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Sample records for sleeping beauty dna

  1. Pig transgenesis by Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    disease models. In this report, we present transgenic pigs created by Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition in primary porcine fibroblasts in combination with somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. Göttingen minipigs expressing green fluorescent protein are produced by transgenesis with DNA...... plasmid DNA. Our findings illustrate critical issues related to DNA transposon-directed transgenesis, including coincidental plasmid insertion and relatively low Sleeping Beauty transposition activity in porcine fibroblasts, but also provide a platform for future development of porcine disease models......Modelling of human disease in genetically engineered pigs provides unique possibilities in biomedical research and in studies of disease intervention. Establishment of methodologies that allow efficient gene insertion by non-viral gene carriers is an important step towards development of new...

  2. Efficient Sleeping Beauty DNA Transposition From DNA Minicircles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynne Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA transposon-based vectors have emerged as new potential delivery tools in therapeutic gene transfer. Such vectors are now showing promise in hematopoietic stem cells and primary human T cells, and clinical trials with transposon-engineered cells are on the way. However, the use of plasmid DNA as a carrier of the vector raises safety concerns due to the undesirable administration of bacterial sequences. To optimize vectors based on the Sleeping Beauty (SB DNA transposon for clinical use, we examine here SB transposition from DNA minicircles (MCs devoid of the bacterial plasmid backbone. Potent DNA transposition, directed by the hyperactive SB100X transposase, is demonstrated from MC donors, and the stable transfection rate is significantly enhanced by expressing the SB100X transposase from MCs. The stable transfection rate is inversely related to the size of circular donor, suggesting that a MC-based SB transposition system benefits primarily from an increased cellular uptake and/or enhanced expression which can be observed with DNA MCs. DNA transposon and transposase MCs are easily produced, are favorable in size, do not carry irrelevant DNA, and are robust substrates for DNA transposition. In accordance, DNA MCs should become a standard source of DNA transposons not only in therapeutic settings but also in the daily use of the SB system.

  3. Sleeping beauties in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Završnik, Jernej; Kokol, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Sleeping beauties (SBs) in science have been known for few decades; however, it seems that only recently have they become popular. An SB is a publication that "sleeps" for a long time and then almost suddenly awakes and becomes highly cited. SBs present interesting findings in science. Pediatrics research literature has not yet been analyzed for their presence, and 5 pediatrics SBs were discovered in this research. Their prevalence was approximately 0.011%. Some environments or periods are more "SB fertile" than others: 3 of 5 SBs were published in the journal Pediatrics, 4 originated from the United States, and 4 were published in the period from 1992 to 1993. No institutions or authors published more than 1 SB.

  4. Involvement of a bifunctional, paired-like DNA-binding domain and a transpositional enhancer in Sleeping Beauty transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Khare, Dheeraj; Behlke, Joachim; Heinemann, Udo; Plasterk, Ronald H; Ivics, Zoltán

    2002-09-13

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is the most active Tc1/mariner-like transposon in vertebrate species. Each of the terminal inverted repeats (IRs) of SB contains two transposase-binding sites (DRs). This feature, termed the IR/DR structure, is conserved in a group of Tc1-like transposons. The DNA-binding region of SB transposase, similar to the paired domain of Pax proteins, consists of two helix-turn-helix subdomains (PAI + RED = PAIRED). The N-terminal PAI subdomain was found to play a dominant role in contacting the DRs. Transposase was able to bind to mutant sites retaining the 3' part of the DRs; thus, primary DNA binding is not sufficient to determine the specificity of the transposition reaction. The PAI subdomain was also found to bind to a transpositional enhancer-like sequence within the left IR of SB, and to mediate protein-protein interactions between transposase subunits. A tetrameric form of the transposase was detected in solution, consistent with an interaction between the IR/DR structure and a transposase tetramer. We propose a model in which the transpositional enhancer and the PAI subdomain stabilize complexes formed by a transposase tetramer bound at the IR/DR. These interactions may result in enhanced stability of synaptic complexes, which might explain the efficient transposition of Sleeping Beauty in vertebrate cells.

  5. When Sleeping Beauty First Awakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David; Peijnenburg, Jeanne

    Ever since its introduction, the Sleeping Beauty Problem has been fought over by the halfers against the thirders. We distinguish three interpretations of the original problem as described in Adam Elga's seminal paper on the subject. Elga's intended interpretation leads to the position of the

  6. Insertional engineering of chromosomes with Sleeping Beauty transposition: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabundzija, Ivana; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Novel genetic tools and mutagenesis strategies based on the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposable element are currently under development with a vision to link primary DNA sequence information to gene functions in vertebrate models. By virtue of its inherent capacity to insert into DNA, the SB transposon can be developed into powerful tools for chromosomal manipulations. Mutagenesis screens based on SB have numerous advantages including high throughput and easy identification of mutated alleles. Forward genetic approaches based on insertional mutagenesis by engineered SB transposons have the advantage of providing insight into genetic networks and pathways based on phenotype. Indeed, the SB transposon has become a highly instrumental tool to induce tumors in experimental animals in a tissue-specific -manner with the aim of uncovering the genetic basis of diverse cancers. Here, we describe a battery of mutagenic cassettes that can be applied in conjunction with SB transposon vectors to mutagenize genes, and highlight versatile experimental strategies for the generation of engineered chromosomes for loss-of-function as well as gain-of-function mutagenesis for functional gene annotation in vertebrate models.

  7. Dormitory of Physical and Engineering Sciences: Sleeping Beauties May Be Sleeping Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2015-01-01

    A ‘Sleeping Beauty in Science’ is a publication that goes unnoticed (‘sleeps’) for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention (‘is awakened by a prince’). The aim of this paper is to present a general methodology to investigate (1) important properties of Sleeping Beauties such as the time-dependent distribution, author characteristics, journals and fields, and (2) the cognitive environment of Sleeping Beauties. We are particularly interested to find out to what extent Sleeping Beauties are application-oriented and thus are potential Sleeping Innovations. In this study we focus primarily on physics (including materials science and astrophysics) and present first results for chemistry and for engineering & computer science. We find that more than half of the SBs are application-oriented. To study the cognitive environments of Sleeping Beauties we develop a new approach in which the cognitive environment of the SBs is analyzed, based on the mapping of Sleeping Beauties using their citation links and conceptual relations, particularly co-citation mapping. In this way we investigate the research themes in which the SBs are ‘used’ and possible causes of why the premature work in the SBs becomes topical, i.e., the trigger of the awakening of the SBs. This approach is tested with a blue skies SB and an application-oriented SB. We think that the mapping procedures discussed in this paper are not only important for bibliometric analyses. They also provide researchers with useful, interactive tools to discover both relevant older work as well as new developments, for instance in themes related to Sleeping Beauties that are also Sleeping Innovations. PMID:26469987

  8. Do younger Sleeping Beauties prefer a technological prince?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J; Winnink, Jos J

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we investigate recent Sleeping Beauties cited in patents (SB-SNPRs). We find that the increasing trend of the relative number of SBs stopped around 1998. Moreover, we find that the time lag between the publication year of the SB-SNPRs and their first citation in a patent is becoming shorter in recent years. Our observations also suggest that, on average, in the more recent years SBs are awakened increasingly earlier by a 'technological prince' rather than by a 'scientific prince'. These observations suggest that SBs with technological importance are 'discovered' earlier in an application-oriented context. Then, because of this earlier recognized technological relevance, papers may be cited also earlier in a scientific context. Thus early recognized technological relevance may 'prevent' papers to become an SB. The scientific impact of Sleeping Beauties is generally not necessarily related to the technological importance of the SBs, as far as measured with number and impact of the citing patents. The analysis of the occurrence of inventor-author relations as well as the citation years of inventor-author patents suggest that the scientific awakening of Sleeping Beauties only rarely occurs by inventor-author self-citation.

  9. Gene Therapy with the Sleeping Beauty Transposon System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebriaei, Partow; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Narayanavari, Suneel A; Singh, Harjeet; Ivics, Zoltán

    2017-11-01

    The widespread clinical implementation of gene therapy requires the ability to stably integrate genetic information through gene transfer vectors in a safe, effective, and economical manner. The latest generation of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors fulfills these requirements, and may overcome limitations associated with viral gene transfer vectors and transient nonviral gene delivery approaches that are prevalent in ongoing clinical trials. The SB system enables high-level stable gene transfer and sustained transgene expression in multiple primary human somatic cell types, thereby representing a highly attractive gene transfer strategy for clinical use. Here, we review the most important aspects of using SB for gene therapy, including vectorization as well as genomic integration features. We also illustrate the path to successful clinical implementation by highlighting the application of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells in cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Full-length Dysferlin Transfer by the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase Restores Dysferlin-deficient Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy is a progressive disease characterized by muscle weakness and wasting for which there is no treatment. It is caused by mutations in DYSF, a large, multiexonic gene that forms a coding sequence of 6.2 kb. Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon is a nonviral gene transfer vector, already used in clinical trials. The hyperactive SB system consists of a transposon DNA sequence and a transposase protein, SB100X, that can integrate DNA over 10 kb into the target genome. We constructed an SB transposon-based vector to deliver full-length human DYSF cDNA into dysferlin-deficient H2K A/J myoblasts. We demonstrate proper dysferlin expression as well as highly efficient engraftment (>1,100 donor-derived fibers of the engineered myoblasts in the skeletal muscle of dysferlin- and immunodeficient B6. Cg-Dysfprmd Prkdcscid/J (Scid/BLA/J mice. Nonviral gene delivery of full-length human dysferlin into muscle cells, along with a successful and efficient transplantation into skeletal muscle are important advances towards successful gene therapy of dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy.

  11. The geography of sleeping beauties in patenting: a country-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuestman, M.L.; Frenken, K.; Hoekman, J.; Mas Tur, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores sleeping beauties, i.e. breakthrough inventions that experienced delayed recognition, by means of patent data. References in a patent signal the state of the art on which the patent is based, and they can limit the property rights established by its claims. A patent that is cited

  12. Phase I trials using Sleeping Beauty to generate CD19-specific CAR T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kebriaei, Partow; Singh, Harjeet; Huls, M. Helen; Figliola, Matthew J.; Bassett, Roland; Olivares, Simon; Jena, Bipulendu; Dawson, Margaret J.; Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R.; Su, Shihuang; Maiti, Sourindra; Dai, Jianliang; Moriarity, Branden; Forget, Marie-Andrée; Senyukov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. T cells expressing antigen-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) improve outcomes for CD19-expressing B cell malignancies. We evaluated a human application of T cells that were genetically modified using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system to express a CD19-specific CAR.

  13. Is it time to awaken Sleeping Beauty? European psychiatry has been sleeping since 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), published in 1980, has led to a dead end, the DSM-V. Following the allegory of Sleeping Beauty, the DSM-III put European psychiatry to sleep; it now must wake up to create a 21st century psychiatric language for descriptive psychopathology and psychiatric nosology. Four topics are reviewed. First, the review of descriptive psychopathology focuses on: a) Chaslin's and Jaspers's books, and b) Schneider's transmittal of Jaspers's ideas and involvement with Kraepelin in incorporating neuroscience into psychiatric nosology. Second, US psychiatry's historic steps include: a) the pseudoscience of psychoanalysis, b) the low level of pre-DSM-III diagnostic expertise, c) the neo-Kraepelinian revolution which led to DSM-III, d) the failure to improve diagnostic skills, and e) the reprise of Kraepelin's marketing ("neuroscience will save psychiatry"). Third, the DSM-III devastated European psychiatry by destroying: a) the national textbooks which increased consistency but eliminated creative European thinking; and b) the Arbeitsgemenschaft fur Methodic und Dokumentation in der Psychiatrie, the most reasonable attempt to reach diagnostic agreement: start with symptoms/signs (first level) rather than disorders (second level). Fourth, Berrios elaborated upon Jaspers, who described psychiatry as a hybrid science and heterogeneous. Berrios affirmed that psychiatric symptoms/signs are hybrid. Some symptoms are in the "semantic space" and cannot be "explained" by neuroscience. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Remobilization of Sleeping Beauty transposons in the germline of Xenopus tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yergeau Donald A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system has been used for germline transgenesis of the diploid frog, Xenopus tropicalis. Injecting one-cell embryos with plasmid DNA harboring an SB transposon substrate together with mRNA encoding the SB transposase enzyme resulted in non-canonical integration of small-order concatemers of the transposon. Here, we demonstrate that SB transposons stably integrated into the frog genome are effective substrates for remobilization. Results Transgenic frogs that express the SB10 transposase were bred with SB transposon-harboring animals to yield double-transgenic 'hopper' frogs. Remobilization events were observed in the progeny of the hopper frogs and were verified by Southern blot analysis and cloning of the novel integrations sites. Unlike the co-injection method used to generate founder lines, transgenic remobilization resulted in canonical transposition of the SB transposons. The remobilized SB transposons frequently integrated near the site of the donor locus; approximately 80% re-integrated with 3 Mb of the donor locus, a phenomenon known as 'local hopping'. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrate that SB transposons integrated into the X. tropicalis genome are effective substrates for excision and re-integration, and that the remobilized transposons are transmitted through the germline. This is an important step in the development of large-scale transposon-mediated gene- and enhancer-trap strategies in this highly tractable developmental model system.

  15. Induction of rat liver tumor using the Sleeping Beauty transposon and electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Shine; Kim, Bae-Hwan; Park, Sung Goo; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Do Hee; Son, Woo-Chan

    2013-05-10

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been receiving much attention as a gene transfer method of choice since it allows permanent gene expression after insertion into the host chromosome. However, low transposition frequency in higher eukaryotes limits its use in commonly-used mammalian species. Researchers have therefore attempted to modify gene delivery and expression to overcome this limitation. In mouse liver, tumor induction using SB introduced by the hydrodynamic method has been successfully accomplished. Liver tumor in rat models using SB could also be of great use; however, dose of DNA, injection volume, rate of injection and achieving back pressure limit the use of the hydrodynamics-based gene delivery. In the present study, we combined the electroporation, a relatively simple and easy gene delivery method, with the SB transposon system and as a result successfully induced tumor in rat liver by directly injecting the c-Myc, HRAS and shp53 genes. The tumor phenotype was determined as a sarcomatoid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of induction of tumor in the rat liver using the electroporation-enhanced SB transposon system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Suicidal autointegration of sleeping beauty and piggyBac transposons in eukaryotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Transposons are discrete segments of DNA that have the distinctive ability to move and replicate within genomes across the tree of life. 'Cut and paste' DNA transposition involves excision from a donor locus and reintegration into a new locus in the genome. We studied molecular events following the excision steps of two eukaryotic DNA transposons, Sleeping Beauty (SB and piggyBac (PB that are widely used for genome manipulation in vertebrate species. SB originates from fish and PB from insects; thus, by introducing these transposons to human cells we aimed to monitor the process of establishing a transposon-host relationship in a naïve cellular environment. Similarly to retroviruses, neither SB nor PB is capable of self-avoidance because a significant portion of the excised transposons integrated back into its own genome in a suicidal process called autointegration. Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BANF1, a cellular co-factor of certain retroviruses, inhibited transposon autointegration, and was detected in higher-order protein complexes containing the SB transposase. Increasing size sensitized transposition for autointegration, consistent with elevated vulnerability of larger transposons. Both SB and PB were affected similarly by the size of the transposon in three different assays: excision, autointegration and productive transposition. Prior to reintegration, SB is completely separated from the donor molecule and followed an unbiased autointegration pattern, not associated with local hopping. Self-disruptive autointegration occurred at similar frequency for both transposons, while aberrant, pseudo-transposition events were more frequently observed for PB.

  17. Assessing Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty for transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection into bovine and ovine zygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, R. J.; Fernandez-Martin, R.; Canel, N. G.; Gibbons, A.; Texeira, D.; Lange, F.; Vans Landschoot, G.; Savy, V.; Briski, O.; Hiriart, M. I.; Grueso, E.; Ivics, Z.; Taboga, O.; Kues, W. A.; Ferraris, S.

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic domestic animals represent an alternative to bioreactors for large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and could also provide more accurate biomedical models than rodents. However, their generation remains inefficient. Recently, DNA transposons allowed improved transgenesis efficiencies in mice and pigs. In this work, Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon systems were evaluated for transgenesis by simple cytoplasmic injection in livestock zygotes. In the case of Tn5, the transposome complex of transposon nucleic acid and Tn5 protein was injected. In the case of SB, the supercoiled plasmids encoding a transposon and the SB transposase were co-injected. In vitro produced bovine zygotes were used to establish the cytoplasmic injection conditions. The in vitro cultured blastocysts were evaluated for reporter gene expression and genotyped. Subsequently, both transposon systems were injected in seasonally available ovine zygotes, employing transposons carrying the recombinant human factor IX driven by the beta-lactoglobulin promoter. The Tn5 approach did not result in transgenic lambs. In contrast, the Sleeping Beauty injection resulted in 2 lambs (29%) carrying the transgene. Both animals exhibited cellular mosaicism of the transgene. The extraembryonic tissues (placenta or umbilical cord) of three additional animals were also transgenic. These results show that transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection of SB transposon components can be applied for the production of transgenic lambs of pharmaceutical interest. PMID:28301581

  18. Germline transgenesis in rodents by pronuclear microinjection of Sleeping Beauty transposons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivics, Z.; Mátés, L.; Yau, T. Y.; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Bashir, S.; Hoffmann, O. I.; Hiripi, L.; Garrels, W.; Kues, W. A.; Bösze, Z.; Geurts, A.; Pravenec, Michal; Rülicke, T.; Izsvák, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2014), s. 773-793 ISSN 1754-2189 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02010013; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12061; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mouse * rat * transgenesis * Sleeping Beauty * protocol Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.673, year: 2014

  19. Comparison of lentiviral and sleeping beauty mediated αβ T cell receptor gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christine Field

    Full Text Available Transfer of tumour antigen-specific receptors to T cells requires efficient delivery and integration of transgenes, and currently most clinical studies are using gamma retroviral or lentiviral systems. Whilst important proof-of-principle data has been generated for both chimeric antigen receptors and αβ T cell receptors, the current platforms are costly, time-consuming and relatively inflexible. Alternative, more cost-effective, Sleeping Beauty transposon-based plasmid systems could offer a pathway to accelerated clinical testing of a more diverse repertoire of recombinant high affinity T cell receptors. Nucleofection of hyperactive SB100X transposase-mediated stable transposition of an optimised murine-human chimeric T cell receptor specific for Wilm's tumour antigen from a Sleeping Beauty transposon plasmid. Whilst transfer efficiency was lower than that mediated by lentiviral transduction, cells could be readily enriched and expanded, and mediated effective target cells lysis in vitro and in vivo. Integration sites of transposed TCR genes in primary T cells were almost randomly distributed, contrasting the predilection of lentiviral vectors for transcriptionally active sites. The results support exploitation of the Sleeping Beauty plasmid based system as a flexible and adaptable platform for accelerated, early-phase assessment of T cell receptor gene therapies.

  20. Béatrice Laurent (ed.), Sleeping Beauties in Victorian Britain, Cultural, Literary and Artistic Explorations of a Myth

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert-Charbonnier, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Sleeping Beauties in Victorian Britain is a remarkable collection of articles which uses the interdisciplinary approach to examine a whole network of correspondences between the arts, literature and science, thus conjuring up a new powerful picture of Victorian culture and its tensions over the last three decades of the 19th century. In her article “The Strange Case of the Victorian Sleeping Maid”, Béatrice Laurent, who edited the collection, describes the motif of the Sleeping Beauty as “a c...

  1. Somatic mutagenesis with a Sleeping Beauty transposon system leads to solid tumor formation in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura McGrail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes and mouse transposon-induced tumors has identified a vast number of genes mutated in different cancers. One of the outstanding challenges in this field is to determine which genes, when mutated, contribute to cellular transformation and tumor progression. To identify new and conserved genes that drive tumorigenesis we have developed a novel cancer model in a distantly related vertebrate species, the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The Sleeping Beauty (SB T2/Onc transposon system was adapted for somatic mutagenesis in zebrafish. The carp ß-actin promoter was cloned into T2/Onc to create T2/OncZ. Two transgenic zebrafish lines that contain large concatemers of T2/OncZ were isolated by injection of linear DNA into the zebrafish embryo. The T2/OncZ transposons were mobilized throughout the zebrafish genome from the transgene array by injecting SB11 transposase RNA at the 1-cell stage. Alternatively, the T2/OncZ zebrafish were crossed to a transgenic line that constitutively expresses SB11 transposase. T2/OncZ transposon integration sites were cloned by ligation-mediated PCR and sequenced on a Genome Analyzer II. Between 700-6800 unique integration events in individual fish were mapped to the zebrafish genome. The data show that introduction of transposase by transgene expression or RNA injection results in an even distribution of transposon re-integration events across the zebrafish genome. SB11 mRNA injection resulted in neoplasms in 10% of adult fish at ∼10 months of age. T2/OncZ-induced zebrafish tumors contain many mutated genes in common with human and mouse cancer genes. These analyses validate our mutagenesis approach and provide additional support for the involvement of these genes in human cancers. The zebrafish T2/OncZ cancer model will be useful for identifying novel and conserved genetic drivers of human cancers.

  2. Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axelsson, J.; Ingre, M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Olsson, A.; Lekander, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether sleep deprived people are perceived as less healthy, less attractive, and more tired than after a normal night's sleep. Design Experimental study. Setting Sleep laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants 23 healthy, sleep deprived adults (age 18-31) who were

  3. Integration profile and safety of an adenovirus hybrid-vector utilizing hyperactive sleeping beauty transposase for somatic integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhang

    Full Text Available We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We found that in all mice which received the hyperactive SB transposase, transgene expression levels were stabilized in a dose-dependent manner and that the highest vector dose was accompanied by fatalities in mice. To analyze potential genotoxic side-effects due to somatic integration into host chromosomes, we performed a genome-wide integration site analysis using linker-mediated PCR (LM-PCR and linear amplification-mediated PCR (LAM-PCR. Analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from HSB5 treated female and male mice revealed a total of 1327 unique transposition events. Overall the chromosomal distribution pattern was close-to-random and we observed a random integration profile with respect to integration into gene and non-gene areas. Notably, when using the LM-PCR protocol, 27 extra-chromosomal integration events were identified, most likely caused by transposon excision and subsequent transposition into the delivered adenoviral vector genome. In total, this study provides a careful evaluation of the safety profile of adenovirus/Sleeping Beauty transposase hybrid-vectors. The obtained information will be useful when designing future preclinical studies utilizing hybrid-vectors in small and large animal models.

  4. Choosing Beauty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning that takes into account self-locating evidence in apparently plausible ways sometimes yields the startling conclusion that rational credences are such as if agents had bizarre causal powers. The present paper introduces a novel version of the Sleeping Beauty problem-Choosing Beauty-for

  5. Derivation and characterization of sleeping beauty transposon-mediated porcine induced pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kues, Wilfried A.; Herrmann, Doris; Barg-Kues, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    the nonviral Sleeping Beauty transposon system to deliver the reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc. Successful reprogramming to a pluripotent state was indicated by changes in cell morphology and reactivation of the Oct4-EGFP reporter. The transposon-reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem (i......PS) cells showed long-term proliferation in vitro over >40 passages, expressed transcription factors typical of embryonic stem cells, including OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, REX1, ESRRB, DPPA5, and UTF1 and surface markers of pluripotency, including SSEA-1 and TRA-1-60. In vitro differentiation resulted in derivatives......The domestic pig is an important large animal model for preclinical testing of novel cell therapies. Recently, we produced pluripotency reporter pigs in which the Oct4 promoter drives expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Here, we reprogrammed Oct4-EGFP fibroblasts employing...

  6. Exploring an Unknown Territory: "Sleeping Beauties" in the Nursing Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokol, Peter; Blažun Vošner, Helena; Vermeulen, Joeri

    Sleeping Beauties (SBs) are publications that are scarcely cited in the years immediately following publication but then suddenly become highly cited later. Such publications have unique citation patterns and can reveal important developments in the field in which they appear. No holistic analysis of nursing SBs has been done yet. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the SB phenomenon in the nursing research literature. The corpus for the nursing SB identification was harvested from the Web of Science Core Collection (Thomas Reuters) for the period 1934-2015. Citation histories of 212,239 publications were screened. From those, 3,209 publications with more than 100 citations were selected for analysis. We used our own software and applied the van Raan (2004) and Baumgartner (2010) criteria for SBs-a 5-year sleeping period with at most 10 citations during that time, an average of at least five citations per year after the first 10 years, with at least 100 citations in total. The knowledge context for SBs was determined using citing papers. All citing papers were analyzed with the help of VOSviewer software. Nine publications were identified as SBs (prevalence of 0.004%). The length of sleep duration ranged from 5 to 10 years (M = 6.8, SD = 2.0), depth of sleep ranged from 0.2 to 0.8 citations (M = 0.6, SD = 0.2), and awake intensity ranged from 6.4 to 15.0 citations (M = 11.0, SD = 3.8). The average number of citations to SBs was 229. Most nursing SBs were produced in the United States (n = 8) from top institutions in journals with high-impact factors. Nursing SBs covered topics including resilience, sampling in qualitative research, metasynthesis, postoperative pain in children, dementia rating scales, care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, nursing theory related to fatigue mechanisms in cancer patients, and family participation during resuscitation. Nursing SBs were cited by authors from a large number of institutions and countries; the number of

  7. Integration of Oncogenes via Sleeping Beauty as a Mouse Model of HPV16+ Oral Tumors and Immunologic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Tseng, Ssu-Hsueh; Jiang, Rosie; Yang, Andrew; Farmer, Emily; Peng, Shiwen; Henkle, Talia; Chang, Yung-Nien; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2018-01-23

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the etiologic factor for cervical cancer and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. Although several prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, no effective therapeutic strategies to control active HPV diseases exist. Tumor implantation models are traditionally used to study HPV-associated buccal tumors. However, they fail to address precancerous phases of disease progression and display tumor microenvironments distinct from those observed in patients. Previously, K14-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models have been used to generate spontaneous tumors. However, the rate of tumor formation is inconsistent, and the host often develops immune tolerance to the viral oncoproteins. We developed a preclinical, spontaneous, HPV16 + buccal tumor model using submucosal injection of oncogenic plasmids expressing HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and sleeping beauty (SB) transposase, followed by electroporation in the buccal mucosa. We evaluated responses to immunization with a pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine and tumor cell migration to distant locations. Mice transfected with plasmids encoding HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and SB transposase developed tumors within 3 weeks. We also found transient anti-CD3 administration is required to generate tumors in immunocompetent mice. Bioluminescence signals from luciferase correlated strongly with tumor growth, and tumors expressed HPV16-associated markers. We showed that pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) administration resulted in antitumor immunity in tumor-bearing mice. Lastly, we demonstrated that the generated tumor could migrate to tumor-draining lymph nodes. Our model provides an efficient method to induce spontaneous HPV + tumor formation, which can be used to identify effective therapeutic interventions, analyze tumor migration, and conduct tumor biology research. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(3); 1-15. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N., E-mail: aravalli@umn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 292, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Park, Chang W. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Steer, Clifford J., E-mail: steer001@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  9. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N.; Park, Chang W.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Bamshad, Michael; Noonan, Carolyn; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Watson, Nathaniel F

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins. Academic clinical research center. 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (sleeping twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.06, 0.95; P sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.51. Reduced sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number in sleep duration discordant monozygotic twins offering a potential mechanism whereby short sleep impairs health and longevity through mitochondrial stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins...... structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.......06, 0.95; P DNA copy number within twin pairs. Thus every 1-minute decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated...

  12. Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis identifies genes that cooperate with mutant Smad4 in gastric cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Haruna; Rust, Alistair G; Ward, Jerrold M; Yew, Christopher Chin Kuan; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G

    2016-04-05

    Mutations in SMAD4 predispose to the development of gastrointestinal cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. To identify genes driving gastric cancer (GC) development, we performed a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis screen in the stomach of Smad4(+/-) mutant mice. This screen identified 59 candidate GC trunk drivers and a much larger number of candidate GC progression genes. Strikingly, 22 SB-identified trunk drivers are known or candidate cancer genes, whereas four SB-identified trunk drivers, including PTEN, SMAD4, RNF43, and NF1, are known human GC trunk drivers. Similar to human GC, pathway analyses identified WNT, TGF-β, and PI3K-PTEN signaling, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, adherens junctions, and RNA degradation in addition to genes involved in chromatin modification and organization as highly deregulated pathways in GC. Comparative oncogenomic filtering of the complete list of SB-identified genes showed that they are highly enriched for genes mutated in human GC and identified many candidate human GC genes. Finally, by comparing our complete list of SB-identified genes against the list of mutated genes identified in five large-scale human GC sequencing studies, we identified LDL receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B) as a previously unidentified human candidate GC tumor suppressor gene. In LRP1B, 129 mutations were found in 462 human GC samples sequenced, and LRP1B is one of the top 10 most deleted genes identified in a panel of 3,312 human cancers. SB mutagenesis has, thus, helped to catalog the cooperative molecular mechanisms driving SMAD4-induced GC growth and discover genes with potential clinical importance in human GC.

  13. Sleeping Beauty-baculovirus hybrid vectors for long-term gene expression in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Tytteli Anni Kaarina; Laakkonen, Johanna Päivikki; Alasaarela, Laura; Airenne, Kari Juhani; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    A baculovirus vector is capable of efficiently transducing many nondiving and diving cell types. However, the potential of baculovirus is restricted for many gene delivery applications as a result of the transient gene expression that it mediates. The plasmid-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system integrates transgenes into target cell genome efficiently with a genomic integration pattern that is generally considered safer than the integration of many other integrating vectors; yet efficient delivery of therapeutic genes into cells of target tissues in vivo is a major challenge for nonviral gene therapy. In the present study, SB was introduced into baculovirus to obtain novel hybrid vectors that would combine the best features of the two vector systems (i.e. effective gene delivery and efficient integration into the genome), thus circumventing the major limitations of these vectors. We constructed and optimized SB-baculovirus hybrid vectors that bear either SB100x transposase or SB transposon in the forward or reverse orientations with respect to the viral backbone The functionality of the novel hybrid vectors was investigated in cell cultures and in a proof-of-concept study in the mouse eye. The hybrid vectors showed high and sustained transgene expression that remained stable and demonstrated no signs of decline during the 2 months follow-up in vitro. These results were verified in the mouse eye where persistent transgene expression was detected two months after intravitreal injection. Our results confirm that (i) SB-baculovirus hybrid vectors mediate long-term gene expression in vitro and in vivo, and (ii) the hybrid vectors are potential new tools for the treatment of ocular diseases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA alteration in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacedonia, Donato; Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Cotugno, Grazia; Palladino, Grazia P; Patricelli, Giulia; Sabato, Roberto; Foschino Barbaro, Maria P

    2015-04-07

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSAS) is a disease associated with the increase of cardiovascular risk and it is characterized by repeated episodes of Intermittent Hypoxia (IH) which inducing oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Mitochondria are cell organelles involved in the respiratory that have their own DNA (MtDNA). The aim of this study was to investigate if the increase of oxidative stress in OSAS patients can induce also MtDNA alterations. 46 OSAS patients (age 59.27 ± 11.38; BMI 30.84 ± 3.64; AHI 36.63 ± 24.18) were compared with 36 control subjects (age 54.42 ± 6.63; BMI 29.06 ± 4.7; AHI 3.8 ± 1.10). In blood cells Content of MtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) was measured in OSAS patients by Real Time PCR. The ratio between MtDNA/nDNA was then calculated. Presence of oxidative stress was evaluated by levels of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (ROMs), measured by diacron reactive oxygen metabolite test (d-ROM test). MtDNA/nDNA was higher in patients with OSAS than in the control group (150.94 ± 49.14 vs 128.96 ± 45.8; p = 0.04), the levels of ROMs were also higher in OSAS subjects (329.71 ± 70.17 vs 226 ± 36.76; p = 0.04) and they were positively correlated with MtDNA/nDNA (R = 0.5, p DNA damage induced by the increase of oxidative stress. Intermittent hypoxia seems to be the main mechanism which leads to this process.

  15. Conditional gene expression in the mouse using a Sleeping Beauty gene-trap transposon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackett Perry B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insertional mutagenesis techniques with transposable elements have been popular among geneticists studying model organisms from E. coli to Drosophila and, more recently, the mouse. One such element is the Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon that has been shown in several studies to be an effective insertional mutagen in the mouse germline. SB transposon vector studies have employed different functional elements and reporter molecules to disrupt and report the expression of endogenous mouse genes. We sought to generate a transposon system that would be capable of reporting the expression pattern of a mouse gene while allowing for conditional expression of a gene of interest in a tissue- or temporal-specific pattern. Results Here we report the systematic development and testing of a transposon-based gene-trap system incorporating the doxycycline-repressible Tet-Off (tTA system that is capable of activating the expression of genes under control of a Tet response element (TRE promoter. We demonstrate that the gene trap system is fully functional in vitro by introducing the "gene-trap tTA" vector into human cells by transposition and identifying clones that activate expression of a TRE-luciferase transgene in a doxycycline-dependent manner. In transgenic mice, we mobilize gene-trap tTA vectors, discover parameters that can affect germline mobilization rates, and identify candidate gene insertions to demonstrate the in vivo functionality of the vector system. We further demonstrate that the gene-trap can act as a reporter of endogenous gene expression and it can be coupled with bioluminescent imaging to identify genes with tissue-specific expression patterns. Conclusion Akin to the GAL4/UAS system used in the fly, we have made progress developing a tool for mutating and revealing the expression of mouse genes by generating the tTA transactivator in the presence of a secondary TRE-regulated reporter molecule. A vector like the gene

  16. Oxidative DNA damage during sleep periods among nightshift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Randolph, Timothy W; Gong, Jicheng; Buchanan, Diana Taibi; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Davis, Scott

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative DNA damage may be increased among nightshift workers because of suppression of melatonin, a cellular antioxidant, and/or inflammation related to sleep disruption. However, oxidative DNA damage has received limited attention in previous studies of nightshift work. From two previous cross-sectional studies, urine samples collected during a night sleep period for 217 dayshift workers and during day and night sleep (on their first day off) periods for 223 nightshift workers were assayed for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Urinary measures of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), a marker of circulating melatonin levels, and actigraphy-based sleep quality data were also available. Nightshift workers during their day sleep periods excreted 83% (p=0.2) and 77% (p=0.03) of the 8-OH-dG that dayshift workers and they themselves, respectively, excreted during their night sleep periods. Among nightshift workers, higher aMT6s levels were associated with higher urinary 8-OH-dG levels, and an inverse U-shaped trend was observed between 8-OH-dG levels and sleep efficiency and sleep duration. Reduced excretion of 8-OH-dG among nightshift workers during day sleep may reflect reduced functioning of DNA repair machinery, which could potentially lead to increased cellular levels of oxidative DNA damage. Melatonin disruption among nightshift workers may be responsible for the observed effect, as melatonin is known to enhance repair of oxidative DNA damage. Quality of sleep may similarly impact DNA repair. Cellular levels of DNA damage will need to be evaluated in future studies to help interpret these findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Manufacture of clinical-grade CD19-specific T cells stably expressing chimeric antigen receptor using Sleeping Beauty system and artificial antigen presenting cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjeet Singh

    Full Text Available Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Our current approach to adoptive immunotherapy is based on a second generation CAR (designated CD19RCD28 that signals through a CD28 and CD3-ζ endodomain. T cells are electroporated with DNA plasmids from the Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon/transposase system to express this CAR. Stable integrants of genetically modified T cells can then be retrieved when co-cultured with designer artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC in the presence of interleukin (IL-2 and 21. Here, we reveal how the platform technologies of SB-mediated transposition and CAR-dependent propagation on aAPC were adapted for human application. Indeed, we have initiated clinical trials in patients with high-risk B-lineage malignancies undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT. We describe the process to manufacture clinical grade CD19-specific T cells derived from healthy donors. Three validation runs were completed in compliance with current good manufacturing practice for Phase I/II trials demonstrating that by 28 days of co-culture on γ-irradiated aAPC ∼10(10 T cells were produced of which >95% expressed CAR. These genetically modified and propagated T cells met all quality control testing and release criteria in support of infusion.

  18. Stable, Nonviral Expression of Mutated Tumor Neoantigen-specific T-cell Receptors Using the Sleeping Beauty Transposon/Transposase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniger, Drew C; Pasetto, Anna; Tran, Eric; Parkhurst, Maria R; Cohen, Cyrille J; Robbins, Paul F; Cooper, Laurence JN; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Neoantigens unique to each patient's tumor can be recognized by autologous T cells through their T-cell receptor (TCR) but the low frequency and/or terminal differentiation of mutation-specific T cells in tumors can limit their utility as adoptive T-cell therapies. Transfer of TCR genes into younger T cells from peripheral blood with a high proliferative potential could obviate this problem. We generated a rapid, cost-effective strategy to genetically engineer cancer patient T cells with TCRs using the clinical Sleeping Beauty transposon/transposase system. Patient-specific TCRs reactive against HLA-A*0201-restriced neoantigens AHNAKS2580F or ERBB2H473Y or the HLA-DQB*0601-restricted neoantigen ERBB2IPE805G were assembled with murine constant chains and cloned into Sleeping Beauty transposons. Patient peripheral blood lymphocytes were coelectroporated with SB11 transposase and Sleeping Beauty transposon, and transposed T cells were enriched by sorting on murine TCRβ (mTCRβ) expression. Rapid expansion of mTCRβ+ T cells with irradiated allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes feeders, OKT3, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-15, and IL-21 resulted in a preponderance of effector (CD27−CD45RA−) and less-differentiated (CD27+CD45RA+) T cells. Transposed T cells specifically mounted a polyfunctional response against cognate mutated neoantigens and tumor cell lines. Thus, Sleeping Beauty transposition of mutation-specific TCRs can facilitate the use of personalized T-cell therapy targeting unique neoantigens. PMID:26945006

  19. Long-Term PEDF Release in Rat Iris and Retinal Epithelial Cells after Sleeping Beauty Transposon-Mediated Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Garcia-Garcia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF is a potent antiangiogenic, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective molecule that is the endogenous inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the retina. An ex vivo gene therapy approach based on transgenic overexpression of PEDF in the eye is assumed to rebalance the angiogenic-antiangiogenic milieu of the retina, resulting in growth regression of choroidal blood vessels, the hallmark of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Here, we show that rat pigment epithelial cells can be efficiently transfected with the PEDF-expressing non-viral hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon system delivered in a form free of antibiotic resistance marker miniplasmids. The engineered retinal and iris pigment epithelium cells secrete high (141 ± 13 and 222 ± 14 ng PEDF levels in 72 hr in vitro. In vivo studies showed cell survival and insert expression during at least 4 months. Transplantation of the engineered cells to the subretinal space of a rat model of choroidal neovascularization reduces almost 50% of the development of new vessels.

  20. Germline transgenic pigs by Sleeping Beauty transposition in porcine zygotes and targeted integration in the pig genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Garrels

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering can expand the utility of pigs for modeling human diseases, and for developing advanced therapeutic approaches. However, the inefficient production of transgenic pigs represents a technological bottleneck. Here, we assessed the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB100X transposon system for enzyme-catalyzed transgene integration into the embryonic porcine genome. The components of the transposon vector system were microinjected as circular plasmids into the cytoplasm of porcine zygotes, resulting in high frequencies of transgenic fetuses and piglets. The transgenic animals showed normal development and persistent reporter gene expression for >12 months. Molecular hallmarks of transposition were confirmed by analysis of 25 genomic insertion sites. We demonstrate germ-line transmission, segregation of individual transposons, and continued, copy number-dependent transgene expression in F1-offspring. In addition, we demonstrate target-selected gene insertion into transposon-tagged genomic loci by Cre-loxP-based cassette exchange in somatic cells followed by nuclear transfer. Transposase-catalyzed transgenesis in a large mammalian species expands the arsenal of transgenic technologies for use in domestic animals and will facilitate the development of large animal models for human diseases.

  1. Is Lack of Sleep Capable of Inducing DNA Damage in Aged Skin?

    OpenAIRE

    Kahan, Vanessa [UNIFESP; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki [UNIFESP; Egydio, Flavia [UNIFESP; Barros, L. A. [UNIFESP; Tomimori, Jane [UNIFESP; Tufik, Sergio [UNIFESP; Andersen, Monica Levy [UNIFESP

    2014-01-01

    Skin naturally changes with age, becoming more fragile. Various stimuli can alter skin integrity. the aim of this study was to evaluate whether sleep deprivation affects the integrity of DNA in skin and exacerbates the effects of aging. Fifteen-month old female Hairless mice underwent 72 h of paradoxical sleep deprivation or 15 days of chronic sleep restriction. Punch biopsies of the skin were taken to evaluate DNA damage by single cell gel (comet) assay. Neither paradoxical sleep deprivation...

  2. Awakening sleeping beauty: production of propionic acid in Escherichia coli through the sbm operon requires the activity of a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Ricardo Axayacatl; McCubbin, Tim; Wille, Annalena; Plan, Manuel; Nielsen, Lars Keld; Marcellin, Esteban

    2017-07-17

    Propionic acid is used primarily as a food preservative with smaller applications as a chemical building block for the production of many products including fabrics, cosmetics, drugs, and plastics. Biological production using propionibacteria would be competitive against chemical production through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene if native producers could be engineered to reach near-theoretical yield and good productivity. Unfortunately, engineering propionibacteria has proven very challenging. It has been suggested that activation of the sleeping beauty operon in Escherichia coli is sufficient to achieve propionic acid production. Optimising E. coli production should be much easier than engineering propionibacteria if tolerance issues can be addressed. Propionic acid is produced in E. coli via the sleeping beauty mutase operon under anaerobic conditions in rich medium via amino acid degradation. We observed that the sbm operon enhances amino acids degradation to propionic acid and allows E. coli to degrade isoleucine. However, we show here that the operon lacks an epimerase reaction that enables propionic acid production in minimal medium containing glucose as the sole carbon source. Production from glucose can be restored by engineering the system with a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase from Propionibacterium acidipropionici (0.23 ± 0.02 mM). 1-Propanol production was also detected from the promiscuous activity of the native alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE). We also show that aerobic conditions are favourable for propionic acid production. Finally, we increase titre 65 times using a combination of promoter engineering and process optimisation. The native sbm operon encodes an incomplete pathway. Production of propionic acid from glucose as sole carbon source is possible when the pathway is complemented with a methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Although propionic acid via the restored succinate dissimilation pathway is considered a fermentative process, the engineered pathway

  3. Wide Awake and Ready to Move: 20 Years of Non-Viral Therapeutic Genome Engineering with the Sleeping Beauty Transposon System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Russ; Narayanavari, Suneel A; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2017-10-01

    Gene therapies will only become a widespread tool in the clinical treatment of human diseases with the advent of gene transfer vectors that integrate genetic information stably, safely, effectively, and economically. Two decades after the discovery of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon, it has been transformed into a vector system that is fulfilling these requirements. SB may well overcome some of the limitations associated with viral gene transfer vectors and transient non-viral gene delivery approaches that are being used in the majority of ongoing clinical trials. The SB system has achieved a high level of stable gene transfer and sustained transgene expression in multiple primary human somatic cell types, representing crucial steps that may permit its clinical use in the near future. This article reviews the most important aspects of SB as a tool for gene therapy, including aspects of its vectorization and genomic integration. As an illustration, the clinical development of the SB system toward gene therapy of age-related macular degeneration and cancer immunotherapy is highlighted.

  4. Is lack of sleep capable of inducing DNA damage in aged skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, V; Ribeiro, D A; Egydio, F; Barros, L A; Tomimori, J; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-01-01

    Skin naturally changes with age, becoming more fragile. Various stimuli can alter skin integrity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether sleep deprivation affects the integrity of DNA in skin and exacerbates the effects of aging. Fifteen-month old female Hairless mice underwent 72 h of paradoxical sleep deprivation or 15 days of chronic sleep restriction. Punch biopsies of the skin were taken to evaluate DNA damage by single cell gel (comet) assay. Neither paradoxical sleep deprivation nor sleep restriction increased genetic damage, measured by tail movement and tail intensity values. Taken together, the findings are consistent with the notion that aging overrides the effect of sleep loss on the genetic damage in elderly mice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Beauty Photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcato, M.

    2002-01-01

    Beauty photoproduction in ep collisions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA, at a center-of-mass energy of 300 GeV. Beauty quarks are tagged via their semi-leptonic decay into a muon or an electron. Events are selected by requiring the presence of two high-transverse energy jets and one high - p T lepton in the final state. The discrimination between beauty and background events is done by a fit to the p rel T variable, the transverse momentum of the lepton with respect to the jet axis. Total and differential cross sections are presented and compared to leading order Monte Carlo simulations and next-to-leading order QCD predictions. (author)

  6. Prolonged Expression of Secreted Enzymes in Dogs After Liver-Directed Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposons: Implications for Non-Viral Gene Therapy of Systemic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovich, Elena L; Hyland, Kendra A; Hall, Bryan C; Bell, Jason B; Olson, Erik R; Rusten, Myra Urness; Hunter, David W; Ellinwood, N Matthew; McIvor, R Scott; Hackett, Perry B

    2017-07-01

    The non-viral, integrating Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is efficient in treating systemic monogenic disease in mice, including hemophilia A and B caused by deficiency of blood clotting factors and mucopolysaccharidosis types I and VII caused by α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) and β-glucuronidase (GUSB) deficiency, respectively. Modified approaches of the hydrodynamics-based procedure to deliver transposons to the liver in dogs were recently reported. Using the transgenic canine reporter secreted alkaline phosphatase (cSEAP), transgenic protein in the plasma was demonstrated for up to 6 weeks post infusion. This study reports that immunosuppression of dogs with gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ) prolonged the presence of cSEAP in the circulation up to 5.5 months after a single vector infusion. Transgene expression declined gradually but appeared to stabilize after about 2 months at approximately fourfold baseline level. Durability of transgenic protein expression in the plasma was inversely associated with transient increase of liver enzymes alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in response to the plasmid delivery procedure, which suggests a deleterious effect of hepatocellular toxicity on transgene expression. GdCl 3 treatment was ineffective for repeat vector infusions. In parallel studies, dogs were infused with potentially therapeutic transposons. Activities of transgenic IDUA and GUSB in plasma peaked at 50-350% of wildtype, but in the absence of immunosuppression lasted only a few days. Transposition was detectable by excision assay only when the most efficient transposase, SB100X, was used. Dogs infused with transposons encoding canine clotting factor IX (cFIX) were treated with GdCl 3 and showed expression profiles similar to those in cSEAP-infused dogs, with expression peaking at 40% wt (2 μg/mL). It is concluded that GdCl 3 can support extended transgene expression after hydrodynamic introduction of SB transposons in dogs, but that alternative

  7. Sleeping Beauty Transposition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor-1 (ROR1 into Diverse Memory T-Cell Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew C Deniger

    Full Text Available T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs targeting CD19 demonstrated clinical activity against some B-cell malignancies. However, this is often accompanied by a loss of normal CD19+ B cells and humoral immunity. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor-1 (ROR1 is expressed on sub-populations of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors, but not by healthy B cells or normal post-partum tissues. Thus, adoptive transfer of T cells specific for ROR1 has potential to eliminate tumor cells and spare healthy tissues. To test this hypothesis, we developed CARs targeting ROR1 in order to generate T cells specific for malignant cells. Two Sleeping Beauty transposons were constructed with 2nd generation ROR1-specific CARs signaling through CD3ζ and either CD28 (designated ROR1RCD28 or CD137 (designated ROR1RCD137 and were introduced into T cells. We selected for T cells expressing CAR through co-culture with γ-irradiated activating and propagating cells (AaPC, which co-expressed ROR1 and co-stimulatory molecules. Numeric expansion over one month of co-culture on AaPC in presence of soluble interleukin (IL-2 and IL-21 occurred and resulted in a diverse memory phenotype of CAR+ T cells as measured by non-enzymatic digital array (NanoString and multi-panel flow cytometry. Such T cells produced interferon-γ and had specific cytotoxic activity against ROR1+ tumors. Moreover, such cells could eliminate ROR1+ tumor xenografts, especially T cells expressing ROR1RCD137. Clinical trials will investigate the ability of ROR1-specific CAR+ T cells to specifically eliminate tumor cells while maintaining normal B-cell repertoire.

  8. The influence of sleep deprivation and obesity on DNA damage in female Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuli M. Tenorio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate overall genetic damage induced by total sleep deprivation in obese, female Zucker rats of differing ages. METHOD: Lean and obese Zucker rats at 3, 6, and 15 months old were randomly distributed into two groups for each age group: home-cage control and sleep-deprived (N = 5/group. The sleep-deprived groups were deprived sleep by gentle handling for 6 hours, whereas the home-cage control group was allowed to remain undisturbed in their home-cage. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, or after an equivalent amount of time for the home-cage control groups, the rats were brought to an adjacent room and decapitated. The blood, brain, and liver tissue were collected and stored individually to evaluate DNA damage. RESULTS: Significant genetic damage was observed only in 15-month-old rats. Genetic damage was present in the liver cells from sleep-deprived obese rats compared with lean rats in the same condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with genetic damage in brain cells regardless of obesity status. DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood cells regardless of sleep condition or obesity status. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that obesity was associated with genetic damage in liver cells, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in brain cells. These results also indicate that there is no synergistic effect of these noxious conditions on the overall level of genetic damage. In addition, the level of DNA damage was significantly higher in 15-month-old rats compared to younger rats.

  9. The influence of sleep deprivation and obesity on DNA damage in female Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Neuli M; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Fracalossi, Ana Carolina C; Carlin, Viviane; Hirotsu, Camila; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate overall genetic damage induced by total sleep deprivation in obese, female Zucker rats of differing ages. Lean and obese Zucker rats at 3, 6, and 15 months old were randomly distributed into two groups for each age group: home-cage control and sleep-deprived (N = 5/group). The sleep-deprived groups were deprived sleep by gentle handling for 6 hours, whereas the home-cage control group was allowed to remain undisturbed in their home-cage. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, or after an equivalent amount of time for the home-cage control groups, the rats were brought to an adjacent room and decapitated. The blood, brain, and liver tissue were collected and stored individually to evaluate DNA damage. Significant genetic damage was observed only in 15-month-old rats. Genetic damage was present in the liver cells from sleep-deprived obese rats compared with lean rats in the same condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with genetic damage in brain cells regardless of obesity status. DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood cells regardless of sleep condition or obesity status. Taken together, these results suggest that obesity was associated with genetic damage in liver cells, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in brain cells. These results also indicate that there is no synergistic effect of these noxious conditions on the overall level of genetic damage. In addition, the level of DNA damage was significantly higher in 15-month-old rats compared to younger rats.

  10. Stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNAs by sleeping beauty transposon system to confer HIV-1 resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkina Ramesh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thus far gene therapy strategies for HIV/AIDS have used either conventional retroviral vectors or lentiviral vectors for gene transfer. Although highly efficient, their use poses a certain degree of risk in terms of viral mediated oncogenesis. Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system offers a non-viral method of gene transfer to avoid this possible risk. With respect to conferring HIV resistance, stable knock down of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 by the use of lentiviral vector delivered siRNAs has proved to be a promising strategy to protect cells from HIV-1 infection. In the current studies our aim is to evaluate the utility of SB system for stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNA genes to derive HIV resistant cells as a first step towards using this system for gene therapy. Results Two well characterized siRNAs against the HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 were chosen based on their previous efficacy for the SB transposon gene delivery. The siRNA transgenes were incorporated individually into a modified SB transfer plasmid containing a FACS sortable red fluorescence protein (RFP reporter and a drug selectable neomycin resistance gene. Gene transfer was achieved by co-delivery with a construct expressing a hyperactive transposase (HSB5 into the GHOST-R3/X4/R5 cell line, which expresses the major HIV receptor CD4 and and the co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. SB constructs expressing CCR5 or CXCR4 siRNAs were also transfected into MAGI-CCR5 or MAGI-CXCR4 cell lines, respectively. Near complete downregulation of CCR5 and CXCR4 surface expression was observed in transfected cells. During viral challenge with X4-tropic (NL4.3 or R5-tropic (BaL HIV-1 strains, the respective transposed cells showed marked viral resistance. Conclusion SB transposon system can be used to deliver siRNA genes for stable gene transfer. The siRNA genes against HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are able to downregulate the respective cell surface proteins

  11. Beautiful geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, Eli

    2014-01-01

    If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur

  12. Distinct effects of acute and chronic sleep loss on DNA damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M L; Ribeiro, D A; Bergamaschi, C T; Alvarenga, T A; Silva, A; Zager, A; Campos, R R; Tufik, S

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate genetic damage induced in male rats by experimental sleep loss for short-term (24 and 96 h) and long-term (21 days) intervals, as well as their respective recovery periods in peripheral blood, brain, liver and heart tissue by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Rats were paradoxically deprived of sleep (PSD) by the platform technique for 24 or 96 h, or chronically sleep-restricted (SR) for 21 days. We also sought to verify the time course of their recovery after 24 h of rebound sleep. The results showed DNA damage in blood cells of rats submitted to PSD for 96 h. Brain tissue showed extensive genotoxic damage in PSD rats (both 24 and 96 h), though the effect was more pronounced in the 96 h group. Rats allowed to recover from the PSD-96 h and SR-21 days treatments showed DNA damage as compared to negative controls. Liver and heart did not display any genotoxicity activity. Corticosterone concentrations were increased after PSD (24 and 96 h) relative to control rats, whereas these levels were unaffected in the SR group. Collectively, these findings reveal that sleep loss was able to induce genetic damage in blood and brain cells, especially following acute exposure. Since DNA damage is an important step in events leading to genomic instability, this study represents a relevant contribution to the understanding of the potential health risks associated with sleep deprivation.

  13. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Emil K.; Bostr?m, Adrian E.; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schi?th, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applyin...

  14. Beauty Redeemed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    /PROAP’s Parque do Tejo e Trancão in Lisbon and Michel Desvigne’s Parc aux Angéliques in Bordeaux. Beauty Redeemed offers a systematic framework for the consideration and use of post-industrial sites. The author, Professor of Landscape Design at Copenhagen University, places these ‘leftovers’ in their broad......Coping with post-industrial sites is a pressing issue throughout Europe and North America. One point of departure for their general rediscovery was the revitalisation by Latz + Partner in the early 1990s of an abandoned steelworks as Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord; industrial relics were...... historical and aesthetic context, proceeding from the 19th-century Romantic fascination with ruins through present-day industrial decline as exemplified by Detroit to a renaissance of the transformed landscape. Transformation, understood as designing with the ‘as found’, forms the basis of this design theory...

  15. The sense of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, George

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes an integrative psychoanalytic model of the sense of beauty. The following definition is used: beauty is an aspect of the experience of idealisation in which an object(s), sound(s) or concept(s) is believed to possess qualities of formal perfection. The psychoanalytic literature regarding beauty is explored in depth and fundamental similarities are stressed. The author goes on to discuss the following topics: (1) beauty as sublimation: beauty reconciles the polarisation of self and world; (2) idealisation and beauty: the love of beauty is an indication of the importance of idealisation during development; (3) beauty as an interactive process: the sense of beauty is interactive and intersubjective; (4) the aesthetic and non-aesthetic emotions: specific aesthetic emotions are experienced in response to the formal design of the beautiful object; (5) surrendering to beauty: beauty provides us with an occasion for transcendence and self-renewal; (6) beauty's restorative function: the preservation or restoration of the relationship to the good object is of utmost importance; (7) the self-integrative function of beauty: the sense of beauty can also reconcile and integrate self-states of fragmentation and depletion; (8) beauty as a defence: in psychopathology, beauty can function defensively for the expression of unconscious impulses and fantasies, or as protection against self-crisis; (9) beauty and mortality: the sense of beauty can alleviate anxiety regarding death and feelings of vulnerability. In closing the paper, the author offers a new understanding of Freud'semphasis on love of beauty as a defining trait of civilisation. For a people not to value beauty would mean that they cannot hope and cannot assert life over the inevitable and ubiquitous forces of entropy and death.

  16. DNA Methylation in Inflammatory Genes among Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinkwan; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Capdevila, Oscar Sans; Wang, Yang; Gozal, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to multiple end-organ morbidities that are mediated by the cumulative burden of oxidative stress and inflammation. Because not all children with OSA exhibit increased systemic inflammation, genetic and environmental factors may be affecting patterns of DNA methylation in genes subserving inflammatory functions.

  17. "Sleeping Beauty Gets a Makeover": Using the Retelling of Fairytales to Create an Awareness of Hegemonic Norms and the Social Construction of Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brule, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Media use gender imagery to define "the cultural representations of gender and embodiment of gender in symbolic language and artistic productions that reproduce and legitimate gender statuses." The heroines and heroes in fairytales present images of women being young, beautiful, passive, and helpless while men are portrayed as strong, powerful,…

  18. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...

  19. Beauty Requires Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-05-22

    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep loss and acute drug abuse can induce DNA damage in multiple organs of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T A; Ribeiro, D A; Araujo, P; Hirotsu, C; Mazaro-Costa, R; Costa, J L; Battisti, M C; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the genetic damage induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in combination with cocaine or ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) in multiple organs of male mice using the single cell gel (comet) assay. C57BL/6J mice were submitted to PSD by the platform technique for 72 hours, followed by drug administration and evaluation of DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and brain tissues. Cocaine was able to induce genetic damage in the blood, brain and liver cells of sleep-deprived mice at the majority of the doses evaluated. Ecstasy also induced increased DNA migration in peripheral blood cells for all concentrations tested. Analysis of damaged cells by the tail moment data suggests that ecstasy is a genotoxic chemical at the highest concentrations tested, inducing damage in liver or brain cells after sleep deprivation in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that cocaine and ecstasy/MDMA act as potent genotoxins in multiple organs of mice when associated with sleep loss.

  1. A Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based genetic sensor for functional screening of vitamin D3 analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Sharma, Nynne; Bak, Rasmus Otkjær

    2011-01-01

    Analogues of vitamin D3 are extensively used in the treatment of various illnesses, such as osteoporosis, inflammatory skin diseases, and cancer. Functional testing of new vitamin D3 analogues and formulations for improved systemic and topical administration is supported by sensitive screening me...

  2. Are endogenous sex hormones related to DNA damage in paradoxically sleep-deprived female rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Silva, Andressa; Araujo, Paula; Zager, Adriano; Tenorio, Neuli M; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate overall DNA damage induced by experimental paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in estrous-cycling and ovariectomized female rats to examine possible hormonal involvement during DNA damage. Intact rats in different phases of the estrous cycle (proestrus, estrus, and diestrus) or ovariectomized female Wistar rats were subjected to PSD by the single platform technique for 96 h or were maintained for the equivalent period as controls in home-cages. After this period, peripheral blood and tissues (brain, liver, and heart) were collected to evaluate genetic damage using the single cell gel (comet) assay. The results showed that PSD caused extensive genotoxic effects in brain cells, as evident by increased DNA migration rates in rats exposed to PSD for 96 h when compared to negative control. This was observed for all phases of the estrous cycle indistinctly. In ovariectomized rats, PSD also led to DNA damage in brain cells. No significant statistically differences were detected in peripheral blood, the liver or heart for all groups analyzed. In conclusion, our data are consistent with the notion that genetic damage in the form of DNA breakage in brain cells induced by sleep deprivation overrides the effects related to endogenous female sex hormones. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Emil K; Boström, Adrian E; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-06-01

    Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applying a paired regression model that corrected for monocyte subpopulations. In addition, the correlations between the methylation of genes detected to be modulated by TSD and gene expression were examined in a separate, publicly available cohort of 10 healthy male donors (E-GEOD-49065). Sleep deprivation significantly affected the DNA methylation profile both independently and in dependency of shifts in monocyte composition. Our study detected differential methylation of 269 probes. Notably, one CpG site was located 69 bp upstream of ING5, which has been shown to be differentially expressed after sleep deprivation. Gene set enrichment analysis detected the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways to be enriched among the differentially methylated genes. These results provide evidence that total acute sleep deprivation alters the methylation profile in healthy human subjects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that systematically investigated the impact of total acute sleep deprivation on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in blood and related the epigenomic findings to the expression data.

  4. Contribution of sleep to the repair of neuronal DNA double-strand breaks: evidence from flies and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesi, Michele; Bushey, Daniel; Chini, Mattia; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2016-11-10

    Exploration of a novel environment leads to neuronal DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). These DSBs are generated by type 2 topoisomerase to relieve topological constrains that limit transcription of plasticity-related immediate early genes. If not promptly repaired, however, DSBs may lead to cell death. Since the induction of plasticity-related genes is higher in wake than in sleep, we asked whether it is specifically wake associated with synaptic plasticity that leads to DSBs, and whether sleep provides any selective advantage over wake in their repair. In flies and mice, we find that enriched wake, more than simply time spent awake, induces DSBs, and their repair in mice is delayed or prevented by subsequent wake. In both species the repair of irradiation-induced neuronal DSBs is also quicker during sleep, and mouse genes mediating the response to DNA damage are upregulated in sleep. Thus, sleep facilitates the repair of neuronal DSBs.

  5. Increased cell-free DNA concentrations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chol; Kim, Jin K; Kim, Je H; Jung, Ki H; Cho, Kyung J; Lee, Chang K; Lee, Seung G

    2008-12-01

    Blood concentrations of cell-free DNA, which is considered to be released during apoptosis, are elevated under some pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cell-free DNA concentrations has not been reported so far. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between OSA and plasma DNA concentrations. A case-control study was conducted using a total of 164 men aged 39-67 years, who were free of coronary heart disease and cancer. Laboratory-based overnight polysomnography was performed for all participants. On the basis of polysomnography, patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 5-30 events/h were defined as having mild-moderate OSA (n = 33) and those with >30 events/h were defined as having severe OSA (n = 49). All 82 controls had AHI DNA concentrations from all participants were analyzed for the beta-globin gene using fluorescence-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients with severe OSA had significantly higher plasma DNA concentrations than persons with mild-moderate OSA and those without OSA (P DNA concentration (P DNA concentrations (>8 microg/L) had approximately fourfold higher odds of OSA than those with low DNA levels. Further data are warranted to confirm the association for men and to evaluate the association for women.

  6. Free Beauty, Dependent Beauty, and Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Explains the difference between free and dependent beauty. States that these distinctions, formed by Immanuel Kant, have important implications for aesthetic education. Concludes with a defense of Kant's aesthetics. (JDH)

  7. Dad's Snoring May Have Left Molecular Scars in Your DNA: the Emerging Role of Epigenetics in Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Lara, Daniela; De-la-Peña, Clelia; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric

    2018-04-01

    The sleep-wake cycle is a biological phenomena under the orchestration of neurophysiological, neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and genetical mechanisms. Moreover, homeostatic and circadian processes participate in the regulation of sleep across the light-dark period. Further complexity of the understanding of the genesis of sleep engages disturbances which have been characterized and classified in a variety of sleep-wake cycle disorders. The most prominent sleep alterations include insomnia as well as excessive daytime sleepiness. On the other side, several human diseases have been linked with direct changes in DNA, such as chromatin configuration, genomic imprinting, DNA methylation, histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation or sumoylation, etc.), and activating RNA molecules that are transcribed from DNA but not translated into proteins. Epigenetic theories primarily emphasize the interaction between the environment and gene expression. According to these approaches, the environment to which mammals are exposed has a significant role in determining the epigenetic modifications occurring in chromosomes that ultimately would influence not only development but also the descendants' physiology and behavior. Thus, what makes epigenetics intriguing is that, unlike genetic variation, modifications in DNA are altered directly by the environment and, in some cases, these epigenetic changes may be inherited by future generations. Thus, it is likely that epigenetic phenomena might contribute to the homeostatic and/or circadian control of sleep and, possibly, have an undescribed link with sleep disorders. An exciting new horizon of research is arising between sleep and epigenetics since it represents the relevance of the study of how the genome learns from its experiences and modulates behavior, including sleep.

  8. Beauty production at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shears, Tara

    2008-01-01

    A review of recent measurements of beauty production, based on proton antiproton collision data at √s = 1.96 TeV and using the CDF detector, is given. Previous measurements of beauty (b) quark production at the Tevatron, carried out at centre-of-mass energies √s = 1.8 TeV, have shown discrepancies when compared to Next to Leading Order (NLO) predictions [1]. Improved predictions and experimental procedures have reduced this discrepancy [2]. Improved parton density functions, better fragmentation functions and more complete theoretical calculations have improved theoretical accuracy. Experimentally, measurements of beauty production at √s = 1.96 TeV are now presented in terms of b hadrons or B mesons, to avoid problems unfolding back to the quark level. In this review [3] measurements of inclusive beauty (where one beauty jet or hadron is reconstructed in the event), and beauty + X (where X can be a boson or another beauty jet or hadron), production will be presented: inclusive beauty jet cross-section; semi and fully reconstructed B meson cross-section; beauty dijet cross-section; semi-reconstructed B B meson cross-section; Z boson + beauty jet cross-section. More information concerning other measurements of heavy quark production can be found elsewhere [4

  9. The genome-wide landscape of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in response to sleep deprivation impacts on synaptic plasticity genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, R; Freyburger, M; Suderman, M; Paquet, J; El Helou, J; Belanger-Nelson, E; Rachalski, A; Koumar, O C; Carrier, J; Szyf, M; Mongrain, V

    2014-01-21

    Sleep is critical for normal brain function and mental health. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of sleep loss on both cognition and the sleep electroencephalogram remain mostly unknown. Acute sleep loss impacts brain gene expression broadly. These data contributed to current hypotheses regarding the role for sleep in metabolism, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. These changes in gene expression likely underlie increased sleep intensity following sleep deprivation (SD). Here we tested the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms coordinate the gene expression response driven by SD. We found that SD altered the cortical genome-wide distribution of two major epigenetic marks: DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. DNA methylation differences were enriched in gene pathways involved in neuritogenesis and synaptic plasticity, whereas large changes (>4000 sites) in hydroxymethylation where observed in genes linked to cytoskeleton, signaling and neurotransmission, which closely matches SD-dependent changes in the transcriptome. Moreover, this epigenetic remodeling applied to elements previously linked to sleep need (for example, Arc and Egr1) and synaptic partners of Neuroligin-1 (Nlgn1; for example, Dlg4, Nrxn1 and Nlgn3), which we recently identified as a regulator of sleep intensity following SD. We show here that Nlgn1 mutant mice display an enhanced slow-wave slope during non-rapid eye movement sleep following SD but this mutation does not affect SD-dependent changes in gene expression, suggesting that the Nlgn pathway acts downstream to mechanisms triggering gene expression changes in SD. These data reveal that acute SD reprograms the epigenetic landscape, providing a unique molecular route by which sleep can impact brain function and health.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA mutation screening of male patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Ying; Li, Hong; Xu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Liang-Xing

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the differences between the genes of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement loop (D-loop) region and the Cambridge Reference sequence, in order to screen the mutation sites and investigate the correlation between mutations, clinical parameters and complications associated with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). mtDNA was obtained from male patients with OSAHS in the Zhejiang Province. In total, 60 male patients with OSAHS and 102 healthy adults were assessed to determine the levels of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and high-density and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Furthermore, peripheral mtDNA was extracted and bidirectional sequencing was conducted to enable mutation screening. In the mtDNA D-loop region, 178 mutation sites were identified, of which 115 sites were present in the two groups. The number of non-common sites in the OSAHS group was significantly higher compared with the control group (P0.05). A total of 21 cases in the severe OSAHS group exhibited mutation rates of >10%. In the control group, there were 24 cases where the np73A-G and np263A-G mutations were predominant. The np303-np315 region was identified to be the highly variable region and various mutation forms were observed. Statistically significant differences were observed in the neck perimeter, TG and LDL levels among the OSAHS-no-mutation subgroups (P<0.05) and LDL was shown to be associated with an mtDNA mutation in the OSAHS group. Numerous polymorphic mutation sites were identified in the mtDNA D-loop region of the OSAHS group. Therefore, mtDNA mutation sites may be closely associated with the clinical manifestations and complications of OSAHS.

  11. Sleep Loss Reduces the DNA-Binding of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 to Specific Clock Genes in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Mongrain, Valerie; La Spada, Francesco; Curie, Thomas; Franken, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that clock genes contribute to the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Indeed, mutations in some clock genes modify the markers of sleep homeostasis and an increase in homeostatic sleep drive alters clock gene expression in the forebrain. Here, we investigate a possible mechanism by which sleep deprivation (SD) could alter clock gene expression by quantifying DNA-binding of the core-clock transcription factors CLOCK, NPAS2, and BMAL1 to the cis-regulatory s...

  12. Musings about Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintsch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how cognitive science could illuminate the concept of beauty. Two results from the extensive literature on aesthetics guide my discussion. As the term "beauty" is overextended in general usage, I choose as my starting point the notion of "perfect form." Aesthetic theorists are in reasonable agreement about the criteria for…

  13. Introducing 'beauty and health'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; van der Geest, S.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the concepts ‘beauty’ and ‘health’ and their ambiguous relationship. The quest for beauty is perceived both as an enhancement of health and well-being and as a health risk. The article is an introduction to a collection of six anthropological essays on beauty and health.

  14. Beauty in the Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Most human beings look at erosion as the destruction of a surface, but artists can see that erosion often creates indefinable beauty. Where do you see beauty in the breakdown? In this article, the author presents an innovative lesson that would allow students to observe both human and physical nature. In this activity students will create a work…

  15. DNA methylation in inflammatory genes among children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkwan; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Capdevila, Oscar Sans; Wang, Yang; Gozal, David

    2012-02-01

    Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to multiple end-organ morbidities that are mediated by the cumulative burden of oxidative stress and inflammation. Because not all children with OSA exhibit increased systemic inflammation, genetic and environmental factors may be affecting patterns of DNA methylation in genes subserving inflammatory functions. DNA from matched children with OSA with and without high levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were assessed for DNA methylation levels of 24 inflammatory-related genes. Primer-based polymerase chain reaction assays in a case-control setting involving 47 OSA cases and 31 control subjects were conducted to confirm the findings; hsCRP and myeloid-related protein (MRP) 8/14 levels were also assayed. Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) showed higher methylation in six children with OSA and high hsCRP levels compared with matched children with OSA and low hsCRP levels (P DNA methylation levels compared with children with OSA and low CRP levels and control subjects. IRF1 did not exhibit significant differences. FOXP3 DNA methylation levels correlated with hsCRP and MRP 8/14 levels and with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), BMI z score, and apolipoprotein B levels. A stepwise multiple regression model showed that AHI was independently associated with FOXP3 DNA methylation levels (P gene, which regulates expression of T regulatory lymphocytes, is more likely to display increased methylation among children with OSA who exhibit increased systemic inflammatory responses. Thus, epigenetic modifications may constitute an important determinant of inflammatory phenotype in OSA, and FOXP3 DNA methylation levels may provide a potential biomarker for end-organ vulnerability.

  16. Beauty and Hope: A Moral Beauty Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Rust, Teri; Solom, Rebecca C.; Frost, Nellie; Parsons, Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogical intervention regarding engagement with natural, artistic and moral beauty can lead to an increase in trait hope. In a quasi-experimental design with college students the intervention group showed significantly higher gain scores on trait hope than did the comparison group; the effect size was moderate. The experimental group also…

  17. Quantification of circulating cell-free DNA in the serum of patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liang; Ma, Guan-Hua; Chen, Ling; Li, Min; Liu, Jia-Lin; Yang, Kun; Li, Qing-Yun; Li, Ning; Wan, Huan-Ying

    2010-12-01

    Serum cell-free DNA concentrations have been reported to increase in many acute diseases as well as in some chronic conditions such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether serum DNA concentrations were elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on serum DNA were also investigated. One hundred twenty-seven people diagnosed with OSAHS by polysomnography (PSG) were admitted into the OSAHS group, and 52 subjects without OSAHS were recruited for the control group. The OSAHS group was further divided into mild, moderate, and severe OSAHS subgroups based on their apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during sleep. Ten patients with moderate and severe OSAHS were treated with nCPAP. Serum DNA, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured and were found to be significantly higher in patients with moderate and severe OSAHS groups than those in the mild OSAHS and control groups (p DNA correlated positively with AHI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), IL-6, and MDA, and negatively correlated with minimal oxygen saturation (miniSaO(2)) (all p DNA concentrations. After 6 months of nCPAP therapy, serum concentrations of DNA, IL-6, and MDA were significantly decreased (p DNA in patients with OSAHS was positively correlated with disease severity. Serum DNA may become an important parameter for monitoring the severity of OSAHS and effectiveness of therapy.

  18. [Beauty and esthetics: juridical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béry, Alain; Delprat, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    Although beauty is increasingly becoming a right mostly as it relates to objects, people are now beginning to make a new demand - the right to personal beauty: the right to live in and surrounded by beauty and the right to be beautiful. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  19. The effect of obstructive sleep apnea on DNA damage and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Il Gyu; Jung, Joo Hyun; Kim, Seon Tae

    2013-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with repeated hypoxia and re-oxygenation. This characteristic of OSAS may cause oxidative stress and DNA damage. However, the link of OSAS with oxidative stress and DNA damage is still controversial. In the current study, we investigated whether OSAS causes DNA damage using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and measuring oxidative stress by monitoring serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. From March 2009 to August 2010, 51 patients who underwent polysomnography (PSG) during the night were enrolled in this study. We obtained serum from the patients at 6 AM. DNA damage and oxidative stress were evaluated using a comet assay and measuring serum MDA, respectively. We divided the patients into two groups according to the existence of comets appearing in the comet assay. Group 1 included 44 patients with negative assay results and group 2 consisted of seven patients with positive comet assay findings. We compared the age, gender proportion, PSG data (respiratory disturbance index [RDI], lowest O2 saturation level, and arousal index [AI]), time of disease onset, smoking habits, and serum MDA levels between the two groups. The average age and gender proportion of the two groups were not statistically different (P>0.05). The average of RDI for group 1 was 30.4±18.4 and 8.0±7.7 (P0.05). No relationship between positive comet assay results and OSAS severity was identified. Results of the current study showed that OSAS was not associated with DNA damage as measured by comet assays or oxidative stress according to serum MDA levels.

  20. Familial hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in cloned minipigs created by DNA transposition of a human PCSK9 gain-of-function mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Mashhadi, Rozh Husain; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt; Kragh, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    dominant hypercholesterolemia and accelerates atherosclerosis in humans. Using Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition and cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer, we created Yucatan minipigs with liver-specific expression of human D374Y-PCSK9. D374Y-PCSK9 transgenic pigs displayed reduced hepatic low...

  1. Triggering on beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three CERN experiments (NA19, WA75 and WA78) are discussed. The aim is to study the hadroproduction of naked ''beauty'' and, in the first two cases, to directly measure the lifetime of the beauty states. A comparison of the relative sensitivity is given and the various on-line and off-line selections which are made to attempt the extraction of a signal

  2. The medicalization of beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Poli Neto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern with body image and medical interventions related to physical beauty has greatly increased in the past few years. The purpose of this study is to investigate how medicine is dealing with the theme of beauty. The 2003/2004 editions of the periodicals Aesthetic Surgery Journal and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery were analyzed, in order to investigate the rationality buttressing their discourse. Three categories were prioritized for this study: definition of aesthetic plastic surgery's study object; beauty patterns guiding interventions; and understanding popular demand for aesthetic corrections. Discourse is sustained by biomedical rationality, structured around a disease theory and a dual construction between normal and pathological, with emphasis on biology. In the articles, the beauty patterns guiding therapeutic practices are anchored in biological norms defined through several anthropometric measures, which refer to abstract concepts of beauty, harmony, proportionality and symmetry. In this discourse, there are no references to patterns or to social norms of beauty; motivation for aesthetic intervention appears to be rooted in low self-esteem related to the aging process or to some bodily nonconformity. As per the meaning of 'medicalization' adopted herein, biomedical rationality appropriates variations or anomalies of physical appearance, thus allowing the theme to be dealt with in terms of health and disease, normal and pathological.

  3. DNA Methylation in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Overview of Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perikleous, Evanthia; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Nena, Evangelia; Koffa, Maria; Paraskakis, Emmanouil

    2018-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by phenotypic variations, which can be partly attributed to specific gene polymorphisms. Recent studies have focused on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in order to permit a more precise perception about clinical phenotyping and targeted therapies. The aim of this review was to synthesize the current state of knowledge on the relation between DNA methylation patterns and the development of pediatric OSA, in light of the apparent limited literature in the field. We performed an electronic search in PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases, including all types of articles written in English until January 2017. Literature was apparently scarce; only 2 studies on pediatric populations and 3 animal studies were identified. Forkhead Box P3 (FOXP3) DNA methylation levels were associated with inflammatory biomarkers and serum lipids. Hypermethylation of the core promoter region of endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) gene in OSA children were related with decreased eNOS expression. Additionally, increased expression of genes encoding pro-oxidant enzymes and decreased expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes suggested that disturbances in oxygen homeostasis throughout neonatal period predetermined increased hypoxic sensing in adulthood. In conclusion, epigenetic modifications may be crucial in pediatric sleep disorders to enable in-depth understanding of genotype-phenotype interactions and lead to risk assessment. Epigenome-wide association studies are urgently needed to validate certain epigenetic alterations as reliable, novel biomarkers for the molecular prognosis and diagnosis of OSA patients with high risk of end-organ morbidity.

  4. DNA Methylation in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Overview of Preliminary Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanthia Perikleous

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by phenotypic variations, which can be partly attributed to specific gene polymorphisms. Recent studies have focused on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in order to permit a more precise perception about clinical phenotyping and targeted therapies. The aim of this review was to synthesize the current state of knowledge on the relation between DNA methylation patterns and the development of pediatric OSA, in light of the apparent limited literature in the field. We performed an electronic search in PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases, including all types of articles written in English until January 2017. Literature was apparently scarce; only 2 studies on pediatric populations and 3 animal studies were identified. Forkhead Box P3 (FOXP3 DNA methylation levels were associated with inflammatory biomarkers and serum lipids. Hypermethylation of the core promoter region of endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS gene in OSA children were related with decreased eNOS expression. Additionally, increased expression of genes encoding pro-oxidant enzymes and decreased expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes suggested that disturbances in oxygen homeostasis throughout neonatal period predetermined increased hypoxic sensing in adulthood. In conclusion, epigenetic modifications may be crucial in pediatric sleep disorders to enable in-depth understanding of genotype-phenotype interactions and lead to risk assessment. Epigenome-wide association studies are urgently needed to validate certain epigenetic alterations as reliable, novel biomarkers for the molecular prognosis and diagnosis of OSA patients with high risk of end-organ morbidity.

  5. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  6. Introduction to Beautiful Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri Wieringa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Beautiful Soup is a Python library for getting data out of HTML, XML, and other markup languages. Say you’ve found some webpages that display data relevant to your research, such as date or address information, but that do not provide any way of downloading the data directly. Beautiful Soup helps you pull particular content from a webpage, remove the HTML markup, and save the information. It is a tool for web scraping that helps you clean up and parse the documents you have pulled down from the web.

  7. Introduction to Beautiful Soup

    OpenAIRE

    Jeri Wieringa

    2012-01-01

    Beautiful Soup is a Python library for getting data out of HTML, XML, and other markup languages. Say you’ve found some webpages that display data relevant to your research, such as date or address information, but that do not provide any way of downloading the data directly. Beautiful Soup helps you pull particular content from a webpage, remove the HTML markup, and save the information. It is a tool for web scraping that helps you clean up and parse the documents you have pulled down from t...

  8. Contribution of sleep to the repair of neuronal DNA double-strand breaks: evidence from flies and mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bellesi, Michele; Bushey, Daniel; Chini, Mattia; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of a novel environment leads to neuronal DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). These DSBs are generated by type 2 topoisomerase to relieve topological constrains that limit transcription of plasticity-related immediate early genes. If not promptly repaired, however, DSBs may lead to cell death. Since the induction of plasticity-related genes is higher in wake than in sleep, we asked whether it is specifically wake associated with synaptic plasticity that leads to DSBs, and whether slee...

  9. Superconducting cavities for beauty factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, H.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities and merits of superconducting accelerating cavities for Beauty-factories are considered. There exist already large sc systems of size and frequency comparable to the ones needed for Beauty-factories. Their status and operation experience is discussed. A comparison of normal conducting and superconducting systems is done for two typical Beauty-factory rings

  10. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  11. Partial sleep deprivation activates the DNA damage response (DDR) and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in aged adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Judith E; Cole, Steven W; Seeman, Teresa E; Breen, Elizabeth C; Witarama, Tuff; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Irwin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Age-related disease risk has been linked to short sleep duration and sleep disturbances; however, the specific molecular pathways linking sleep loss with diseases of aging are poorly defined. Key cellular events seen with aging, which are thought to contribute to disease, may be particularly sensitive to sleep loss. We tested whether one night of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) would increase leukocyte gene expression indicative of DNA damage responses (DDR), the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and senescence indicator p16(INK4a) in older adult humans, who are at increased risk for cellular senescence. Community-dwelling older adults aged 61-86years (n=29; 48% male) underwent an experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol over 4 nights, including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, partial sleep deprivation (sleep restricted 3-7AM), and a subsequent full night of sleep. Blood samples were obtained each morning to assess peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression using Illumina HT-12 arrays. Analyses of microarray results revealed that SASP (psleep deprivation activates PBMC gene expression patterns consistent with biological aging in this older adult sample. PSD enhanced the SASP and increased the accumulation of damage that initiates cell cycle arrest and promotes cellular senescence. These findings causally link sleep deprivation to the molecular processes associated with biological aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Degree of Radiation-Induced DNA Strand Breaks Is Altered by Acute Sleep Deprivation and Psychological Stress and Is Associated with Cognitive Performance in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; von Scheven, Gudrun; Feiveson, Alan; Bürkle, Alexander; Wu, Honglu; Goel, Namni

    2018-03-27

    Sleep deprivation is associated with impaired immune responses, cancer, and morbidity and mortality, and can degrade cognitive performance, although individual differences exist in such responses. Sleep deprivation induces DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation in animals, and psychological stress is associated with increased DNA damage in humans. It remains unknown whether sleep deprivation or psychological stress in humans affects DNA damage response from environmental stressors, and whether these responses predict cognitive performance during sleep deprivation. Sixteen healthy adults (ages 29-52;mean age±SD, 36.4±7.1 years;7 women) participated in a 5-day experiment involving two 8 hour time-in-bed [TIB] baseline nights, followed by 39 hours total sleep deprivation (TSD), and two 8-10 hour TIB recovery nights. A modified Trier Social Stress Test was conducted on the day after TSD. Psychomotor Vigilance Tests measured behavioral attention. DNA damage was assessed in blood cells collected at 5 time points, and blood cells were irradiated ex-vivo. TSD, alone or in combination with psychological stress, did not induce significant increases in DNA damage. By contrast, radiation-induced DNA damage decreased significantly in response to TSD, but increased back to baseline when combined with psychological stress. Cognitively-vulnerable individuals had more radiation-induced DNA strand breaks before TSD, indicating their greater sensitivity to DNA damage from environmental stressors. Our results provide novel insights into the molecular consequences of sleep deprivation, psychological stress, and performance vulnerability. They are important for situations involving sleep loss, radiation exposure and cognitive deficits, including cancer therapy, environmental toxicology, and space medicine.

  13. On Disinterestedness and Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Immanuel

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses disinterestedness and beauty. To apprehend a regular and appropriate building with one's cognitive faculties, be the mode of representation clear or confused, is quite a different thing from being conscious of this representation with an accompanying sensation of delight. Here the representation is referred wholly to the…

  14. "Soccer": The Beautiful Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Soccer, or football as it is called in the rest of the world, is the most popular and fastest-growing global sport, with an estimated 240 million people regularly playing what Brazilian star Pele called "the beautiful game." Millions, worldwide, watch it on television. In 2006, the average viewership for each match of the month-long World Cup was…

  15. The Beauty of Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…

  16. Beauty in use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeeke, C.J.; Wensveen, S.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Comments on an article by Marc Hassenzahl (see record 2005-00463-002). The main merit of the article is that offers a guiding research model for empirical studies on beauty in the field of human computer interaction (HCI) and he presents it eloquently. From a product design point of view a few

  17. Spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and sleep deprivation differently induce Bdnf1, Bdnf4 and Bdnf9a DNA methylation and transcripts levels in the basal forebrain and frontal cortex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventskovska, Olena; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Karpova, Nina N

    2015-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) regulates neuronal plasticity, slow wave activity and sleep homeostasis. Environmental stimuli control Bdnf expression through epigenetic mechanisms, but there are no data on epigenetic regulation of Bdnf by sleep or sleep deprivation. Here we investigated whether 5-methylcytosine (5mC) DNA modification at Bdnf promoters p1, p4 and p9 influences Bdnf1, Bdnf4 and Bdnf9a expression during the normal inactive phase or after sleep deprivation (SD) (3, 6 and 12 h, end-times being ZT3, ZT6 and ZT12) in rats in two brain areas involved in sleep regulation, the basal forebrain and cortex. We found a daytime variation in cortical Bdnf expression: Bdnf1 expression was highest at ZT6 and Bdnf4 lowest at ZT12. Such variation was not observed in the basal forebrain. Also Bdnf p1 and p9 methylation levels differed only in the cortex, while Bdnf p4 methylation did not vary in either area. Factorial analysis revealed that sleep deprivation significantly induced Bdnf1 and Bdnf4 with the similar pattern for Bdnf9a in both basal forebrain and cortex; 12 h of sleep deprivation decreased 5mC levels at the cortical Bdnf p4 and p9. Regression analysis between the 5mC promoter levels and the corresponding Bdnf transcript expression revealed significant negative correlations for the basal forebrain Bdnf1 and cortical Bdnf9a transcripts in only non-deprived rats, while these correlations were lost after sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that Bdnf transcription during the light phase of undisturbed sleep-wake cycle but not after SD is regulated at least partially by brain site-specific DNA methylation. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. A Beautiful Spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiangdong

    2003-01-01

    Spin is a beautiful concept that plays an ever important role in modern physics. In this talk, I start with a discussion of the origin of spin, and then turn to three themes in which spin has been crucial in subatomic physics: a lab to explore physics beyond the standard model, a tool to measure physical observables that are hard to obtain otherwise, a probe to unravel nonperturbative QCD. I conclude with some remarks on a world without spin

  19. Small is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, E.F.

    1973-01-01

    The author feels that ''an almost universal idolatry of gigantism'' has caused the urgent crisis of today's society. The book expresses his philosophy of the beauty of thinking in less grandiose terms. He offers some smaller-scale yet highly feasible solutions to many of the problems created by bigness--the environmental crisis, the energy shortage, the dehumanization of industrial workers, the flight from rural areas, and the decay of cities. (MCW)

  20. Charmed, beauty hadrons revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabab, M.

    1998-01-01

    Applying two different versions of QCD sum-rules, we reanalyze rigourously the rich spectroscopy of mesons and baryons built from charm and beauty quarks. An improved determination of the masses and the leptonic decay constants of B c (bc-bar), B c *(bc-bar), and Λ(bcu) is presented. Our optimal results, constrained by stability criteria, are consistent in both versions and support the general pattern common to potential models predictions

  1. ON BEAUTY AND THE BEAUTIFUL IN AESTHETIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borce Kostov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We titled our work “On Beauty and the Beautiful in Aesthetic Education” and we analyzed the category beautiful in function of better understanding the issues of aesthetic education.The basic point was the fact that the determination of the term beautiful is being different in both, time aspect and space aspect. Also, the authors involved in this matter have got different understanding on beautiful issue, on its essence, on its role in human development and on the development of the aesthetics and the aesthetic education.Therefore, within our work, there is an attempt to differ the approaches towards the category beautiful, to comment it, to compare it and finally to give our approach.

  2. Two beautiful new particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In beautiful agreement with the Standard Model, two new excited states (see below) of the Λb beauty particle have just been observed by the LHCb Collaboration. Similarly to protons and neutrons, Λb is composed of three quarks. In the Λb’s case, these are up, down and… beauty.   Although discovering new particles is increasingly looking like a routine exercise for the LHC experiments (see previous features), it is far from being an obvious performance, particularly when the mass of the particles is high. Created in the high-energy proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC, these new excited states of the Λb particle have been found to have a mass of, respectively, 5912 MeV/c2 and 5920 MeV/c2. In other words, they are over five times heavier than the proton or the neutron. Physicists only declare a discovery when data significantly show the relevant signal. In order to do that, they often have to analyse large samples of data. To ...

  3. The genome-wide landscape of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in response to sleep deprivation impacts on synaptic plasticity genes

    OpenAIRE

    Massart, R; Freyburger, M; Suderman, M; Paquet, J; El Helou, J; Belanger-Nelson, E; Rachalski, A; Koumar, O C; Carrier, J; Szyf, M; Mongrain, V

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is critical for normal brain function and mental health. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of sleep loss on both cognition and the sleep electroencephalogram remain mostly unknown. Acute sleep loss impacts brain gene expression broadly. These data contributed to current hypotheses regarding the role for sleep in metabolism, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. These changes in gene expression likely underlie increased sleep intensity following sleep deprivation ...

  4. BEAUTY'99 Conference Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerola, Paula

    2000-01-01

    Investigations of B hadrons are expected to break new ground in measuring CP-violation effects. This series of BEAUTY conferences, originating from the 1993 conference in Liblice, has contributed significantly in developing ideas of CP-violation measurements using B hadrons and formulating and comparing critically the B-physics experiments. In the '99 conference in Bled we saw the ripening of the field and the first fruit emerging - Tevatron have produced beautiful B-physics results and more are expected to come with the next run, while the B-physics experiments at DESY, SLAC and KEK are starting their operation. The longer-term projects at LHC and Tevatron have taken their shape and detailed prototyping work is going on. Meanwhile, on the phenomenological side, there has been impressive theoretical progress in understanding deeper the 'standard' measurements and proposing new signatures. In this summary, I will highlight the status of the field as presented in the conference, concentrating on signatures, experiments and R and D programmes

  5. Sublime Views and Beautiful Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan; Hatch, Mary Jo

    To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty...

  6. Is better beautiful or is beautiful better? Exploring the relationship between beauty and category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Megan; Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C

    2013-06-01

    We evaluate two competing accounts of the relationship between beauty and category structure. According to the similarity-based view, beauty arises from category structure such that central items are favored due to their increased fluency. In contrast, the theory-based view holds that people's theories of beauty shape their perceptions of categories. In the present study, subjects learned to categorize abstract paintings into meaningfully labeled categories and rated the paintings' beauty, value, and typicality. Inconsistent with the similarity-based view, beauty ratings were highly correlated across conditions despite differences in fluency and assigned category structure. Consistent with the theory-based view, beautiful paintings were treated as central members for categories expected to contain beautiful paintings (e.g., art museum pieces), but not in others (e.g., student show pieces). These results suggest that the beauty of complex, real-world stimuli is not determined by fluency within category structure but, instead, interacts with people's prior knowledge to structure categories.

  7. Sick/Beautiful/Freak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgen L. Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonmainstream body modification practitioners actively demonstrate a confounding agency that often results in the stigmatization of their physical characteristics, their moral constitution, and their behavior. By inscribing meaning and identity in visible ways rather than allowing society to project expectations onto them based on their gender, age, race, sexual orientation, and so on, nonmainstream body modifiers present a unique challenge to American conceptions of what is healthy, what is beautiful, and what is human. Using Patricia Hill Collins’ idea of controlling images, Erving Goffman’s conceptions of stigma, and Arthur W. Frank’s styles of body usage typology, this article examines constructions of deviance within the embodied framework of unconventional body modification practices.

  8. Smile esthetics: calculated beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Guillaume; Truong Tan Trung, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    Esthetic demand from patients continues to increase. Consequently, the treatments we offer are moving towards more discreet or invisible techniques using lingual brackets in order to achieve harmonious, balanced results in line with our treatment goals. As orthodontists, we act upon relationships between teeth and bone. And the equilibrium they create impacts the entire face via the smile. A balanced smile is essential to an esthetic outcome and is governed by rules, which guide both the practitioner and patient. A smile can be described in terms of mathematical ratios and proportions but beauty cannot be calculated. For the smile to sit harmoniously within the face, we need to take into account facial proportions and the possibility of their being modified by our orthopedic appliances or by surgery. Copyright © 2014 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  10. Beauty Or Health? A Personal View

    OpenAIRE

    Riji, Haliza Mohd

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of beauty and health in women. It discusses changing definitions of beauty as a result of influences from the entertainment, beauty and health product industries. Advertisements are seen to be major players in defining beauty through promotion of cosmetic, skin, hair and slimming products. Concerns relating to beauty become inculcated in girls through the process of socialisation as they mature into womanhood. The media plays a significant role in portraying...

  11. One-night sleep deprivation induces changes in the DNA methylation and serum activity indices of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuladottir, Gudrun Valgerdur; Nilsson, Emil Karl; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi Birgir

    2016-08-26

    Sleep deprivation has been associated with obesity among adults, and accumulating data suggests that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) expression has a relevant impact on fatty acid (FA) composition of lipid pools and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of one-night total sleep deprivation (TSD) on DNA methylation in the 5'-prime region of SCD1, and whether detected changes in DNA methylation are associated with SCD activity indices (product to precursor FA ratios; 16:1n-7/16:0 and 18:1n-9/18:0) derived from serum phospholipids (PL). Sixteen young, normal-weight, healthy men completed two study sessions, one with one-night TSD and one with one-night normal sleep (NS). Sleep quality and length was assessed by polysomnography, and consisted of electroencephalography, electrooculography, and electromyography. Fasting whole blood samples were collected on the subsequent morning for analysis of DNA methylation and FAs in serum PL. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between changes in DNA methylation and SCD activity indices. Three CpG sites close to the transcription start site (TSS) of SCD1 (cg00954566, cg24503796, cg14089512) were significantly differentially methylated in dependency of sleep duration (-log10 P-value > 1.3). Both SCD-16 and SCD-18 activity indices were significantly elevated (P DNA methylation changes of the three mentioned probes in the 5' region of SCD1. Our results suggest a relevant link between TSD, hepatic SCD1 expression and de-novo fatty acid synthesis via epigenetically driven regulatory mechanisms.

  12. Escaping Beauty through moral narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This study investigate through ethnographic studies the shared cultural meanings expressed about human beauty. How is sense making about the notion of beauty constructed, verballized and negotiated in a group of young females between 24 and 26 years old. Furthermore the study discuss and elaborat...... on the concept of a postpostmodern condition, with the Brand Dove as an example of a Brand acting as a Citizen-Artist (Holt 2002)....

  13. Rare beauty and charm decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, T.

    2016-01-01

    Rare beauty and charm decays can provide powerful probes of physics beyond the Standard Model. These proceedings summarise the latest measurements of rare beauty and charm decays from the LHCb experiment at the end of Run 1 of the LHC. Whilst the majority of the measurements are consistent with SM predictions, small differences are seen in the rate and angular distribution of b → sℓ"+ℓ"− decay processes.

  14. Sleep loss reduces the DNA-binding of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 to specific clock genes in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Mongrain

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that clock genes contribute to the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Indeed, mutations in some clock genes modify the markers of sleep homeostasis and an increase in homeostatic sleep drive alters clock gene expression in the forebrain. Here, we investigate a possible mechanism by which sleep deprivation (SD could alter clock gene expression by quantifying DNA-binding of the core-clock transcription factors CLOCK, NPAS2, and BMAL1 to the cis-regulatory sequences of target clock genes in mice. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, we first showed that, as reported for the liver, DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to target clock genes changes in function of time-of-day in the cerebral cortex. Tissue extracts were collected at ZT0 (light onset, -6, -12, and -18, and DNA enrichment of E-box or E'-box containing sequences was measured by qPCR. CLOCK and BMAL1 binding to Cry1, Dbp, Per1, and Per2 depended on time-of-day, with maximum values reached at around ZT6. We then observed that SD, performed between ZT0 and -6, significantly decreased DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to Dbp, consistent with the observed decrease in Dbp mRNA levels after SD. The DNA-binding of NPAS2 and BMAL1 to Per2 was also decreased by SD, although SD is known to increase Per2 expression in the cortex. DNA-binding to Per1 and Cry1 was not affected by SD. Our results show that the sleep-wake history can affect the clock molecular machinery directly at the level of chromatin binding thereby altering the cortical expression of Dbp and Per2 and likely other targets. Although the precise dynamics of the relationship between DNA-binding and mRNA expression, especially for Per2, remains elusive, the results also suggest that part of the reported circadian changes in DNA-binding of core clock components in tissues peripheral to the suprachiasmatic nuclei could, in fact, be sleep-wake driven.

  15. Sleep loss reduces the DNA-binding of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 to specific clock genes in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongrain, Valérie; La Spada, Francesco; Curie, Thomas; Franken, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that clock genes contribute to the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Indeed, mutations in some clock genes modify the markers of sleep homeostasis and an increase in homeostatic sleep drive alters clock gene expression in the forebrain. Here, we investigate a possible mechanism by which sleep deprivation (SD) could alter clock gene expression by quantifying DNA-binding of the core-clock transcription factors CLOCK, NPAS2, and BMAL1 to the cis-regulatory sequences of target clock genes in mice. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we first showed that, as reported for the liver, DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to target clock genes changes in function of time-of-day in the cerebral cortex. Tissue extracts were collected at ZT0 (light onset), -6, -12, and -18, and DNA enrichment of E-box or E'-box containing sequences was measured by qPCR. CLOCK and BMAL1 binding to Cry1, Dbp, Per1, and Per2 depended on time-of-day, with maximum values reached at around ZT6. We then observed that SD, performed between ZT0 and -6, significantly decreased DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to Dbp, consistent with the observed decrease in Dbp mRNA levels after SD. The DNA-binding of NPAS2 and BMAL1 to Per2 was also decreased by SD, although SD is known to increase Per2 expression in the cortex. DNA-binding to Per1 and Cry1 was not affected by SD. Our results show that the sleep-wake history can affect the clock molecular machinery directly at the level of chromatin binding thereby altering the cortical expression of Dbp and Per2 and likely other targets. Although the precise dynamics of the relationship between DNA-binding and mRNA expression, especially for Per2, remains elusive, the results also suggest that part of the reported circadian changes in DNA-binding of core clock components in tissues peripheral to the suprachiasmatic nuclei could, in fact, be sleep-wake driven.

  16. Beautiful economic features of public landscaping in city beautiful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilson Caputo Delfino Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available City beautiful was a movement of great reach and inspiration, which apparently, was initiated in Chicago in 1893 during the World’s Columbian Exposition. The movement’s premises were artistic, architectural, social, political and economic. Among the artistic and architectural aspects of the city beautiful movement, the provision of high quality public landscaping was of paramount importance. As for the economic rationale behind the movement, we encounter the thinking that a beautiful city should increase its residents’ enjoyment of the city’s attributes and hence attachment to the city, raise real estate values as well as expand city business, with larger sales of city goods and services to local and touristic customers. This paper examines the economic rationale behind the city beautiful movement. We consider a “regional” economy consisting of two adjacent cities, which are identical in many of its attributes, such as the sizes of their populations. We build a general equilibrium model for the agents (consumers and producers in this economy and demonstrate that the economic rationale behind the city beautiful movement is sound. Each city’s wealth and welfare are proportional to its quality level and a city’s quality level is proportional to the city’s public landscaping quality.

  17. Beauty Or Health? A Personal View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riji, Haliza Mohd

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of beauty and health in women. It discusses changing definitions of beauty as a result of influences from the entertainment, beauty and health product industries. Advertisements are seen to be major players in defining beauty through promotion of cosmetic, skin, hair and slimming products. Concerns relating to beauty become inculcated in girls through the process of socialisation as they mature into womanhood. The media plays a significant role in portraying the meaning of beauty through its representation of women. These influences largely influence and alter women's perceptions of their body image and in trying to meet the goals of beauty as represented by the media. This may result in dissatisfaction with their body image. Advertisements can encourage women to indulge in smoking as a fashionable trend or opt for plastic surgery in attempts to acquire beauty. This paper concludes with implications of the issues relating to changing perceptions of beauty and suggests recommendations.

  18. Cycles of Beauty Culture: Ethnography of Beauty Clinics Commodification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murlianti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin care is not a completely new in beauty treatments. Previously there have been other types of cultural industry which also adopted the medical science, such as cosmetic and beauty salon industries. But, skin care beauty clinic successfully introduces the services of beauty treatments which are considered the healthiest. This paper is a summary of the research on how beauty clinic quickly became a part of everyday life of its consumers. The research focused on Natasha Skin Care, a most popular beauty clinic in Indonesia at the moment. According to Richard Johnson, the process of a culture industry reaches the society through a communication that in form a pattern cyclic communications. The stages in the pattern are interconnected but slipped, each stage is affecting others but are not specified in an uncertain manner; between the producer of culture industry with its consumers. This study is a multidiscipline research using three methods of interpretation namely ethnography, discourses analysis, and social hermeneutic study.Klinik kecantikan bukanlah budaya yang benar-benar baru dalam perawatan kecantikan. Sebelumnya telah ada jenis industri budaya lain yang juga mengadopsi ilmu kedokteran, seperti industri kosmetik dan salon kecantikan. Namun klinik kecantikan sukses menyandang predikat sebagai jasa perawatan kecantikan yang dianggap paling sehat. Tulisan ini merupakan rigkasan penelitian tentang bagaimana klinik kecantikan begitu cepat menjadi bagian hidup sehari–hari masyarakat konsumennya. Fokus penelitian ini adalah Natasha Skin Care, sebuah klinik kecantikan paling popular di Indonesia saat ini. Menurut Richard Johson proses sebuah industri budaya sampai pada masyarakat konsumennya melalui komunikasi yang timpang, membentuk pola komunikasi siklik, saling terhubung namun penuh dengan keterpelesetan, saling mewarnai namun tidak menentukan secara pasti antara produsen industri budaya dengan masyarakat konsumennya. Penelitian ini ditempuh

  19. XMM flying beautifully

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  20. Returns to beauty over the life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    ’ facial attractiveness as well as data on SES, marital, and health outcomes from their mid-20s to their mid-60s. I find that beauty has lasting positive returns for women since more beautiful women have higher SES throughout their working life, have a higher probability of being married at age 25......, and marry high-SES husbands. I find no effects of beauty on health and, in general, no returns to beauty for men....

  1. A Place for Beauty in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Robert

    2018-01-01

    For the past 100 years beauty has been marginalised in Western art and regarded as a problematic notion in a range of cultural contexts. Art educators tend to associate experiences of beauty with passive appreciation rather than active engagement, while researchers of children's understanding of art characterise references to beauty as evidence of…

  2. Quantum Beauty: Real and Ideal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    2011-01-01

    Does the world embody beautiful ideas? Pythagoras and Plato intuited that it should; Newton and Maxwell demonstrated how it could. But modern physics, and especially the quantum physics at its foundation, answers with a much more resounding and definitive 'Yes' I'll bring in history and art, as well as science, to make the case.(author)

  3. Computers, pattern, chaos and beauty

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1980-01-01

    Combining fractal theory with computer art, this book introduces a creative use of computers. It describes graphic methods for detecting patterns in complicated data and illustrates simple techniques for visualizing chaotic behavior. ""Beautiful."" - Martin Gardner, Scientific American. Over 275 illustrations, 29 in color.

  4. Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains…

  5. Health Issues on Beauty Treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    known to have adverse effects on the skin. Some of the constituents of ... of the adverse effects these cosmetic and beauty products which can only ... surgery . The situation predisposes the subjects to poor wound healing, which may invariably lead to a burst abdomen (when the intestines surge out of the failed surgical ...

  6. Beauty and health: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.

    2008-01-01

    This essay, written as a 'teaser' for an up-coming symposium, reflects on how human beauty can be understood from an anthropological and medical anthropological perspective. First, it considers how aesthetic and healing rationales can conflict or merge in a variety of medical technologies and health

  7. Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbe R. Kopra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes.  The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.

  8. Whole Genome DNA Methylation Analysis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: IL1R2, NPR2, AR, SP140 Methylation and Clinical Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Che; Chen, Ting-Wen; Su, Mao-Chang; Chen, Chung-Jen; Chen, Kuang-Den; Liou, Chia-Wei; Tang, Petrus; Wang, Ting-Ya; Chang, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Hsin-Ching; Chin, Chien-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Lin, Meng-Chih; Hsiao, Chang-Chun

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that DNA methylation patterns may contribute to disease severity or the development of hypertension and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Illumina's (San Diego, CA, USA) DNA methylation 27-K assay was used to identify differentially methylated loci (DML). DNA methylation levels were validated by pyrosequencing. A discovery cohort of 15 patients with OSA and 6 healthy subjects, and a validation cohort of 72 patients with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Microarray analysis identified 636 DMLs in patients with OSA versus healthy subjects, and 327 DMLs in patients with OSA and hypertension versus those without hypertension. In the validation cohort, no significant difference in DNA methylation levels of six selected genes was found between the primary snoring subjects and OSA patients (primary outcome). However, a secondary outcome analysis showed that interleukin-1 receptor 2 (IL1R2) promoter methylation (-114 cytosine followed by guanine dinucleotide sequence [CpG] site) was decreased and IL1R2 protein levels were increased in the patients with SDB with an oxygen desaturation index > 30. Androgen receptor (AR) promoter methylation (-531 CpG site) and AR protein levels were both increased in the patients with SDB with an oxygen desaturation index > 30. Natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) promoter methylation (-608/-618 CpG sites) were decreased, whereas levels of both NPR2 and serum C type natriuretic peptide protein were increased in the SDB patients with EDS. Speckled protein 140 (SP140) promoter methylation (-194 CpG site) was increased, and SP140 protein levels were decreased in the patients with SDB and EDS. IL1R2 hypomethylation and AR hypermethylation may constitute an important determinant of disease severity, whereas NPR2 hypomethylation and SP140 hypermethylation may provide a biomarker for vulnerability to EDS in OSA. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 723. © 2016

  9. The beauty and the beast inside: the american beauty--does cosmetic surgery help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijtmaer, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    American society's feminine ideal has consistently emphasized youth as beauty and getting old as ugly. Feeling unattractive produces several intrapsychic conflicts leading to depression and anxiety. Summary of the literature on beauty and aging, beauty and culture, and theories of physical beauty will be presented. With a clinical example of a female patient, the writer investigates the conscious and unconscious fantasies, conflicts, and sense of self inside and outside that impelled a physically beautiful female patient to bring her own body closer to her perception of idealized beauty with the aid of plastic surgery.

  10. Beauty in a multicultural world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, David M; Thomas, J Regan

    2014-08-01

    The increased demand for facial cosmetic surgery has come from a more diverse, informed, and selective patient population from all walks of life. Virtually no two patients have the same background or cosmetic objectives. However, the classic tenets of beauty including phi, symmetry, averageness, youthfulness, and sexual dimorphism can be applied to persons of all ethnicities to assist in objectifying the abstract concept. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Evidence from an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Ce; Tan, Li Hai; Cant, Jonathan S.; Zhong, Luojin; Cupchik, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed to answer this question. Experiment 1 investigated the network of moral aesthetic judgments and facial aesthetic judgments. Participants performed aesthetic judgments and gender judgments on both faces and scenes containing moral acts. The conjunction analysis of the contrasts ‘facial aesthetic judgment > facial gender judgment’ and ‘scene moral aesthetic judgment > scene gender judgment’ identified the common involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), inferior temporal gyrus and medial superior frontal gyrus, suggesting that both types of aesthetic judgments are based on the orchestration of perceptual, emotional and cognitive components. Experiment 2 examined the network of facial beauty and moral beauty during implicit perception. Participants performed a non-aesthetic judgment task on both faces (beautiful vs common) and scenes (containing morally beautiful vs neutral information). We observed that facial beauty (beautiful faces > common faces) involved both the cortical reward region OFC and the subcortical reward region putamen, whereas moral beauty (moral beauty scenes > moral neutral scenes) only involved the OFC. Moreover, compared with facial beauty, moral beauty spanned a larger-scale cortical network, indicating more advanced and complex cerebral representations characterizing moral beauty. PMID:25298010

  12. Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Evidence from an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Lei; Mo, Ce; Tan, Li Hai; Cant, Jonathan S; Zhong, Luojin; Cupchik, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed to answer this question. Experiment 1 investigated the network of moral aesthetic judgments and facial aesthetic judgments. Participants performed aesthetic judgments and gender judgments on both faces and scenes containing moral acts. The conjunction analysis of the contrasts 'facial aesthetic judgment > facial gender judgment' and 'scene moral aesthetic judgment > scene gender judgment' identified the common involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), inferior temporal gyrus and medial superior frontal gyrus, suggesting that both types of aesthetic judgments are based on the orchestration of perceptual, emotional and cognitive components. Experiment 2 examined the network of facial beauty and moral beauty during implicit perception. Participants performed a non-aesthetic judgment task on both faces (beautiful vs common) and scenes (containing morally beautiful vs neutral information). We observed that facial beauty (beautiful faces > common faces) involved both the cortical reward region OFC and the subcortical reward region putamen, whereas moral beauty (moral beauty scenes > moral neutral scenes) only involved the OFC. Moreover, compared with facial beauty, moral beauty spanned a larger-scale cortical network, indicating more advanced and complex cerebral representations characterizing moral beauty. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Detecting beauty baryons and heavy beauty mesons with the j/PSI trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.I.; Clavelli, L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors note that the combination of a vertex detector with a J/Psi trigger should enable one to measure the masses and lifetimes of various beauty baryons and heavy beauty mesons at the SSC or Tevatron II

  14. BEAUTY OR HEALTH? A PERSONAL VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliza Mohd Riji

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of beauty and health in women. It discusses changing definitions of beauty as a result of influences from the entertainment, beauty and health product industries. Advertisements are seen to be major players in defining beauty through promotion of cosmetic, skin, hair and slimming products. Concerns relating to beauty become inculcated in girls through the process of socialisation as they mature into womanhood. The media plays a significant role in portraying the meaning of beauty through its representation of women. These influences largely influence and alter women’s perceptions of their body image and in trying to meet the goals of beauty as represented by the media. This may result in dissatisfaction with their body image. Advertisements can encourage women to indulge in smoking as a fashionable trend or opt for plastic surgery in attempts to acquire beauty. This paper concludes with implications of the issues relating to changing perceptions of beauty and suggests recommendations.

  15. Value and Payment in Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M; Verma, Tilak

    2018-05-15

    Value, like beauty, exists in the eye of the beholder. This article places the value of clinical sleep medicine services in historical context and presents a vision for the value-based sleep of the future. First, the history of value and payment in sleep medicine is reviewed from the early days of the field, to innovative disruption, to the widespread adoption of home sleep apnea testing. Next, the importance of economic perspective is discussed, with emphasis on cost containment and cost-shifting between payers, employers, providers, and patients. Specific recommendations are made for sleep medicine providers and the field at large to maximize the perceived value of sleep. Finally, alternate payment models and value-based care are presented, with an eye toward the future for clinical service providers as well as integrated health delivery networks. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  16. Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example...

  17. Surrounded by Beauty: Arts of Native America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Native American languages have no equivalent for the word "art." Yet the objects Native Americans have used and still use suggest that they are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty. In Native American thought, there is no distinction between what is beautiful or functional, and what is sacred or secular.…

  18. Neural substrates of embodied natural beauty and social endowed beauty: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; He, Xianyou; Lai, Siyan; Wan, Juan; Lai, Shuxian; Zhao, Xueru; Li, Darong

    2017-08-02

    What are the neural mechanisms underlying beauty based on objective parameters and beauty based on subjective social construction? This study scanned participants with fMRI while they performed aesthetic judgments on concrete pictographs and abstract oracle bone scripts. Behavioral results showed both pictographs and oracle bone scripts were judged to be more beautiful when they referred to beautiful objects and positive social meanings, respectively. Imaging results revealed regions associated with perceptual, cognitive, emotional and reward processing were commonly activated both in beautiful judgments of pictographs and oracle bone scripts. Moreover, stronger activations of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and motor-related areas were found in beautiful judgments of pictographs, whereas beautiful judgments of oracle bone scripts were associated with putamen activity, implying stronger aesthetic experience and embodied approaching for beauty were elicited by the pictographs. In contrast, only visual processing areas were activated in the judgments of ugly pictographs and negative oracle bone scripts. Results provide evidence that the sense of beauty is triggered by two processes: one based on the objective parameters of stimuli (embodied natural beauty) and the other based on the subjective social construction (social endowed beauty).

  19. Diffractive beauty production at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, K.; Morsch, A.

    1994-01-01

    Using the framework of Pomeron exchange to describe diffractive pp collisions at the LHC we discuss beauty production in those events. The cross sections for beauty production at different diffractive masses and the topology for the beauty particles and the underlying event are given. When triggering on large diffractive masses, the beauty system is boosted into the Pomeron hemisphere opposite the underlying event, which tends to follow the excited proton direction. This may offer some advantages for the acceptance of beauty and its reconstruction in forward spectrometers. For the identification of diffractive events at the LHC collider, we present a scheme to measure the momentum loss of forward protons in the range 2x10 -3 < Δp/p <0.1. This momentum loss can be determined with a precision of about 10%. ((orig.))

  20. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  1. The beauty of sensory ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Aldana, Elis

    2017-08-10

    Sensory ecology is a discipline that focuses on how living creatures use information to survive, but not to live. By trans-defining the orthodox concept of sensory ecology, a serious heterodox question arises: how do organisms use their senses to live, i.e. to enjoy or suffer life? To respond to such a query the objective (time-independent) and emotional (non-rational) meaning of symbols must be revealed. Our program is distinct from both the neo-Darwinian and the classical ecological perspective because it does not focus on survival values of phenotypes and their functions, but asks for the aesthetic effect of biological structures and their symbolism. Our message recognizes that sensing apart from having a survival value also has a beauty value. Thus, we offer a provoking and inspiring new view on the sensory relations of 'living things' and their surroundings, where the innovating power of feelings have more weight than the privative power of reason.

  2. Particle identification for beauty physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.

    1987-01-01

    We look briefly at the requirements for particle identification for possible beauty experiments at the Tevatron, both in the fixed target and the collider mode. Techniques presently in use in high energy physics experiments, and under development, should make sensitive experiments feasible. However, in all cases the present state of the art must be advanced to meet the necessary requirements for segmentation andor rate capability. The most fundamentally difficult challenges appear to be the efficient tagging of soft electrons (for the collider experiment) and the need to handle interaction rates up to /approximately/ 10 9 HZ in the fixed target mode. In both cases we can find ''in principle'' demonstrations that the requirements can be met. We have considered only the most basic prooperties of detectors, however, and the real answers will come from careful studies of details. 20 refs., 10 figs

  3. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  4. The experience of beauty derived from sorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Tomohiro; Zeki, Semir

    2017-08-01

    We studied the neural mechanisms that are engaged during the experience of beauty derived from sorrow and from joy, two experiences that share a common denominator (beauty) but are linked to opposite emotional valences. Twenty subjects viewed and rerated, in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner, 120 images which each had classified into the following four categories: beautiful and sad; beautiful and joyful; neutral; ugly. The medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC) was active during the experience of both types of beauty. Otherwise, the two experiences engaged different parts of the brain: joyful beauty engaged areas linked to positive emotions while sorrowful beauty engaged areas linked to negative experiences. Separate regions of the cerebellum were engaged during experience of the two conditions. A functional connectivity analysis indicated that the activity within the mOFC was modulated by the supplementary motor area/middle cingulate cortex, known to be engaged during empathetic experiences provoked by other peoples' sadness. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4185-4200, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bathing in Reeking Wounds: The Liberal Arts, Beauty, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Catharine R.

    2014-01-01

    A historic dialectic exists between the beautiful and the bestial. The bestial destroys the beautiful, but in a bloody miracle, the beautiful emerges from the womb of the bestial, the "terrible beauty" of which the poet W. B. Yeats wrote. The liberal arts, so often thought to dwell in a remote ivory tower, embody this dialectic. Wars and…

  6. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  7. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  8. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  9. Is beauty skin deep – an approach to a beautiful face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyone dreams of a beautiful and flawless face but true beauty is God given gift. Plastic surgery and various filler techniques can just highlight certain features and are just the temporary procedures. Features that further enhance the attractiveness of a beautiful face are the hair, skin, and teeth. These areas are the easiest to routinely enhance. There are many methods of facial sculpting including botulinum toxin, fillers and various other invasive plastic surgery techniques.

  10. Beauty, Identity and Consumption: A Malay Muslim Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    French, Juliana Angeline

    2017-01-01

    This thesis takes an interactionist perspective in understanding beauty. Beauty starts on the global stage with international beauty pageants, models on runways, magazines, music and entertainment that travel the global circuit and subsequently exert influence over beauty discourses in individual nation states. At the local nation state, beauty discourses are formed as a result of the nation’s own socio-historical past which then intersect with global discourses and are ofte...

  11. Global facial beauty: approaching a unified aesthetic ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Noah B; Adamson, Peter A

    2014-04-01

    Recognition of facial beauty is both inborn and learned through social discourses and exposures. Demographic shifts across the globe, in addition to cross-cultural interactions that typify 21st century globalization in virtually all industries, comprise major active evolutionary forces that reshape our individual notions of facial beauty. This article highlights the changing perceptions of beauty, while defining and distinguishing natural beauty and artificial beauty. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Charm, Beauty and Top at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, O.; Geiser, A.; Lisovyi, M.

    2015-06-01

    Results on open charm and beauty production and on the search for top production in high-energy electron-proton collisions at HERA are reviewed. This includes a discussion of relevant theoretical aspects, a summary of the available measurements and measurement techniques, and their impact on improved understanding of QCD and its parameters, such as parton density functions and charm- and beauty-quark masses. The impact of these results on measurements at the LHC and elsewhere is also addressed.

  13. Review of charm and beauty lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Harry W. K.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the latest experimental results on charm and beauty particle lifetimes is presented together with a brief summary of measurement methods used for beauty particle lifetime measurements. There have been significant updates to the D s + /D 0 , B + /B d 0 and Λ b 0 /B d 0 lifetime ratios which have some theoretical implications. However more precise measurements are still needed before one can make conclusive statements about the theory used to calculate the particle lifetimes

  14. Beautiful mesons from QCD spectral sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narison, S.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the beautiful meson from the point of view of the QCD spectral sum rules (QSSR). The bottom quark mass and the mixed light quark-gluon condensates are determined quite accurately. The decay constant f B is estimated and we present some arguments supporting this result. The decay constants and the masses of the other members of the beautiful meson family are predicted. (orig.)

  15. Hadronic couplings of open beauty states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, S.N.; Singh, C.P.

    1982-08-01

    Strong interaction coupling parameters of particles with beauty quantum number are obtained using dispersion sum rules in various forms, e.g. current algebra sum rules, superconvergence sum rules and finite energy sum rules etc. These sum rules lead to a set of algebraic relations among masses and coupling constants. We compare the hadronic couplings of beautiful particles as obtained from various techniques and discuss their implications on the hadronic production of these states. (author)

  16. Introduction to beauty-hadron physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    These lectures discuss methods for analyzing the decay of beauty hadrons (B mesons and beauty baryons) produced in pp interactions. At the c.m. energies around 14 TeV planned for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the B meson production rate is expected to be ca 105 larger than in an e+e- B factory. The pp collider could then offer, in principle, important advantages. However, the detection of beauty hadrons produced in a pp collider will be a task of great complexity. In particular, the triggering difficulties of events in a large background will be one of the major problems. Therefore, it would be useful to discuss the various aspects that can be investigated in beauty physics arising from pp interactions. It is first described the general features of the formalisms of B mixing and search for CP violation in the meson decays. Then the specific problems appearing for beauty hadrons produced in pN interactions are considered. Some comparison between investigations which could be carried out with B factories and pp colliders are also mentioned, although this is not the main concern of these lectures. Finally it is also presented some elements of beauty baryon decays which can only be studied efficiently by means of pN interaction.

  17. Introduction to beauty-hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, A.

    1995-03-01

    These lectures discuss methods for analyzing the decay of beauty hadrons (B mesons and beauty baryons) produced in pp interactions. At the c.m. energies around 14 TeV planned for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the B meson production rate is expected to be ca 105 larger than in an e+e- B factory. The pp collider could then offer, in principle, important advantages. However, the detection of beauty hadrons produced in a pp collider will be a task of great complexity. In particular, the triggering difficulties of events in a large background will be one of the major problems. Therefore, it would be useful to discuss the various aspects that can be investigated in beauty physics arising from pp interactions. It is first described the general features of the formalisms of B mixing and search for CP violation in the meson decays. Then the specific problems appearing for beauty hadrons produced in pN interactions are considered. Some comparison between investigations which could be carried out with B factories and pp colliders are also mentioned, although this is not the main concern of these lectures. Finally it is also presented some elements of beauty baryon decays which can only be studied efficiently by means of pN interaction

  18. Sleeping Beauty. Revitalisation of the old indoor swimming pool Heidelberg; Sleeping Beauty. Revitalisierung des alten Hallenbads Heidelberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Jochen

    2010-07-01

    Since its closure before nearly 30 years due to safety aspects, the monument protected indoor swimming pool in Heidelberg (Federal Republic of Germany) dilapidated appreciably. Only after moving away of the local council from its demand of the wet use, an investor could be found.

  19. The Ten Most Beautiful Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, George [The New York Times

    2010-10-20

    "Science in the 21st century has become industrialized. The experiments so often celebrated in the newspapers - sequencing the genome, proving the existence of the top quark, discovering a new planet by analyzing the wobble of a distant start - cost millions of dollars. They generate terabytes of data to be analyzed by supercomputers, calculating factories that spew out so much heat that they are equipped with cooling stacks and consume the energy of a small town. The experiments are carried out by research teams that have grown to the size of small corporations. But until very recently the most earth-shaking science came from individual pairs of hands. From a single mind confronting the unknown. The great experiments that mark the edges of our understanding were most often performed by one or two scientists and usually on a tabletop. Computation, if there was any, was carried out on paper or later with a slide rule. These experiments were designed and conducted with such straightforward elegance that they deserve to be called beautiful." (excerpt from the slide presentation accompanying the video)

  20. Materialised Ideals Sizes and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Laitala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s clothing industry is based on a system where clothes are made in ready-to-wear sizes and meant to fit most people. Studies have pointed out that consumers are discontent with the use of these systems: size designations are not accurate enough to find clothing that fits, and different sizes are poorly available. This article discusses in depth who these consumers are, and which consumer groups are the most dissatisfied with today’s sizing systems. Results are based on a web survey where 2834 Nordic consumers responded, complemented with eight in-depth interviews, market analysis on clothing sizes and in-store trouser size measurements. Results indicate that higher shares of the consumers who have a body out of touch with the existing beauty ideals express discontentment with the sizing systems and the poor selection available. In particular, large women, very large men, and thin, short men are those who experience less priority in clothing stores and have more difficulties in finding clothes that fit. Consumers tend to blame themselves when the clothes do not fit their bodies, while our study points out that the industry is to blame as they do not produce clothing for all customers.

  1. Genotyping Sleep Disorders Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kripke, Daniel F.; Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Cronin, John W.; Jamil, Shazia M.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Koziol, James A.; Kline, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The genetic susceptibility factors underlying sleep disorders might help us predict prognoses and responses to treatment. Several candidate polymorphisms for sleep disorders have been proposed, but there has as yet inadequate replication or validation that the candidates may be useful in the clinical setting. Methods To assess the validity of several candidate associations, we obtained saliva deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples and clinical information from 360 consenting research p...

  2. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....

  3. Brain correlates of aesthetic judgment of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Schubotz, Ricarda I; Höfel, Lea; Cramon, D Yves V

    2006-01-01

    Functional MRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of aesthetic judgments of beauty of geometrical shapes. Participants performed evaluative aesthetic judgments (beautiful or not?) and descriptive symmetry judgments (symmetric or not?) on the same stimulus material. Symmetry was employed because aesthetic judgments are known to be often guided by criteria of symmetry. Novel, abstract graphic patterns were presented to minimize influences of attitudes or memory-related processes and to test effects of stimulus symmetry and complexity. Behavioral results confirmed the influence of stimulus symmetry and complexity on aesthetic judgments. Direct contrasts showed specific activations for aesthetic judgments in the frontomedian cortex (BA 9/10), bilateral prefrontal BA 45/47, and posterior cingulate, left temporal pole, and the temporoparietal junction. In contrast, symmetry judgments elicited specific activations in parietal and premotor areas subserving spatial processing. Interestingly, beautiful judgments enhanced BOLD signals not only in the frontomedian cortex, but also in the left intraparietal sulcus of the symmetry network. Moreover, stimulus complexity caused differential effects for each of the two judgment types. Findings indicate aesthetic judgments of beauty to rely on a network partially overlapping with that underlying evaluative judgments on social and moral cues and substantiate the significance of symmetry and complexity for our judgment of beauty.

  4. Hadroproduction characteristics of charm and beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reucroft, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this article the authors review the present status of their knowledge on the hadroproduction characteristics of charm and beauty. During a brief description of the properties of all charm and beauty particles reportedly observed in hadron-hadron experiments they discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the various experimental techniques. In particular they emphasise the quantitative problems associated with nuclear target experiments and show the progress that is being made in understanding the A-dependence problem. Focussing on charm cross sections the authors see that the data are becoming sufficiently good to give us a reliable and coherent picture which provides a serious test of the QCD fusion model. This same fusion model is then used with existing beauty cross section determinations to make some extrapolations. Finally, a few remaining puzzles and curiosities are underlined

  5. Beauty: neglected, but alive and kicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    This article is a commentary on 'Ten years of a model of aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments: The aesthetic episode - developments and challenges in empirical aesthetics' (Leder & Nadal, 2014, this issue). It focuses on the importance of beauty in aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments. Beauty is considered as a formal inherent property of visual stimuli that has the potential to elicit visual pleasure by direct sensory stimulation. It is argued that any comprehensive model of aesthetic experience must account fully for cognitive aspects of aesthetics (cultural, conceptual, psychological, and individual factors) as well as intrinsic properties of beautiful visual stimuli and how they relate to basic mechanisms of visual perception, which are universal among humans. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Perceiving beauty in all women: Psychometric evaluation of the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Iannantuono, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conceptualization of Beauty Scale (BCBS), which measures the extent women define female beauty widely within external and internal characteristics, and examined its psychometric properties among four community samples totaling 1086 women. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure with nine items. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, discriminant, and incremental) validity of its scores were upheld. Researchers and clinicians can use the BCBS alone to assess women's perceptions of female beauty, or they can use the BCBS alongside women's perceptions of self-beauty to more comprehensively explore women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty for others and themselves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  8. Fixed Target Beauty Physics Experimental Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbincius, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The current and near term future fixed target physics efforts in observing particles with open beauty are reviewed. This includes a compilation of the non-observation upper limits and the observation of both upsilon and b-states. A short discussion of the theoretical predictions for the hadro-produced beauty pairs is included. The major part of this review is devoted to the techniques and tricks employed, a survey of the current and proposed experiments. A personal summary of the experimental prospects concludes this report. 28 refs., 26 figs

  9. ATLAS Potential for Beauty Physics Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smizanska, M.

    2001-01-01

    The main focus of ATLAS b physics has traditionally been on the standard model. In the last few years also the aspects of new physics in B-decays has been addressed. Another new field of studies started recently is a beauty production. We give an overview of the older as well as more recent results. After an introduction outlining selected trigger and detector performance characteristics, we explain methods and goals of CP violation measurements in decay channels of B d 0 meson, physics of B s 0 system and of rare decays. Finally, the ATLAS program for beauty production measurements is presented. (author)

  10. The Connection between Beauty and Morality in Kant's aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali salmani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At first glance it seems that Kant distinguishes beauty from morality because while analyzing the matter of beauty according to quality, he explicitly separates pleasure of beauty from pleasure of agreeable and pleasure of good; and believes that the pleasure of the beauty is neither to satisfy our physical desires nor to achieve a moral purpose. On the other hand, Kant speaks of a connection between beauty and morality in some sections of his critique of judgment. This essay intends to study the mentioned sections and clarifies how one can distinguish beauty from morality and simultaneously believes in the connection between beauty and morality. Following this, we are going to discuss why Kant deems such a connection necessary. Examining this matter, we will find out that morality and aesthetics can be indirectly related to each other. Kant's most major concern with regard to the connection between beauty and morality is the connection between feelings and foredoom.

  11. Walking in Beauty: An American Indian Perspective on Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Evan Allen; Robbins, Rockey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce "walking in beauty," an American Indian spiritual perspective related to social justice that emphasizes beauty, harmony, connectedness/unity of experience, and imagination. Walking in beauty includes 3 processes: embodiment, creativity, and appreciation of the sublime. Recommendations are offered for…

  12. Open beauty production at the CERN SPS collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redelberger, T.

    1988-01-01

    We report here evidence for open beauty production through the observation of high transverse momentum dimuons and single muons. From the dimuon data the beauty quark production cross section has been measured to σ(panti p→banti b; p Tb >5 GeV, vertical strokeη b vertical stroke T beauty production. (orig.)

  13. The Beauty of Brand Loyalty : – a case study of how marketers view Millennials' brand loyalty in the beauty industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kulle, Julia; Hellsten, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The generation of Millennials is becoming a very important segment in today's beauty market, because of their large size, purchasing power and engagement on social media. The Millennial consumers are heavy buyers of beauty products, but heavy buyers are not always loyal to the beauty brands. The concept of what is considered beautiful constantly changes, and there is an aspect of trendiness to the use of cosmetic products. Brands launch new products on a regular basis to follow fashion and be...

  14. [Study of hyperons and beauty particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proposed research program is to study the production and decay properties of the hyperons and the beauty hadrons at Fermilab. Since the project was approved in 1989, a lot of progress has been made. This report is a summary of the achievements

  15. Beautiful Minds—For How Long.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Marino

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Lori Marino reviews the new bookBeautiful Minds, which investigates the "parallel lives" of primates and cetaceans and argues that despite the evolutionary distance of these large-brained mammals, they nevertheless share a capacity for complex communication and social behavior, representing a striking example of convergence in intelligence.

  16. Keep New Mexico Beautiful, Recycling Project Successful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Victor R.

    1975-01-01

    Through the efforts of community groups, the support of local industries, and the state government, Keep New Mexico Beautiful, Inc. (KNMB) is now operating a large-scale recycling business. KNMB has been able to save tons of natural resources, provide local employment, and educate the public to this environmental concern. (MA)

  17. Reconstruction: Meltdown in the Midst of Beauty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    This stir of memory led me to write down my story. ... beauty of courage, time, and deep listening, as examined through the experiences of fear of the new and of my .... Suzy and Marsha, the two studio teachers and long term .... I turn my attention to the video camera and think, ..... Psychology & Psychotherapy, 1(1), 56-64.

  18. Beauty, a road to the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, T.A.F.

    In this article I give a naturalistic-cum-formal analysis of the relation between beauty, empirical success, and truth. The analysis is based on the one hand on a hypothetical variant of the so-called 'mere-exposure effect' which has been more or less established in experimental psychology regarding

  19. Beauty as Fit: A Metaphor in Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Manya; Öhman, Lars-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Beauty, which plays a central role in the practice of mathematics (Sinclair 2002), is almost absent in discussions of school mathematics (Dreyfus and Eisenberg 1986). This is problematic, because students will decide whether or not to continue their studies in mathematics without having an accurate picture of what the subject is about. In order to…

  20. Post-human body and beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Maria Teresa; Di Stefano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The article calls into question the very possibility of a post-human aesthetics, starting from the following premise: rather than post-human, it is more correct to speak of post-natural, indicating by this expression a reality produced through a new type of evolution, which does not simply change human nature, but de-natures it, radically transforming it into an artefact. This post-nature which aspires to be perfect, immortal, invulnerable, is entirely devoid of beauty. In fact, while there may be an aesthetic of the artificial and of the artefact if it is in relation to objects, there is, however, no aesthetic of the post-human body. This is because is configured as a non-body and does not have the characteristics for what is commonly intended as beauty (harmony between matter and form, a reflection of inner life, uniqueness). Also in this case, it is more correct to speak of post-beauty, which in its properties appears to be the mirror image of beauty and ultimately, represents its complete dissolution.

  1. Beauty baryons produced in pp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, A.

    1996-01-01

    For pp interactions, we discuss the beauty-baryon (N b ), production and decay, using cross-section estimates at a c.m. energy corresponding to the LHC project (√s ≅ 14 TeV). The polarization measurement of N b as well as the search for CP violation effects in their decays is discussed. (orig.)

  2. The role of sleep in aesthetic perception and empathy: A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Sara; Tempesta, Daniela; Socci, Valentina; Pino, Maria C; Mazza, Monica; Valenti, Marco; De Gennaro, Luigi; Di Dio, Cinzia; Marchetti, Antonella; Ferrara, Michele

    2018-02-06

    The ability to experience aesthetics plays a fundamental role in human social interactions, as well as the capacity to feel empathy. Some studies have shown that beauty perception shares part of the neural network underlying emotional and empathic abilities, which are also known to affect sleep quality and duration. In this study, we evaluated for the first time the effects of sleep on the relation between aesthetic perception and empathic abilities in healthy subjects using a mediation analysis approach. One-hundred and twenty-six subjects participated in this study. One-hundred and one subjects slept at home (Sleep Group). The remaining 25 subjects were tested as controls after 1 night of sleep deprivation to assess the effects of lack of sleep on aesthetic perception and empathy (Sleep-Deprived Group). All participants underwent one testing session in which they performed a battery of empathy tests and an aesthetic perception task (Golden Beauty). The results showed that sleep duration mediates the relationship between empathy and aesthetic perception in the sleep group. The mediation effect of sleep was more evident on the emotional empathy measures. Conversely, in the sleep deprivation group the lack of correlations among empathy, aesthetic perception and sleep variables did not allow to perform the mediation analysis. These results suggest that adequate sleep duration may play a significant role in improving cognitive and emotional empathic abilities as well as the capability to give accurate aesthetic judgements. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce; Xia, Tiansheng; Qin, Kaixin; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes.

  4. Celebrating DNA's Repair Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-12-03

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar, and Paul Modrich for their seminal studies of the mechanisms by which cells from bacteria to man repair DNA damage that is generated by normal cellular metabolism and stress from the environment. These studies beautifully illustrate the remarkable power of DNA repair to influence life from evolution through disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On inclusive hadronic widths of beautiful particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoze, V.A.; Shifman, M.A.; Ural'tsev, N.G.; Voloshin, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Preasymptotic (in the heavy quark mass) corrections in the non-leptonic decay rates of beautiful mesons and baryons are considered. The effects of real and virtual gluon emission are taken into account. Main emphasis is put on the difference of the life-times of B s 0 mesons with different CP parity. This difference is found to be the largest in the b-family. Possibilities for experimental study of this phenomenon are briefly discussed

  6. The 2014 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, John D.; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Tuthill, Peter G.; Wittkowski, Markus; Grellmann, Rebekka; Müller, André; Renganswany, Sridhar; Hummel, Christian; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Young, John; Buscher, David; Sanchez-Bermudez, Joel; Alberdi, Antxon; Schoedel, Rainer; Köhler, Rainer; Soulez, Ferréol; Thiébaut, Éric; Kluska, Jacques; Malbet, Fabien; Duvert, Gilles; Kraus, Stefan; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Baron, Fabien; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Rivinius, Thomas; Merand, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    Here we present the results of the 6th biennial optical interferometry imaging beauty contest. Taking advantage of a unique opportunity, the red supergiant VY CMa and the Mira variable R Car were observed in the astronomical H-band with three 4-telescope configurations of the VLTI-AT array using the PIONIER instrument. The community was invited to participate in the subsequent image reconstruction and interpretation phases of the project. Ten groups submitted entries to the beauty contest, and we found reasonable consistency between images obtained from independent workers using quite different algorithms. We also found that significant differences existed between the submitted images, much greater than in past beauty contests that were all based on simulated data. A novel crowd-sourcing" method allowed consensus median images to be constructed, filtering likely artifacts and retaining real features." We definitively detect strong spots on the surfaces of both stars as well as distinct circumstellar shells of emission (likely water/CO) around R Car. In a close contest, Joel Sanchez (IAA-CSIC/Spain) was named the winner of the 2014 interferometric imaging beauty contest. This process has shown that new comers" can use publicly-available imaging software to interpret VLTI/PIONIER imaging data, as long as sufficient observations are taken to have complete uv coverage { a luxury that is often missing. We urge proposers to request adequate observing nights to collect sufficient data for imaging and for time allocation committees to recognise the importance of uv coverage for reliable interpretation of interferometric data. We believe that the result of the proposed broad international project will contribute to inspiring trust in the image reconstruction processes in optical interferometry.

  7. Beauty bloggers' influence on Vietnamese young consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Duyen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the effect of beauty bloggers towards Vietnamese consumers. The theoretical framework was built up by collecting data from academic books, online articles and newspapers as well as precedent research. The consumer decision process model of P. Kotler was emphasized and related factors were presented respectively. Information for empirical data was gathered by both qualitative and quantitative research, mostly through the web-based survey and topic...

  8. "Beauty lies in the eye of the beholder"? Aspects of beauty and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Claudia; Berneburg, Mirjam

    2010-05-01

    Discussing aesthetic issues and their management with patients is a growing area of dermatologic practice. Sometimes treatment options within one's own discipline are rapidly discussed, without a clear idea of the various aspects of the face which all combine to produce beauty and attractiveness. We review various features leading to the impression of beauty and attractiveness. Familiarity with these concepts should facilitate a broader discussion with the patient on the aspects of beauty and attractiveness beyond the borders of one's own discipline and also lead to multidisciplinary treatment options. We also examine the question how much the personality of the beholder himself is involved in the perception of attractiveness and beauty (of the person sitting opposite to him). The "ideal" face has an average profile with slightly protrusive and full lips. Attractiveness increases with average features and symmetry. Moreover, particular features such as the scheme of childlike characteristics combined with aspects of maturity and expression make a female face appear especially beautiful. Which attributes contribute to attractiveness of a man's face are controversial. Clear male signals such as a strong chin are likely not to increase attractiveness.

  9. Lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, G.; Dornan, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Major breakthroughs have been achieved in the determination of the lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons. Much larger data samples than previously have become available and new experimental devices and techniques have been developed and employed. The lifetimes of all weakly decaying singly charmed hadrons have been measured, some with an accuracy of a few percent. The difference in the shortest lifetime - τ(Ω c ) - and the longest one - τ(D + ) - is given by a factor of close to ten. The experimental status of beauty lifetimes, while less complete, has still reached a new level of quality and is now better than 5% for the commoner states. New theoretical tools, based mainly on heavy quark expansions, have been developed; they incorporate as well as transcend earlier phenomenological descriptions. The observed pattern in the charm lifetime ratios is reproduced in a semi-quantitative manner as well as could be expected; as far as the beauty lifetime ratios are concerned some problems may well be emerging. The maturity level achieved in the measurements bodes quite well for future challenges where reliable and efficient tracking of the decay vertices will be crucial. (orig.)

  10. Cell Injury and Repair Resulting from Sleep Loss and Sleep Recovery in Laboratory Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Carol A.; Henchen, Christopher J.; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Design: Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements and Results: Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Two days of recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. Conclusions: These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. Citation: Everson CA, Henchen CJ, Szabo A, Hogg N. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats

  11. Sleep disorders associated with primary mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Ryan J; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2014-11-15

    Primary mitochondrial diseases are caused by heritable or spontaneous mutations in nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. Such pathological mutations are relatively common in humans and may lead to neurological and neuromuscular complication that could compromise normal sleep behavior. To gain insight into the potential impact of primary mitochondrial disease and sleep pathology, we reviewed the relevant English language literature in which abnormal sleep was reported in association with a mitochondrial disease. We examined publication reported in Web of Science and PubMed from February 1976 through January 2014, and identified 54 patients with a proven or suspected primary mitochondrial disorder who were evaluated for sleep disturbances. Both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA mutations were associated with abnormal sleep patterns. Most subjects who underwent polysomnography had central sleep apnea, and only 5 patients had obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four patients showed decreased ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia and/ or hyperapnea that was not considered due to weakness of the intrinsic muscles of respiration. Sleep pathology may be an underreported complication of primary mitochondrial diseases. The probable underlying mechanism is cellular energy failure causing both central neurological and peripheral neuromuscular degenerative changes that commonly present as central sleep apnea and poor ventilatory response to hyperapnea. Increased recognition of the genetics and clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases by sleep researchers and clinicians is important in the evaluation and treatment of all patients with sleep disturbances. Prospective population-based studies are required to determine the true prevalence of mitochondrial energy failure in subjects with sleep disorders, and conversely, of individuals with primary mitochondrial diseases and sleep pathology. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  12. ''Beauty of Wholeness and Beauty of Partiality.'' New Terms Defining the Concept of Beauty in Architecture in Terms of Sustainability and Computer Aided Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Ayman A.; Zaghloul, Weaam M.; Dewidar, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    The great shift in sustainability and computer aided design in the field of architecture caused a remarkable change in the architecture philosophy, new aspects of beauty and aesthetic values are being introduced, and traditional definitions for beauty cannot fully cover this aspects, which causes a gap between; new architecture works criticism and…

  13. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  16. Sleep is not just for the brain: transcriptional responses to sleep in peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anafi, Ron C; Pellegrino, Renata; Shockley, Keith R; Romer, Micah; Tufik, Sergio; Pack, Allan I

    2013-05-30

    Many have assumed that the primary function of sleep is for the brain. We evaluated the molecular consequences of sleep and sleep deprivation outside the brain, in heart and lung. Using microarrays we compared gene expression in tissue from sleeping and sleep deprived mice euthanized at the same diurnal times. In each tissue, nearly two thousand genes demonstrated statistically significant differential expression as a function of sleep/wake behavioral state. To mitigate the influence of an artificial deprivation protocol, we identified a subset of these transcripts as specifically sleep-enhanced or sleep-repressed by requiring that their expression also change over the course of unperturbed sleep. 3% and 6% of the assayed transcripts showed "sleep specific" changes in the lung and heart respectively. Sleep specific transcripts in these tissues demonstrated highly significant overlap and shared temporal dynamics. Markers of cellular stress and the unfolded protein response were reduced during sleep in both tissues. These results mirror previous findings in brain. Sleep-enhanced pathways reflected the unique metabolic functions of each tissue. Transcripts related to carbohydrate and sulfur metabolic processes were enhanced by sleep in the lung, and collectively favor buffering from oxidative stress. DNA repair and protein metabolism annotations were significantly enriched among the sleep-enhanced transcripts in the heart. Our results also suggest that sleep may provide a Zeitgeber, or synchronizing cue, in the lung as a large cluster of transcripts demonstrated systematic changes in inter-animal variability as a function of both sleep duration and circadian time. Our data support the notion that the molecular consequences of sleep/wake behavioral state extend beyond the brain to include peripheral tissues. Sleep state induces a highly overlapping response in both heart and lung. We conclude that sleep enhances organ specific molecular functions and that it has a

  17. Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  18. Viewers Motivations for Watching Beauty Videos on You Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Jiroušková, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on motivations for watching beauty videos on YouTube. The aim is to clarify why viewers watch amateur videos that communicate topics related to physical appearance. Assuming the audience as an active actor of media communication the thesis is based on uses and gratification theory. Viewers watch beauty videos consciously to meet their individual needs. Based on an analysis of eleven interviews with regular viewers of beauty videos this thesis reveals five categories...

  19. Charm and beauty decays in the ALEPH experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucrot, J.

    1992-05-01

    Results of the ALEPH experiment at LEP are presented on charm and beauty decays, from data taken in 1990 and 1991. Several exclusive channels of charm and beauty mesons are seen. Evidence is given for the production of beauty baryons from correlations between a high Pt lepton and a Λ 0 or a Λ c baryon. Finally, first evidence is given for the production of the strange B meson, from Ds-lepton correlations. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs

  20. Charm and beauty decays in the ALEPH experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucrot, J.

    1992-01-01

    Results of the ALEPH experiment at LEP are presented on charm and beauty decays, from data taken in 1990 and 1991. Several exclusive channels of charm and beauty mesons are seen. Evidence is given for the production of beauty baryons from correlations between a high Pt lepton and a Λ 0 or a Λ c baryon. Finally, first evidence is given for the production of the strange B meson, from Ds-lepton correlations. (author) 7 refs.; 7 figs

  1. Achieving Sound Beauty in Chinese Translations of English Songs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶薪平

    2017-01-01

    Song is a kind of combination of language and music. Song achieves its aesthetic information and arouses feeling with its own sentiments and aesthetic effect. However, various kinds of present problems lead to much loss of beauty. Besides, the theoretical works concerning this area is much meager. Translation of English songs into Chinese has been studied from functional equivalence theory or the functionalism. The present thesis offers a new perspective―beauty in sound from Xu Yuanchong's"three beauties principle", aiming to seek possible ways to represent beauty in translation practice, and some typical examples are compared and analyzed.

  2. Beauty in abstract paintings: Perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eMallon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1. Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2. The participants showed significant preferences for certain image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described PHOG self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

  3. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity. PMID:24711791

  4. Fixed target beauty physics from Tevatron to SSC (E771)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.

    1992-01-01

    The E771 beauty experiment at Fermilab is described. The Super Fixed Target Beauty Facility (SFT) proposal to perform fixed target beauty physics at the SSC is a natural evolution. The unique features of SFT include crystal channeling extraction from the SSC main ring, which allows the experiment to operate concurrently with the collider experiments. The slow extraction rate (≅2x10 8 protons/s) does not limit the lifetime of the stored beams. The proposed beauty spectrometer and its capability in CP violation studies are described. (author) 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Establishment of Cre-mediated HBV recombinant cccDNA (rcccDNA) cell line for cccDNA biology and antiviral screening assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Li, Jin; Yue, Lei; Bai, Lu; Li, Yaming; Chen, Jieliang; Zhang, Xiaonan; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2018-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), existing in hepatocyte nuclei as a stable minichromosome, plays a central role in the life cycle of the virus and permits the persistence of infection. Despite being essential for HBV infection, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of cccDNA formation, regulation and degradation, and there is no therapeutic agents directly targeting cccDNA, fore mostly due to the lack of robust, reliable and quantifiable HBV cccDNA models. In this study, combined the Cre/loxP and sleeping beauty transposons system, we established HepG2-derived cell lines integrated with 2-60 copies of monomeric HBV genome flanked by loxP sites (HepG2-HBV/loxP). After Cre expression via adenoviral transduction, 3.3-kb recombinant cccDNA (rcccDNA) bearing a chimeric intron can be produced in the nuclei of these HepG2-HBV/loxP cells. The rcccDNA could be accurately quantified by quantitative PCR using specific primers and cccDNA pool generated in this model could be easily detected by Southern blotting using the digoxigenin probe system. We demonstrated that the rcccDNA was epigenetically organized as the natural minichromosome and served as the template supporting pgRNA transcription and viral replication. As the expression of HBV S antigen (HBsAg) is dependent on the newly generated cccDNA, HBsAg is the surrogate marker of cccDNA. Additionally, the efficacies of 3 classes of anti-HBV agents were evaluated in HepG2-HBV/loxP cells and antiviral activities with different mechanisms were confirmed. These data collectively suggested that HepG2-HBV/loxP cell system will be powerful platform for studying cccDNA related biological mechanisms and developing novel cccDNA targeting drugs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Brains versus beauty in the knowledge economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ford

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: It is a widely held belief that attractive people generally experience an easier life and that the door to success is opened by perfect bone structure and a sparkling smile. However, attractiveness might play a far lesser role in individual’s achieving their objectives than has previously been thought. Is it possible that an individual’s qualifications may have a greater influence on the perceptions of managers who assess the suitability of a candidate of a knowledge worker? Research purpose: The study sets out to examine the relative predictive power of physical attractiveness and qualifications in the decision to hire a knowledge worker. Motivation for the study: The research was motivated by a desire to explore the presence of bias in the decision-making process when seemingly rational individuals are exposed to factors such as physical attractiveness of a job candidate and then faced with a decision on whether to hire them. Research design, approach and method: A two-phased experimental design was applied to investigate the existence and strength of the beauty premium amongst a group of managers who were provided with fictitious resumes coupled with photographs of the applicants. These managers were requested to make a hiring decision based on the information supplied. Main findings: Although results confirm the existence of a beauty premium, it was relatively weak. It indicated that qualifications have a greater influence on a manager’s perception of the suitability of a candidate to fill a position of a knowledge worker. Practical or managerial implications: The research draws attention to the possibility of bias in selection decisions and proposes ways in which such potential bias can be limited. Contribution: This study contributes to knowledge concerning the existence or otherwise of a so-called beauty premium, with particular reference to its impact in the knowledge economy.

  7. Contemporary Koreans’ Perceptions of Facial Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Rhee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background This article aims to investigate current perceptions of beauty of the general public and physicians without a specialization in plastic surgery performing aesthetic procedures. Methods A cross-sectional and interviewing questionnaire was administered to 290 people in Seoul, South Korea in September 2015. The questionnaire addressed three issues: general attitudes about plastic surgery (Q1, perception of and preferences regarding Korean female celebrities’ facial attractiveness (Q2, and the relative influence of each facial aesthetic subunit on overall facial attractiveness. The survey’s results were gathered by a professional research agency and classified according to a respondent’s gender, age, and job type (95%±5.75% confidence interval. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 10.1, calculating one-way analysis of variance with post hoc analysis and Tukey’s t-test. Results Among the respondents, 38.3% were in favor of aesthetic plastic surgery. The most common source of plastic surgery information was the internet (50.0%. The most powerful factor influencing hospital or clinic selection was the postoperative surgical results of acquaintances (74.9%. We created a composite face of an attractive Korean female, representing the current facial configuration considered appealing to the Koreans. Beauty perceptions differed to some degree based on gender and generational differences. We found that there were certain differences in beauty perceptions between general physicians who perform aesthetic procedures and the general public. Conclusions Our study results provide aesthetic plastic surgeons with detailed information about contemporary Korean people’s attitudes toward and perceptions of plastic surgery and the specific characteristics of female Korean faces currently considered attractive, plus trends in these perceptions, which should inform plastic surgeons within their specialized fields.

  8. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  9. Does it pay to be beautiful?

    OpenAIRE

    Sierminska, Eva

    2015-01-01

    It is a well-established view amongst economists that good-looking people have a better chance of employment and can earn more than those who are less physically attractive. A “beauty premium” is particularly apparent in jobs where there is a productivity gain associated with good looks, though this is different for women and men, and varies across countries. People also sort into occupations according to the relative returns to their physical characteristics; good-looking people take jobs wh...

  10. Beauty physics at e+ e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.

    1989-09-01

    Beauty physics to be performed in the next decade at the resonances Y(4S) and Z 0 are compared. Large similarities are found in the physics program and the reconstruction techniques of Z 0 and asymmetric Y(4S) colliders. The physics potential of the latter is found to be superior at equal luminosity to a symmetric machine, provided a large enough boost (≥ 5). Z 0 machines will probably be the main source of the rich B S 0 physics during that period

  11. Charm and beauty production at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishai, M.; /Brookhaven

    2005-01-01

    Using the data samples collected with the CDF Run II detector during 2002 and early 2003, new measurements of the production cross sections of charm and beauty hadrons at {radical}s = 1960 GeV are presented. New measurements of the cross sections of centrally produced b-hadrons and J/{psi} mesons down to zero transverse momenta have been carried out. The large charm signals made available by the silicon vertex track trigger have enabled the measurement of the cross sections of D{sup 0}, D*, D{sup {+-}}, and D{sub s} mesons.

  12. Weak form factors of beauty baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    Full analysis of semileptonic decays of beauty baryons with J p =1/2 2 and J p =3/2 2 into charmed ones within the Quark Confinement Model is reported. Weak form factors and decay rates are calculated. Also the heavy quark limit m Q →∞ (Isgur-Wise symmetry) is examined. The weak heavy-baryon form factors in the Isgur-Wise limit and 1/m Q -corrections to them are computered. The Ademollo-Gatto theorem is spin-flavour symmetry of heavy quarks is checked. 33 refs.; 1 fig.; 9 tabs

  13. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Gaine

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i DNA methylation; (ii histone modifications; and (iii non-coding RNAs. We then discuss evidence suggesting that sleep loss impacts the epigenome and that these epigenetic alterations might mediate the changes in cognition seen following disruption of sleep. The link between sleep and the epigenome is only beginning to be elucidated, but clear evidence exists that epigenetic alterations occur following sleep deprivation. In the future, these changes to the epigenome could be utilized as biomarkers of sleep loss or as therapeutic targets for sleep-related disorders.

  14. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaine, Marie E; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Abel, Ted

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i) DNA methylation; (ii) histone modifications; and (iii) non-coding RNAs. We then discuss evidence suggesting that sleep loss impacts the epigenome and that these epigenetic alterations might mediate the changes in cognition seen following disruption of sleep. The link between sleep and the epigenome is only beginning to be elucidated, but clear evidence exists that epigenetic alterations occur following sleep deprivation. In the future, these changes to the epigenome could be utilized as biomarkers of sleep loss or as therapeutic targets for sleep-related disorders.

  15. The beauty of the physical world

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Graham Farmelo, author and former particle physicist, visited CERN on 25 March. To the CERNois gathered in the Main Auditorium, he talked about his new book The Strangest Man, a biography of Paul Dirac. Dirac was obsessed by the importance of mathematical beauty in fundamental physics, a belief that was “almost a religion” to him. Farmelo himself has no doubts: among all of the natural phenomena the LHC may unveil, supersymmetry is the most beautiful.   Talking about the life of a physicist to draw the attention of the public to the science: that was the idea behind Graham Farmelo decision to write a biography of Paul Dirac. The book won the 2009 Costa Biography Award. “I chose Paul Dirac because he was the first truly modern theoretical physicist but he is virtually unknown to the public”, explains Graham Farmelo. “Dirac had a fascinating life. He was not born in a wealthy or a particularly brilliant family but he ended up conceiving in his head ...

  16. The neural correlates of beauty comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Mussweiler, Thomas; Mullins, Paul; Linden, David E J

    2014-05-01

    Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. How attractive someone is perceived to be depends on the individual or cultural standards to which this person is compared. But although comparisons play a central role in the way people judge the appearance of others, the brain processes underlying attractiveness comparisons remain unknown. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that attractiveness comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms as comparisons of simple nonsocial magnitudes such as size. We recorded brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants compared the beauty or height of two women or two dogs. Our data support the hypothesis of a common process underlying these different types of comparisons. First, we demonstrate that the distance effect characteristic of nonsocial comparisons also holds for attractiveness comparisons. Behavioral results indicated, for all our comparisons, longer response times for near than far distances. Second, the neural correlates of these distance effects overlapped in a frontoparietal network known for its involvement in processing simple nonsocial quantities. These results provide evidence for overlapping processes in the comparison of physical attractiveness and nonsocial magnitudes.

  17. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Carol A; Henchen, Christopher J; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Beauty and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several epidemiologic studies have investigated the potential carcinogenicity of human exposure to heavy metals from diverse sources but few or none was on African black and beauty soaps. Hence, this study examines the presence of some heavy metals in selected African black and beauty soaps commonly used in ...

  19. The beauty of God in the numerical order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    This present thesis interprets the beauty of God in Augustine’s historical situation and aims to argue that approached from a Pythagorean musical-cosmology, Augustine explains the beauty of God as an unchangeable numerical/harmonic order immanently pervading the realms of nature, logic and ethics.

  20. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.

    1993-10-01

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper we review recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab

  1. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper the author reviews recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab

  2. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial…

  3. Hyperons, charm and beauty hadrons: Conclusion and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, Jose

    2001-01-01

    In this concluding talk, the advances in the Flavour Problem studies are discussed, following the structure of the presentations in the Conference. The subjects touched are organized as follows: Baryons, K-physics, Charm and Beauty production, Charm and Beauty decays, B-Mixing and CP-Violation, Heavy Quarkonium

  4. Beauty: A Concept with Practical Implications for Teacher Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Hillman's (2001) simple affirmation that "an idea of beauty is useful, functional, practical" is one this article attempts to pursue with teacher researchers in mind, based on the belief that to move from the "re"pression of beauty to its "ex"pression--or, at the very least, to its articulation--will enlighten rather than distract individuals. The…

  5. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  6. Genetic variants associated with sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kripke, Daniel F.; Kline, Lawrence E.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Murray, Sarah S.; Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Poceta, J. Steven; Cronin, John; Jamil, Shazia M.; Tranah, Gregory J.; Loving, Richard T.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Hahn, Elizabeth K.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Authors. Objective: The diagnostic boundaries of sleep disorders are under considerable debate. The main sleep disorders are partly heritable therefore, defining heritable pathophysiologic mechanisms could delineate diagnoses and suggest treatment. We collected clinical data and DNA from consenting patients scheduled to undergo clinical polysomnograms, to expand our understanding of the polymorphisms associated with the phenotypes of particular sleep disorders. Methods: Patients at...

  7. The experience of mathematical beauty and its neural correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki, Semir; Romaya, John Paul; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Atiyah, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Many have written of the experience of mathematical beauty as being comparable to that derived from the greatest art. This makes it interesting to learn whether the experience of beauty derived from such a highly intellectual and abstract source as mathematics correlates with activity in the same part of the emotional brain as that derived from more sensory, perceptually based, sources. To determine this, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to image the activity in the brains of 15 mathematicians when they viewed mathematical formulae which they had individually rated as beautiful, indifferent or ugly. Results showed that the experience of mathematical beauty correlates parametrically with activity in the same part of the emotional brain, namely field A1 of the medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC), as the experience of beauty derived from other sources. PMID:24592230

  8. Beauty production at HERA using the ZEUS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaguees, A

    2008-01-01

    Beauty quark production in ep collisions is being studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The latest measurements of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction regime are presented. The first measurement exploits the potential of the ZEUS microvertex detector to identify beauty in photoproduction dijet events with a muon in the final state. The second is based on statistical methods to determine the fraction of beauty in photoproduction dijet events with an electron in the final state. Finally, the first measurement by ZEUS of the beauty contribution to the proton structure function, F 2 bb, in deep inelastic scattering is presented. The three measurements are compared with QCD predictions as well as with previous results. All the results presented here are preliminary

  9. Sleep disorders - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  10. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  11. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth / For Parents / Obstructive Sleep Apnea What's ... How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Print What Is Sleep Apnea? Brief pauses in breathing during sleep are ...

  12. Online Responses to a Multilingual Super Bowl Ad: Is "America the Beautiful" by Any Other Language Still America, the Beautiful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Brooke Y.

    2016-01-01

    On 2 February 2014, an advertisement entitled "It's Beautiful" debuted during Super Bowl XLVIII, which was watched by 111.5 million people in the USA. The Coca-Cola advertisement portrayed people of various ethnicities and was accompanied by "America the Beautiful" sung in nine languages. Using critical discourse analysis, I…

  13. Combining Human Epigenetics and Sleep Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans: A Cross-Species Approach for Finding Conserved Genes Regulating Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiyan; Zhu, Yong; Eliot, Melissa N; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E; Carskadon, Mary A; Hart, Anne C

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test a combined approach to identify conserved genes regulating sleep and to explore the association between DNA methylation and sleep length. We identified candidate genes associated with shorter versus longer sleep duration in college students based on DNA methylation using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. Orthologous genes in Caenorhabditis elegans were identified, and we examined whether their loss of function affected C. elegans sleep. For genes whose perturbation affected C. elegans sleep, we subsequently undertook a small pilot study to re-examine DNA methylation in an independent set of human participants with shorter versus longer sleep durations. Eighty-seven out of 485,577 CpG sites had significant differential methylation in young adults with shorter versus longer sleep duration, corresponding to 52 candidate genes. We identified 34 C. elegans orthologs, including NPY/flp-18 and flp-21, which are known to affect sleep. Loss of five additional genes alters developmentally timed C. elegans sleep (B4GALT6/bre-4, DOCK180/ced-5, GNB2L1/rack-1, PTPRN2/ida-1, ZFYVE28/lst-2). For one of these genes, ZFYVE28 (also known as hLst2), the pilot replication study again found decreased DNA methylation associated with shorter sleep duration at the same two CpG sites in the first intron of ZFYVE28. Using an approach that combines human epigenetics and C. elegans sleep studies, we identified five genes that play previously unidentified roles in C. elegans sleep. We suggest sleep duration in humans may be associated with differential DNA methylation at specific sites and that the conserved genes identified here likely play roles in C. elegans sleep and in other species. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Truth and beauty in contemporary urban photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Colistra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Does city still need photography? Or does it show itself more effectively through other forms of communication? The question brings us back almost two hundred years ago, at the time of the spread of the first daguerreotypes, when the query was: Does city still need painting? The question raises several other issues - truth and beauty, analogical and digital, truth and photo editing - that this essay examines by comparing some images. We are convinced that “the more we can speak of a picture, the more unlikely it is to speak of photography” (R. Barthes. The essay describes the work of some artists/photographers who have addressed the issue of urban photography. Works in which the figurative and visionary component is based on the interaction of traditional shooting techniques and processes of digital post-production.

  15. The large hadron collider beauty experiment calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.; LHCb Collaboration; Martens, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment (LHCb), one of the four largest experiments at the LHC at CERN, is dedicated to precision studies of CP violation and other rare effects, in particular in the b and c quark sectors. It aims at precisely measuring the Standard Model parameters and searching for effects inconsistent with this picture. The LHCb calorimeter system comprises a scintillating pad detector, a pre-shower (PS), electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic calorimeters, all of these employing the principle of transporting the light from scintillating layers with wavelength shifting fibers to photomultipliers. The fast response of the calorimeters ensures their key role in the LHCb trigger, which has to cope with the LHC collision rate of 40MHz. After discussing the design and expected performance of the LHCb calorimeter system, one addresses the time and energy calibration issues. The results obtained with the calorimeter system from the first LHC data will be shown.

  16. Why Beauty Still Cannot Be Measured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossi Naukkarinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the question of whether the latest results achieved in sciences such as evolution studies and brain research can help us understand the nature of aesthetic judgments. It suggests that such approaches may offer interesting insights for understanding many problems in aesthetics, but for clarifying aesthetic judgments one needs a philosophical point of view. Aesthetic judgments cannot be proven right or wrong by scientific methods, and beauty or other aesthetic qualities cannot be directly measured. The “method” of both making and analyzing aesthetic judgments is discussion, and the article clarifies why this is still the case, even if empirical, non-philosophical scientific methods are more accurate than ever before.

  17. THE BEAUTY OF THE WORLD IN PLATO’S TIMAEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Meara, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Timaeus Plato describes the world as the ‘most beautiful’ (kallistos, 29a5 of generated things. Perhaps indeed this is the first systematic description of the beauty of the world. It is, at any rate, one of the most influential statements of the theme. The Stoics were deeply convinced by it and later, in the third century A.D., at a time when contempt and hate for the world were propagated by Gnostic movements, Plotinus, interpreting the Timaeus, would write magnificent passages on the beauty and value of the world. But what does Plato mean by the ‘beauty’ of the world? What makes the world beautiful? In this paper these questions are approached first (1 by a brief discussion of the distinction which Plato appears to make in the Timaeus between beauty and the good. In one passage (Tim. 87c ‘measure’ seems to relate to this distinction. It is suitable then (2 to look at a section of another late work of Plato, the Philebus, where the themes of beauty, goodness and measure may be compared in more detail. The theme of measure then takes us back (3 to the Timaeus, in order to examine the role played by measure, in particular mathematical measure, in constituting the beauty of the world. I discuss in detail the way in which mathematical structures make for the beauty of soul and body in the living whole that is the world.

  18. Literary aesthetics: beauty, the brain, and Mrs. Dalloway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Patrick Colm

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research indicates that beauty is in part a matter of prototype approximation. Some research suggests that unanticipated pattern recognition is important as well. This essay begins by briefly outlining an account of beauty based on these factors. It goes on to consider complications. Minor complications include the partial incompatibility of these accounts and the importance of differentiating judgments of beauty from aesthetic response. More serious issues include the relative neglect of literature in neurologically-based discussions of beauty, which tend to focus on music or visual art. There is also a relative neglect of emotion, beyond the reward system. Finally, there is the almost complete absence of the sublime. After considering these problems broadly, the essay turns to Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway, examining its treatment of beauty and sublimity. The aim of this section is not merely to illuminate Woolf's novel by reference to neuroscientific research. It is equally, perhaps more fully, to expand our neuroscientifically grounded account of aesthetic response by drawing on Woolf's novel. In Mrs. Dalloway, there are gestures toward prototypes and patterns in beauty. But the key features are clearly emotional. Specifically, the emotions at issue in feelings of beauty and sublimity appear to be primarily attachment, on the one hand, and a profound sense of isolation, on the other. Woolf's novel also points us toward other features of aesthetic experience, crucially including the emotion-sharing that is a key function of the production and circulation of art. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An attempt to observe directly beauty particles in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, J.P.; Arnold, R.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musset, P.; Piuz, F.; Poulard, G.; Price, M.J.; Ramello, L.; Sletten, H.; Allasia, D.; Bisi, V.; Gamba, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Riccati, L.; Romero, A.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Lavopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Baroni, G.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Liberto, S.; Manfredini, A.; Meddi, F.; Petrera, S.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Santonico, R.; Sebastiani, F.; Barth, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Roosen, R.; Sacton, J.; Schorochoff, G.; Wickens, J.; Breslin, A.C.; Montwill, A.; O'Connor, A.; Davis, D.G.; Davis, D.H.; Downes, J.K.; Duff, B.G.; Esten, M.J.; Gjerpe, I.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Tovee, D.N.; Hazama, M.; Isokane, Y.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Maeda, Y.; Tasaka, S.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt at the direct observation of the cascade decay of beauty particles, produced by π - of 350 GeV/c leading to 3 muons or 4 muons in the final state, has been made in an emulsion/counter hybrid experiment at CERN. Under the assumption that the lifetime of beauty particles is of the order of 10 - 13 s the non-observation of any candidates provides an upper limit for beauty production of approx.=90 nb at the 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  20. The environmental injustice of beauty: framing chemical exposures from beauty products as a health disparities concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Shamasunder, Bhavna

    2017-10-01

    The obstetrics-gynecology community has issued a call to action to prevent toxic environmental chemical exposures and their threats to healthy human reproduction. Recent committee opinions recognize that vulnerable and underserved women may be impacted disproportionately by environmental chemical exposures and recommend that reproductive health professionals champion policies that secure environmental justice. Beauty product use is an understudied source of environmental chemical exposures. Beauty products can include reproductive and developmental toxicants such as phthalates and heavy metals; however, disclosure requirements are limited and inconsistent. Compared with white women, women of color have higher levels of beauty product-related environmental chemicals in their bodies, independent of socioeconomic status. Even small exposures to toxic chemicals during critical periods of development (such as pregnancy) can trigger adverse health consequences (such as impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer). In this commentary, we seek to highlight the connections between environmental justice and beauty product-related chemical exposures. We describe racial/ethnic differences in beauty product use (such as skin lighteners, hair straighteners, and feminine hygiene products) and the potential chemical exposures and health risks that are associated with these products. We also discuss how targeted advertising can take advantage of mainstream beauty norms to influence the use of these products. Reproductive health professionals can use this information to advance environmental justice by being prepared to counsel patients who have questions about toxic environmental exposures from beauty care products and other sources. Researchers and healthcare providers can also promote health-protective policies such as improved ingredient testing and disclosure for the beauty product industry. Future clinical and public health research should consider beauty

  1. Beauty at a glance: The feeling of beauty and the amplitude of pleasure are independent of stimulus duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Vale, Lauren; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-12-01

    Over time, how does beauty develop and decay? Common sense suggests that beauty is intensely felt only after prolonged experience of the object. Here, we present one of various stimuli for a variable duration (1-30 s), measure the observers' pleasure over time, and, finally, ask whether they felt beauty. On each trial, participants (N = 21) either see an image that they had chosen as "movingly beautiful," see an image with prerated valence, or suck a candy. During the stimulus and a further 60 s, participants rate pleasure continuously using a custom touchscreen web app, EmotionTracker.com. After each trial, participants judge whether they felt beauty. Across all stimulus kinds, durations, and beauty responses, the dynamic pleasure rating has a stereotypical time course that is well fit by a one-parameter model with a brief exponential onset (roughly 2.5 s), a sustained plateau during stimulus presentation, and a long exponential decay (roughly 70 s). Across conditions, only the plateau amplitude varies. Beauty and pleasure amplitude are nearly independent of stimulus duration. The final beauty rating is positively correlated with pleasure amplitude (r = 0.60), and nearly independent of duration (r = 0.10). Beauty's independence from duration is unlike Bentham's 18th-century notion of value (utility), which he supposed to depend on the product of pleasure amplitude and duration. Participants report having felt pleasure as strongly after a mere 1 s stimulus as after longer durations, up to 30 s. Thus, we find that amplitude of pleasure is independent of stimulus duration.

  2. Signs in Architecture: Beauty in the Ordinary

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    In Japan, the basics of living are described as three main elements; clothing, food, and shelter. These elements involve simple daily activities such as changing clothes in the morning, eating lunch, and sleeping at night. It may easily become a mundane topic since they are woven into our daily routines. Nevertheless, a moment in one's day may become joyful when we reconsider and play with the ordinary. The first trace of a dwelling in Japan is a pit shelter. People dug a circular ...

  3. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  4. Measurement of beauty production from dimuon events at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    Beauty production in events containing two muons in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb{sup -1}. A low transverse-momentum threshold for muon identification, in combination with the large rapidity coverage of the ZEUS muon system, gives access to almost the full phase space for beauty production. The total cross section for beauty production in ep collisions at {radical}(s) = 318 GeV has been measured to be {sigma}{sub tot}(ep {yields} b anti bX) = 13.9 {+-} 1.5(stat.){sub -4.3}{sup +4.0}(syst.) nb. Differential cross sections and a measurement of b anti b correlations are also obtained, and compared to other beauty cross-section measurements, Monte Carlo models and next-to-leading-order QCD predictions. (orig.)

  5. Can we measure beauty? Computational evaluation of coral reef aesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, A.F.; Guibert, M.; Foerschner, A.; Co, T.; Calhoun, S.; George, E.; Hatay, M.; Dinsdale, E.; Sandin, S.A.; Smith, J.E.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Felts, B.; Dustan, P.; Salamon, P.; Rohwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    The natural beauty of coral reefs attracts millions of tourists worldwide resulting in substantial revenues for the adjoining economies. Although their visual appearance is a pivotal factor attracting humans to coral reefs current monitoring protocols exclusively target biogeochemical parameters,

  6. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  7. Collider phenomenology of light strange-beauty squarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Kingman; Hou Weizshu

    2004-01-01

    Strong mixing between right-handed strange and beauty squarks is a possible solution to the CP violation discrepancy in B→φK S decay as recently suggested by the Belle data. In this scenario, thanks to the strong mixing one of the strange-beauty squarks can be as light as 200 GeV, even though the generic supersymmetry scale is at TeV. In this work, we study the production of this light right-handed strange-beauty squark at hadronic colliders and discuss the detection in various decay scenarios. Detection prospect at the Tevatron run II is good for the strange-beauty squark mass up to about 300 GeV

  8. Measurement of beauty production from dimuon events at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Beauty production in events containing two muons in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb -1 . A low transverse-momentum threshold for muon identification, in combination with the large rapidity coverage of the ZEUS muon system, gives access to almost the full phase space for beauty production. The total cross section for beauty production in ep collisions at (s) 1/2 = 318 GeV has been measured to be σ tot (ep → b b-bar X) = 13.9 ± 1.5(stat.) +4.0 -4.3 (syst.) nb. Differential cross sections and a measurement of b b-bar correlations are also obtained, and compared to other beauty cross-section measurements, Monte Carlo models and next-to-leading-order QCD predictions.

  9. Mathematics make microbes beautiful, beneficial, and bountiful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungck, John R

    2012-01-01

    Microbiology is a rich area for visualizing the importance of mathematics in terms of designing experiments, data mining, testing hypotheses, and visualizing relationships. Historically, Nobel Prizes have acknowledged the close interplay between mathematics and microbiology in such examples as the fluctuation test and mutation rates using Poisson statistics by Luria and Delbrück and the use of graph theory of polyhedra by Caspar and Klug. More and more contemporary microbiology journals feature mathematical models, computational algorithms and heuristics, and multidimensional visualizations. While revolutions in research have driven these initiatives, a commensurate effort needs to be made to incorporate much more mathematics into the professional preparation of microbiologists. In order not to be daunting to many educators, a Bloom-like "Taxonomy of Quantitative Reasoning" is shared with explicit examples of microbiological activities for engaging students in (a) counting, measuring, calculating using image analysis of bacterial colonies and viral infections on variegated leaves, measurement of fractal dimensions of beautiful colony morphologies, and counting vertices, edges, and faces on viral capsids and using graph theory to understand self assembly; (b) graphing, mapping, ordering by applying linear, exponential, and logistic growth models of public health and sanitation problems, revisiting Snow's epidemiological map of cholera with computational geometry, and using interval graphs to do complementation mapping, deletion mapping, food webs, and microarray heatmaps; (c) problem solving by doing gene mapping and experimental design, and applying Boolean algebra to gene regulation of operons; (d) analysis of the "Bacterial Bonanza" of microbial sequence and genomic data using bioinformatics and phylogenetics; (e) hypothesis testing-again with phylogenetic trees and use of Poisson statistics and the Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test; and (f) modeling of

  10. Betel Nut Beauty in Taiwan: Chinese Tourists- Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shwu-Huey Wang; Hsiu-Yuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Tourists- eyes will often be attracted by the unique phenomenon of the roadsides: betel nut beauties (pronounced as binlang xishi in Mandarin), if they drive on the roads of Taiwan. Sitting in the neon-lit glass stalls with attractive dress on the roadsides, betel nut beauties usually sell betel nuts to the passing truckers or car drivers with much of their efforts. Moreover, in order to attract peoples- eyesight and increase the sales volume, the young girls are in skimp...

  11. Toward a brain-based theory of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Tomohiro; Zeki, Semir

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to learn whether activity in the same area(s) of the brain correlate with the experience of beauty derived from different sources. 21 subjects took part in a brain-scanning experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Prior to the experiment, they viewed pictures of paintings and listened to musical excerpts, both of which they rated on a scale of 1-9, with 9 being the most beautiful. This allowed us to select three sets of stimuli--beautiful, indifferent and ugly--which subjects viewed and heard in the scanner, and rated at the end of each presentation. The results of a conjunction analysis of brain activity showed that, of the several areas that were active with each type of stimulus, only one cortical area, located in the medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC), was active during the experience of musical and visual beauty, with the activity produced by the experience of beauty derived from either source overlapping almost completely within it. The strength of activation in this part of the mOFC was proportional to the strength of the declared intensity of the experience of beauty. We conclude that, as far as activity in the brain is concerned, there is a faculty of beauty that is not dependent on the modality through which it is conveyed but which can be activated by at least two sources--musical and visual--and probably by other sources as well. This has led us to formulate a brain-based theory of beauty.

  12. Charmed and beauty baryon in hyper central model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Bhavin; Vinodkumar, P.C.; Rai, Ajay Kumar

    2006-01-01

    For the present study the hyper central description of the three-body problem has been employed for the baryons constituting one or more charm and beauty quarks. The confinement potential is assumed in the hyper central co-ordinates as hyper central coulomb plus power potential. The charm and beauty baryons under this potential has been studied for different power indices starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The methods and results are briefly described

  13. A beautiful question finding nature’s deep design

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Artists as well as scientists throughout human history have pondered this “beautiful question.” With Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek as your guide, embark on a voyage of related discoveries, from Plato and Pythagoras up to the present. Wilczek’s groundbreaking work in quantum physics was inspired by his intuition to look for a deeper order of beauty in nature. In fact, every major advance in his career came from this intuition: to assume that the universe embodies beautiful forms, forms whose hallmarks are symmetry—harmony, balance, proportion—and economy. There are other meanings of “beauty,” but this is the deep logic of the universe—and it is no accident that it is also at the heart of what we find aesthetically pleasing and inspiring. Wilczek is hardly alone among great scientists in charting his course using beauty as his compass. As he reveals in A Beautiful Question, this has been the heart of scientific pursuit from Pythagoras, the ancient Greek who was the first to argue that “all thi...

  14. Evolutionary Effect on the Embodied Beauty of Landscape Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiaoxiang; He, Xianyou; Chen, Guangyao

    2018-01-01

    According to the framework of evolutionary aesthetics, a sense of beauty is related to environmental adaptation and plasticity of human beings, which has adaptive value and biological foundations. Prior studies have demonstrated that organisms derive benefits from the landscape. In this study, we investigated whether the benefits of landscape might elicit a stronger sense of beauty and what the nature of this sense of beauty is. In two experiments, when viewing classical landscape and nonlandscape architectures photographs, participants rated the aesthetic scores (Experiment 1) and had a two-alternative forced choice aesthetic judgment by pressing the reaction button located near to (15 cm) or far from (45 cm) the presenting stimuli (Experiment 2). The results showed that reaction of aesthetic ratings for classical landscape architectures was faster than those of classical nonlandscape architectures. Furthermore, only the reaction of beautiful judgment of classical landscape architecture photograph was significantly faster when the reaction button was in the near position to the presenting photograph than those in the position of far away from the presenting photograph. This finding suggests a facilitated effect for the aesthetic perception of classical landscape architectures due to their corresponding components including water and green plants with strong evolutionary implications. Furthermore, this sense of beauty for classical landscape architectures might be the embodied approach to beauty based on the viewpoint of evolutionary aesthetics and embodied cognition.

  15. The paradox of impossible beauty: body changes and beauty practices in aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Chevé, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and understand the experience of aesthetic body changes in women between 65 and 75 years old. To approach the issue, 29 in-depth interviews were conducted in Marseille in 2011. Following a brief review of contemporary Western aesthetics, we will examine the marks of time women perceive as stigmatizing and analyze beauty practices that aim to conceal or repair them. The last part of this article will be devoted to the experience of the aesthetic body and in particular show how aging can paradoxically have a beneficial effect on some women.

  16. Academic Training: Small may be beautiful

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 June 13, 14, 16, 17 June from 11:00 to 12:00, 15 June from 10:00 to 12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Small may be beautiful M. DAVIER / LAL, Orsay, France and T. SOLDNER / ILL, Grenoble, France M. DAVIER 13, 14, 15 June Besides the direct high-energy approach, particle physics frontiers can be explored by low-energy high-sensitivity experiments. These experiments, small on the scale of LHC detectors, can be very effective in reaching a sensitivity level why physics beyond the Standard Model can contribute. In these lectures we will discuss a subject of such experiments (excluding cold neutrons covered in T. Soldner's lectures), their interplay with theory and their impact on our knowledge of new phenomena : anormalous magnetic moments of leptons, weak-electromagnetic interference at low energy and in atomic physics, searches for an electron electric dipole moment in atomic and molecular physics. T. SOLDNER 15, 16, 17 June Neutron pa...

  17. The 2016 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Thiébaut, E.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Heininger, M.; Schertl, D.; Weigelt, G.; Millour, F.; Schutz, A.; Ferrari, A.; Vannier, M.; Mary, D.; Young, J.

    2016-08-01

    Image reconstruction in optical interferometry has gained considerable importance for astrophysical studies during the last decade. This has been mainly due to improvements in the imaging capabilities of existing interferometers and the expectation of new facilities in the coming years. However, despite the advances made so far, image synthesis in optical interferometry is still an open field of research. Since 2004, the community has organized a biennial contest to formally test the different methods and algorithms for image reconstruction. In 2016, we celebrated the 7th edition of the "Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest". This initiative represented an open call to participate in the reconstruction of a selected set of simulated targets with a wavelength-dependent morphology as they could be observed by the 2nd generation of VLTI instruments. This contest represents a unique opportunity to benchmark, in a systematic way, the current advances and limitations in the field, as well as to discuss possible future approaches. In this contribution, we summarize: (a) the rules of the 2016 contest; (b) the different data sets used and the selection procedure; (c) the methods and results obtained by each one of the participants; and (d) the metric used to select the best reconstructed images. Finally, we named Karl-Heinz Hofmann and the group of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie as winners of this edition of the contest.

  18. Golden ratio beauty as scientific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.

  19. Healthy Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality sleep, ask yourself Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing during the day? Do you doze off during the day? If you answered yes to these three questions, you should work on ...

  20. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  1. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falling asleep; Sleep hygiene References American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Insomnia. Updated March 4, 2015. SleepEducation.org. sleepeducation. ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. ...

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least ...

  3. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  4. Sleep in Othello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  5. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...

  6. ISLAMIC BEAUTY: Socio-Semiotic Analysis of Facial Foam and Body Lotion Advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Herti Afriani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer how Islamic Women define the concept of beauty in Ponds advertisement white beauty facial foam and body lotion on television. This study uses a socio-semiotic approach described through three aspects of social context, namely field, tenor, and mode. It argues that Ponds’ definition of a beauty only refers to physical standards, that is, women who have white skin and use both Ponds White Beauty Facial Foam and Foam Body Lotion. Further, television through Ponds advertising is considered as a commercial institution that supports the main idea of capitalism. However, Islamic women consider beautiful physically and spiritually. It suggests that the beautiful women are those who obey and surrender to Allah SWT. In short, Islamic women do not agree with the meaning of beauty resulted from Ponds White Beauty Facial Foam and Ponds Body Lotion advertisement. Rather, beauty consists of both body and, more importantly, soul.

  7. Sleep in Othello

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep.

  8. Self Representation Among Dark Skin People Concerning Discourse of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasty Larasati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to see how’s dark skin people perceive the color of their skin either it’s beautiful or ugly. Up until now, being beautiful categorized as those with fair skin, including Indonesian. This is important to be seen because how you represent yourself related to your identity− who you are or how do you want to be seen. Either they are confident with their skin or not, it is their way of self representation which they got from identity negotiation. But, among dark skin people there always be people who confidently represents their identity against the beauty discourse or counter-discourse. Previous literature reviews show there are two reason can cause counter-discourse: recognition and negotiation. Recognition is an act actor does to fight the mainstream discourse, meanwhile negotiation is about negotiating about what they have. My argument here is women can counter the discourse because of negotiation, they have free choice and body autonomy. Also, they have power to counter the discourse by bargaining power. This article uses qualitative research with in-depth interview towards nine female informants with spesific range of age: 16 – 24 because those ages are ages with huge internet usage. Skin tone classification for informant selection is based on Fitzpatrick skin type scale. Research findings show seven from nine informants have done counter the beauty discourse. Informants also explained how their personality or skills could be their bargaining power which made them easier to counter the beauty discourse. Beside that, informant also have done negotiate their identity from accepted the beauty discourse about desirable skin tones, into counter it. The process did not come out of the blue, but also it need both internal and external factors role. Internal factor is self-consciousness about beauty itself while external factors from family, peer or media socialization.

  9. Beauty and science in a shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceri, Piera

    2017-04-01

    Taking pictures has become a daily action for young. Photography is an essential component of many areas of science, has played a crucial role in the study of anatomy, botany, archeology, ... Still today it is a "scientific tool" in the school textbooks: pictures describe, make reality larger or smaller, faster or slower, show evidence and experimental results. But a photograph has the ability to move, engage and inspire viewers. That means that a photograph can build an emotional bridge between science and people. People and students can get closer to science through beautiful, evocative and expressive shot. In this project students are involved in taking pictures with a scientific and aesthetic content looking around, setting an experiment, watching nature, playing with light, point of wiew, colors and perspective. They have to write a short text and a title that explains the scientific content, why and how they have taken the picture. Both description and title should let increase curiosity, could looks fun or stress artistic aspects. Student show their shots in an official public event in Milan managed by a committee of science and photograph experts and in a local event to parents and local community. "Shots of science" is a project promoted by the italian national association "Scienza under 18", the Physic Department of "Università degli Studi di Milano" and the "Museo di fotografia contemporanea" of Cinisello Balsamo (MI) that help students in discussing about scientific and artistic aspects of their shots. This project contributes to develop digital skills (such as to manage digital images, to share documents, to learn about copyright and creative commons license), communication skills (such as to write a caption, public speaking, to use a picture to communicate), collaboration skills (such as to work with pairs, to respect scheduled times, to be positive in giving and taking into account suggestions) and artistic skills (to learn how to compose a good

  10. Sleep is not just for the brain: transcriptional responses to sleep in peripheral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many have assumed that the primary function of sleep is for the brain. We evaluated the molecular consequences of sleep and sleep deprivation outside the brain, in heart and lung. Using microarrays we compared gene expression in tissue from sleeping and sleep deprived mice euthanized at the same diurnal times. Results In each tissue, nearly two thousand genes demonstrated statistically significant differential expression as a function of sleep/wake behavioral state. To mitigate the influence of an artificial deprivation protocol, we identified a subset of these transcripts as specifically sleep-enhanced or sleep-repressed by requiring that their expression also change over the course of unperturbed sleep. 3% and 6% of the assayed transcripts showed “sleep specific” changes in the lung and heart respectively. Sleep specific transcripts in these tissues demonstrated highly significant overlap and shared temporal dynamics. Markers of cellular stress and the unfolded protein response were reduced during sleep in both tissues. These results mirror previous findings in brain. Sleep-enhanced pathways reflected the unique metabolic functions of each tissue. Transcripts related to carbohydrate and sulfur metabolic processes were enhanced by sleep in the lung, and collectively favor buffering from oxidative stress. DNA repair and protein metabolism annotations were significantly enriched among the sleep-enhanced transcripts in the heart. Our results also suggest that sleep may provide a Zeitgeber, or synchronizing cue, in the lung as a large cluster of transcripts demonstrated systematic changes in inter-animal variability as a function of both sleep duration and circadian time. Conclusion Our data support the notion that the molecular consequences of sleep/wake behavioral state extend beyond the brain to include peripheral tissues. Sleep state induces a highly overlapping response in both heart and lung. We conclude that sleep enhances organ specific

  11. Introducing a "Balance" in The BSC Through Beauty and Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Kamayanti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Celebrating the seventeenth anniversary of the Balanced Score Card (BSC since it was born in 1992, this paper revisits its concept as one of the landmarks in performance measurement. The BSC turns out to be ‘not so balanced’ since it lacks certain beauty and love. It hinges on accountability for certain interests when measuring performance, negating or putting other interests as minority. Thus, it fits perfectly with the aim of management accounting that puts managers and customers as priorities. The imbalances comes from secularism and overemphasis in rationalism. Sustainability that becomes the current issue nowadays would not be supported by such performance measurement. In order to insert this balance, a methodology by taking a methapor of nurturing mother is applied in this research that encompasses gentle beauty and subtle love. Gentle beauty refers to a complete harmony of beauty : irrational and the rational; this means introducing those that have been left out in the name of rationality such as religions and spiritualism. Subtle love refers to love towards God that is expressed subtly without lust to overpower. The result is a more balanced set of performance measurements that are filled with beauty and love, insyaAllah.

  12. Beauty photoproduction using decays into muons at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, U.

    2008-05-15

    Inclusive cross-sections for the production of open beauty in ep collisions at HERA are measured. The data were recorded with the ZEUS detector between 1996 and 2000. The measurements are restricted to photoproduction processes, i.e. collision events with small four-momentum transfer squared, Q{sup 2}{approx}0. Two jets with transverse momentum p{sub T}>7(6) GeV and pseudo-rapidities vertical stroke {eta} vertical stroke <2.5 are required. The flavour is tagged by the identification of muons from semi-leptonic decays of the beauty quark. The variable used to discriminate between beauty and background is the transverse momentum of the muon with respect to the jet axis. The fraction of beauty is determined by a fit of Monte Carlo templates to the data. Cross-sections have been measured as a function of the muon and jet variables as well as a function of dijet correlation variables. Dijet correlations in beauty production have been measured for the first time in ZEUS and are found in agreement with QCD NLO predictions. (orig.)

  13. The effects of atmospheric optical conditions on perceived scenic beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Douglas A.; Hogo, Henry; Daniel, Terry C.

    This paper describes the results from the first year of a currently on-going study, the objective of which is to investigate the relationships between atmospheric optical conditions and human perceptions of scenic beauty. Color photographs and atmospheric optical measurements, using telephotometers and nephelometers, were taken in the western U.S.A. (Grand Canyon National Park and Mt. Lemmon near Tucson, Arizona) and in the eastern United States (Great Smoky Mountains and Shenandoah national parks). Over 1300 individual observers rated color slides for either visual air quality or scenic beauty using a 10-point rating scale. Ratings were transformed to indices using standard psychophysical techniques. Relationships between these perceptual indices and physical parameters characteristic of the given landscape represented in the color slides were investigated using scatter plots, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression. Physical parameters included visual range, horizon sky chromaticity and luminance, solar zenith and scattering angles, and cloud conditions. Results show that observers' ratings of visual air quality and scenic beauty are sensitive to visual range, sky color, and scattering angle. However, in some of the areas investigated, scenic beauty ratings were not affected by changes in visual range. The sensitivity of the scenic beauty of a vista to changes in the extinction coefficient may be useful for establishing visibility goals and priorities.

  14. Using deep learning to quantify the beauty of outdoor places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2017-07-01

    Beautiful outdoor locations are protected by governments and have recently been shown to be associated with better health. But what makes an outdoor space beautiful? Does a beautiful outdoor location differ from an outdoor location that is simply natural? Here, we explore whether ratings of over 200 000 images of Great Britain from the online game Scenic-Or-Not , combined with hundreds of image features extracted using the Places Convolutional Neural Network, might help us understand what beautiful outdoor spaces are composed of. We discover that, as well as natural features such as 'Coast', 'Mountain' and 'Canal Natural', man-made structures such as 'Tower', 'Castle' and 'Viaduct' lead to places being considered more scenic. Importantly, while scenes containing 'Trees' tend to rate highly, places containing more bland natural green features such as 'Grass' and 'Athletic Fields' are considered less scenic. We also find that a neural network can be trained to automatically identify scenic places, and that this network highlights both natural and built locations. Our findings demonstrate how online data combined with neural networks can provide a deeper understanding of what environments we might find beautiful and offer quantitative insights for policymakers charged with design and protection of our built and natural environments.

  15. Beauty photoproduction using decays into muons at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, U.

    2008-05-01

    Inclusive cross-sections for the production of open beauty in ep collisions at HERA are measured. The data were recorded with the ZEUS detector between 1996 and 2000. The measurements are restricted to photoproduction processes, i.e. collision events with small four-momentum transfer squared, Q 2 ∼0. Two jets with transverse momentum p T >7(6) GeV and pseudo-rapidities vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.5 are required. The flavour is tagged by the identification of muons from semi-leptonic decays of the beauty quark. The variable used to discriminate between beauty and background is the transverse momentum of the muon with respect to the jet axis. The fraction of beauty is determined by a fit of Monte Carlo templates to the data. Cross-sections have been measured as a function of the muon and jet variables as well as a function of dijet correlation variables. Dijet correlations in beauty production have been measured for the first time in ZEUS and are found in agreement with QCD NLO predictions. (orig.)

  16. Can We Model the Scenic Beauty of an Alpine Landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Tasser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, agriculture has lost its importance in many European mountain regions and tourism, which benefits from attractive landscapes, has become a major source of income. Changes in landscape patterns and elements might affect scenic beauty and therefore the socio-economic welfare of a region. Our study aimed at modeling scenic beauty by quantifying the influence of landscape elements and patterns in relationship to distance. Focusing on Alpine landscapes in South and North Tyrol, we used a photographic questionnaire showing different landscape compositions. As mountain landscapes offer long vistas, we related scenic beauty to different distance zones. Our results indicate that the near zone contributes by 64% to the valuation of scenic beauty, the middle zone by 22%, and the far zone by 14%. In contrast to artificial elements, naturalness and diversity increased scenic beauty. Significant differences between different social groups (origin, age, gender, cultural background occurred only between the local population and tourists regarding great landscape changes. Changes towards more homogenous landscapes were perceived negatively, thus political decision makers should support the conservation of the cultural landscape.

  17. Sublimity and beauty: A view from nursing aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles-González, José; Solano-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Several authors have focused on the aesthetics of nursing care from diverse perspectives; however, there are few studies about the sublime and the beautiful in nursing. To identify beautiful and sublime moments in the context of the aesthetics of nursing care. A theoretical reflection has been contemplated about sublime and beautiful values in the context of the aesthetics of nursing care from the cultural history perspective. For that purpose, a revision of this issue has been completed. The terms 'beautiful' and 'sublime' have been analysed to identify the characteristics of both in the context of nursing care. We have followed all ethical requirements regarding the sources, conducting research and authorship. There is no conflict of interest in this paper. With aesthetic knowledge, the nurse expresses the artistic nature of nursing care by appreciating the act of caring for individuals. The sublime is a complex phenomenon, since apparently contrary feelings are interwoven. Nursing care is an art with an anthropological object-subject on which the 'artist' applies their prior knowledge and skills. Feelings and emotions that develop during the clinical nursing practice - especially at times sublime and beautiful, aesthetic - constitute experiences which are professionally significant. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. DNA profiling of trace DNA recovered from bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricevic, Susan F; Bright, Jo-Anne; Cockerton, Sarah L

    2006-05-25

    Trace DNA is often detected on handled items and worn clothing examined in forensic laboratories. In this study, the potential transfer of trace DNA to bedding by normal contact, when an individual sleeps in a bed, is examined. Volunteers slept one night on a new, lower bed sheet in their own bed and one night in a bed foreign to them. Samples from the sheets were collected and analysed by DNA profiling. The results indicate that the DNA profile of an individual can be obtained from bedding after one night of sleeping in a bed. The DNA profile of the owner of the bed could also be detected in the foreign bed experiments. Since mixed DNA profiles can be obtained from trace DNA on bedding, caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions from DNA profiling results obtained from such samples. This transfer may have important repercussions in sexual assault investigations.

  19. Lifetime measurements of the strange beauty meson and beauty baryons at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.

    1994-01-01

    Last experimental results on the lifetimes of B s 0 mesons and beauty baryons from the LEP experiments ALEPH, DELPHI and OPAL are presented. LEP averages for the lifetimes of B s 0 and Λ b are compared to lifetimes of B d 0 and B + and to the average b hadron lifetime. The precision of these measurements begins to be suitable to test the theoretical predictions of 10-15% differences between the lifetimes of b baryons and mesons, but does not allow a test of the few percent difference expected between B d 0 and B + lifetimes. The data show a significant evidence (3 σ) for lifetime differences between b mesons and b baryons. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs

  20. Cost of Beauty; Prilocaine Induced Methemoglobinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif KILICLI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Prilocaine induced methemoglobinemia is a rare entity. In the present paper, the authors aim to draw attention to the importance of this rare condition by reporting this case. A 30-year-old female presented to Emergency Department with headache, dispnea and cyanosis. The patient has a history of 1000–1200 mg of prilocaine subcutaneous injection for hair removal at a beauty center, 5 hours ago. Tension arterial: 130/73 mmHg, pulse: 103/minute, body temperature: 37 °C and respiratory rate: 20/minute. The patient had acral and perioral cyanosis. Methemoglobin was measured 14.1% in venous blood gas test. The patient treated with 3 gr ascorbic acid intravenously. The patient was discharged free of symptoms after 48 hours of observation. Emergency physician should consider methemoglobinemia in presentation of dispnea and cyanosis after injection of prilocaine. ÖZET: Prilokaine bağlı gelişen methemoglobinemi nadir görülen bir durumdur. Bu yazıda epilasyon öncesi kullanılan prilokaine sekonder gelişen methemoglobinemi olgusunu sunarak nadir görülen bu durumun önemine işaret etmek istiyoruz. Otuz yaşında kadın acil servise baş ağrısı, dispne ve siyanoz şikayetleri ile başvurdu. Hastaya beş saat öncesinde bir güzellik merkezinde epilasyon öncesinde yaklaşık 1000–1200 mg prilokain subkutan enjeksiyonu yapıldığı öğrenildi. Başvuruda kan basıncı 130/73 mmHg, nabız 103/dk, vücut ısısı 37 °C ve solunum sayısı 20/dk olarak kaydedilmişti. Hastanın akral siyanozu belirgindi. Venöz kan gazında methemoglobin düzeyi %14.1 olarak ölçüldü. Hastaya 3 g intravenöz askorbik asit uygulandı. Tedavi sonrası semptomları gerileyen ve komplikasyon geliştirmeyen hasta 48 saat sonra taburcu edildi. Acil servis doktorları, prilokain enjeksiyonu sonrası gelişen dispne ve siyanoz ayırıcı tanısında mutlaka methemoglobinemiyi akla getirmelidirler. Key words: Methemoglobinemia, prilocaine, cyanosis

  1. The Super Fixed Target beauty facility at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Kwong

    1991-01-01

    The rationale for pursuing beauty physics at the SSC in a fixed target configuration is described. The increased beauty production cross section at the SSC, combined with high interaction rate capability of the proposed detector, results in 10 10-11 produced BB events per year. The long decay length of the B hadrons (≅ 10 cm) allows direct observation of B decays in the high resolution silicon microstrip vertex detector. To optimize the operation of the proposed beauty spectrometer and the SSC, parasitic extraction of attendant or artificially generated large amplitude protons using crystal channeling is proposed and explored. The large sample of fully reconstructed B events allows detailed studies of various CP violating decays with requisite statistics to confront the standard model. The CP physics potential of the proposed experiment is evaluated and compared with alternative approaches, such as symmetric e + e - B Factories and specialized hadron colliders

  2. Predicting beauty: fractal dimension and visual complexity in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, A; Nadal, M; Sheehy, N; Cela-Conde, C J; Sawey, M

    2011-02-01

    Visual complexity has been known to be a significant predictor of preference for artistic works for some time. The first study reported here examines the extent to which perceived visual complexity in art can be successfully predicted using automated measures of complexity. Contrary to previous findings the most successful predictor of visual complexity was Gif compression. The second study examined the extent to which fractal dimension could account for judgments of perceived beauty. The fractal dimension measure accounts for more of the variance in judgments of perceived beauty in visual art than measures of visual complexity alone, particularly for abstract and natural images. Results also suggest that when colour is removed from an artistic image observers are unable to make meaningful judgments as to its beauty. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Presence, Mourning, and Beauty: Elements of Analytic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Henry C

    2017-12-01

    Analyst and patient occasionally arrive at moments of heightened meaning and aliveness. These moments can be transformative and lead to psychic change in the patient. They give life and arouse hope, and feel "real" in a new way, though often entailing emotional turbulence. Specific internal work must be done by the analyst to allow for and foster these experiences. This involves a kind of mourning process in the analyst that allows for "presence" and "availability" as described by Gabriel Marcel, and for the "at-one-ment" described by Bion. These transforming moments can be viewed in an aesthetic realm, along the lines of Keats's "Beauty is truth, truth beauty." This embodies the analytic value of emotional truth. These moments are shared and their emergence is an intersubjective creation. Clinical illustrations show how the internal work of mourning by the analyst through directed introspection allows for presence and availability, and then for shared moments of beauty with the patient.

  4. Quantifying the Beauty of Words: A Neurocognitive Poetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Jacobs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to pave the ground for future studies in Computational Stylistics and (Neuro-Cognitive Poetics by describing procedures for predicting the subjective beauty of words. A set of eight tentative word features is computed via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA and a novel metric for quantifying word beauty, the aesthetic potential is proposed. Application of machine learning algorithms fed with this QNA data shows that a classifier of the decision tree family excellently learns to split words into beautiful vs. ugly ones. The results shed light on surface and semantic features theoretically relevant for affective-aesthetic processes in literary reading and generate quantitative predictions for neuroaesthetic studies of verbal materials.

  5. Quantifying the Beauty of Words: A Neurocognitive Poetics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arthur M

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I would like to pave the ground for future studies in Computational Stylistics and (Neuro-)Cognitive Poetics by describing procedures for predicting the subjective beauty of words. A set of eight tentative word features is computed via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA) and a novel metric for quantifying word beauty, the aesthetic potential is proposed. Application of machine learning algorithms fed with this QNA data shows that a classifier of the decision tree family excellently learns to split words into beautiful vs. ugly ones. The results shed light on surface and semantic features theoretically relevant for affective-aesthetic processes in literary reading and generate quantitative predictions for neuroaesthetic studies of verbal materials.

  6. Euler's pioneering equation the most beautiful theorem in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Robin

    2018-01-01

    In 1988 The Mathematical Intelligencer, a quarterly mathematics journal, carried out a poll to find the most beautiful theorem in mathematics. Twenty-four theorems were listed and readers were invited to award each a 'score for beauty'. While there were many worthy competitors, the winner was 'Euler's equation'. In 2004 Physics World carried out a similar poll of 'greatest equations', and found that among physicists Euler's mathematical result came second only to Maxwell's equations. The Stanford mathematician Keith Devlin reflected the feelings of many in describing it as "like a Shakespearian sonnet that captures the very essence of love, or a painting which brings out the beauty of the human form that is far more than just skin deep, Euler's equation reaches down into the very depths of existence."

  7. Sleep Disturbances in Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Yasova Barbeau, Daphna; Weiss, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environmen...

  8. The Golden Beauty: Brain Response to Classical and Renaissance Sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Dio, Cinzia; Macaluso, Emiliano; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Is there an objective, biological basis for the experience of beauty in art? Or is aesthetic experience entirely subjective? Using fMRI technique, we addressed this question by presenting viewers, naïve to art criticism, with images of masterpieces of Classical and Renaissance sculpture. Employing proportion as the independent variable, we produced two sets of stimuli: one composed of images of original sculptures; the other of a modified version of the same images. The stimuli were presented in three conditions: observation, aesthetic judgment, and proportion judgment. In the observation condition, the viewers were required to observe the images with the same mind-set as if they were in a museum. In the other two conditions they were required to give an aesthetic or proportion judgment on the same images. Two types of analyses were carried out: one which contrasted brain response to the canonical and the modified sculptures, and one which contrasted beautiful vs. ugly sculptures as judged by each volunteer. The most striking result was that the observation of original sculptures, relative to the modified ones, produced activation of the right insula as well as of some lateral and medial cortical areas (lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus and prefrontal areas). The activation of the insula was particularly strong during the observation condition. Most interestingly, when volunteers were required to give an overt aesthetic judgment, the images judged as beautiful selectively activated the right amygdala, relative to those judged as ugly. We conclude that, in observers naïve to art criticism, the sense of beauty is mediated by two non-mutually exclusive processes: one based on a joint activation of sets of cortical neurons, triggered by parameters intrinsic to the stimuli, and the insula (objective beauty); the other based on the activation of the amygdala, driven by one's own emotional experiences (subjective beauty). PMID:18030335

  9. The golden beauty: brain response to classical and renaissance sculptures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Di Dio

    Full Text Available Is there an objective, biological basis for the experience of beauty in art? Or is aesthetic experience entirely subjective? Using fMRI technique, we addressed this question by presenting viewers, naïve to art criticism, with images of masterpieces of Classical and Renaissance sculpture. Employing proportion as the independent variable, we produced two sets of stimuli: one composed of images of original sculptures; the other of a modified version of the same images. The stimuli were presented in three conditions: observation, aesthetic judgment, and proportion judgment. In the observation condition, the viewers were required to observe the images with the same mind-set as if they were in a museum. In the other two conditions they were required to give an aesthetic or proportion judgment on the same images. Two types of analyses were carried out: one which contrasted brain response to the canonical and the modified sculptures, and one which contrasted beautiful vs. ugly sculptures as judged by each volunteer. The most striking result was that the observation of original sculptures, relative to the modified ones, produced activation of the right insula as well as of some lateral and medial cortical areas (lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus and prefrontal areas. The activation of the insula was particularly strong during the observation condition. Most interestingly, when volunteers were required to give an overt aesthetic judgment, the images judged as beautiful selectively activated the right amygdala, relative to those judged as ugly. We conclude that, in observers naïve to art criticism, the sense of beauty is mediated by two non-mutually exclusive processes: one based on a joint activation of sets of cortical neurons, triggered by parameters intrinsic to the stimuli, and the insula (objective beauty; the other based on the activation of the amygdala, driven by one's own emotional experiences (subjective beauty.

  10. Beauty in photoproduction at HERA II with the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutle, Sarah

    2010-02-15

    The production of beauty quarks in ep collisions should be accurately calculable in perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) since the large mass of the b quark provides a hard scale. Therefore it is interesting to compare such predictions to results using photoproduction events where a low-virtuality photon, emitted by the incoming lepton, collides with a parton from the incoming proton. A measurement of beauty in photoproduction has been made at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -}1. Beauty was identified in events with a muon in the final state by using the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the closest jet. Lifetime information from the silicon vertex detector was also used; the impact parameter of the muon with respect to the primary vertex was exploited to discriminate between signal and background. Cross sections for beauty production as a function of the muon and the jet variables were measured and compared to QCD predictions and to previous measurements. The data were found to be well described by the predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD. The dijet sample of beauty photoproduction events was also used to study higher-order QCD topologies. At leading order, the two jets in the event are produced back-to-back in azimuthal angle, such that {delta}{phi}{sup jj}={phi}{sup j1}-{phi}{sup j2}={pi}. Additional soft radiation causes small azimuthal decorrelations, whilst {delta}{phi}{sup jj} significantly lower than {pi} is evidence of additional hard radiation. In this thesis, the cross section versus {delta}{phi}{sup jj} for beauty photoproduction and the comparison to NLO QCD predictions and Monte Carlo models are presented. (orig.)

  11. Beauty in photoproduction at HERA II with the ZEUS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutle, Sarah

    2010-02-01

    The production of beauty quarks in ep collisions should be accurately calculable in perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) since the large mass of the b quark provides a hard scale. Therefore it is interesting to compare such predictions to results using photoproduction events where a low-virtuality photon, emitted by the incoming lepton, collides with a parton from the incoming proton. A measurement of beauty in photoproduction has been made at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb - 1. Beauty was identified in events with a muon in the final state by using the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the closest jet. Lifetime information from the silicon vertex detector was also used; the impact parameter of the muon with respect to the primary vertex was exploited to discriminate between signal and background. Cross sections for beauty production as a function of the muon and the jet variables were measured and compared to QCD predictions and to previous measurements. The data were found to be well described by the predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD. The dijet sample of beauty photoproduction events was also used to study higher-order QCD topologies. At leading order, the two jets in the event are produced back-to-back in azimuthal angle, such that Δφ jj =φ j1 -φ j2 =π. Additional soft radiation causes small azimuthal decorrelations, whilst Δφ jj significantly lower than π is evidence of additional hard radiation. In this thesis, the cross section versus Δφ jj for beauty photoproduction and the comparison to NLO QCD predictions and Monte Carlo models are presented. (orig.)

  12. Sleep Applications to Assess Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietze, Ingo

    2016-12-01

    This article highlights the potential uses that smartphone applications may have for helping those with sleep problems. Applications in smartphones offer the promised possibility of detection of sleep. From the author's own experience, one can also conclude that sleep applications are approximately as good as polysomnography in detection of sleep time, similar to the conventional wearable actimeters. In the future, sleep applications will help to further enhance awareness of sleep health and to distinguish those who actually poorly and only briefly sleep from those who suffer more likely from paradox insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Informality wears uniform: Beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Palacios Ruiz de Gamboa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how flexible work economy has been affecting a group of beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile. They do not have a work contract and receive their payment as if they were giving an independent service, but depend on the rules their bosses impose them. The kind of work described in the article appears to be a new arrangement within the context of urban informality, which has present and future implications regarding social security and uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic observation in four beauty salons, I describe how the embodied belief of being an independent worker helps to enact many skills required by the flexible work economy.

  14. Beauty photoproduction using decays into electrons at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-05-15

    Photoproduction of beauty quarks in events with two jets and an electron associated with one of the jets has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb{sup -1}. The fractions of events containing b quarks, and also of events containing c quarks, were extracted from a likelihood fit using variables sensitive to electron identification as well as to semileptonic decays. Total and differential cross sections for beauty and charm production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations and Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  15. Beautiful Testing Leading Professionals Reveal How They Improve Software

    CERN Document Server

    Goucher, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Successful software depends as much on scrupulous testing as it does on solid architecture or elegant code. But testing is not a routine process, it's a constant exploration of methods and an evolution of good ideas. Beautiful Testing offers 23 essays from 27 leading testers and developers that illustrate the qualities and techniques that make testing an art. Through personal anecdotes, you'll learn how each of these professionals developed beautiful ways of testing a wide range of products -- valuable knowledge that you can apply to your own projects. Here's a sample of what you'll find i

  16. Beauty photoproduction using decays into electrons at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-05-01

    Photoproduction of beauty quarks in events with two jets and an electron associated with one of the jets has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb -1 . The fractions of events containing b quarks, and also of events containing c quarks, were extracted from a likelihood fit using variables sensitive to electron identification as well as to semileptonic decays. Total and differential cross sections for beauty and charm production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations and Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  17. Beautiful Data The Stories Behind Elegant Data Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby

    2009-01-01

    In this insightful book, you'll learn from the best data practitioners in the field just how wide-ranging -- and beautiful -- working with data can be. Join 39 contributors as they explain how they developed simple and elegant solutions on projects ranging from the Mars lander to a Radiohead video. With Beautiful Data, you will: Explore the opportunities and challenges involved in working with the vast number of datasets made available by the WebLearn how to visualize trends in urban crime, using maps and data mashupsDiscover the challenges of designing a data processing system that works wi

  18. A hybrid experiment to search for beauty particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Chiba, K.; Hoshino, K.; Kaway, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Kodama, K.; Miyanishi, M.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Niu, K.; Niwa, K.; Ohashi, M.; Sasaki, H.; Tajima, H.; Tomita, Y.; Yamakawa, O.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Baroni, G.; Cecchetti, A.M.; Dell'Uomo, S.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Liberto, S.; Frenkel, A.; Manfredini, A.; Marini, G.; Martellotti, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Nigro, A.; Penso, G.; Pistilli, P.; Sciubla, A.; Sgarbi, C.; Barth, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Roosen, R.; Bartley, J.H.; Davis, D.H.; Duff, B.G.; Esten, M.J.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Tovee, D.N.; Breslin, A.C.; Donnelly, W.; Montwill, A.; Coupland, M.; Trent, P.; Hazama, M.; Isokane, Y.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Kazuno, M.; Minakawa, F.; Shibuya, H.; Watanabe, S.

    1989-01-01

    We give here a detailed description of experiment WA75, which was performed at CERN to search for beauty particles. Events containing at least one muon with a high momentum transverse to the beam direction were selected; then the primary interactions and decay vertices, located in stacks of nuclear research emulsions, were examined and analysed. The various parts of the apparatus are described and the off-line analysis and search in emulsion are discussed. An estimate is made of the sensitivity of the experiment to beauty- and charmed-particle production. (orig.)

  19. BRAND AND VISUAL IDENTITY DESIGN FOR A BEAUTY SALON

    OpenAIRE

    Borhani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to create a brand and a visual identity for a beauty-salon called Narsissi. Narsissi offers a relaxing environment where both men and women can get lasting beauty treatment results. For a firm being branded is unavoidable. Everything from the look of the logo to the smoothness of service communicates something to the possible customer. In today's market, to be competitive means to be in control of the brand. A huge part of a brand's effectiveness is visual. T...

  20. Beauty and charm production in fixed target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos; Vogt, Ramona

    2004-01-01

    We present calculations of NNLO threshold corrections for beauty and charm production in π - p and pp interactions at fixed-target experiments. Recent calculations for heavy quark hadroproduction have included next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) soft-gluon corrections [1] to the double differential cross section from threshold resummation techniques [2]. These corrections are important for near-threshold beauty and charm production at fixed-target experiments, including HERA-B and some of the current and future heavy ion experiments

  1. Hadroproduction and photoproduction of beauty and charm in fixed-target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, J.

    1996-01-01

    The authors summarize the current experimental situation for charm and beauty production in fixed-target experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on beauty cross-sections and charm pair correlations

  2. Sleep walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleepwalking. In: Chokroverty S, Thomas RJ, eds. Atlas of Sleep Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:380- ... of Clinical Neurology, SUNY Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ... NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  3. Measurement of beauty quark mass at HERA and impact on Higgs production in association with beauty quarks at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizhko, Andrii

    2016-06-01

    Three different, but related topics are the subject of this thesis, performed in the context of the ZEUS and CMS groups at DESY. The first measurement of the MS beauty-quark mass m b (m b ) at an electron-proton collider is presented. The measurement is based on a QCD analysis of beauty production cross sections in deep inelastic (DIS) ep scattering measured by ZEUS at HERA, together with inclusive DIS HERA data, using Next-to-Leading-Order QCD predictions. The measured value of the running beauty-quark mass in the MS scheme was found to be m b (m b )=4.07±0.14 (fit) +0.01 -0.07 (mod.) +0.05 -0.00 (param.) +0.08 -0.05 ( theo.) GeV, which is in good agreement with the world average Particle Data Group value and previous measurements at electron-positron colliders. It is also found to be consistent with the expected running of m b (μ). A first measurement of the charm-quark mass m c (μ) running in the MS scheme is presented. The measurement is based on a QCD analysis of the published H1 and ZEUS combination of charm cross section measurements in DIS ep scattering at HERA, together with inclusive DIS HERA data, using Next-to-Leading-Order QCD predictions. The running charm-quark mass m c (μ) was measured at different scales μ and is presented in a charm-quark mass running plot with a comparison to the world average Particle Data Group m c (m c ) evolved to higher scales. The running is found to be consistent with the expectations from QCD. The uncertainties of the theoretical predictions for Higgs production in association with beauty-quarks originating from the beauty-quark mass were studied and reduced for massive and massless QCD calculations. The beauty-quark mass measurement m b (m b ) was used to decrease the variation of the beauty-quark mass to 0.17 GeV. It was shown that the uncertainty from the beauty-quark mass m b (m b ) in the case of massive calculations for Hb anti b production at LHC can be reduced to 2%. This makes it negligible compared to other

  4. Measurement of beauty quark mass at HERA and impact on Higgs production in association with beauty quarks at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizhko, Andrii

    2016-06-15

    Three different, but related topics are the subject of this thesis, performed in the context of the ZEUS and CMS groups at DESY. The first measurement of the MS beauty-quark mass m{sub b}(m{sub b}) at an electron-proton collider is presented. The measurement is based on a QCD analysis of beauty production cross sections in deep inelastic (DIS) ep scattering measured by ZEUS at HERA, together with inclusive DIS HERA data, using Next-to-Leading-Order QCD predictions. The measured value of the running beauty-quark mass in the MS scheme was found to be m{sub b}(m{sub b})=4.07±0.14 (fit){sup +0.01}{sub -0.07}(mod.){sup +0.05}{sub -0.00}(param.){sup +0.08}{sub -0.05}( theo.) GeV, which is in good agreement with the world average Particle Data Group value and previous measurements at electron-positron colliders. It is also found to be consistent with the expected running of m{sub b}(μ). A first measurement of the charm-quark mass m{sub c}(μ) running in the MS scheme is presented. The measurement is based on a QCD analysis of the published H1 and ZEUS combination of charm cross section measurements in DIS ep scattering at HERA, together with inclusive DIS HERA data, using Next-to-Leading-Order QCD predictions. The running charm-quark mass m{sub c}(μ) was measured at different scales μ and is presented in a charm-quark mass running plot with a comparison to the world average Particle Data Group m{sub c}(m{sub c}) evolved to higher scales. The running is found to be consistent with the expectations from QCD. The uncertainties of the theoretical predictions for Higgs production in association with beauty-quarks originating from the beauty-quark mass were studied and reduced for massive and massless QCD calculations. The beauty-quark mass measurement m{sub b}(m{sub b}) was used to decrease the variation of the beauty-quark mass to 0.17 GeV. It was shown that the uncertainty from the beauty-quark mass m{sub b}(m{sub b}) in the case of massive calculations for Hb anti b

  5. Mating motives are neither necessary nor sufficient to create the beauty premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Dana, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Mating motives lead decision makers to favor attractive people, but this favoritism is not sufficient to create a beauty premium in competitive settings. Further, economic approaches to discrimination, when correctly characterized, could neatly accommodate the experimental and field evidence of a beauty premium. Connecting labor economics and evolutionary psychology is laudable, but mating motives do not explain the beauty premium.

  6. Masses and couplings of open beauty states in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.R.; Reinders, L.J.; Yazaki, S.

    1981-05-01

    Masses and couplings of open beauty states (strange and non-strange) with Jsup(PC) = 0 ++ , 0 -+ , 1 -- . and 1 ++ are calculated using the QCD sum rule formalism. Non-perturbative effects due to quark and gluon condensate operators are shown to be important, confirming earlier calculations for equal quark mass systems. (author)

  7. Synthesis of goodness and beauty of Petrikivsky decorative painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Harkava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrykivsky decorative painting as a unique manifestation of Ukrainian national culture has been studied in the article. This painting is recognized all over the world as an intangible cultural heritage of humanity in the context of its philosophical principles. Petrykivsky decorative painting by its basis — murals,  reaches Tripoli and puts the Ukrainian culture among the ancient cultures of the world. At various stages of ethnos’ existence, Ukrainian folk decorative art was an important part of the spiritual life and reflected its identity, ensuring the continuity of spiritual connection between generations. Motives of Petrykivka decorative painting describe the local flora and fauna and the local historical tradition. Folk artists get their inspiration from the mother nature, traditional for the Ukrainian people worship to Mother-land and all beautiful things, which are created by it. However, Petrykivsky decorative painting is not a direct reflection of natural motifs. World, created in paintings, is the product of the imagination of folk artist. Calocagathia (synthesis of beauty and goodness of Petrykivsky school is seen in high spiritual and moral culture of the Ukrainian people, in their pursuit to improve the space of their life, to perpetuate the generous beauty of the world by the love to beauty and goodness in all its forms using a variety of colors and patterns.

  8. The Theme of Beauty in Leopold Sedar Senghor's Poetry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In his long and immensely successful career,1 Leopold Sedar Senghor celebrates the beauty of three major places or landmarks, namely, the African geographical landscape; the spirit and essence of womanhood, especially black womanhood; and the ethos of the dead ancestors. This essay is organized into three ...

  9. Commentary on the Discovery of the Beautiful Style Michigan Madonna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlobil, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, 3/4 (2016), s. 256-260 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : gothic sculpture * Bohemian Beautiful Style * Madonna-torso * Museum Ann Arbor * Michigan ( USA ) Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  10. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... brands, especially luxury labels. During the trade mission participants will receive: (A) Briefings on... increase in the number of working women increase looking for lifestyle-oriented and luxury products is the... international brands as lifestyle enhancement products. The total size of the Indian retail beauty and cosmetics...

  11. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... brands, especially luxury labels. During the trade mission participants will receive: (A) Briefings on... increase in the number of working women increase looking for lifestyle-oriented and luxury products is the... international brands as lifestyle enhancement products. The total size of the Indian retail beauty and cosmetics...

  12. [Superbrown beauty : The surface of tanorexia and tanning dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, W

    2017-12-01

    Brown skin symbolizes fitness, health, youthfulness and beauty, combined with leisure, activity, and joy of life in the Central European culture. Tanorexia is a tanning dependence that describes the morbid excessive desire for constant skin tanning. Particularly young women are affected. This article shows the underlying psychodermatological disorders.

  13. The Mystery and Beauty of Total Solar Eclipses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARTICLE. The Mystery and Beauty of Total Solar Eclipses. T Chandrasekhar is with the Astronomy and ..... Specialized instruments called coronagraphs, lo- cated at mountaintop ... Scientific studies of the solar eclipses began with the eclipse of. 1842 which ... a method simultaneously evolved by English spectroscopist.

  14. Lagerstroemia reginae Roxb., (Pride of India), a beautiful-looking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lagerstroemia reginae Roxb., (Pride of India), a beautiful-looking tree that grows in almost all parts of. India and bears light purple flowers in large bunches in late stummer- or early rainy season. It is largely cultivated as an ornamental tree. The wood, which is extremely hard, is used for making such articles as ploughs and ...

  15. Mathematicians in Schools: Uncovering Maths' Beautiful Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics professionals are working with teachers revealing the reality and beauty that happens in the world of math and to show that this is essentially a "human endeavour," embedded in much of what people do and the ways in which they think. In this article, the author shares vignettes of primary classes working with mathematicians…

  16. The "F" Word: Is Feminism Incompatible with Beauty and Romance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A.; Fairchild, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Three studies examined the predictive utility of heterosexual relationship concerns vis-a-vis support for feminism. Study 1 showed that beauty is perceived to be at odds with feminism, for both genders. The stereotype that feminists are unattractive was robust, but fully accounted for by romance-related attributions. Moreover, more attractive…

  17. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  18. [Esthetic nutrition: body and beauty enhancement through nutritional care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Juliana da Silveira Gonçalves Zanini; Schnider, Aline Petter

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing quest for beauty and the models proposed by fashion goods and service segments, to achieve the perfect body. The standard of beauty corresponds to a thin body, without considering health aspects. The number of women who go on diets to control weight is increasing; and taking this into consideration the objective of this study is to conduct a bibliographical review and extract data on esthetics and body image to support the practice of nutritional care. Socio-cultural aspects, which motivate the quest for the perfect body, as well as body, beauty, esthetics, nutritional counseling and cognitive behavior therapy were examined in this survey. On the basis of this work, it is possible to conclude that the continuing obsession with the body may lead the person to go on diets and other drastic methods to control weight, such as surgical procedures. In this respect, nutritional care is far more than merely recommending a standard diet or giving information, as it represents providing an effective model for nutritional reeducation, prioritizing improvement in the style and quality of life. This article provides data about enhancing esthetics and beauty by means of appropriate nutrition.

  19. Beauty vector meson decay constants from QCD sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucha, Wolfgang [Institute for High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Melikhov, Dmitri [Institute for High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); D. V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Simula, Silvano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy)

    2016-01-22

    We present the outcomes of a very recent investigation of the decay constants of nonstrange and strange heavy-light beauty vector mesons, with special emphasis on the ratio of any such decay constant to the decay constant of the corresponding pseudoscalar meson, by means of Borel-transformed QCD sum rules. Our results suggest that both these ratios are below unity.

  20. The Oval Female Facial Shape--A Study in Beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Greg J

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of who is beautiful seems to be innate but has been argued to conform to mathematical principles and proportions. One aspect of beauty is facial shape that is gender specific. In women, an oval facial shape is considered attractive. To study the facial shape of beautiful actors, pageant title winners, and performers across ethnicities and in different time periods and to construct an ideal oval shape based on the average of their facial shape dimensions. Twenty-one full-face photographs of purportedly beautiful female actors, performers, and pageant winners were analyzed and an oval constructed from their facial parameters. Only 3 of the 21 faces were totally symmetrical, with the most larger in the left upper and lower face. The average oval was subsequently constructed from an average bizygomatic distance (horizontal parameter) of 4.3 times their intercanthal distance (ICD) and a vertical dimension that averaged 6.3 times their ICD. This average oval could be fitted to many of the individual subjects showing a smooth flow from the forehead through temples, cheeks, jaw angle, jawline, and chin with all these facial aspects abutting the oval. Where they did not abut, treatment may have improved these subjects.

  1. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome

    OpenAIRE

    Marie E. Gaine; Snehajyoti Chatterjee; Ted Abel

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of e...

  2. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? Newborns should get 14 to 17 hours of ...

  3. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page What research is being done? ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  4. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  5. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a Sleep Center Use the following fields to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests ...

  6. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy External Beam Radiation Internal Radiation Therapy Side Effects Chemotherapy Immunotherapy ... asleep, sleeping, or waking from sleep, such as walking, talking, or eating. Sleep disorders keep you from ...

  7. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  8. Neural Correlates of Visual Aesthetics – Beauty as the Coalescence of Stimulus and Internal State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Renken, Remco; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2012-01-01

    How do external stimuli and our internal state coalesce to create the distinctive aesthetic pleasures that give vibrance to human experience? Neuroaesthetics has so far focused on the neural correlates of observing beautiful stimuli compared to neutral or ugly stimuli, or on neural correlates of judging for beauty as opposed to other judgments. Our group questioned whether this approach is sufficient. In our view, a brain region that assesses beauty should show beauty-level-dependent activation during the beauty judgment task, but not during other, unrelated tasks. We therefore performed an fMRI experiment in which subjects judged visual textures for beauty, naturalness and roughness. Our focus was on finding brain activation related to the rated beauty level of the stimuli, which would take place exclusively during the beauty judgment. An initial whole-brain analysis did not reveal such interactions, yet a number of the regions showing main effects of the judgment task or the beauty level of stimuli were selectively sensitive to beauty level during the beauty task. Of the regions that were more active during beauty judgments than roughness judgments, the frontomedian cortex and the amygdala demonstrated the hypothesized interaction effect, while the posterior cingulate cortex did not. The latter region, which only showed a task effect, may play a supporting role in beauty assessments, such as attending to one's internal state rather than the external world. Most of the regions showing interaction effects of judgment and beauty level correspond to regions that have previously been implicated in aesthetics using different stimulus classes, but based on either task or beauty effects alone. The fact that we have now shown that task-stimulus interactions are also present during the aesthetic judgment of visual textures implies that these areas form a network that is specifically devoted to aesthetic assessment, irrespective of the stimulus type. PMID:22384006

  9. Neural correlates of visual aesthetics--beauty as the coalescence of stimulus and internal state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard H A H; Renken, Remco; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2012-01-01

    How do external stimuli and our internal state coalesce to create the distinctive aesthetic pleasures that give vibrance to human experience? Neuroaesthetics has so far focused on the neural correlates of observing beautiful stimuli compared to neutral or ugly stimuli, or on neural correlates of judging for beauty as opposed to other judgments. Our group questioned whether this approach is sufficient. In our view, a brain region that assesses beauty should show beauty-level-dependent activation during the beauty judgment task, but not during other, unrelated tasks. We therefore performed an fMRI experiment in which subjects judged visual textures for beauty, naturalness and roughness. Our focus was on finding brain activation related to the rated beauty level of the stimuli, which would take place exclusively during the beauty judgment. An initial whole-brain analysis did not reveal such interactions, yet a number of the regions showing main effects of the judgment task or the beauty level of stimuli were selectively sensitive to beauty level during the beauty task. Of the regions that were more active during beauty judgments than roughness judgments, the frontomedian cortex and the amygdala demonstrated the hypothesized interaction effect, while the posterior cingulate cortex did not. The latter region, which only showed a task effect, may play a supporting role in beauty assessments, such as attending to one's internal state rather than the external world. Most of the regions showing interaction effects of judgment and beauty level correspond to regions that have previously been implicated in aesthetics using different stimulus classes, but based on either task or beauty effects alone. The fact that we have now shown that task-stimulus interactions are also present during the aesthetic judgment of visual textures implies that these areas form a network that is specifically devoted to aesthetic assessment, irrespective of the stimulus type.

  10. Asymmetry and Symmetry in the Beauty of Human Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hessamian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis in the published literature has mostly been on symmetry as the critical source for beauty judgment. In fact, both symmetry and asymmetry serve as highly aesthetic sources of beauty, whether the context is perceptual or conceptual. The human brain is characterized by symbolic cognition and this type of cognition facilitates a range of aesthetic reactions. For example, both art and natural scenery contain asymmetrical elements, which nevertheless render the whole effect beautiful. A further good case in point is, in fact, human faces. Normally, faces are structurally left-right symmetrical content-wise but not size-wise or function-wise. Attractiveness has often been discussed in terms of content-wise full-face symmetry. To test whether or not attractiveness can be gleaned only from the presence of left-right full-faces we tested half faces. Three separate groups of participants viewed and rated the attractiveness of 56 full-faces (women’s and men’s, their 56 vertical left hemi-faces and 56 vertical right hemi-faces. We found no statistically significant differences in the attractiveness ratings of full- and hemi-faces (whether left or right. Instead, we found a strong and significant positive correlation between the ratings of the hemi- and full-faces. These results are consistent with the view that the underpinning of human facial beauty is complex and that bilateral symmetry does not constitute a principle factor in beauty assessment. We discuss that the highly evolved human brain, compared to other animals, as well as symbolic and abstract cognition in humans enable a wide variety of aesthetic reactions.

  11. Gangnam-Style Plastic Surgery: The Science of Westernized Beauty in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, So Yeon

    2017-10-01

    New beauty ideals and particular types of plastic surgery beauty have emerged in South Korea from the early twenty-first century. By defining Gangnam-style plastic surgery as a hybrid of old Westernized beauty ideals and a new science of beauty with variations and contradictions, I intend to twist the simplistic understanding of non-Western plastic surgery as an effort to resemble the white westerner's body. I also draw political implications from a case of monstrous Gangnam-style beauty made by excessive plastic surgery.

  12. Measurement of beauty and charm production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and measurement of the beauty-quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2014-05-01

    The production of beauty and charm quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared 5 2 2 using an integrated luminosity of 354 pb -1 . The beauty and charm content in events with at least one jet have been extracted using the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with secondary vertices and the decay-length significance of these vertices. Differential cross sections as a function of Q 2 , Bjorken x, jet transverse energy and pseudorapidity were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty and charm contributions to the proton structure functions were extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of x and Q 2 . The running beauty-quark mass, m b at the scale m b , was determined from a QCD fit at next-to-leading order to HERA data for the first time and found to be m b (m b )=4.07±0.14(fit) +0.01 -0.07 (mod.) +0.05 -0.00 (param.) +0.08 -0.05 (theo) GeV.

  13. Genetic variants associated with sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Daniel F; Kline, Lawrence E; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Murray, Sarah S; Shadan, Farhad F; Dawson, Arthur; Poceta, J Steven; Cronin, John; Jamil, Shazia M; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Grizas, Alexandra P; Hahn, Elizabeth K

    2015-02-01

    The diagnostic boundaries of sleep disorders are under considerable debate. The main sleep disorders are partly heritable; therefore, defining heritable pathophysiologic mechanisms could delineate diagnoses and suggest treatment. We collected clinical data and DNA from consenting patients scheduled to undergo clinical polysomnograms, to expand our understanding of the polymorphisms associated with the phenotypes of particular sleep disorders. Patients at least 21 years of age were recruited to contribute research questionnaires, and to provide access to their medical records, saliva for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and polysomnographic data. From these complex data, 38 partly overlapping phenotypes were derived indicating complaints, subjective and objective sleep timing, and polysomnographic disturbances. A custom chip was used to genotype 768 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Additional assays derived ancestry-informative markers (eg, 751 participants of European ancestry). Linear regressions controlling for age, gender, and ancestry were used to assess the associations of each phenotype with each of the SNPs, highlighting those with Bonferroni-corrected significance. In peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta (PPARGC1B), rs6888451 was associated with several markers of obstructive sleep apnea. In aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL), rs10766071 was associated with decreased polysomnographic sleep duration. The association of rs3923809 in BTBD9 with periodic limb movements in sleep was confirmed. SNPs in casein kinase 1 delta (CSNK1D rs11552085), cryptochrome 1 (CRY1 rs4964515), and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor A (RORA rs11071547) were less persuasively associated with sleep latency and time of falling asleep. SNPs associated with several sleep phenotypes were suggested, but due to risks of false discovery, independent replications are needed before the importance of these associations

  14. Theoretical Framework and Model Design for Beautiful Countryside Construction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Xiang-qun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of China today, the process of beautiful countryside construction mainly imitates the patterns of‘urbanization’construction. However, this approach leads to the loss of countryside characteristics and the separation of agricultural culture. Therefore, it's urgent to carry out research of the theoretical framework and model design for beautiful countryside construction. In this paper, based on the analysis of the beautiful countryside construction connotation, the basic theory of beautiful countryside construction was summarized in three aspects: rural complex ecosystem model, multi-functionality of rural model and sustainable development evaluation model. The basic idea of the beautiful countryside construction mode was studied. The design method of beautiful countryside construction mode was proposed in three levels: planning, scheming and evaluating. The research results might offer scientific reference for improving the scientific and operational nature of beautiful countryside construction.

  15. Competing motivational discourses for weight loss: means to ends and the nexus of beauty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Samantha

    2009-09-01

    Western cultural discourses generally deem fat unhealthy and unattractive, providing strong motivation for body nonconformists to lose weight. Semistructured interviews with 42 overweight and obese participants illuminate how individuals understand health and beauty weight-loss motivations and the relationship between the two. Interviews indicate that health and beauty motivate because they are seen as means to various ends. Specifically, participants aspire to health to fulfill various social roles and to live long, meaningful lives. Moreover, they aspire to conventional beauty ideals hoping that aesthetic conformity will elicit benefits, both psychological and social. Interviews also illustrate an intertwining of discourses in which participants conflate beauty and health in three ways: indicating that depictions of the beauty ideal are depictions of the health ideal; using beauty indicators as health indicators; and employing beauty as a motivator for health goals. This article concludes with a discussion of the health, social, and policy implications of these findings.

  16. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy

  17. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  18. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDiekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  19. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  20. The beautiful invisible creativity, imagination, and theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vignale, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Challenging the image of theoretical physics as a dry discipline, The Beautiful Invisible shows that this highly abstract science is in fact teeming with beautiful concepts, and the task of imagining them demands profound creativity, just as creative as the work of poets or magical realist novelists such as Borges and Musil. "A good scientific theory is like a symbolic tale, an allegory of reality," writes Giovanni Vignale, as he uncovers the unexpected links between theoretical physics and artistic creativity. In engaging and at times poetic prose, and with ample quotations from many of the writers he admires, Vignale presents his own unorthodox accounts of fundamental theoretical concepts such as Newtonian mechanics, superconductivity, and Einstein's theory of relativity, illuminating their profound implications. Throughout, the author treats readers to glimpses of physics as "exercised in the still night, when only the moon rages." Indeed, as we delve behind now-familiar concepts such as "electron spin" an...

  1. Physics analysis tools for beauty physics in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastopoulos, C; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Catmore, J; Mora, L de; Dallison, S; Derue, F; Epp, B; Jussel, P; Kaczmarska, A; Radziewski, H v; Stahl, T; Reznicek, P

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider experiments will search for physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model. Highly sensitive tests of beauty hadrons will represent an alternative approach to this research. The analysis of complex decay chains of the beauty hadrons have to efficiently extract the detector tracks made by these reactions and reject other events in order to make sufficiently precise measurement. This places severe demands on the software used to analyze the B-physics data. The ATLAS B-physics group has written a series of tools and algorithms for performing these tasks, to be run within the ATLAS offline software framework Athena. This paper describes this analysis suite, paying particular attention to mechanisms for handling combinatorics, interfaces to secondary vertex fitting packages, B-flavor tagging tools and finally Monte Carlo true information association to pursue simulation data in process of the software validations which is an important part of the development of the physics analysis tools

  2. Symmetry, beauty and belief in high-energy physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Borrelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages with the aesthetics of knowl-edge, both in its sense as the connection between knowledge and ‘aesthetic’ judgements of beauty, or ugliness, and of the many ‘aesthetic’ – that is to say sensually perceivable – dimensions of knowledge, which are always to be seen to be constituting an epistemic factor in its production and consumption. On the one hand I analyse how in recent decades the connection between beauty and truth has been systematically employed to both inspire and guide research in high-energy physics; at the same time I also show how this use of aesthetic judgement only reveals its constitutive role in physics research when paying attention to the broad range of aesthetic strategies employed for expressing scientific knowledge.

  3. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mating: The Case of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In pre-industrial societies parents exercise a strong influence over the mating decisions of their offspring. As modern pre-industrial societies approximate the way of life in ancestral human societies, human mating behavior should be seen as the outcome of a co-evolutionary process between parental and offspring's mating choice. Both parents and offspring have evolved mating preferences, which enable them to select those mates and in-laws who maximize their inclusive fitness. Following Trivers' (1974 theory of parent-offspring conflict, it is hypothesized that in-law and mating preferences substantially overlap, but also differ with respect to the beauty trait of a mating candidate. This hypothesis is tested on a sample of 292 parents. It is found that the two sets of preferences are strongly correlated, while beauty is preferred significantly more in a mating partner than in an in-law.

  4. Beauty hadroproduction at fixed target in the WA92 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemme, C.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of 10 8 triggered events, produced in π-Cu interactions at 350 GeV/c, we have identified 26 beauty events. The estimated background in this sample is 0.6 ± 0.6 events. From these data, assuming a linear A-dependence, we measure a beauty production cross-section integrated over all x F of 5.7 +1.3 -1.1 (stat.) +0.6 -0.5 (syst.) nb/N. Differential distributions with respect to x F and p 2 T have been determined as well as some two-particle kinematic variables. Our results are compared with previous experiments and with a next-to-leading-order QCD calculation

  5. Are You Sleep Deprived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... even if you think you've had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are ...

  6. The Sleeping Cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology,

  7. Flexible Biogas in Future Energy Systems—Sleeping Beauty for a Cheaper Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lauer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing proportion of intermittent renewable energies asks for further technologies for balancing demand and supply in the energy system. In contrast to other countries, Germany is characterized by a high installed capacity of dispatchable biogas plants. For this paper, we analyzed the total system costs varying biogas extension paths and modes of operation for the period of 2016–2035 by using a non-linear optimization model. We took variable costs of existing conventional power plants, as well as variable costs and capital investments in gas turbines, Li-ion batteries, and pumped-storage plants into account. Without the consideration of the costs for biogas plants, an increasing proportion of biogas plants, compared to their phase out, reduces the total system costs. Furthermore, their flexible power generation should be as flexible as possible. The lowest total system costs were calculated in an extension path with the highest rate of construction of new biogas plants. However, the highest marginal utility was assessed by a medium proportion of flexible biogas plants. In conclusion, biogas plants can be a cost-effective option to integrate intermittent renewable energies into the electricity system. The optimal extension path of biogas plants depends on the future installed capacities of conventional and renewable energies.

  8. Kinematics of NGC 4826: A sleeping beauty galaxy, not an evil eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Vera C.

    1994-01-01

    A recent high resolution H I study of the Sab galaxy NGC 4826 (1992) reveals that the sense of rotation of the neutral gas reverses from the inner to the outer disk. The present paper reports on optical spectra at high velocity resolution in four position angles in NGC 4826, which cover the region of the gas reversal and which reveal a high degree of complexity. In the inner disk, which includes the prominent dusty lane, the stars and gas rotate in concert, and the spiral arms trail (for the adopted geometry). Arcs of ionized gas are observed partially encircling the nucleus; expansion velocities reach 400 km/s. At distances just beyond the prominent dust lane, the ionized gas exhibits a rapid, orderly velocity fall and within 500 parsecs it has reversed from 180 km/s prograde to 200 km/s retrograde; it also has a component radial toward the nucleus of over 100 km/s. The stars, however, continue their prograde rotation. Beyond this transition zone, the neutral gas continues its retrograde rotation, stellar velocities are prograde, but the sense of the almost circular arms is not established. Because of its kinematical complexity as well as its proximity, NGC 4826 is an excellent early-type galaxy in which to observe the long term effects of gas acquistion or a galaxy merger on a disk galaxy.

  9. Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty: Developing a Course on Disney and Fairytale Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    I developed and taught a course titled The Psychology of Disney and Fairytale Movies. This course examined the psychological effects of mass communication on behavior and thought, specifically the stereotyping of women and men and the concept of true love as portrayed in Disney and Fairytale movies. This paper describes the (a) development of the…

  10. Sleeping beauties in psychology: comparisons of "hits" and "missed signals" in psychological journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lydia L

    2005-05-01

    Scientific publications tend to be forgotten quickly. A few works, however, are still cited 100 years and more after their publication. The author used bibliometric methods to compare "hits" (works noticed by the scientific community soon after their publication) with "missed signals" (works that went unnoticed until much later) by investigating 2 psychological journals founded in the 1890s: Zeitschrift für Psychologie and Psychological Review. All articles that were published in either of these journals up to 1920 and cited more than 25 times in the Web of Science up to the year 2000 were considered for inclusion in the analysis. It emerged that hits corresponded more closely to the focus of scientific attention at the time of the publications than missed signals.

  11. On charm and beauty decays: A theorist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.I.

    1987-10-01

    The present understanding of charm and bottom decays is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on discussing the theoretical uncertainties in view of the particularly rich harvest of new data from the last year. A semi-quantitative description of D decays has emerged enabling us to address rather detailed and relatively subtle questions there, like on once and twice Cabibbo suppressed decays. Beauty physics having left its infancy is now in its adolescence; its future development towards maturity is analyzed

  12. Beautiful Teams Inspiring and Cautionary Tales from Veteran Team Leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    What's it like to work on a great software development team facing an impossible problem? How do you build an effective team? Beautiful Teams takes you behind the scenes with some of the most interesting teams in software engineering history. You'll learn from veteran team leaders' successes and failures, told through a series of engaging personal stories -- and interviews -- by leading programmers, architects, project managers, and thought leaders.

  13. Consensus on Changing Trends, Attitudes, and Concepts of Asian Beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Steven; Wu, Woffles T L; Chan, Henry H; Ho, Wilson W S; Kim, Hee-Jin; Goodman, Greg J; Peng, Peter H L; Rogers, John D

    2016-04-01

    Asians increasingly seek non-surgical facial esthetic treatments, especially at younger ages. Published recommendations and clinical evidence mostly reference Western populations, but Asians differ from them in terms of attitudes to beauty, structural facial anatomy, and signs and rates of aging. A thorough knowledge of the key esthetic concerns and requirements for the Asian face is required to strategize appropriate facial esthetic treatments with botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers. The Asian Facial Aesthetics Expert Consensus Group met to develop consensus statements on concepts of facial beauty, key esthetic concerns, facial anatomy, and aging in Southeastern and Eastern Asians, as a prelude to developing consensus opinions on the cosmetic facial use of botulinum toxin and HA fillers in these populations. Beautiful and esthetically attractive people of all races share similarities in appearance while retaining distinct ethnic features. Asians between the third and sixth decades age well compared with age-matched Caucasians. Younger Asians' increasing requests for injectable treatments to improve facial shape and three-dimensionality often reflect a desire to correct underlying facial structural deficiencies or weaknesses that detract from ideals of facial beauty. Facial esthetic treatments in Asians are not aimed at Westernization, but rather the optimization of intrinsic Asian ethnic features, or correction of specific underlying structural features that are perceived as deficiencies. Thus, overall facial attractiveness is enhanced while retaining esthetic characteristics of Asian ethnicity. Because Asian patients age differently than Western patients, different management and treatment planning strategies are utilized. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www

  14. Charm and beauty production in experiment WA92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberis, D.; Gemme, C.; Malferrari, L.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of 1.4·10 8 triggered events, produced in π-Cu and π-W interactions at 350 GeV/c, we have studied charm and beauty production. J/ψ and ψ ' mesons are identified through their decays into muon pairs and are selected in the Feynman-x range x F >0. Inclusive J/ψ and ψ ' cross-sections and J/ψ differential cross-sections as functions of x F and p T are measured. A fit to the data for different targets gives α(J/ψ){Si,Cu,W}=0.87±0.05 (stat.)±0.04 (syst.), σ 0 (J/ψ)=(216.2±5.4 (stat.)±13.3 (syst.)) nb/nucleon and σ 0 (ψ ' )=(28.3±8.1(stat.)±11.3 (syst.)) nb/nucleon. For the study of beauty production, we have identified 26 beauty events. The estimated background in this sample is 0.6±0.6 events. From these data, assuming a linear A-dependence, we measure a beauty production cross-section integrated over all x F of 5.7 -1.1 +1.3 (stat.) -0.5 +0.6 (syst.) nb/N. Differential distributions with respect to x F and p T 2 have been determined as well as some two-particle kinematic variables. Our results are compared with previous experiments and with a next-to-leading-order QCD calculation

  15. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  16. Sleep and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Maryann C; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Sleep is a complex physiologic state, the importance of which has long been recognized. Lack of sleep is detrimental to humans and animals. Over the past decade, an important link between sleep and cognitive processing has been established. Sleep plays an important role in consolidation of different types of memory and contributes to insightful, inferential thinking. While the mechanism by which memories are processed in sleep remains unknown, several experimental models have been proposed. This article explores the link between sleep and cognition by reviewing (1) the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition, (2) the influence of sleep on consolidation of declarative and non-declarative memory, and (3) some proposed models of how sleep facilitates memory consolidation in sleep. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Longing for Clouds - Does Beautiful Weather have to be Fine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt to outline a meteorological aesthetics centered on so-called beautiful weather has to overcome several difficulties: In everyday life, the appreciation of the weather is mostly related to practical interests or reduced to the ideal of stereotypical fine weather that is conceived according to blue-sky thinking irrespective of climate diversity. Also, an aesthetics of fine weather seems, strictly speaking, to be impossible given that such weather conditions usually allow humans to focus on aspects other than weather, which contradicts the autotelic character of beauty. The unreflective equation of beautiful weather with moderately sunny weather and a cloudless sky also collides with the psychological need for variation: even living in a “paradisal” climate would be condemned to end in monotony. Finally, whereas fine weather is related in modern realistic literature to cosmic harmony and a universal natural order, contemporary literary examples show that in the age of the climate change, fine weather may be deceitful and its passive contemplation, irresponsible. This implies the necessity of a reflective aesthetic attitude on weather, as influenced by art, literature, and science, which discovers the poetics of bad weather and the wonder that underlies average weather conditions.

  18. Photographic emulsion versus bubble chambers in charm and beauty searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacton, J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of visual detectors in the search for charm and other flavors. The photographic emulsion and the bubble chamber techniques are compared. The main difficulties encounted in searching for charmed and beautiful hadrons are related to the short lifetimes of these particles and to their small production cross-sections, even at SPS energies. Resolution, visibility, the data analysis rate, and exposure time are considered. Most of the charmed hadrons present a large variety of decay modes of which only a fraction has been identified to date. First results from CESR indicate that the average charged particle multiplicity in the hadronic decay of beautiful hadrons is as high as 6.31 + or - 0.35; no B meson decay has yet been kinematically reconstructed. The case of hadronic charmed particle production at SPS energies is examined. The data show that 1) the bubble chamber technique (high resolution or holographic optics) is well suited to the study of charmed hadrons with lifetimes in the range 10 -13 to 10 -12 s; 2) searches for beautiful hadrons remain presently a domain for triggered emulsion experiments due to the smallness of the production cross-sections (provided the lifetime is not much shorter than 10 -14 s); and 3) for particles of lifetimes shorter than a few times 10 -14 s the emulsion technique is still without competitor

  19. Ontological-epistemological views of the beautiful Byzantine aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the ontological-epistemology aspects of the beauty of Byzantine art. Byzantine aesthetics and Byzantine art are unjustly neglected in the history of aesthetic thought. Christian aestheticians have an ambivalent attitude towards art. Because, Byzantine painting represents reality show based on the Christians view, where absolutizs a new dimension of spirituality and aesthetics deriving from the ontological-epistemological positions. The phenomenon of beauty in Byzantine art is primarily deposited in epistemological components, where everything is directed to the knowledge of the truth. In Byzantine art beauty has, above all, spiritual character; it does not have a classical aesthetic dimension, but primarily because the ontological character is recognized as one of the innumerable divine energies and of phenomena. The Byzantine painter makes an effort to realize the creative transformation of matter into a unique experience community and relationship with God, who volatility of the world beyond the ontological light that is converted from non-being into being.

  20. Beauty and healing: examining sociocultural expectations of the embodied goddess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jin-Tsann; Lin, Chyong-Ling

    2013-03-01

    Studies indicate mental health improvement can occur via religious communities offering social support and other resources. Many people from many cultures regard medicine as a supernatural or magical treatment that can somehow lead to a better state of living. In medical advertising, female role portrayal involves the blending of beauty, ritual and attractiveness in combination with the best product image. A Chinese saying suggests that, "A girl will doll herself up for him who loves her." Female role attraction is a very important ethical subject in gender issues. Moving forward in time, female role visualization and consumption in medical advertising reveal depictions that encouraged women to do some self-searching and find, or develop, inner strength. This study is designed to examine female role portrayals in a restricted patriarchal society. The results indicate that the ideology of motherhood is an accepted social orientation that the public readily identifies with. Results further indicate that beautification through medical products incorporates an emotional element of religious healing and that the objectification of beauty in the media reveals a possible neglect of women's internal beauty.

  1. [What is beauty? : Manifest for an aesthetic character medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, W

    2017-12-01

    Aesthetic medicine has in recent decades attained a growing social significance and firm place in the medical profession image. In a short time, a variety of technical procedures and processes have been developed and applied by specialized physicians. A further leading medical discussion regarding the central question "What is beauty" is missing compared with the technologically innovative progress. Beauty is characterized by an individual and subjective pleasure. Social media and fashion trends exert a central influence on common beauty ideals and aesthetic medicine. In practice, the artificial intervention must accord to the individual personality. Therefore, the professional term Aesthetic Medicine is insufficient and should be replaced by "Aesthetic Character Medicine". The particular purpose is the aim of graceful aging and a sustained adequate result which outlasts the zeitgeist. This requires medical know how and clear aesthetic self-conception of the physician. "Aesthetic Character Medicine" can be realized in a discourse, with the 10-step plan presented in this article.

  2. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  3. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  4. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  5. What is beautiful is good because what is beautiful is desired: physical attractiveness stereotyping as projection of interpersonal goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Clark, Margaret S; Greenberg, Aaron

    2010-03-01

    The authors posit that the attribution of desirable interpersonal qualities to physically attractive targets is a projection of interpersonal goals; people desire to form and maintain close social bonds with attractive targets and then project these motivations onto those targets. Three studies support this model. Tendencies to see attractive novel targets depicted in photographs (Study 1), attractive romantic partners (Study 2), and attractive friends (Study 3) as especially interpersonally receptive and responsive were explained by perceivers' heightened desires to bond with attractive individuals. Additional findings regarding response latencies (Study 1) also supported this model. Many instances of the "beautiful is good" effect may not reflect stereotyping as it is typically construed. Rather, they may reflect projection of heightened desires to bond with beautiful people.

  6. Adolescents' sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K

    2009-05-01

    Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. General education classes were randomly selected from a convenience sample of three high schools in the Midwest. Three hundred eighty-four ninth- to twelfth-grade students (57%) completed a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire on sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep. Most respondents (91.9%) obtained inadequate sleep (sleep each week night. The majority indicated that not getting enough sleep had the following effects on them: being more tired during the day (93.7%), having difficulty paying attention (83.6%), lower grades (60.8%), increase in stress (59.0%), and having difficulty getting along with others (57.7%). Some students reported engaging in harmful behaviors to help them sleep: taking sleeping pills (6.0%), smoking a cigarette to relax (5.7%), and drinking alcohol in the evening (2.9%). Students who received fewer hours of sleep were significantly more likely to report being stressed (p = .02) and were more likely to be overweight (p = .04). Inadequate sleep time may be contributing to adolescent health problems such as increased stress and obesity. Findings indicate a need for sleep hygiene education for adolescents and their parents. A long-term solution to chronic sleep deprivation among high school students could include delaying high school start times, such as was done successfully in the Minneapolis Public School District.

  7. Measurement of beauty quark mass at HERA and impact on Higgs production in association with beauty quarks at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gizhko, Andrii; Foster, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Three different, but related topics are the subject of this thesis, performed in the contextof the ZEUS and CMS groups at DESY. The first measurement of the MS beauty-quarkmass mb (mb ) at an electron-proton collider is presented. The measurement is based ona QCD analysis of beauty production cross sections in deep inelastic (DIS) ep scatteringmeasured by ZEUS at HERA, together with inclusive DIS HERA data, using Next-toLeading-Order QCD predictions. The measured value of the running beauty-quark massin the MS scheme was found to bemb (mb ) = 4.07 ± 0.14 (fit)+0.01 (mod.)+0.05 (param.) +0.08 (theo.) GeV, which is in good−0.07−0.00−0.05agreement with the world average Particle Data Group value and previous measurementsat electron-positron colliders. It is also found to be consistent with the expected runningof mb (µ).A first measurement of the charm-quark mass mc (µ) running in the MS scheme ispresented. The measurement is based on a QCD analysis of the published H1 and ZEUScombination of charm cr...

  8. Self-relevant beauty evaluation: Evidence from an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanchang; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Yuan; Fan, Cuiying; Zhou, Zongkui

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the electrophysiological correlates of beauty evaluation when participants performed the self-reference task. About 13 (7 men, 6 women) undergraduates participated in the experiment using event-related potentials. Results showed that the response to self-relevant information was faster compared to other-relevant information and no significant differences for self-relevant relative to mother-relevant information were observed. Both physical and interior beauty words for self-relevant information showed an enhanced late positive component as compared to other-relevant information. Physical beauty for self-relevant information yielded a larger late positive component in contrast to mother-relevant information but not for interior beauty. This study indicates that beauty is specific to the person who judges it though an individual and one's mother may hold similar views of interior beauty.

  9. Anterior esthetics and the visual arts: beauty, elements of composition, and their clinical application to dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valo, T S

    1995-01-01

    The challenge of developing a pleasing smile is an artistic venture. A study of how the visual arts have explored the nature of beauty and the elements of artistic composition will enhance our artistic abilities in cosmetic dentistry. This review discusses the perception of beauty and important features of that which we call beautiful. The discussion uses important works of art to demonstrate elements of composition, which are then made relevant in a dental application.

  10. Determination of toxic elements in beauty creams by X-ray spectrometric techniques (2001-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    War-War-Myo-Aung

    2002-01-01

    This paper is carried out to examine the contents of toxic heavy metals in various kinds of beauty creams by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF). By applying EDXRF system, it si found that most of the beauty creams contained titanium and zinc, and some of the beauty creams contained lead, bismuth, iron and mercury. Among the heavy toxic metals, mercury is the most harmful to human's health. (author)

  11. Beauty pair production in 600 GeV/c π-emulsion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, R.

    1992-01-01

    Nine beauty pairs have been observed by the E653 experiment in 600 GeV/c π-emulsion interactions. The experiment uses a combination of nuclear emulsion and silicon vertex detectors to unambiguously reconstruct decay vertices. A muon trigger was used to select semi-muonic beauty decays for scanning. Results on production characteristics and lifetimes of beauty pairs are presented, for charged and neutral B lifetimes. (R.P.) 2 figs.; 1 tab

  12. The Sleeping Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-05-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders. In this review, we evaluate how sleep and cerebellar processing may influence one another and highlight which scientific routes and technical approaches could be taken to uncover the mechanisms underlying these interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. translin Is Required for Metabolic Regulation of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kazuma; Yurgel, Maria E; Stahl, Bethany A; Masek, Pavel; Mehta, Aradhana; Heidker, Rebecca; Bollinger, Wesley; Gingras, Robert M; Kim, Young-Joon; Ja, William W; Suter, Beat; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2016-04-04

    Dysregulation of sleep or feeding has enormous health consequences. In humans, acute sleep loss is associated with increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, while chronically sleep-deprived individuals are more likely to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, metabolic state potently modulates sleep and circadian behavior; yet, the molecular basis for sleep-metabolism interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification of translin (trsn), a highly conserved RNA/DNA binding protein, as essential for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Strikingly, trsn does not appear to regulate energy stores, free glucose levels, or feeding behavior suggesting the sleep phenotype of trsn mutant flies is not a consequence of general metabolic dysfunction or blunted response to starvation. While broadly expressed in all neurons, trsn is transcriptionally upregulated in the heads of flies in response to starvation. Spatially restricted rescue or targeted knockdown localizes trsn function to neurons that produce the tachykinin family neuropeptide Leucokinin. Manipulation of neural activity in Leucokinin neurons revealed these neurons to be required for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Taken together, these findings establish trsn as an essential integrator of sleep and metabolic state, with implications for understanding the neural mechanism underlying sleep disruption in response to environmental perturbation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A role for clock genes in sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Paul

    2013-10-01

    The timing and quality of both sleep and wakefulness are thought to be regulated by the interaction of two processes. One of these two processes keeps track of the prior sleep-wake history and controls the homeostatic need for sleep while the other sets the time-of-day that sleep preferably occurs. The molecular pathways underlying the latter, circadian process have been studied in detail and their key role in physiological time-keeping has been well established. Analyses of sleep in mice and flies lacking core circadian clock gene proteins have demonstrated, however, that besides disrupting circadian rhythms, also sleep homeostatic processes were affected. Subsequent studies revealed that sleep loss alters both the mRNA levels and the specific DNA-binding of the key circadian transcriptional regulators to their target sequences in the mouse brain. The fact that sleep loss impinges on the very core of the molecular circadian circuitry might explain why both inadequate sleep and disrupted circadian rhythms can similarly lead to metabolic pathology. The evidence for a role for clock genes in sleep homeostasis will be reviewed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellular consequences of sleep deprivation in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Chiara

    2006-10-01

    Several recent studies have used transcriptomics approaches to characterize the molecular correlates of sleep, waking, and sleep deprivation. This analysis may help in understanding the benefits that sleep brings to the brain at the cellular level. The studies are still limited in number and focus on a few brain regions, but some consistent findings are emerging. Sleep, spontaneous wakefulness, short-term, and long-term sleep deprivation are each associated with the upregulation of hundreds of genes in the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. In fruit flies as well as in mammals, three categories of genes are consistently upregulated during waking and short-term sleep deprivation relative to sleep. They include genes involved in energy metabolism, synaptic potentiation, and the response to cellular stress. In the rat cerebral cortex, transcriptional changes associated with prolonged sleep loss differ significantly from those observed during short-term sleep deprivation. However, it is too early to draw firm conclusions relative to the molecular consequences of sleep deprivation, and more extensive studies using DNA and protein arrays are needed in different species and in different brain regions.

  16. Physical attractiveness biases in ratings of employment suitability: tracking down the "beauty is beastly" effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stefanie K; Podratz, Kenneth E; Dipboye, Robert L; Gibbons, Ellie

    2010-01-01

    The "what is beautiful is good" heuristic suggests that physically attractive persons benefit from their attractiveness in a large range of situations, including perceptions of employment suitability. Conversely, the "beauty is beastly" effect suggests that attractiveness can be detrimental to women in certain employment contexts, although these findings have been less consistent than those for the "what is beautiful is good" effect. The current research seeks to uncover situations in which beauty might be detrimental for female applicants. In two studies, we found that attractiveness can be detrimental for women applying for masculine sex-typed jobs for which physical appearance is perceived as unimportant.

  17. The elderly female face in beauty and fashion ads: Joan Didion for Céline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerslev, Anne

    2018-01-01

    The point of departure for this article is an astonishment at the recent increase in elderly women in fashion and beauty ads, and the question of what value this kind of photography may attribute to the ageing body and face in a visual culture whose association between youth and beauty forms one...... of the most influential constructions of ageism in Western culture. To attempt to answer this question, the article discusses the relationship between beauty, time and the ageing face, especially in beauty and fashion ads. The 2015 spring ad campaign for the luxury fashion brand Céline, which featured...

  18. The ratio of the beauty structure functions Rb=(FLb)/(F2b) at low x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    We study the structure functions F k b (x,Q 2 ) (k=2,L) and the reduced cross section σ r b (x,Q 2 ) for small values of Bjorken's x variable with respect to the hard (Lipatov) pomeron for the gluon distribution and provide a compact formula for the ratio R b that is useful to extract the beauty structure function from the beauty reduced cross section, in particular at DESY HERA. Also we show that the effects of the nonlinear corrections to the gluon distribution tame the behavior of the beauty structure function and the beauty reduced cross section at low x

  19. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of All?h (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects ...

  20. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  1. First look at beauty and beauty-jet tagging via secondary vertexing with ALICE in p+p collisions at √S = 7 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Minjung

    2011-01-01

    The heavy flavour single electron data from RHIC indicate strong coupling of heavy quarks to the medium. The LHC extends greatly the kinematic range to high transverse momentum which enables new tests of heavy quark jet dynamics. Jets containing beauty hadrons have distinctive properties from other types of jets, which enhance their clear identification. We first introduce a method to preferentially select electrons from beauty hadron decay by reconstructing secondary vertices and show the results of this approach on simulated data. A preliminary look at the heavy flavour electron analysis and the beauty analysis in p+p collisions at √S = 7 TeV is also presented. (author)

  2. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  3. BEAUTY AND THE BEAST : IMAGES OF WOMEN IN ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther H. Kuntjara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Images in advertisements have power to shape our perception on the way we look at the world. Women in ads are often portrayed as sexual objects. Conventional beauty is women’s attribute. Unfortunately%2C the images of women most ads portray are usually the creation of artificiality that establishes an impossible standard of physical perfection for women This article presents some different ads from some famous women’s magazines and discusses some possible meanings the viewers may perceive from the images. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : images%2C women%2C advertisement.

  4. Distinctive Design A Practical Guide to a Useful, Beautiful Web

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Learn to produce a web site that stands out from the crowd One of the web designer's greatest challenges is to create a site distinctive enough to get noticed among the millions of sites already on the web. This book examines the bond between code, content and visuals to guide you through the factors that increase your design's visibility, usability and beauty. Using this practical advice, even web designers who lack strong artistic skills can develop super sites that strengthen the message and stand out from the crowd.Most books focus primarily on graphic design principles; this one shows you

  5. Induction of single flower mutant in Hibiscus cv. 'Alipur Beauty'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, B.K.; Datta, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Stem cuttings of Hibicus cv. 'Alipur Beauty' were irradiated with 0, 1.0, 2.0 Krad of gamma rays in 60 Co source and planted just after irradiation. Data were recorded on days to sprout, number of sprouts, sprouting percentage, survival, plant height, leaf number and size, abnormal leaves and plants, floral abnormalities and induction of somatic mutations in flower colour/form. Some of the characters like plant height, leaf number, abnormal leaves and plants and leaf size were recorded after 60 and 120 days. 7 refs. (author)

  6. The curtain of reality. The secret beauty of deception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The physics research is a path on a 'road to reality', to paraphrase the title of a famous essay by R. Penrose. One school of thought interprets mathematics not only as a descriptive tool of reality but as the ultimate structure of reality. In this short note, the author supports this hypothesis speculative showing the performance to be reached by starting an investigation to 'flush out' mathematics and beauty in a symbolic constant of physics that alone could explain and justify the existence of the universe [it

  7. Fearful Symmetry: The Search for Beauty in Modern Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewski, W J [Department of Mathematical Sciences Science Laboratory, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-11

    It is easy to see beauty in symmetry when we look at buildings like the Taj Mahal or natural objects such as snowflakes; it is much harder to explain to a non-expert the beauty of equations or of symmetry concepts in relativity or in particle theory. Tony Zee achieves this in a remarkable way, while he also manages to make many complicated concepts accessible to a reader who is genuinely interested and who has some basic/school knowledge of physics. To do this he invents various ordinary world analogies and exploits them in a masterful way. I liked, in particular, his analogy for the colour of quarks and the associated SU(3) symmetry provided by adding colour to ice-cream, which does not change its cost. Of course, sometimes real beauty is associated with a small breakdown of symmetry. We are all familiar with this in music or in art. Tony shows that such a breakdown also has a role in physics and that it is often associated with unexpected and very deep and important concepts (parity, CP violation or baryon assymetry). The book is an amazing achievement; although the main focus is on symmetry and beauty the author manages to explain most of the new and relevant concepts of modern physics, from quantum mechanics and relativity to superstrings and superbranes. And he does this with no equations and almost no mathematical symbols. So who is this book intended for? Who will enjoy reading it? Clearly, it will be appreciated by all theoretical physicists, who probably will be primarily impressed by the way the book makes accessible so many very difficult concepts. I was particularly struck by Tony's ability to explain things in simple terms and to find relevant analogies. It will be also greatly enjoyed by the non-specialist but 'interested' reader; (s)he may find some concepts hard to follow but (s)he will get the general gist of the arguments. It will be also be enjoyed by sixth-formers studying physics and quite possibly will attract some of them to

  8. Beautiful Math, Part 5: Colorful Archimedean Tilings from Dynamical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Peichang; Zhao, Weiguo; Huang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The art of tiling originated very early in the history of civilization. Almost every known human society has made use of tilings in some form or another. In particular, tilings using only regular polygons have great visual appeal. Decorated regular tilings with continuous and symmetrical patterns were widely used in decoration field, such as mosaics, pavements, and brick walls. In science, these tilings provide inspiration for synthetic organic chemistry. Building on previous CG&A “Beautiful Math” articles, the authors propose an invariant mapping method to create colorful patterns on Archimedean tilings (1-uniform tilings). The resulting patterns simultaneously have global crystallographic symmetry and local cyclic or dihedral symmetry.

  9. Fearful Symmetry: The Search for Beauty in Modern Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewski, W J

    2008-01-01

    It is easy to see beauty in symmetry when we look at buildings like the Taj Mahal or natural objects such as snowflakes; it is much harder to explain to a non-expert the beauty of equations or of symmetry concepts in relativity or in particle theory. Tony Zee achieves this in a remarkable way, while he also manages to make many complicated concepts accessible to a reader who is genuinely interested and who has some basic/school knowledge of physics. To do this he invents various ordinary world analogies and exploits them in a masterful way. I liked, in particular, his analogy for the colour of quarks and the associated SU(3) symmetry provided by adding colour to ice-cream, which does not change its cost. Of course, sometimes real beauty is associated with a small breakdown of symmetry. We are all familiar with this in music or in art. Tony shows that such a breakdown also has a role in physics and that it is often associated with unexpected and very deep and important concepts (parity, CP violation or baryon assymetry). The book is an amazing achievement; although the main focus is on symmetry and beauty the author manages to explain most of the new and relevant concepts of modern physics, from quantum mechanics and relativity to superstrings and superbranes. And he does this with no equations and almost no mathematical symbols. So who is this book intended for? Who will enjoy reading it? Clearly, it will be appreciated by all theoretical physicists, who probably will be primarily impressed by the way the book makes accessible so many very difficult concepts. I was particularly struck by Tony's ability to explain things in simple terms and to find relevant analogies. It will be also greatly enjoyed by the non-specialist but 'interested' reader; (s)he may find some concepts hard to follow but (s)he will get the general gist of the arguments. It will be also be enjoyed by sixth-formers studying physics and quite possibly will attract some of them to study science at

  10. Measurement of Beauty Particle Lifetimes and Hadroproduction Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose an experimental search for beauty particles produced in fixed target hadronic interactions. The essential feature of the proposed experimental technique is the use of two specially designed pieces of hardware~-~a high precision ``decay detector'' and a fast secondary vertex trigger processor. If these devices perform to our expectations, we should be able to obtain sufficient data sample to address several important physics issues, including measurements of the lifetimes of charged and neutral B~mesons, the B~hadroproduction cross-section, and possibly B$^0$- $ \\bar{B} ^0 $ mixing.

  11. The challenges and beauty of peripheral nerve regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochodne, Douglas W

    2012-03-01

    This review provides an overview of selected aspects of peripheral nerve regeneration and potential avenues to explore therapeutically. The overall coordinated and orchestrated pattern of recovery from peripheral nerve injury has a beauty of execution and progress that rivals all other forms of neurobiology. It involves changes at the level of the perikaryon, coordination with important peripheral glial partners, the Schwann cells, a controlled inflammatory response, and growth that overcomes surprising intrinsic roadblocks. Both regenerative axon growth and collateral sprouting encompass fascinating aspects of this story. Better understanding of peripheral nerve regeneration may also lead to enhanced central nervous system recovery. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  12. Gender, Work, and Identity: Beauty Salons in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Gabriela Arango Gaviria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines hair salons, beauty parlors and barbershops in Bogotá from threeperspectives; first, as a space that offers a variety of services and aesthetic possibilities ina context of high informality and of class, race, and gender inequality; secondly, as workmarked by sexual and social divisions, in terms of both jobs and attention to the clientele,centered around “emotional work”; and thirdly, as a field of both cultural expressionand conflict with ethnic, racial and sexual aspects. Based on fieldwork and on a focus onintersectionality, the article explores these social differences as manifested in these jobswithin the processes of subsistence and professionalization.

  13. LHC-B: a dedicated LHC collider beauty experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhan, S.

    1995-01-01

    LHC-B is a forward detector optimized for the study of CP-violation and other rare phenomena in the decays of beauty particles at the LHC. An open geometry forward detector design, with good mass, vertex resolution and particle identification, will facilitate the collection of a large numbers of event samples in diverse B decay channels and allow for a thorough understanding of the systematic uncertainties. With the expected large event statistics, LHC-B will be able to test the closure of the unitarity triangle and make sensitive tests of the Standard Model description of CP-violation. Here we describe the experiment and summarize its anticipated performance. (orig.)

  14. Rhinoplasty and its effects on the perception of beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinski, Hernan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experts on nasal cosmetics and nasal surgery agree that aesthetic rhinoplasty leads to overall facial beautification and the perception of youth in patients. This "assumed truth" has never been proven in the international literature. Aim: To examine increases in facial attractiveness ratings after rhinoplasty surgery. Methods: We conducted a study series by choosing 30 female patients on whom we had operated and 25 evaluators in a single blind trial. The evaluators graded the patients' attractiveness before and after surgery. Results: Beauty indices were significantly improved after the operation. Conclusion: According to the third-party evaluation, the patients appeared prettier after undergoing aesthetic rhinoplasty.

  15. Neighborhoods, sleep quality, and cognitive decline: Does where you live and how well you sleep matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jaimie C; Handing, Elizabeth P; Casanova, Ramon; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Lutz, Michael W; Saldana, Santiago; Plassman, Brenda L; Hayden, Kathleen M

    2018-04-01

    We evaluated the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and sleep quality on cognitive decline in the Health and Retirement Study. Health and Retirement Study participants (n = 8090), aged 65+ with DNA and multiple biennial cognitive observations (abbreviated Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status), were included. Participants were grouped into quartiles of NSES and sleep quality scores. We adjusted for apolipoprotein E ε4, demographic, and cardiovascular risk factors. Random effects modeling evaluated cognitive change over time. NSES and sleep were significantly associated with cognitive decline, and there was a significant interaction between them (P = .02). Significant differences between high/low NSES and high/low sleep quality (P Sleep and NSES were associated with cognitive decline; the association between sleep and cognition appeared stronger among those with low NSES. The association between low NSES, poor sleep quality, and cognitive decline was roughly equivalent to the association between apolipoprotein E ε4 and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  17. Teenagers and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OSA causes daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep ... 30 apneas during a seven-hour sleep. In severe cases, periods of not breathing may last for ...

  19. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 103. ... Blaivas, DO, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, VA New Jersey Health Care System, Clinical Assistant ...

  20. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 156. Ibrahim S, Foldvary-Shaefer N. Sleep disorders in pregnancy: implications, evaluation, and treatment. Neurologic ...

  1. Sleep Apnea Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include being overweight and having a large neck. Losing even 10 percent of body weight can help reduce the number of times a person with sleep apnea stops breathing during sleep. African-Americans, Pacific ...

  2. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The National Sleep Foundation estimates that 18 million adults have obstructive sleep apnea and it is likely ... Maxillofacial Surgeon (OMS). An estimated 18-20 million adults in the US suffer from OSA. What Is ...

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SM. Obstructive sleep apnea: clinical features, evaluation, and principles of management. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ...

  6. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleeping During Pregnancy What's in ...

  7. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism.

  8. The Functions of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Z Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a ubiquitous component of animal life including birds and mammals. The exact function of sleep has been one of the mysteries of biology. A considerable number of theories have been put forward to explain the reason(s for the necessity of sleep. To date, while a great deal is known about what happens when animals sleep, there is no definitive comprehensive explanation as to the reason that sleep is an inevitable part of animal functioning. It is well known that sleep is a homeostatically regulated body process, and that prolonged sleep deprivation is fatal in animals. In this paper, we present some of the theories as to the functions of sleep and provide a review of some hypotheses as to the overall physiologic function of sleep. To better understand the purpose for sleeping, we review the effects of sleep deprivation on physical, neurocognitive and psychic function. A better understanding of the purpose for sleeping will be a great advance in our understanding of the nature of the animal kingdom, including our own.

  9. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  10. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment ... Sleep talking is very common. It is reported in 50% of young children. About 5% of adults are reported to talk in their sleep. It ...

  11. Hidden-beauty charged tetraquarks and heavy quark spin conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maiani, L.; Polosa, A.D.; Riquer, V. [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Roma (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Assuming the dominance of the spin-spin interaction in a diquark, we point out that the mass differences in the beauty sector M(Z'{sub b}){sup ±}-M(Z{sub b}){sup ±} scale with quark masses as expected in QCD, with respect to the corresponding mass difference M(Z'{sub c}){sup ±}-M(Z{sub c}){sup ±}. Notably, we show that the decays Υ(10890)→(h{sub b}(1P),h{sub b}(2P))π{sup +}π{sup -} are compatible with heavy-quark spin conservation once the contributions of Z{sub b},Z'{sub b} intermediate states are taken into account, Υ(10890) being either a Υ(5S) or the beauty analog of Y{sub c}(4260). We also consider the role of Z{sub b},Z'{sub b} in Υ(10890)→Υ(nS)ππ decays and of light quark spin non-conservation in Z{sub b}, Z'{sub b} decays into BB{sup *} and B{sup *}B{sup *}. Indications on possible signatures of the still missing X{sub b} resonance are proposed.

  12. J/ψ production and beauty physics at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Fermilab proton-antiproton collider makes about 50 beauty mesons per second, giving a unique opportunity to test the higher order QCD calculations that have recently been completed. CDF, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, finished its first large-scale data run in June 1989, recording 4.7 pb -1 using a variety of triggers. As of this workshop, only half of the data have been fully reconstructed, and the beauty analysis is at an early stage. Therefore this paper shows only work-in-progress on the analysis methods. The authors estimate the B cross section to be consistent with theoretical predictions. CDF is an azimuthally symmetric detector with good solid angle coverage, consisting of high-granularity hadron calorimeters and shower counters, high-resolution tracking in an 1.4-T axial magnetic field, a vertex time projection chamber, and muon tracking. This paper shows the geometry of the muon chambers. Sets of muon chambers lie behind five interaction lengths of calorimetry, over the angle 56 degrees < θ < 124 degrees from the beam. They have four layers of δφ ∼ 1 degree cells, using charge division to measure the longitudinal track coordinate and drift time for the transverse coordinate. A level-1 trigger rejects low transverse momentum tracks by testing the drift-time difference between alternate layers of the chambers, which amounts to a cut on the bending of the track in the magnetic field

  13. Perceived beauty of random texture patterns: A preference for complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, Jay; Liby, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    We report two experiments on the perceived aesthetic quality of random density texture patterns. In each experiment a square grid was filled with a progressively larger number of elements. Grid size in Experiment 1 was 10×10 with elements added to create a variety of textures ranging from 10%-100% fill levels. Participants rated the beauty of the patterns. Average judgments across all observers showed an inverted U-shaped function that peaked near middle densities. In Experiment 2 grid size was increased to 15×15 to see if observers preferred patterns with a fixed density or a fixed number of elements. The results of the second experiment were nearly identical to that of the first showing a preference for density over fixed element number. Ratings in both studies correlated positively with a GIF compression metric of complexity and with edge length. Within the range of stimuli used, observers judge more complex patterns to be more beautiful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Forest landscape assessment: the effects of pre-experience education on public perception of scenic beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad D. Pierskalla; Kevin E. Saunders; David W. McGill; David A. Smaldone

    2008-01-01

    Aldo Leopold argued for a type of "ecological aesthetic," where perceptions of natural landscape beauty are tied to an understanding of the natural process of forests. The purpose of this study is to examine how education affects perceptions of scenic beauty. Thirty-two students were assigned to four groups, with each group participating in a different...

  15. A twentieth-century triangle trade: selling black beauty at home and abroad, 1945–1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Malia

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the careers of African American beauty culturists as they worked in the United States, Europe, and Africa between 1945 and 1965. Facing push back at home, African American beauty entrepreneurs frequently sought out international venues that were hospitable and receptive to black Americans in the years following World War II. By strategically using European sites that white Americans regarded as the birthplace of Western fashion and beauty, African American entrepreneurs in the fields of modeling, fashion design, and hair care were able to win accolades and advance their careers. In gaining support abroad, particularly in Europe, these beauty culturists capitalized on their international success to establish, legitimize, and promote their business ventures in the United States. After importing a positive reputation for themselves from Europe to the United States, African American beauty entrepreneurs then exported an image of themselves as the world's premier authorities on black beauty to people of color around the globe as they sold their products and marketed their expertise on the African continent itself. This essay demonstrates the important role that these black female beauty culturists played, both as businesspeople and as race leaders, in their generation's struggle to gain greater respect and opportunity for African Americans both at home and abroad. In doing so it places African American beauty culturists within the framework of transatlantic trade networks, the Black Freedom Movement, Pan-Africanism, and America's Cold War struggle.

  16. 76 FR 17485 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation Case AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver...

  17. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver...

  18. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver...

  19. The Beauty of the Psyche and Eros Myth: Integrating Aesthetics into Introduction to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Burke, Kayla

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1990s the authors became convinced that their undergraduate psychology students needed classroom experiences that set the conditions for them to become more engaged with beauty. They recognized the intrinsic importance of beauty to human psychological development, beyond any utilitarian concerns. But they also believed that…

  20. Beauty Therapy, Vet Teaching and Bio-Power: A Tale of Two Training Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Mary; Harreveld, Roberta; Blayney, William

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the teaching of beauty therapy in the Australian Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. It uses the theoretical concept of bio-power to examine how the body is compliant with intimate treatments in the name of beauty. Bio-power makes visible the anatomical and biological transformation and re-formation of the human…

  1. 76 FR 77582 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Beauty and Belief...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7725] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Beauty and Belief: Crossing Bridges With the Arts of Islamic Culture'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Beauty and Belief: Crossing Bridges with the Arts of Islamic...

  2. Shaping the Female Student: An Analysis of Swedish Beauty School Recruitment Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredlöv, Eleonor

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the recruitment of adults to the beauty industry in Sweden. It is concerned with a move in (beauty) education away from state and towards private provision in a wider context where education is becoming more heavily marketised. Drawing on a poststructural approach inspired by the work of Foucault and feminist theory, the…

  3. Beauty, Knowledge, and Terror: A Phenomenological-Syllogistic Exploration of the Aesthetics of the Educative Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, James

    2016-01-01

    In this text, I outline the relationship between beauty, knowledge, and terror through a syllogism and an exploration of each term individually. Before undertaking a full analysis of the interrelationships between beauty, knowledge, and terror, I would provide two illustrations: a visual representation of the proposed syllogism, and a description…

  4. Modeling the scenic beauty of the Highland Scenic Highway, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwar Dhami; Jinyang. Deng

    2010-01-01

    Finding sites with a pleasant view is important to maximize visitors' scenic satisfaction. A geographic information systems analysis of viewsheds is helpful for locating sites with maximum visibility. Viewshed analyses can also be combined with public perceptions of scenic beauty for selecting the most scenic sites. This research modeled the perceived beauty of...

  5. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  6. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  7. Sleep duration is associated with sperm chromatin integrity among young men in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Qing; Zou, Peng; Liu, Taixiu; Mo, Min; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Chen, Hongqiang; Ling, Xi; Peng, Kaige; Ao, Lin; Yang, Huifang; Cao, Jia; Cui, Zhihong

    2017-10-09

    This study explores whether sleep duration is associated with sperm chromatin integrity. To do so, we conducted a three-phase panel study of 796 male volunteers from colleges in Chongqing (China) from 2013 to 2015. Sleep duration was measured using a modified Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. Sperm DNA integrity was examined via Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay and Comet assay. Setting 7-7.5 h day -1 of sleep duration as a reference, either longer or shorter sleep duration was associated negatively with high DNA stainability (HDS) (P = 0.009), which reflected the immaturity of sperm chromatin. The volunteers with > 9.0 h day -1 sleep and those with ≤ 6.5 h day -1 sleep had 40.7 and 30.3% lower HDS than did volunteers with 7-7.5 h day -1 sleep. No association was found between sleep duration and DNA fragmentation index or Comet assay parameters. This study suggests that sleep duration is associated with sperm chromatin integrity. Further studies are required to validate these findings and investigate the mechanism underlying this association. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sunil; Kavuru, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways i...

  9. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  10. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  11. Sleep and psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized. PMID:16416705

  12. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  13. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  14. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  15. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allβh (God and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh, Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  16. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-05-01

    Sleep rebound-the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation-is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the duration and depth of sleep after

  17. The beauty of physics patterns, principles, and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, A R P

    2014-01-01

    The beauty of physics lies in its coherence in terms of a few fundamental concepts and principles. Even physicists have occasion to marvel at the overarching reach of basic principles and their ability to account for features stretching from the microscopic sub-atomic world to the cosmological expanses of the Universe. While mathematics is its natural language, physics is mostly about patterns, connections, and relations between objects and phenomena, and it is this aspect that is emphasized in this book. Since science tries to connect phenomena that at first sight appear widely different, while boiling them down to a small set of essential principles and laws, metaphor and analogy pervade our subject. Consider the pendulum, its swing from one extreme to the other often invoked in social or economic contexts. In molecular vibrations, such as in the CO2 molecule, the quantum motions of electrons and nuclei are metaphorically the pendulums. In electromagnetic radiation, including the visible light we observe, t...

  18. Microbiological decontamination of cosmetics and beauty products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Galaud, G.

    1975-01-01

    Contamination by microorganisms in cosmetics and beauty products create two types of disadvantage: degradation of the product itself, making it unusable (change in color, ordor, etc); health hazards for users, liable to lead them to abandon the product (allergies caused by preservatives or infections). Radiosterilization is designed to achieve the most thorough possible disappearance of these microorganisms. In the case of radiodecontamination, the aim is merely to reduce the number below the acceptable level from the product quality standpoint, namely, a condition eliminating the above drawbacks. Cobalt 60 is currently the most widely used radiation source for treating products in irradiation installations, the operating conditions of which are discussed. The problems associated with this treatment are analyzed. Also provided are orders of magnitude of investments and costs [fr

  19. Stolen beauty: gender, aesthetics and embodiment in Brazilian drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Pontes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a broader research on gender inflections in the Brazilian intellectual field and in Brazilian drama, between 1940 and 1968, the article discusses the relations between aesthetics and gender, and their implications on the careers of actresses Cacilda Becker, Maria Della Costa, Tônia Carrero and Cleyde Yáconis. According to testimony of those who saw her perform on stage, Cacilda was never hampered by her less favorable physical attributes. The hypothesis is that this is due to the cunning tricks of the conventions of dramatic arts that allow the dodging of social, gender and physical constraints. Widely evoked by the media to portrait, underline or diminish women under its focus, beauty rarely features as a relevant dimension in the analysis of female trajectories. Hence the interest in discussing the subject through its refraction on the process of social construction of artistic careers.

  20. A mathematical tapestry demonstrating the beautiful unity of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hilton, Peter; Donmoyer, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    This easy-to-read 2010 book demonstrates how a simple geometric idea reveals fascinating connections and results in number theory, the mathematics of polyhedra, combinatorial geometry, and group theory. Using a systematic paper-folding procedure it is possible to construct a regular polygon with any number of sides. This remarkable algorithm has led to interesting proofs of certain results in number theory, has been used to answer combinatorial questions involving partitions of space, and has enabled the authors to obtain the formula for the volume of a regular tetrahedron in around three steps, using nothing more complicated than basic arithmetic and the most elementary plane geometry. All of these ideas, and more, reveal the beauty of mathematics and the interconnectedness of its various branches. Detailed instructions, including clear illustrations, enable the reader to gain hands-on experience constructing these models and to discover for themselves the patterns and relationships they unearth.

  1. Smashing WordPress Themes Making WordPress Beautiful

    CERN Document Server

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate guide to WordPress Themes - one of the hottest topics on the web today WordPress is so much more than a blogging platform, and Smashing WordPress Themes teaches readers how to make it look any way they like - from a corporate site, to a photography gallery and moreWordPress is one of the hottest tools on the web today and is used by sites including The New York Times, Rolling Stone, flickr, CNN, NASA and of course Smashing MagazineBeautiful full colour throughout - web designers expect nothing lessSmashing Magazine will fully support this book by by promoting it through their webs

  2. The diversity and beauty of applied operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Potts, Daniel; Stollmann, Peter; Wenzel, David

    2018-01-01

    This book presents 29 invited articles written by participants of the International Workshop on Operator Theory and its Applications held in Chemnitz in 2017. The contributions include both expository essays and original research papers illustrating the diversity and beauty of insights gained by applying operator theory to concrete problems. The topics range from control theory, frame theory, Toeplitz and singular integral operators, Schrödinger, Dirac, and Kortweg-de Vries operators, Fourier integral operator zeta-functions, C*-algebras and Hilbert C*-modules to questions from harmonic analysis, Monte Carlo integration, Fibonacci Hamiltonians, and many more. The book offers researchers in operator theory open problems from applications that might stimulate their work and shows those from various applied fields, such as physics, engineering, or numerical mathematics how to use the potential of operator theory to tackle interesting practical problems.

  3. R&D for Collider Beauty Physics at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose an R&D program for the development of a Beauty trigger and innovative elements of the associated spectrometer. The program builds on the success of the recent S$\\bar{p}$pS collider run of the P238 Collaboration, in which clean signals from beam-beam interactions were observed in a large silicon strip microvertex detector running 1.5~mm from the circulating beams. A continuing successful R&D program of the type proposed could ultimately lead to a collider experiment at the LHC to study CP-violation and rare B decays. \\\\ \\\\ We request a fixed target run during late 1992 in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of a heavy flavour trigger which uses real time digital calculations on silicon strip data, implemented with a data driven processor.

  4. Identification of beauty and charm quark jets at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Matthieu, Kecke; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-06-22

    Identification of jets originating from beauty and charm quarks is important for measuring Standard Model processes and for searching for new physics. The performance of algorithms developed to select $b$- and $c$-quark jets is measured using data recorded by LHCb from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV in 2011 and at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV in 2012. The efficiency for identifying a $b(c)$ jet is about 65%(25%) with a probability for misidentifying a light-parton jet of 0.3% for jets with transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T} > 20$ GeV and pseudorapidity $2.2 < \\eta < 4.2$. The dependence of the performance on the $p_{\\rm T}$ and $\\eta$ of the jet is also measured.

  5. Truth or beauty science and the quest for order

    CERN Document Server

    Orrell, David

    2012-01-01

    In this sweeping book, applied mathematician and popular author David Orrell questions the promises and pitfalls of associating beauty with truth, showing how ideas of mathematical elegance have inspired—and have sometimes misled—scientists attempting to understand nature. Orrell shows how the ancient Greeks constructed a concept of the world based on musical harmony; later thinkers replaced this model with a program, based on Newton’s “rational mechanics,” to reduce the universe to a few simple equations. He then turns to current physical theories, such as supersymmetric string theory—again influenced by deep aesthetic principles. The book sheds new light on historical investigations and also recent research, including the examinations ongoing at the Large Hadron Collider. Finally, broadening his discussion to other fields of research, including economics, architecture, and health, Orrell questions whether these aesthetic principles reflect an accurate way to explain and understand the structure...

  6. CP violation in multibody decays of beauty baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durieux, Gauthier

    2016-08-15

    Beauty baryons are being observed in large numbers in the LHCb detector. The rich kinematic distributions of their multibody decays are therefore becoming accessible and provide us with new opportunities to search for CP violation. We analyse the angular distributions of some three- and four-body decays of spin-1/2 baryons using the Jacob-Wick helicity formalism. The asymmetries that provide access to small differences of CP-odd phases between decay amplitudes of identical CP-even phases are notably discussed. The understanding gained on processes featuring specific resonant intermediate states allows us to establish which asymmetries are relevant for what purpose. It is for instance shown that some CP-odd angular asymmetries measured by the LHCb collaboration in the Λ{sub b}→Λφ→pπ K{sup +}K{sup -} decay are expected to vanish identically.

  7. Old age – „how beautiful to be yourself”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Zakowicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In every given period one can observe different attitudes towards old age, death and the elderly, which are shown through varied stances and ideas about this specific period of human life. The reality of the XXI century often regarded as “vision-centric” is dominated by the cult of beauty and youth which creates increasingly demanding requirements, related mainly to the attractiveness of appearance, of the body – especially the one belonging to the elderly. The increase in the number of senior citizens compared to the rest of the society that can be witnessed nowadays leads to the elderly being a more carefully examined social group. Mediated by the media discourse the images of the elderly are becoming more common and therefore the author’s attempt at reconstructing the postmodern strategy of the rendering of late adulthood seems to be an interesting and important topic to consider

  8. LEP measurements on production, mass, lifetime of beauty particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.

    1993-10-01

    Present knowledge about the individual properties of the different beauty particles is discussed using the results of the LEP experiments. Individual lifetimes for B d 0 and B + are found to be equal within 10% whilst a 15% precision is reached for B s 0 and Λ b . The Λ b lifetime is found to be smaller than τ B + with a 2.7 σ significance. The production rate of each of these particles is measured at the 20% level. Preliminary evidence for Ξ b production has been reported. Finally, the B s 0 meson mass has been measured to be 5373 ± 4 MeV/c 2 . (author) 24 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Lifetime and production rate of beauty baryons from Z decays

    CERN Document Server

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Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fürstenau, H; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gillespie, D; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, M; McNulty, M; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Ostankov, A P; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stäck, H; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Torassa, E; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Überschär, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Wehr, A; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1995-01-01

    The production and decay of beauty baryons (b-baryons) have been studied using 1.7 \\times 10^6 Z hadronic decays collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP. Three different techniques were used to identify the b-baryons. The first method used pairs of a \\Lambda and a lepton to tag the b-baryon decay. The second method associated fully reconstructed \\Lambda_c baryons with leptons. The third analysis reconstructed the b-baryon decay points by forming secondary vertices from identified protons and muons of opposite sign. Using these methods the following production rates were measured: \\begin{eqnarray*} f(\\qb \\ra \\Bb) \\times \\BR(\\Bb \\ra \\mLs \\ell\\bar{\

  10. BEAUTY, HEALTH AND WELL-BEING WITH COSMETOTEXTILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETU Viorica

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of cosmetotextiles, as another aspect of new beauty and health marques a growing success. This hybrid fabric, is definite as a textile article that contains a substance that is release sustainable on the human body skin pointed to perfume, change of appearance, maintenance in good condition, protection, or correction of body odors. Cosmetotextiles are created by microencapsulating different substances for body care or health, that are gradually transfer to the skin, by movement, pressure or the effect of the skin’s natural warmth and enzymes. The paper presents some elements regarding to the microencapsulating process (the major components of them general structure, the major advantages compare to usual presentation of cosmetic substances, some of the used active ingredients and them specific cosmetic and health benefits and the new generation of cosmetotextiles that bring together the latest innovations in fiber and textile structures and products. So, one of the manufacturing processes of a cosmetotextile is based on functionalisation of fibers by fixing microcapsules in them structure, resulting fibers as Novorel, Tencel C, Nilit Breeze, Emana, or by the functionalisation of fabrics, so of products made by these fabrics, where microcapsules are fixed on the external surface of the fabric, resulting in revolutionary “fabrics’ treatments” for beauty, health-care and well-being. Among these cosmeto fabrics and products are Sensitive Ultra Light Firming fabric, Sensitive Fabric Body ware, textile fabrics with the revolutionary Quiospheres technology, Doubleskin and different cosmeto-knitted products including specific placed areas with micro encapsulated ingredients, depending on them destinations (slimming, anti-cellulite treatment, corrective effect

  11. Delayed sleep phase cases and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nievergelt Caroline M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD is a condition in which patients have difficulty falling asleep before the early morning hours and commonly have trouble awakening before late morning or even early afternoon. Several studies have suggested that variations in habitual bedtime are 40–50% heritable. Methods We recruited a case series of 205 participants, along with 221 controls (DSPD-C with normal sleep, roughly matched for age, gender, and ancestry. A representative sample of San Diego adults recruited some years before was already available to confirm the control group. Both DSPD and DSPD-C provided blood or saliva samples for DNA and completed extensive questionnaires about sleep habits, sleep history, family history, sleep quality, morningness-eveningness traits, depression, mania, and seasonality of symptoms. The DSPD group wore wrist actigraphs for a median of 13.2 days. The representative sample collected previously had undergone actigraphic recordings, from which 48 hours of data were generally available. Results The DSPD and DSPD-C samples showed almost no overlap on morningness-eveningness scores. DSPD cases went to bed and arose about 3 hours later than the DSPD-C and the representative sample. DSPD cases reported more difficulties with sleep, poorer sleep quality, and more depression, but there was no significant difference in a history of mania. DSPD cases reported more family history of late bedtimes, but female DSPD reported that their fathers' bedtimes were later than the fathers of male DSPD. Conclusion These results indicate a DSPD phenotype is familial and associated with unipolar depression.

  12. The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by

  13. SPA (Solus per Aqua) service industry: An entrepeneurship opportunity to beauty education department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwiyah, Apriyani, Delta

    2018-03-01

    Beauty industry grows vastly in the scope of regional, national, or international. Beauty industry includes Spa service. It becomes one of the choices where the urban citizen can use it to release their stress and relax their mind. This business grows as the development of technology. Spa industry should be able to provide the best service for physical and mental therapy, it will make the user of the service can be freed from their business and stress in the respective time to be healthies, more beautiful, and able to do their activity maximally. Spa treatment consists of hair creambath, facial treatment, manicure-pedicure, scrub treatment, foot spa, aromatherapy, and body treatment with traditional cosmetics which are easy to get in Indonesia. Beauty education is one of the programs in Home Economics Department of Engineering Faculty of UNNES. This program was established to produce graduates in beauty fields as Vocational High School teachers with bachelor (S1) qualification. The graduates suppose to be excellent, professional, skillful, and care to the environment, culture, and social condition around them. It prepares them as teachers of beauty (in formal and non- formal education). Besides, it also prepared them to have professional competence in production fields of beauty service with adaptive, creative, and innovative which can be entrepreneurs who are able to create job vacancies for others. Beauty education used KKNI- based curriculum, which is oriented to Industry and Working Fields with UNNES' Conservation basis. It provided the students a chance to practive their knowledge in working internship program, study field trip, and teaching practice program. The industry of Spa service provides a big chance to become an entrepreneur, create a working field, and help the government reduce unemployment number, whether from beauty education graduates or from vocational high school students

  14. Esthetics, eroticism and sex parity: Umberto Eco’s History of Beauty and History of Ugliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Obremski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of comparative analysis which is presented in this article is The Story of Beauty and The Story of Ugliness edited by Umberto Eco. Even the covers of these books show the contrast between men and women. How esthetic values build a feedback with sexual parity? Ugly men look at beautiful women – this patriarchal discrimination can’t be cancelled either by the parity of sex in The Story of Beauty, nor men who twice outnumber them in The Story of Ugliness. Also as the unfair sex they are prior sex: they humiliate themselves and elevate women

  15. Measruement of beauty production in DIS and F2bantib extraction at ZEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2010-04-01

    Beauty production in deep inelastic scattering with events in which a muon and a jet are observed in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb -1 . The fraction of events with beauty quarks in the data was determined using the distribution of the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the jet. The cross section for beauty production was measured in the kinematic range of photon virtuality, Q 2 >2 GeV 2 , and inelasticity, 0.05 2 was extracted and is compared to theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of open beauty production at HERA in the D*μ final state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2006-09-01

    The production of beauty quarks with a D *± and a muon in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb -1 . Low transverse-momentum thresholds for the muon and D * meson allow a measurement of beauty production closer to the production threshold than previous measurements. The beauty signal was extracted using the charge correlations and angular distributions of the muon with respect to the D * meson. Cross sections for photoproduction and deep inelastic scattering are somewhat higher than, but compatible with, next-to-leading-order QCD predictions, and compatible with other measurements. (orig.)

  17. Measurement of charm and beauty photoproduction at HERA using Dμ correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    H1 Collaboration; Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bähr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D. P.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formánek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kückens, J.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leißner, B.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lüke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, J.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2005-08-01

    A measurement of charm and beauty photoproduction at the electron proton collider HERA is presented based on the simultaneous detection of a D meson and a muon. The correlation between the D meson and the muon serves to separate the charm and beauty contributions and the analysis provides comparable sensitivity to both. The total and differential experimental cross sections are compared to LO and NLO QCD calculations. The measured charm cross section is in good agreement with QCD predictions including higher order effects while the beauty cross section is higher.

  18. Measurement of Charm and Beauty Photoproduction at HERA using D* mu Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, J.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2005-01-01

    A measurement of charm and beauty photoproduction at the electron proton collider HERA is presented based on the simultaneous detection of a D*^{\\pm} meson and a muon. The correlation between the D* meson and the muon serves to separate the charm and beauty contributions and the analysis provides comparable sensitivity to both. The total and differential experimental cross sections are compared to LO and NLO QCD calculations. The measured charm cross section is in good agreement with QCD predictions including higher order effects while the beauty cross section is higher.

  19. The culture of complexion: the impacts of society's role in shaping the definition of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlock, Sarah; Russell, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The definition of beauty has evolved as the trends valued by the top of society change. For centuries, fair skin was a requirement of the Western definition of beauty; however, a shift in the 1920s made tanned skin the new standard. In this article, smoking and tanning are presented as risky behaviors that are perpetuated through industry advertising and exploitation of the authority of health professionals. The article further explores the culture of complexion in Western society before and after the 1920s as well as the consequences of tanning and efforts to rewrite society's definition of beauty.

  20. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  1. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in older adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in older adults involve any disrupted sleep ...

  2. Healthy People 2020: Sleep Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve health, productivity, wellness, quality of life, and safety on roads and in the workplace. Overview Poor sleep health ... adopt strategies that reduce risks to health and safety. Without sleep health education, individuals often prioritize other activities over sleep and ...

  3. [Sleep disorders and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that patients with epilepsy often have insomnia and/or daytime sleepiness; the symptomatologic features differ in seizure types. Not only the administration of anti-epileptics, but also inappropriate sleep hygiene cause daytime sleepiness. In subjective assessment of sleepiness, we need to pay attention if it can correctly assess or not. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy is approximately 10-30%. Sleep apnea deteriorates the seizure control because of worsen sleep condition by sleep apnea, especially in elderly patients. Some researchers report that continuous positive airway pressure was effective for seizure control. Patients with epilepsy occasionally have REM sleep behavior disorder as comorbidity. Examination using polysomnography is required for differential diagnosis.

  4. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.

  5. Sleep Apnea Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep ...

  6. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  7. Sleep Disorders: Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Insomnia is the most common type of sleep disorder in the family medicine population. It is defined as a persistent difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or a report of nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by related daytime impairment. Insomnia is a significant public health problem because of its high prevalence and management challenges. There is increasing evidence of a strong association between insomnia and various medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Diagnosis of insomnia and treatment planning rely on a thorough sleep history to address contributing and precipitating factors as well as maladaptive behaviors resulting in poor sleep. Using a sleep diary or sleep log is more accurate than patient recall to determine sleep patterns. A sleep study is not routinely indicated for evaluation of insomnia. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the mainstay of treatment and is a safe and effective approach. The key challenge of CBT-I is the lack of clinicians to implement it. The newer generation nonbenzodiazepines (eg, zolpidem, zaleplon) are used as first-line pharmacotherapy for chronic insomnia. Newer drugs active on targets other than the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor are now available, but clear treatment guidelines are needed. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  8. Sleep and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Pregnancy Cognitive Development parenting poor sleep Work stress Time change beds School Symptoms mental fatigue Headache mortality pain Apetite Technology Telemedicine Movies Imported Diagnostics ...

  9. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  10. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  11. Making beautiful deep-sky images astrophotography with affordable equipment and software

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Greg

    2007-01-01

    This book is based around the author's beautiful and sometimes awe-inspiring color images and mosaics of deep-sky objects. The book describes how similar "Hubble class" images can be created by amateur astronomers in their back garden.

  12. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehzadi, Ramoona

    2011-01-15

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q{sup 2}>10 GeV{sup 2}, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb{sup -1}. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9beauty production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F{sub 2} was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q{sup 2}. (orig.)

  13. Truth and beauty in cosmology: does the Universe have an aesthetic?

    CERN Multimedia

    Impey, C

    2004-01-01

    "Astronomy is an empirical science, yet scientific definitions of truth and beauty are closely tied to the fact that mathematics appears to provide an accurate description of the physical Universe" (2 pages)

  14. Direct observation of the decay of beauty particles into charm particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, J P; Alpe, V; Aoki, S; Arnold, R; Baroni, G; Barth, M; Bartley, J H; Bertrand, D; Bertrand-Coremans, G; Bisi, V [Aichi Univ. of Education, Kariya (Japan); Aichi Women' s Coll, Nisshin-Cho [Japan; Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Birkbeck Coll, London [UK; Interuniversity Inst. for High Energies, Brussels (Belgium); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); University Coll., Dublin (Ireland); Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education; University Coll., London (UK); Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Nagoya Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Toho Univ., Funabashi, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education; Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1985-08-08

    The associated production of a pair of beauty particles B/sup -/ and anti B/sup 0/ by a 350 GeV ..pi../sup -/ interaction has been observed in an emulsion target inserted in an array of silicon microstrip detectors. Both beauty particles decay into charm particles, both of which are also observed to decay in the emulsion. Two negative muons were identified and their momenta measured in a large muon spectrometer. One muon has a psub(T) of 1.9 GeV/c and is associated with a beauty particle decay. The other, with a psub(T) of 0.45 GeV/c is associated with a charm particle decay. The flight times of the two beauty particles are respectively (0.8 +- 0.1).10/sup -13/s and (5sub(-1)/sup +2/).10/sup -13/s. Alternative interpretations of this event have negligible probability.

  15. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2011-01-15

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q{sup 2}>10 GeV{sup 2}, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb{sup -1}. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 beauty production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F{sub 2} was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q{sup 2}. (orig.)

  16. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to..., direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and publicity at industry meetings, symposia, conferences, and trade shows. The application deadline has been extended to...

  17. Direct observation of the decay of beauty particles into charm particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, J.P.; Alpe, V.; Aoki, S.; Arnold, R.; Baroni, G.; Barth, M.; Bartley, J.H.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Bisi, V.; Breslin, A.C.; Carboni, G.; Chesi, E.; Chiba, K.; Cook, G.S.; Coupland, M.; Crosetti, G.; Davis, D.H.; Dell'Uomo, S.; Di Liberto, S.; Bonnelly, W.; Duff, B.G.; Esten, M.J.; Gamba, D.; Gerke, C.; Hazama, M.; Heymann, F.F.; Hoshino, K.; Imrie, D.C.; Isokane, Y.; Kazuno, M.; Kodama, Y.; Lush, G.J.; Maeda, Y.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Miyanishi, M.; Montwill, A.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Musset, P.; Nakamura, M.; Nakazawa, K.; Natali, S.; Niu, K.; Niwa, K.; Nuzzo, S.; Ohashi, M.; Piuz, F.; Poulard, G.; Ramello, L.; Riccati, L.; Romano, G.; Roosen, R.; Rosa, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Sato, Y.; Sasaki, H.; Sgarbi, C.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sletten, H.; Tasaka, S.; Tesuka, I.; Tomita, Y.; Tovee, D.N.; Trent, P.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Ushida, N.; Yamakawa, O.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Aichi Women's Coll., Nisshin-Cho; Bari Univ.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari; Birkbeck Coll., London; Interuniversity Inst. for High Energies, Brussels; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva; University Coll., Dublin; Gifu Univ.; University Coll., London; Nagoya Univ.; Nagoya Inst. of Tech.; Rome Univ.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome; Toho Univ., Funabashi, Chiba; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin; Turin Univ.; Utsunomiya Univ.; Yokohama National Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The associated production of a pair of beauty particles B - and anti B 0 by a 350 GeV π - interaction has been observed in an emulsion target inserted in an array of silicon microstrip detectors. Both beauty particles decay into charm particles, both of which are also observed to decay in the emulsion. Two negative muons were identified and their momenta measured in a large muon spectrometer. One muon has a psub(T) of 1.9 GeV/c and is associated with a beauty particle decay. The other, with a psub(T) of 0.45 GeV/c is associated with a charm particle decay. The flight times of the two beauty particles are respectively (0.8+-0.1).10 -13 s and (5sub(-1) +2 ).10 -13 s. Alternative interpretations of this event have negligible probability. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of beauty production at HERA using events with muons and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Olaf

    2005-01-01

    Several new measurements of beauty production at HERA have been presented at this conference. In this talk we report about the H1 measurement using events with a muon associated to a jet. This is the first beauty analysis at HERA, where both the long lifetime and the large mass of b-flavoured hadrons are exploited to identify the beauty events, leading to an improved signal separation. Differential cross sections are measured both in photoproduction and in deep inelastic scattering. The measured data are found to be somewhat higher then perturbative QCD calculations to next-to-leading order. A significant excess is observed in certain corners of the kinematic phase space. At the end of this report new and recent beauty measurements are summarised

  19. Sleep disorders and work performance: findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Leslie M; Arnedt, J Todd; Rosekind, Mark R; Belenky, Gregory; Balkin, Thomas J; Drake, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is common among workers, and has been associated with negative work outcomes, including absenteeism and occupational accidents. The objective of the present study is to characterize reciprocal relationships between sleep and work. Specifically, we examined how sleep impacts work performance and how work affects sleep in individuals not at-risk for a sleep disorder; assessed work performance outcomes for individuals at-risk for sleep disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and characterized work performance impairments in shift workers (SW) at-risk for shift work sleep disorders relative to SW and day workers. One-thousand Americans who work 30 h per week or more were asked questions about employment, work performance and sleep in the National Sleep Foundation's 2008 Sleep in America telephone poll. Long work hours were associated with shorter sleep times, and shorter sleep times were associated with more work impairments. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were classified as at-risk for any sleep disorder. These individuals had more negative work outcomes as compared with those not at-risk for a sleep disorder. Presenteeism was a significant problem for individuals with insomnia symptoms, OSA and RLS as compared with respondents not at-risk. These results suggest that long work hours may contribute to chronic sleep loss, which may in turn result in work impairment. Risk for sleep disorders substantially increases the likelihood of negative work outcomes, including occupational accidents, absenteeism and presenteeism. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. The Biology of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, John; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep have occurred over the past decade. Much of this progress can be attributed to the development of new neuroscience tools that have enabled high-precision interrogation of brain circuitry linked with REM sleep control, in turn revealing how REM sleep mechanisms themselves impact processes such as sensorimotor function. This review is intended to update the general scientific community about the recent mechanistic, functional and conceptual developments in our current understanding of REM sleep biology and pathobiology. Specifically, this review outlines the historical origins of the discovery of REM sleep, the diversity of REM sleep expression across and within species, the potential functions of REM sleep (e.g., memory consolidation), the neural circuits that control REM sleep, and how dysfunction of REM sleep mechanisms underlie debilitating sleep disorders such as REM sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy. PMID:26766231

  1. Being an online celebrity: Norms and expectations of YouTube’s beauty community

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rapp, Florencia; Roca-Cuberes, Carles

    2017-01-01

    This paper is based on 22 months of online fieldwork examining YouTube’s beauty community, specifically the beauty guru Bubz, her uploaded content, and user comments. We aim to conceptualize central community-specific dynamics and practices, particularly those related to self-presentation and identity management and their affordances for legitimized online popularity. We explain how the guru’s successful online persona is based on a performative blend of relatable, down-to-earth values paired...

  2. The Digital media phenomenon of Youtube beauty gurus : the case of Bubzbeaty

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rapp, Florencia

    2018-01-01

    This thesis is submitted as a compilation of five publications. With the aim of contributing to the theorizing of digital media culture and practices, I explore the current phenomenon of online popularity as exemplified by influential personalities like YouTube beauty gurus. The study focuses on a popular beauty content producer, Bubz, and her channel Bubzbeauty. Looking at content, meaning, and interactions through qualitative, ethnographically-oriented research, the thesis sheds light into ...

  3. Contributions of Consumer-perceived Creativity and Beauty to Willingness-to-pay for Design Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Thomas; Kristensen, Tore; Reber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    experiments using designer lamps and wrist watches as stimuli, the present study shows how creativity and beauty both positively influence consumer willingness-to-pay (WtP) for the designed product, but each explains different parts of the variance. The results show that it is essential to develop separate...... models of creativity and beauty evaluations in consumer psychology, in that they seem to be distinct factors, explaining different parts of the variance in their consequences on WtP....

  4. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzadi, Ramoona

    2011-01-01

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q 2 >10 GeV 2 , using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb -1 . The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 T e e 2 was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q 2 . (orig.)

  5. Women and men integrate facial information differently in appraising the beauty of a face

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Facial beauty plays a crucial role in social interactions, particularly in mating and reproduction. Therefore, the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms used for facial beauty assessment should be susceptible to different evolutionary and cultural pressures across genders and thus shape different observational appraising strategies. Using a novel approach, I evaluated the observers' subjective and unique importance given to specific facial attributes: eyes, nose, lips, and hair, and their spati...

  6. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Gueta, O.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A.

    2011-01-01

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q 2 >10 GeV 2 , using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb -1 . The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 T e e vertical stroke 2 was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q 2 . (orig.)

  7. Prediction of super-heavy N⁎ and Λ⁎ resonances with hidden beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiajun; Zhao Lu; Zou, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    The meson-baryon coupled channel unitary approach with the local hidden gauge formalism is extended to the hidden beauty sector. A few narrow N ⁎ and Λ ⁎ resonances around 11 GeV are predicted as dynamically generated states from the interactions of heavy beauty mesons and baryons. Production cross sections of these predicted resonances in pp and ep collisions are estimated as a guide for the possible experimental search at relevant facilities.

  8. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  9. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).

  10. Male Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder? Guys, Guises and Disguise in Patrick White’s The Twyborn Affair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Vernay

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer reviewed article. “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder”, which first appeared in the 3rd century BC in Greek, quickly gained proverbial currency in the English language thanks to its wisdom. Admittedly, whenever beauty has been acknowledged, one should take it primarily as a comment on the beholder rather than on the model. In heterosexual relationships, male beauty would thus be informative of the female gaze and conception of aesthetics. But what of homosexual relationships? Logically, male beauty would inform as much on the aesthetics of the beholder as on the canons of male beauty through the representation of the perfect man. Now what if the male model appeals to both male and female beholders? Can gay men and straight women share the same aesthetics of the male body? Do they seek and value the same things in a partner? And then what if the male model switches to female beauty all the while sustaining an unflinching power of seduction? Would that prove that beauty is genderless or would that mean that desirability is unrelated to beauty? On a creative level, when White depicts an ambiguous protean protagonist, beauty essentially relies on his characterization skills. But is male beauty objectively inherent to the model or is it solely to be found in the novelist’s subjective representation of his central character?

  11. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  12. Sleep regulation and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E.J.W.; Cluydts, R.; Pfaff, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    For years, the subject of sleep failed to generate much interest from either the field of medicine or that of psychology - a curious fact, as a 60-year-old has spent some 20 years out of those 60 sleeping. In fact, up until the age of approximately three years, a child spends more time asleep than

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Download Download the ebook for further information Obstructive sleep ... high blood pressure, heart disease and decreased libido. In addition, OSA causes daytime ...

  14. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes beforehand. Keep consistent playtimes and mealtimes. Avoid stimulants, such as caffeine, near bedtime. Make the bedroom quiet, cozy, and perfect for sleeping. Use the bed only for sleeping — not for playing or watching TV. Limit food and drink before bedtime. Allow your child to ...

  15. Sleep and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.

  16. Sleep and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhao Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising global prevalence and incidence of obesity lead to increased cardiovascular-renal complications and cancers. Epidemiological studies reported a worldwide trend towards suboptimal sleep duration and poor sleep quality in parallel with this obesity epidemic. From rodents and human models, it is highly plausible that abnormalities in sleep, both quantity and quality, impact negatively on energy metabolism. While excess dietary intake and physical inactivity are the known drivers of the obesity epidemic, promotion of healthy sleep habits has emerged as a new target to combat obesity. In this light, present review focuses on the existing literature examining the relationship between sleep physiology and energy homeostasis. Notably, sleep dysregulation perturbs the metabolic milieu via alterations in hormones such as leptin and ghrelin, eating behavior, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, shift work and trans-meridian air travel may exert a negative influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trigger circadian misalignment, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation. Amassing evidence has also suggested that uncoupling of the circadian clock can increase the risk of adverse metabolic health. Given the importance of sleep in maintaining energy homeostasis and that it is potentially modifiable, promoting good sleep hygiene may create new avenues for obesity prevention and treatment.

  17. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  18. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A.; Stegenga, B.; Wijkstra, P. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Meinesz, A. F.; de Bont, L. G. M.

    In clinical practice, oral appliances are used primarily for obstructive sleep apnea patients who do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We hypothesized that an oral appliance is not inferior to CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea effectively. We randomly assigned

  20. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with