature’s deep design

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Artists as well as scientists throughout human history have pondered this “beautiful question.” With Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek as your guide, embark on a voyage of related discoveries, from Plato and Pythagoras up to the present. Wilczek’s groundbreaking work in quantum physics was inspired by his intuition to look for a deeper order of beauty in nature. In fact, every major advance in his career came from this intuition: to assume that the universe embodies beautiful forms, forms whose hallmarks are symmetry—harmony, balance, proportion—and economy. There are other meanings of “beauty,” but this is the deep logic of the universe—and it is no accident that it is also at the heart of what we find aesthetically pleasing and inspiring. Wilczek is hardly alone among great scientists in charting his course using beauty as his compass. As he reveals in A Beautiful Question, this has been the heart of scientific pursuit from Pythagoras, the ancient Greek who was the first to argue that “all thi...

  4. Evolutionary Effect on the Embodied Beauty of Landscape Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiaoxiang; He, Xianyou; Chen, Guangyao

    2018-01-01

    According to the framework of evolutionary aesthetics, a sense of beauty is related to environmental adaptation and plasticity of human beings, which has adaptive value and biological foundations. Prior studies have demonstrated that organisms derive benefits from the landscape. In this study, we investigated whether the benefits of landscape might elicit a stronger sense of beauty and what the nature of this sense of beauty is. In two experiments, when viewing classical landscape and nonlandscape architectures photographs, participants rated the aesthetic scores (Experiment 1) and had a two-alternative forced choice aesthetic judgment by pressing the reaction button located near to (15 cm) or far from (45 cm) the presenting stimuli (Experiment 2). The results showed that reaction of aesthetic ratings for classical landscape architectures was faster than those of classical nonlandscape architectures. Furthermore, only the reaction of beautiful judgment of classical landscape architecture photograph was significantly faster when the reaction button was in the near position to the presenting photograph than those in the position of far away from the presenting photograph. This finding suggests a facilitated effect for the aesthetic perception of classical landscape architectures due to their corresponding components including water and green plants with strong evolutionary implications. Furthermore, this sense of beauty for classical landscape architectures might be the embodied approach to beauty based on the viewpoint of evolutionary aesthetics and embodied cognition.

  5. Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R; Olmstead, Richard; Carroll, Judith E

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammatory disease risk and all-cause mortality. Here, we assess global evidence linking sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation in adult humans. A systematic search of English language publications was performed, with inclusion of primary research articles that characterized sleep disturbance and/or sleep duration or performed experimental sleep deprivation and assessed inflammation by levels of circulating markers. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted and pooled using a random effect model. A total of 72 studies (n > 50,000) were analyzed with assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Sleep disturbance was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .12; 95% CI = .05-.19) and IL-6 (ES .20; 95% CI = .08-.31). Shorter sleep duration, but not the extreme of short sleep, was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .09; 95% CI = .01-.17) but not IL-6 (ES .03; 95% CI: -.09 to .14). The extreme of long sleep duration was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .17; 95% CI = .01-.34) and IL-6 (ES .11; 95% CI = .02-20). Neither sleep disturbances nor sleep duration was associated with TNFα. Neither experimental sleep deprivation nor sleep restriction was associated with CRP, IL-6, or TNFα. Some heterogeneity among studies was found, but there was no evidence of publication bias. Sleep disturbance and long sleep duration, but not short sleep duration, are associated with increases in markers of systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The paradox of impossible beauty: body changes and beauty practices in aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Chevé, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and understand the experience of aesthetic body changes in women between 65 and 75 years old. To approach the issue, 29 in-depth interviews were conducted in Marseille in 2011. Following a brief review of contemporary Western aesthetics, we will examine the marks of time women perceive as stigmatizing and analyze beauty practices that aim to conceal or repair them. The last part of this article will be devoted to the experience of the aesthetic body and in particular show how aging can paradoxically have a beneficial effect on some women.

  7. Academic Training: Small may be beautiful

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 June 13, 14, 16, 17 June from 11:00 to 12:00, 15 June from 10:00 to 12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Small may be beautiful M. DAVIER / LAL, Orsay, France and T. SOLDNER / ILL, Grenoble, France M. DAVIER 13, 14, 15 June Besides the direct high-energy approach, particle physics frontiers can be explored by low-energy high-sensitivity experiments. These experiments, small on the scale of LHC detectors, can be very effective in reaching a sensitivity level why physics beyond the Standard Model can contribute. In these lectures we will discuss a subject of such experiments (excluding cold neutrons covered in T. Soldner's lectures), their interplay with theory and their impact on our knowledge of new phenomena : anormalous magnetic moments of leptons, weak-electromagnetic interference at low energy and in atomic physics, searches for an electron electric dipole moment in atomic and molecular physics. T. SOLDNER 15, 16, 17 June Neutron pa...

  8. The 2016 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Thiébaut, E.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Heininger, M.; Schertl, D.; Weigelt, G.; Millour, F.; Schutz, A.; Ferrari, A.; Vannier, M.; Mary, D.; Young, J.

    2016-08-01

    Image reconstruction in optical interferometry has gained considerable importance for astrophysical studies during the last decade. This has been mainly due to improvements in the imaging capabilities of existing interferometers and the expectation of new facilities in the coming years. However, despite the advances made so far, image synthesis in optical interferometry is still an open field of research. Since 2004, the community has organized a biennial contest to formally test the different methods and algorithms for image reconstruction. In 2016, we celebrated the 7th edition of the "Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest". This initiative represented an open call to participate in the reconstruction of a selected set of simulated targets with a wavelength-dependent morphology as they could be observed by the 2nd generation of VLTI instruments. This contest represents a unique opportunity to benchmark, in a systematic way, the current advances and limitations in the field, as well as to discuss possible future approaches. In this contribution, we summarize: (a) the rules of the 2016 contest; (b) the different data sets used and the selection procedure; (c) the methods and results obtained by each one of the participants; and (d) the metric used to select the best reconstructed images. Finally, we named Karl-Heinz Hofmann and the group of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie as winners of this edition of the contest.

  9. Healthy Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality sleep, ask yourself Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing during the day? Do you doze off during the day? If you answered yes to these three questions, you should work on ...

  10. Making beautiful deep-sky images astrophotography with affordable equipment and software

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Greg

    2017-01-01

    In this updated version of his classic on deep-sky imaging, astrophotographer Greg Parker describes how the latest technology can help amateur astronomers process their own beautiful images. Whether you are taking your own images from a backyard system or processing data from space telescopes, this book shows you how to enhance the visuals in the "electronic darkroom" for maximum beauty and impact. The wealth of options in the astrophotography realm has exploded in the recent past, and Parker proves an able guide for the interested imager to improve his or her comfort level against this exciting new technological backdrop. From addressing the latest DSLR equipment to updating the usage of Hyperstar imaging telescopes and explaining the utility of parallel imaging arrays, this edition brings the book fully up-to-date, and includes clear tutorials, helpful references, and gorgeous color astrophotography by one of the experts in the field.

  11. Kinematic parameters that influence the aesthetic perception of beauty in contemporary dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrents, Carlota; Castañer, Marta; Jofre, Toni; Morey, Gaspar; Reverter, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Some experiments have stablished that certain kinematic parameters can influence the subjective aesthetic perception of the dance audience. Neave, McCarty, Freynik, Caplan, Hönekopp, and Fink (2010, Biology Letters 7 221-224) reported eleven movement parameters in non-expert male dancers, showing a significant positive correlation with perceived dance quality. We aim to identify some of the kinematic parameters of expert dancers' movements that influence the subjective aesthetic perception of observers in relation to specific skills of contemporary dance. Four experienced contemporary dancers performed three repetitions of four dance-related motor skills. Motion was captured by a VICON-MX system. The resulting 48 animations were viewed by 108 observers. The observers judged beauty using a semantic differential. The data were then subjected to multiple factor analysis. The results suggested that there were strong associations between higher beauty scores and certain kinematic parameters, especially those related to amplitude of movement.

  12. Sleep in childhood and adolescence: age-specific sleep characteristics, common sleep disturbances and associated difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gregory, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep changes throughout the lifespan, with particularly salient alterations occurring during the first few years of life, as well as during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Such changes are partly the result of brain maturation; complex changes in the organisation of the circadian system; as well as changes in daily routine, environmental demands and responsibilities. Despite the automaticity of sleep, given that it is governed by a host of complex mechanisms, there are times when sleep becomes disturbed. Sleep disturbances in childhood are common and may stem from behavioural difficulties or abnormalities in physiological processes-and, in some cases manifest into diagnosable sleep disorders. As well as occurring exclusively, childhood sleep disturbances often co-occur with other difficulties. The purpose of this chapter is to outline the neurobiology of typical sleep/wake processes, and describe changes in sleep physiology and architecture from birth to adulthood. Furthermore, common childhood sleep disorders are described as are their associations with other traits, including all of the syndromes presented in this handbook: ASDs, ADHD, schizophrenia and emotional/behavioural difficulties. Throughout, we attempt to explain possible mechanisms underlying these disorders and their associations.

  13. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  14. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falling asleep; Sleep hygiene References American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Insomnia. Updated March 4, 2015. SleepEducation.org. sleepeducation. ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. ...

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least ...

  16. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  17. Estimating adolescent sleep need using dose-response modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Weber, Nathan; Reynolds, Chelsea; Coussens, Scott; Carskadon, Mary A

    2018-04-01

    This study will (1) estimate the nightly sleep need of human adolescents, (2) determine the time course and severity of sleep-related deficits when sleep is reduced below this optimal quantity, and (3) determine whether sleep restriction perturbs the circadian system as well as the sleep homeostat. Thirty-four adolescents aged 15 to 17 years spent 10 days and nine nights in the sleep laboratory. Between two baseline nights and two recovery nights with 10 hours' time in bed (TIB) per night, participants experienced either severe sleep restriction (5-hour TIB), moderate sleep restriction (7.5-hour TIB), or no sleep restriction (10-hour TIB) for five nights. A 10-minute psychomotor vigilance task (PVT; lapse = response after 500 ms) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale were administered every 3 hours during wake. Salivary dim-light melatonin onset was calculated at baseline and after four nights of each sleep dose to estimate circadian phase. Dose-dependent deficits to sleep duration, circadian phase timing, lapses of attention, and subjective sleepiness occurred. Less TIB resulted in less sleep, more lapses of attention, greater subjective sleepiness, and larger circadian phase delays. Sleep need estimated from 10-hour TIB sleep opportunities was approximately 9 hours, while modeling PVT lapse data suggested that 9.35 hours of sleep is needed to maintain optimal sustained attention performance. Sleep restriction perturbs homeostatic and circadian systems, leading to dose-dependent deficits to sustained attention and sleepiness. Adolescents require more sleep for optimal functioning than typically obtained.

  18. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Medic,Goran; Wille,Micheline; Hemels,Michiel

    2017-01-01

    Goran Medic,1,2 Micheline Wille,1 Michiel EH Hemels1 1Market Access, Horizon Pharma B.V., Utrecht, 2Unit of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Abstract: Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectiv...

  19. Sleep in Othello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  20. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...

  1. Children’s Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Moderates the Relations between Family Adversity and Sleep Problems in Latino 5-Year Olds in the CHAMACOS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey Alkon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common for young children especially if they live in adverse home environments. Some studies investigate if young children may also be at a higher risk of sleep problems if they have a specific biological sensitivity to adversity. This paper addresses the research question, does the relations between children’s exposure to family adversities and their sleep problems differ depending on their autonomic nervous system’s sensitivity to challenges? As part of a larger cohort study of Latino, low-income families, we assessed the cross-sectional relations among family demographics (education, marital status, adversities [routines, major life events (MLE], and biological sensitivity as measured by autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity associated with parent-rated sleep problems when the children were 5 years old. Mothers were interviewed in English or Spanish and completed demographic, family, and child measures. The children completed a 15-min standardized protocol while continuous cardiac measures of the ANS [respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, preejection period (PEP] were collected during resting and four challenge conditions. Reactivity was defined as the mean of the responses to the four challenge conditions minus the first resting condition. Four ANS profiles, co-activation, co-inhibition, reciprocal low RSA and PEP reactivity, and reciprocal high RSA and PEP reactivity, were created by dichotomizing the reactivity scores as high or low reactivity. Logistic regression models showed there were significant main effects for children living in families with fewer daily routines having more sleep problems than for children living in families with daily routines. There were significant interactions for children with low PEP reactivity and for children with the reciprocal, low reactivity profiles who experienced major family life events in predicting children’s sleep problems. Children who had a reciprocal, low reactivity

  2. ISLAMIC BEAUTY: Socio-Semiotic Analysis of Facial Foam and Body Lotion Advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Herti Afriani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer how Islamic Women define the concept of beauty in Ponds advertisement white beauty facial foam and body lotion on television. This study uses a socio-semiotic approach described through three aspects of social context, namely field, tenor, and mode. It argues that Ponds’ definition of a beauty only refers to physical standards, that is, women who have white skin and use both Ponds White Beauty Facial Foam and Foam Body Lotion. Further, television through Ponds advertising is considered as a commercial institution that supports the main idea of capitalism. However, Islamic women consider beautiful physically and spiritually. It suggests that the beautiful women are those who obey and surrender to Allah SWT. In short, Islamic women do not agree with the meaning of beauty resulted from Ponds White Beauty Facial Foam and Ponds Body Lotion advertisement. Rather, beauty consists of both body and, more importantly, soul.

  3. Sleep in Othello

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep.

  4. Self Representation Among Dark Skin People Concerning Discourse of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasty Larasati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to see how’s dark skin people perceive the color of their skin either it’s beautiful or ugly. Up until now, being beautiful categorized as those with fair skin, including Indonesian. This is important to be seen because how you represent yourself related to your identity− who you are or how do you want to be seen. Either they are confident with their skin or not, it is their way of self representation which they got from identity negotiation. But, among dark skin people there always be people who confidently represents their identity against the beauty discourse or counter-discourse. Previous literature reviews show there are two reason can cause counter-discourse: recognition and negotiation. Recognition is an act actor does to fight the mainstream discourse, meanwhile negotiation is about negotiating about what they have. My argument here is women can counter the discourse because of negotiation, they have free choice and body autonomy. Also, they have power to counter the discourse by bargaining power. This article uses qualitative research with in-depth interview towards nine female informants with spesific range of age: 16 – 24 because those ages are ages with huge internet usage. Skin tone classification for informant selection is based on Fitzpatrick skin type scale. Research findings show seven from nine informants have done counter the beauty discourse. Informants also explained how their personality or skills could be their bargaining power which made them easier to counter the beauty discourse. Beside that, informant also have done negotiate their identity from accepted the beauty discourse about desirable skin tones, into counter it. The process did not come out of the blue, but also it need both internal and external factors role. Internal factor is self-consciousness about beauty itself while external factors from family, peer or media socialization.

  5. Beauty and science in a shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceri, Piera

    2017-04-01

    Taking pictures has become a daily action for young. Photography is an essential component of many areas of science, has played a crucial role in the study of anatomy, botany, archeology, ... Still today it is a "scientific tool" in the school textbooks: pictures describe, make reality larger or smaller, faster or slower, show evidence and experimental results. But a photograph has the ability to move, engage and inspire viewers. That means that a photograph can build an emotional bridge between science and people. People and students can get closer to science through beautiful, evocative and expressive shot. In this project students are involved in taking pictures with a scientific and aesthetic content looking around, setting an experiment, watching nature, playing with light, point of wiew, colors and perspective. They have to write a short text and a title that explains the scientific content, why and how they have taken the picture. Both description and title should let increase curiosity, could looks fun or stress artistic aspects. Student show their shots in an official public event in Milan managed by a committee of science and photograph experts and in a local event to parents and local community. "Shots of science" is a project promoted by the italian national association "Scienza under 18", the Physic Department of "Università degli Studi di Milano" and the "Museo di fotografia contemporanea" of Cinisello Balsamo (MI) that help students in discussing about scientific and artistic aspects of their shots. This project contributes to develop digital skills (such as to manage digital images, to share documents, to learn about copyright and creative commons license), communication skills (such as to write a caption, public speaking, to use a picture to communicate), collaboration skills (such as to work with pairs, to respect scheduled times, to be positive in giving and taking into account suggestions) and artistic skills (to learn how to compose a good

  6. Beauty hinders attention switch in change detection: the role of facial attractiveness and distinctiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown that the presence of a task-irrelevant attractive face can induce a transient diversion of attention from a perceptual task that requires covert deployment of attention to one of the two locations. However, it is not known whether this spontaneous appraisal for facial beauty also modulates attention in change detection among multiple locations, where a slower, and more controlled search process is simultaneously affected by the magnitude of a change and the facial distinctiveness. Using the flicker paradigm, this study examines how spontaneous appraisal for facial beauty affects the detection of identity change among multiple faces. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants viewed a display consisting of two alternating frames of four faces separated by a blank frame. In half of the trials, one of the faces (target face changed to a different person. The task of the participant was to indicate whether a change of face identity had occurred. The results showed that (1 observers were less efficient at detecting identity change among multiple attractive faces relative to unattractive faces when the target and distractor faces were not highly distinctive from one another; and (2 it is difficult to detect a change if the new face is similar to the old. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that attractive faces may interfere with the attention-switch process in change detection. The results also show that attention in change detection was strongly modulated by physical similarity between the alternating faces. Although facial beauty is a powerful stimulus that has well-demonstrated priority, its influence on change detection is easily superseded by low-level image similarity. The visual system appears to take a different approach to facial beauty when a task requires resource-demanding feature comparisons.

  7. Beauty hinders attention switch in change detection: the role of facial attractiveness and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenfeng; Liu, Chang Hong; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the presence of a task-irrelevant attractive face can induce a transient diversion of attention from a perceptual task that requires covert deployment of attention to one of the two locations. However, it is not known whether this spontaneous appraisal for facial beauty also modulates attention in change detection among multiple locations, where a slower, and more controlled search process is simultaneously affected by the magnitude of a change and the facial distinctiveness. Using the flicker paradigm, this study examines how spontaneous appraisal for facial beauty affects the detection of identity change among multiple faces. Participants viewed a display consisting of two alternating frames of four faces separated by a blank frame. In half of the trials, one of the faces (target face) changed to a different person. The task of the participant was to indicate whether a change of face identity had occurred. The results showed that (1) observers were less efficient at detecting identity change among multiple attractive faces relative to unattractive faces when the target and distractor faces were not highly distinctive from one another; and (2) it is difficult to detect a change if the new face is similar to the old. The findings suggest that attractive faces may interfere with the attention-switch process in change detection. The results also show that attention in change detection was strongly modulated by physical similarity between the alternating faces. Although facial beauty is a powerful stimulus that has well-demonstrated priority, its influence on change detection is easily superseded by low-level image similarity. The visual system appears to take a different approach to facial beauty when a task requires resource-demanding feature comparisons.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea decreases central nervous system-derived proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yo-El S; Finn, Mary Beth; Sutphen, Courtney L; Herries, Elizabeth M; Jerome, Gina M; Ladenson, Jack H; Crimmins, Daniel L; Fagan, Anne M; Holtzman, David M

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that one mechanism underlying the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease is OSA leading to decreased slow wave activity (SWA), increased synaptic activity, decreased glymphatic clearance, and increased amyloid-β. Polysomnography and lumbar puncture were performed in OSA and control groups. SWA negatively correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β-40 among controls and was decreased in the OSA group. Unexpectedly, amyloid-β-40 was decreased in the OSA group. Other neuronally derived proteins, but not total protein, were also decreased in the OSA group, suggesting that OSA may affect the interaction between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. Ann Neurol 2016;80:154-159. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  9. First measurement of the charge asymmetry in beauty-quark pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; 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Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; 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Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The difference in the angular distributions between beauty quarks and antiquarks, referred to as the charge asymmetry, is measured for the first time in $b\\bar{b}$ pair production at a hadron collider. The data used correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.0fb$^{-1}$ collected at 7TeV center-of-mass energy in proton-proton collisions with the LHCb detector. The measurement is performed in three regions of the invariant mass of the $b\\bar{b}$ system. The results obtained are: \\begin{eqnarray} A_{C}^{b\\bar{b}}(40 105\\,\\rm{GeV/c^2}) &=&1.6 \\pm 1.7(\\rm{stat}) \\pm 0.6(\\rm{syst})\\% \\end{eqnarray} where $A_{C}^{b\\bar{b}}$ is defined as the asymmetry in the difference in rapidity between jets formed from the beauty quark and antiquark. The beauty jets are required to satisfy $2 20$GeV, and have an opening angle in the transverse plane $\\Delta\\phi>2.6$rad. These measurements are consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model.

  10. First measurement of the charge asymmetry in beauty-quark pair production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, Rf; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani', S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-08-22

    The difference in the angular distributions between beauty quarks and antiquarks, referred to as the charge asymmetry, is measured for the first time in bb pair production at a hadron collider. The data used correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb(-1) collected at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy in proton-proton collisions with the LHCb detector. The measurement is performed in three regions of the invariant mass of the bb system. The results obtained are A(C)(bb))(40 105 GeV/c(2)) = 1.6 ± 1.7 ± 0.6%, where A(C)(bb)) is defined as the asymmetry in the difference in rapidity between jets formed from the beauty quark and antiquark, where in each case the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The beauty jets are required to satisfy 2 20 GeV, and have an opening angle in the transverse plane Δ ϕ > 2.6 rad. These measurements are consistent with the predictions of the standard model.

  11. Impact of Sleep Telemedicine Protocol in Management of Sleep Apnea: A 5-Year VA Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza M; Antonescu-Turcu, Andrea; Ratarasarn, Kavita

    2016-05-01

    There is growing evidence that demonstrates an important role for telemedicine technologies in enhancing healthcare delivery. A comprehensive sleep telemedicine protocol was implemented at the Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), Milwaukee, WI, in 2008 in an effort to improve access to sleep specialty care. The telemedicine protocol relied heavily on sleep specialist interventions based on chart review (electronic consult [e-consult]). This was done in response to long wait time for sleep clinic visits as well as delayed sleep study appointments. Since 2008 all consults are screened by sleep service to determine the next step in intervention. Based on chart review, the following steps are undertaken: (1) eligibility for portable versus in-lab sleep study is determined, and a sleep study order is placed accordingly, (2) positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is prescribed for confirmed sleep apnea, and (3) need for in-person evaluation in the sleep clinic is determined, and the visit is scheduled. This study summarizes the 5-year trend in various aspects of access to sleep care after implementation of sleep telemedicine protocol at the Milwaukee VAMC. This is a retrospective system efficiency study. The electronic medical record was interrogated 5 years after starting the sleep telemedicine protocol to study annual trends in the following outcomes: (1) interval between sleep consult and prescription of PAP equipment, (2) total sleep consults, and (3) sleep clinic wait time. Two part-time sleep physicians provided sleep-related care at the Milwaukee VAMC between 2008 and 2012. During this period, the interval between sleep consult and PAP prescription decreased from ≥60 days to ≤7 days. This occurred in spite of an increase in total sleep consults and sleep studies. There was also a significant increase in data downloads, indicating overall improved follow-up. There was no change in clinic wait time of ≥60 days. Implementation of a sleep telemedicine

  12. Psoriasis and Sleep Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Khalid, Usman; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Psoriasis and sleep apnea are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although both diseases have been linked with systemic inflammation, studies on their potential bidirectional association are lacking. We investigate the potential association between psoriasis...... and sleep apnea. METHODS: All Danish citizens age 18 y or older between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011 (n = 5,522,190) were linked at individual level in nationwide registries. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10,000 person-years were calculated and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex......, socioeconomic status, smoking history, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: There were 53,290, 6,885, 6,348, and 39,908 incident cases of mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and sleep apnea, respectively. IRRs (95% confidence interval...

  13. Psoriasis and Sleep Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Khalid, Usman; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Psoriasis and sleep apnea are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although both diseases have been linked with systemic inflammation, studies on their potential bidirectional association are lacking. We investigate the potential association between psoriasis...... and sleep apnea. METHODS: All Danish citizens age 18 y or older between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011 (n = 5,522,190) were linked at individual level in nationwide registries. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10,000 person-years were calculated and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex......, socioeconomic status, smoking history, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: There were 53,290, 6,885, 6,348, and 39,908 incident cases of mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and sleep apnea, respectively. IRRs (95% confidence interval...

  14. Sleep-Dependent Modulation of Metabolic Rate in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Bethany A; Slocumb, Melissa E; Chaitin, Hersh; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2017-08-01

    Dysregulation of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases, and metabolic rate (MR) is acutely regulated by sleep-wake behavior. In humans and rodent models, sleep loss is associated with obesity, reduced metabolic rate, and negative energy balance, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms governing interactions between sleep and metabolism. We have developed a system to simultaneously measure sleep and MR in individual Drosophila, allowing for interrogation of neural systems governing interactions between sleep and metabolic rate. Like mammals, MR in flies is reduced during sleep and increased during sleep deprivation suggesting sleep-dependent regulation of MR is conserved across phyla. The reduction of MR during sleep is not simply a consequence of inactivity because MR is reduced ~30 minutes following the onset of sleep, raising the possibility that CO2 production provides a metric to distinguish different sleep states in the fruit fly. To examine the relationship between sleep and metabolism, we determined basal and sleep-dependent changes in MR is reduced in starved flies, suggesting that starvation inhibits normal sleep-associated effects on metabolic rate. Further, translin mutant flies that fail to suppress sleep during starvation demonstrate a lower basal metabolic rate, but this rate was further reduced in response to starvation, revealing that regulation of starvation-induced changes in MR and sleep duration are genetically distinct. Therefore, this system provides the unique ability to simultaneously measure sleep and oxidative metabolism, providing novel insight into the physiological changes associated with sleep and wakefulness in the fruit fly. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. REM Sleep Phase Preference in the Crepuscular Octodon degus Assessed by Selective REM Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián; Hernández, Felipe; Palacios, Adrian G.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phase preference in a crepuscular mammal (Octodon degus) by challenging the specific REM sleep homeostatic response during the diurnal and nocturnal anticrepuscular rest phases. Design: We have investigated REM sleep rebound, recovery, and documented REM sleep propensity measures during and after diurnal and nocturnal selective REM sleep deprivations. Subjects: Nine male wild-captured O. degus prepared for polysomnographic recordings Interventions: Animals were recorded during four consecutive baseline and two separate diurnal or nocturnal deprivation days, under a 12:12 light-dark schedule. Three-h selective REM sleep deprivations were performed, starting at midday (zeitgeber time 6) or midnight (zeitgeber time 18). Measurements and Results: Diurnal and nocturnal REM sleep deprivations provoked equivalent amounts of REM sleep debt, but a consistent REM sleep rebound was found only after nocturnal deprivation. The nocturnal rebound was characterized by a complete recovery of REM sleep associated with an augment in REM/total sleep time ratio and enhancement in REM sleep episode consolidation. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that the circadian system actively promotes REM sleep. We propose that the sleep-wake cycle of O. degus is modulated by a chorus of circadian oscillators with a bimodal crepuscular modulation of arousal and a unimodal promotion of nocturnal REM sleep. Citation: Ocampo-Garcés A; Hernández F; Palacios AG. REM sleep phase preference in the crepuscular Octodon degus assessed by selective REM sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1247-1256. PMID:23904685

  16. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-12-28

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients.

  17. Introducing a "Balance" in The BSC Through Beauty and Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Kamayanti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Celebrating the seventeenth anniversary of the Balanced Score Card (BSC since it was born in 1992, this paper revisits its concept as one of the landmarks in performance measurement. The BSC turns out to be ‘not so balanced’ since it lacks certain beauty and love. It hinges on accountability for certain interests when measuring performance, negating or putting other interests as minority. Thus, it fits perfectly with the aim of management accounting that puts managers and customers as priorities. The imbalances comes from secularism and overemphasis in rationalism. Sustainability that becomes the current issue nowadays would not be supported by such performance measurement. In order to insert this balance, a methodology by taking a methapor of nurturing mother is applied in this research that encompasses gentle beauty and subtle love. Gentle beauty refers to a complete harmony of beauty : irrational and the rational; this means introducing those that have been left out in the name of rationality such as religions and spiritualism. Subtle love refers to love towards God that is expressed subtly without lust to overpower. The result is a more balanced set of performance measurements that are filled with beauty and love, insyaAllah.

  18. Beauty photoproduction using decays into muons at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, U.

    2008-05-15

    Inclusive cross-sections for the production of open beauty in ep collisions at HERA are measured. The data were recorded with the ZEUS detector between 1996 and 2000. The measurements are restricted to photoproduction processes, i.e. collision events with small four-momentum transfer squared, Q{sup 2}{approx}0. Two jets with transverse momentum p{sub T}>7(6) GeV and pseudo-rapidities vertical stroke {eta} vertical stroke <2.5 are required. The flavour is tagged by the identification of muons from semi-leptonic decays of the beauty quark. The variable used to discriminate between beauty and background is the transverse momentum of the muon with respect to the jet axis. The fraction of beauty is determined by a fit of Monte Carlo templates to the data. Cross-sections have been measured as a function of the muon and jet variables as well as a function of dijet correlation variables. Dijet correlations in beauty production have been measured for the first time in ZEUS and are found in agreement with QCD NLO predictions. (orig.)

  19. The effects of atmospheric optical conditions on perceived scenic beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Douglas A.; Hogo, Henry; Daniel, Terry C.

    This paper describes the results from the first year of a currently on-going study, the objective of which is to investigate the relationships between atmospheric optical conditions and human perceptions of scenic beauty. Color photographs and atmospheric optical measurements, using telephotometers and nephelometers, were taken in the western U.S.A. (Grand Canyon National Park and Mt. Lemmon near Tucson, Arizona) and in the eastern United States (Great Smoky Mountains and Shenandoah national parks). Over 1300 individual observers rated color slides for either visual air quality or scenic beauty using a 10-point rating scale. Ratings were transformed to indices using standard psychophysical techniques. Relationships between these perceptual indices and physical parameters characteristic of the given landscape represented in the color slides were investigated using scatter plots, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression. Physical parameters included visual range, horizon sky chromaticity and luminance, solar zenith and scattering angles, and cloud conditions. Results show that observers' ratings of visual air quality and scenic beauty are sensitive to visual range, sky color, and scattering angle. However, in some of the areas investigated, scenic beauty ratings were not affected by changes in visual range. The sensitivity of the scenic beauty of a vista to changes in the extinction coefficient may be useful for establishing visibility goals and priorities.

  20. Using deep learning to quantify the beauty of outdoor places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2017-07-01

    Beautiful outdoor locations are protected by governments and have recently been shown to be associated with better health. But what makes an outdoor space beautiful? Does a beautiful outdoor location differ from an outdoor location that is simply natural? Here, we explore whether ratings of over 200 000 images of Great Britain from the online game Scenic-Or-Not , combined with hundreds of image features extracted using the Places Convolutional Neural Network, might help us understand what beautiful outdoor spaces are composed of. We discover that, as well as natural features such as 'Coast', 'Mountain' and 'Canal Natural', man-made structures such as 'Tower', 'Castle' and 'Viaduct' lead to places being considered more scenic. Importantly, while scenes containing 'Trees' tend to rate highly, places containing more bland natural green features such as 'Grass' and 'Athletic Fields' are considered less scenic. We also find that a neural network can be trained to automatically identify scenic places, and that this network highlights both natural and built locations. Our findings demonstrate how online data combined with neural networks can provide a deeper understanding of what environments we might find beautiful and offer quantitative insights for policymakers charged with design and protection of our built and natural environments.

  1. Beauty photoproduction using decays into muons at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, U.

    2008-05-01

    Inclusive cross-sections for the production of open beauty in ep collisions at HERA are measured. The data were recorded with the ZEUS detector between 1996 and 2000. The measurements are restricted to photoproduction processes, i.e. collision events with small four-momentum transfer squared, Q 2 ∼0. Two jets with transverse momentum p T >7(6) GeV and pseudo-rapidities vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.5 are required. The flavour is tagged by the identification of muons from semi-leptonic decays of the beauty quark. The variable used to discriminate between beauty and background is the transverse momentum of the muon with respect to the jet axis. The fraction of beauty is determined by a fit of Monte Carlo templates to the data. Cross-sections have been measured as a function of the muon and jet variables as well as a function of dijet correlation variables. Dijet correlations in beauty production have been measured for the first time in ZEUS and are found in agreement with QCD NLO predictions. (orig.)

  2. Can We Model the Scenic Beauty of an Alpine Landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Tasser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, agriculture has lost its importance in many European mountain regions and tourism, which benefits from attractive landscapes, has become a major source of income. Changes in landscape patterns and elements might affect scenic beauty and therefore the socio-economic welfare of a region. Our study aimed at modeling scenic beauty by quantifying the influence of landscape elements and patterns in relationship to distance. Focusing on Alpine landscapes in South and North Tyrol, we used a photographic questionnaire showing different landscape compositions. As mountain landscapes offer long vistas, we related scenic beauty to different distance zones. Our results indicate that the near zone contributes by 64% to the valuation of scenic beauty, the middle zone by 22%, and the far zone by 14%. In contrast to artificial elements, naturalness and diversity increased scenic beauty. Significant differences between different social groups (origin, age, gender, cultural background occurred only between the local population and tourists regarding great landscape changes. Changes towards more homogenous landscapes were perceived negatively, thus political decision makers should support the conservation of the cultural landscape.

  3. Sublimity and beauty: A view from nursing aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles-González, José; Solano-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Several authors have focused on the aesthetics of nursing care from diverse perspectives; however, there are few studies about the sublime and the beautiful in nursing. To identify beautiful and sublime moments in the context of the aesthetics of nursing care. A theoretical reflection has been contemplated about sublime and beautiful values in the context of the aesthetics of nursing care from the cultural history perspective. For that purpose, a revision of this issue has been completed. The terms 'beautiful' and 'sublime' have been analysed to identify the characteristics of both in the context of nursing care. We have followed all ethical requirements regarding the sources, conducting research and authorship. There is no conflict of interest in this paper. With aesthetic knowledge, the nurse expresses the artistic nature of nursing care by appreciating the act of caring for individuals. The sublime is a complex phenomenon, since apparently contrary feelings are interwoven. Nursing care is an art with an anthropological object-subject on which the 'artist' applies their prior knowledge and skills. Feelings and emotions that develop during the clinical nursing practice - especially at times sublime and beautiful, aesthetic - constitute experiences which are professionally significant. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. About sleep's role in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

  5. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  6. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the river hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius): A most unusual cetartiodactyl species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Bertelsen, Mads F; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    This study provides the first systematic analysis of the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the river hippopotamus, one of the closest extant terrestrial relatives of the cetaceans. All nuclei involved in sleep regulation and control found in other mammals, including cetaceans, were present in the river hippopotamus, with no specific nuclei being absent, but novel features of the cholinergic system, including novel nuclei, were present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and orexinergic systems and is extended to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis reveals that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (259,578) and noradrenergic (127,752) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (68,398) are markedly higher than in other large-brained mammals. These features, along with novel cholinergic nuclei in the intralaminar nuclei of the dorsal thalamus and the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain, as well as a major expansion of the hypothalamic cholinergic nuclei and a large laterodorsal tegmental nucleus of the pons that has both parvocellular and magnocellular cholinergic neurons, indicates an unusual sleep phenomenology for the hippopotamus. Our observations indicate that the hippopotamus is likely to be a bihemispheric sleeper that expresses REM sleep. The novel features of the cholinergic system suggest the presence of an undescribed sleep state in the hippopotamus, as well as the possibility that this animal could, more rapidly than other mammals, switch cortical electroencephalographic activity from one state to another. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2036-2058, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists

    OpenAIRE

    Schlarb, Angelika A.; Reis, Dorota; Schröder, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1?28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, preval...

  8. Lifetime measurements of the strange beauty meson and beauty baryons at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.

    1994-01-01

    Last experimental results on the lifetimes of B s 0 mesons and beauty baryons from the LEP experiments ALEPH, DELPHI and OPAL are presented. LEP averages for the lifetimes of B s 0 and Λ b are compared to lifetimes of B d 0 and B + and to the average b hadron lifetime. The precision of these measurements begins to be suitable to test the theoretical predictions of 10-15% differences between the lifetimes of b baryons and mesons, but does not allow a test of the few percent difference expected between B d 0 and B + lifetimes. The data show a significant evidence (3 σ) for lifetime differences between b mesons and b baryons. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs

  9. Comparisons of Portable Sleep Monitors of Different Modalities: Potential as Naturalistic Sleep Recorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsuo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Humans spend more than a fourth of their life sleeping, and sleep quality has been significantly linked to health. However, the objective examination of ambulatory sleep quality remains a challenge, since sleep is a state of unconsciousness, which limits the reliability of self-reports. Therefore, a non-invasive, continuous, and objective method for the recording and analysis of naturalistic sleep is required.Objective: Portable sleep recording devices provide a suitable solution for the ambulatory analysis of sleep quality. In this study, the performance of two activity-based sleep monitors (Actiwatch and MTN-210 and a single-channel EEG-based sleep monitor (SleepScope were compared in order to examine their reliability for the assessment of sleep quality.Methods: Twenty healthy adults were recruited for this study. First, data from daily activity recorded by Actiwatch and MTN-210 were compared to determine whether MTN-210, a more affordable device, could yield data similar to Actiwatch, the de-facto standard. In addition, sleep detection ability was examined using data obtained by polysomnography as reference. One simple analysis included comparing the sleep/wake detection ability of Actiwatch, MTN-210, and SleepScope. Furthermore, the fidelity of sleep stage determination was examined using SleepScope in finer time resolution. Results: The results indicate that MTN-210 demonstrates an activity pattern comparable to that of Actiwatch, although their sensitivity preferences were not identical. Moreover, MTN-210 provides assessment of sleep duration comparable to that of the wrist-worn Actiwatch when MTN-210 was attached to the body. SleepScope featured superior overall sleep detection performance among the three methods tested. Furthermore, SleepScope was able to provide information regarding sleep architecture, although systemic bias was found. Conclusion: The present results suggest that single-channel EEG-based sleep monitors are

  10. Cost of Beauty; Prilocaine Induced Methemoglobinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif KILICLI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Prilocaine induced methemoglobinemia is a rare entity. In the present paper, the authors aim to draw attention to the importance of this rare condition by reporting this case. A 30-year-old female presented to Emergency Department with headache, dispnea and cyanosis. The patient has a history of 1000–1200 mg of prilocaine subcutaneous injection for hair removal at a beauty center, 5 hours ago. Tension arterial: 130/73 mmHg, pulse: 103/minute, body temperature: 37 °C and respiratory rate: 20/minute. The patient had acral and perioral cyanosis. Methemoglobin was measured 14.1% in venous blood gas test. The patient treated with 3 gr ascorbic acid intravenously. The patient was discharged free of symptoms after 48 hours of observation. Emergency physician should consider methemoglobinemia in presentation of dispnea and cyanosis after injection of prilocaine. ÖZET: Prilokaine bağlı gelişen methemoglobinemi nadir görülen bir durumdur. Bu yazıda epilasyon öncesi kullanılan prilokaine sekonder gelişen methemoglobinemi olgusunu sunarak nadir görülen bu durumun önemine işaret etmek istiyoruz. Otuz yaşında kadın acil servise baş ağrısı, dispne ve siyanoz şikayetleri ile başvurdu. Hastaya beş saat öncesinde bir güzellik merkezinde epilasyon öncesinde yaklaşık 1000–1200 mg prilokain subkutan enjeksiyonu yapıldığı öğrenildi. Başvuruda kan basıncı 130/73 mmHg, nabız 103/dk, vücut ısısı 37 °C ve solunum sayısı 20/dk olarak kaydedilmişti. Hastanın akral siyanozu belirgindi. Venöz kan gazında methemoglobin düzeyi %14.1 olarak ölçüldü. Hastaya 3 g intravenöz askorbik asit uygulandı. Tedavi sonrası semptomları gerileyen ve komplikasyon geliştirmeyen hasta 48 saat sonra taburcu edildi. Acil servis doktorları, prilokain enjeksiyonu sonrası gelişen dispne ve siyanoz ayırıcı tanısında mutlaka methemoglobinemiyi akla getirmelidirler. Key words: Methemoglobinemia, prilocaine, cyanosis

  11. The Super Fixed Target beauty facility at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Kwong

    1991-01-01

    The rationale for pursuing beauty physics at the SSC in a fixed target configuration is described. The increased beauty production cross section at the SSC, combined with high interaction rate capability of the proposed detector, results in 10 10-11 produced BB events per year. The long decay length of the B hadrons (≅ 10 cm) allows direct observation of B decays in the high resolution silicon microstrip vertex detector. To optimize the operation of the proposed beauty spectrometer and the SSC, parasitic extraction of attendant or artificially generated large amplitude protons using crystal channeling is proposed and explored. The large sample of fully reconstructed B events allows detailed studies of various CP violating decays with requisite statistics to confront the standard model. The CP physics potential of the proposed experiment is evaluated and compared with alternative approaches, such as symmetric e + e - B Factories and specialized hadron colliders

  12. Predicting beauty: fractal dimension and visual complexity in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, A; Nadal, M; Sheehy, N; Cela-Conde, C J; Sawey, M

    2011-02-01

    Visual complexity has been known to be a significant predictor of preference for artistic works for some time. The first study reported here examines the extent to which perceived visual complexity in art can be successfully predicted using automated measures of complexity. Contrary to previous findings the most successful predictor of visual complexity was Gif compression. The second study examined the extent to which fractal dimension could account for judgments of perceived beauty. The fractal dimension measure accounts for more of the variance in judgments of perceived beauty in visual art than measures of visual complexity alone, particularly for abstract and natural images. Results also suggest that when colour is removed from an artistic image observers are unable to make meaningful judgments as to its beauty. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Presence, Mourning, and Beauty: Elements of Analytic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Henry C

    2017-12-01

    Analyst and patient occasionally arrive at moments of heightened meaning and aliveness. These moments can be transformative and lead to psychic change in the patient. They give life and arouse hope, and feel "real" in a new way, though often entailing emotional turbulence. Specific internal work must be done by the analyst to allow for and foster these experiences. This involves a kind of mourning process in the analyst that allows for "presence" and "availability" as described by Gabriel Marcel, and for the "at-one-ment" described by Bion. These transforming moments can be viewed in an aesthetic realm, along the lines of Keats's "Beauty is truth, truth beauty." This embodies the analytic value of emotional truth. These moments are shared and their emergence is an intersubjective creation. Clinical illustrations show how the internal work of mourning by the analyst through directed introspection allows for presence and availability, and then for shared moments of beauty with the patient.

  14. Quantifying the Beauty of Words: A Neurocognitive Poetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Jacobs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to pave the ground for future studies in Computational Stylistics and (Neuro-Cognitive Poetics by describing procedures for predicting the subjective beauty of words. A set of eight tentative word features is computed via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA and a novel metric for quantifying word beauty, the aesthetic potential is proposed. Application of machine learning algorithms fed with this QNA data shows that a classifier of the decision tree family excellently learns to split words into beautiful vs. ugly ones. The results shed light on surface and semantic features theoretically relevant for affective-aesthetic processes in literary reading and generate quantitative predictions for neuroaesthetic studies of verbal materials.

  15. Quantifying the Beauty of Words: A Neurocognitive Poetics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arthur M

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I would like to pave the ground for future studies in Computational Stylistics and (Neuro-)Cognitive Poetics by describing procedures for predicting the subjective beauty of words. A set of eight tentative word features is computed via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA) and a novel metric for quantifying word beauty, the aesthetic potential is proposed. Application of machine learning algorithms fed with this QNA data shows that a classifier of the decision tree family excellently learns to split words into beautiful vs. ugly ones. The results shed light on surface and semantic features theoretically relevant for affective-aesthetic processes in literary reading and generate quantitative predictions for neuroaesthetic studies of verbal materials.

  16. Euler's pioneering equation the most beautiful theorem in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Robin

    2018-01-01

    In 1988 The Mathematical Intelligencer, a quarterly mathematics journal, carried out a poll to find the most beautiful theorem in mathematics. Twenty-four theorems were listed and readers were invited to award each a 'score for beauty'. While there were many worthy competitors, the winner was 'Euler's equation'. In 2004 Physics World carried out a similar poll of 'greatest equations', and found that among physicists Euler's mathematical result came second only to Maxwell's equations. The Stanford mathematician Keith Devlin reflected the feelings of many in describing it as "like a Shakespearian sonnet that captures the very essence of love, or a painting which brings out the beauty of the human form that is far more than just skin deep, Euler's equation reaches down into the very depths of existence."

  17. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep–wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598

  18. Sleep Disturbances in Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Yasova Barbeau, Daphna; Weiss, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environmen...

  19. Sleep and inflammatory bowel disease: exploring the relationship between sleep disturbances and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnucan, Jami A; Rubin, David T; Ali, Tauseef

    2013-11-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with a greater risk of serious adverse health events, economic consequences, and, most importantly, increased all-cause mortality. Several studies support the associations among sleep, immune function, and inflammation. The relationship between sleep disturbances and inflammatory conditions is complex and not completely understood. Sleep deprivation can lead to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein, which can lead to further activation of the inflammatory cascade. The relevance of sleep in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, has recently received more attention. Several studies have shown that patients with both inactive and active IBD have self-reported sleep disturbances. Here, we present a concise review of sleep and its association with the immune system and the process of inflammation. We discuss the studies that have evaluated sleep in patients with IBD as well as possible treatment options for those patients with sleep disturbances. An algorithm for evaluating sleep disturbances in the IBD population is also proposed. Further research is still needed to better characterize sleep disturbances in the IBD population as well as to assess the effects of various therapeutic interventions to improve sleep quality. It is possible that the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disturbances in this population may provide an opportunity to alter disease outcomes.

  20. The Golden Beauty: Brain Response to Classical and Renaissance Sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Dio, Cinzia; Macaluso, Emiliano; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Is there an objective, biological basis for the experience of beauty in art? Or is aesthetic experience entirely subjective? Using fMRI technique, we addressed this question by presenting viewers, naïve to art criticism, with images of masterpieces of Classical and Renaissance sculpture. Employing proportion as the independent variable, we produced two sets of stimuli: one composed of images of original sculptures; the other of a modified version of the same images. The stimuli were presented in three conditions: observation, aesthetic judgment, and proportion judgment. In the observation condition, the viewers were required to observe the images with the same mind-set as if they were in a museum. In the other two conditions they were required to give an aesthetic or proportion judgment on the same images. Two types of analyses were carried out: one which contrasted brain response to the canonical and the modified sculptures, and one which contrasted beautiful vs. ugly sculptures as judged by each volunteer. The most striking result was that the observation of original sculptures, relative to the modified ones, produced activation of the right insula as well as of some lateral and medial cortical areas (lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus and prefrontal areas). The activation of the insula was particularly strong during the observation condition. Most interestingly, when volunteers were required to give an overt aesthetic judgment, the images judged as beautiful selectively activated the right amygdala, relative to those judged as ugly. We conclude that, in observers naïve to art criticism, the sense of beauty is mediated by two non-mutually exclusive processes: one based on a joint activation of sets of cortical neurons, triggered by parameters intrinsic to the stimuli, and the insula (objective beauty); the other based on the activation of the amygdala, driven by one's own emotional experiences (subjective beauty). PMID:18030335

  1. The golden beauty: brain response to classical and renaissance sculptures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Di Dio

    Full Text Available Is there an objective, biological basis for the experience of beauty in art? Or is aesthetic experience entirely subjective? Using fMRI technique, we addressed this question by presenting viewers, naïve to art criticism, with images of masterpieces of Classical and Renaissance sculpture. Employing proportion as the independent variable, we produced two sets of stimuli: one composed of images of original sculptures; the other of a modified version of the same images. The stimuli were presented in three conditions: observation, aesthetic judgment, and proportion judgment. In the observation condition, the viewers were required to observe the images with the same mind-set as if they were in a museum. In the other two conditions they were required to give an aesthetic or proportion judgment on the same images. Two types of analyses were carried out: one which contrasted brain response to the canonical and the modified sculptures, and one which contrasted beautiful vs. ugly sculptures as judged by each volunteer. The most striking result was that the observation of original sculptures, relative to the modified ones, produced activation of the right insula as well as of some lateral and medial cortical areas (lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus and prefrontal areas. The activation of the insula was particularly strong during the observation condition. Most interestingly, when volunteers were required to give an overt aesthetic judgment, the images judged as beautiful selectively activated the right amygdala, relative to those judged as ugly. We conclude that, in observers naïve to art criticism, the sense of beauty is mediated by two non-mutually exclusive processes: one based on a joint activation of sets of cortical neurons, triggered by parameters intrinsic to the stimuli, and the insula (objective beauty; the other based on the activation of the amygdala, driven by one's own emotional experiences (subjective beauty.

  2. Beauty in photoproduction at HERA II with the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutle, Sarah

    2010-02-15

    The production of beauty quarks in ep collisions should be accurately calculable in perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) since the large mass of the b quark provides a hard scale. Therefore it is interesting to compare such predictions to results using photoproduction events where a low-virtuality photon, emitted by the incoming lepton, collides with a parton from the incoming proton. A measurement of beauty in photoproduction has been made at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -}1. Beauty was identified in events with a muon in the final state by using the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the closest jet. Lifetime information from the silicon vertex detector was also used; the impact parameter of the muon with respect to the primary vertex was exploited to discriminate between signal and background. Cross sections for beauty production as a function of the muon and the jet variables were measured and compared to QCD predictions and to previous measurements. The data were found to be well described by the predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD. The dijet sample of beauty photoproduction events was also used to study higher-order QCD topologies. At leading order, the two jets in the event are produced back-to-back in azimuthal angle, such that {delta}{phi}{sup jj}={phi}{sup j1}-{phi}{sup j2}={pi}. Additional soft radiation causes small azimuthal decorrelations, whilst {delta}{phi}{sup jj} significantly lower than {pi} is evidence of additional hard radiation. In this thesis, the cross section versus {delta}{phi}{sup jj} for beauty photoproduction and the comparison to NLO QCD predictions and Monte Carlo models are presented. (orig.)

  3. Beauty in photoproduction at HERA II with the ZEUS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutle, Sarah

    2010-02-01

    The production of beauty quarks in ep collisions should be accurately calculable in perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) since the large mass of the b quark provides a hard scale. Therefore it is interesting to compare such predictions to results using photoproduction events where a low-virtuality photon, emitted by the incoming lepton, collides with a parton from the incoming proton. A measurement of beauty in photoproduction has been made at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb - 1. Beauty was identified in events with a muon in the final state by using the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the closest jet. Lifetime information from the silicon vertex detector was also used; the impact parameter of the muon with respect to the primary vertex was exploited to discriminate between signal and background. Cross sections for beauty production as a function of the muon and the jet variables were measured and compared to QCD predictions and to previous measurements. The data were found to be well described by the predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD. The dijet sample of beauty photoproduction events was also used to study higher-order QCD topologies. At leading order, the two jets in the event are produced back-to-back in azimuthal angle, such that Δφ jj =φ j1 -φ j2 =π. Additional soft radiation causes small azimuthal decorrelations, whilst Δφ jj significantly lower than π is evidence of additional hard radiation. In this thesis, the cross section versus Δφ jj for beauty photoproduction and the comparison to NLO QCD predictions and Monte Carlo models are presented. (orig.)

  4. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Goran; Wille, Micheline; Hemels, Michiel Eh

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep). Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with underlying medical conditions, sleep disruption may diminish the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents and may worsen the severity of common gastrointestinal disorders. As a result of the potential consequences of sleep disruption, health care

  5. Sleep Applications to Assess Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietze, Ingo

    2016-12-01

    This article highlights the potential uses that smartphone applications may have for helping those with sleep problems. Applications in smartphones offer the promised possibility of detection of sleep. From the author's own experience, one can also conclude that sleep applications are approximately as good as polysomnography in detection of sleep time, similar to the conventional wearable actimeters. In the future, sleep applications will help to further enhance awareness of sleep health and to distinguish those who actually poorly and only briefly sleep from those who suffer more likely from paradox insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of MIh Scoring System in Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinxing; Du, Junwei; Ling, Xiaobo; Lu, Yangfei

    2017-10-02

    BACKGROUND The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the analysis of magnesium (Mg), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) concentrations can be used as a non-invasive and convenient method for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). MATERIAL AND METHODS After polysomnography, venous blood was collected from 33 patients with OSAS and 30 control individuals. Serum levels of Mg, hsCRP, and IMA were investigated. The relationship between these factors and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The role of the factors was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The levels of hsCRP and IMA were significantly higher in patients with OSAS than in control subjects, while the levels of Mg were lower (PMIh, which is obtained by multivariate analysis, yielded an AUC value of 0.93 (0.83-0.98). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment reversed the changes in the serum levels of Mg, hsCRP, and IMA. CONCLUSIONS Patients with OSAS show reduced serum Mg levels and elevated serum hsCRP and IMA levels. These observed alterations can be reversed by CPAP treatment. A novel model, named MIh, may be a promising tool for OSAS diagnosis.

  7. A prediction model based on an artificial intelligence system for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei Ming; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Chuang, Chih Yuan; Liu, Li

    2011-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major concern in modern medicine; however, it is difficult to diagnose. Screening questionnaires such as the Berlin questionnaire, Rome questionnaire, and BASH'IM score are used to identify patients with OSA. However, the sensitivity and specificity of these tools are not satisfactory. We aim to introduce an artificial intelligence method to screen moderate to severe OSA patients (apnea-hypopnea index ≧15). One hundred twenty patients were asked to complete a newly developed questionnaire before undergoing an overnight polysomnography (PSG) study. One hundred ten validated questionnaires were enrolled in this study. Genetic algorithm (GA) was used to build the five best models based on these questionnaires. The same data were analyzed with logistic regression (LR) for comparison. The sensitivity of the GA models varied from 81.8% to 88.0%, with a specificity of 95% to 97%. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of the LR model were 55.6% and 57.9%, respectively. GA provides a good solution to build models for screening moderate to severe OSA patients, who require PSG evaluation and medical intervention. The questionnaire did not require any special biochemistry data and was easily self-administered. The sensitivity and specificity of the GA models are satisfactory and may improve when more patients are recruited.

  8. Informality wears uniform: Beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Palacios Ruiz de Gamboa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how flexible work economy has been affecting a group of beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile. They do not have a work contract and receive their payment as if they were giving an independent service, but depend on the rules their bosses impose them. The kind of work described in the article appears to be a new arrangement within the context of urban informality, which has present and future implications regarding social security and uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic observation in four beauty salons, I describe how the embodied belief of being an independent worker helps to enact many skills required by the flexible work economy.

  9. Beauty photoproduction using decays into electrons at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-05-15

    Photoproduction of beauty quarks in events with two jets and an electron associated with one of the jets has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb{sup -1}. The fractions of events containing b quarks, and also of events containing c quarks, were extracted from a likelihood fit using variables sensitive to electron identification as well as to semileptonic decays. Total and differential cross sections for beauty and charm production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations and Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  10. Beautiful Testing Leading Professionals Reveal How They Improve Software

    CERN Document Server

    Goucher, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Successful software depends as much on scrupulous testing as it does on solid architecture or elegant code. But testing is not a routine process, it's a constant exploration of methods and an evolution of good ideas. Beautiful Testing offers 23 essays from 27 leading testers and developers that illustrate the qualities and techniques that make testing an art. Through personal anecdotes, you'll learn how each of these professionals developed beautiful ways of testing a wide range of products -- valuable knowledge that you can apply to your own projects. Here's a sample of what you'll find i

  11. Beauty photoproduction using decays into electrons at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-05-01

    Photoproduction of beauty quarks in events with two jets and an electron associated with one of the jets has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb -1 . The fractions of events containing b quarks, and also of events containing c quarks, were extracted from a likelihood fit using variables sensitive to electron identification as well as to semileptonic decays. Total and differential cross sections for beauty and charm production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations and Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  12. A hybrid experiment to search for beauty particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Chiba, K.; Hoshino, K.; Kaway, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Kodama, K.; Miyanishi, M.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Niu, K.; Niwa, K.; Ohashi, M.; Sasaki, H.; Tajima, H.; Tomita, Y.; Yamakawa, O.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Baroni, G.; Cecchetti, A.M.; Dell'Uomo, S.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Liberto, S.; Frenkel, A.; Manfredini, A.; Marini, G.; Martellotti, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Nigro, A.; Penso, G.; Pistilli, P.; Sciubla, A.; Sgarbi, C.; Barth, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Roosen, R.; Bartley, J.H.; Davis, D.H.; Duff, B.G.; Esten, M.J.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Tovee, D.N.; Breslin, A.C.; Donnelly, W.; Montwill, A.; Coupland, M.; Trent, P.; Hazama, M.; Isokane, Y.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Kazuno, M.; Minakawa, F.; Shibuya, H.; Watanabe, S.

    1989-01-01

    We give here a detailed description of experiment WA75, which was performed at CERN to search for beauty particles. Events containing at least one muon with a high momentum transverse to the beam direction were selected; then the primary interactions and decay vertices, located in stacks of nuclear research emulsions, were examined and analysed. The various parts of the apparatus are described and the off-line analysis and search in emulsion are discussed. An estimate is made of the sensitivity of the experiment to beauty- and charmed-particle production. (orig.)

  13. BRAND AND VISUAL IDENTITY DESIGN FOR A BEAUTY SALON

    OpenAIRE

    Borhani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to create a brand and a visual identity for a beauty-salon called Narsissi. Narsissi offers a relaxing environment where both men and women can get lasting beauty treatment results. For a firm being branded is unavoidable. Everything from the look of the logo to the smoothness of service communicates something to the possible customer. In today's market, to be competitive means to be in control of the brand. A huge part of a brand's effectiveness is visual. T...

  14. Beauty and charm production in fixed target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos; Vogt, Ramona

    2004-01-01

    We present calculations of NNLO threshold corrections for beauty and charm production in π - p and pp interactions at fixed-target experiments. Recent calculations for heavy quark hadroproduction have included next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) soft-gluon corrections [1] to the double differential cross section from threshold resummation techniques [2]. These corrections are important for near-threshold beauty and charm production at fixed-target experiments, including HERA-B and some of the current and future heavy ion experiments

  15. SLEEP AND OLFACTORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan eBarnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulation and instead displays sharp-wave activity similar to that observed within the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and other cortical and limbic regions is enhanced during slow-wave sleep compared to waking. This combination of conditions may allow odor memory consolidation to occur during a state of reduced external interference and facilitate association of odor memories with stored hedonic and contextual cues. Evidence consistent with sleep-dependent odor replay within olfactory cortical circuits is presented. These data suggest that both the strength and precision of odor memories is sleep-dependent. The work further emphasizes the critical role of synaptic plasticity and memory in not only odor memory but also basic odor perception. The work also suggests a possible link between sleep disturbances that are frequently co-morbid with a wide range of pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and depression and the known olfactory impairments associated with those disorders.

  16. Hadroproduction and photoproduction of beauty and charm in fixed-target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, J.

    1996-01-01

    The authors summarize the current experimental situation for charm and beauty production in fixed-target experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on beauty cross-sections and charm pair correlations

  17. Sleep walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleepwalking. In: Chokroverty S, Thomas RJ, eds. Atlas of Sleep Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:380- ... of Clinical Neurology, SUNY Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ... NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  18. Comparison of drug-induced sleep endoscopy and Müller's maneuver in diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea using the VOTE classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegïn, Yakup; Çelik, Mustafa; Kaya, Kamïl Hakan; Koç, Arzu Karaman; Kayhan, Fatma Tülin

    Knowledge of the site of obstruction and the pattern of airway collapse is essential for determining correct surgical and medical management of patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). To this end, several diagnostic tests and procedures have been developed. To determine whether drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) or Müller's maneuver (MM) would be more successful at identifying the site of obstruction and the pattern of upper airway collapse in patients with OSAS. The study included 63 patients (52 male and 11 female) who were diagnosed with OSAS at our clinic. Ages ranged from 30 to 66 years old and the average age was 48.5 years. All patients underwent DISE and MM and the results of these examinations were characterized according to the region/degree of obstruction as well as the VOTE classification. The results of each test were analyzed per upper airway level and compared using statistical analysis (Cohen's kappa statistic test). There was statistically significant concordance between the results from DISE and MM for procedures involving the anteroposterior (73%), lateral (92.1%), and concentric (74.6%) configuration of the velum. Results from the lateral part of the oropharynx were also in concordance between the tests (58.7%). Results from the lateral configuration of the epiglottis were in concordance between the tests (87.3%). There was no statistically significant concordance between the two examinations for procedures involving the anteroposterior of the tongue (23.8%) and epiglottis (42.9%). We suggest that DISE has several advantages including safety, ease of use, and reliability, which outweigh MM in terms of the ability to diagnose sites of obstruction and the pattern of upper airway collapse. Also, MM can provide some knowledge of the pattern of pharyngeal collapse. Furthermore, we also recommend using the VOTE classification in combination with DISE. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia C

  19. Measurement of beauty quark mass at HERA and impact on Higgs production in association with beauty quarks at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizhko, Andrii

    2016-06-01

    Three different, but related topics are the subject of this thesis, performed in the context of the ZEUS and CMS groups at DESY. The first measurement of the MS beauty-quark mass m b (m b ) at an electron-proton collider is presented. The measurement is based on a QCD analysis of beauty production cross sections in deep inelastic (DIS) ep scattering measured by ZEUS at HERA, together with inclusive DIS HERA data, using Next-to-Leading-Order QCD predictions. The measured value of the running beauty-quark mass in the MS scheme was found to be m b (m b )=4.07±0.14 (fit) +0.01 -0.07 (mod.) +0.05 -0.00 (param.) +0.08 -0.05 ( theo.) GeV, which is in good agreement with the world average Particle Data Group value and previous measurements at electron-positron colliders. It is also found to be consistent with the expected running of m b (μ). A first measurement of the charm-quark mass m c (μ) running in the MS scheme is presented. The measurement is based on a QCD analysis of the published H1 and ZEUS combination of charm cross section measurements in DIS ep scattering at HERA, together with inclusive DIS HERA data, using Next-to-Leading-Order QCD predictions. The running charm-quark mass m c (μ) was measured at different scales μ and is presented in a charm-quark mass running plot with a comparison to the world average Particle Data Group m c (m c ) evolved to higher scales. The running is found to be consistent with the expectations from QCD. The uncertainties of the theoretical predictions for Higgs production in association with beauty-quarks originating from the beauty-quark mass were studied and reduced for massive and massless QCD calculations. The beauty-quark mass measurement m b (m b ) was used to decrease the variation of the beauty-quark mass to 0.17 GeV. It was shown that the uncertainty from the beauty-quark mass m b (m b ) in the case of massive calculations for Hb anti b production at LHC can be reduced to 2%. This makes it negligible compared to other

  20. Measurement of beauty quark mass at HERA and impact on Higgs production in association with beauty quarks at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizhko, Andrii

    2016-06-15

    Three different, but related topics are the subject of this thesis, performed in the context of the ZEUS and CMS groups at DESY. The first measurement of the MS beauty-quark mass m{sub b}(m{sub b}) at an electron-proton collider is presented. The measurement is based on a QCD analysis of beauty production cross sections in deep inelastic (DIS) ep scattering measured by ZEUS at HERA, together with inclusive DIS HERA data, using Next-to-Leading-Order QCD predictions. The measured value of the running beauty-quark mass in the MS scheme was found to be m{sub b}(m{sub b})=4.07±0.14 (fit){sup +0.01}{sub -0.07}(mod.){sup +0.05}{sub -0.00}(param.){sup +0.08}{sub -0.05}( theo.) GeV, which is in good agreement with the world average Particle Data Group value and previous measurements at electron-positron colliders. It is also found to be consistent with the expected running of m{sub b}(μ). A first measurement of the charm-quark mass m{sub c}(μ) running in the MS scheme is presented. The measurement is based on a QCD analysis of the published H1 and ZEUS combination of charm cross section measurements in DIS ep scattering at HERA, together with inclusive DIS HERA data, using Next-to-Leading-Order QCD predictions. The running charm-quark mass m{sub c}(μ) was measured at different scales μ and is presented in a charm-quark mass running plot with a comparison to the world average Particle Data Group m{sub c}(m{sub c}) evolved to higher scales. The running is found to be consistent with the expectations from QCD. The uncertainties of the theoretical predictions for Higgs production in association with beauty-quarks originating from the beauty-quark mass were studied and reduced for massive and massless QCD calculations. The beauty-quark mass measurement m{sub b}(m{sub b}) was used to decrease the variation of the beauty-quark mass to 0.17 GeV. It was shown that the uncertainty from the beauty-quark mass m{sub b}(m{sub b}) in the case of massive calculations for Hb anti b

  1. Intermittent hypoxia from obstructive sleep apnea may cause neuronal impairment and dysfunction in central nervous system: the potential roles played by microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Q

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Qingchan Yang,1,* Yan Wang,2,* Jing Feng,2 Jie Cao,2 Baoyuan Chen2 1Graduate School of Tianjin Medical University, 2Respiratory Department, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition characterized by repetitive episodes of complete (apnea or partial (hypopnea obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, resulting in oxygen desaturation and arousal from sleep. Intermittent hypoxia (IH resulting from OSA may cause structural neuron damage and dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS. Clinically, it manifests as neurocognitive and behavioral deficits with oxidative stress and inflammatory impairment as its pathophysiological basis, which are mediated by microglia at the cellular level. Microglia are dominant proinflammatory cells in the CNS. They induce CNS oxidative stress and inflammation, mainly through mitochondria, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the release of excitatory toxic neurotransmitters. The balance between neurotoxic versus protective and anti- versus proinflammatory microglial factors might determine the final roles of microglia after IH exposure from OSA. Microglia inflammatory impairments will continue and cascade persistently upon activation, ultimately resulting in clinically significant neuron damage and dysfunction in the CNS. In this review article, we summarize the mechanisms of structural neuron damage in the CNS and its concomitant dysfunction due to IH from OSA, and the potential roles played by microglia in this process. Keywords: intermittent hypoxia, obstructive sleep apnea, microglia, inflammation, apoptosis

  2. Modulation of Sleep Homeostasis by Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in REM Sleep-Deprived Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sleep recovery following different protocols of forced waking varies according to the level of stress inherent to each method. Sleep deprivation activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH impairs sleep. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how manipulations of the CRH system during the sleep deprivation period interferes with subsequent sleep rebound. Throughout 96 hours of sleep deprivation, separate groups of rats were treated i.c.v. with vehicle, CRH or with alphahelical CRH9−41, a CRH receptor blocker, twice/day, at 07:00 h and 19:00 h. Both treatments impaired sleep homeostasis, especially in regards to length of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and theta/delta ratio and induced a later decrease in NREM and REM sleep and increased waking bouts. These changes suggest that activation of the CRH system impact negatively on the homeostatic sleep response to prolonged forced waking. These results indicate that indeed, activation of the HPA axis—at least at the hypothalamic level—is capable to reduce the sleep rebound induced by sleep deprivation.

  3. Effect of Inhaled Lavender and Sleep Hygiene on Self-Reported Sleep Issues: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehei, Angela Smith; Savik, Kay; Reis, Reilly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and sleep hygiene versus sleep hygiene alone on sleep quantity and sleep quality and to determine sustained effect at two-week follow-up. Design: A randomized controlled trial with investigator blinding and steps taken to blind the participants. Setting: Participants' usual sleep setting. Subjects: Seventy-nine college students with self-reported sleep issues. Interventions: The intervention took place over five nights with baseline, postintervention, and two-week follow-up assessments. Both groups practiced good sleep hygiene and wore an inhalation patch on their chest at night. One group wore a patch with 55 μl of lavender essential oil and the other group wore a blank patch. Outcome measures: Sleep quantity was measured using a Fitbit® tracker and a sleep diary, and sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) sleep disturbance short form. Results: The lavender and sleep hygiene group demonstrated better sleep quality at postintervention and two-week follow-up (PSQI p=0 .01, <0.001 and PROMIS p=0.04, 0.007, respectively). The sleep-hygiene-only group also demonstrated better sleep quality but to a lesser extent (PSQI p=0.02, 0.06 and PROMIS p=0.03, 0.03, respectively). Additionally, a clinical effect was found for the lavender group at postintervention, along with a significant finding for waking feeling refreshed (p=0.01). Sleep quantity did not differ between groups. Conclusions: Lavender and sleep hygiene together, and sleep hygiene alone to a lesser degree, improved sleep quality for college students with self-reported sleep issues, with an effect remaining at follow-up. PMID:26133206

  4. Shedding light to sleep studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieffenderfer, James; Krystal, Andrew; Bozkurt, Alper

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents our efforts in the development of a small wireless, flexible bandage sized near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system for sleep analysis. The current size of the system is 2.8 cm × 1.7 cm × 0.6 cm. It is capable of performing NIRS with 660nm, 940nm and 850nm wavelengths for up to 11 hours continuously. The device is placed on the forehead to measure from the prefrontal cortex and the raw data is continuously streamed over Bluetooth to a nearby data aggregator such as a smartphone for post processing and cloud connection. In this study, we performed traditional polysomnography simultaneously with NIRS to evaluate agreement with traditional measures of sleep and to provide labelled data for future work involving learning algorithms. Ultimately, we expect a machine learning algorithm to be able to generate characterization of sleep states comparable to traditional methods based on this biophotonics data. The system also includes an inertial measurement unit and the features that can be extracted from the presented system include sleep posture, heart rate, respiratory rate, relative change in oxy and deoxy hemoglobin concentrations and tissue oxygenation and cerebral arterial oxygen extracted from these. Preliminary proof of concept results are promising and demonstrate the capability to measure heart rate, respiratory rate and slow-wave-sleep stages. This system serves as a prototype to evaluate the potential of a small bandage-size continuous-wave NIRS device to be a useful means of studying sleep.

  5. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH: a new sleep factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eTorterolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurons that utilize the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH as a neuromodulator are mainly located in the lateral hypothalamus and the incerto-hypothalamic area, and have widespread projections throughout the brain. While the biological functions of this neuropeptide are exerted in humans through two metabotropic receptors, the MCHR1 and MCHR2, only the MCHR1 is present in rodents. Recently, it has been shown that the MCHergic system is involved in the control of sleep. We can summarize the experimental findings as follows:1. The areas related to the control of sleep and wakefulness have an important density of MCHergic fibers and receptors.2. MCHergic neurons are active during sleep, especially during REM sleep.3. Genetically-modified animals without MCH have less REM sleep, notably under conditions of negative energy balance. 4. Systemically administered MCHR1 antagonists reduce sleep. 5. Intraventricular microinjection of MCH increases both slow wave sleep (SWS and REM sleep; however, the increment in REM sleep is more pronounced.6. Microinjection of MCH into the dorsal raphe nucleus increases REM sleep time. REM seep is inhibited by immunoneutralization of MCH within this nucleus.7. Microinjection of MCH in the nucleus pontis oralis of the cat enhances REM sleep time and reduces REM sleep latency.All these data strongly suggest that MCH has a potent role in the promotion of sleep. Although both SWS and REM sleep are facilitated by MCH, REM sleep seems to be more sensitive to MCH modulation.

  6. Sleep electroencephalography as a biomarker in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiger A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Axel Steiger, Marcel Pawlowski, Mayumi Kimura Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany Abstract: The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG provides biomarkers of depression, which may help with diagnosis, prediction of therapy response, and prognosis in the treatment of depression. In patients with depression, characteristic sleep EEG changes include impaired sleep continuity, disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM sleep, and impaired non-REM sleep. Most antidepressants suppress REM sleep in depressed patients, healthy volunteers, and in animal models. REM suppression appears to be an important, but not an absolute requirement, for antidepressive effects of a substance. Enhanced REM density, a measure for frequency of REM, characterizes high-risk probands for affective disorders. REM-sleep changes were also found in animal models of depression. Sleep-EEG variables were shown to predict the response to treatment with antidepressants. Furthermore, certain clusters of sleep EEG variables predicted the course of the disorder for several years. Some of the predicted sleep EEG markers appear to be related to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal system activity. Keywords: biomarkers, depression, sleep EEG, antidepressants, prediction, animal models

  7. Sleep and its disorders in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Louise M; Nutt, David J; Wilson, Sue J

    2011-09-01

    The study of sleep is a useful approach to studying the brain in psychiatric disorders and in investigating the effects of psychotropic drugs. Sleep physiology lends itself well to pharmacological and physiological manipulation, as it has the advantage of a functional output, the electroencephalograph, which is common to all mammals, and can be measured in freely moving (or naturally sleeping) animals under controlled laboratory conditions or in a naturalistic home environment. The complexity of sleep architecture varies between species but all share features which are comparable. In addition, sleep architecture is sensitive to changes in brain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, so cross-species sleep measurement can be combined with pharmacological manipulation to investigate the receptor mechanisms controlling sleep-wake regulation and sleep architecture in response to known and novel agents. Translational approaches such as these have improved our understanding of sleep circuitry and facilitated the development of new treatments for sleep disorders, particularly insomnia. This review provides examples of how research findings within the sleep field have been translated between animal models, healthy volunteers and patient populations with particular focus on the serotonergic system.

  8. Systemic inflammation: a key factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, S

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent disease and is recognised as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood but a multifactorial aetiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis at all stages of atheroma formation. Increased levels of various circulating markers of inflammation including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 6 (IL6), IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been reported as associated with future cardiovascular risk. There is increasing evidence of elevated inflammatory markers in OSAS with a significant fall after effective treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. This evidence is particularly strong for TNFalpha, whereas studies on IL6 and CRP have yielded conflicting results possibly due to the confounding effects of obesity. Cell culture and animal studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the association between OSAS and inflammation. Intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSAS, results in activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1. These promote activation of various inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes and monocytes, with the downstream consequence of expression of pro-inflammatory mediators that may lead to endothelial dysfunction. This review provides a critical analysis of the current evidence for an association between OSAS, inflammation and cardiovascular disease, discusses basic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association and proposes future research possibilities.

  9. Mating motives are neither necessary nor sufficient to create the beauty premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Dana, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Mating motives lead decision makers to favor attractive people, but this favoritism is not sufficient to create a beauty premium in competitive settings. Further, economic approaches to discrimination, when correctly characterized, could neatly accommodate the experimental and field evidence of a beauty premium. Connecting labor economics and evolutionary psychology is laudable, but mating motives do not explain the beauty premium.

  10. Sleep deprivation: a mind-body approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia C

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the impact sleep disturbances have on our health, with particular focus on the brain. The present review considers the influence of sleep disturbance on the neurovascular unit; the role of sleep disturbance in neurodegenerative diseases; and relevant strategies of neuro-immuno-endocrine interactions that likely contribute to the restorative power of sleep. Given the latest discoveries about the brain's waste clearance system and its relationship to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, this review gives a brief overview on the molecular mechanisms behind sleep loss-related impairments. Recent evidence indicates that sleep plays a vital role in neuro-immuno-endocrine homeostasis. Sleep loss has been linked to elevated risks for cognitive and mood disorders, underscored by impaired synaptic transmission. The glymphatic system has been shown to be modulated by sleep and implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. Interactions between sleep quality, the immune system, and neurodegenerative disease are complex and a challenge to distil. These interactions are frequently bidirectional, because of sleep's characterization as an early symptom and as a potential factor contributing to the development and progression of mood and cognitive disorders. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  11. Study of charm and beauty production at HERA/H1 using dilepton events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettlich, M.

    2007-04-15

    stroke {delta}{phi}({mu}{sub 1},l{sub 2}) vertical stroke x Q({mu}{sub 1}) x Q(l{sub 2}) of the dilepton system are investigated. In addition, differential jet cross sections are determined. The measurements are compared with leading order QCD calculations, supplemented with parton showers. The charm cross sections are consistent with the predictions, while the predicted beauty cross sections are somewhat lower than the measurement. The predicted differential beauty cross sections describe the shape of the measurements. (orig.)

  12. Medical comorbidity of sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikeos, Dimitris; Georgantopoulos, Georgios

    2011-07-01

    Recently published literature indicates that sleep disorders present with medical comorbidities quite frequently. The coexistence of a sleep disorder with a medical disorder has a substantial impact for both the patient and the health system. Insomnia and hypersomnia are highly comorbid with medical conditions, such as chronic pain and diabetes, as well as with various cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary and neurological disorders. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movement syndrome have been associated with iron deficiency, kidney disease, diabetes, and neurological, autoimmune, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Rapid eye movement behaviour disorder has been described as an early manifestation of serious central nervous system diseases; thus, close neurological monitoring of patients referring with this complaint is indicated. Identification and management of any sleep disorder in medical patients is important for optimizing the course and prognosis. Of equal importance is the search for undetected medical disorder in patients presenting with sleep disorders.

  13. Synthesis of goodness and beauty of Petrikivsky decorative painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Harkava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrykivsky decorative painting as a unique manifestation of Ukrainian national culture has been studied in the article. This painting is recognized all over the world as an intangible cultural heritage of humanity in the context of its philosophical principles. Petrykivsky decorative painting by its basis — murals,  reaches Tripoli and puts the Ukrainian culture among the ancient cultures of the world. At various stages of ethnos’ existence, Ukrainian folk decorative art was an important part of the spiritual life and reflected its identity, ensuring the continuity of spiritual connection between generations. Motives of Petrykivka decorative painting describe the local flora and fauna and the local historical tradition. Folk artists get their inspiration from the mother nature, traditional for the Ukrainian people worship to Mother-land and all beautiful things, which are created by it. However, Petrykivsky decorative painting is not a direct reflection of natural motifs. World, created in paintings, is the product of the imagination of folk artist. Calocagathia (synthesis of beauty and goodness of Petrykivsky school is seen in high spiritual and moral culture of the Ukrainian people, in their pursuit to improve the space of their life, to perpetuate the generous beauty of the world by the love to beauty and goodness in all its forms using a variety of colors and patterns.

  14. The Theme of Beauty in Leopold Sedar Senghor's Poetry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In his long and immensely successful career,1 Leopold Sedar Senghor celebrates the beauty of three major places or landmarks, namely, the African geographical landscape; the spirit and essence of womanhood, especially black womanhood; and the ethos of the dead ancestors. This essay is organized into three ...

  15. Commentary on the Discovery of the Beautiful Style Michigan Madonna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlobil, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, 3/4 (2016), s. 256-260 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : gothic sculpture * Bohemian Beautiful Style * Madonna-torso * Museum Ann Arbor * Michigan ( USA ) Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... brands, especially luxury labels. During the trade mission participants will receive: (A) Briefings on... increase in the number of working women increase looking for lifestyle-oriented and luxury products is the... international brands as lifestyle enhancement products. The total size of the Indian retail beauty and cosmetics...

  17. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... brands, especially luxury labels. During the trade mission participants will receive: (A) Briefings on... increase in the number of working women increase looking for lifestyle-oriented and luxury products is the... international brands as lifestyle enhancement products. The total size of the Indian retail beauty and cosmetics...

  18. [Superbrown beauty : The surface of tanorexia and tanning dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, W

    2017-12-01

    Brown skin symbolizes fitness, health, youthfulness and beauty, combined with leisure, activity, and joy of life in the Central European culture. Tanorexia is a tanning dependence that describes the morbid excessive desire for constant skin tanning. Particularly young women are affected. This article shows the underlying psychodermatological disorders.

  19. The Mystery and Beauty of Total Solar Eclipses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARTICLE. The Mystery and Beauty of Total Solar Eclipses. T Chandrasekhar is with the Astronomy and ..... Specialized instruments called coronagraphs, lo- cated at mountaintop ... Scientific studies of the solar eclipses began with the eclipse of. 1842 which ... a method simultaneously evolved by English spectroscopist.

  20. Lagerstroemia reginae Roxb., (Pride of India), a beautiful-looking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lagerstroemia reginae Roxb., (Pride of India), a beautiful-looking tree that grows in almost all parts of. India and bears light purple flowers in large bunches in late stummer- or early rainy season. It is largely cultivated as an ornamental tree. The wood, which is extremely hard, is used for making such articles as ploughs and ...

  1. Mathematicians in Schools: Uncovering Maths' Beautiful Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics professionals are working with teachers revealing the reality and beauty that happens in the world of math and to show that this is essentially a "human endeavour," embedded in much of what people do and the ways in which they think. In this article, the author shares vignettes of primary classes working with mathematicians…

  2. The "F" Word: Is Feminism Incompatible with Beauty and Romance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A.; Fairchild, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Three studies examined the predictive utility of heterosexual relationship concerns vis-a-vis support for feminism. Study 1 showed that beauty is perceived to be at odds with feminism, for both genders. The stereotype that feminists are unattractive was robust, but fully accounted for by romance-related attributions. Moreover, more attractive…

  3. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  4. [Esthetic nutrition: body and beauty enhancement through nutritional care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Juliana da Silveira Gonçalves Zanini; Schnider, Aline Petter

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing quest for beauty and the models proposed by fashion goods and service segments, to achieve the perfect body. The standard of beauty corresponds to a thin body, without considering health aspects. The number of women who go on diets to control weight is increasing; and taking this into consideration the objective of this study is to conduct a bibliographical review and extract data on esthetics and body image to support the practice of nutritional care. Socio-cultural aspects, which motivate the quest for the perfect body, as well as body, beauty, esthetics, nutritional counseling and cognitive behavior therapy were examined in this survey. On the basis of this work, it is possible to conclude that the continuing obsession with the body may lead the person to go on diets and other drastic methods to control weight, such as surgical procedures. In this respect, nutritional care is far more than merely recommending a standard diet or giving information, as it represents providing an effective model for nutritional reeducation, prioritizing improvement in the style and quality of life. This article provides data about enhancing esthetics and beauty by means of appropriate nutrition.

  5. Beauty vector meson decay constants from QCD sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucha, Wolfgang [Institute for High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Melikhov, Dmitri [Institute for High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); D. V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Simula, Silvano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy)

    2016-01-22

    We present the outcomes of a very recent investigation of the decay constants of nonstrange and strange heavy-light beauty vector mesons, with special emphasis on the ratio of any such decay constant to the decay constant of the corresponding pseudoscalar meson, by means of Borel-transformed QCD sum rules. Our results suggest that both these ratios are below unity.

  6. The Oval Female Facial Shape--A Study in Beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Greg J

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of who is beautiful seems to be innate but has been argued to conform to mathematical principles and proportions. One aspect of beauty is facial shape that is gender specific. In women, an oval facial shape is considered attractive. To study the facial shape of beautiful actors, pageant title winners, and performers across ethnicities and in different time periods and to construct an ideal oval shape based on the average of their facial shape dimensions. Twenty-one full-face photographs of purportedly beautiful female actors, performers, and pageant winners were analyzed and an oval constructed from their facial parameters. Only 3 of the 21 faces were totally symmetrical, with the most larger in the left upper and lower face. The average oval was subsequently constructed from an average bizygomatic distance (horizontal parameter) of 4.3 times their intercanthal distance (ICD) and a vertical dimension that averaged 6.3 times their ICD. This average oval could be fitted to many of the individual subjects showing a smooth flow from the forehead through temples, cheeks, jaw angle, jawline, and chin with all these facial aspects abutting the oval. Where they did not abut, treatment may have improved these subjects.

  7. [Etiology of sleep bruxism: a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco

    2008-06-01

    Bruxism is a para-function with tooth clenching and grinding. Particularly, the sleep bruxism is a frequent phenomenon that causes cephalalgia and muscular/joint pains to the awakening, besides an increased dental abrasion and sensibility. The etiology of sleep bruxism is uncertain: while the occlusal discrepancies and the anatomy of the bony structures of the orofacial region play only a minor role, others factors, like smoking, alcohol, drugs, systemic diseases, stress, trauma and heredity, appear to have an important role in the sleep bruxism genesis. Recent polysomnographic studies, suggest that sleep bruxism episodes are part of an sleep arousal response. The sleep arousal response is a sudden change in the depth of sleep. Besides the sleep bruxism appears to be an disturbance in the dopaminergic system. Further psychological factors (like stress, anxiety) are implicated in the aetiology of sleep bruxism as well. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the aetiology of bruxism.

  8. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  9. Cell Injury and Repair Resulting from Sleep Loss and Sleep Recovery in Laboratory Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Carol A.; Henchen, Christopher J.; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Design: Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements and Results: Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Two days of recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. Conclusions: These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. Citation: Everson CA, Henchen CJ, Szabo A, Hogg N. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats

  10. The Art of Media Manipulation – The Beauty of an Illusion is in the Mind of Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Vertovšek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The future of global society is increasingly dependent on the future of global media. In the future digitized reality, the art will reflect the mass media views about the meaning and significance of Beauty in virtual reality. Is virtual and media correcting of society and history at the same time correcting the history of art, even art itself? Virtual and Digital Beauty, born with a help of illusions - using techniques of George Orwell and Huxley's visions – contains more truth than the existing artistic beauty. Modern spectacle from advertising to mediaindustry of beauty and entertainment turn of the art in digital dystopia, which breaks the traditional and rational framework of society, creative expressions and value systems. The beauty and purity of the screen and the virtual images replace the tactile relationships with new redefinition of the concepts of truth and art. Can we really stand seduction in sense of Baudrillard or velvet bars of George Ritzer? New media are not just the addition of old classic ones, and a deeper understanding of media content is needed than ever before. Digitalization will not only mean the transfer of records into an electronic medium, but future technology will dent the words, images and sounds directly into the human brain. Man and his mind will surpass themselves, due to the need to process unimaginable amounts of information. Will the analysis and processing of data be the primary source of information and knowledge, or just juggling those data? Or will it turn into a juggling with the reality itself, where the borders will be –only an illusion?

  11. Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit measured by polysomnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J H; Boesen, Hans Christian Toft; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has deleterious effects on most organ systems. Patients in the Intensive care unit (ICU) report sleep deprivation as the second worst experience during their stay only superseded by pain. The aim of the review is to provide the clinician with knowledge of the optimal sleep-frien......-friendly care and environment.......Sleep deprivation has deleterious effects on most organ systems. Patients in the Intensive care unit (ICU) report sleep deprivation as the second worst experience during their stay only superseded by pain. The aim of the review is to provide the clinician with knowledge of the optimal sleep...

  12. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? Newborns should get 14 to 17 hours of ...

  13. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page What research is being done? ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  14. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  15. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a Sleep Center Use the following fields to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests ...

  16. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy External Beam Radiation Internal Radiation Therapy Side Effects Chemotherapy Immunotherapy ... asleep, sleeping, or waking from sleep, such as walking, talking, or eating. Sleep disorders keep you from ...

  17. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  18. Neural Correlates of Visual Aesthetics – Beauty as the Coalescence of Stimulus and Internal State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Renken, Remco; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2012-01-01

    How do external stimuli and our internal state coalesce to create the distinctive aesthetic pleasures that give vibrance to human experience? Neuroaesthetics has so far focused on the neural correlates of observing beautiful stimuli compared to neutral or ugly stimuli, or on neural correlates of judging for beauty as opposed to other judgments. Our group questioned whether this approach is sufficient. In our view, a brain region that assesses beauty should show beauty-level-dependent activation during the beauty judgment task, but not during other, unrelated tasks. We therefore performed an fMRI experiment in which subjects judged visual textures for beauty, naturalness and roughness. Our focus was on finding brain activation related to the rated beauty level of the stimuli, which would take place exclusively during the beauty judgment. An initial whole-brain analysis did not reveal such interactions, yet a number of the regions showing main effects of the judgment task or the beauty level of stimuli were selectively sensitive to beauty level during the beauty task. Of the regions that were more active during beauty judgments than roughness judgments, the frontomedian cortex and the amygdala demonstrated the hypothesized interaction effect, while the posterior cingulate cortex did not. The latter region, which only showed a task effect, may play a supporting role in beauty assessments, such as attending to one's internal state rather than the external world. Most of the regions showing interaction effects of judgment and beauty level correspond to regions that have previously been implicated in aesthetics using different stimulus classes, but based on either task or beauty effects alone. The fact that we have now shown that task-stimulus interactions are also present during the aesthetic judgment of visual textures implies that these areas form a network that is specifically devoted to aesthetic assessment, irrespective of the stimulus type. PMID:22384006

  19. Neural correlates of visual aesthetics--beauty as the coalescence of stimulus and internal state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard H A H; Renken, Remco; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2012-01-01

    How do external stimuli and our internal state coalesce to create the distinctive aesthetic pleasures that give vibrance to human experience? Neuroaesthetics has so far focused on the neural correlates of observing beautiful stimuli compared to neutral or ugly stimuli, or on neural correlates of judging for beauty as opposed to other judgments. Our group questioned whether this approach is sufficient. In our view, a brain region that assesses beauty should show beauty-level-dependent activation during the beauty judgment task, but not during other, unrelated tasks. We therefore performed an fMRI experiment in which subjects judged visual textures for beauty, naturalness and roughness. Our focus was on finding brain activation related to the rated beauty level of the stimuli, which would take place exclusively during the beauty judgment. An initial whole-brain analysis did not reveal such interactions, yet a number of the regions showing main effects of the judgment task or the beauty level of stimuli were selectively sensitive to beauty level during the beauty task. Of the regions that were more active during beauty judgments than roughness judgments, the frontomedian cortex and the amygdala demonstrated the hypothesized interaction effect, while the posterior cingulate cortex did not. The latter region, which only showed a task effect, may play a supporting role in beauty assessments, such as attending to one's internal state rather than the external world. Most of the regions showing interaction effects of judgment and beauty level correspond to regions that have previously been implicated in aesthetics using different stimulus classes, but based on either task or beauty effects alone. The fact that we have now shown that task-stimulus interactions are also present during the aesthetic judgment of visual textures implies that these areas form a network that is specifically devoted to aesthetic assessment, irrespective of the stimulus type.

  20. Asymmetry and Symmetry in the Beauty of Human Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hessamian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis in the published literature has mostly been on symmetry as the critical source for beauty judgment. In fact, both symmetry and asymmetry serve as highly aesthetic sources of beauty, whether the context is perceptual or conceptual. The human brain is characterized by symbolic cognition and this type of cognition facilitates a range of aesthetic reactions. For example, both art and natural scenery contain asymmetrical elements, which nevertheless render the whole effect beautiful. A further good case in point is, in fact, human faces. Normally, faces are structurally left-right symmetrical content-wise but not size-wise or function-wise. Attractiveness has often been discussed in terms of content-wise full-face symmetry. To test whether or not attractiveness can be gleaned only from the presence of left-right full-faces we tested half faces. Three separate groups of participants viewed and rated the attractiveness of 56 full-faces (women’s and men’s, their 56 vertical left hemi-faces and 56 vertical right hemi-faces. We found no statistically significant differences in the attractiveness ratings of full- and hemi-faces (whether left or right. Instead, we found a strong and significant positive correlation between the ratings of the hemi- and full-faces. These results are consistent with the view that the underpinning of human facial beauty is complex and that bilateral symmetry does not constitute a principle factor in beauty assessment. We discuss that the highly evolved human brain, compared to other animals, as well as symbolic and abstract cognition in humans enable a wide variety of aesthetic reactions.

  1. Jakobson’s zero and the pleasure and pitfalls of structural beauty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Juul

    2015-01-01

    examines how this idea is rooted in the structuralist tradition of analysing difference and significant distinctions and how it is motivated by the pleasure of structural beauty. Focusing on one of Jakobson’s examples of zero signs, the analysis of gender in the Russian declension system, the paper......In ‘Signe zéro’ (1939) Jakobson suggests a radical application of the zero notion in analysis of linguistic structure, arguing that ‘nothing’ is a relevant structural component not only on the expression plane, but also on the content plane, i.e.zero content as the signifié of a sign. The paper...

  2. Gangnam-Style Plastic Surgery: The Science of Westernized Beauty in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, So Yeon

    2017-10-01

    New beauty ideals and particular types of plastic surgery beauty have emerged in South Korea from the early twenty-first century. By defining Gangnam-style plastic surgery as a hybrid of old Westernized beauty ideals and a new science of beauty with variations and contradictions, I intend to twist the simplistic understanding of non-Western plastic surgery as an effort to resemble the white westerner's body. I also draw political implications from a case of monstrous Gangnam-style beauty made by excessive plastic surgery.

  3. Measurement of beauty and charm production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and measurement of the beauty-quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2014-05-01

    The production of beauty and charm quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared 5 2 2 using an integrated luminosity of 354 pb -1 . The beauty and charm content in events with at least one jet have been extracted using the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with secondary vertices and the decay-length significance of these vertices. Differential cross sections as a function of Q 2 , Bjorken x, jet transverse energy and pseudorapidity were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure functions were extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of x and Q 2 . The running beauty-quark mass, m b at the scale m b , was determined from a QCD fit at next-to-leading order to HERA data for the first time and found to be m b (m b )=4.07±0.14(fit) +0.01 -0.07 (mod.) +0.05 -0.00 (param.) +0.08 -0.05 (theo) GeV.

  4. Future Perspectives in Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huon, Leh-Kiong Anne; Guilleminault, Christian

    2017-01-01

    "Sleep Medicine" is now a specialty in its own right. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the very negative impact sleep disorders have on learning, education, safety, and quality of life. Technological advances will help us to break down diagnoses (e.g., narcolepsy has now been subdivided into types 1 and 2, depending upon the hypocretin levels in the spinal fluid) and to discover relationships to other bodily systems (e.g., type 1 narcolepsy potentially being an autoimmune disorder). The modern lifestyle of many, as characterized by a shortening of sleep periods, shift work, jet lag, and the need to be constantly available, means that advances in sleep medicine may result in a major understanding of more balanced "work-rest lifestyle" modifications. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Theoretical Framework and Model Design for Beautiful Countryside Construction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Xiang-qun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of China today, the process of beautiful countryside construction mainly imitates the patterns of‘urbanization’construction. However, this approach leads to the loss of countryside characteristics and the separation of agricultural culture. Therefore, it's urgent to carry out research of the theoretical framework and model design for beautiful countryside construction. In this paper, based on the analysis of the beautiful countryside construction connotation, the basic theory of beautiful countryside construction was summarized in three aspects: rural complex ecosystem model, multi-functionality of rural model and sustainable development evaluation model. The basic idea of the beautiful countryside construction mode was studied. The design method of beautiful countryside construction mode was proposed in three levels: planning, scheming and evaluating. The research results might offer scientific reference for improving the scientific and operational nature of beautiful countryside construction.

  6. Competing motivational discourses for weight loss: means to ends and the nexus of beauty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Samantha

    2009-09-01

    Western cultural discourses generally deem fat unhealthy and unattractive, providing strong motivation for body nonconformists to lose weight. Semistructured interviews with 42 overweight and obese participants illuminate how individuals understand health and beauty weight-loss motivations and the relationship between the two. Interviews indicate that health and beauty motivate because they are seen as means to various ends. Specifically, participants aspire to health to fulfill various social roles and to live long, meaningful lives. Moreover, they aspire to conventional beauty ideals hoping that aesthetic conformity will elicit benefits, both psychological and social. Interviews also illustrate an intertwining of discourses in which participants conflate beauty and health in three ways: indicating that depictions of the beauty ideal are depictions of the health ideal; using beauty indicators as health indicators; and employing beauty as a motivator for health goals. This article concludes with a discussion of the health, social, and policy implications of these findings.

  7. The sleep-wake-cycle: basic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B E

    1989-11-01

    The physiologic characteristics of the sleep-wake states have been well defined and some of the chemical and neuron systems that participate in the cyclic generation and maintenance of these states have been identified. The actual dynamic process by which these systems interact to generate the basic sleep-wake cycle, however, remains a mystery.

  8. Targeting the HSP60/10 chaperonin systems of Trypanosoma brucei as a strategy for treating African sleeping sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Sanofar; Salim, Nilshad; Mammadova, Najiba; Summers, Corey M; Goldsmith-Pestana, Karen; McMahon-Pratt, Diane; Schultz, Peter G; Horwich, Arthur L; Chapman, Eli; Johnson, Steven M

    2016-11-01

    Trypanosoma brucei are protozoan parasites that cause African sleeping sickness in humans (also known as Human African Trypanosomiasis-HAT). Without treatment, T. brucei infections are fatal. There is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies as current drugs are toxic, have complex treatment regimens, and are becoming less effective owing to rising antibiotic resistance in parasites. We hypothesize that targeting the HSP60/10 chaperonin systems in T. brucei is a viable anti-trypanosomal strategy as parasites rely on these stress response elements for their development and survival. We recently discovered several hundred inhibitors of the prototypical HSP60/10 chaperonin system from Escherichia coli, termed GroEL/ES. One of the most potent GroEL/ES inhibitors we discovered was compound 1. While examining the PubChem database, we found that a related analog, 2e-p, exhibited cytotoxicity to Leishmania major promastigotes, which are trypanosomatids highly related to Trypanosoma brucei. Through initial counter-screening, we found that compounds 1 and 2e-p were also cytotoxic to Trypanosoma brucei parasites (EC 50 =7.9 and 3.1μM, respectively). These encouraging initial results prompted us to develop a library of inhibitor analogs and examine their anti-parasitic potential in vitro. Of the 49 new chaperonin inhibitors developed, 39% exhibit greater cytotoxicity to T. brucei parasites than parent compound 1. While many analogs exhibit moderate cytotoxicity to human liver and kidney cells, we identified molecular substructures to pursue for further medicinal chemistry optimization to increase the therapeutic windows of this novel class of chaperonin-targeting anti-parasitic candidates. An intriguing finding from this study is that suramin, the first-line drug for treating early stage T. brucei infections, is also a potent inhibitor of GroEL/ES and HSP60/10 chaperonin systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep and Development in Genetically Tractable Model Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Biron, David

    2016-05-01

    Sleep is widely recognized as essential, but without a clear singular function. Inadequate sleep impairs cognition, metabolism, immune function, and many other processes. Work in genetic model systems has greatly expanded our understanding of basic sleep neurobiology as well as introduced new concepts for why we sleep. Among these is an idea with its roots in human work nearly 50 years old: sleep in early life is crucial for normal brain maturation. Nearly all known species that sleep do so more while immature, and this increased sleep coincides with a period of exuberant synaptogenesis and massive neural circuit remodeling. Adequate sleep also appears critical for normal neurodevelopmental progression. This article describes recent findings regarding molecular and circuit mechanisms of sleep, with a focus on development and the insights garnered from models amenable to detailed genetic analyses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Validation of the System One RemStar Auto A-Flex for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment and Detection of Residual Apnea-Hypopnea Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnadoux, Frédéric; Pevernagie, Dirk; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    the performance of the System One RemStar Auto A-Flex (Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA) automatically adjusted positive airway pressure (APAP) mode to manually titrated, fixed pressure CPAP and to validate the device's breathing event detection capabilities against attended in-laboratory PSG. METHODS......: Sixty-one patients investigated in five centers for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea between May 2012 and June 2013 were invited to participate. Participants underwent two full-night attended polysomnograms in random order with manually titrated, fixed pressure CPAP versus APAP. RESULTS: Fifty......-three participants with a mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 45.9 ± 23 completed two sleep studies and were included in the analysis. There were significant but not clinically relevant differences between APAP and CPAP respectively: Apnea index [1.0 (2.8 ± 0.8), median (mean ± standard deviation)] versus [1.8 (5...

  11. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy

  12. Impact of sleep, fatigue, and systemic inflammation on neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Ting; Brinkman, Tara M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Mzayek, Yasmin; Liu, Wei; Banerjee, Pia; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Srivastava, Deokumar; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Krull, Kevin R

    2017-09-01

    Long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, which may be associated with fatigue, sleep problems, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. We examined these associations among survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapy only. Survivors of childhood ALL (male, n = 35 and female, n = 35; mean age, 14.3 years [standard deviation, 4.7 years] and mean years from diagnosis, 7.4 years [standard deviation, 1.9 years]) completed neurocognitive testing, behavioral ratings, and reported sleep quality and fatigue symptoms 5 years after diagnosis. Serum was collected concurrently and assayed for interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. General linear modeling was used to assess associations among biomarkers and functional outcomes, adjusting for age and stratified by sex. Survivors performed worse than population norms on executive function and processing speed and reported more behavioral problems (P fatigue was associated with poor executive function (r = 0.41; P = .02), processing speed (r = 0.56; P fatigue measures were observed. Neurocognitive function in female survivors of childhood ALL appears more susceptible to the effects of sleep disturbance and fatigue. Systemic inflammation may play a role in neurocognitive impairment and behavioral symptoms. Cancer 2017;123:3410-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  14. Validation of the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment item banks in Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, Jojanneke A M C; van Litsenburg, Raphaёle R L; Yoder, Whitney R; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Terwee, Caroline B

    2018-04-16

    Sleep problems are common in adolescents and have a negative impact on daytime functioning. However, there is a lack of well-validated adolescent sleep questionnaires. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment item banks are well-validated instruments developed for and tested in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate their structural validity in adolescents. Test and retest data were collected for the Dutch-Flemish V1.0 PROMIS Sleep Disturbance (27) and Sleep-Related Impairment (16 items) item banks from 1046 adolescents (11-19 years). Cross-validation methods, Confirmatory (CFA), and Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were used. Fit indices and factor loadings were used to improve the models. The final models were assessed for model fit using retest data. The one-factor Sleep Disturbance (CFI = 0.795, TLI = 0.778, RMSEA = 0.117) and Sleep-Related Impairment (CFI = 0.897, TLI = 0.882, RMSEA = 0.156) models could not be replicated in adolescents. Cross-validation resulted in a final Sleep Disturbance model of 23 and a Sleep-Related Impairment model of 11 items. Retest data CFA showed adequate fit for the Sleep-Related Impairment-11 (CFI = 0.981, TLI = 0.976, RMSEA = 0.116). The Sleep Disturbance-23 model fit indices stayed below the recommended values (CFI = 0.895, TLI = 0.885, RMSEA = 0.105). While the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance-23 for adolescents and PROMIS Sleep-Related Impairment-11 for adolescents provide a framework to assess adolescent sleep, additional research is needed to replicate these findings in a larger and more diverse sample.

  15. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra K Gold,1 Louisa G Sylvia,1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Keywords: bipolar disorder, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake homeostasis

  16. Sleep and academic success: mechanisms, empirical evidence, and interventional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina T; Wells, Samantha Ashley; Cassoff, Jamie; Monson, Eva

    2010-12-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that sleep is beneficial for learning, memory, attention, and academic success. However, the importance of sleep in these contexts has rarely been addressed in programs aimed at optimizing academic performance. This review aims to describe the role that sleep plays in processes pertaining to academic achievement. We first describe the basic sleep processes and their role with respect to cognitive and behavioral/emotional systems important for academic performance. We next review studies conducted to assess the association between sleep and academic performance, concluding by describing interventional programs being used to optimize sleep in the context of academic success.

  17. Thermal-Signature-Based Sleep Analysis Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of a new technique in the sleep analysis domain. Sleep is defined as a periodic physiological state during which vigilance is suspended and reactivity to external stimulations diminished. We sleep on average between six and nine hours per night and our sleep is composed of four to six cycles of about 90 min each. Each of these cycles is composed of a succession of several stages of sleep that vary in depth. Analysis of sleep is usually done via polysomnography. This examination consists of recording, among other things, electrical cerebral activity by electroencephalography (EEG, ocular movements by electrooculography (EOG, and chin muscle tone by electromyography (EMG. Recordings are made mostly in a hospital, more specifically in a service for monitoring the pathologies related to sleep. The readings are then interpreted manually by an expert to generate a hypnogram, a curve showing the succession of sleep stages during the night in 30s epochs. The proposed method is based on the follow-up of the thermal signature that makes it possible to classify the activity into three classes: “awakening,” “calm sleep,” and “restless sleep”. The contribution of this non-invasive method is part of the screening of sleep disorders, to be validated by a more complete analysis of the sleep. The measure provided by this new system, based on temperature monitoring (patient and ambient, aims to be integrated into the tele-medicine platform developed within the framework of the Smart-EEG project by the SYEL–SYstèmes ELectroniques team. Analysis of the data collected during the first surveys carried out with this method showed a correlation between thermal signature and activity during sleep. The advantage of this method lies in its simplicity and the possibility of carrying out measurements of activity during sleep and without direct contact with the patient at home or hospitals.

  18. Charm and beauty production in D*μ events at H1/HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.

    2007-07-01

    Charm and beauty photoproduction is investigated with the H1 detector at HERA using events with a reconstructed D * meson and a muon. Data taken during the years 1999-2000 and 2004-2006, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 320 pb -1 , are analysed. The D * mesons with transverse momentum p t (D * )>1.5 GeV and pseudorapidity vertical stroke η(D * ) vertical stroke *± →D (-)0 π s ± →(K -+ π ± )π s ± . In addition, muons with momentum p(μ)>2 GeV and vertical stroke η(μ) vertical stroke * meson and the muon. The charm and beauty cross sections were measured in photoproduction, i.e. for photon virtualities Q 2 2 , and for inelasticities 0.05 vis (ep→ec anti cX→eD *± μX)=314±33(stat)±101(syst)pb σ vis (ep→eb anti bX→eD *± μX)=90±20(stat)±26(syst)pb. The measurements are compared to leading order QCD calculations supplemented with parton showers as predicted by the PYTHIA Monte Carlo event generator. A ratio data/theory of 1.2±0.1(stat)±0.4(syst) and of 1.3±0.3(stat)±0.4(syst) is obtained for charm and beauty, respectively. Differential cross sections for the variables describing the D * μ system like transverse momentum p t (D * μ), pseudorapidity η(D * μ), invariant mass M(D * μ) and inelasticity y(D * μ) are measured and compared to the PYTHIA and the CASCADE Monte Carlo event generators. The theoretical models describe the shape of the differential distributions. Transverse momentum studies of the D * μ pair indicate a sensitivity to differing implementations of QCD dynamics in the simulation programs. (orig.)

  19. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  20. Sleep-related headache and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niranjan N; Sahota, Pradeep

    2013-12-01

    Sleep and headache have both generated curiosity within the human mind for centuries. The relationship between headache and sleep disorders is very complex. While Lieving in 1873 first observed that headaches were linked to sleep, Dexter and Weitzman in 1970 described the relationship between headache and sleep stages. Though our understanding of sleep and headache relationship has improved over the years with expanding knowledge in both fields and assessment tools such as polysomnography, it is still poorly understood. Headache and sleep have an interdependent relationship. Headache may be intrinsically related to sleep (migraine with and without aura, cluster headache, hypnic headache, and paroxysmal hemicrania), may cause sleep disturbance (chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, and medication overuse headache) or a manifestation of a sleep disorder like obstructive sleep apnea. Headache and sleep disorder may be a common manifestation of systemic dysfunction-like anemia and hypoxemia. Headaches may occur during sleep, after sleep, and in relation to different sleep stages. Lack of sleep and excessive sleep are both considered triggers for migraine. Insomnia is more common among chronic headache patients. Experimental data suggest that there is a common anatomic and physiologic substrate. There is overwhelming evidence that cluster headache and hypnic headaches are chronobiological disorders with strong association with sleep and involvement of hypothalamus. Cluster headache shows a circadian and circannual rhythmicity while hypnic headache shows an alarm clock pattern. There is also a preferential occurrence of cluster headache, hypnic headache, and paroxysmal hemicrania during REM sleep. Silencing of anti-nociceptive network of periaqueductal grey (PAG), locus ceruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus doing REM sleep may explain the preferential pattern. Sleep related headaches can be classified into (1) headaches with high association with obstructive sleep