WorldWideScience

Sample records for sleep regulation studied

  1. Combining Human Epigenetics and Sleep Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans: A Cross-Species Approach for Finding Conserved Genes Regulating Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiyan; Zhu, Yong; Eliot, Melissa N; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E; Carskadon, Mary A; Hart, Anne C

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test a combined approach to identify conserved genes regulating sleep and to explore the association between DNA methylation and sleep length. We identified candidate genes associated with shorter versus longer sleep duration in college students based on DNA methylation using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. Orthologous genes in Caenorhabditis elegans were identified, and we examined whether their loss of function affected C. elegans sleep. For genes whose perturbation affected C. elegans sleep, we subsequently undertook a small pilot study to re-examine DNA methylation in an independent set of human participants with shorter versus longer sleep durations. Eighty-seven out of 485,577 CpG sites had significant differential methylation in young adults with shorter versus longer sleep duration, corresponding to 52 candidate genes. We identified 34 C. elegans orthologs, including NPY/flp-18 and flp-21, which are known to affect sleep. Loss of five additional genes alters developmentally timed C. elegans sleep (B4GALT6/bre-4, DOCK180/ced-5, GNB2L1/rack-1, PTPRN2/ida-1, ZFYVE28/lst-2). For one of these genes, ZFYVE28 (also known as hLst2), the pilot replication study again found decreased DNA methylation associated with shorter sleep duration at the same two CpG sites in the first intron of ZFYVE28. Using an approach that combines human epigenetics and C. elegans sleep studies, we identified five genes that play previously unidentified roles in C. elegans sleep. We suggest sleep duration in humans may be associated with differential DNA methylation at specific sites and that the conserved genes identified here likely play roles in C. elegans sleep and in other species. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sleep regulation and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E.J.W.; Cluydts, R.; Pfaff, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    For years, the subject of sleep failed to generate much interest from either the field of medicine or that of psychology - a curious fact, as a 60-year-old has spent some 20 years out of those 60 sleeping. In fact, up until the age of approximately three years, a child spends more time asleep than

  3. Adenosine A1 receptors in human sleep regulation studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, E.

    2007-01-01

    in the namuron sleep. These effects were not observed in the subjects who received caffeine. Correlation analysis revealed no relationship between 18 F-CPFPX binding and theta and delta EEG power in waking and nonREM sleep. However, significant negative associations were found between the 18 F-CPFPX uptake and alpha (8-12 Hz) power in both wakefulness and nonREM sleep under baseline conditions (before sleep deprivation). Moreover, in the placebo group a positive correlation was observed between the change in radioligand binding and the change in waking EEG alpha power during sleep deprivation. Such correlations were not found in the caffeine group. Our findings confirm high A 1 AR concentration in brain regions involved in sleep. The results suggest that sleep deprivation and caffeine have no significant effects on A 1 AR occupancy, and challenge the hypothesis of a prominent involvement of the A 1 AR in the homeostatic regulation of sleep. However, they indicate an association between the EEG alpha power density and cerebral A 1 AR binding. EEG alpha activity is known to exhibit high interindividual variability, and power within the alpha frequency range in waking is modulated by the level of alertness. The correlations found for 18 F-CPFPX binding and alpha activity support a role of the A 1 AR in modulating vigilance in humans, but the A 1 AR does not appear to be responsible for the effects of caffeine on waking and sleep EEG. A test and retest study in a larger group of volunteers would be necessary in order to demonstrate reproducibility and also to consolidate the statistical significance of the data. Furthermore, a PET study with the selective A 2A AR antagonist 11 C-TMSX could be an important step forward in specifying the functions of the A 2A AR in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. (author)

  4. Normal sleep and its neurophysiological regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.F.; Talamini, L.M.; Watson, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Normal sleep consists of two states: NREM (light and deep sleep) and REM, alternating in a cyclical pattern. The sleep/wake rhythm is regulated by two processes: the sleep propensity, building up during wake, and the circadian rhythm, imposed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The arousal pathways in

  5. Sleep and Self-Regulation from Birth to 7 Years: A Retrospective Study of Children with and Without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder at 8 to 9 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-06-01

    To examine mean level differences and longitudinal and reciprocal relations among behavioral sleep problems, emotional dysregulation, and attentional regulation across early childhood for children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at 8 to 9 years. This study used data from Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC)-Infant Cohort (n = 4,109 analyzed). Children with and without ADHD were identified at age 8 to 9 years via parent report of ADHD diagnosis and the 5-item Inattention-Hyperactivity subscale from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Maternal report of child sleep problems and self-regulation was collected at 0 to 1, 2 to 3, 4 to 5, and 6 to 7 years of age. Analysis of variance was used to compare mean level differences in sleep problems and emotional and attentional regulation by ADHD group. Longitudinal structural equation modeling examined the relations among sleep and self-regulation across time in children with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD had persistently elevated levels of sleep problems (from infancy) and emotional and attentional dysregulation compared to controls (from 2 to 3 years of age). Sleep problems, emotional dysregulation, and attentional regulation were stable over time for both groups. Sleep problems were associated with greater emotional dysregulation 2 years later from 2 to 3 years of age for both groups, which in turn was associated with poorer attentional regulation. There was no direct relationship between sleep problems and later attentional regulation. Sleep problems in children with and without ADHD are associated with emotional dysregulation, which in turn contributes to poorer attentional functioning. This study highlights the importance of assessing and managing sleep problems in young children.

  6. The Role of ATP in Sleep Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko eChikahisa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the functions of sleep is to maintain energy balance in the brain. There are a variety of hypotheses related to how metabolic pathways interact with sleep/wake regulation. A major finding that demonstrates an interaction between sleep and metabolic homeostasis is the involvement of adenosine in sleep homeostasis. An accumulation of adenosine is supplied from ATP, which can act as an energy currency in the cell. Extracellularly, ATP can act as an activity-dependent signaling molecule, especially in regard to communication between neurons and glia, including astrocytes. Furthermore, the intracellular AMP/ATP ratio controls the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, which is a potent energy regulator and is recently reported to play a role in the regulation of sleep homeostasis. Brain ATP may support multiple functions in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle and sleep homeostasis.

  7. Differential modulation of global and local neural oscillations in REM sleep by homeostatic sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bowon; Kocsis, Bernat; Hwang, Eunjin; Kim, Youngsoo; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W; Choi, Jee Hyun

    2017-02-28

    Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases. This pattern followed a common rule despite marked topographic differences. The findings suggest that REM sleep slow oscillations may translate top-down homeostatic control to widely separated brain regions whereas fast oscillations synchronizing local neuronal ensembles escape this global command. These patterns of EEG oscillation changes are interpreted to reconcile two prevailing theories of the function of sleep, synaptic homeostasis and sleep dependent memory consolidation.

  8. Glycogen metabolism and the homeostatic regulation of sleep

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Jean-Marie

    2014-11-16

    In 1995 Benington and Heller formulated an energy hypothesis of sleep centered on a key role of glycogen. It was postulated that a major function of sleep is to replenish glycogen stores in the brain that have been depleted during wakefulness which is associated to an increased energy demand. Astrocytic glycogen depletion participates to an increase of extracellular adenosine release which influences sleep homeostasis. Here, we will review some evidence obtained by studies addressing the question of a key role played by glycogen metabolism in sleep regulation as proposed by this hypothesis or by an alternative hypothesis named “glycogenetic” hypothesis as well as the importance of the confounding effect of glucocorticoïds. Even though actual collected data argue in favor of a role of sleep in brain energy balance-homeostasis, they do not support a critical and direct involvement of glycogen metabolism on sleep regulation. For instance, glycogen levels during the sleep-wake cycle are driven by different physiological signals and therefore appear more as a marker-integrator of brain energy status than a direct regulator of sleep homeostasis. In support of this we provide evidence that blockade of glycogen mobilization does not induce more sleep episodes during the active period while locomotor activity is reduced. These observations do not invalidate the energy hypothesis of sleep but indicate that underlying cellular mechanisms are more complex than postulated by Benington and Heller.

  9. Regulation of adolescent sleep: implications for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A; Acebo, Christine; Jenni, Oskar G

    2004-06-01

    Adolescent development is accompanied by profound changes in the timing and amounts of sleep and wakefulness. Many aspects of these changes result from altered psychosocial and life-style circumstances that accompany adolescence. The maturation of biological processes regulating sleep/wake systems, however, may be strongly related to the sleep timing and amount during adolescence-either as "compelling" or "permissive" factors. The two-process model of sleep regulation posits a fundamental sleep-wake homeostatic process (process S) working in concert with the circadian biological timing system (process C) as the primary intrinsic regulatory factors. How do these systems change during adolescence? We present data from adolescent participants examining EEG markers of sleep homeostasis to evaluate whether process S shows maturational changes permissive of altered sleep patterns across puberty. Our data indicate that certain aspects of the homeostatic system are unchanged from late childhood to young adulthood, while other features change in a manner that is permissive of later bedtimes in older adolescents. We also show alterations of the circadian timing system indicating a possible circadian substrate for later adolescent sleep timing. The circadian parameters we have assessed include phase, period, melatonin secretory pattern, light sensitivity, and phase relationships, all of which show evidence of changes during pubertal development with potential to alter sleep patterns substantially. However the changes are mediated-whether through process S, process C, or by a combination-many adolescents have too little sleep at the wrong circadian phase. This pattern is associated with increased risks for excessive sleepiness, difficulty with mood regulation, impaired academic performance, learning difficulties, school tardiness and absenteeism, and accidents and injuries.

  10. Sleep regulation: physiological models and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbély, A A

    1995-06-01

    The elucidation of sleep regulation is not an easy task. On one side, there is a multitude of solid yet disparate data, on the other side, the topic is tempting for engaging in wild speculation, particularly with respect to the functions of sleep. Models may exert a moderating influence by mediating between the two extremes. However, also they navigate between the risk of banality in reformulating the obvious, and the peril of fancy in losing touch with empirical reality.

  11. Retino-hypothalamic regulation of light-induced murine sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanuel eMuindi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The temporal organization of sleep is regulated by an interaction between the circadian clock and homeostatic processes. Light indirectly modulates sleep through its ability to phase shift and entrain the circadian clock. Light can also exert a direct, circadian-independent effect on sleep. For example, acute exposure to light promotes sleep in nocturnal animals and wake in diurnal animals. The mechanisms whereby light directly influences sleep and arousal are not well understood. In this review, we discuss the direct effect of light on sleep at the level of the retina and hypothalamus in rodents. We review murine data from recent publications showing the roles of rod-, cone- and melanopsin-based photoreception on the initiation and maintenance of light-induced sleep. We also present hypotheses about hypothalamic mechanisms that have been advanced to explain the acute control of sleep by light. Specifically, we review recent studies assessing the roles of the ventrolateral preoptic area and the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We also discuss how light might differentially promote sleep and arousal in nocturnal and diurnal animals respectively. Lastly, we suggest new avenues for research on this topic which is still in its early stages.

  12. Medical Imaging for Understanding Sleep Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth

    2011-10-01

    Sleep is essential for the health of the nervous system. Lack of sleep has a profound negative effect on cognitive ability and task performance. During sustained military operations, soldiers often suffer from decreased quality and quantity of sleep, increasing their susceptibility to neurological problems and limiting their ability to perform the challenging mental tasks that their missions require. In the civilian sector, inadequate sleep and overt sleep pathology are becoming more common, with many detrimental impacts. There is a strong need for new, in vivo studies of human brains during sleep, particularly the initial descent from wakefulness. Our research team is investigating sleep using a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and electroencephalography (EEG). High resolution MRI combined with PET enables localization of biochemical processes (e.g., metabolism) to anatomical structures. MRI methods can also be used to examine functional connectivity among brain regions. Neural networks are dynamically reordered during different sleep stages, reflecting the disconnect with the waking world and the essential yet unconscious brain activity that occurs during sleep.[4pt] In collaboration with Linda Larson-Prior, Washington University; Alpay Ozcan, Virginia Tech; Seong Mun, Virginia Tech; and Zang-Hee Cho, Gachon University.

  13. The suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates sleep timing and amount in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Easton, Amy; Meerlo, Peter; Bergmann, Bernard; Turek, Fred W.

    2004-01-01

    Context: Sleep is regulated by circadian and homeostatic processes. The circadian pacemaker, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), regulates the timing and consolidation of the sleep-wake cycle, while a homeostatic mechanism governs the accumulation of sleep debt and sleep, recovery. Recent

  14. Metabolic signals in sleep regulation: recent insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Charu Shukla, Radhika Basheer Department of Psychiatry, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, West Roxbury, MA, USA Abstract: Sleep and energy balance are essential for health. The two processes act in concert to regulate central and peripheral homeostasis. During sleep, energy is conserved due to suspended activity, movement, and sensory responses, and is redirected to restore and replenish proteins and their assemblies into cellular structures. During wakefulness, various energy-demanding activities lead to hunger. Thus, hunger promotes arousal, and subsequent feeding, followed by satiety that promotes sleep via changes in neuroendocrine or neuropeptide signals. These signals overlap with circuits of sleep-wakefulness, feeding, and energy expenditure. Here, we will briefly review the literature that describes the interplay between the circadian system, sleep-wake, and feeding-fasting cycles that are needed to maintain energy balance and a healthy metabolic profile. In doing so, we describe the neuroendocrine, hormonal/peptide signals that integrate sleep and feeding behavior with energy metabolism. Keywords: sleep, energy balance, hypothalamus, metabolism, homeostasis

  15. Adenosine A{sub 1} receptors in human sleep regulation studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and positron emission tomography (PET)[Dissertation 17227

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissler, E

    2007-07-01

    sleep deprivation induced increase in the markers of sleep homeostasis, namely theta (5-8 Hz) power in waking and delta (1-4 Hz) power in the namuron sleep. These effects were not observed in the subjects who received caffeine. Correlation analysis revealed no relationship between {sup 18}F-CPFPX binding and theta and delta EEG power in waking and nonREM sleep. However, significant negative associations were found between the {sup 18}F-CPFPX uptake and alpha (8-12 Hz) power in both wakefulness and nonREM sleep under baseline conditions (before sleep deprivation). Moreover, in the placebo group a positive correlation was observed between the change in radioligand binding and the change in waking EEG alpha power during sleep deprivation. Such correlations were not found in the caffeine group. Our findings confirm high A{sub 1}AR concentration in brain regions involved in sleep. The results suggest that sleep deprivation and caffeine have no significant effects on A{sub 1}AR occupancy, and challenge the hypothesis of a prominent involvement of the A{sub 1}AR in the homeostatic regulation of sleep. However, they indicate an association between the EEG alpha power density and cerebral A{sub 1}AR binding. EEG alpha activity is known to exhibit high interindividual variability, and power within the alpha frequency range in waking is modulated by the level of alertness. The correlations found for {sup 18}F-CPFPX binding and alpha activity support a role of the A{sub 1}AR in modulating vigilance in humans, but the A{sub 1}AR does not appear to be responsible for the effects of caffeine on waking and sleep EEG. A test and retest study in a larger group of volunteers would be necessary in order to demonstrate reproducibility and also to consolidate the statistical significance of the data. Furthermore, a PET study with the selective A{sub 2A}AR antagonist {sup 11}C-TMSX could be an important step forward in specifying the functions of the A{sub 2A}AR in the regulation of the sleep

  16. Regulation of sleep by neuropeptide Y-like system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia He

    Full Text Available Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY, a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF, is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1 on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies.

  17. Acute Effect of Alcohol Intake on Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation During the First Hours of Sleep in a Large Real-World Sample of Finnish Employees: Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Julia; Helander, Elina; Korhonen, Ilkka; Myllymäki, Tero; Kujala, Urho M; Lindholm, Harri

    2018-03-16

    Sleep is fundamental for good health, and poor sleep has been associated with negative health outcomes. Alcohol consumption is a universal health behavior associated with poor sleep. In controlled laboratory studies, alcohol intake has been shown to alter physiology and disturb sleep homeostasis and architecture. The association between acute alcohol intake and physiological changes has not yet been studied in noncontrolled real-world settings. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of alcohol intake on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during sleep in a large noncontrolled sample of Finnish employees. From a larger cohort, this study included 4098 subjects (55.81%, 2287/4098 females; mean age 45.1 years) who had continuous beat-to-beat R-R interval recordings of good quality for at least 1 day with and for at least 1 day without alcohol intake. The participants underwent continuous beat-to-beat R-R interval recording during their normal everyday life and self-reported their alcohol intake as doses for each day. Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and HRV-derived indices of physiological state from the first 3 hours of sleep were used as outcomes. Within-subject analyses were conducted in a repeated measures manner by studying the differences in the outcomes between each participant's days with and without alcohol intake. For repeated measures two-way analysis of variance, the participants were divided into three groups: low (≤0.25 g/kg), moderate (>0.25-0.75 g/kg), and high (>0.75 g/kg) intake of pure alcohol. Moreover, linear models studied the differences in outcomes with respect to the amount of alcohol intake and the participant's background parameters (age; gender; body mass index, BMI; physical activity, PA; and baseline sleep HR). Alcohol intake was dose-dependently associated with increased sympathetic regulation, decreased parasympathetic regulation, and insufficient recovery. In addition to moderate and high alcohol doses, the

  18. Emotion, emotion regulation and sleep: An intimate relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vandekerckhove

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research has witnessed an increasing interest in the bidirectional relationship between emotion and sleep. Sleep seems important for restoring daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more emotionally aroused and sensitive to stressful stimuli and events. Sleep appears to be essential to our ability to cope with emotional stress in everyday life. However, when daily stress is insufficiently regulated, it may result in mental health problems and sleep disturbances too. Not only does emotion impact sleep, but there is also evidence that sleep plays a key role in regulating emotion. Emotional events during waking hours affect sleep, and the quality and amount of sleep influences the way we react to these events impacting our general well-being. Although we know that daytime emotional stress affects sleep by influencing sleep physiology, dream patterns, dream content and the emotion within a dream, its exact role is still unclear. Other effects that have been found are the exaggeration of the startle response, decrease in dream recall and elevation of awakening thresholds from rapid eye movement (REM, REM-sleep, increased or decreased latency to REM-sleep, increase in percentage of REM-density, REM-sleep duration, as well as the occurrence of arousals in sleep as a marker of sleep disruption. Equally, the way an individual copes with emotional stress, or the way in which an individual regulates emotion may modulate the effects of emotional stress on sleep. The research presented here supports the idea that adaptive emotion regulation benefits our follow-up sleep. We thus conclude the current review with a call for future research in order to clarify further the precise relationship between sleep, emotion and emotion regulation, as well as to explain further how sleep dissolves our emotional stress.

  19. Emotion, emotion regulation and sleep: An intimate relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Vandekerckhove; Yu-lin Wang

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research has witnessed an increasing interest in the bidirectional relationship between emotion and sleep. Sleep seems important for restoring daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more emotionally aroused and sensitive to stressful stimuli and events. Sleep appears to be essential to our ability to cope with emotional stress in everyday life. However, when daily stress is insufficiently regulated, it may result in mental health problems and sleep disturban...

  20. Study of Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems Among Medical Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students ...

  1. Infant Sleep Predicts Attention Regulation and Behavior Problems at 3-4 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; De Marcas, Gali; Guri, Yael; Berger, Andrea; Tikotzky, Liat; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the role of early sleep patterns in predicting attention regulation and behavior problems. Sleep of 43 infants was assessed using actigraphy at 12 months of age and then reassessed when the children were 3-4 years old. During this follow-up, their attention regulation and behavior problems were also assessed using a computerized test and parental reports. Lower quality of sleep in infancy significantly predicted compromised attention regulation and behavior problems. These findings underscore the need to identify and treat early sleep problems.

  2. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Neurons Containing Orexin or Melanin Concentrating Hormone Reciprocally Regulate Wake and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roda Rani eKonadhode

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable amount of data on arousal neurons whereas there is a paucity of knowledge regarding neurons that make us fall asleep. Indeed, current network models of sleep-wake regulation list many arousal neuronal populations compared to only one sleep group located in the preoptic area. There are neurons outside the preoptic area that are active during sleep, but they have never been selectively manipulated. Indeed, none of the sleep-active neurons have been selectively stimulated. To close this knowledge gap we used optogenetics to selectively manipulate neurons containing melanin concentrating hormone (MCH. The MCH neurons are located in the posterior hypothalamus intermingled with the orexin arousal neurons. Our data indicated that optogenetic stimulation of MCH neurons in wildtype mice (J Neuroscience, 2013 robustly increased both non-REM and REM sleep. MCH neuron stimulation increased sleep during the animal’s normal active period, which is compelling evidence that stimulation of MCH neurons has a powerful effect in counteracting the strong arousal signal from all of the arousal neurons. The MCH neurons represent the only group of sleep-active neurons that when selectively stimulated induce sleep. From a translational perspective this is potentially useful in sleep disorders, such as insomnia, where sleep needs to be triggered against a strong arousal drive. Our studies indicate that the MCH neurons belong within an overall model of sleep-wake regulation.

  4. ERK phosphorylation regulates sleep and plasticity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Vanderheyden

    Full Text Available Given the relationship between sleep and plasticity, we examined the role of Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK in regulating baseline sleep, and modulating the response to waking experience. Both sleep deprivation and social enrichment increase ERK phosphorylation in wild-type flies. The effects of both sleep deprivation and social enrichment on structural plasticity in the LNvs can be recapitulated by expressing an active version of ERK (UAS-ERK(SEM pan-neuronally in the adult fly using GeneSwitch (Gsw Gsw-elav-GAL4. Conversely, disrupting ERK reduces sleep and prevents both the behavioral and structural plasticity normally induced by social enrichment. Finally, using transgenic flies carrying a cAMP response Element (CRE-luciferase reporter we show that activating ERK enhances CRE-Luc activity while disrupting ERK reduces it. These data suggest that ERK phosphorylation is an important mediator in transducing waking experience into sleep.

  5. Plasticity during Sleep Is Linked to Specific Regulation of Cortical Circuit Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Niethard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is thought to be involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity in two ways: by enhancing local plastic processes underlying the consolidation of specific memories and by supporting global synaptic homeostasis. Here, we briefly summarize recent structural and functional studies examining sleep-associated changes in synaptic morphology and neural excitability. These studies point to a global down-scaling of synaptic strength across sleep while a subset of synapses increases in strength. Similarly, neuronal excitability on average decreases across sleep, whereas subsets of neurons increase firing rates across sleep. Whether synapse formation and excitability is down or upregulated across sleep appears to partly depend on the cell’s activity level during wakefulness. Processes of memory-specific upregulation of synapse formation and excitability are observed during slow wave sleep (SWS, whereas global downregulation resulting in elimination of synapses and decreased neural firing is linked to rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep. Studies of the excitation/inhibition balance in cortical circuits suggest that both processes are connected to a specific inhibitory regulation of cortical principal neurons, characterized by an enhanced perisomatic inhibition via parvalbumin positive (PV+ cells, together with a release from dendritic inhibition by somatostatin positive (SOM+ cells. Such shift towards increased perisomatic inhibition of principal cells appears to be a general motif which underlies the plastic synaptic changes observed during sleep, regardless of whether towards up or downregulation.

  6. Can sleep deprivation studies explain why human adults sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee K

    2012-11-01

    This review will concentrate on the consequences of sleep deprivation in adult humans. These findings form a paradigm that serves to demonstrate many of the critical functions of the sleep states. The drive to obtain food, water, and sleep constitutes important vegetative appetites throughout the animal kingdom. Unlike nutrition and hydration, the reasons for sleep have largely remained speculative. When adult humans are nonspecifically sleep-deprived, systemic effects may include defects in cognition, vigilance, emotional stability, risk-taking, and, possibly, moral reasoning. Appetite (for foodstuffs) increases and glucose intolerance may ensue. Procedural, declarative, and emotional memory are affected. Widespread alterations of immune function and inflammatory regulators can be observed, and functional MRI reveals profound changes in regional cerebral activity related to attention and memory. Selective deprivation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, on the contrary, appears to be more activating and to have lesser effects on immunity and inflammation. The findings support a critical need for sleep due to the widespread effects on the adult human that result from nonselective sleep deprivation. The effects of selective REM deprivation appear to be different and possibly less profound, and the functions of this sleep state remain enigmatic.

  7. Bedtime procrastination: a self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Floor|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313869871; Evers, Catharine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/280594232; Adriaanse, Marieke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823023; de Ridder, Denise|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174

    2016-01-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having

  8. Early Childhood Profiles of Sleep Problems and Self-Regulation Predict Later School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Walker, Sue; Berthelsen, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's sleep problems and self-regulation problems have been independently associated with poorer adjustment to school, but there has been limited exploration of longitudinal early childhood profiles that include both indicators. Aims: This study explores the normative developmental pathway for sleep problems and self-regulation…

  9. Shedding light to sleep studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieffenderfer, James; Krystal, Andrew; Bozkurt, Alper

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents our efforts in the development of a small wireless, flexible bandage sized near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system for sleep analysis. The current size of the system is 2.8 cm × 1.7 cm × 0.6 cm. It is capable of performing NIRS with 660nm, 940nm and 850nm wavelengths for up to 11 hours continuously. The device is placed on the forehead to measure from the prefrontal cortex and the raw data is continuously streamed over Bluetooth to a nearby data aggregator such as a smartphone for post processing and cloud connection. In this study, we performed traditional polysomnography simultaneously with NIRS to evaluate agreement with traditional measures of sleep and to provide labelled data for future work involving learning algorithms. Ultimately, we expect a machine learning algorithm to be able to generate characterization of sleep states comparable to traditional methods based on this biophotonics data. The system also includes an inertial measurement unit and the features that can be extracted from the presented system include sleep posture, heart rate, respiratory rate, relative change in oxy and deoxy hemoglobin concentrations and tissue oxygenation and cerebral arterial oxygen extracted from these. Preliminary proof of concept results are promising and demonstrate the capability to measure heart rate, respiratory rate and slow-wave-sleep stages. This system serves as a prototype to evaluate the potential of a small bandage-size continuous-wave NIRS device to be a useful means of studying sleep.

  10. translin Is Required for Metabolic Regulation of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kazuma; Yurgel, Maria E; Stahl, Bethany A; Masek, Pavel; Mehta, Aradhana; Heidker, Rebecca; Bollinger, Wesley; Gingras, Robert M; Kim, Young-Joon; Ja, William W; Suter, Beat; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2016-04-04

    Dysregulation of sleep or feeding has enormous health consequences. In humans, acute sleep loss is associated with increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, while chronically sleep-deprived individuals are more likely to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, metabolic state potently modulates sleep and circadian behavior; yet, the molecular basis for sleep-metabolism interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification of translin (trsn), a highly conserved RNA/DNA binding protein, as essential for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Strikingly, trsn does not appear to regulate energy stores, free glucose levels, or feeding behavior suggesting the sleep phenotype of trsn mutant flies is not a consequence of general metabolic dysfunction or blunted response to starvation. While broadly expressed in all neurons, trsn is transcriptionally upregulated in the heads of flies in response to starvation. Spatially restricted rescue or targeted knockdown localizes trsn function to neurons that produce the tachykinin family neuropeptide Leucokinin. Manipulation of neural activity in Leucokinin neurons revealed these neurons to be required for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Taken together, these findings establish trsn as an essential integrator of sleep and metabolic state, with implications for understanding the neural mechanism underlying sleep disruption in response to environmental perturbation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Sleep/Wake Cycle on Autonomic Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between irregular sleep/wake cycle in shift workers and autonomic regulation. Study Design: Cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Dow University Hospital, Karachi, from August to November 2013. Methodology: All health care providers working in rotating shifts making a total (n=104) were included. Instrument was an integrated questionnaire applied to assess autonomic regulation, taken from Kroz et al. on scoring criteria, ranging from 18 - 54, where higher rating signifies strong autonomic regulation, indicating a stable Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and vice versa. Participants were interviewed and their response was recorded by the investigator. Influence of sleep misalignment was measured quantitatively to extract index of autonomic activity. Results: There was a reduced trend in autonomic strength amongst shift workers. The mean score obtained on the Autonomic Scale was 37.8 ± 5.9. Conclusion: Circadian misalignment has an injurious influence on ANS which might be valuable in controlling autonomic dysfunction that leads to fatal triggers in rotating shift workers. (author)

  12. Sleep education in college: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students.

  13. EphA4 is Involved in Sleep Regulation but Not in the Electrophysiological Response to Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyburger, Marlène; Pierre, Audrey; Paquette, Gabrielle; Bélanger-Nelson, Erika; Bedont, Joseph; Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Drolet, Guy; Laforest, Sylvie; Blackshaw, Seth; Cermakian, Nicolas; Doucet, Guy; Mongrain, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    Optimal sleep is ensured by the interaction of circadian and homeostatic processes. Although synaptic plasticity seems to contribute to both processes, the specific players involved are not well understood. The EphA4 tyrosine kinase receptor is a cell adhesion protein regulating synaptic plasticity. We investigated the role of EphA4 in sleep regulation using electrocorticography in mice lacking EphA4 and gene expression measurements. EphA4 knockout (KO) mice, Clock(Δ19/Δ19) mutant mice and littermates, C57BL/6J and CD-1 mice, and Sprague-Dawley rats were studied under a 12 h light: 12 h dark cycle, under undisturbed conditions or 6 h sleep deprivation (SLD), and submitted to a 48 h electrophysiological recording and/or brain sampling at different time of day. EphA4 KO mice showed less rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), enhanced duration of individual bouts of wakefulness and nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the light period, and a blunted daily rhythm of NREMS sigma activity. The NREMS delta activity response to SLD was unchanged in EphA4 KO mice. However, SLD increased EphA4 expression in the thalamic/hypothalamic region in C57BL/6J mice. We further show the presence of E-boxes in the promoter region of EphA4, a lower expression of EphA4 in Clock mutant mice, a rhythmic expression of EphA4 ligands in several brain areas, expression of EphA4 in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN), and finally an unchanged number of cells expressing Vip, Grp and Avp in the SCN of EphA4 KO mice. Our results suggest that EphA4 is involved in circadian sleep regulation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Role of sleep duration in the regulation of glucose metabolism and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa; Leproult, Rachel; Balbo, Marcella; Spiegel, Karine

    2010-10-01

    Sleep curtailment has become a common behavior in modern society. This review summarizes the current laboratory evidence indicating that sleep loss may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Experimentally induced sleep loss in healthy volunteers decreases insulin sensitivity without adequate compensation in beta-cell function, resulting in impaired glucose tolerance and increased diabetes risk. Lack of sleep also down-regulates the satiety hormone leptin, up-regulates the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin, and increases hunger and food intake. Taken together with the epidemiologic evidence for an association between short sleep and the prevalence or incidence of diabetes mellitus and/or obesity, these results support a role for reduced sleep duration in the current epidemic of these metabolic disorders. Screening for habitual sleep patterns in patients with "diabesity" is therefore of great importance. Studies are warranted to investigate the putative therapeutic impact of extending sleep in habitual short sleepers with metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Why might poor sleep quality lead to depression? A role for emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kimberly; Bylsma, Lauren M; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Disordered sleep is strongly linked to future depression, but the reasons for this link are not well understood. This study tested one possibility - that poorer sleep impairs emotion regulation (ER), which over time leads to increased depressive symptoms. Our sample contained individuals with a wide range of depression symptoms (current depression, N = 54, remitted depression, N = 36, and healthy control, N = 53), who were followed clinically over six months and reassessed for changes in depressive symptom levels. As predicted, maladaptive ER mediated both cross-sectional and prospective relationships between poor sleep quality and depression symptoms. In contrast, an alternative mediator, physical activity levels, did not mediate the link between sleep quality and depression symptoms. Maladaptive ER may help explain why sleep difficulties contribute to depression symptoms; implications for interventions are discussed.

  16. Remission of encephalopathy with status epilepticus (ESES) during sleep renormalizes regulation of slow wave sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bölsterli, Bigna K.; Gardella, Elena; Pavlidis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In previous studies, we showed an altered overnight decrease of non–rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep slow waves in children with encephalopathy related to status epilepticus during sleep (ESES). Here, we test the hypothesis that these alterations renormalize after remission of ESES...

  17. Homeostatic and Circadian Contribution to EEG and Molecular State Variables of Sleep Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curie, Thomas; Mongrain, Valérie; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Mang, Géraldine M.; Emmenegger, Yann; Franken, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Besides their well-established role in circadian rhythms, our findings that the forebrain expression of the clock-genes Per2 and Dbp increases and decreases, respectively, in relation to time spent awake suggest they also play a role in the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Here, we determined whether time of day modulates the effects of elevated sleep pressure on clock-gene expression. Time of day effects were assessed also for recognized electrophysiological (EEG delta power) and molecular (Homer1a) markers of sleep homeostasis. Design: EEG and qPCR data were obtained for baseline and recovery from 6-h sleep deprivation starting at ZT0, -6, -12, or -18. Setting: Mouse sleep laboratory. Participants: Male mice. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Results: The sleep-deprivation induced changes in Per2 and Dbp expression importantly varied with time of day, such that Per2 could even decrease during sleep deprivations occurring at the decreasing phase in baseline. Dbp showed similar, albeit opposite dynamics. These unexpected results could be reliably predicted assuming that these transcripts behave according to a driven damped harmonic oscillator. As expected, the sleep-wake distribution accounted for a large degree of the changes in EEG delta power and Homer1a. Nevertheless, the sleep deprivation-induced increase in delta power varied also with time of day with higher than expected levels when recovery sleep started at dark onset. Conclusions: Per2 and delta power are widely used as exclusive state variables of the circadian and homeostatic process, respectively. Our findings demonstrate a considerable cross-talk between these two processes. As Per2 in the brain responds to both sleep loss and time of day, this molecule is well positioned to keep track of and to anticipate homeostatic sleep need. Citation: Curie T; Mongrain V; Dorsaz S; Mang GM; Emmenegger Y; Franken P. Homeostatic and circadian contribution to EEG and molecular state

  18. Advances in Sleep Studies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other neurological disorders. New evidence indicates that sleep is also important to maternal and fetal health during pregnancy. Untreated ... a sleep disorder and how severe it is. Sleep studies are important because untreated sleep disorders can raise your risk ...

  19. Who are Sleeping in Sleep Laboratory? A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Ayşe Altun Emirza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study is to compare the results of gold standard in diagnosing sleep disorders polysomnography (PSG with the physician’s preliminary diagnosis and complaints of patients in our data of sleep laboratory. METHODS: 656 patients who made PSG were included in the study. All of the patients age, gender, comorbid chronic disease, complaints, preliminary diagnosis and PSG diagnosis were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: In our study, the average age of patients was 56 and 43% women 57% were male. Complaints of patients were snoring, fatigue, stopped breath during sleep, insomnia, headache, daytime sleepiness, restless legs and abnormal behaviors during sleep. According to preliminary diagnoses and PSG diagnoses; Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS, narcolepsy, REM behavior disorder (RBD reduced (p 0.05. Sleep disorders in patients was accompanied by chronic diseases, hypertension (34.3%, diabetes (12.8%, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD (1.2%, epilepsy (1.8%, Parkinson's disease (3.5%, dementia (3.2%, depression (18.4%, cardiovascular disease (13.3% and cerebrovascular disease (4.9%. 9%. CONCLUSION: We are offering a good clinical history and physical examination with the correct interpretation of PSG for the differential diagnosis can be made true, accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatment modalities in our patients

  20. Melanopsin Regulates Both Sleep-Promoting and Arousal-Promoting Responses to Light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Pilorz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Light plays a critical role in the regulation of numerous aspects of physiology and behaviour, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep. These responses involve melanopsin (OPN4-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs in addition to rods and cones. Nocturnal light exposure in rodents has been shown to result in rapid sleep induction, in which melanopsin plays a key role. However, studies have also shown that light exposure can result in elevated corticosterone, a response that is not compatible with sleep. To investigate these contradictory findings and to dissect the relative contribution of pRGCs and rods/cones, we assessed the effects of light of different wavelengths on behaviourally defined sleep. Here, we show that blue light (470 nm causes behavioural arousal, elevating corticosterone and delaying sleep onset. By contrast, green light (530 nm produces rapid sleep induction. Compared to wildtype mice, these responses are altered in melanopsin-deficient mice (Opn4-/-, resulting in enhanced sleep in response to blue light but delayed sleep induction in response to green or white light. We go on to show that blue light evokes higher Fos induction in the SCN compared to the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO, whereas green light produced greater responses in the VLPO. Collectively, our data demonstrates that nocturnal light exposure can have either an arousal- or sleep-promoting effect, and that these responses are melanopsin-mediated via different neural pathways with different spectral sensitivities. These findings raise important questions relating to how artificial light may alter behaviour in both the work and domestic setting.

  1. Sleep in the human hippocampus: a stereo-EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moroni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is compelling evidence indicating that sleep plays a crucial role in the consolidation of new declarative, hippocampus-dependent memories. Given the increasing interest in the spatiotemporal relationships between cortical and hippocampal activity during sleep, this study aimed to shed more light on the basic features of human sleep in the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded intracerebral stereo-EEG directly from the hippocampus and neocortical sites in five epileptic patients undergoing presurgical evaluations. The time course of classical EEG frequency bands during the first three NREM-REM sleep cycles of the night was evaluated. We found that delta power shows, also in the hippocampus, the progressive decrease across sleep cycles, indicating that a form of homeostatic regulation of delta activity is present also in this subcortical structure. Hippocampal sleep was also characterized by: i a lower relative power in the slow oscillation range during NREM sleep compared to the scalp EEG; ii a flattening of the time course of the very low frequencies (up to 1 Hz across sleep cycles, with relatively high levels of power even during REM sleep; iii a decrease of power in the beta band during REM sleep, at odds with the typical increase of power in the cortical recordings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data imply that cortical slow oscillation is attenuated in the hippocampal structures during NREM sleep. The most peculiar feature of hippocampal sleep is the increased synchronization of the EEG rhythms during REM periods. This state of resonance may have a supportive role for the processing/consolidation of memory.

  2. Sick and tired: how molecular regulators of human sleep schedules and duration impact immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Philip A; Chong, S Y Christin; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Why do we need to sleep? What regulates when we sleep? And what dictates the number of hours we require? These are often viewed as three separate biological questions. Here, we propose they share molecular etiologies, whereby regulators of sleep schedules and sleep duration also govern the physiological purposes of sleep. To support our hypothesis, we review Mendelian human genetic variants sufficient to advance sleep-wake onset (PER2) and shorten sleep length (DEC2), and evaluate their emerging roles in immune responses that may rely on a sound night of slumber. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Unsupervised online classifier in sleep scoring for sleep deprivation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Corneyllie, Alexandra; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Chouvet, Guy; Gervasoni, Damien

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate an unsupervised adaptive algorithm for real-time detection of sleep and wake states in rodents. We designed a Bayesian classifier that automatically extracts electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) features and categorizes non-overlapping 5-s epochs into one of the three major sleep and wake states without any human supervision. This sleep-scoring algorithm is coupled online with a new device to perform selective paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD). Controlled laboratory settings for chronic polygraphic sleep recordings and selective PSD. Ten adult Sprague-Dawley rats instrumented for chronic polysomnographic recordings. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparison with the score obtained by a human expert reader. Online detection of PS is then validated with a PSD protocol with duration of 72 hours. Our algorithm gave a high concordance with human scoring with an average κ coefficient > 70%. Notably, the specificity to detect PS reached 92%. Selective PSD using real-time detection of PS strongly reduced PS amounts, leaving only brief PS bouts necessary for the detection of PS in EEG and EMG signals (4.7 ± 0.7% over 72 h, versus 8.9 ± 0.5% in baseline), and was followed by a significant PS rebound (23.3 ± 3.3% over 150 minutes). Our fully unsupervised data-driven algorithm overcomes some limitations of the other automated methods such as the selection of representative descriptors or threshold settings. When used online and coupled with our sleep deprivation device, it represents a better option for selective PSD than other methods like the tedious gentle handling or the platform method. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Polysomnography (Sleep Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this stage, your brain waves, as recorded by electroencephalography (EEG), slow down considerably. Your eyes don't move ... necessary, oxygen also may be used during the study to bolster your ... for PAP or oxygen in case your doctor would like to prescribe these for ...

  5. Pannexins Are Potential New Players in the Regulation of Cerebral Homeostasis during Sleep-Wake Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, Valery I; Panchin, Yuri; Tarasova, Olga S; Gaynullina, Dina; Kovalzon, Vladimir M

    2017-01-01

    During brain homeostasis, both neurons and astroglia release ATP that is rapidly converted to adenosine in the extracellular space. Pannexin-1 (Panx1) hemichannels represent a major conduit of non-vesicular ATP release from brain cells. Previous studies have shown that Panx1 -/- mice possess severe disruption of the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we review experimental data supporting the involvement of pannexins (Panx) in the coordination of fundamental sleep-associated brain processes, such as neuronal activity and regulation of cerebrovascular tone. Panx1 hemichannels are likely implicated in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle via an indirect effect of released ATP on adenosine receptors and through interaction with other somnogens, such as IL-1β, TNFα and prostaglandin D2. In addition to the recently established role of Panx1 in the regulation of endothelium-dependent arterial dilation, similar signaling pathways are the major cellular component of neurovascular coupling. The new discovered role of Panx in sleep regulation may have broad implications in coordinating neuronal activity and homeostatic housekeeping processes during the sleep-wake cycle.

  6. Pannexins Are Potential New Players in the Regulation of Cerebral Homeostasis during Sleep-Wake Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Shestopalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During brain homeostasis, both neurons and astroglia release ATP that is rapidly converted to adenosine in the extracellular space. Pannexin-1 (Panx1 hemichannels represent a major conduit of non-vesicular ATP release from brain cells. Previous studies have shown that Panx1−/− mice possess severe disruption of the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we review experimental data supporting the involvement of pannexins (Panx in the coordination of fundamental sleep-associated brain processes, such as neuronal activity and regulation of cerebrovascular tone. Panx1 hemichannels are likely implicated in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle via an indirect effect of released ATP on adenosine receptors and through interaction with other somnogens, such as IL-1β, TNFα and prostaglandin D2. In addition to the recently established role of Panx1 in the regulation of endothelium-dependent arterial dilation, similar signaling pathways are the major cellular component of neurovascular coupling. The new discovered role of Panx in sleep regulation may have broad implications in coordinating neuronal activity and homeostatic housekeeping processes during the sleep-wake cycle.

  7. Pharmacological Targeting the REV-ERBs in Sleep/Wake Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Ariadna; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Roberts, Amanda J.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock maintains appropriate timing for a wide range of behaviors and physiological processes. Circadian behaviors such as sleep and wakefulness are intrinsically dependent on the precise oscillation of the endogenous molecular machinery that regulates the circadian clock. The identical core clock machinery regulates myriad endocrine and metabolic functions providing a link between sleep and metabolic health. The REV-ERBs (REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) are nuclear receptors that are key regulators of the molecular clock and have been successfully targeted using small molecule ligands. Recent studies in mice suggest that REV-ERB-specific synthetic agonists modulate metabolic activity as well as alter sleep architecture, inducing wakefulness during the light period. Therefore, these small molecules represent unique tools to extensively study REV-ERB regulation of sleep and wakefulness. In these studies, our aim was to further investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting the REV-ERBs for regulation of sleep by characterizing efficacy, and optimal dosing time of the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Applying different experimental paradigms in mice, our studies establish that SR9009 does not lose efficacy when administered more than once a day, nor does tolerance develop when administered once a day over a three-day dosing regimen. Moreover, through use of a time response paradigm, we determined that although there is an optimal time for administration of SR9009 in terms of maximal efficacy, there is a 12-hour window in which SR9009 elicited a response. Our studies indicate that the REV-ERBs are potential therapeutic targets for treating sleep problems as those encountered as a consequence of shift work or jet lag. PMID:27603791

  8. Association of napping and night-time sleep with impaired glucose regulation, insulin resistance and glycated haemoglobin in Chinese middle-aged adults with no diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoying, Huang; Hongjie, Chen; Changsheng, Qiu; Peijian, Wu; Qingfei, Lin; Yinghua, Lin; Huibin, Huang; Jixing, Liang; Liantao, Li; Ling, Chen; Kaka, Tang; Zichun, Chen; Lixiang, Lin; Jieli, Lu; Yufang, Bi; Guang, Ning; Penli, Zhu; Junping, Wen; Gang, Chen

    2014-07-23

    To assess associations between napping and night-time sleep duration with impaired glucose regulation, insulin resistance (IR) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Cross-sectional study. Fujian Province, China, from June 2011 to January 2012. This study enrolled 9028 participants aged 40-65 years. Data of 7568 participants with no diabetes were included for analysis. Type 2 diabetes was defined applying WHO criteria. Participants' daytime napping and night-time sleep duration data were collected using a standardised self-reported Chinese-language questionnaire about sleep frequency and quality. Anthropometric and laboratory parameters were also measured. IR was defined as a HOMA-IR index value >2.50. ORs and 95% CIs were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. Participants (mean age 51.1±7.0 years) included 3060 males and 4508 females with average night-time sleep of 7.9 h. A higher proportion of males napped than females. After adjustment for potential confounders, ORs for HbA1c >6.0% were 1.28 and 1.26 for those napping ≤1 h and >1 h (p=0.002 and p=0.018), respectively. Statistically significant differences in IR between nappers and non-nappers were only marginal clinically. Odds for HbA1c >6.0% were significantly lower in participants with longer night-time sleep durations than in the reference group (>8 h vs 6-8 h). Odds for IR were significantly lower in participants whose night-time sleep hours deviated from the reference group (8 h vs 6-8 h) Chinese middle-aged adults with no diabetes who napped had higher HbA1c and IR; those with shorter night-time sleep durations had increased HbA1c. Night-time sleep hours that are either 8 tend to be associated with lower odds for IR. Further studies are necessary to determine the underlying clinical significance and mechanisms behind these associations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Regulation of neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling across the sleep-wake cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, J-M; Magistretti, P J

    2016-05-26

    Over the last thirty years, a growing number of studies showed that astrocytes play a pivotal role in the energy support to synapses. More precisely, astrocytes adjust energy production to neuronal energy needs through different mechanisms grouped under the term "neurometabolic coupling" (NMC). In this review we describe these mechanisms of coupling and how they involve astrocytes. From a physiological point of view, these mechanisms of coupling are particularly important to ensure normal synaptic functioning when neurons undergo rapid and repetitive changes in the firing rate such as during the sleep/wake transitions. Investigations into brain energy metabolism during the sleep/wake cycle have been mainly focused on glucose (Gluc) consumption and on glycogen metabolism. However, the recent development of substrate-specific biosensors allowed measurements of the variation in extracellular levels of glutamate, Gluc and lactate (Lac) with a time resolution compatible with sleep stage duration. Together with gene expression data these experiments allowed to better define the variations of energy metabolite regulation across the sleep/wake cycle. The aim of this review is to bring into perspective the role of astrocytes and NMC in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. The data reviewed also suggest an important role of the astrocytic network. In addition, the role of astrocytes in NMC mechanisms is consistent with the "local and use dependent" sleep hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulation of Neuron-Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling across the Sleep-Wake Cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Jean-Marie

    2015-12-17

    Over the last thirty years, a growing number of studies showed that astrocytes play a pivotal role in the energy support to synapses. More precisely, astrocytes adjust the energy production to the neuronal energy needs through different mechanisms grouped under the term “neurometabolic coupling” (NMC). In this review we describe these mechanisms of coupling and how they involve astrocytes. From a physiological point of view, these mechanisms of coupling are particularly important to ensure normal synaptic functioning when neurons undergo rapid and repetitive changes in firing rate such as during the sleep/wake transitions. Investigations on brain energy metabolism during the sleep/wake cycle have been mainly focused on glucose consumption and on glycogen metabolism. However, the recent development of substrate-specific biosensors allowed measurements of the variation in extracellular levels of glutamate, glucose and lactate with a time resolution compatible with sleep stage duration. Together with gene expression data these experiments allowed to better define the variations of energy metabolites regulation across the sleep/wake cycle. The aim of this review is to bring into perspective the role of astrocytes and neurometabolic coupling in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. The data reviewed also suggest an important role of the astrocytic network. In addition, the role of astrocytes in NMC mechanisms is consistent with the “local and use dependent” sleep hypothesis.

  11. The perilipin homologue, lipid storage droplet 2, regulates sleep homeostasis and prevents learning impairments following sleep loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Thimgan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extended periods of waking result in physiological impairments in humans, rats, and flies. Sleep homeostasis, the increase in sleep observed following sleep loss, is believed to counter the negative effects of prolonged waking by restoring vital biological processes that are degraded during sleep deprivation. Sleep homeostasis, as with other behaviors, is influenced by both genes and environment. We report here that during periods of starvation, flies remain spontaneously awake but, in contrast to sleep deprivation, do not accrue any of the negative consequences of prolonged waking. Specifically, the homeostatic response and learning impairments that are a characteristic of sleep loss are not observed following prolonged waking induced by starvation. Recently, two genes, brummer (bmm and Lipid storage droplet 2 (Lsd2, have been shown to modulate the response to starvation. bmm mutants have excess fat and are resistant to starvation, whereas Lsd2 mutants are lean and sensitive to starvation. Thus, we hypothesized that bmm and Lsd2 may play a role in sleep regulation. Indeed, bmm mutant flies display a large homeostatic response following sleep deprivation. In contrast, Lsd2 mutant flies, which phenocopy aspects of starvation as measured by low triglyceride stores, do not exhibit a homeostatic response following sleep loss. Importantly, Lsd2 mutant flies are not learning impaired after sleep deprivation. These results provide the first genetic evidence, to our knowledge, that lipid metabolism plays an important role in regulating the homeostatic response and can protect against neuronal impairments induced by prolonged waking.

  12. Sleep wake pattern analysis: Study of 131 medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Nita Ninama; Jaydeep Kangathara

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Sleep is part of the rhythm of life. Without a good sleep the mind is less adapts, mood is altered and the body loses the ability to refresh. The sleep wake cycle of the students is quite different and characterized by delayed onset, partial sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, insufficient sleep duration and occurrence of napping episodes during the day The aim of the present study is to know sleep wake pattern in medical student, role of residence and individual characterization...

  13. Brief Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Adolescents: An Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Huurre, Taina; Tilli, Maija; Kiviruusu, Olli; Partonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adolescents, but there are no brief interventions to treat them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief semistructured, individually delivered sleep intervention to ameliorate adolescents' sleeping difficulties and lengthen sleep duration. All students aged 16-18 years in a high school were screened for sleeping difficulties and 36 students with the highest sleep problem scores were invited to the intervention. Postintervention improvements were observed on self-reported and actiwatch-registered sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality and sleep latency, perceived stress and anxiety (all p values sleep efficiency and sleep latency did not change (p > 0.05). A brief individual sleep intervention can be effective in lengthening sleep duration and improving subjective sleep quality and well-being among adolescents.

  14. Sleep duration, subjective sleep need, and sleep habits of 40- to 45-year-olds in the Hordaland Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Holsten, Fred

    2005-10-01

    To report the distribution of various sleep parameters in a population-based study. Population-based cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires. Conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study '97-'99 in collaboration with the Norwegian National Health Screening Service. 8860 subjects, aged 40 to 45 years, answered the sleep questionnaire part of the study. N/A. Reports on habitual bedtimes, rise times, subjective sleep need, and various sleep characteristics were used in this study. Mean (+/- SD) nocturnal sleep duration during weekdays in men was 6 hours 52 minutes (+/- 55 minutes); in women 7 hours 11 minutes (+/- 57 minutes). Mean subjective sleep need was 7 hours 16 minutes (+/- 52 minutes) in men; 7 hours 45 minutes (+/- 52 minutes) in women. Sleep duration was shorter in shift workers and longer in married subjects and in those living in rural areas. Subjective sleep need was higher in subjects reporting poor subjective health and in subjects living in rural areas. In total, these variables accounted for only around 3% of the variance in sleep duration and sleep need. Ten percent of the men and 12.2% of the women reported frequent insomnia. The wide distribution of sleep duration and subjective sleep need indicate large interindividual variations in these parameters. There were pronounced sex differences in these variables and in most of the sleep characteristics studied. Shift work, urban-rural living, marital status, and education in men were sources of significant, but small, variations in sleep duration.

  15. ON THE ROLE OF PERIOD-2 IN THE CIRCADIAN AND HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION OF SLEEP

    OpenAIRE

    La Spada, F.

    2013-01-01

    Humans spend one third of their life sleeping, then we could raise the basic question: Why do we sleep? Despite the fact that we still don't fully understand its function, we made much progress in understanding at different levels how sleep is regulated. One model suggests that sleep is regulated by two processes: a homeostatic process that tracks the need for sleep and by a circadian rhythm that determines the preferred time-of-day sleep occurs. At the molecular level circadian rhythms ar...

  16. Sleep Habits and Patterns of College Students: An Expanded Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, Walter, Jr., Jenkins, Steve M.; Soper, Barlow; Woller, Kevin; Johnson, Patrick; Faes, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This study represents an expansion of previous research investigating the prevalence of sleep difficulties in college students. Sleep quality and sleep habits were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Poor sleep quality was reported by 22.6% of participants, whereas 65.9% replied that they experienced occasional sleep problems. More than half…

  17. Sleep habits and sleep disturbances in Dutch children: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Litsenburg, R.R.L.; Waumans, R.C.; van den Berg, G.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders can lead to significant morbidity. Information on sleep in healthy children is necessary to evaluate sleep disorders in clinical practice, but data from different societies cannot be simply generalized. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the prevalence of sleep disturbances in

  18. Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axelsson, J.; Ingre, M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Olsson, A.; Lekander, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether sleep deprived people are perceived as less healthy, less attractive, and more tired than after a normal night's sleep. Design Experimental study. Setting Sleep laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants 23 healthy, sleep deprived adults (age 18-31) who were

  19. Phosphorylation of CaMKII in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Su-Ying; Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-02-01

    The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Circadian clock genes Per1 and Per2 regulate the response of metabolism-associated transcripts to sleep disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Husse

    Full Text Available Human and animal studies demonstrate that short sleep or poor sleep quality, e.g. in night shift workers, promote the development of obesity and diabetes. Effects of sleep disruption on glucose homeostasis and liver physiology are well documented. However, changes in adipokine levels after sleep disruption suggest that adipocytes might be another important peripheral target of sleep. Circadian clocks regulate metabolic homeostasis and clock disruption can result in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The finding that sleep and clock disruption have very similar metabolic effects prompted us to ask whether the circadian clock machinery may mediate the metabolic consequences of sleep disruption. To test this we analyzed energy homeostasis and adipocyte transcriptome regulation in a mouse model of shift work, in which we prevented mice from sleeping during the first six hours of their normal inactive phase for five consecutive days (timed sleep restriction--TSR. We compared the effects of TSR between wild-type and Per1/2 double mutant mice with the prediction that the absence of a circadian clock in Per1/2 mutants would result in a blunted metabolic response to TSR. In wild-types, TSR induces significant transcriptional reprogramming of white adipose tissue, suggestive of increased lipogenesis, together with increased secretion of the adipokine leptin and increased food intake, hallmarks of obesity and associated leptin resistance. Some of these changes persist for at least one week after the end of TSR, indicating that even short episodes of sleep disruption can induce prolonged physiological impairments. In contrast, Per1/2 deficient mice show blunted effects of TSR on food intake, leptin levels and adipose transcription. We conclude that the absence of a functional clock in Per1/2 double mutants protects these mice from TSR-induced metabolic reprogramming, suggesting a role of the circadian timing system in regulating the physiological effects

  1. The Sleep-Time Cost of Parenting: Sleep Duration and Sleepiness Among Employed Parents in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W.; Mirer, Anna G.; Palta, Mari; Peppard, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with poor health and increased mortality. Studies on whether parenthood (including consideration of number and ages of children) is associated with sleep duration or sleep problems are scant and inconclusive. Using data collected in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (n = 4,809) between 1989 and 2008, we examined cross-sectional associations of number and ages of children with self-reported parental sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and dozing among employed adults. Longitudinal change in sleep duration over 19 years was examined to evaluate changes in parental sleep associated with children transitioning into adulthood (n = 833). Each child under age 2 years was associated with 13 fewer minutes of parental sleep per day (95% confidence interval (CI): 5, 21); each child aged 2–5 years was associated with 9 fewer minutes of sleep (95% CI: 5, 13); and each child aged 6–18 years was associated with 4 fewer minutes (95% CI: 2, 6). Adult children were not associated with shorter parental sleep duration. Parents of children over age 2 years were significantly more likely to experience daytime sleepiness and dozing during daytime activities. Parents of minor children at baseline had significantly greater increases in sleep duration over 19 years of follow-up. Parenting minor children is associated with shorter sleep duration. As children age into adulthood, the sleep duration of parents with more children approaches that of parents with fewer children. PMID:23378502

  2. Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R; Olmstead, Richard; Carroll, Judith E

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammatory disease risk and all-cause mortality. Here, we assess global evidence linking sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation in adult humans. A systematic search of English language publications was performed, with inclusion of primary research articles that characterized sleep disturbance and/or sleep duration or performed experimental sleep deprivation and assessed inflammation by levels of circulating markers. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted and pooled using a random effect model. A total of 72 studies (n > 50,000) were analyzed with assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Sleep disturbance was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .12; 95% CI = .05-.19) and IL-6 (ES .20; 95% CI = .08-.31). Shorter sleep duration, but not the extreme of short sleep, was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .09; 95% CI = .01-.17) but not IL-6 (ES .03; 95% CI: -.09 to .14). The extreme of long sleep duration was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .17; 95% CI = .01-.34) and IL-6 (ES .11; 95% CI = .02-20). Neither sleep disturbances nor sleep duration was associated with TNFα. Neither experimental sleep deprivation nor sleep restriction was associated with CRP, IL-6, or TNFα. Some heterogeneity among studies was found, but there was no evidence of publication bias. Sleep disturbance and long sleep duration, but not short sleep duration, are associated with increases in markers of systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Saudi regulations for the accreditation of sleep medicine physicians and technologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The professional content of sleep medicine has grown significantly over the past few decades, warranting the recognition of sleep medicine as an independent specialty. Because the practice of sleep medicine has expanded in Saudi Arabia over the past few years, a national regulation system to license and ascertain the competence of sleep medicine physicians and technologists has become essential. Recently, the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties formed the National Committee for the Accreditation of Sleep Medicine Practice and developed national accreditation criteria. This paper presents the newly approved Saudi accreditation criteria for sleep medicine physicians and technologists.

  4. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. Methods and Findings A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children’s sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Conclusions Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and

  5. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and positively associated with the impairment of

  6. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  7. Role of sleep duration in the regulation of glucose metabolism and appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Morselli, Lisa; Leproult, Rachel; Balbo, Marcella; Spiegel, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Sleep curtailment has become a common behavior in modern society. This review summarizes the current laboratory evidence indicating that sleep loss may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Experimentally-induced sleep loss in healthy volunteers decreases insulin sensitivity without adequate compensation in beta-cell function, resulting in impaired glucose tolerance and increased diabetes risk. Lack of sleep also down-regulates the satiety hormone leptin, up-regu...

  8. Daily stress, presleep arousal, and sleep in healthy young women: a daily life computerized sleep diary and actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzeler, Katja; Voellmin, Annette; Schäfer, Valérie; Meyer, Andrea H; Cajochen, Christian; Wilhelm, Frank H; Bader, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Our study aimed to further elucidate the mediating role of presleep arousal in the relationship between daily stress and sleep by investigating subjective sleep quality and actigraphy-assessed sleep efficiency (SE) on both within- and between-participant levels in a sample of healthy young women. Multilevel modeling was applied on electronically assessed data comprising 14 consecutive nights in 145 healthy young women to assess the relationship between daily stress, presleep (somatic and cognitive) arousal, and sleep on both levels between participants and within participants across days. Higher levels of daily stress were consistently and significantly associated with higher levels of somatic and cognitive arousal. Somatic arousal mediated the relationship between daily stress and worsened subjective sleep quality on the between-participant level, while cognitive arousal mediated the relationship between daily stress and worsened subjective sleep quality on the within-participants level. Unexpectedly, healthy young women showed higher SE following days with above-average stress with somatic arousal mediating this relationship. Our data corroborate the role of presleep arousal mediating the relationship between daily stress and subjective sleep quality. Interestingly this effect was restricted to somatic arousal being relevant on interindividual levels and cognitive arousal on intraindividual levels. For young and healthy individuals who experience high stress and arousal, well-established cognitive-behavioral techniques could be useful to regulate arousal and prevent worse subjective sleep quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation of Lateral Cephalogram and Flexible Laryngoscopy with Sleep Study in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Anila; Faizal, Bini

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the correlation between lateral cephalogram, flexible laryngoscopy, and sleep study in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Background. Screening tools should be devised for predicting OSA which could be performed on an outpatient basis. With this aim we studied the skeletal and soft tissue characteristics of proven OSA patients. Methods. A prospective study was performed in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by sleep study. They were evaluat...

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea and energy balance regulation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari

    2017-08-01

    Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have a reciprocal relationship. Sleep disruptions characteristic of OSA may promote behavioral, metabolic, and/or hormonal changes favoring weight gain and/or difficulty losing weight. The regulation of energy balance (EB), i.e., the relationship between energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE), is complex and multi-factorial, involving food intake, hormonal regulation of hunger/satiety/appetite, and EE via metabolism and physical activity (PA). The current systematic review describes the literature on how OSA affects EB-related parameters. OSA is associated with a hormonal profile characterized by abnormally high leptin and ghrelin levels, which may encourage excess EI. Data on actual measures of food intake are lacking, and not sufficient to make conclusions. Resting metabolic rate appears elevated in OSA vs. Findings on PA are inconsistent, but may indicate a negative relationship with OSA severity that is modulated by daytime sleepiness and body weight. A speculative explanation for the positive EB in OSA is that the increased EE via metabolism induces an overcompensation in the drive for hunger/food intake, which is larger in magnitude than the rise in EI required to re-establish EB. Understanding how OSA affects EB-related parameters can help improve weight loss efforts in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. translin is required for metabolic regulation of sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Kazuma; Yurgel, Maria E.; Stahl, Bethany A.; Masek, Pavel; Mehta, Aradhana; Heidker, Rebecca; Bollinger, Wesley; Gingras, Robert M.; Kim, Young-Joon; Ja, William W.; Suter, Beat; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Keene, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of sleep or feeding has enormous health consequences. In humans, acute sleep loss is associated with increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, while chronically sleep-deprived individuals are more likely to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, metabolic state potently modulates sleep and circadian behavior; yet, the molecular basis for sleep-metabolism interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the iden...

  12. Instruments to study sleep disorders in climacteric women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Monterrosa-Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify the scales to assess sleep disorders applied to women with climacteric stage. Bibliographical research without intervention, the available information in scientific databases. Performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Ebscohos OvidSP and Health Library. The words used in this article: insomnia, adjustment sleep disorder, questionnaires, studies and menopause. Publications of all types were included. Seven scales were identified: Insomnia Severity Index, Athens Insomnia Scale, Pittsburgh Quality of sleep Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Jenkins Sleep Scale, Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire and The St Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. There are validated scales in multiple languages and considered appropriate for studying sleep disorders.

  13. Sleep Phase Delay in Cystic Fibrosis: A Potential New Manifestation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Judy L; Jones, Christopher R; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Packer, Kristyn A; Adler, Frederick R; Liou, Theodore G

    2017-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein dysfunction causes CF. Improving survival allows detection of increasingly subtle disease manifestations. CFTR dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) may disturb circadian rhythm and thus sleep phase. We studied sleep in adults to better understand potential CNS CFTR dysfunction. We recruited participants from April 2012 through April 2015 and administered the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ). We compared free-day sleep measurements between CF and non-CF participants and investigated associations with CF survival predictors. We recruited 23 female and 22 male adults with CF aged 18 to 46 years and 26 female and 22 male volunteers aged 18 to 45 years. Compared with volunteers without CF, patients with CF had delayed sleep onset (0.612 h; P = .015), midsleep (1.11 h; P < .001), and wake (1.15 h; P < .001) times and prolonged sleep latency (7.21 min; P = .05) and duration (0.489 h; P = .05). Every hour delay in sleep onset was associated with shorter sleep duration by 0.29 h in patients with CF and 0.75 h in subjects without CF (P = .007) and longer sleep latency by 7.51 min in patients with CF and 1.6 min in volunteers without CF (P = .035). Among patients with CF, FEV 1 % predicted, prior acute pulmonary exacerbations, and weight were independent of all free-day sleep measurements. CF in adults is associated with marked delays in sleep phase consistent with circadian rhythm phase delays. Independence from disease characteristics predictive of survival suggests that sleep phase delay is a primary manifestation of CFTR dysfunction in the CNS. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovery from Unrecognized Sleep Loss Accumulated in Daily Life Improved Mood Regulation via Prefrontal Suppression of Amygdala Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Motomura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many modern people suffer from sleep debt that has accumulated in everyday life but is not subjectively noticed [potential sleep debt (PSD]. Our hypothesis for this study was that resolution of PSD through sleep extension optimizes mood regulation by altering the functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Fifteen healthy male participants underwent an experiment consisting of a baseline (BL evaluation followed by two successive interventions, namely, a 9-day sleep extension followed by one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD. Tests performed before and after the interventions included a questionnaire on negative mood and neuroimaging with arterial spin labeling MRI for evaluating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF and functional connectivity. Negative mood and amygdala rCBF were significantly reduced after sleep extension compared with BL. The amygdala had a significant negative functional connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex (FCamg–MPFC, and this negative connectivity was greater after sleep extension than at BL. After TSD, these indices reverted to the same level as at BL. An additional path analysis with structural equation modeling showed that the FCamg–MPFC significantly explained the amygdala rCBF and that the amygdala rCBF significantly explained the negative mood. These findings suggest that the use of our sleep extension protocol normalized amygdala activity via negative amygdala–MPFC functional connectivity. The resolution of unnoticed PSD may improve mood by enhancing frontal suppression of hyperactivity in the amygdala caused by PSD accumulating in everyday life.

  15. Homeostatic and circadian contribution to EEG and molecular state variables of sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curie, Thomas; Mongrain, Valérie; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Mang, Géraldine M; Emmenegger, Yann; Franken, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Besides their well-established role in circadian rhythms, our findings that the forebrain expression of the clock-genes Per2 and Dbp increases and decreases, respectively, in relation to time spent awake suggest they also play a role in the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Here, we determined whether time of day modulates the effects of elevated sleep pressure on clock-gene expression. Time of day effects were assessed also for recognized electrophysiological (EEG delta power) and molecular (Homer1a) markers of sleep homeostasis. EEG and qPCR data were obtained for baseline and recovery from 6-h sleep deprivation starting at ZT0, -6, -12, or -18. Mouse sleep laboratory. Male mice. Sleep deprivation. The sleep-deprivation induced changes in Per2 and Dbp expression importantly varied with time of day, such that Per2 could even decrease during sleep deprivations occurring at the decreasing phase in baseline. Dbp showed similar, albeit opposite dynamics. These unexpected results could be reliably predicted assuming that these transcripts behave according to a driven damped harmonic oscillator. As expected, the sleep-wake distribution accounted for a large degree of the changes in EEG delta power and Homer1a. Nevertheless, the sleep deprivation-induced increase in delta power varied also with time of day with higher than expected levels when recovery sleep started at dark onset. Per2 and delta power are widely used as exclusive state variables of the circadian and homeostatic process, respectively. Our findings demonstrate a considerable cross-talk between these two processes. As Per2 in the brain responds to both sleep loss and time of day, this molecule is well positioned to keep track of and to anticipate homeostatic sleep need. Curie T; Mongrain V; Dorsaz S; Mang GM; Emmenegger Y; Franken P. Homeostatic and circadian contribution to EEG and molecular state variables of sleep regulation. SLEEP 2013;36(3):311-323.

  16. Any sleep is a dream far away: a nominal group study assessing how gout affects sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A

    2018-02-23

    There are no qualitative studies of sleep in gout; the aim of this study was to examine the impact of gout on sleep. Nine nominal groups were conducted, oversampling for African-Americans and women with gout. Patients discussed and rank-ordered their concerns. Nine nominal groups with 46 gout patients were conducted with mean age, 61 years (s.d. 10.6) and gout duration, 14.9 years (s.d. 12); 63% were men, 46% African-American, 52% married, 46% retired and 63% were allopurinol users. The most frequently cited highly ranked concerns could be divided into three categories. The first category, character of sleep interruption, included the concerns: severe and complete sleep interruption by gout flare pain (nine groups); and inability to get rapid eye movement sleep (one group). The second category, causes of sleep interruption, included: inability to get into a comfortable position during sleep (six groups); anxiety and depression associated with severe gout pain (seven groups); sleep interruption by moderate chronic joint pain (three groups); frequent trips to the bathroom interfering with sleep (two groups); gout medication side effects (four groups); frequent trips to the emergency room (one group); joint swelling with physical/functional deficit interfering with sleep (two groups); and flare pain interfering with sleep apnoea management (two groups). The final category, consequences of sleep interruption, included: effect on daily functioning (two groups); worsens other health conditions, which then affect sleep (four groups); and cumulative effect on sleep (one group). Gout has significant impact on sleep quantity, quality and architecture. Sleep disruption due to gout has several pathways and significant consequences.

  17. Sleep Restriction Impairs Vocabulary Learning when Adolescents Cram for Exams: The Need for Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Deshpande, Aadya; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lo, June C.; Chee, Michael W.L.; Gooley, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The ability to recall facts is improved when learning takes place at spaced intervals, or when sleep follows shortly after learning. However, many students cram for exams and trade sleep for other activities. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of study spacing and time in bed (TIB) for sleep on vocabulary learning in adolescents. Methods: In the Need for Sleep Study, which used a parallel-group design, 56 adolescents aged 15–19 years were randomly assigned to a week of either 5 h or 9 h of TIB for sleep each night as part of a 14-day protocol conducted at a boarding school. During the sleep manipulation period, participants studied 40 Graduate Record Examination (GRE)-type English words using digital flashcards. Word pairs were presented over 4 consecutive days (spaced items), or all at once during single study sessions (massed items), with total study time kept constant across conditions. Recall performance was examined 0 h, 24 h, and 120 h after all items were studied. Results: For all retention intervals examined, recall of massed items was impaired by a greater amount in adolescents exposed to sleep restriction. In contrast, cued recall performance on spaced items was similar between sleep groups. Conclusions: Spaced learning conferred strong protection against the effects of sleep restriction on recall performance, whereas students who had insufficient sleep were more likely to forget items studied over short time intervals. These findings in adolescents demonstrate the importance of combining good study habits and good sleep habits to optimize learning outcomes. Citation: Huang S, Deshpande A, Yeo SC, Lo JC, Chee MW, Gooley JJ. Sleep restriction impairs vocabulary learning when adolescents cram for exams: the Need for Sleep Study. SLEEP 2016;39(9):1681–1690. PMID:27253768

  18. Feeding methods, sleep arrangement, and infant sleep patterns: a Chinese population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Jen-Jen; Wang, Lin-Hong; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; An, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Findings from prior research into the effect of feeding methods on infant sleep are inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine infants' sleep patterns by feeding methods and sleep arrangement from birth to eight months old. This longitudinal cohort study enrolled 524 pregnant women at 34-41 weeks of gestation and their infants after delivery in 2006 and followed up until eight months postpartum. The study subjects were recruited from nine women and children hospitals in nine cities in China (Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanning, Xiamen, Xi'an, Jinan, and Hailin). Participating infants were followed up weekly during the first month and monthly from the second to the eighth month after birth. Twenty-four hour sleep diaries recording infants' sleeping and feeding methods were administered based on caregiver's self-report. Multivariable mixed growth curve models were fitted to estimate the effects of feeding methods and sleep arrangement on infants' sleep patterns over time, controlling for maternal and paternal age, maternal and paternal education level, household income, supplementation of complementary food, and infant birth weight and length. Exclusively formula fed infants had the greatest sleep percentage/24 h, followed by exclusively breast milk fed infants and partially breast milk fed infants (Psleep percentage and night waking frequency between exclusively formula and exclusively breast milk fed infants weakened over time as infants developed. In addition, compared to infants with bed-sharing sleep arrangement, those with room sharing sleep arrangement had greater daytime and 24-hour infant sleep percentage, whereas those with sleeping alone sleep arrangement had greater nighttime sleep percentage. Our data based on caregiver's self-report suggested that partial breastfeeding and bed-sharing may be associated with less sleep in infants. Health care professionals need to work with parents of newborns to develop coping strategies that

  19. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...

  20. Sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among Brazilian dental students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Tirsa-Costa, Débora; Guimarães, Flávia Helena; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among dental students of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed including 183 Brazilian dental students aged from 17 to 46 years old. The complete course curriculum consists of 9 semesters. Students enrolled in the first semester, the middle semester and the final semester of the course participated in the survey. The PSQI-BR (the Brazilian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) was used for data collection. The PSQI-BR was distributed during lecture classes. Sleep bruxism and awake bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. Descriptive analysis, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression with robust estimator were the statistical tests used. Sleep bruxism prevalence was 21.5% and awake bruxism prevalence was 36.5%. Sleep duration components were associated with sleep bruxism (PR=1.540; 95% CI: 1.00-2.37) and awake bruxism (PR=1.344; 95% CI: 1,008-1,790). There was an association between awake bruxism and habitual sleep efficiency component (PR=1.323; 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). Sleep disturbance component and awake bruxism were associated (PR=1.533; 95% CI: 1.03-2.27). Poor sleep quality was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism as well as among those who presented awake bruxism.

  1. Hypothalamic L-Histidine Decarboxylase Is Up-Regulated During Chronic REM Sleep Deprivation of Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria E Hoffman

    Full Text Available A competition of neurobehavioral drives of sleep and wakefulness occurs during sleep deprivation. When enforced chronically, subjects must remain awake. This study examines histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus in response to enforced wakefulness in rats. We tested the hypothesis that the rate-limiting enzyme for histamine biosynthesis, L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC, would be up-regulated during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD because histamine plays a major role in maintaining wakefulness. Archived brain tissues of male Sprague Dawley rats from a previous study were used. Rats had been subjected to REM-SD by the flowerpot paradigm for 5, 10, or 15 days. For immunocytochemistry, rats were transcardially perfused with acrolein-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of L-HDC; separate controls used carbodiimide-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of histamine. Immunolocalization of histamine within the tuberomammillary nucleus was validated using carbodiimide. Because HDC antiserum has cross-reactivity with other decarboxylases at high antibody concentrations, titrations localized L-HDC to only tuberomammillary nucleus at a dilution of ≥ 1:300,000. REM-SD increased immunoreactive HDC by day 5 and it remained elevated in both dorsal and ventral aspects of the tuberomammillary complex. Our results suggest that up-regulation of L-HDC within the tuberomammillary complex during chronic REM-SD may be responsible for maintaining wakefulness.

  2. Study of Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems Among Medical Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    characteristics, psychiatric illness, and some types of physical illness. ... to poor sleep qualities are significant problems among medical students in our institution. Caffeine and .... prepare for post graduation and also get to play a role (albeit a.

  3. Sleep apnoea and driving risk: the need for regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter T. McNicholas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS is a highly prevalent chronic respiratory disorder with prevalence among adult males of ≥10%. The most common daytime symptom associated with OSAS is excessive sleepiness, which in more severe manifestations can result in sleepiness at the wheel while driving and probably contributes to the substantial increase in accident risk among patients with OSAS. Fortunately, current evidence indicates that successful therapy of OSAS, particularly with continuous positive airway pressure, can bring the accident risk down to levels similar to an equivalent general population. The recognition of the increased driving accident risk in OSAS prompted the Transport and Mobility Directorate of the European Commission to establish a working group on this topic in 2012, which ultimately led to a revision of Annex III of the EU Driving Licence Directive, which is subject to mandatory implementation by European Union member states by December 2015. This directive specifies that patients with moderate or severe OSAS associated with significant daytime sleepiness should be prohibited from driving until effective therapy is established. These new regulations are designed to balance the legitimate objective of public safety with not penalising OSAS patients who are complying with effective therapy. Successful implementation of regulations on driving in OSAS patients must also include measures to educate relevant stakeholders including patients, medical personnel, traffic police and employers in the transport industry. The key objective is to encourage patients with possible OSAS to seek diagnosis and treatment and not to inhibit OSAS patients from coming forward.

  4. Sleep apnoea and driving risk: the need for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Walter T; Rodenstein, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent chronic respiratory disorder with prevalence among adult males of ≥10%. The most common daytime symptom associated with OSAS is excessive sleepiness, which in more severe manifestations can result in sleepiness at the wheel while driving and probably contributes to the substantial increase in accident risk among patients with OSAS. Fortunately, current evidence indicates that successful therapy of OSAS, particularly with continuous positive airway pressure, can bring the accident risk down to levels similar to an equivalent general population. The recognition of the increased driving accident risk in OSAS prompted the Transport and Mobility Directorate of the European Commission to establish a working group on this topic in 2012, which ultimately led to a revision of Annex III of the EU Driving Licence Directive, which is subject to mandatory implementation by European Union member states by December 2015. This directive specifies that patients with moderate or severe OSAS associated with significant daytime sleepiness should be prohibited from driving until effective therapy is established. These new regulations are designed to balance the legitimate objective of public safety with not penalising OSAS patients who are complying with effective therapy. Successful implementation of regulations on driving in OSAS patients must also include measures to educate relevant stakeholders including patients, medical personnel, traffic police and employers in the transport industry. The key objective is to encourage patients with possible OSAS to seek diagnosis and treatment and not to inhibit OSAS patients from coming forward. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  5. Regulation of Neuron-Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling across the Sleep-Wake Cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Jean-Marie; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to bring into perspective the role of astrocytes and neurometabolic coupling in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. The data reviewed also suggest an important role of the astrocytic network. In addition, the role of astrocytes in NMC mechanisms is consistent with the “local and use dependent” sleep hypothesis.

  6. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H; Casement, Melynda D; Troxel, Wendy M; Matthews, Karen A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Kravitz, Howard M; Krafty, Robert T; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Prospective cohort study. Four sites across the United States. 330 women (46-57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. N/A. Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. A qualitative study of sleep quality in children and their resident parents when in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickland, Alice; Clayton, Esther; Sankey, Ruth; Hill, Catherine M

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality impairs immune responses and pain tolerance, both key to recovery from acute illness. Hospitalised children and their co-sleeping parents also risk emotional lability and impaired coping skills when sleep-deprived. We aimed to study the experiences of children and parents during hospital admissions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents within a week of their child's discharge. Questions explored parent and child sleep quality, factors contributing to this, perceived impact on day-time functioning and suggested improvements to ward sleep environment. Southampton Children's Hospital, UK. 17 co-sleeping parents of 16 children aged 3-12 years completed interviews. Children admitted for surgical procedures and those with established sleep disorders or nocturnal seizures were excluded. Constant comparative methods identified themes within the data using a grounded theory approach. Parents reported that they, and to a lesser extent their children, experienced reduced sleep quality. Noise and light as well as ward schedules were identified as key factors disrupting sleep. Parents reported that lack of sleep caused difficulties with their own emotional regulation and that of their child, affecting daytime parent-child relationships. Furthermore, they reported a negative impact of sleep deprivation on decision-making about their child's medical care. Parents identified poor sleep in hospital as a significant additional burden to their child's hospital admission. Importantly, they identified potential improvements to the ward sleep environment. Intervention studies that target modifiable, child-centred alterations to night-time ward culture are recommended, focusing on measurable child and parental outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Dream Content in Patients With Sleep Apnea: A Prospective Sleep Laboratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pauli, Franziska; Stefani, Ambra; Holzknecht, Evi; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Mitterling, Thomas; Holzinger, Brigitte; Högl, Birgit

    2018-01-15

    Few studies have addressed dreaming in patients with sleep apnea. We hypothesized that respiratory events and subsequent oxygen desaturation act as an important physiological trigger and may thus influence dream content in patients with a sleep-related breathing disorder. Seventy-six patients (28 women, mean age 54 years, range 20-82) who underwent polysomnography because of suspected sleep apnea participated in this study. Dream reports and dream questionnaires were collected immediately after first morning awakening, at 5:30 AM, at the sleep laboratory. Dream content analysis with respect to possible respiratory-related content was performed. Patients were stratified into primary snoring, mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea groups. In 63 patients sleep apnea was diagnosed (mild n = 31, 49.2%, moderate n = 13, 20.6%, severe n = 19, 30.2%), and 13 subjects in whom a sleep-related breathing disorder was not confirmed were included as a control group with primary snoring. There was no significant difference in respiratory-related dream topics between patients and controls. Also, no influence of respiratory parameters measured during polysomnography on dream content was detectable. We failed to detect a difference in dream content between patients with sleep apnea and controls. Further studies are required to determine whether these results indicate that the incorporation of respiratory events into dreams is absent in patients with sleep apnea or represents a bias due to the collection of dream content in the early morning hours. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  9. Sleep During Pregnancy: The nuMoM2b Pregnancy and Sleep Duration and Continuity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathryn J; Facco, Francesca L; Grobman, William A; Parker, Corette B; Herbas, Marcos; Hunter, Shannon; Silver, Robert M; Basner, Robert C; Saade, George R; Pien, Grace W; Manchanda, Shalini; Louis, Judette M; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Lang; Chung, Judith H; Wing, Deborah A; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Haas, David M; Iams, Jay; Parry, Samuel; Zee, Phyllis C

    2017-05-01

    To characterize sleep duration, timing and continuity measures in pregnancy and their association with key demographic variables. Multisite prospective cohort study. Women enrolled in the nuMoM2b study (nulliparous women with a singleton gestation) were recruited at the second study visit (16-21 weeks of gestation) to participate in the Sleep Duration and Continuity substudy. Women sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Time in bed, sleep duration, fragmentation index, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep midpoint were averaged across valid primary sleep periods for each participant. Valid data were available from 782 women with mean age of 27.3 (5.5) years. Median sleep duration was 7.4 hours. Approximately 27.9% of women had a sleep duration of sleep duration of >9 hours. In multivariable models including age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, insurance status, and recent smoking history, sleep duration was significantly associated with race/ethnicity and insurance status, while time in bed was only associated with insurance status. Sleep continuity measures and sleep midpoint were significantly associated with all covariates in the model, with the exception of age for fragmentation index and smoking for wake after sleep onset. Our results demonstrate the relationship between sleep and important demographic characteristics during pregnancy. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Arvicanthis ansorgei, a Novel Model for the Study of Sleep and Waking in Diurnal Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey; Ruppert, Elisabeth; Calvel, Laurent; Robin-Choteau, Ludivine; Gropp, Claire-Marie; Allemann, Caroline; Reibel, Sophie; Sage-Ciocca, Dominique; Bourgin, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep neurobiology studies use nocturnal species, mainly rats and mice. However, because their daily sleep/wake organization is inverted as compared to humans, a diurnal model for sleep studies is needed. To fill this gap, we phenotyped sleep and waking in Arvicanthis ansorgei, a diurnal rodent widely used for the study of circadian rhythms. Design: Video-electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings. Setting: Rodent sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen male Arvicanthis ansorgei, aged 3 mo. Interventions: 12 h light (L):12 h dark (D) baseline condition, 24-h constant darkness, 6-h sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed similar electrophysiological characteristics as nocturnal rodents. On average, animals spent 12.9 h ± 0.4 awake per 24-h cycle, of which 6.88 h ± 0.3 was during the light period. NREM sleep accounted for 9.63 h ± 0.4, which of 5.13 h ± 0.2 during dark period, and REM sleep for 89.9 min ± 6.7, which of 52.8 min ± 4.4 during dark period. The time-course of sleep and waking across the 12 h light:12 h dark was overall inverted to that observed in rats or mice, though with larger amounts of crepuscular activity at light and dark transitions. A dominant crepuscular regulation of sleep and waking persisted under constant darkness, showing the lack of a strong circadian drive in the absence of clock reinforcement by external cues, such as a running wheel. Conservation of the homeostatic regulation was confirmed with the observation of higher delta power following sustained waking periods and a 6-h sleep deprivation, with subsequent decrease during recovery sleep. Conclusions: Arvicanthis ansorgei is a valid diurnal rodent model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of sleep and so represents a valuable tool for further understanding the nocturnality/diurnality switch. Citation: Hubbard J, Ruppert E, Calvel L, Robin-Choteau L, Gropp CM

  11. The circadian regulation of sleep: impact of a functional ADA-polymorphism and its association to working memory improvements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin F Reichert

    Full Text Available Sleep is regulated in a time-of-day dependent manner and profits working memory. However, the impact of the circadian timing system as well as contributions of specific sleep properties to this beneficial effect remains largely unexplored. Moreover, it is unclear to which extent inter-individual differences in sleep-wake regulation depend on circadian phase and modulate the association between sleep and working memory. Here, sleep electroencephalography (EEG was recorded during a 40-h multiple nap protocol, and working memory performance was assessed by the n-back task 10 times before and after each scheduled nap sleep episode. Twenty-four participants were genotyped regarding a functional polymorphism in adenosine deaminase (rs73598374, 12 G/A-, 12 G/G-allele carriers, previously associated with differences in sleep-wake regulation. Our results indicate that genotype-driven differences in sleep depend on circadian phase: heterozygous participants were awake longer and slept less at the end of the biological day, while they exhibited longer non rapid eye movement (NREM sleep and slow wave sleep concomitant with reduced power between 8-16 Hz at the end of the biological night. Slow wave sleep and NREM sleep delta EEG activity covaried positively with overall working memory performance, independent of circadian phase and genotype. Moreover, REM sleep duration benefitted working memory particularly when occurring in the early morning hours and specifically in heterozygous individuals. Even though based on a small sample size and thus requiring replication, our results suggest genotype-dependent differences in circadian sleep regulation. They further indicate that REM sleep, being under strong circadian control, boosts working memory performance according to genotype in a time-of-day dependent manner. Finally, our data provide first evidence that slow wave sleep and NREM sleep delta activity, majorly regulated by sleep homeostatic mechanisms, is

  12. Sleep Restriction Impairs Vocabulary Learning when Adolescents Cram for Exams: The Need for Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Deshpande, Aadya; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lo, June C; Chee, Michael W L; Gooley, Joshua J

    2016-09-01

    The ability to recall facts is improved when learning takes place at spaced intervals, or when sleep follows shortly after learning. However, many students cram for exams and trade sleep for other activities. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of study spacing and time in bed (TIB) for sleep on vocabulary learning in adolescents. In the Need for Sleep Study, which used a parallel-group design, 56 adolescents aged 15-19 years were randomly assigned to a week of either 5 h or 9 h of TIB for sleep each night as part of a 14-day protocol conducted at a boarding school. During the sleep manipulation period, participants studied 40 Graduate Record Examination (GRE)-type English words using digital flashcards. Word pairs were presented over 4 consecutive days (spaced items), or all at once during single study sessions (massed items), with total study time kept constant across conditions. Recall performance was examined 0 h, 24 h, and 120 h after all items were studied. For all retention intervals examined, recall of massed items was impaired by a greater amount in adolescents exposed to sleep restriction. In contrast, cued recall performance on spaced items was similar between sleep groups. Spaced learning conferred strong protection against the effects of sleep restriction on recall performance, whereas students who had insufficient sleep were more likely to forget items studied over short time intervals. These findings in adolescents demonstrate the importance of combining good study habits and good sleep habits to optimize learning outcomes. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  14. Glycogen metabolism and the homeostatic regulation of sleep

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Jean-Marie; Burlet-Godinot, Sophie; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Allaman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    In 1995 Benington and Heller formulated an energy hypothesis of sleep centered on a key role of glycogen. It was postulated that a major function of sleep is to replenish glycogen stores in the brain that have been depleted during wakefulness which

  15. Role of N-Arachidonoyl-Serotonin (AA-5-HT in Sleep-Wake Cycle Architecture, Sleep Homeostasis, and Neurotransmitters Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Murillo-Rodríguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system comprises several molecular entities such as endogenous ligands [anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG], receptors (CB1 and CB2, enzymes such as [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAHH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL], as well as the anandamide membrane transporter. Although the role of this complex neurobiological system in the sleep–wake cycle modulation has been studied, the contribution of the blocker of FAAH/transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1, N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT in sleep has not been investigated. Thus, in the present study, varying doses of AA-5-HT (5, 10, or 20 mg/Kg, i.p. injected at the beginning of the lights-on period of rats, caused no statistical changes in sleep patterns. However, similar pharmacological treatment given to animals at the beginning of the dark period decreased wakefulness (W and increased slow wave sleep (SWS as well as rapid eye movement sleep (REMS. Power spectra analysis of states of vigilance showed that injection of AA-5-HT during the lights-off period diminished alpha spectrum across alertness in a dose-dependent fashion. In opposition, delta power spectra was enhanced as well as theta spectrum, during SWS and REMS, respectively. Moreover, the highest dose of AA-5-HT decreased wake-related contents of neurotransmitters such as dopamine (DA, norepinephrine (NE, epinephrine (EP, serotonin (5-HT whereas the levels of adenosine (AD were enhanced. In addition, the sleep-inducing properties of AA-5-HT were confirmed since this compound blocked the increase in W caused by stimulants such as cannabidiol (CBD or modafinil (MOD during the lights-on period. Additionally, administration of AA-5-HT also prevented the enhancement in contents of DA, NE, EP, 5-HT and AD after CBD of MOD injection. Lastly, the role of AA-5-HT in sleep homeostasis was tested in animals that received either CBD or MOD after total sleep deprivation (TSD. The

  16. The inappropriate occurrence of rapid eye movement sleep in narcolepsy is not due to a defect in homeostatic regulation of rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Alexis; Meftah, Soraya; Arthaud, Sébastien; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Peyron, Christelle

    2018-06-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 is a disabling disorder with four primary symptoms: excessive-daytime-sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. The later three symptoms together with a short rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency have suggested impairment in REM sleep homeostatic regulation with an enhanced propensity for (i.e. tendency to enter) REM sleep. To test this hypothesis, we challenged REM sleep homeostatic regulation in a recognized model of narcolepsy, the orexin knock-out (Orex-KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We first performed 48 hr of REM sleep deprivation using the classic small-platforms-over-water method. We found that narcoleptic mice are similarly REM sleep deprived to WT mice. Although they had shorter sleep latency, Orex-KO mice recovered similarly to WT during the following 10 hr of recovery. Interestingly, Orex-KO mice also had cataplexy episodes immediately after REM sleep deprivation, anticipating REM sleep rebound, at a time of day when cataplexy does not occur in baseline condition. We then evaluated REM sleep propensity using our new automated method of deprivation that performs a specific and efficient REM sleep deprivation. We showed that REM sleep propensity is similar during light phase in Orex-KO and WT mice. However, during the dark phase, REM sleep propensity was not suppressed in Orex-KO mice when hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides are normally released. Altogether our data suggest that in addition to the well-known wake-promoting role of hypocretin/orexin, these neuropeptides would also suppress REM sleep. Therefore, hypocretin/orexin deficiency would facilitate the occurrence of REM sleep at any time of day in an opportunistic manner as seen in human narcolepsy.

  17. The role of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle in parachlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) pretreated rat: a multiple approach study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touret, M; Sarda, N; Gharib, A; Geffard, M; Jouvet, M

    1991-01-01

    In the rat, the insomnia which follows the administration of parachlorophenylalanine (p-CPA), a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, is transiently reversed either by intra-cisternal injection of L-5-HTP or by an associated injection of 5-HTP and an L-aromatic-acid-decarboxylase inhibitor (benserazide). Histochemical, immunohistochemical and chemical investigations showed that 5-HTP administration does not lead to a detectable increase in cerebral 5-HT. These findings suggest that the restoration of sleep after p-CPA treatment could be mediated by the central action of 5-HTP.

  18. The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by

  19. EEG Changes across Multiple Nights of Sleep Restriction and Recovery in Adolescents: The Need for Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ju Lynn; Lo, June C; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-06-01

    To investigate sleep EEG changes in adolescents across 7 nights of sleep restriction to 5 h time in bed [TIB]) and 3 recovery nights of 9 h TIB. A parallel-group design, quasi-laboratory study was conducted in a boarding school. Fifty-five healthy adolescents (25 males, age = 15-19 y) who reported habitual TIBs of approximately 6 h on week nights (group average) but extended their sleep on weekends were randomly assigned to Sleep Restriction (SR) or Control groups. Participants underwent a 2-week protocol comprising 3 baseline nights (TIB = 9 h), 7 nights of sleep opportunity manipulation (TIB = 5 h for the SR and 9 h for the Control group), and 3 nights of recovery sleep (TIB = 9 h). Polysomnography was obtained on two baseline, three manipulation, and two recovery nights. Across the sleep restriction nights, total SWS duration was preserved relative to the 9 h baseline sleep opportunity, while other sleep stages were reduced. Considering only the first 5 h of sleep opportunity, SR participants had reduced N1 duration and wake after sleep onset (WASO), and increased total sleep time (TST), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and slow wave sleep (SWS) relative to baseline. Total REM sleep, N2, and TST duration remained above baseline levels by the third recovery sleep episode. In spite of preservation of SWS duration over multiple nights of sleep restriction, adolescents accustomed to curtailing nocturnal sleep on school day nights evidence residual effects on sleep macro-structure, even after three nights of recovery sleep. Older teenagers may not be as resilient to successive nights of sleep restriction as is commonly believed. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Two preliminary studies on sleep and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, W; Hopper, M; Corriere, R; Hart, J; Switzer, A

    1977-09-01

    Two preliminary studies were conducted to assess the effects of an intensive outpatient psychotherapy, Feeling Therapy, on sleep. This therapy was chosen because of its demonstrated ability to affect its patients' dreams. In the first study a newly entering female patient was recorded across the first three weeks of intensive daily therapy. In contrast to two control subjects recorded across a similar time period, she demonstrated low REM times and short REM latencies on the average, and considerably greater variability in nearly every parameter. In the second study, two patients were recorded across three days (the middle of which was the day of a therapy session) first when new in therapy and then again after two and one-half years of therapy. It was found that when new in therapy both subjects spent nights of significantly altered sleep the day of the therapy session. One subject showed no REM sleep whatsoever while the other showed a 10 min REM latency and low REM time. The significance of these findings and the direction of future research is discussed.

  1. Astrocyte regulation of sleep circuits: experimental and modeling perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso eFellin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrated within neural circuits, astrocytes have recently been shown to modulate brain rhythms thought to mediate sleep function. Experimental evidence suggests that local impact of astrocytes on single synapses translates into global modulation of neuronal networks and behavior. We discuss these findings in the context of current conceptual models of sleep generation and function, each of which have historically focused on neural mechanisms. We highlight the implications and the challenges introduced by these results from a conceptual and computational perspective. We further provide modeling directions on how these data might extend our knowledge of astrocytic properties and sleep function. Given our evolving understanding of how local cellular activities during sleep lead to functional outcomes for the brain, further mechanistic and theoretical understanding of astrocytic contribution to these dynamics will undoubtedly be of great basic and translational benefit.

  2. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....

  3. Chronotype, sleep quality and sleep duration in adult distance education: Not related to study progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Research in traditional education shows chronotype, sleep duration and sleep quality to be related to learning performance. Research in adult students participating in distance education (DE) is scarce. This study aims to provide knowledge on these relationships in this educational setting. In an

  4. Conserved properties of Drosophila Insomniac link sleep regulation and synaptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuling; Kellner, David A; Hatch, Hayden A M; Yumita, Tomohiro; Sanchez, Sandrine; Machold, Robert P; Frank, C Andrew; Stavropoulos, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Sleep is an ancient animal behavior that is regulated similarly in species ranging from flies to humans. Various genes that regulate sleep have been identified in invertebrates, but whether the functions of these genes are conserved in mammals remains poorly explored. Drosophila insomniac (inc) mutants exhibit severely shortened and fragmented sleep. Inc protein physically associates with the Cullin-3 (Cul3) ubiquitin ligase, and neuronal depletion of Inc or Cul3 strongly curtails sleep, suggesting that Inc is a Cul3 adaptor that directs the ubiquitination of neuronal substrates that impact sleep. Three proteins similar to Inc exist in vertebrates-KCTD2, KCTD5, and KCTD17-but are uncharacterized within the nervous system and their functional conservation with Inc has not been addressed. Here we show that Inc and its mouse orthologs exhibit striking biochemical and functional interchangeability within Cul3 complexes. Remarkably, KCTD2 and KCTD5 restore sleep to inc mutants, indicating that they can substitute for Inc in vivo and engage its neuronal targets relevant to sleep. Inc and its orthologs localize similarly within fly and mammalian neurons and can traffic to synapses, suggesting that their substrates may include synaptic proteins. Consistent with such a mechanism, inc mutants exhibit defects in synaptic structure and physiology, indicating that Inc is essential for both sleep and synaptic function. Our findings reveal that molecular functions of Inc are conserved through ~600 million years of evolution and support the hypothesis that Inc and its orthologs participate in an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitination pathway that links synaptic function and sleep regulation.

  5. Association of Sleep Quality and Waking Time with Prediabetes: The Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Ghorbani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. It is known that sleep has a major role in the regulation of endocrine functions and glucose metabolism. However, it is not clear whether the sleep pattern is affected at or prior to the onset of diabetes, among those with prediabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of sleep patterns and prediabetes in Qazvin, Iran. Methods. A representative sample of residents of Qazvin was selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Plasma glucose level and sleep quality were measured cross-sectionally as well as demographic characteristics. A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and prediabetes. Results. Mean age was 39.3 ± 10.1 years. Of 958, 474 (49.47% were female. Poor sleep quality was associated with 2.197-fold increased risk of prediabetes after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. This study provides evidences that subjects with poor sleep quality are more likely to develop prediabetes than people with good sleep quality.

  6. Progress in studies of the reciprocal interaction between sleep disorders and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhen-yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly, and is the most common cause of dementia. Epidemiological studies have discovered that, 44% of patients with AD are associated with sleep disorders and (or circadian rhythm disorders. Now there are growing evidences indicating that interstitial fluid amyloid-β protein (A β levels exhibit circadian rhythm fluctuation, and sleep disorders will accelerate the process of Aβ deposition, which may act as a risk factor of AD, suggesting the possible reciprocal interaction between sleep disorders and AD. The mechanism is not yet completely clear. Sleep disorders may be related with the impairments of both sleep-wake regulating system, circadian rhythm regulating system and the change of zeitgeber in AD. Sleep disorders would affect neuronal activity, neurotransmitter secretion, and as a stressor affecting A β processing and metabolism, thus accelerate the pathological process of AD. This paper reviewed the progress in the studies of reciprocal interaction between sleep disorders and Alzheimer's disease and the possible mechanisms.

  7. Sleep Duration, Mortality, and Heredity-A Prospective Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Narusyte, Jurgita; Alexanderson, Kristina; Svedberg, Pia

    2017-10-01

    A number of studies have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and mortality. Since sleep duration is partly genetically determined, it seems likely that its association with mortality is also genetically influenced. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence on heredity on the association between sleep duration and mortality. We used a cohort of 14267 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusted for a number of covariates, confirmed a clear U shape with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.34 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.57 for a sleep duration of ≤6.5 hours and HR = 1.18 (CI = 1.07-1.30) for sleep of ≥9.5 hours. Reference value was 7.0 hours. A co-twin analysis of 1942 twins discordant on mortality showed a HR = 2.66 (CI = 1.17-6.04) for long (≥9.5 hours) sleep in monzygotic twins and an HR = 0.66 (CI = 0.20-2.14) for short (sleep. In dizygotic twins, no association was significant. The heritability for mortality was 28% for the whole group, while it was 86% for short sleepers and 42% for long sleepers. Thus, the link with mortality for long sleep appears to be more due to environmental factors than to heredity, while heritability dominates among short sleepers. We found that both long and short sleep were associated with higher total mortality, that the difference in mortality within twin pairs is associated with long sleep, and that short sleep has a higher heritability for mortality, while long sleep is associated with more environmental influences on mortality. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sleep-Related Disorders in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Preliminary Results of a Full Sleep Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Silvia; Esposito, Maria; Foderaro, Giuseppe; Ramelli, Gian Paolo; Pezzoli, Valdo; Manconi, Mauro

    2016-11-01

    We present the preliminary results of a prospective case-control sleep study in children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A deep sleep assessment including sleep questionnaires, sleep habits, a video-polysomnographic recording with full high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and cardiorespiratory polygraphy, multiple sleep latency test, and 1-week actigraphic recording were performed to verify whether children with ADHD may be classified into one of the following five phenotypes: (1) hypoarousal state, resembling narcolepsy, which may be considered a "primary" form of ADHD; (2) delayed sleep onset insomnia; (3) sleep-disordered breathing; (4) restless legs syndrome and/or periodic limb movements; and (5) sleep epilepsy and/or EEG interictal epileptiform discharges. Fifteen consecutive outpatients with ADHD were recruited (two female, mean age 10.6 ± 2.2, age range 8-13.7 years) over 6 months. The narcolepsy-like sleep phenotype was observed in three children, the sleep onset insomnia phenotype was observed in one child, mild obstructive sleep apnea was observed in three children, sleep hyperkinesia and/or PLMs were observed in five children, while IEDs and or nocturnal epilepsy were observed in three children. Depending on the sleep phenotype, children received melatonin, iron supplementation, antiepileptic drugs, or stimulants. Our study further highlights the need to design an efficient sleep diagnostic algorithm for children with ADHD, thereby more accurately identifying cases in which a full sleep assessment is indicated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Roles of the hypocretin/orexins in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Akira; Haruyama, Takashi; Kimura, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Hypocretin/orexin is produced exclusively in the dorsal and lateral hypothalamus but its projection is widespread within the brain and plays important roles. In this paper, we review the independent discoveries of the hypocretin/orexin peptides, the neuroanatomy of this system, and the link to the sleep disorder narcolepsy that has led to the idea that this system plays a crucial role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

  10. Cognitive Performance, Sleepiness, and Mood in Partially Sleep Deprived Adolescents: The Need for Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Ong, Ju Lynn; Leong, Ruth L F; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of sleep restriction (7 nights of 5 h time in bed [TIB]) on cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood in adolescents. A parallel-group design was adopted in the Need for Sleep Study. Fifty-six healthy adolescents (25 males, age = 15-19 y) who studied in top high schools and were not habitual short sleepers were randomly assigned to Sleep Restriction (SR) or Control groups. Participants underwent a 2-w protocol consisting of 3 baseline nights (TIB = 9 h), 7 nights of sleep opportunity manipulation (TIB = 5 h for the SR and 9 h for the control groups), and 3 nights of recovery sleep (TIB = 9 h) at a boarding school. A cognitive test battery was administered three times each day. During the manipulation period, the SR group demonstrated incremental deterioration in sustained attention, working memory and executive function, increase in subjective sleepiness, and decrease in positive mood. Subjective sleepiness and sustained attention did not return to baseline levels even after 2 recovery nights. In contrast, the control group maintained baseline levels of cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood throughout the study. Incremental improvement in speed of processing, as a result of repeated testing and learning, was observed in the control group but was attenuated in the sleep-restricted participants, who, despite two recovery sleep episodes, continued to perform worse than the control participants. A week of partial sleep deprivation impairs a wide range of cognitive functions, subjective alertness, and mood even in high-performing high school adolescents. Some measures do not recover fully even after 2 nights of recovery sleep. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 497. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea in epilepsy: a preliminary Egyptian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Hala A; Abd El-Kader, Ann A; El Gohary, Amira M; El-Fayoumy, Neveen M; Afifi, Lamia M

    2012-09-01

    The extent and clinical relevance of the association between epilepsy and sleep apnea are not previously studied in Egypt. What we wanted to know was the frequency of sleep apnea in Egyptian children with epilepsy and its influence on seizure frequency, other seizure characteristics, sleep complaint, and architecture. All patients with epilepsy, aged up to 18 years, who underwent polysomnography were studied. Patients with any neurological disease apart from epilepsy, with psychiatric illness, had hypnotics, or sedatives or those with liver or kidney failure were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to apnea/hypopnea index: group (1) patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and group (2) patients with OSA. For control group, we choose 12 healthy individuals, with age and sex matched to that of our patients. We studied the clinical characteristics of epilepsy, sleep history, and polysomnographic recording of the patients with epilepsy and the control. EEG digital and video monitoring was done for all patients. Eleven patients (42.3%) were found to have obstructive sleep apnea. Seizure frequency was significantly higher in the patients with OSA. Apart from apnea and hypopnea indices, all other sleep parameters did not differ between patients' subgroups. Hypopnea index in REM positively correlates with number of awaking. Apnea index in REM positively correlates with latency to deep sleep and to periodic leg movement. Sleep apnea is frequent in patients with epilepsy. OSA may contribute to increase seizure frequency. We recommend investigating sleep apnea in all patients with epilepsy.

  12. Hypocretin (orexin regulation of sleep-to-wake transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eDe Lecea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The hypocretin (Hcrt, also known as orexin, peptides are essential for arousal stability. Here I discuss background information about the interaction of Hcrt with other neuromodulators, including norepinephrine and acetylcholine probed with optogenetics. I conclude that Hcrt neurons integrate metabolic, circadian and limbic inputs and convey this information to a network of neuromodulators, each of which has a different role on the dynamic of sleep-to-wake transitions. This model may prove useful to predict the effects of orexin receptor antagonists in sleep disorders and other conditions.

  13. Migraine, arousal and sleep deprivation: comment on: "sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Testani, Elisa; Losurdo, Anna; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-06-10

    We discuss the hypothesis proposed by Engstrom and coworkers that Migraineurs have a relative sleep deprivation, which lowers the pain threshold and predispose to attacks. Previous data indicate that Migraineurs have a reduction of Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP), an essential mechanism of NREM sleep regulation which allows to dump the effect of incoming disruptive stimuli, and to protect sleep. The modifications of CAP observed in Migraineurs are similar to those observed in patients with impaired arousal (narcolepsy) and after sleep deprivation. The impairment of this mechanism makes Migraineurs more vulnerable to stimuli triggering attacks during sleep, and represents part of a more general vulnerability to incoming stimuli.

  14. Restoring effective sleep tranquility (REST): A feasibility and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M; Schmid, Arlene A; Henry, Kimberly L; Rolle, Natalie R; Schelly, Catherine; Pott, Christine E; Burns, Joshua E

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of completing a future controlled trial of a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia program for military veterans with sleep disturbance. This was a single-arm feasibility and pilot study. Participants were United States post-9/11 veterans with service-connected injuries, university students, and had self-reported sleep disturbances. Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility was a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia intervention consisting of seven sessions of group therapy and eight 1:1 sessions delivered by occupational therapists. Feasibility and pilot indicators were process, resources, management, and scientific, including pre-post-assessments of sleep difficulties, dysfunctional sleep beliefs, participation, and pain interference. Indicators were supportive of feasibility, including reduced sleep difficulties (for example Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Measure [ t  = 3.29, p  = .02]), reduced nightmares: t  = 2.79, p  = .03; fewer dysfunctional sleep beliefs: t  = 3.63, p  = .01, and greater ability to participate in social roles: t  = -2.86, p  = .03, along with trends towards improved satisfaction with participation and reduced pain interference. The Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility program may reduce sleep difficulties and improve participation in US veterans with service-connected injuries, and evidence indicates a controlled trial would be feasible to deliver.

  15. Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality predict next-day suicidal ideation: an ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Donna L; Kyle, Simon D; Carter, Lesley-Anne; Peters, Sarah; Pratt, Daniel; Gooding, Patricia

    2018-04-26

    Sleep problems are a modifiable risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Yet, sparse research has examined temporal relationships between sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation, and psychological factors implicated in suicide, such as entrapment. This is the first in-the-moment investigation of relationships between suicidal ideation, objective and subjective sleep parameters, and perceptions of entrapment. Fifty-one participants with current suicidal ideation completed week-long ecological momentary assessments. An actigraph watch was worn for the duration of the study, which monitored total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and sleep latency. Daily sleep diaries captured subjective ratings of the same sleep parameters, with the addition of sleep quality. Suicidal ideation and entrapment were measured at six quasi-random time points each day. Multi-level random intercept models and moderation analyses were conducted to examine the links between sleep, entrapment, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for anxiety and depression severity. Analyses revealed a unidirectional relationship whereby short sleep duration (both objective and subjective measures), and poor sleep quality, predicted the higher severity of next-day suicidal ideation. However, there was no significant association between daytime suicidal ideation and sleep the following night. Sleep quality moderated the relationship between pre-sleep entrapment and awakening levels of suicidal ideation. This is the first study to report night-to-day relationships between sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation, and entrapment. Findings suggest that sleep quality may alter the strength of the relationship between pre-sleep entrapment and awakening suicidal ideation. Clinically, results underscore the importance of assessing and treating sleep disturbance when working with those experiencing suicidal ideation.

  16. Functional role of diverse changes in sympathetic nerve activity in regulating arterial pressure during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Misa; Yoshida, Ikue; Miki, Kenju

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether REM sleep evoked diverse changes in sympathetic outflows and, if so, to elucidate why REM sleep evokes diverse changes in sympathetic outflows. Male Wistar rats were chronically implanted with electrodes to measure renal (RSNA) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and electrocardiogram, and catheters to measure systemic arterial and central venous pressure; these parameters were measured simultaneously and continuously during the sleep-awake cycle in the same rat. REM sleep resulted in a step reduction in RNSA by 36.1% ± 2.7% (P sleep. In contrast to REM sleep, RSNA, LSNA, systemic arterial pressure, and heart rate increased in a unidirectional manner associated with increases in physical activity levels in the order from NREM sleep, quiet awake, moving, and grooming state. Thus, the relationship between RSNA vs. LSNA and systemic arterial pressure vs. heart rate observed during REM sleep was dissociated compared with that obtained during the other behavioral states. It is suggested that the diverse changes in sympathetic outflows during REM sleep may be needed to increase systemic arterial pressure by balancing vascular resistance between muscles and vegetative organs without depending on the heart.

  17. Sleep Quality, Sleep Duration, and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study With 60,586 Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Liu, Xudong; Deng, Han-Bing; Chan, Ta-Chien; Ho, Kin Fai; Wang, Feng; Vermeulen, Roel; Tam, Tony; Wong, Martin C S; Tse, L A; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    2018-01-15

    There is limited information on the relationship between risk of cardiovascular disease and the joint effects of sleep quality and sleep duration, especially from large, prospective, cohort studies. This study is to prospectively investigate the joint effects of sleep quality and sleep duration on the development of coronary heart disease. This study examined 60,586 adults aged 40 years or older. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on sleep quality and sleep duration as well as a wide range of potential confounders. Events of coronary heart disease were self-reported in subsequent medical examinations. Two types of Sleep Score (multiplicative and additive) were constructed to reflect the participants' sleep profiles, considering both sleep quality and sleep duration. The Cox regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 2,740 participants (4.5%) reported new events of coronary heart disease at follow-up. For sleep duration, participants in the group of 8 h/d) did not reach statistical significance (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.98-1.26). For sleep quality, both dreamy sleep (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.10-1.32) and difficult to fall asleep/use of sleeping pills or drugs (HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.25-1.56) were associated with an increased risk of the disease. Participants in the lowest quartile of multiplicative Sleep Score (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.16-1.47) and of additive sleep score (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.16-1.47) were associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease compared with those in the highest quartile. Both short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. The association for long sleep duration does not reach statistical significance. Lower Sleep Score (poorer sleep profile) increases the risk of coronary heart disease, suggesting the importance of considering sleep duration and sleep quality together when developing strategies to

  18. Sleep habits and patterns of college students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, W C; Brown, F; Soper, B

    2001-11-01

    The negative effects of sleep difficulties have been well documented. However, the prevalence of such problems among US college students has not been well studied. Design difficulties are common in the limited number of existing investigations, making it difficult to estimates the prevalence and types of disturbance studied. The authors describe the use of a quantitative-based assessment instrument to provide an initial indication of students' sleep problems and to serve as a means of addressing some of the deficiencies in the literature. In their sample of 191 undergraduates at a rural southern university, they found that most of the students exhibited some form of sleep disturbance and that women, in general, reported more sleep disturbances than men did. They suggest how colleges and university officials can alter procedures to minimize students' sleep disturbances and reduce the deleterious effects of sleep problems on academic performance.

  19. Impact of sleep duration on seizure frequency in adults with epilepsy: a sleep diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobabe, Maurine M; Sessler, Daniel I; Nowacki, Amy S; O'Rourke, Colin; Andrews, Noah; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2015-02-01

    Prolonged sleep deprivation activates epileptiform EEG abnormalities and seizures in people with epilepsy. Few studies have addressed the effect of chronic partial sleep deprivation on seizure occurrence in populations with epilepsy. We tested the primary hypothesis that partial sleep deprivation over 24- and 72-hour periods increases seizure occurrence in adults with epilepsy. Forty-four subjects completed a series of self-reported instruments, as well as 1-month sleep and seizure diaries, to characterize their sleep and quality of life. Diaries were used to determine the relationship between seizure occurrence and total sleep time 24 and 72h before seizure occurrence using random effects models and a logistic regression model fit by generalized estimating equations. A total of 237 seizures were recorded during 1295 diary days, representing 5.5±7.0 (mean±SD) seizures per month. Random effects models for 24- and 72-hour total sleep times showed no clinically or statistically significant differences in the total sleep time between preseizure periods and seizure-free periods. The average 24-hour total sleep time during preseizure 24-hour periods was 8min shorter than that during seizure-free periods (p=0.51). The average 72-hour total sleep time during preseizure periods was 20min longer than that during seizure-free periods (p=0.86). The presence of triggers was a significant predictor of seizure occurrence, with stress/anxiety noted most often as a trigger. Mean total sleep time was 9h, and subjects took an average of 12±10 naps per month, having a mean duration of 1.9±1.2h. Daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia symptoms were commonly reported. Small degrees of sleep loss were not associated with seizure occurrence in our sample of adults with epilepsy. Our results also include valuable observations of the altered sleep times and frequent napping habits of adults with refractory epilepsy and the potential contribution of these habits to quality of life and

  20. Sleep Hygiene Behaviors Among Midlife Women with Insomnia or Sleep-Disordered Breathing: The SWAN Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E.; Irish, Leah A.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Okun, Michele L.; Owens, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are the most common sleep disorders among midlife women. Although promoting sleep hygiene behaviors may be a useful behavioral approach for the management of insomnia or SDB, the frequency with which women engage in these behaviors is unclear. Methods: Participants were from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study (N=321; age range=48–58 years). Out of the full sample, 10.3% (n=33) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition diagnostic criteria for insomnia, 15.3% (n=49) had clinically significant SDB (apnea–hypopnea index ≥15), and 4.7% (n=15) met criteria for both insomnia and SDB, resulting in an overall prevalence of 15.0% (n=48) for insomnia and 19.9% (n=64) for SDB. Participants provided diary-based assessments of sleep hygiene behaviors for 14–35 days. Two positive behaviors (sufficient exercise, regular morning out-of-bed time) and four negative behaviors (taking long daytime naps, caffeine consumption near bedtime, alcohol consumption near bedtime, smoking) were examined. These behaviors were compared between women with and without insomnia or SDB following adjustment for sociodemographic factors and mental and physical health indices. Results: Women with insomnia engaged in significantly fewer negative sleep hygiene behaviors than women without insomnia (1.61±0.15 vs. 2.09±0.09 behaviors; phygiene behaviors were observed. Conclusions: These data suggest that insomnia in midlife women is not associated with poor sleep hygiene. Increasing physical activity may be a valuable recommendation for midlife women with SDB. PMID:25353709

  1. A Longitudinal Study on Social Competence Development and Sleeping Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Tomisaki, Etsuko; Tanaka, Emiko; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tong, Lian; Hirano, Maki; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie

    2010-01-01

    Background It is known that sleep problems impact children’s health, learning, and school performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between sleeping habits and social competence development. Methods Three hundred and nine caregiver-child dyads participated in this study, which was conducted as part of a Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) project. The caregivers answered some questionnaires about sleeping habits when the child was 9 months and 18 months old. C...

  2. [Sleep, work, and study: sleep duration in working and non-working students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erico Felden; Bernardo, Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite; D'Almeida, Vânia; Louzada, Fernando Mazzilli

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the duration of sleep and associated factors in working and non-working students. Data were analyzed on the sleep-wake cycle in 863 teenage students in São Paulo, Brazil. Adjusted analyses were performed to compare sleep duration in working and non-working students. 18.4% of the group worked, and 52% of the working students slept eight hours or less per night. Prevalence of short sleep duration was higher in working students of both sexes (males, p = 0.017; females, p Working students showed short sleep duration in the analysis adjusted for socioeconomic status, but short sleep was more frequent in older adolescents (p = 0.004) and in lower (p = 0.001) and middle (p = 0.011) socioeconomic classes. Although more working students were in night school, in the model adjusted for gender and socioeconomic status, working students in afternoon courses showed higher prevalence of short sleep duration (PR = 2.53; 95%CI: 1.68-4.12).

  3. Recent progress of neuroimaging studies on sleeping brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    Although sleep is a familiar phenomenon, its functions are yet to be elucidated. Understanding these functions of sleep is an important focus area in neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been the predominantly used method in human sleep research but does not provide detailed spatial information about brain activation during sleep. To supplement the spatial information provided by this method, researchers have started using a combination of EEG and various advanced neuroimaging techniques that have been recently developed, including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, we will review the recent progress in sleep studies, especially studies that have used such advanced neuroimaging techniques. First, we will briefly introduce several neuroimaging techniques available for use in sleep studies. Next, we will review the spatiotemporal brain activation patterns during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the dynamics of functional connectivity during sleep, and the consolidation of learning and memory during sleep; studies on the neural correlates of dreams, which have not yet been identified, will also be discussed. Lastly, possible directions for future research in this area will be discussed. (author)

  4. [Recent progress of neuroimaging studies on sleeping brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yuka

    2012-06-01

    Although sleep is a familiar phenomenon, its functions are yet to be elucidated. Understanding these functions of sleep is an important focus area in neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been the predominantly used method in human sleep research but does not provide detailed spatial information about brain activation during sleep. To supplement the spatial information provided by this method, researchers have started using a combination of EEG and various advanced neuroimaging techniques that have been recently developed, including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, we will review the recent progress in sleep studies, especially studies that have used such advanced neuroimaging techniques. First, we will briefly introduce several neuroimaging techniques available for use in sleep studies. Next, we will review the spatiotemporal brain activation patterns during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the dynamics of functional connectivity during sleep, and the consolidation of learning and memory during sleep; studies on the neural correlates of dreams, which have not yet been identified, will also be discussed. Lastly, possible directions for future research in this area will be discussed.

  5. Sleep Quality, Sleep Duration, and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease : A Prospective Cohort Study With 60,586 Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Liu, Xudong; Deng, Han-Bing; Chan, Ta-Chien; Ho, Kin Fai; Wang, Feng; Vermeulen, Roel; Tam, Tony; Wong, Martin C S; Tse, Lap Ah; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: There is limited information on the relationship between risk of cardiovascular disease and the joint effects of sleep quality and sleep duration, especially from large, prospective, cohort studies. This study is to prospectively investigate the joint effects of sleep quality and

  6. Polysomnographic Study of Sleep in Survivors of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsel, Ruth A.; Starr, Tatiana D.; O'Sullivan, Barbara; Passik, Steven D.; Kavey, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Insomnia is a frequent complaint in breast cancer patients during and after treatment. Breast cancer survivors, 1–10 years posttreatment, underwent in-lab polysomnography (PSG) to objectively define the insomnia in those patients with such a complaint. Methods: Twenty-six breast cancer survivors (aged 39–80, mean 54.0 months posttreatment) spent 2 nights in the sleep laboratory. Sleep on Night 2 was scored for sleep stages, sleep onset latency, REM sleep onset latency, wake time, apneas and hypopneas, periodic limb movements and arousals. Subjects were allocated into 2 groups by their scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI): no/ mild sleep disturbance (PSQI score ≤ 9, n = 15) or moderate/ severe sleep disturbance (PSQI ≥ 10, n = 11). Results: Standard PSG/EEG parameters failed to differentiate insomniacs from non-insomniacs. The single variable that distinguished the insomnia group was periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS). PLMS were significantly correlated (r ≅ 0.7, p insomnia on PSQI and insomnia severity index. Log[Number of PLMS] was higher in the moderate/severe insomnia group (p = 0.008). Five of 11 patients in the moderate/severe insomnia group had a PLMS index ≥ 15, compared to only one of 15 patients in the none/mild insomnia group (p = 0.02). Menopausal symptoms and use of caffeine, hypnotics, and antidepressants were unrelated to insomnia severity or PLMS. Conclusions: PLMS was the sole PSG variable that separated breast cancer survivors with moderate/severe insomnia from those with no/mild sleep disturbance. Further study of the incidence and significance of PLMS in breast cancer survivors with the complaint of insomnia is merited. Citation: Reinsel RA, Starr TD, O'Sullivan B, Passik SD, Kavey NB. Polysomnographic study of sleep in survivors of breast cancer. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1361–1370. PMID:26194735

  7. Hindering and buffering factors for parental sleep in neonatal care. A phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla; Angelhoff, Charlotte; Johnsson, Ewa; Karlsson, Jenny; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-03-01

    To explore and describe how parents of preterm and/or sick infants in neonatal care perceive their sleep. Parents experience many stressful situations when their newborn infant is preterm and/or sick. This affects bonding. By developing more family-centred care units with single-family rooms, parents are given the opportunity to stay and care for their newborn infant(s) 24 hours a day. Lack of sleep may affect new parents' ability to cope with the many challenges they face on a daily basis. A phenomenographic study with an inductive and exploratory design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve parents of infants in neonatal care between January-March 2012. To describe variations in perception of the phenomenon, data were analysed using phenomenography. Four descriptive categories were identified within the phenomenon sleep in parents of preterm and/or sick infants in neonatal care: impact of stress on sleep; how the environment affects sleep; keeping the family together improves sleep; and, how parents manage and prevent tiredness. Anxiety, uncertainty and powerlessness have a negative influence on sleep. This can be decreased by continuous information, guidance and practical support. Skin-to-skin care was perceived as a stress-reducing factor that improved relaxation and sleep and should be encouraged by the nurse. The parents also mentioned the importance of being together. Having a private place where they could relax and take care of themselves and their newborn infant improved sleep. It was also desirable to involve older siblings in order to decrease feelings of loneliness, sadness and isolation. Improved parental sleep in neonatal care may help the families cope with the situation and facilitate problem-solving, emotional regulation and the transition to parenthood. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Home sleep studies in the assessment of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpe, Rafael; Jiménez, Antonio; Carpizo, Rosario

    2002-10-01

    To determine the clinical utility of a limited sleep-recording device used unsupervised in the patient's home, compared with in-laboratory, fully supervised polysomnography for the diagnosis of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS), and to assess its impact on costs. Prospective case study. The sleep-disorders unit of a tertiary referral university hospital. Fifty-five patients suspected of having SAHS and living within 30 km of our laboratory. Patients were studied first in their homes with the limited sleep-recording device. Polysomnography was performed within 30 days of the first study. Both studies were read by independent investigators blinded to the results of the other study. Diagnoses and therapeutic decisions regarding the use of continuous positive airway pressure obtained from the home and laboratory studies were compared. Agreement between the home and laboratory study recordings was also assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Bland-Altman analysis. One half of the home studies were randomly assigned to be performed with a sleep technician's set up of the equipment in the patient's home (group 1), and the other half with the patient's own setup of the sleep-recording device (group 2), after an instruction period in the hospital. An economic analysis was performed, considering the cost of repeating studies in cases with faulty or inconclusive home studies (these patients should undergo polysomnography as a second step). Seven percent of the home studies in group 1, and 33% in group 2 produced no interpretable data because of artifacts (p home study findings were inconclusive. The diagnosis obtained from the limited sleep-recording device and polysomnography agreed in 75% of the interpretable home studies (89%, if inconclusive home studies were excluded). The area under the ROC curve for the home study-derived parameters was between 0.84 and 0.89, compared with polysomnography. There was no bias between home and polysomnography

  9. A role of melanin-concentrating hormone producing neurons in the central regulation of paradoxical sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salin Paul

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidergic neurons containing the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH and the hypocretins (or orexins are intermingled in the zona incerta, perifornical nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area. Both types of neurons have been implicated in the integrated regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight. Hypocretin neurons have also been involved in sleep-wake regulation and narcolepsy. We therefore sought to determine whether hypocretin and MCH neurons express Fos in association with enhanced paradoxical sleep (PS or REM sleep during the rebound following PS deprivation. Next, we compared the effect of MCH and NaCl intracerebroventricular (ICV administrations on sleep stage quantities to further determine whether MCH neurons play an active role in PS regulation. Results Here we show that the MCH but not the hypocretin neurons are strongly active during PS, evidenced through combined hypocretin, MCH, and Fos immunostainings in three groups of rats (PS Control, PS Deprived and PS Recovery rats. Further, we show that ICV administration of MCH induces a dose-dependant increase in PS (up to 200% and slow wave sleep (up to 70% quantities. Conclusion These results indicate that MCH is a powerful hypnogenic factor. MCH neurons might play a key role in the state of PS via their widespread projections in the central nervous system.

  10. The physiological role of orexin/hypocretin neurons in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness and neuroendocrine functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu eInutsuka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus monitors body homeostasis and regulates various behaviors such as feeding, thermogenesis, and sleeping. Orexins (also known as hypocretins were identified as endogenous ligands for two orphan G-protein-coupled receptors in the lateral hypothalamic area. They were initially recognized as regulators of feeding behavior, but they are mainly regarded as key modulators of the sleep/wakefulness cycle. Orexins activate orexin neurons, monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons in the hypothalamus/brainstem regions, to maintain a long, consolidated awake period. Anatomical studies of neural projections from/to orexin neurons and phenotypic characterization of transgenic mice revealed various roles for orexin neurons in the coordination of emotion, energy homeostasis, reward system, and arousal. For example, orexin neurons are regulated by peripheral metabolic cues, including ghrelin, leptin, and glucose concentration. This suggests that they may provide a link between energy homeostasis and arousal states. A link between the limbic system and orexin neurons might be important for increasing vigilance during emotional stimuli. Orexins are also involved in reward systems and the mechanisms of drug addiction. These findings suggest that orexin neurons sense the outer and inner environment of the body and maintain the proper wakefulness level of animals for survival. This review discusses the mechanism by which orexins maintain sleep/wakefulness states and how this mechanism relates to other systems that regulate emotion, reward, and energy homeostasis.

  11. Sleep disturbance in psoriasis - a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P; Zachariae, C; Skov, L; Zachariae, R

    2018-04-28

    Sleep is essential for daytime functioning and health. Given the physical symptoms of psoriasis, a higher prevalence of sleep disorders could be expected. So far, the studies examining sleep disturbance in psoriasis have been of less-than-optimal methodological quality and with mixed results. We aimed to: 1) examine the prevalence of sleep disturbance in patients with plaque psoriasis compared to controls, 2) evaluate associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and 3) examine possible disease-related predictors of disturbed sleep. We used a cross-sectional, case-controlled design. Participants included 179 consecutively recruited patients with plaque psoriasis and 105 controls. Measures included psoriasis severity (Psoriasis Area and Severity index [PASI]); HRQoL (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI]); insomnia severity (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]); sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]); stress (Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]); Itch (Itch Severity Scale [ISS]); and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]). Analyses included group comparisons and regression analyses to identify predictors of sleep disturbance. Twenty-five per cent of patients with psoriasis reported clinical insomnia (ISI > 15), compared with 10.5% of controls. In all, 53.9% of patients with psoriasis were poor sleepers (PSQI > 5), compared with 21.9% of controls. Itch was statistically significantly associated with all sleep-related outcomes. A higher proportion of patients with psoriasis suffer from poor sleep than controls from the general population. Itch was the main predictor of impaired sleep. Improved control of psoriasis with decreased itch may improve sleep disturbance in psoriasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Noncontact Sleep Study by Multi-Modal Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku-young Chung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Polysomnography (PSG is considered as the gold standard for determining sleep stages, but due to the obtrusiveness of its sensor attachments, sleep stage classification algorithms using noninvasive sensors have been developed throughout the years. However, the previous studies have not yet been proven reliable. In addition, most of the products are designed for healthy customers rather than for patients with sleep disorder. We present a novel approach to classify sleep stages via low cost and noncontact multi-modal sensor fusion, which extracts sleep-related vital signals from radar signals and a sound-based context-awareness technique. This work is uniquely designed based on the PSG data of sleep disorder patients, which were received and certified by professionals at Hanyang University Hospital. The proposed algorithm further incorporates medical/statistical knowledge to determine personal-adjusted thresholds and devise post-processing. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is highlighted by contrasting sleep stage classification performance between single sensor and sensor-fusion algorithms. To validate the possibility of commercializing this work, the classification results of this algorithm were compared with the commercialized sleep monitoring device, ResMed S+. The proposed algorithm was investigated with random patients following PSG examination, and results show a promising novel approach for determining sleep stages in a low cost and unobtrusive manner.

  13. Tracheobronchomegaly associated tracheomalacia: analysis by sleep study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, P; Joshi, J M

    2004-01-01

    Tracheobronchomegaly (TBM) occasionally may progress to extensive tracheomalacia which leads to respiratory failure. Spirometry, dynamic expiratory multidetector computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy are used to diagnose patients of suspected tracheobronchomalacia. We used the technique of night-time monitoring of respiratory variables to show the presence of respiratory abnormalities during sleep and which was corrected by applying nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The study showed the presence of both apnoea and hypopnoeas, which were obstructive in nature with an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 11, no snoring and associated oxygen desaturation of 75 per cent. A second overnight study with nasal continuous positive airway pressure at a critical pressure of 8 cm, the AHI decreased to 3 along with no drop in oxygen saturation. This non-invasive technique should be considered as a diagnostic tool in tracheobronchomalacia and to know the outcome of CPAP, surgical or stent therapy in this condition.

  14. Sleep in children with asthma: results of the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Annette; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S.; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Oort, Frans J.; Rodenburg, Roos; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Children with asthma are thought to have impaired sleep quality and quantity. In this study, we investigated which of the many sleep aspects are associated with asthma. Our sample consisted of 2529 children (aged 11 years) who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy

  15. Sleep in children with asthma : results of the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Annette; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Oort, Frans J.; Rodenburg, Roos; Meijer, Anne Marie

    Children with asthma are thought to have impaired sleep quality and quantity. In this study, we investigated which of the many sleep aspects are associated with asthma. Our sample consisted of 2529 children (aged 11 years) who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy

  16. The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J. F.; Oort, F. J.; Meijer, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by advancing bedtimes in the

  17. Vitamin D and actigraphic sleep outcomes in older community-dwelling men: the MrOS sleep study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Jennifer; Stone, Katie L; Wei, Esther K; Harrison, Stephanie L; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Lane, Nancy E; Paudel, Misti; Redline, Susan; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Orwoll, Eric; Schernhammer, Eva

    2015-02-01

    Maintaining adequate serum levels of vitamin D may be important for sleep duration and quality; however, these associations are not well understood. We examined whether levels of serum 25(OH)D are associated with objective measures of sleep in older men. Cross-sectional study within a large cohort of community-dwelling older men, the MrOS study. Among 3,048 men age 68 years or older, we measured total serum vitamin D. Objective estimates of nightly total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and wake time after sleep onset (WASO) were obtained using wrist actigraphy worn for an average of 5 consecutive 24-h periods. 16.4% of this study population had low levels of vitamin D (sleep duration, (odds ratio [OR] for the highest (≥ 40.06 ng/mL) versus lowest (sleep efficiency of less than 70% (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.97-2.18; Ptrend = 0.004), after controlling for age, clinic, season, comorbidities, body mass index, and physical and cognitive function. Lower vitamin D levels were also associated with increased WASO in age-adjusted, but not multivariable adjusted models. Among older men, low levels of total serum 25(OH)D are associated with poorer sleep including short sleep duration and lower sleep efficiency. These findings, if confirmed by others, suggest a potential role for vitamin D in maintaining healthy sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Associations between Sleep, Cortisol Regulation, and Diet: Possible Implications for the Risk of Alzheimer Disease12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of proteinaceous amyloid β plaques and tau oligomers may occur several years before the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD). Under normal circumstances, misfolded proteins get cleared by proteasome degradation, autophagy, and the recently discovered brain glymphatic system, an astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid bulk flow. It has been shown that the activity of the glymphatic system is higher during sleep and disengaged or low during wakefulness. As a consequence, poor sleep quality, which is associated with dementia, might negatively affect glymphatic system activity, thus contributing to amyloid accumulation. The diet is another important factor to consider in the regulation of this complex network. Diets characterized by high intakes of refined sugars, salt, animal-derived proteins and fats and by low intakes of fruit and vegetables are associated with a higher risk of AD and can perturb the circadian modulation of cortisol secretion, which is associated with poor sleep quality. For this reason, diets and nutritional interventions aimed at restoring cortisol concentrations may ease sleep disorders and may facilitate brain clearance, consequentially reducing the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Here, we describe the associations that exist between sleep, cortisol regulation, and diet and their possible implications for the risk of cognitive impairment and AD. PMID:27422503

  19. Associations between Sleep, Cortisol Regulation, and Diet: Possible Implications for the Risk of Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    Accumulation of proteinaceous amyloid β plaques and tau oligomers may occur several years before the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD). Under normal circumstances, misfolded proteins get cleared by proteasome degradation, autophagy, and the recently discovered brain glymphatic system, an astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid bulk flow. It has been shown that the activity of the glymphatic system is higher during sleep and disengaged or low during wakefulness. As a consequence, poor sleep quality, which is associated with dementia, might negatively affect glymphatic system activity, thus contributing to amyloid accumulation. The diet is another important factor to consider in the regulation of this complex network. Diets characterized by high intakes of refined sugars, salt, animal-derived proteins and fats and by low intakes of fruit and vegetables are associated with a higher risk of AD and can perturb the circadian modulation of cortisol secretion, which is associated with poor sleep quality. For this reason, diets and nutritional interventions aimed at restoring cortisol concentrations may ease sleep disorders and may facilitate brain clearance, consequentially reducing the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Here, we describe the associations that exist between sleep, cortisol regulation, and diet and their possible implications for the risk of cognitive impairment and AD. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Andy R; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle.

  1. Childhood maltreatment and adulthood poor sleep quality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel A; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake M

    2017-08-01

    Available evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that childhood maltreatment may be associated with a range of sleep disorders. However, these studies have not controlled for potential individual-, familial- and environmental-level confounders. To determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lower sleep quality after adjusting for potential confounders. Data for the present study were obtained from a pre-birth cohort study of 3778 young adults (52.6% female) of the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy follow up at a mean age of 20.6 years. The Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective Australian pre-birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first obstetric clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital in 1981-1983. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at the 21-year follow up. We linked this dataset to agency-recorded substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment. A series of separate logistic regression models was used to test whether childhood maltreatment predicted lower sleep quality after adjustment for selected confounders. Substantiated physical abuse significantly predicted lower sleep quality in males. Single and multiple forms of childhood maltreatment, including age of maltreatment and number of substantiations, did not predict lower sleep quality in either gender in both crude and adjusted models. Not being married, living in a residential problem area, cigarette smoking and internalising were significantly associated with lower sleep quality in a fully adjusted model for the male-female combined sample. Childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict young adult poor sleep quality, with the exception of physical abuse for males. While childhood maltreatment has been found to predict a range of mental health problems, childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict sleep problems occurring in young adults. Poor sleep quality was

  2. Brainwave entrainment for better sleep and post-sleep state of young elite soccer players - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeln, Vera; Kleinert, Jens; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation on psychophysical performance and well-being is comprehensively investigated. Research investigating the effect of improved sleep is rare. Just as little exists about attempts to support athletic mental state and performance by improving sleep quality. This study aims to investigate whether sleep quality of top athletes can be improved by auditory brainwave entrainment and whether this leads to enhancements of post-sleep psychophysical states. In a pilot study, 15 young elite soccer players were stimulated for eight weeks during sleep with binaural beats around 2-8 Hz. Once a week after wake-up, participants completed three different questionnaires: a sleep diary, an adjective list for psychophysical and motivational state, and a self-assessment questionnaire for sleep and awakening quality. Fifteen sport students executed the same protocol sleeping on the same pillow, but without stimulation. Subjective ratings of sleep and awakening quality, sleepiness and motivational state were significantly improved only in the intervention group, but did not impact their perceived physical state. In summary, eight weeks of auditory stimulation with binaural beats improved perceived sleep quality and the post-sleep state of athletes, whereas the effect on physical level is assumed to occur in a time-delayed fashion. It seems to be worthwhile - to further elaborate long-time effects and consequences on physical and mental performance.

  3. Community based study of sleep bruxism during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Gozal, David; McNeil, Daniel W.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims for this study were to determine the prevalence of sleep-bruxism among young children, explore child behavior problems that may be associated with sleep-bruxism, and identify relations among sleep-bruxism, health problems, and neurocognitive performance. Methods The current study was a retrospective analysis of parent report surveys, and behavioral and neurocognitive assessments. Parents of 1953 preschool and 2888 first grade children indicated their child’s frequency of bruxism during sleep. A subsample of preschool children (n = 249) had additional behavioral, as well as neurocognitive assessments. Among the subsample, parents also reported on their child’s health, and completed the Child Behavioral Checklist; children were administered the Differential Ability Scales, and Pre-Reading Abilities subtests of the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. Results 36.8% of preschoolers and 49.6% of first graders were reported to brux ≥ 1 time per week. Among the preschool subsample, bruxing was independently associated with increased internalizing behaviors (β = .17). Bruxism was also associated with increased health problems (β = .19), and increased health problems were associated with decreased neurocognitive performance (β = .22). Conclusions The prevalence of sleep-bruxism was high. A dynamic and potentially clinically relevant relation exists among sleep-bruxism, internalizing behaviors, health, and neurocognition. Pediatric sleep-bruxism may serve as a sentinel marker for possible adverse health conditions, and signal a need for early intervention. These results support the need for an interdisciplinary approach to pediatric sleep medicine, dentistry, and psychology. PMID:23219144

  4. Sleep duration and sleep-related problems in different occupations in the Hordaland Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, Reidun; Baste, Valborg; Moen, Bente E

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between occupation and sleep duration, sleepiness, insufficient sleep, and insomnia in day and shift workers (including night work and watches). The study was population-based and cross-sectional, and relied on self-administered questionnaires. It was conducted as part of the 1997-1999 Hordaland Health Study in collaboration with the Norwegian National Health Screening Service. Aged 40-45 years, 7782 participants answered a sleep questionnaire, reporting their occupation and whether or not they were employed in shift work. Our study found differences in sleep duration during the working week between occupational groups; in both shift and day workers. Craft workers, plant operators, and drivers slept less than leaders, and non-personal and personal service workers. Within some occupations (leaders, personal service workers, and plant operators), shift workers slept less than day workers. The mean sleep duration of shift workers was 15 minutes shorter than that of day workers. Rise times, but not bedtimes, were earlier in craft-and construction workers, plant operators, and drivers than in leaders and non-personal and personal service workers, particularly day workers. When adjusted for shift work and working hours - compared to leaders - craft workers, plant operators, and drivers had an increased risk of daytime sleepiness (odds ratio 1.5, 1.8, and 1.8 respectively) and of falling asleep at work (odds ratio 1.6, 2.1 and 2.0 respectively). Shift workers had an increased risk of falling asleep at work and insomnia. Occupation has separate effects on sleep duration and sleep-related problems, independent of the effects of shift work.

  5. Unraveling the Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Using Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, L; Moscato, E H; Kayser, M S

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders in humans are increasingly appreciated to be not only widespread but also detrimental to multiple facets of physical and mental health. Recent work has begun to shed light on the mechanistic basis of sleep disorders like insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, and a host of others, but a more detailed genetic and molecular understanding of how sleep goes awry is lacking. Over the past 15 years, studies in Drosophila have yielded new insights into basic questions regarding sleep function and regulation. More recently, powerful genetic approaches in the fly have been applied toward studying primary human sleep disorders and other disease states associated with dysregulated sleep. In this review, we discuss the contribution of Drosophila to the landscape of sleep biology, examining not only fundamental advances in sleep neurobiology but also how flies have begun to inform pathological sleep states in humans. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of Lateral Cephalogram and Flexible Laryngoscopy with Sleep Study in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the correlation between lateral cephalogram, flexible laryngoscopy, and sleep study in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Background. Screening tools should be devised for predicting OSA which could be performed on an outpatient basis. With this aim we studied the skeletal and soft tissue characteristics of proven OSA patients. Methods. A prospective study was performed in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by sleep study. They were evaluated clinically and subjected to lateral cephalometry and nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. The findings were matched to see if they corresponded to AHI of sleep study in severity. An attempt was made to see whether the data predicted the patients who would benefit from oral appliance or surgery as the definitive treatment in indicated cases. Results. A retropalatal collapse seen on endoscopy could be equated to the distance from mandibular plane to hyoid (MP-H of lateral cephalometry and both corresponded to severity of AHI. At the retroglossal region, there was a significant correlation with MP-H, length of the soft palate, and AHI. Conclusion. There is significant correlation of lateral cephalogram and awake flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy with AHI in OSA. In unison they form an excellent screening tool for snorers.

  7. Correlation of Lateral Cephalogram and Flexible Laryngoscopy with Sleep Study in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Anila; Faizal, Bini

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the correlation between lateral cephalogram, flexible laryngoscopy, and sleep study in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Background. Screening tools should be devised for predicting OSA which could be performed on an outpatient basis. With this aim we studied the skeletal and soft tissue characteristics of proven OSA patients. Methods. A prospective study was performed in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by sleep study. They were evaluated clinically and subjected to lateral cephalometry and nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. The findings were matched to see if they corresponded to AHI of sleep study in severity. An attempt was made to see whether the data predicted the patients who would benefit from oral appliance or surgery as the definitive treatment in indicated cases. Results. A retropalatal collapse seen on endoscopy could be equated to the distance from mandibular plane to hyoid (MP-H) of lateral cephalometry and both corresponded to severity of AHI. At the retroglossal region, there was a significant correlation with MP-H, length of the soft palate, and AHI. Conclusion. There is significant correlation of lateral cephalogram and awake flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy with AHI in OSA. In unison they form an excellent screening tool for snorers.

  8. Is there a First Night Effect on Sleep Bruxism? A Sleep Laboratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Lavigne, Gilles; Rompré, Pierre; Kato, Takafumi; Urade, Masahiro; Huynh, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep bruxism (SB) is reported to vary in frequency over time. The aim of this study was to assess the first night effect on SB. Methods: A retrospective polysomnographic (PSG) analysis was performed of data from a sample of SB patients (12 females, 4 males; age range: 17-39 years) recorded in a sleep laboratory over 2 consecutive nights. Sleep parameters and jaw muscle activity variables (i.e., rhythmic masticatory muscle activity [RMMA]) for SB were quantified and compared between the 2 nights. Subjects were classified into groups according to severity of RMMA frequency, such as low frequency (2-4 episodes/h and/or bruxism time index, and mean burst duration (repeated measure ANOVAs, p ≤ 0.05). Five patients of 8 in the low frequency group were classified into the moderate-high frequency group on the second night, whereas only one patient in the moderate-high frequency group moved to the low frequency group. Conclusions: The results showed no overall first night effect on severity of RMMA frequency in young and healthy patients with SB. In clinical practice, one-night sleep recording may be sufficient for moderate-high frequency SB patients. However, low RMMA frequency in the first night could be confirmed by a second night based on the patient's medical and dental history. Citation: Hasegawa Y; Lavigne G; Rompré P; Kato T; Urade M; Huynh N. Is there a first night effect on sleep bruxism? A sleep laboratory study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(11):1139-1145. PMID:24235894

  9. Sleep deprivation, pain and prematurity: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Santos de Carvalho Bonan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants.

  10. Signals from the brainstem sleep/wake centers regulate behavioral timing via the circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra M Abbott

    Full Text Available Sleep-wake cycling is controlled by the complex interplay between two brain systems, one which controls vigilance state, regulating the transition between sleep and wake, and the other circadian, which communicates time-of-day. Together, they align sleep appropriately with energetic need and the day-night cycle. Neural circuits connect brain stem sites that regulate vigilance state with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, the master circadian clock, but the function of these connections has been unknown. Coupling discrete stimulation of pontine nuclei controlling vigilance state with analytical chemical measurements of intra-SCN microdialysates in mouse, we found significant neurotransmitter release at the SCN and, concomitantly, resetting of behavioral circadian rhythms. Depending upon stimulus conditions and time-of-day, SCN acetylcholine and/or glutamate levels were augmented and generated shifts of behavioral rhythms. These results establish modes of neurochemical communication from brain regions controlling vigilance state to the central circadian clock, with behavioral consequences. They suggest a basis for dynamic integration across brain systems that regulate vigilance states, and a potential vulnerability to altered communication in sleep disorders.

  11. Signals from the brainstem sleep/wake centers regulate behavioral timing via the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sabra M; Arnold, Jennifer M; Chang, Qing; Miao, Hai; Ota, Nobutoshi; Cecala, Christine; Gold, Paul E; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Gillette, Martha U

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-wake cycling is controlled by the complex interplay between two brain systems, one which controls vigilance state, regulating the transition between sleep and wake, and the other circadian, which communicates time-of-day. Together, they align sleep appropriately with energetic need and the day-night cycle. Neural circuits connect brain stem sites that regulate vigilance state with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock, but the function of these connections has been unknown. Coupling discrete stimulation of pontine nuclei controlling vigilance state with analytical chemical measurements of intra-SCN microdialysates in mouse, we found significant neurotransmitter release at the SCN and, concomitantly, resetting of behavioral circadian rhythms. Depending upon stimulus conditions and time-of-day, SCN acetylcholine and/or glutamate levels were augmented and generated shifts of behavioral rhythms. These results establish modes of neurochemical communication from brain regions controlling vigilance state to the central circadian clock, with behavioral consequences. They suggest a basis for dynamic integration across brain systems that regulate vigilance states, and a potential vulnerability to altered communication in sleep disorders.

  12. Neurophysiological Effects of Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Adults, a Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, Ursula M. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Kloet, Reina W.; Boellaard, Ronald; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation (TSD) may induce fatigue, neurocognitive slowing and mood changes, which are partly compensated by stress regulating brain systems, resulting in altered dopamine and cortisol levels in order to stay awake if needed. These systems, however, have never been studied in concert.

  13. Neurophysiological effects of sleep deprivation in healthy adults, a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.M.H. Klumpers (Ursula); D.J. Veltman (Dick); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); R.W. Kloet (Reina); R. Boellaard (Ronald); Lammertsma, A.A. (Adriaan A.); W.J.G. Hoogendijk (Witte)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractTotal sleep deprivation (TSD) may induce fatigue, neurocognitive slowing and mood changes, which are partly compensated by stress regulating brain systems, resulting in altered dopamine and cortisol levels in order to stay awake if needed. These systems, however, have never been studied

  14. Regional reductions in sleep electroencephalography power in obstructive sleep apnea: a high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie G; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard F; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J; Benca, Ruth M

    2014-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significant alterations in neuronal integrity resulting from either hypoxemia and/or sleep loss. A large body of imaging research supports reductions in gray matter volume, alterations in white matter integrity and resting state activity, and functional abnormalities in response to cognitive challenge in various brain regions in patients with OSA. In this study, we used high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG), a functional imaging tool that could potentially be used during routine clinical care, to examine the regional distribution of neural activity in a non-clinical sample of untreated men and women with moderate/severe OSA. Sleep was recorded with 256-channel EEG in relatively healthy subjects with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 10, as well as age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls selected from a research population initially recruited for a study on sleep and meditation. Sleep laboratory. Nine subjects with AHI > 10 and nine matched controls. N/A. Topographic analysis of hdEEG data revealed a broadband reduction in EEG power in a circumscribed region overlying the parietal cortex in OSA subjects. This parietal reduction in neural activity was present, to some extent, across all frequency bands in all stages and episodes of nonrapid eye movement sleep. This investigation suggests that regional deficits in electroencephalography (EEG) power generation may be a useful clinical marker for neural disruption in obstructive sleep apnea, and that high-density EEG may have the sensitivity to detect pathological cortical changes early in the disease process.

  15. Guide to Understanding Your Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these numbers and alphabet soups, and a better comprehension of what they quantify and signify, here is ... constitute another sleep disorder. And yes, someone is listening to–though not measuring in decibels–your snoring, ...

  16. Predicting sleep quality from stress and prior sleep--a study of day-to-day covariation across six weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Orsini, Nicola; Petersen, Helena; Axelsson, John; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran

    2012-06-01

    The connection between stress and sleep is well established in cross-sectional questionnaire studies and in a few prospective studies. Here, the intention was to study the link between stress and sleep on a day-to-day basis across 42 days. Fifty participants kept a sleep/wake diary across 42 days and responded to daily questions on sleep and stress. The results were analyzed with a mixed model approach using stress during the prior day to predict morning ratings of sleep quality. The results showed that bedtime stress and worries were the main predictors of sleep quality, but that, also, late awakening, short prior sleep, high quality of prior sleep, and good health the prior day predicted higher sleep quality. Stress during the day predicts subsequent sleep quality on a day-to-day basis across 42 days. The observed range of variation in stress/worries was modest, which is why it is suggested that the present data underestimates the impact of stress on subsequent sleep quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep quality and OPRM1 polymorphisms: a cross-sectional study among opioid-naive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalina Zahari

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Opioidergic system involves in regulation of sleep and wakefulness. It is possible, therefore, that genetic polymorphisms in OPRM1 influence sleep quality. This study investigated the association of OPRM1 polymorphisms with subjective sleep quality among opioid-naive individuals. This cross-sectional observational study involved 161 opioid-naive males (mean age = 27.74 years; range: 18−63 years. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the translated and validated Malay version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. DNA was extracted from whole blood and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR-genotyping for two OPRM1 polymorphisms (118A>G and IVS2+691G>C. Subjects with combined 118A and IVS2+691G alleles (AC haplotype had significantly lower PSQI scores [mean (SD = 4.29 (1.76] compared to those without the haplotype [4.99 (2.50] (p = 0.004. On the other hand, subjects with combined heterozygous genotype (GC/AG diplotype had significantly higher PSQI scores compared to those without the diplotype [6.04 (2.48 vs 4.54 (2.22, p = 0.004]. In opioid-naive individuals, AC haplotype and GC/AG diplotype for the 118A>G and IVS2+691G>C polymorphisms of OPRM1 are associated with better and poorer sleep quality, respectively.

  18. Sleep discontinuity and impaired sleep continuity affect transition to and from obesity over time: results from the Alameda county study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Maria; Kaplan, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the impact of development in sleep continuity on transition to and from obesity over time. The study used self-reported sleep and body mass index (BMI) measures from the 1965, 1974, 1983, and 1994 waves of the longitudinal Alameda County Study. Sleep continuity was assessed by a question on whether the participants had any troubles falling or staying asleep. Change in sleep and BMI were estimated from the sleep and BMI questions in 1965 and 1994 respectively. Multinomial regression analyses were used to examine the risk/chance for a transition to and from obesity (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) due to development in sleep continuity. After adjustment for confounding variables, consistent sleep discontinuity both increases the risk for a transition to obesity and reduces the chance of losing weight, whereas impaired sleep continuity lowers the chance for weight loss. Effects for obesity were non-significant for those with improved sleep continuity. Consistent sleep discontinuity and impaired sleep continuity increases the risk of transition to obesity or of remaining obese.

  19. The role of nucleus accumbens core/shell in sleep-wake regulation and their involvement in modafinil-induced arousal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hong Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that modafinil promotes wakefulness via dopamine receptor D(1 and D(2 receptors; however, the locus where dopamine acts has not been identified. We proposed that the nucleus accumbens (NAc that receives the ventral tegmental area dopamine inputs play an important role not only in reward and addiction but also in sleep-wake cycle and in mediating modafinil-induced arousal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we further explored the role of NAc in sleep-wake cycle and sleep homeostasis by ablating the NAc core and shell, respectively, and examined arousal response following modafinil administration. We found that discrete NAc core and shell lesions produced 26.5% and 17.4% increase in total wakefulness per day, respectively, with sleep fragmentation and a reduced sleep rebound after a 6-hr sleep deprivation compared to control. Finally, NAc core but not shell lesions eliminated arousal effects of modafinil. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the NAc regulates sleep-wake behavior and mediates arousal effects of the midbrain dopamine system and stimulant modafinil.

  20. Sleep as an Occupational Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Nicole J; Foss, Joanne Jackson

    In the same way the human body requires food, hydration, and oxygen, it also requires sleep. Even among healthy people, the amount and quality of sleep substantially influence health and quality of life because sleep helps regulate physiological functioning. Given the impact of sleep on participation, the American Occupational Therapy Association reclassified sleep from an activity of daily living to an occupational domain. Poor sleep is a frequent medical complaint, especially among populations with neurological impairment. Occupational therapy practitioners should consider routinely screening for factors affecting their clients' sleep. By addressing such factors, as well as related routines and habits, practitioners can enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation, promote health and well-being, and increase engagement and life quality. Practitioners should acknowledge the importance of sleep in practice, and the study of sleep should be prioritized by researchers in the field to meet client needs and establish evidence for interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older.We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality.Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  2. Sleep Apnea and Obstructive Airway Disease in Older Men: Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying Y; Blackwell, Terri; Ensrud, Kristine E; Stone, Katie L; Omachi, Theodore A; Redline, Susan

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the association between obstructive airway disease (OAD) and sleep apnea in older men. A community-based cross-sectional study of 853 community-dwelling older men (mean age 80.7 ± 4.1 years [range 73 to 90]) across 6 centers in the United States from the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study. Sleep was objectively measured using full in-home polysomnography and lung function was objectively measured using spirometry. The association of OAD (pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15 events/hour) was assessed using logistic regression. OAD and sleep apnea were identified in 111 (13.0%) and 247 (29.0%) men, respectively. In univariate analysis, participants with OAD had a lower AHI (mean ± SD; 8.7 ± 11.7 vs. 12.7 ± 13.8, P = 0.0009) and a lower prevalence of sleep apnea (14.4 vs. 31.1%, P = 0.0003) compared to participants without OAD. OAD remained independently associated with a lower odds of sleep apnea (odds ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.55, P = 0.0001) after adjustment for demographics, body composition, smoking, and potential mediators (arousal index, time spent in rapid eye movement sleep). Individuals with OAD and sleep apnea (n = 16) had an increased arousal index and lower oxygen saturation level as compared to individuals with OAD alone (P values sleep apnea in a cohort of community-dwelling elderly men, and unexplained by differences in adiposity or sleep architecture. Although uncommon in this cohort, coexisting sleep apnea and OAD was associated with increased sleep fragmentation and nocturnal oxygen desaturation compared to OAD alone. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. A Collaborative Study of Sleep, Performance and Health Relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belenky, Gregory; Van Dongen, Hans

    2006-01-01

    .... These studies will provide the scientific basis for the effective management of sleep to sustain performance in the operational environment, including all 24x7 operations, extended work hours, and shiftwork...

  4. A Collaborative Study of Sleep, Performance and Health Relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belenky, Gregory; Van Dongen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    .... These studies will provide the scientific basis for the effective management of sleep to sustain performance in the operational environment, including all 24x7 operations, extended work hours, and shiftwork...

  5. A longitudinal study on social competence development and sleeping habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomisaki, Etsuko; Tanaka, Emiko; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tong, Lian; Hirano, Maki; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie

    2010-01-01

    It is known that sleep problems impact children's health, learning, and school performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between sleeping habits and social competence development. Three hundred and nine caregiver-child dyads participated in this study, which was conducted as part of a Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) project. The caregivers answered some questionnaires about sleeping habits when the child was 9 months and 18 months old. Caregiver-child interaction was observed when the child was 30 months old, and the features of the interaction were examined using the Interaction Rating Scale (IRS) as a measure of social competence. The caregivers' attitude toward sleeping in the 9-month period was found to be significantly correlated with the children's social competence at 30 months. Moreover the caregivers' attitude toward sleeping in the 9-month period significantly correlated with the children's sleeping habits at 9 and 18 months. These findings show that the caregivers' attitude toward sleeping is an important factor influencing the development of children's social competence.

  6. Excessive sleep need following traumatic brain injury: a case-control study of 36 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerauer, Michael; Valko, Philipp O; Werth, Esther; Baumann, Christian R

    2013-12-01

    Increased sleep need following traumatic brain injury, referred to in this study as post-traumatic pleiosomnia, is common, but so far its clinical impact and therapeutic implications have not been characterized. We present a case-control study of 36 patients with post-traumatic pleiosomnia, defined by an increased sleep need of at least 2 h per 24 h after traumatic brain injury, compared to 36 controls. We assessed detailed history, sleep-activity patterns with sleep logs and actigraphy, nocturnal sleep with polysomnography and daytime sleep propensity with multiple sleep latency tests. Actigraphy recordings revealed that traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients had longer estimated sleep durations than controls (10.8 h per 24 h, compared to 7.3 h). When using sleep logs, TBI patients underestimated their sleep need. During nocturnal sleep, patients had higher amounts of slow-wave sleep than controls (20 versus 13.8%). Multiple sleep latency tests revealed excessive daytime sleepiness in 15 patients (42%), and 10 of them had signs of chronic sleep deprivation. We conclude that post-traumatic pleiosomnia may be even more frequent than reported previously, because affected patients often underestimate their actual sleep need. Furthermore, these patients exhibit an increase in slow-wave sleep which may reflect recovery mechanisms, intrinsic consequences of diffuse brain damage or relative sleep deprivation. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Study of sleep habits and sleep problems among medical students of pravara institute of medical sciences loni, Western maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Pa; Baviskar, Mp; Phalke, Db

    2013-01-01

    Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Maharashtra, India. Sleep habits and problems were investigated using a convenience sample of students from Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Maharashtra, India. The study was carried out during Oct. to Dec. 2011 with population consisted of total 150 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire developed based on Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. In this study, out of 150 medical students, 26/150 (17.3%) students had abnormal levels of daytime sleepiness while 20/150 (13.3%) were border line. Sleep quality in females was better than the male. Disorders related to poor sleep qualities are significant problems among medical students in our institution. Caffeine and alcohol ingestion affected sleep and there was high level of daytime sleepiness. Sleep difficulties resulted in irritability and affected lifestyle and interpersonal relationships.

  8. Brain imaging studies of sleep disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging studies of narcolepsy (NA)/cataplexy (CA), a typical sleep disorder, are summarized together with techniques of functional and structural imaging means. single photon emission CT (SPECT) is based on the distribution of tracers labeled by single photon emitters like 99m Tc and 123 I for seeing the blood flow and receptors. PET using positron emitters like 15 O and 18 F for blood flow and for glucose metabolism, respectively, is of higher resolution and more quantitative than SPECT. Functional MRI (fMRI) depicts the cerebral activity through signal difference by blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) effect, and MR spectroscopy (MRS) depicts and quantifies biomaterials through the difference of their nuclear chemical shifts in the magnetic field. Morphologic imaging studies involve the measurement of the volume of the region of interest by comparison with the reference region such as the whole brain volume. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has changed to its more advanced surface-based analysis (SBA) of T1-enhanced image. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is based on the tissue water diffusion. Functional SPECT/PET studies have suggested the decrease of blood flow and metabolic activity in the hypothalamus (HT) and other related regions at the conscious resting state, and locally increased blood flow in cingulate gyrus (CG) and amygdaloid complex (AC) at affective CA/PA seizure. fMRI has suggested the hypoactivity of HT and hyperactivity of AC at the seizure. VBM-based studies have not given the consistent results, but DTI studies have suggested an important participation of AC at the seizure. (T.T.)

  9. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dumas Cintra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart® system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001. After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample.

  10. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  11. Influence of serial electrical stimulations of perifornical and posterior hypothalamic orexin-containing neurons on regulation of sleep homeostasis and sleep-wakefulness cycle recovery from experimental comatose state and anesthesia-induced deep sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chijavadze, E; Chkhartishvili, E; Babilodze, M; Maglakelidze, N; Nachkebia, N

    2013-11-01

    The work was aimed for the ascertainment of following question - whether Orexin-containing neurons of dorsal and lateral hypothalamic, and brain Orexinergic system in general, are those cellular targets which can speed up recovery of disturbed sleep homeostasis and accelerate restoration of sleep-wakefulness cycle phases during some pathological conditions - experimental comatose state and/or deep anesthesia-induced sleep. Study was carried out on white rats. Modeling of experimental comatose state was made by midbrain cytotoxic lesions at intra-collicular level.Animals were under artificial respiration and special care. Different doses of Sodium Ethaminal were used for deep anesthesia. 30 min after comatose state and/or deep anesthesia induced sleep serial electrical stimulations of posterior and/or perifornical hypothalamus were started. Stimulation period lasted for 1 hour with the 5 min intervals between subsequent stimulations applied by turn to the left and right side hypothalamic parts.EEG registration of cortical and hippocampal electrical activity was started immediately after experimental comatose state and deep anesthesia induced sleep and continued continuously during 72 hour. According to obtained new evidences, serial electrical stimulations of posterior and perifornical hypothalamic Orexin-containing neurons significantly accelerate recovery of sleep homeostasis, disturbed because of comatose state and/or deep anesthesia induced sleep. Speed up recovery of sleep homeostasis was manifested in acceleration of coming out from comatose state and deep anesthesia induced sleep and significant early restoration of sleep-wakefulness cycle behavioral states.

  12. Sleep, sleepiness and school start times: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Donn; Bijwadia, Jagdeep; Schilling, Dana; Applebaugh, Gwendolyn

    2003-01-01

    High school students are reported to be excessively sleepy, resulting in decreased academic performance, increased psycho-social problems and increased risk of morbidity and mortality from accidents. Early school start times have been noted to contribute to this problem. This report attempts to confirm the relationship of early school start times with decreased sleep and increased sleepiness. We examined sophomore and junior students in 2 local high schools with different start times and measured the amount of time slept and sleepiness. We found that students at the early start school reported reduced sleep time and more sleepiness than their counterparts at the later starting school. Early school start times are associated with student reports of less sleep and increased sleepiness. Further studies in larger groups are recommended in view of the potential significant impact of sleep deprivation in this age group.

  13. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  14. Regulation of zebrafish sleep and arousal states: current and prospective approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy N Chiu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Every day, we shift among various states of sleep and arousal to meet the many demands of our bodies and environment. A central puzzle in neurobiology is how the brain controls these behavioral states, which are essential to an animal’s well-being and survival. Mammalian models have predominated sleep and arousal research, although in the past decade, invertebrate models have made significant contributions to our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of behavioral states. More recently, the zebrafish has emerged as a promising model system for sleep and arousal research. Here we review experimental evidence that the zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, exhibits fundamental behavioral and neurochemical characteristics of mammalian sleep and arousal. We also propose how specific advantages of the zebrafish can be harnessed to advance the field. These include tractable genetics to identify and manipulate molecular and cellular regulators of behavioral states, optical transparency to facilitate in vivo observation of neural structure and function, and amenability to high-throughput drug screens to discover novel therapies for neurological disorders.

  15. A pilot study of a novel smartphone application for the estimation of sleep onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hannah; Lack, Leon; Lovato, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy of Sleep On Cue: a novel iPhone application that uses behavioural responses to auditory stimuli to estimate sleep onset. Twelve young adults underwent polysomnography recording while simultaneously using Sleep On Cue. Participants completed as many sleep-onset trials as possible within a 2-h period following their normal bedtime. On each trial, participants were awoken by the app following behavioural sleep onset. Then, after a short break of wakefulness, commenced the next trial. There was a high degree of correspondence between polysomnography-determined sleep onset and Sleep On Cue behavioural sleep onset, r = 0.79, P Sleep On Cue overestimated sleep-onset latency by 3.17 min (SD = 3.04). When polysomnography sleep onset was defined as the beginning of N2 sleep, the discrepancy was reduced considerably (M = 0.81, SD = 1.96). The discrepancy between polysomnography and Sleep On Cue varied between individuals, which was potentially due to variations in auditory stimulus intensity. Further research is required to determine whether modifications to the stimulus intensity and behavioural response could improve the accuracy of the app. Nonetheless, Sleep On Cue is a viable option for estimating sleep onset and may be used to administer Intensive Sleep Retraining or facilitate power naps in the home environment. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atin Supartini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n=507 reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16, and 5.8% (n=115 reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30, sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes, and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation.

  17. Functional consequences of brain glycogen deficiency on the sleep-wake cycle regulation in PTG-KO mice

    KAUST Repository

    Burlet-Godinot, S.

    2017-12-31

    Introduction: In the CNS, glycogen is mainly localized in astrocytes where its levels are linked to neuronal activity. Astrocytic glycogen synthesis is regulated by glycogen synthase (GS) activity that is positively controlled by protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) expression levels. Although the role of glycogen in sleep/wake regulation is still poorly understood, we have previously demonstrated that, following a 6 hour gentle sleep deprivation (GSD), PTG mRNA expression and GS activity increased in the brain in mice while glycogen levels were paradoxically maintained and not affected. In order to gain further insight on the role of PTG in this process, we studied the sleep/wake cycle parameters in PTG knockout (PTG-KO) mice under baseline conditions and after a 6 hour GSD. Glycogen levels as well as mRNAs expression of genes related to energy metabolism were also determined in several brain areas. Materials and methods: Adult male C57BL/6J (WT) and PTG-KO mice were sleep-recorded under baseline conditions (24 h recordings, 12 h light/dark cycle) and following 6 hours GSD from ZT00 to ZT06. Vigilance states were visually scored (4 s temporal window). Spectral analysis of the EEG signal was performed using a discrete Fourier transformation. Glycogen measurements and gene expression analysis were assessed using a biochemical assay and quantitative RT-PCR respectively, on separate cohorts in WT vs PTG-KO mice at the end of the 6 hours GSD or in control animals (CTL) in different brain structures. Results: Quantitative analysis of the sleep/wake cycle under baseline conditions did not reveal major differences between the WT and the PTG-KO mice. However, during the dark period, the PTG-KO mice showed a significant increase in the number of wake and slow wave sleep episodes (respectively +26.5±8% and +26.1±8%; p< 0.05) together with a significant shortening in their duration (-21.6±7.2% and -14.3±2.8%; p< 0.01). No such quantitative changes were observed during

  18. Predicting sleep quality from stress and prior sleep: A study of day-to-day covariation across six weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Äkerstedt, T.; Orsini, N.; Petersen, H.; Axelsson, J.; Lekander, M.; Kecklund, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background/objectives: The connection between stress and sleep is well established in cross-sectional questionnaire studies and in a few prospective studies. Here, the intention was to study the link between stress and sleep on a day-to-day basis across 42 days. Methods: Fifty participants kept a

  19. Genes involved in the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) are specifcally regulated in cortical astrocytes following sleep deprivation in mice

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Jean Marie

    2013-10-01

    Study Objectives: There is growing evidence indicating that in order to meet the neuronal energy demands, astrocytes provide lactate as an energy substrate for neurons through a mechanism called "astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle" (ANLS). Since neuronal activity changes dramatically during vigilance states, we hypothesized that the ANLS may be regulated during the sleep-wake cycle. To test this hypothesis we investigated the expression of genes associated with the ANLS specifcally in astrocytes following sleep deprivation. Astrocytes were purifed by fuorescence-activated cell sorting from transgenic mice expressing the green fuorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human astrocytic GFAP-promoter. Design: 6-hour instrumental sleep deprivation (TSD). Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants: Young (P23-P27) FVB/N-Tg (GFAP-GFP) 14Mes/J (Tg) mice of both sexes and 7-8 week male Tg and FVB/Nj mice. Interventions: Basal sleep recordings and sleep deprivation achieved using a modifed cage where animals were gently forced to move. Measurements and Results: Since Tg and FVB/Nj mice displayed a similar sleep-wake pattern, we performed a TSD in young Tg mice. Total RNA was extracted from the GFP-positive and GFP-negative cells sorted from cerebral cortex. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of Glut1, a-2-Na/K pump, Glt1, and Ldha mRNAs were signifcantly increased following TSD in GFP-positive cells. In GFP-negative cells, a tendency to increase, although not signifcant, was observed for Ldha, Mct2, and α-3-Na/K pump mRNAs. Conclusions: This study shows that TSD induces the expression of genes associated with ANLS specifcally in astrocytes, underlying the important role of astrocytes in the maintenance of the neuro-metabolic coupling across the sleep-wake cycle.

  20. Use of Sleep Medications and Mortality: The Hordaland Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Børge; Madsen, Ida E H; Salo, Paula; Tell, Grethe S; Øverland, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between the use of sleep medications and mortality, but findings are mixed and well-controlled community-based studies are lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine the prospective association between sleep medications and all-cause mortality. Using a cohort design with 13-15 years of follow-up, we linked self-reported medication use and data on possible confounders from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK N = 21,826) obtained over the period 1997-1999 to mortality data from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Users of sleep medications (n = 159) were defined as those reporting intake of any prescribed sleep medication (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical [ATC] classification system) on the day before participation in HUSK. Users of sleep medications were also asked if their intake was on a daily or a non-daily basis. Analyses presented are adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, mental and physical health, and other medication use. We found that both type and frequency of sleep medication use were associated with increased general mortality risk. Compared with participants not using sleep medications, those who reported any use had a twofold risk for mortality (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.7); the hazard ratio (HR) was 2.9 (95 % CI 1.4-5.9) for daily and 1.1 (95 % CI 0.3-3.4) for non-daily users. Mortality risk was higher for benzodiazepines (HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.3-7.6), but not significant for short-acting benzodiazepine agonists (HR 1.5; 95 % CI 0.7-3.5). Community dwellers who use sleep medications, particularly benzodiazepines, had a significantly increased risk of dying during the 13-15 years of follow-up. The low numbers of individuals reporting chronic usage indicate that the data should be interpreted with great caution, and more well-controlled studies with registry-based information on sleep medication use are needed to further examine the potential

  1. Factors associated with poor sleep during menopause: results from the Midlife Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca L; Flaws, Jodi A; Mahoney, Megan M

    2018-05-01

    Poor sleep is one of the most common problems reported during menopause, and is known to vary throughout the menopause transition. The objective of this study was to describe the dynamics of poor sleep among participants of the Midlife Women's Health Study and to identify risk factors associated with poor sleep during the menopausal transition. Annual responses to surveys that included questions about the frequency of sleep disturbances and insomnia were analyzed to determine the likelihood of persistent poor sleep throughout the menopausal transition and the correlation of responses to the different sleep-related questions, including frequency of restless sleep during the first year of the study. Responses to questions about a large number of potential risk factors were used to identify risk factors for poor sleep. Poor sleep in premenopause was not predictive of poor sleep in perimenopause, and poor sleep in perimenopause was not predictive of poor sleep in postmenopause. Frequencies of each of the measures of poor sleep were highly correlated. For all sleep outcomes, high frequency of depression was related to a high frequency of poor sleep. Vasomotor symptoms were also significantly related with a higher frequency of all poor sleep outcomes. A history of smoking was also associated with higher frequencies of insomnia and sleep disturbances. The risk factors identified for poor sleep, depression and vasomotor symptoms, were consistently associated with poor sleep throughout the menopausal transition. The likelihood of these risk factors changed from premenopause, through perimenopause, and into postmenopause, however, which could explain changes in sleep difficulties across the menopausal transition. Treatment of these risk factors should be considered when addressing sleep difficulties in menopausal women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Association between Sleep Problems, Sleep Medication Use, and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Health and Retirement Study 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. Very few studies have assessed the impact of poor sleep and sleep medication use on the risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep problems, sleep medication use, and falls in community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The study population comprised a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized older adults participating in the 2010 Health and Retirement Study. Proportion of adults reporting sleep problems, sleep medication use, and fall was calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to examine the impact of sleep problems and sleep medication use on the risk of falls after controlling for covariates. Results. Among 9,843 community-dwelling older adults, 35.8% had reported a fall and 40.8% had reported sleep problems in the past two years. Sleep medication use was reported by 20.9% of the participants. Older adults who do have sleep problems and take sleep medications had a significant high risk of falls, compared to older adults who do not have sleep problems and do not take sleep medications. The other two groups also had significantly greater risk for falls. Conclusion. Sleep problems added to sleep medication use increase the risk of falls. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observed findings. PMID:27547452

  3. Do Older Adults Need Sleep? A Review of Neuroimaging, Sleep, and Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Michael K

    2017-09-01

    Sleep habits, sleep physiology, and sleep disorders change with increasing age. However, there is a longstanding debate regarding whether older adults need sleep to maintain health and daily functioning (reduced-sleep-need view). An alternative possibility is that all older adults need sleep, but that many older adults have lost the ability to obtain restorative sleep (reduced-sleep-ability view). Prior research using behavioral and polysomnography outcomes has not definitively disentangled the reduced-sleep-need and reduced-sleep-ability views. Therefore, this review examines the neuroimaging literature to determine whether age-related changes in sleep cause-or are caused by-age-related changes in brain structure, function, and pathology. In middle-aged and older adults, poorer sleep quality, greater nighttime hypoxia, and shorter sleep duration related to cortical thinning in frontal regions implicated in slow wave generation, in frontoparietal networks implicated in cognitive control, and in hippocampal regions implicated in memory consolidation. Furthermore, poor sleep quality was associated with higher amyloid burden and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, a network that is disrupted in the pathway to Alzheimer's disease. All adults need sleep, but cortical thinning and amyloidal deposition with advancing age may weaken the brain's ability to produce restorative sleep. Therefore, sleep in older adults may not always support identical functions for physical, mental, and cognitive health as in young adults.

  4. Relationship between early-life stress load and sleep in psychiatric outpatients: a sleep diary and actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Valérie; Bader, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether stress experienced early in life is associated with actigraphic and subjective sleep measures in a sample of adult psychiatric outpatients. A total of 48 psychiatric outpatients completed self-report questionnaires assessing current depression, current anxiety symptoms and stress load during childhood (before the age of 13 years), adolescence (between the age of 13 and 18 years) and adulthood (between the age of 19 and current age). Sleep-related activity was measured using 24-h wrist actigraphy over a 7-day period at home, during which participants also kept a sleep diary. High stress load in childhood, but not in adolescence, was associated with shortened actigraphically assessed total sleep time, prolonged sleep onset latency, decreased sleep efficiency and an increased number of body movements in sleep, even after accounting for the effects of later occurring stress and psychopathological symptoms such as depression and anxiety scores. Unexpectedly, no significant associations between early-life stress load and subjective sleep measures were found. Results are consistent with findings from previous studies indicating an association between childhood adversities and higher levels of nocturnal activity. The findings suggest that high stress load during childhood might be a vulnerability factor for sleep continuity problems in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The RFamide receptor DMSR-1 regulates stress-induced sleep in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacone, Michael J; Beets, Isabel; Lopes, Lindsey E; Churgin, Matthew A; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Nelson, Matthew D; Schoofs, Liliane; Raizen, David M

    2017-01-17

    In response to environments that cause cellular stress, animals engage in sleep behavior that facilitates recovery from the stress. In Caenorhabditis elegans , stress-induced sleep(SIS) is regulated by cytokine activation of the ALA neuron, which releases FLP-13 neuropeptides characterized by an amidated arginine-phenylalanine (RFamide) C-terminus motif. By performing an unbiased genetic screen for mutants that impair the somnogenic effects of FLP-13 neuropeptides, we identified the gene dmsr-1 , which encodes a G-protein coupled receptor similar to an insect RFamide receptor. DMSR-1 is activated by FLP-13 peptides in cell culture, is required for SIS in vivo , is expressed non-synaptically in several wake-promoting neurons, and likely couples to a Gi/o heterotrimeric G-protein. Our data expand our understanding of how a single neuroendocrine cell coordinates an organism-wide behavioral response, and suggest that similar signaling principles may function in other organisms to regulate sleep during sickness.

  6. Telemetric Study of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Homeostasis in the Day-Active Tree Shrew Tupaia belangeri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Alex; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Barf, R. Paulien; Fuchs, Eberhard; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: In this study the authors characterized sleep architecture and sleep homeostasis in the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri, a small, omnivorous, day-active mammal that is closely related to primates. Design: Adult tree shrews were individually housed under a 12-hr light/12-hr dark cycle

  7. Up-regulation of Na + expression in the area postrema of total sleep deprived rats by TOF-SIMS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Bo-Jung; Ling, Yong-Chien; Wu, Un-In; Huang, Yi-Lun; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2008-12-01

    Area postrema (AP) is a circumventricular organ plays an important role in sodium homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Since sleep deficiency will cause cardiovascular dysfunction, the present study aims to determine whether sodium level would significantly alter in AP following total sleep deprivation (TSD). Sodium level was investigated in vivo by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Clinical manifestation of cardiovascular function was demonstrated by mean arterial pressure (MAP) values. Results indicated that in normal rats, TOF-SIMS spectrum revealed a major peak of sodium ion counting as 5.61 × 10 5 at m/ z 23. The sodium ions were homogeneous distributed in AP without specific localization. However, following TSD, the sodium intensity was relatively increased (6.73 × 10 5) and the signal for sodium image was strongly expressed throughout AP with definite spatial distribution. MAP of TSD rats is 138 ± 5 mmHg, which is significantly higher than that of normal ones (121 ± 3 mmHg). Regarding AP is an important area for sodium sensation and development of hypernatremic related sympatho-excitation; up-regulation of sodium expression following TSD suggests that high sodium level might over-activate AP, through complex neuronal networks involving in sympathetic regulation, which could lead to the formation of TSD relevant cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Genes involved in the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) are specifically regulated in cortical astrocytes following sleep deprivation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean-Marie; Gyger, Joël; Burlet-Godinot, Sophie; Fiumelli, Hubert; Martin, Jean-Luc; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2013-10-01

    There is growing evidence indicating that in order to meet the neuronal energy demands, astrocytes provide lactate as an energy substrate for neurons through a mechanism called "astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle" (ANLS). Since neuronal activity changes dramatically during vigilance states, we hypothesized that the ANLS may be regulated during the sleep-wake cycle. To test this hypothesis we investigated the expression of genes associated with the ANLS specifically in astrocytes following sleep deprivation. Astrocytes were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from transgenic mice expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human astrocytic GFAP-promoter. 6-hour instrumental sleep deprivation (TSD). Animal sleep research laboratory. Young (P23-P27) FVB/N-Tg (GFAP-GFP) 14Mes/J (Tg) mice of both sexes and 7-8 week male Tg and FVB/Nj mice. Basal sleep recordings and sleep deprivation achieved using a modified cage where animals were gently forced to move. Since Tg and FVB/Nj mice displayed a similar sleep-wake pattern, we performed a TSD in young Tg mice. Total RNA was extracted from the GFP-positive and GFP-negative cells sorted from cerebral cortex. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of Glut1, α-2-Na/K pump, Glt1, and Ldha mRNAs were significantly increased following TSD in GFP-positive cells. In GFP-negative cells, a tendency to increase, although not significant, was observed for Ldha, Mct2, and α-3-Na/K pump mRNAs. This study shows that TSD induces the expression of genes associated with ANLS specifically in astrocytes, underlying the important role of astrocytes in the maintenance of the neuro-metabolic coupling across the sleep-wake cycle.

  9. Sex differences in the circadian regulation of sleep and waking cognition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, Nayantara; Lazar, Alpar S; McCabe, Patrick J; Lo, June C; Groeger, John A; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2016-05-10

    The sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythmicity both contribute to brain function, but whether this contribution differs between men and women and how it varies across cognitive domains and subjective dimensions has not been established. We examined the circadian and sleep-wake-dependent regulation of cognition in 16 men and 18 women in a forced desynchrony protocol and quantified the separate contributions of circadian phase, prior sleep, and elapsed time awake on cognition and sleep. The largest circadian effects were observed for reported sleepiness, mood, and reported effort; the effects on working memory and temporal processing were smaller. Although these effects were seen in both men and women, there were quantitative differences. The amplitude of the circadian modulation was larger in women in 11 of 39 performance measures so that their performance was more impaired in the early morning hours. Principal components analysis of the performance measures yielded three factors, accuracy, effort, and speed, which reflect core performance characteristics in a range of cognitive tasks and therefore are likely to be important for everyday performance. The largest circadian modulation was observed for effort, whereas accuracy exhibited the largest sex difference in circadian modulation. The sex differences in the circadian modulation of cognition could not be explained by sex differences in the circadian amplitude of plasma melatonin and electroencephalographic slow-wave activity. These data establish the impact of circadian rhythmicity and sex on waking cognition and have implications for understanding the regulation of brain function, cognition, and affect in shift-work, jetlag, and aging.

  10. Propofol Anesthesia and Sleep: A High-Density EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Riedner, Brady A.; Boveroux, Pierre; Noirhomme, Quentin; Landsness, Eric C.; Brichant, Jean-Francois; Phillips, Christophe; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven; Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The electrophysiological correlates of anesthetic sedation remain poorly understood. We used high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG) and source modeling to investigate the cortical processes underlying propofol anesthesia and compare them to sleep. Design: 256-channel EEG recordings in humans during propofol anesthesia. Setting: Hospital operating room. Patients or Participants: 8 healthy subjects (4 males) Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Initially, propofol induced increases in EEG power from 12–25 Hz. Loss of consciousness (LOC) was accompanied by the appearance of EEG slow waves that resembled the slow waves of NREM sleep. We compared slow waves in propofol to slow waves recorded during natural sleep and found that both populations of waves share similar cortical origins and preferentially propagate along the mesial components of the default network. However, propofol slow waves were spatially blurred compared to sleep slow waves and failed to effectively entrain spindle activity. Propofol also caused an increase in gamma (25–40 Hz) power that persisted throughout LOC. Source modeling analysis showed that this increase in gamma power originated from the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices. During LOC, we found increased gamma functional connectivity between these regions compared to the wakefulness. Conclusions: Propofol anesthesia is a sleep-like state and slow waves are associated with diminished consciousness even in the presence of high gamma activity. Citation: Murphy M; Bruno MA; Riedner BA; Boveroux P; Noirhomme Q; Landsness EC; Brichant JF; Phillips C; Massimini M; Laureys S; Tononi G; Boly M. Propofol anesthesia and sleep: a high-density EEG study. SLEEP 2011;34(3):283-291. PMID:21358845

  11. The effects of caffeine abstinence on sleep: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shuk Ching; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether caffeine abstinence in the evening could improve the sleep quality of those who habitually consume coffee. A double-blind control group design (caffeine and caffeine-free groups). A university. A convenience sampling of 10 students (mean age 21.4 years). It was a 14-day experiment. For the first 7 days, all participants consumed caffeinated coffee. In the following 7 days, subjects consumed caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee according to their assigned group. Sleep-wake parameters, self-reported sleep quality and level of refreshment. There were no significant differences (p>.05) among the data of the two groups identified. No significant changes (p>.05) were found in the sleep quality of either group during the study. This study confirms that caffeine abstinence in the evening might not be helpful in sleep promotion. It highlights the need to implement evidence-based practice in health promotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Relationship between Job Stress and 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms on Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Physicians in Urumqi (Xinjiang, China): A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyan; Ge, Hua; Jiang, Yu; Lian, Yulong; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-05-21

    The serotonin receptor (5-HTR) plays a key role in sleep quality regulation. Job-related stress is an important factor that influences sleep quality. However, few reports on the interaction between 5-HTR2A polymorphisms and job stress, and how they may impact upon sleep quality are available. Therefore this study investigated the effects of job stress, 5-HTR2A polymorphisms, and their interaction on sleep quality, in physicians. Using a two-stage stratified sampling method, 918 participants were initially invited to participate in the study. After screening for study inclusion and exclusion criteria, 504 subjects were eventually included in the study. Job stress and sleep quality were assessed using the Job Stress Survey (JSS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), respectively. The 5-HTR2A receptor gene polymorphisms T102C and -1438G/A of were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Job stress was significantly associated with sleep quality. High levels of job stress were linked to a higher risk of poor sleep quality compared to low or moderate levels [odds ratio (OR) = 2.909, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.697⁻4.986]. High levels of stress may reduce subjects’ sleep quality, leading to an increase the likelihood of sleep disturbances and subsequent daytime dysfunction. The 5-HTR2A receptor gene polymorphism T102C was not significantly associated with sleep quality in this study, however, the -1438G/A polymorphism was significantly associated with sleep quality. The GG genotype of the -1438G/A polymorphism was linked to poorer sleep quality. When compared with subjects with low job-related stress levels×AG/AA genotype (OR = 2.106, 95% CI: 1.278⁻3.471), physicians with high job-related stress levels×GG genotype had a higher risk of experiencing poor sleep quality (OR = 13.400, 95% CI: 3.143⁻57.137). The findings of our study indicate that job stress and 5-HTR2A receptor gene polymorphisms are associated

  14. Slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation during sleep has a sleep-stabilizing effect in chronic insomnia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saebipour, Mohammad R; Joghataei, Mohammad T; Yoonessi, Ali; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Khalighinejad, Nima; Khademi, Soroush

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lack of slow-wave activity may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of insomnia. Pharmacological approaches and brain stimulation techniques have recently offered solutions for increasing slow-wave activity during sleep. We used slow (0.75 Hz) oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation during stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement sleeping insomnia patients for resonating their brain waves to the frequency of sleep slow-wave. Six patients diagnosed with either sleep maintenance or non-restorative sleep insomnia entered the study. After 1 night of adaptation and 1 night of baseline polysomnography, patients randomly received sham or real stimulation on the third and fourth night of the experiment. Our preliminary results show that after termination of stimulations (sham or real), slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation increased the duration of stage 3 of non-rapid eye movement sleep by 33 ± 26 min (P = 0.026), and decreased stage 1 of non-rapid eye movement sleep duration by 22 ± 17.7 min (P = 0.028), compared with sham. Slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation decreased stage 1 of non-rapid eye movement sleep and wake time after sleep-onset durations, together, by 55.4 ± 51 min (P = 0.045). Slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation also increased sleep efficiency by 9 ± 7% (P = 0.026), and probability of transition from stage 2 to stage 3 of non-rapid eye movement sleep by 20 ± 17.8% (P = 0.04). Meanwhile, slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation decreased transitions from stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement sleep to wake by 12 ± 6.7% (P = 0.007). Our preliminary results suggest a sleep-stabilizing role for the intervention, which may mimic the effect of sleep slow-wave-enhancing drugs. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. "Is there an Association Between Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio in Young Adults? A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, M Ganesh; Prakash, Jay; Dash, Sambit; Chowdhury, Sudipta; Ahmed, Zuhilmi Bin; Yusof, Muhammad Zaim Zharif Bin Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Sleep is vital for mental and physical health of an individual. Duration of sleep influences the metabolism and regulates body weight. To assess the cross-sectional association of sleep duration with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Malaysian students. Eighty-nine Malaysian students of both genders, and with a mean (standard deviation) age of 21.2 (0.9) years were included. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained prior to the start of study. The subjects were interviewed regarding the average hours of sleep/day, their self-reported sleep duration was categorized as 7hour/day. Their height (in meters), weight (in kilograms), waist and hip circumference (in centimetre) were measured. BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated using appropriate formulas and expressed as mean (standard deviation). The duration of sleep was compared with BMI and waist-hip ratio using one way ANOVA. No statistical significance was observed when sleep duration was associated with BMI (p=0.65) and waist-hip ratio (p=0.95). Duration of sleep did not affect BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students in our study. The age and healthy lifestyle of the subjects in this study may have been a reason for no significant influence of short sleep duration on the BMI and waist-hip ratio. No association was found between sleep duration with BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students.

  16. What is the most important factor affecting the cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients: a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS usually complain of daytime hypersomnia and decrease in cognitive function, which affects the quality of their work and life. The reason why the cognitive function of OSAS patients decreased remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impairment and the main influencing factors of cognitive function in OSAS. Methods There were totally 50 OSAS patients (OSAS group and 25 volunteers (control group included in our study. All of them were monitored by polysomnography (PSG and tested by Continuous Performance Test (CPT, n-back test and Stroop Color?Word Test (CWT to evaluate their sleep condition and cognitive function. Results No significant difference was found between the two groups in total sleep time and sleep efficiency (P > 0.05, for all. Compared with control group, OSAS group had significant increased time of non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅰ and stage Ⅱ, significant decreased time of stage Ⅲ (P 0.05, for all, while had significant connection with AI and NREM Ⅲ (P < 0.05, for all. The rate of OSAS patients who underwent nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP treatment was very low, only 8% (4/50. Conclusion The abnormality of OSAS patients' sleep structure is characterized with sleep fragmentation and decrease of NREM Ⅲ, which may be the main factors of cognitive impairment. Exploration of treatment methods targeted on regulating the effected hormones and receptors is meaningful.

  17. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linden M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Linden,1,2 Marie Dietz,1 Christian Veauthier,3 Ingo Fietze3 1Research Group Psychosomatic Rehabilitation, Charité University Medicine Berlin, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rehabilitation Centre Seehof, Teltow, 3Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objective: To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients.Method: A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80 and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19. They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP].Results: In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes, evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often, and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective

  18. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: Sleep Heart Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Suzanne M; Pollock, Benjamin D; Mittleman, Murray A; Buysse, Daniel J; Bazzano, Lydia A; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Redline, Susan

    2018-03-07

    To quantify the association between insomnia/poor sleep with objective short sleep and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in the general population. We conducted a time-to-event analysis of Sleep Heart Health Study data. Questionnaires and at-home polysomnography were performed between 1994 -1998. Participants were followed for a median 11.4 years (Q1-Q3, 8.8-12.4 years) until death or last contact. The primary exposure was insomnia or poor sleep with short sleep defined as: difficulty falling asleep, difficulty returning to sleep, early morning awakenings, or sleeping pill use, 16-30 nights/month; and total sleep insomnia/poor sleep with short sleep and CVD, as well as all-cause mortality. Among 4,994 participants (mean age 64.0 ± 11.1 years), 14.1% reported insomnia or poor sleep, of which 50.3% slept insomnia/poor sleep with short sleep group compared with the reference group (HR, 1.29, 95% CI, 1.00, 1.66), but neither the insomnia/poor sleep only nor short sleep only groups were associated with higher incident CVD. Insomnia/poor sleep with objective short sleep was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.86, 1.33). Insomnia/poor sleep with PSG-short sleep was associated with higher risk of incident CVD. Future studies should evaluate the impact of interventions to improve insomnia with PSG-short sleep on CVD.

  19. Sleep-deprivation regulates α-2 adrenergic responses of rat hypocretin/orexin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uschakov, Aaron; Grivel, Jeremy; Cvetkovic-Lopes, Vesna; Bayer, Laurence; Bernheim, Laurent; Jones, Barbara E; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2011-02-08

    We recently demonstrated, in rat brain slices, that the usual excitation by noradrenaline (NA) of hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx) neurons was changed to an inhibition following sleep deprivation (SD). Here we describe that in control condition (CC), i.e. following 2 hours of natural sleep in the morning, the α(2)-adrenergic receptor (α(2)-AR) agonist, clonidine, had no effect on hcrt/orx neurons, whereas following 2 hours of SD (SDC), it hyperpolarized the neurons by activating G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. Since concentrations of clonidine up to a thousand times (100 µM) higher than those effective in SDC (100 nM), were completely ineffective in CC, a change in the availability of G-proteins is unlikely to explain the difference between the two conditions. To test whether the absence of effect of clonidine in CC could be due to a down-regulation of GIRK channels, we applied baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist known to also activate GIRK channels, and found that it hyperpolarized hcrt/orx neurons in that condition. Moreover, baclofen occluded the response to clonidine in SDC, indicating that absence of effect of clonidine in CC could not be attributed to down-regulation of GIRK channels. We finally tested whether α(2)-ARs were still available at the membrane in CC and found that clonidine could reduce calcium currents, indicating that α(2)-ARs associated with calcium channels remain available in that condition. Taken together, these results suggest that a pool of α(2)-ARs associated with GIRK channels is normally down-regulated (or desensitized) in hcrt/orx neurons to only become available for their inhibition following sleep deprivation.

  20. Sleep-deprivation regulates α-2 adrenergic responses of rat hypocretin/orexin neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Uschakov

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated, in rat brain slices, that the usual excitation by noradrenaline (NA of hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx neurons was changed to an inhibition following sleep deprivation (SD. Here we describe that in control condition (CC, i.e. following 2 hours of natural sleep in the morning, the α(2-adrenergic receptor (α(2-AR agonist, clonidine, had no effect on hcrt/orx neurons, whereas following 2 hours of SD (SDC, it hyperpolarized the neurons by activating G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK channels. Since concentrations of clonidine up to a thousand times (100 µM higher than those effective in SDC (100 nM, were completely ineffective in CC, a change in the availability of G-proteins is unlikely to explain the difference between the two conditions. To test whether the absence of effect of clonidine in CC could be due to a down-regulation of GIRK channels, we applied baclofen, a GABA(B agonist known to also activate GIRK channels, and found that it hyperpolarized hcrt/orx neurons in that condition. Moreover, baclofen occluded the response to clonidine in SDC, indicating that absence of effect of clonidine in CC could not be attributed to down-regulation of GIRK channels. We finally tested whether α(2-ARs were still available at the membrane in CC and found that clonidine could reduce calcium currents, indicating that α(2-ARs associated with calcium channels remain available in that condition. Taken together, these results suggest that a pool of α(2-ARs associated with GIRK channels is normally down-regulated (or desensitized in hcrt/orx neurons to only become available for their inhibition following sleep deprivation.

  1. Repeated sleep restriction in rats leads to homeostatic and allostatic responses during recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Laposky, Aaron D; Bergmann, Bernard M; Turek, Fred W

    2007-06-19

    Recent studies indicate that chronic sleep restriction can have negative consequences for brain function and peripheral physiology and can contribute to the allostatic load throughout the body. Interestingly, few studies have examined how the sleep-wake system itself responds to repeated sleep restriction. In this study, rats were subjected to a sleep-restriction protocol consisting of 20 h of sleep deprivation (SD) followed by a 4-h sleep opportunity each day for 5 consecutive days. In response to the first 20-h SD block on day 1, animals responded during the 4-h sleep opportunity with enhanced sleep intensity [i.e., nonrapid eye movement (NREM) delta power] and increased rapid eye movement sleep time compared with baseline. This sleep pattern is indicative of a homeostatic response to acute sleep loss. Remarkably, after the 20-h SD blocks on days 2-5, animals failed to exhibit a compensatory NREM delta power response during the 4-h sleep opportunities and failed to increase NREM and rapid eye movement sleep times, despite accumulating a sleep debt each consecutive day. After losing approximately 35 h of sleep over 5 days of sleep restriction, animals regained virtually none of their lost sleep, even during a full 3-day recovery period. These data demonstrate that the compensatory/homeostatic sleep response to acute SD does not generalize to conditions of chronic partial sleep loss. We propose that the change in sleep-wake regulation in the context of repeated sleep restriction reflects an allostatic process, and that the allostatic load produced by SD has direct effects on the sleep-wake regulatory system.

  2. Sleep patterns, sleep disorders and mammographic density in spanish women: The DDM-Spain/Var-DDM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Flechas, Ana María; Lope, Virginia; Moreo, Pilar; Ascunce, Nieves; Miranda-García, Josefa; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Llobet, Rafael; Aragonés, Nuria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz

    2017-05-01

    We explored the relationship between sleep patterns and sleep disorders and mammographic density (MD), a marker of breast cancer risk. Participants in the DDM-Spain/var-DDM study, which included 2878 middle-aged Spanish women, were interviewed via telephone and asked questions on sleep characteristics. Two radiologists assessed MD in their left craneo-caudal mammogram, assisted by a validated semiautomatic-computer tool (DM-scan). We used log-transformed percentage MD as the dependent variable and fitted mixed linear regression models, including known confounding variables. Our results showed that neither sleeping patterns nor sleep disorders were associated with MD. However, women with frequent changes in their bedtime due to anxiety or depression had higher MD (e β :1.53;95%CI:1.04-2.26). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Disagreement between subjective and actigraphic measures of sleep duration in a population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Rooij, F.J.A. van; Vos, H.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Miedema, H.M.E.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep duration is an important concept in epidemiological studies. It characterizes a night's sleep or a person's sleep pattern, and is associated with numerous health outcomes. In most large studies, sleep duration is assessed with questionnaires or sleep diaries. As an alternative, actigraphy may

  4. Individual differences in compliance and agreement for sleep logs and wrist actigraphy: A longitudinal study of naturalistic sleep in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Thurman

    Full Text Available There is extensive laboratory research studying the effects of acute sleep deprivation on biological and cognitive functions, yet much less is known about naturalistic patterns of sleep loss and the potential impact on daily or weekly functioning of an individual. Longitudinal studies are needed to advance our understanding of relationships between naturalistic sleep and fluctuations in human health and performance, but it is first necessary to understand the efficacy of current tools for long-term sleep monitoring. The present study used wrist actigraphy and sleep log diaries to obtain daily measurements of sleep from 30 healthy adults for up to 16 consecutive weeks. We used non-parametric Bland-Altman analysis and correlation coefficients to calculate agreement between subjectively and objectively measured variables including sleep onset time, sleep offset time, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, the amount of wake time after sleep onset, and total sleep time. We also examined compliance data on the submission of daily sleep logs according to the experimental protocol. Overall, we found strong agreement for sleep onset and sleep offset times, but relatively poor agreement for variables related to wakefulness including sleep onset latency, awakenings, and wake after sleep onset. Compliance tended to decrease significantly over time according to a linear function, but there were substantial individual differences in overall compliance rates. There were also individual differences in agreement that could be explained, in part, by differences in compliance. Individuals who were consistently more compliant over time also tended to show the best agreement and lower scores on behavioral avoidance scale (BIS. Our results provide evidence for convergent validity in measuring sleep onset and sleep offset with wrist actigraphy and sleep logs, and we conclude by proposing an analysis method to mitigate the impact of non-compliance and measurement

  5. Sleep Patterns in Chinese Preschool Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ran; Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Chun-Lei

    2018-04-15

    This study aimed to (1) provide data on normal sleep patterns in Chinese preschool children, (2) identify cross-cultural differences of sleep patterns among children from China and other countries, (3) estimate the prevalence of sleep duration not meeting the optimal amount, and (4) characterize delayed weekend sleep pattern. A population-based sample of 1,610 children aged 3-6 years was recruited from 10 cities across China. Parents completed questions about their child's sleep patterns adapted from the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). The mean bedtime was 9:31 PM, wake time was 7:27 AM, nighttime sleep duration was 9 hours 30 minutes, daytime sleep duration was 1 hour 31 minutes, and total sleep duration was 11 hours 2 minutes. The children had a shorter nighttime sleep duration but longer daytime naps, resulting in no differences in total sleep duration compared with counterparts predominantly in the west. Of the children, 85.3% met the recommended amount of sleep of 10 to 13 hours, and 10.8% slept fewer than 10 hours. The prevalence of sleep less than 10 hours was higher in older children and children from eastern China. Children went to bed and woke up more than 30 minutes later on weekends than weekdays, accounting for 40.1% and 50%, respectively. Children in western China showed longer delay than children in eastern China ( P < .05). Age- and region-specific variability of sleep patterns are reported as well as insufficient sleep and delayed weekend sleep pattern in Chinese preschool children. The cross-cultural difference of sleep patterns was in temporal placement rather than sleep duration. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  6. Internalizing and externalizing traits predict changes in sleep efficiency in emerging adulthood: An actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eYaugher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychopathology and experimental studies of sleep restriction support a relationship between sleep disruption and both internalizing and externalizing disorders. The objective of the current study was to extend this research by examining sleep, impulsivity, antisocial personality traits, and internalizing traits in a university sample. Three hundred and eighty six individuals (161 males between the ages of 18 and 27 years (M = 18.59, SD = 0.98 wore actigraphs for 7 days and completed established measures of disorder-linked personality traits and sleep quality (i.e., Personality Assessment Inventory, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. As expected, sleep measures and questionnaire scores fell within the normal range of values and sex differences in sleep and personality were consistent with previous research results. Similar to findings in predominantly male forensic psychiatric settings, higher levels of impulsivity predicted poorer subjective sleep quality in both women and men. Consistent with well-established associations between depression and sleep, higher levels of depression in both sexes predicted poorer subjective sleep quality. Bidirectional analyses showed that better sleep efficiency decreases depression. Finally, moderation analyses showed that gender does have a primary role in sleep efficiency and marginal effects were found. The observed relations between sleep and personality traits in a typical university sample add to converging evidence of the relationship between sleep and psychopathology and may inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology in young adulthood.

  7. Shared Genetic Control of Brain Activity During Sleep and Insulin Secretion: A Laboratory-Based Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Gamazon, Eric R; Tasali, Esra; Cox, Nancy J; Van Cauter, Eve; Davis, Lea K

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a large body of experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked sleep duration and quality to glucose homeostasis, although the mechanistic pathways remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether genetic variation influencing both sleep and glucose regulation could underlie their functional relationship. We hypothesized that the genetic regulation of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep, a highly heritable trait with fingerprint reproducibility, is correlated with the genetic control of metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. We tested our hypotheses through univariate and bivariate heritability analyses in a three-generation pedigree with in-depth phenotyping of both sleep EEG and metabolic traits in 48 family members. Our analyses accounted for age, sex, adiposity, and the use of psychoactive medications. In univariate analyses, we found significant heritability for measures of fasting insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, for time spent in slow-wave sleep, and for EEG spectral power in the delta, theta, and sigma ranges. Bivariate heritability analyses provided the first evidence for a shared genetic control of brain activity during deep sleep and fasting insulin secretion rate. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Three Occupational Therapy Sleep Interventions: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Gregory, Kristin A; Sadlier-Brown, Megan M; Schlissel, Marcy A; Schubert, Allison M; Westover, Lee Ann; Miller, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    Although sleep intervention is within the domain of occupational therapy, few studies exist supporting practice. Effectiveness of three sleep interventions was compared: Dreampad Pillow®, iRest® meditation, and sleep hygiene. Twenty-nine participants were randomly assigned to the Dreampad Pillow® ( n = 10), iRest® meditation ( n = 9), and sleep hygiene ( n = 10) groups. In Phase 1, all participants used a 7-day sleep hygiene regimen to reduce poor sleep habits. In Phase 2 (14 days), 10 participants used the Dreampad Pillow® and sleep hygiene, nine used the iRest meditation and sleep hygiene, and 10 continued sleep hygiene only. At intervention-end, the iRest meditation group experienced statistically greater time asleep than both the Dreampad Pillow® ( p meditation ( p occupational therapy's domain.

  9. Homeostatic & Circadian Regulation of Wakefulness During Jet Lag and Sleep. Sleep Deprivation: Effect of Wake-Promoting Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dinges, David

    2000-01-01

    .... Major human research projects on the effects of induced jet lag and sleep deprivation and their mitigation by sustained low-dose caffeine and naps were undertaken at the University of Pennsylvania...

  10. Adults with ADHD and Sleep Complaints: A Pilot Study Identifying Sleep-Disordered Breathing Using Polysomnography and Sleep Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, Craig B. H.; Thomas, Robert J.; Aleardi, Megan; Pagano, Christine; Biederman, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing are both prevalent in adulthood. Because both conditions may be responsible for similar symptoms of cognitive impairment, the authors investigate whether their presentation may overlap in adults diagnosed with ADHD. Method: Data are collected from six adults with sleep complaints who were diagnosed…

  11. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Deliens, Ga?tane; Stercq, Fanny; Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another pe...

  12. Trajectory of sleep disturbances in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Ingrid Helene; Westgaard, Therese Krystad; Wahba, Alexander; Oksholm, Trine; Rustøen, Tone; Gjeilo, Kari Hanne

    2017-08-01

    Patients with lung cancer report sleep difficulties to be frequent and bothersome symptoms. This study describes the trajectory of sleep from before and up to 12 months after surgery for lung cancer. Further, it investigates possible associations between sleep disturbance, demographic and clinical characteristics before surgery. This study is part of a longitudinal multicentre study. Sleep disturbance was measured by The General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS) that investigates frequencies of sleep difficulties (21 items) and a total sum score ≥43 indicates a clinically meaningful level of sleep disturbance (score range 0-147). Linear mixed models were used to study changes in sleep from baseline to 1, 5, 9 and 12 months after surgery. The percentage of patients (n = 264) reporting sleep disturbances was 60.9% at baseline, 68.5% at Month 1, 55.4% at Month 5, 51.3% at Month 9 and 49.7% at Month 12. The increase to and decrease from Month 1 was the only significant alteration in the occurrence of sleep disturbance. The patients reported most problems within the subscales sleep quantity, early awakenings and sleep quality. Factors associated with sleep disturbance were lower age, use of pain medication and psychotropic medication and higher comorbidity score. Lung cancer patients sleep poorly, before as well as after surgery. There is a need to address sleeping disturbance routinely in clinical practice and screening for sleeping problems is indicated. Further studies are warranted concerning factors that contribute to sleep disturbance and how they best can be treated. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep education improves the sleep duration of adolescents: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Geoff; Maddison, Ralph; Hull, Michelle; Blunden, Sarah; Olds, Timothy

    2014-07-15

    To determine the feasibility and pilot a sleep education program in New Zealand high school students. A parallel, two-arm randomized controlled pilot trial was conducted. High school students (13 to 16 years) were randomly allocated to either a classroom-based sleep education program intervention (n = 15) or to a usual curriculum control group (n = 14). The sleep education program involved four 50-minute classroom-based education sessions with interactive groups. Students completed a 7-day sleep diary, a sleep questionnaire (including sleep hygiene, knowledge and problems) at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks) and 10 weeks follow-up. An overall treatment effect was observed for weekend sleep duration (F 1,24 = 5.21, p = 0.03). Participants in the intervention group slept longer during weekend nights at 5 weeks (1:37 h:min, p = 0.01) and 10 weeks: (1:32 h:min, p = 0.03) compared to those in the control group. No differences were found between groups for sleep duration on weekday nights. No significant differences were observed between groups for any of the secondary outcomes (sleep hygiene, sleep problems, or sleep knowledge). A sleep education program appears to increase weekend sleep duration in the short term. Although this program was feasible, most schools are under time and resource pressure, thus alternative methods of delivery should be assessed for feasibility and efficacy. Larger trials of longer duration are needed to confirm these findings and determine the sustained effect of sleep education on sleep behavior and its impact on health and psychosocial outcomes. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 793.

  14. Sleep and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.

  15. Molecular Pathways of Disturbed Sleep and Depression: Studies on Adenosine and Gene Expression Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Gass, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adenosine is a potent sleep-promoting substance, and one of its targets is the basal forebrain. Fairly little is known about its mechanism of action in the basal forebrain and about the receptor subtype mediating its regulating effects on sleep homeostasis. Homeostatic deficiency might be one of the causes of the profoundly disturbed sleep pattern in major depressive disorder, which could explain the reduced amounts of delta-activity-rich stages 3 and 4. Since major depression has...

  16. Sleep of Parents Living With a Child Receiving Hospital-Based Home Care: A Phenomenographical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelhoff, Charlotte; Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-01-01

    Caring for an ill child at home gives the family the chance to be together in a familiar environment. However, this involves several nocturnal sleep disturbances, such as frequent awakenings and bad sleep quality, which may affect parents' ability to take care of the child and themselves. The aim of this study was to describe parents' perceptions of circumstances influencing their own sleep when living with a child enrolled in hospital-based home care (HBHC) services. This is a phenomenographical study with an inductive, exploratory design. Fifteen parents (11 mothers and 4 fathers) with children enrolled in HBHC services were interviewed. Data were analyzed to discover content-related categories describing differences in ways parents experienced sleep when caring for their children receiving HBHC. Four descriptive categories were detected: sleep influences mood and mood influences sleep; support influences safeness and safeness influences sleep; the child's needs influence routines and routines influence sleep; and "me time" influences sleep. Sleep does not affect only the parents' well-being but also the child's care. Symptoms of stress may limit the parents' capacity to meet the child's needs. Support, me time, and physical activity were perceived as essential sources for recovery and sleep. It is important for nurses to acknowledge parental sleep in the child's nursing care plan and help the parents perform self-care to promote sleep and maintain life, health, and well-being.

  17. Sleep-Active Neurons: Conserved Motors of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Sleep is crucial for survival and well-being. This behavioral and physiological state has been studied in all major genetically accessible model animals, including rodents, fish, flies, and worms. Genetic and optogenetic studies have identified several neurons that control sleep, making it now possible to compare circuit mechanisms across species. The “motor” of sleep across animal species is formed by neurons that depolarize at the onset of sleep to actively induce this state by directly inhibiting wakefulness. These sleep-inducing neurons are themselves controlled by inhibitory or activating upstream pathways, which act as the “drivers” of the sleep motor: arousal inhibits “sleep-active” neurons whereas various sleep-promoting “tiredness” pathways converge onto sleep-active neurons to depolarize them. This review provides the first overview of sleep-active neurons across the major model animals. The occurrence of sleep-active neurons and their regulation by upstream pathways in both vertebrate and invertebrate species suggests that these neurons are general and ancient components that evolved early in the history of nervous systems. PMID:29618588

  18. Trait- and pre-sleep-state-dependent arousal in insomnia disorders: what role may sleep reactivity and sleep-related metacognitions play? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Mauri, Mauro; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Riemann, Dieter; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-09-01

    Research into the cause of chronic insomnia has identified hyperarousal as a key factor, which is likely to have both trait and state components. Sleep-related cognition, metacognition, and sleep reactivity also play an important role in insomnia. Our aim was to investigate how these insomnia-related constructs are associated with trait predisposition and pre-sleep arousal in subjects with an insomnia disorder. Fifty-three individuals with insomnia disorder (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (F = 33; 52 + 10)) and 30 healthy controls (F = 18; 51.8 + 12 years) were evaluated with a set of questionnaires, including the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), Metacognition Questionnaire - Insomnia (MCQI), Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS), and Pre-sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS). Statistical analyses included multiple regression to elucidate the independent determinants of APS and PSAS. Participants with insomnia presented higher FIRST, MCQI, APS, PSAS scores (p-values insomnia, APS and cognitive PSAS were best determined by MCQI (respectively, B = 0.09, p = 0.001, B = 0.08, p = 0.02), somatic PSAS by cognitive arousal (PSAS B = 0.35, p = 0.004) CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that in insomnia disorders, trait predisposition toward hyperarousal and pre-sleep-cognitive-state-dependent arousal may be closely related to sleep-related metacognitive processes. Sleep-related metacognitive processes may be associated with trait hyperarousal within the framework of a mutual relationship, and could, in turn, modulate cognitive pre-sleep-state arousal. A broad range of cognitive and metacognitive processes should be considered when dealing with subjects with insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Physicians' attentional performance following a 24-hour observation period: do we need to regulate sleep prior to work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P; Maximova, K; Jirsch, J D

    2017-08-01

    The tradition of physicians working while sleep deprived is increasingly criticised. Medical regulatory bodies have restricted resident physician duty-hours, not addressing the greater population of physicians. We aimed to assess factors such as sleep duration prior to a 24-hour observation period on physicians' attention. We studied 70 physicians (mean age 38 years old (SD 10.8 years)): 36 residents and 34 faculty from call rosters at the University of Alberta. Among 70 physicians, 52 (74%) performed overnight call; 18 did not perform overnight call and were recruited to control for the learning effect of repetitive neuropsychological testing. Attentional Network Test (ANT) measured physicians' attention at the beginning and end of the 24-hour observation period. Participants self-reported ideal sleep needs, sleep duration in the 24 hours prior to (ie, baseline) and during the 24-hour observation period (ie, follow-up). Median regression models examined effects on ANT parameters. Sleep deprivation at follow-up was associated with reduced attentional accuracy following the 24-hour observation period, but only for physicians more sleep deprived at baseline. Other components of attention were not associated with sleep deprivation after adjusting for repetitive testing. Age, years since medical school and caffeine use did not impact changes in ANT parameters. Our study suggests that baseline sleep before 24 hours of observation impacts the accuracy of physicians' attentional testing at 24 hours. Further study is required to determine if optimising physician sleep prior to overnight call shifts is a sustainable strategy to mitigate the effects of sleep deprivation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. The impact of prolonged violent video-gaming on adolescent sleep: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Gradisar, Michael; Drummond, Aaron; Lovato, Nicole; Wessel, Jason; Micic, Gorica; Douglas, Paul; Delfabbro, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Video-gaming is an increasingly prevalent activity among children and adolescents that is known to influence several areas of emotional, cognitive and behavioural functioning. Currently there is insufficient experimental evidence about how extended video-game play may affect adolescents' sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of adolescents' prolonged exposure to violent video-gaming on sleep. Seventeen male adolescents (mean age = 16 ± 1 years) with no current sleep difficulties played a novel, fast-paced, violent video-game (50 or 150 min) before their usual bedtime on two different testing nights in a sleep laboratory. Objective (polysomnography-measured sleep and heart rate) and subjective (single-night sleep diary) measures were obtained to assess the arousing effects of prolonged gaming. Compared with regular gaming, prolonged gaming produced decreases in objective sleep efficiency (by 7 ± 2%, falling below 85%) and total sleep time (by 27 ± 12 min) that was contributed by a near-moderate reduction in rapid eye movement sleep (Cohen's d = 0.48). Subjective sleep-onset latency significantly increased by 17 ± 8 min, and there was a moderate reduction in self-reported sleep quality after prolonged gaming (Cohen's d = 0.53). Heart rate did not differ significantly between video-gaming conditions during pre-sleep game-play or the sleep-onset phase. Results provide evidence that prolonged video-gaming may cause clinically significant disruption to adolescent sleep, even when sleep after video-gaming is initiated at normal bedtime. However, physiological arousal may not necessarily be the mechanism by which technology use affects sleep. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Sleep deficiency and motor vehicle crash risk in the general population: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel J; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Bianchi, Matt T; Czeisler, Charles A

    2018-03-20

    Insufficient sleep duration and obstructive sleep apnea, two common causes of sleep deficiency in adults, can result in excessive sleepiness, a well-recognized cause of motor vehicle crashes, although their contribution to crash risk in the general population remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of sleep apnea, sleep duration, and excessive sleepiness to crash risk in a community-dwelling population. This was a prospective observational cohort study nested within the Sleep Heart Health Study, a community-based study of the health consequences of sleep apnea. The participants were 1745 men and 1456 women aged 40-89 years. Sleep apnea was measured by home polysomnography and questionnaires were used to assess usual sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. A follow-up questionnaire 2 years after baseline ascertained driving habits and motor vehicle crash history. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation of sleep apnea and sleep duration at baseline to the occurrence of motor vehicle crashes during the year preceding the follow-up visit, adjusting for relevant covariates. The population-attributable fraction of motor vehicle crashes was estimated from the sample proportion of motor vehicle crashes and the adjusted odds ratios for motor vehicle crash within each exposure category. Among 3201 evaluable participants, 222 (6.9%) reported at least one motor vehicle crash during the prior year. A higher apnea-hypopnea index (p vehicle crashes was 10% due to sleep apnea and 9% due to sleep duration less than 7 hours. Sleep deficiency due to either sleep apnea or insufficient sleep duration is strongly associated with motor vehicle crashes in the general population, independent of self-reported excessive sleepiness.

  2. Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Alicia Fontana; Waldina Raimondi; María Laura Rizzo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. PURPOSE The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adven...

  3. Characterization of sleep breathing pattern in patients with type 2 diabetes: sweet sleep study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lecube

    Full Text Available Although sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, it is unknown whether or not subjects with and without T2D share the same sleep breathing pattern.A cross-sectional study in patients with SAHS according to the presence (n = 132 or not (n = 264 of T2D. Both groups were matched by age, gender, BMI, and waist and neck circumferences. A subgroup of 125 subjects was also matched by AHI. The exclusion criteria included chronic respiratory disease, alcohol abuse, use of sedatives, and heart failure. A higher apnea hypopnea index (AHI was observed in T2D patients [32.2 (10.2-114.0 vs. 25.6 (10.2-123.4 events/hours; p = 0.002. When sleep events were evaluated separately, patients with T2D showed a significant increase in apnea events [8.4 (0.1-87.7 vs. 6.3 (0.0-105.6 e/h; p = 0.044, as well as a two-fold increase in the percentage of time spent with oxygen saturation <90% [15.7 (0.0-97.0 vs. 7.9 (0.0-95.6 %; <0.001], higher rates of oxygen desaturation events, and also higher daily sleepiness [7.0 (0.0-21.0 vs. 5.0 (0.0-21.0; p = 0.006] than subjects without T2D. Significant positive correlations between fasting plasma glucose and AHI, the apnea events, and CT90 were observed. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses showed that T2D was independently associated with AHI (R2 = 0.217, the apnea index (R2 = 0.194, CT90 (R2 = 0.222, and desaturation events.T2D patients present a different pattern of sleep breathing than subject without diabetes. The most important differences are the severity of hypoxemia and the number of apneas whereas the incidence of hypopnea episodes is similar.

  4. Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Benjamin C; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Bänziger, Tanja; Axelsson, John; Sundelin, Tina

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization. Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1). The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Actigraphic sleep fragmentation, efficiency and duration associate with dietary intake in the Rotterdam study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short self-reported sleep duration is associated with dietary intake and this association may partly mediate the link between short sleep and metabolic abnormalities. Subjective sleep measures, however, may be inaccurate and biased. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations betwee...

  6. Sleep patterns and insomnia among adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine sleep patterns and rates of insomnia in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 years. Gender differences in sleep patterns and insomnia, as well as a comparison of insomnia rates according to DSM-IV, DSM-V and quantitative criteria for insomnia (Behav. Res. Ther., 41, 2003, 427), were explored. We used a large population-based study in Hordaland county in Norway, conducted in 2012. The sample included 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measurements included bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, rate and frequency and duration of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and rate and frequency of tiredness and sleepiness. The adolescents reported short sleep duration on weekdays (mean 6:25 hours), resulting in a sleep deficiency of about 2 h. A majority of the adolescents (65%) reported sleep onset latency exceeding 30 min. Girls reported longer sleep onset latency and a higher rate of insomnia than boys, while boys reported later bedtimes and a larger weekday-weekend discrepancy on several sleep parameters. Insomnia prevalence rates ranged from a total prevalence of 23.8 (DSM-IV criteria), 18.5 (DSM-V criteria) and 13.6% (quantitative criteria for insomnia). We conclude that short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and insomnia were prevalent in adolescents. This warrants attention as a public health concern in this age group. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Associations of quality of sleep with lifestyle factors and profile of studies among Lithuanian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preišegolavičiūtė, Evelina; Leskauskas, Darius; Adomaitienė, Virginija

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze associations among quality of sleep, profile of the studies, and lifestyle factors among the students of three different study profiles (medicine, economics, and law). A total of 405 randomly selected students from the first and fourth years of studies from 4 different universities in Lithuania answered the standardized questionnaires consisting of two parts: 1) the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for subjective evaluation of sleep quality; 2) the questionnaire about sleep and lifestyle habits and impact of poor sleep on the quality of life developed by the researchers. More than half (59.4%) of the students scored higher than 5 on the PSQI, which allowed suspecting sleep disorders. A significant difference in the frequency of poor sleepers was found regarding the profile of studies (Pstudents. There was a significant correlation between quality of sleep and subjective evaluation of quality of life (Pstudents experienced the highest impact of poor sleep on the quality of life (P=0.008). Students studying before going to sleep, spending more time studying, and having less leisure time had worse quality of sleep (Pstudents of medicine. The incidence of sleep problems is high among students in Lithuania, reaching 59.4%. Medical students have worse quality of sleep and worse impact of poor sleep on the quality of life compared to students of law and economics. A significant difference was found between medical students and their peers in other profiles of studies regarding their attitudes and habits related to studies: medical students spent more time for studying, were more anxious about studies and less satisfied with the results, studied more often before going to sleep.

  8. Sex differences in the circadian regulation of sleep and waking cognition in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, Nayantara; Lazar, Alpar S.; McCabe, Patrick J.; Lo, June C.; Groeger, John A.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The sleep–wake cycle and circadian rhythmicity both contribute to brain function, but whether this contribution differs between men and women and how it varies across cognitive domains and subjective dimensions has not been established. We examined the circadian and sleep–wake-dependent regulation of cognition in 16 men and 18 women in a forced desynchrony protocol and quantified the separate contributions of circadian phase, prior sleep, and elapsed time awake on cognition and sleep. The largest circadian effects were observed for reported sleepiness, mood, and reported effort; the effects on working memory and temporal processing were smaller. Although these effects were seen in both men and women, there were quantitative differences. The amplitude of the circadian modulation was larger in women in 11 of 39 performance measures so that their performance was more impaired in the early morning hours. Principal components analysis of the performance measures yielded three factors, accuracy, effort, and speed, which reflect core performance characteristics in a range of cognitive tasks and therefore are likely to be important for everyday performance. The largest circadian modulation was observed for effort, whereas accuracy exhibited the largest sex difference in circadian modulation. The sex differences in the circadian modulation of cognition could not be explained by sex differences in the circadian amplitude of plasma melatonin and electroencephalographic slow-wave activity. These data establish the impact of circadian rhythmicity and sex on waking cognition and have implications for understanding the regulation of brain function, cognition, and affect in shift-work, jetlag, and aging. PMID:27091961

  9. Effect of 5-HT2A receptor polymorphisms and occupational stress on self-reported sleep quality: a cross-sectional study in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Cui, Changyong; Ge, Hua; Guan, Suzhen; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-04-01

    Occupational stress and the serotonin receptor (5-HTR) play a key role in the regulation of sleep quality. Previous studies on the relationship between work-related stress, 5-HTR2A polymorphism, and sleep complaints found that 5-HTR2A modulates the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress and the maintenance of circadian rhythm. However, the effect of 5-HTR2A polymorphism and occupational stress on sleep quality has not been reported. The present study investigated the effects of 5-HTR2A genotypes, occupational stress, and gene-environment interactions on the sleep quality. Using a three-stage stratified sampling method, 1181 participants were recruited. Then, according to the study exclusion criteria, 810 subjects remained eligible. Finally, because some of subjects did not agree to being involved in this study, 700 workers were included. Of 700 workers finally included in the study, 251 had poor sleep quality based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Occupational stress was assessed with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. 5-HTR2A genotype was significantly associated with sleep quality. The CT genotype of rs1923884 was detected at a higher frequency among individuals with low sleep efficiency; the AA genotype of rs2070040 was associated with long sleep duration and more daytime dysfunction; and the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to long sleep latency and duration and poor sleep quality. A high level of occupational stress was linked to higher risk of poor sleep quality than low or moderate levels (odds ratio [OR] = 12.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.02-22.43). A crossover analysis demonstrated an occupational stress × 5-HTR2A interaction. Compared to participants with low occupational stress and a CT/TT genotype, those with high occupational stress and a CC genotype had a higher risk of poor sleep quality (OR

  10. Prevalence and consequences of sleep disorders among traffic agents: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco Ferreira, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    This study came up with the main objective to inspect the sleep quality and sleep disorders among traffic agents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out in which 118 traffic agents were surveyed. To this end, the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI) questionnaire was administered. The results demonstrate that the mean PSQI global score was 8.5 ± 2.4. Thirty four subjects had high sleep quality and 84 had low sleep quality. Global PQSI scores had ...

  11. Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on the association between sleep and mortality rates have addressed only duration, not quality, of sleep. The authors prospectively examined the effects of sleep disturbances on mortality rates and on important risk...... factors for mortality, such as body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. A total of 16,989 participants in the GAZEL cohort study were asked validated questions on sleep disturbances in 1990 and were followed up until 2009, with...

  12. Short Sleep Duration Increases Metabolic Impact in Healthy Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Han-Bing; Tam, Tony; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying; Chung, Roger Yat-Nork; Su, Xuefen; Jin, Lei; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2017-10-01

    The metabolic impact of inadequate sleep has not been determined in healthy individuals outside laboratories. This study aims to investigate the impact of sleep duration on five metabolic syndrome components in a healthy adult cohort. A total of 162121 adults aged 20-80 years (men 47.4%) of the MJ Health Database, who were not obese and free from major diseases, were recruited and followed up from 1996 to 2014. Sleep duration and insomnia symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Incident cases of five metabolic syndrome components were identified by follow-up medical examinations. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for three sleep duration categories " 8 hours/day (long)" with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses were stratified by insomnia symptoms to assess whether insomnia symptoms modified the association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome. Compared to regular sleep duration, short sleep significantly (p sleep decreased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.89 [0.84-0.94]) and metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). Insomnia symptoms did not modify the effects of sleep duration. Sleep duration may be a significant determinant of metabolic health. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties: a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene; Persson, Roger

    2014-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied/witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health. The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. Bullied persons and witnesses reported more sleep difficulties than those who were neither bullied nor witnesses to bullying at baseline. Frequently bullied/witnesses reported more sleep difficulties than respondents who were occasionally bullied or witnessing bullying at baseline. Further, odds ratios for subsequent sleep difficulties were increased among the occasionally bullied, but not among witnesses. However, the associations weakened when adjusting for sleep difficulties at baseline. Being subjected to occasional bullying at baseline was predictive of subsequent sleep difficulties. Witnessing bullying at baseline did not predict sleep difficulties at follow-up.

  14. Role of norepinephrine in the regulation of rapid eye movement sleep

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sleep and wakefulness are instinctive behaviours that are present across the animal species. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a unique biological phenomenon expressed during sleep. It evolved about 300 million years ago and is noticed in the more evolved animal species. Although it has been objectively identified ...

  15. Consistently high sports/exercise activity is associated with better sleep quality, continuity and depth in midlife women: the SWAN sleep study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Irish, Leah A; Krafty, Robert T; Sternfeld, Barbara; Kravitz, Howard M; Buysse, Daniel J; Bromberger, Joyce T; Dugan, Sheila A; Hall, Martica H

    2013-09-01

    To examine relationships between different physical activity (PA) domains and sleep, and the influence of consistent PA on sleep, in midlife women. Cross-sectional. Community-based. 339 women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study (52.1 ± 2.1 y). None. Sleep was examined using questionnaires, diaries and in-home polysomnography (PSG). PA was assessed in three domains (Active Living, Household/Caregiving, Sports/Exercise) using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) up to 4 times over 6 years preceding the sleep assessments. The association between recent PA and sleep was evaluated using KPAS scores immediately preceding the sleep assessments. The association between the historical PA pattern and sleep was examined by categorizing PA in each KPAS domain according to its pattern over the 6 years preceding sleep assessments (consistently low, inconsistent/consistently moderate, or consistently high). Greater recent Sports/Exercise activity was associated with better sleep quality (diary "restedness" [P sleep continuity (diary sleep efficiency [SE; P = 0.02]) and depth (higher NREM delta electroencephalographic [EEG] power [P = 0.04], lower NREM beta EEG power [P Sports/Exercise activity was also associated with better Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores (P = 0.02) and higher PSG-assessed SE (P sleep and Active Living or Household/Caregiving activity (either recent or historical pattern) were noted. Consistently high levels of recreational physical activity, but not lifestyle- or household-related activity, are associated with better sleep in midlife women. Increasing recreational physical activity early in midlife may protect against sleep disturbance in this population.

  16. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beilin; Gao, Yanxia; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  17. Circadian Sleep-Wake Rhythm of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaskant, Marijke; van de Wouw, Ellen; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Echteld, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The circadian sleep-wake rhythm changes with aging, resulting in a more fragmented sleep-wake pattern. In individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), brain structures regulating the sleep-wake rhythm might be affected. The aims of this study were to compare the sleep-wake rhythm of older adults with ID to that of older adults in the general…

  18. Home sleep study for patients with myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J-H; Lin, C-M; Chiu, H-C; Bai, C-H

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the study was to examine predictors for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) using Watch-PAT. We prospectively studied 58 consecutive patients with MG without respiratory symptoms for a full-night Watch-PAT with concomitant recording of the MG score and acetylcholine receptor antibody concentration and analyzed potential risk factors of SDB. Twenty-four patients (41%) had definitive SDB, which was mild in 12 patients, moderate in six, and severe in six. Assessing risk factors with multivariate models, we found four significant predictors (BMI, age, male gender, and use of azathioprine); BMI was the most powerful predictor. The severity and prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing had no significant association with MG score, myasthenia stage, or seropositivity of acetylcholine receptor antibody. The prevalence of SDB in myasthenic patients with mild and moderate weakness was high when using the Watch-PAT. Both myasthenia-specific factors (use of azathioprine) and general predictors in terms of BMI, age, and male gender predisposed the development of SDB in patients with myasthenia gravis. Careful screening of patients with myasthenia gravis at risk of SDB using Watch-PAT might improve the quality of sleep and cardiovascular health through proper treatment of underlying SDB. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is dependent...... on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve. There also may...

  20. Characterizing Adult Sleep Behavior Over 20 Years-The Population-Based Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomers, Margot L; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Proper, Karin I; Verschuren, W M Monique; Picavet, H Susan J

    2017-07-01

    To describe sleep duration patterns of adults over a 20-year period; to compare sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics across these patterns; and to relate the patterns to sleep quality. The study population consisted of 3695 adults aged 20 to 59 years at baseline. Five measurements of self-reported sleep duration were used to compose seven patterns from 1987 to 2012: persistent short (≤6 hours), moderate (7-8 hours), or long (≥9 hours) sleep duration and several changing patterns (varying and became short, moderate, or long sleepers). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to compare characteristics across sleep duration patterns. About 56% of the adults had persistent moderate sleep duration over 20 years. This group had a better sleep quality than the other groups. Of the adults who changed in their sleep duration (40%), 43% became a short sleeper. Sleep duration patterns that deviate from persistent moderate sleep duration were associated with physical inactivity during leisure time (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs] varied between 1.26 [1.04-1.53] and 1.58 [1.06-2.37]) and with poor self-rated health (ORs [95% CIs] varied between 1.50 [1.20-1.87] and 2.15 [1.48-3.12]). Nearly half of the adults did not have persistent moderate sleep duration over a 20-year period and more than one-sixth became short sleeper. This is reason for concern considering the adverse health status associated with short and long sleep duration. Leisure-time physical activity is a potential important target to prevent unfavorable changes in sleep duration over the life course. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  1. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  2. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-12-28

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients.

  3. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger; Kolstad, Henrik A; Willert, Morten Vejs; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours per week spent on LTPA estimated the degree of physical activity. Workplace bullying at baseline (T1) was associated with awakening problems and lack of restful sleep at follow-up (T2) but not with overall sleep problems and disturbed sleep. T1-LTPA did not moderate the association between T1-workplace bullying and T2-sleep problems. We found support that workplace bullying is related to development of T2-sleep problems, but this association seems not to be modified by LTPA.

  4. Impact of oral melatonin on critically ill adult patients with ICU sleep deprivation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huawei; Jiang, Li; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Guobin; Zhu, Bo; Cheng, Jiajia; Xi, Xiuming

    2014-08-18

    Sleep deprivation is common in critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU). It can result in delirium, difficulty weaning, repeated nosocomial infections, prolonged ICU length of stay and increased ICU mortality. Melatonin, a physiological sleep regulator, is well known to benefit sleep quality in certain people, but evidence for the effectiveness in ICU sleep disturbance is limited. This study has a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel-group design. Eligible patients are randomly assigned to one of the two treatment study groups, labelled the 'melatonin group' or the 'placebo group'. A dose of 3 mg of oral melatonin or placebo is administered at 9:00 pm on four consecutive days. Earplugs and eye masks are made available to every participant. We plan to enrol 198 patients. The primary outcome is the objective sleep quality measured by the 24-hour polysomnography. The secondary outcomes are the subjective sleep quality assessed by the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, the anxiety level evaluated by the Visual Analogue Scale-Anxiety, the number of delirium-free days in 8 and 28 days, the number of ventilation-free days in 28 days, the number of antibiotic-free days, ICU length of stay, the overall ICU mortality in 28 days and the incidence and severity of the side effects of melatonin in ICU patients. Additionally, the body stress levels, oxidative stress levels and inflammation levels are obtained via measuring the plasma melatonin, cortisone, norepinephrine, malonaldehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8)concentrations. The proposed study will be the first randomized controlled study to use the polysomnography, which is the gold standard of assessing sleep quality, to evaluate the effect of melatonin on the sleep quality and circadian rhythms of ICU patients. The results may recommend a new treatment for ICU patients with sleep deprivation that is safe, effective and easily

  5. Where do parents sleep best when children are hospitalized? A pilot comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Linda; Wray, Jo; Gay, Caryl; Dearmun, Annette K; Alsberge, Isaline; Lee, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study compared the sleep quality and quantity of parents who slept at their hospitalized child's bedside with parents who slept at the hospital's onsite Ronald McDonald House® (RMH). Wrist actigraphy and questionnaires were used to estimate parent sleep quality and quantity. Parents who slept at their hospitalized child's bedside (n = 27) experienced more sleep disruption (wake after sleep onset) and reported poorer sleep quality and feeling less rested than parents who slept at RMH (n = 11). Bedside accommodation was associated with poorer parent sleep even when controlling for the covariates of child age and parent gender. Nearby family accommodations, such as RMH, may facilitate parent-child proximity during a child's hospitalization while also providing parents with opportunities for essential sleep.

  6. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  7. Workaholism and sleep quality among Japanese employees: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on workaholism as a personal attitude toward work and examined its effects on sleep quality among Japanese employees from various occupations. The present study aimed to demonstrate the prospective association of workaholism (i.e., working excessively hard in a compulsive fashion) with sleep quality among Japanese employees. A Web-based prospective survey was conducted in October 2010 and May 2011 among registered monitors of a survey company. The questionnaire included workaholism, sleep quality, job characteristics, and demographics. Overall, 13,564 monitors were randomly invited to complete the first wave of the survey. The first 2,520 respondents were included in this study. The respondents who completed the first wave were invited to complete the second wave of the survey; 2,061 answered. A total of 364 respondents who changed their working conditions during the follow-up period were excluded. In addition, due to missing values, data from 14 respondents were excluded. Thus, the responses from 1,683 respondents were included in the analysis (859 males and 824 females). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to compare adjusted sleep quality at follow-up among workaholism groups (low, middle, and high). To conduct the ANCOVA, we adjusted for demographics, sleep quality at baseline, and job characteristics. The high-workaholic group had significantly longer sleep latency at follow-up compared with the low- and middle-workaholic groups after adjusting for demographics, sleep latency at baseline, and job characteristics. In addition, the high-workaholic group demonstrated significantly higher levels of daytime dysfunction compared with the low-workaholic group. However, no significant differences were found among workaholic groups in terms of overall sleep quality, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, and use of sleep medication. Workaholism was associated with poor sleep quality at the 7-month follow-up in

  8. [Sleep-wake cycle in chemotherapy patients: a retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonella, S

    2010-06-01

    Over 50% of cancer patients suffer from insomnia, nearly twice the estimated prevalence in the general population. However, this widespread problem has received far less attention compared to cancer pain and fatigue. The aim of this study was to determine whether certain factors can alter the sleep-wake cycle in this patient subgroup and whether altered nyctohemeral sleep rhythms may negatively impact on quality of life. The medical records of 101 patients treated at the Cancer Center, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin, and who had died of cancer in 2007, were reviewed. Extracted from each record were data on: patient age, sex, primary tumor site, presence of pain, concomitant conditions, concomitant medications, type of therapy, chemotherapeutic (CT) scheme, survival, and side effects. The sample was divided into two subgroups defined as inducers or non-inducers, depending on whether the patient had taken medications or not to treat insomnia. Significant differences between the two groups for these variables were tested using statistical analysis. A statistically significant difference between the two groups emerged for anxiety-depression syndromes (P=0.00001), the number of sleeping pills taken in association with a concurrent anxiety-depression syndrome (P=0.01463), and side effects (P=0.0015). There was a statistically significant difference between the inducer and the non-inducer groups for female sex (one-tailed Fisher's exact test; P=0.04170) but the difference was marginal on Fisher's two-tailed test (P=0.06121). No statistically significant differences between the two groups were found for mean age (P=0.61281), median age (P=0.9996), primary tumor site, concomitant conditions (P=0.4205), survival (P=0.5704), presence of pain (P=0.53300) or type of therapy (P=0.6466). Sleep disturbances are a common complaint of cancer patients but have only recently attracted greater attention as the diagnosis of cancer has increased. Sleep disturbances are not an

  9. Nap sleep spindle correlates of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujma, Péter P; Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Stintzing, Johannes; Konrad, Boris N; Genzel, Lisa; Steiger, Axel; Dresler, Martin

    2015-11-26

    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, that play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Several studies with full-night sleep recordings have reported a positive association between sleep spindles and fluid intelligence scores, however more recently it has been shown that only few sleep spindle measures correlate with intelligence in females, and none in males. Sleep spindle regulation underlies a circadian rhythm, however the association between spindles and intelligence has not been investigated in daytime nap sleep so far. In a sample of 86 healthy male human subjects, we investigated the correlation between fluid intelligence and sleep spindle parameters in an afternoon nap of 100 minutes. Mean sleep spindle length, amplitude and density were computed for each subject and for each derivation for both slow and fast spindles. A positive association was found between intelligence and slow spindle duration, but not any other sleep spindle parameter. As a positive correlation between intelligence and slow sleep spindle duration in full-night polysomnography has only been reported in females but not males, our results suggest that the association between intelligence and sleep spindles is more complex than previously assumed.

  10. The use of entertainment and communication technologies before sleep could affect sleep and weight status: a population-based study among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Nomathemba; Khan, Kaviul; Loehr, Sarah; Chu, Yen; Veugelers, Paul

    2017-07-19

    Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality have been demonstrated to be associated with childhood obesity. It has been suggested that electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) including TVs, computers, tablets, video games and cell phones interfere with sleep in children and youth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact that the use of EECDs in the hour before bedtime has on sleep and weight status to inform sleep promotion interventions and programs to prevent childhood obesity. A provincially representative sample of 2334 grade 5 children and their parents in Alberta, Canada was surveyed. Parents reported their child's bedtime and wake-up time along with how often their child snored, felt sleepy during the day, woke-up at night and woke-up in the morning feeling unrefreshed. Sleep duration, sleep quality and sleep efficiency were derived from these indicators. Parents also reported on the presence of EECDs in their child's bedroom, while children reported use of EECDs during the day and frequency of using each of these devices during the hour before sleep. The height and weight of children were measured. Multivariable mixed effect linear and logistic regression models were used to determine how sleep duration, sleep quality, sleep efficiency and weight status are influenced by (i) access to EECDs in children's bedrooms, (ii) use of EECDs during the hour before sleep, and (iii) calming activities specifically reading during the hour before sleep. Sleep duration was shorter by -10.8 min (cell phone), -10.2 min (computer) and -7.8 min (TV) for those with bedroom access to and used these EECDs during the hour before sleep compared to no access and no use. Good sleep quality was hindered by bedroom access to and use of all EECDs investigated during the hour before sleep, particularly among users of cell phones (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.58-0.71) and computers (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.65-0.80). Very good sleep efficiency was decreased by access

  11. Concentrating carbohydrates before sleep improves feeding regulation and metabolic and inflammatory parameters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Sigal; Eliraz, Abraham; Madar, Zecharia; Froy, Oren

    2015-10-15

    New evidance highlights the importance of food timing. Recently, we showed that a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner changed diurnal hormone secretion and led to greater weight loss and improved metabolic status in obese people. Herein, we set out to test whether concentrated-carbohydrates diet (CCD), in which carbohydrates are fed only before sleep, leads to an improved metabolic status in mouse hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Diet-induced obese mice were given concentrated or distributed carbohydrate diet for 6 weeks. Obese mice fed CCD ate 8.3% less, were 9.3% leaner and had 39.7% less fat mass. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin displayed altered secretion. In addition, these mice exhibited an improved biochemical and inflammatory status. In the hypothalamus, anorexigenic signals were up-regulated and orexigenic signals were down-regulated. In peripheral tissues, CCD promoted adiponectin signaling, repressed gluconeogenesis, enhanced lipid oxidation and lowered inflammation, thus ameliorating the major risk factors of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  13. Sleep transitions in hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Jennum, Poul

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by instability of sleep-wake, tonus, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulation. It is associated with severe hypothalamic hypocretin deficiency, especially in patients with cataplexy (loss of tonus). As the hypocretin neurons coordinate and stabilize the brain's sleep-wake pattern, tonus, and REM flip-flop neuronal centers in animal models, we set out to determine whether hypocretin deficiency and/or cataplexy predicts the unstable sleep-wake and REM sleep pattern of the human phenotype. We measured the frequency of transitions in patients with narcolepsy between sleep-wake states and to/from REM and NREM sleep stages. Patients were subdivided by the presence of +/- cataplexy and +/- hypocretin-1 deficiency. Sleep laboratory studies conducted from 2001-2011. In total 63 narcolepsy patients were included in the study. Cataplexy was present in 43 of 63 patients and hypocretin-1 deficiency was present in 37 of 57 patients. Hypocretin-deficient patients with narcolepsy had a significantly higher frequency of sleep-wake transitions (P = 0.014) and of transitions to/from REM sleep (P = 0.044) than patients with normal levels of hypocretin-1. Patients with cataplexy had a significantly higher frequency of sleep-wake transitions (P = 0.002) than those without cataplexy. A multivariate analysis showed that transitions to/from REM sleep were predicted mainly by hypocretin-1 deficiency (P = 0.011), whereas sleep-wake transitions were predicted mainly by cataplexy (P = 0.001). In human narcolepsy, hypocretin deficiency and cataplexy are both associated with signs of destabilized sleep-wake and REM sleep control, indicating that the disorder may serve as a human model for the sleep-wake and REM sleep flip-flop switches.

  14. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  15. The experience of sleep in chronic fatigue syndrome: A qualitative interview study with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Zoe M; Newton, Julia L; Ellis, Jason G; Deary, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    ranging from the biological to the psychological competing to explain symptomatology in this illness. A qualitative study has the potential to add some clarity to the debate by making the patients' lived experience of the condition, and their own understanding of it, the focus of research. What this study adds? Coping and attempts at managing sleep problems in CFS adds to the 'illness burden' experienced by patients. Disturbed sleep is universally seen by patients with CFS as impacting on other daytime symptoms. Broken sleep may contribute to a biopsychosocial cycle that serves to maintain this illness. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Using Sleep Interventions to Engage and Treat Heavy-Drinking College Students: A Randomized Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucito, Lisa M.; DeMartini, Kelly S.; Hanrahan, Tess H.; Yaggi, Henry Klar; Heffern, Christina; Redeker, Nancy S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Continued high alcohol consumption levels by college students highlight the need for more effective alcohol interventions and novel treatment engagement strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate a behavioral sleep intervention as a means to engage heavy-drinking college students in treatment and reduce alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Methods Heavy-drinking college students (N=42) were assigned to 1 of 2 web-based interventions comprised of 4 modules delivered over 4 weeks. The experimental intervention focused primarily on sleep and included evidence-based sleep content (i.e., stimulus control instructions, sleep scheduling (consistent bed/rise times; ideal sleep duration for adolescents/young adults), sleep hygiene advice, relaxation training, cognitive strategies to target sleep-disruptive beliefs) and alcohol content (i.e., normative and blood alcohol level feedback, moderate drinking guidelines, controlled drinking strategies, effects of alcohol on sleep and the body, advice to moderate drinking for improved sleep) in young adults. The healthy behaviors control condition provided basic advice about nutrition, exercise, sleep (i.e., good sleep hygiene only) and drinking (i.e., effects of alcohol on the body, moderate drinking guidelines, advice to moderate drinking for sleep). Participants in both conditions monitored their sleep using daily web-based diaries and a wrist-worn sleep tracker. Results Recruitment ads targeting college students with sleep concerns effectively identified heavy-drinking students. The program generated a high number of inquiries and treatment completion rates were high. Both interventions significantly reduced typical week drinking and alcohol-related consequences and improved sleep quality and sleep-related impairment ratings. The control condition yielded greater reductions in total drinks in a heaviest drinking week. The effects on drinking were larger than those observed in typical brief

  17. Sleep Habits and Patterns of College Students: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, Walter C.; Brown, Franklin; Soper, Barlow

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college students regarding their sleep habits, patterns, and problems. A large majority had at least occasional sleep problems, with women reporting more of some difficulties than men. The most common sleep difficulties were taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep, trouble falling asleep more than three times per week, morning…

  18. The Zfhx3-Mediated Axis Regulates Sleep and Interval Timing in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Balzani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An AT motif-dependent axis, modulated by the transcription factor Zfhx3, influences the circadian clock in mice. In particular, gain of function of Zfhx3 significantly shortens circadian rhythms and alters the transcriptional activity of an important class of neuropeptides that controls intercellular signaling in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. The ZFHX3/AT axis revealed an important, largely cell-nonautonomous control of the circadian clock. Here, by studying the recently identified circadian mouse mutant Zfhx3Sci/+, we identify significant effects on sleep homeostasis, a phenomenon that is outside the canonical circadian clock system and that is modulated by the activity of those neuropeptides at a circuit level. We show that the Zfhx3Sci/+ mutation accelerates the circadian clock at both the hourly scale (i.e., advancing circadian rhythms and the seconds-to-minutes scale (i.e., anticipating behavioral responses in mice. The in vivo results are accompanied by a significant presence of sleep targets among protein-protein interactions of the Zfhx3Sci/+-dependent network.

  19. Central Nervous Insulin Signaling in Sleep-Associated Memory Formation and Neuroendocrine Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Feld, Gordon B; Wilhem, Ines; Benedict, Christian; Rüdel, Benjamin; Klameth, Corinna; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The neurochemical underpinnings of sleep's contribution to the establishment and maintenance of memory traces are largely unexplored. Considering that intranasal insulin administration to the CNS improves memory functions in healthy and memory-impaired humans, we tested whether brain insulin signaling and sleep interact to enhance memory consolidation in healthy participants. We investigated the effect of intranasal insulin on sleep-associated neurophysiological and neuroendocrine parameters ...

  20. Coffee, caffeine, and sleep: A systematic review of epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian; Landolt, Hans Peter

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world. It is readily available in coffee and other foods and beverages, and is used to mitigate sleepiness, enhance performance, and treat apnea in premature infants. This review systematically explores evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials as to whether coffee and caffeine have deleterious effects on sleep. Caffeine typically prolonged sleep latency, reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency, and worsened perceived sleep quality. Slow-wave sleep and electroencephalographic (EEG) slow-wave activity were typically reduced, whereas stage-1, wakefulness, and arousals were increased. Dose- and timing-response relationships were established. The sleep of older adults may be more sensitive to caffeine compared to younger adults. Pronounced individual differences are also present in young people, and genetic studies isolated functional polymorphisms of genes implicated in adenosine neurotransmission and metabolism contributing to individual sensitivity to sleep disruption by caffeine. Most studies were conducted in male adults of Western countries, which limits the generalizability of the findings. Given the importance of good sleep for general health and functioning, longitudinal investigations aimed at establishing possible causal relationships among coffee- and caffeine-induced changes in sleep quality and health development are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Essential roles of GABA transporter-1 in controlling rapid eye movement sleep and in increased slow wave activity after sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hong Xu

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1 constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.

  2. Sleep disorders and oral health: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Maria Clotilde; Schmitt, Audrey; Thomas, Frederique; Danchin, Nicolas; Pannier, Bruno; Bouchard, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disorders (SDs), particularly sleep deprivation, may alter the immune system and induce systemic inflammation. Recent evidence supports an association between SDs and periodontal diseases. This cross-sectional epidemiological study aims to compare oral health variables, such as the amount of plaque/calculus, gingival inflammation, and masticatory function, in individuals with and without SDs. The study population consisted in a French cohort of individuals who underwent medical and oral examinations between 2012 and 2013. Multivariate logistic regression and general linear models were used for group comparisons. Over a total of 29,870 individuals, 11,185 (37.4 %) reported to suffer from SDs on a regular basis. Compared to individuals without SDs, SD individuals were older (mean age 44.2 vs. 45.3 years; p < 0.0001), prevalently female (38.6 vs. 52.1 %; p < 0.0001), and with higher BMI (25.3 vs. 25.7; p < 0.0001). Moreover, SD individuals displayed a significantly higher prevalence of comorbidities, higher level of gingival inflammation (adjusted odds ratio 1.22 [95 % confidence interval 1.13-1.32]), and lower masticatory function (1.45 [1.33-1.58]). Short sleepers (<6 h of sleep/night) were found to be at an increased risk of gingival inflammation (1.25 [1.1-1.4]). SD individuals with moderate-to-high gingival inflammation showed a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (1.39 [1.04-1.84]) compared to SD individuals with low or no gingival inflammation. Individuals with self-report SDs are at increased risk of gingival inflammation. The coexistence of SDs and gingival inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. These findings provide evidence for an association between SDs and gingival inflammation and support further clinical and experimental studies.

  3. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. CHALLENGES IN MAINTAINING EMOTION REGULATION IN A SLEEP AND ENERGY DEPRIVED STATE INDUCED BY THE 4800KM ULTRA-ENDURANCE BICYCLE RACE; THE RACE ACROSS AMERICA (RAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Lahart

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiday ultra-endurance races present athletes with a significant number of physiological and psychological challenges. We examined emotions, the perceived functionality (optimal-dysfunctional of emotions, strategies to regulate emotions, sleep quality, and energy intake-expenditure in a four-man team participating in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM; a 4856km continuous cycle race. Cyclists reported experiencing an optimal emotional state for less than 50% of total competition, with emotional states differing significantly between each cyclist over time. Coupled with this emotional disturbance, each cyclist experienced progressively worsening sleep deprivation and daily negative energy balances throughout the RAAM. Cyclists managed less than one hour of continuous sleep per sleep episode, high sleep latency and high percentage moving time. Of note, actual sleep and sleep efficiency were better maintained during longer rest periods, highlighting the importance of a race strategy that seeks to optimise the balance between average cycling velocity and sleep time. Our data suggests that future RAAM cyclists and crew should: 1 identify beliefs on the perceived functionality of emotions in relation to best (functional-optimal and worst (dysfunctional performance as the starting point to intervention work; 2 create a plan for support sufficient sleep and recovery; 3 create nutritional strategies that maintain energy intake and thus reduce energy deficits; and 4 prepare for the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation so that they are able to appropriately respond to unexpected stressors and foster functional working interpersonal relationships

  5. Can telemetry data obviate the need for sleep studies in Pierre Robin Sequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Nicole Leigh; Jabbour, Noel

    2017-09-01

    This study looks to correlate telemetry data gathered on patients with Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) with sleep study data. Strong correlation might allow obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to be reasonably predicted without the need for sleep study. Charts from forty-six infants with PRS who presented to our children's hospital between 2005 and 2015 and received a polysomnogram (PSG) prior to surgical intervention were retrospectively reviewed. Correlations and scatterplots were used to compare average daily oxygen nadir, overall oxygen nadir, and average number of daily desaturations from telemetry data with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen nadir on sleep study. Results were also categorized into groups of AHI ≥ or sleep study data. Patients with O2 nadir below 80% on telemetry were not more likely to have an O2 nadir below 80% on sleep study. Patients with an average O2 nadir below 80% did show some correlation with having an AHI greater than 10 on sleep study but this relationship did not reach significance. Of 22 patients who did not have any desaturations on telemetry below 80%, 16 (73%) had an AHI >10 on sleep study. In the workup of infants with PRS, the index of suspicion is high for OSA. In our series, telemetry data was not useful in ruling out severe OSA. Thus our data do not support forgoing sleep study in patients with PRS and concern for OSA despite normal telemetry patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Brendan P; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB(9ed4)), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (sei(ts1)) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB(9ed4) flies was also assessed. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB(9ed4)/+ and sei(ts1) mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB(9ed4)/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB(9ed4)/+ became adults. These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Sleep bruxism associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome - A pilot study using a new portable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, M; Drummond, M; Viana, P; Pinho, J C; Winck, J C

    Sleep bruxism (SB) and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) share common pathophysiologic pathways. We aimed to study the presence and relationship of SB in a OSAS population. Patients referred with OSAS suspicion and concomitant SB complains were evaluated using a specific questionnaire, orofacial evaluation and cardio-respiratory polygraphy that could also monitor audio and EMG of the masseter muscles. From 11 patients studied 9 had OSAS. 55.6% were male, mean age was 46.3±11.3 years, and apnea hypopnea index of 11.1±5.7/h. Through specific questionnaire 55.6% had SB criteria. Orofacial examination (only feasible in 3) confirmed tooth wear in all. 77.8% had polygraphic SB criteria (SB index>2/h). Mean SB index was 5.12±3.6/h, phasic events predominated (72.7%). Concerning tooth grinding episodes, we found a mean of 10.7±9.2 per night. All OSAS patients except two (77.8%) had more than two audible tooth-grinding episodes. These two patients were the ones with the lowest SB index (1.0 and 1.4 per hour). Only in one patient could we not detect tooth grinding episodes. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between tooth grinding episodes and SB index and phasic event index (R=0.755, p=0.019 and R=0.737, p=0.023 respectively, Pearson correlation). Mean apnoea to bruxism index was 0.4/h, meaning that only a minority of SB events were not secondary to OSAS. We could not find any significant correlation between AHI and bruxism index or phasic bruxism index (R=-0.632 and R=-0.611, p>0.05, Pearson correlation). This pilot study shows that SB is a very common phenomenon in a group of mild OSAS patients, probably being secondary to it in the majority of cases. The new portable device used may add diagnostic accuracy and help to tailor therapy in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of Sleep Disorders with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Heshaam M; Stepanova, Maria; Afendy, Hena; Cable, Rebecca; Younossi, Zobair M

    2013-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. In smaller studies, sleep apnea has been previously associated with NAFLD. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and independent associations of sleep disorders in patients with NAFLD using recent population-based data. Three cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted between 2005 and 2010 were used. The diagnosis of NAFLD was established as elevated liver enzymes in the absence of all other causes of chronic liver disease. Sleep disorders were diagnosed using sleep disorder questionnaires completed by NHANES participants, and included self-reported history of sleep apnea, insomnia, and restless leg syndrome. The prevalence of sleep disorders was compared between those with and without NAFLD. A total of 10,541 adult NHANES participants with complete demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were included. Of those, 15.0% had NAFLD and 7.2% reported having sleep disorders. Of those with sleep disorders, 64.7% reported history of sleep apnea, 16.0% had history of insomnia, and 4.0% had restless leg syndrome. Individuals with NAFLD were more likely to be male (53.8% vs. 45.7%, P < 0.0001), obese (50.1% vs. 33.4%, P < 0.0001) and had higher prevalence of sleep disorders (9.1% vs. 6.9%, P = 0.0118). In multivariate analysis, having any sleep disorder, sleep apnea and insomnia were all independently associated with NAFLD [OR (95% CI) = 1.40 (1.11-1.76), OR = 1.39 (0.98-1.97), and OR = 2.17 (1.19-3.95); respectively)]. This large population-based data suggests that NAFLD is associated with sleep disorders. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, this association is most likely through metabolic conditions associated with NAFLD.

  9. Propagation of Homeostatic Sleep Signals by Segregated Synaptic Microcircuits of the Drosophila Mushroom Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Divya; Aso, Yoshinori; Jin, Xin; Chen, Nan; Felix, Mario; Rubin, Gerald M; Nitabach, Michael N

    2015-11-16

    The Drosophila mushroom body (MB) is a key associative memory center that has also been implicated in the control of sleep. However, the identity of MB neurons underlying homeostatic sleep regulation, as well as the types of sleep signals generated by specific classes of MB neurons, has remained poorly understood. We recently identified two MB output neuron (MBON) classes whose axons convey sleep control signals from the MB to converge in the same downstream target region: a cholinergic sleep-promoting MBON class and a glutamatergic wake-promoting MBON class. Here, we deploy a combination of neurogenetic, behavioral, and physiological approaches to identify and mechanistically dissect sleep-controlling circuits of the MB. Our studies reveal the existence of two segregated excitatory synaptic microcircuits that propagate homeostatic sleep information from different populations of intrinsic MB "Kenyon cells" (KCs) to specific sleep-regulating MBONs: sleep-promoting KCs increase sleep by preferentially activating the cholinergic MBONs, while wake-promoting KCs decrease sleep by preferentially activating the glutamatergic MBONs. Importantly, activity of the sleep-promoting MB microcircuit is increased by sleep deprivation and is necessary for homeostatic rebound sleep (i.e., the increased sleep that occurs after, and in compensation for, sleep lost during deprivation). These studies reveal for the first time specific functional connections between subsets of KCs and particular MBONs and establish the identity of synaptic microcircuits underlying transmission of homeostatic sleep signals in the MB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eating behavior by sleep duration in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Jung, Molly; Patel, Sanjay R; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Arens, Raanan; Ramos, Alberto; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L; Van Horn, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Sleep is an important pillar of health and a modifiable risk factor for diabetes, stroke and obesity. Little is known of diet and sleep patterns of Hispanics/Latinos in the US. Here we examine eating behavior as a function of sleep duration in a sub-sample of 11,888 participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a community-based cohort study of Hispanics aged 18-74 years in four US cities. Using a cross-sectional probability sample with self-report data on habitual sleep duration and up to two 24-h dietary recalls, we quantified the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) score, a measure of diet quality, and intake of selected nutrients related to cardiovascular health. Linear regression models were fit to estimate least-square means of usual nutrient intake of saturated fats, potassium density, fiber, calcium, caffeine and the AHEI-2010 score by sleep duration adjusting for age, sex, Hispanic/Latino background, income, employment status, education, depressive symptomology, and years lived in the US. Distribution of calories over the day and association with sleep duration and BMI were also examined. Short sleepers (≤6 h) had significantly lower intake of potassium, fiber and calcium and long sleepers (≥9 h) had significantly lower intake of caffeine compared to others sleepers after adjusting for covariates. However no difference in the AHEI-2010 score was seen by sleep duration. Significantly more long sleepers, compared to intermediate and short sleepers, reported having ≥30% total daily calories before bedtime. Not consuming a snack or meal within 3 h before bedtime was associated with higher AHEI-2010 scores. These findings identify novel differences in dietary patterns by sleep duration in a Hispanic/Latino cohort in the U.S. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02060344. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving Sleep for Hospitalized Antepartum Patients: A Non-Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathryn A; Gay, Caryl L

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate feasibility and efficacy of a hospital-based protocol for improving sleep in high- risk antepartum patients. Sleep measures were compared during 1 week of hospitalization before and after implementing a Sleep Improvement Protocol for Antepartum Patients (SIP-AP). A non-randomized convenience sample of usual care controls was compared to a subsequent intervention sample after the protocol was implemented. Women were eligible if they spoke English, were medically stable, pregnant for at least 20 weeks, and hospitalized at least 24 hours; 25 pregnant women had sufficient data for analyses (11 controls, 14 intervention). Sleep was assessed in 3 ways: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was completed after obtaining consent to estimate sleep quality prior to hospital admission; sleep diary completed each hospital day; and General Sleep Disturbance Scale completed at 7 days or prior to hospital discharge. Symptoms that could affect sleep were assessed with the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Both groups recorded similar sleep duration (7 hours) but the intervention group had fewer symptoms and significantly ( P = .015) lower sleep disturbance scores (53.1 ± 14.5) than controls (71.9 ± 18.8). Participant feedback about the intervention was positive, although adherence to components of the intervention protocol was variable. This pilot study provides evidence of the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the SIP-AP intervention for reducing symptoms and improving sleep of antepartum patients during hospitalization. Further detailed evaluation of specific components of this protocol is warranted, and other types of hospitalized patients may benefit from unit-based modifications to this SIP-AP protocol. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  12. Sleep Detriments Associated With Quick Returns in Rotating Shift Work: A Diary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedaa, Øystein; Mørland, Erik; Larsen, Marit; Harris, Anette; Erevik, Eilin; Sivertsen, Børge; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to compared sleep characteristics associated with quick returns (QRs, sleep diary (94.0% female, mean age 47.7 years). A multilevel fixed effects model was used to examine the sleep in QRs compared with two consecutive night shifts, two consecutive evening shifts, and two consecutive day shifts, respectively. None of the other shift transitions studied encumbered as many detriments as QRs, which included short sleep duration (5.6 hours), slightly prolonged sleep onset latency, more abrupt ending of main sleep period, increased sleepiness, and higher level of perceived stress on the following shift. The study emphasizes the need for sufficient time for rest and recuperation between shifts.

  13. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie

    2015-01-01

    and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours......OBJECTIVES: Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively...... whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). METHODS: The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying...

  14. Sleep apnea and risk of vertigo: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shao; Lee, Li-Ang; Tsai, Yao-Te; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Liu, Chia-Yen; Lin, Meng-Hung; Hsu, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Chin-Kuo; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the risk of vertigo in patients with sleep apnea. Retrospective cohort study. This study used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a population-based database. A total of 5,025 patients who were newly diagnosed with sleep apnea between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012, were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a nationally representative database of 1 million randomly selected patients. Moreover, 20,100 patients without sleep apnea were matched at a 1:4 ratio by age, sex, socioeconomic status, and urbanization level. Patients were followed up until death or the end of the study period (December 31, 2013). The primary outcome was the occurrence of vertigo. Patients with sleep apnea had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of vertigo than those without sleep apnea (P vertigo (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-1.97; P diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and obesity. Sleep apnea was demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for vertigo. This is the first nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between sleep apnea and vertigo. The findings strongly support that sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for vertigo. Based on the study results, physicians should be aware of potential vertigo occurrence following sleep apnea. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:763-768, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. How do people with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy sleep? A clinical and video-EEG with EOG and submental EMG for sleep staging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vieira Scarlatelli-Lima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess subjective and objective sleep parameters in a homogeneous group of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE patients through internationally validated clinical questionnaires, video-electroencephalographic (VEEG and polysomnographic (PSG studies. Fifty-six patients with definite diagnosis of MTLE who were candidates for epilepsy surgery underwent a detailed clinical history, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS, neurological examination, 1.5 T brain magnetic resonance imaging, VEEG and PSG. Sixteen percent of patients reported significant daytime sleepiness as measured by ESS and 27% reported low levels of sleep quality as measured by PSQI. Patients with medically resistant epilepsy by MTLE showed increased wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO with mean ± standard deviation of 17.4 ± 15.6, longer non-rapid eye movement (NREM 1 (7.5 ± 4.6% and NREM3 sleep (26.6 ± 11.8%, abnormal rapid eye movement (REM latency in 30/56 patients, shorter REM sleep (16.7 ± 6.6%, and abnormal alpha delta patterns were observed in 41/56 patients. The analysis of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs evidenced highest spiking rate during NREM3 sleep and higher concordance with imaging data when IEDs were recorded in sleep, mainly during REM sleep. We concluded that patients with MTLE showed disrupted sleep architecture that may result in daytime dysfunction and sleep complaints. Furthermore, NREM sleep activated focal IEDs and them - when recorded during sleep - had higher localizing value.

  16. Individual Differences in Diabetes Risk: Role of Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    daily metabolic and hormonal processes and appetite regulation. It is clear that chronic sleep deprivation has deleterious effects on carbohydrate...163−78. 15. Ayas NT, White DP, Al-Delaimy WK, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE, et al. A prospective study of self-reported sleep duration and...Normative sleep data, cognitive function and daily living activities in older adults in the community. Sleep 2005 Aug 1;28(8):981−9. 33. Singh M

  17. Emerging Adults' Text Message Use and Sleep Characteristics: A Multimethod, Naturalistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Horissian, Mikael; Crichlow-Ball, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Emerging adults use text messaging as a principal form of social communication, day and night, and this may compromise their sleep. In this study, a hypothetical model was tested linking daytime and nighttime text message use with multiple sleep characteristics. Subjective and objective measures of texting and sleep were utilized to assess 83 college students over a seven-day period during an academic term. Greater number of daily texts, awareness of nighttime cell phone notifications, and compulsion to check nighttime notifications were significantly associated with poorer subjective sleep quality. Awareness of nighttime notifications was significantly associated with higher self-reported global sleep problems and more sleep disruptions. Results suggest potential benefits of targeting nighttime texting habits in health promotion efforts for emerging adults.

  18. Noninvasive ventilation improves sleep in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a prospective polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijsen, Bart; Buyse, Bertien; Belge, Catharina; Robberecht, Wim; Van Damme, Philip; Decramer, Marc; Testelmans, Dries

    2015-04-15

    To evaluate the effects of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on sleep in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after meticulous titration with polysomnography (PSG). In this prospective observational study, 24 ALS patients were admitted to the sleep laboratory during 4 nights for in-hospital NIV titration with PSG and nocturnal capnography. Questionnaires were used to assess subjective sleep quality and quality of life (QoL). Patients were readmitted after one month. In the total group, slow wave sleep and REM sleep increased and the arousal-awakening index improved. The group without bulbar involvement (non-bulbar) showed the same improvements, together with an increase in sleep efficiency. Nocturnal oxygen and carbon dioxide levels improved in the total and non-bulbar group. Except for oxygen saturation during REM sleep, no improvement in respiratory function or sleep structure was found in bulbar patients. However, these patients showed less room for improvement. Patient-reported outcomes showed improvement in sleep quality and QoL for the total and non-bulbar group, while bulbar patients only reported improvements in very few subscores. This study shows an improvement of sleep architecture, carbon dioxide, and nocturnal oxygen saturation at the end of NIV titration and after one month of NIV in ALS patients. More studies are needed to identify the appropriate time to start NIV in bulbar patients. Our results suggest that accurate titration of NIV by PSG improves sleep quality. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 511. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  19. An epidemiological study of sleep quality in adolescents in South China: a school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H-Q; Shi, W-B; Wang, X-F; Yao, M; Cheng, G-Y; Chen, P-Y; Li, D-G

    2012-07-01

    This study explored the prevalence of disturbed sleep and investigated its distribution characteristics and associated factors in adolescents in South China. Junior middle school and senior high school students (n = 1221) were recruited from schools in Shanghai, China. Students completed a questionnaire using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and factors associated with disturbed sleep. The prevalence of a tendency towards poor sleep was 34.32% [95% confidence interval (CI): 31.66-36.98] with no significant difference between genders. This tendency increased with age, yielding a significant group effect (P school and high school, the propensity towards poor sleep was 31.34% (95% CI: 28.29-34.39) and 42.22% (95% CI: 36.92-47.52) respectively. The factors associated with poor sleep were more television viewing during weekdays [odds ratio (OR): 1.56, CI: 1.36-1.71], more frequent computer/Internet use (OR: 1.25, CI: 1.08-1.39), earlier school starting time (OR: 1.12, CI: 1.07-1.28), and more time on homework during weekdays (OR: 1.78, CI: 1.51-1.98) and weekends (OR: 1.35, CI: 1.21-1.52) A tendency towards poor sleep is common in adolescents in South China and its incidence increases with age. The factors associated with this phenomenon indicate that poor sleep in adolescents could be improved, at least partly, by reducing the use of visual technologies and by changing school timetables. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Sleep Parameters in Short Daily versus Conventional Dialysis: An Actigraphic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludimila D’Avila e Silva Allemand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have observed worse sleep quality in patients undergoing conventional dialysis as compared to daily dialysis. Our aim was to compare the sleep parameters of patients undergoing daily or conventional dialysis using an objective measure (actigraphy. This cross-sectional study was performed in three dialysis centers, including a convenience sample (nonprobability sampling of 73 patients (36 patients on daily hemodialysis and 37 patients on conventional hemodialysis. The following parameters were evaluated: nocturnal total sleep time (NTST, expressed in minutes; wake time after sleep onset (WASO, expressed in minutes; number of nighttime awakenings; daytime total sleep time (DTST, expressed in minutes; number of daytime naps; and nighttime percentage of sleep (% sleep. The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Beck Depression Inventory were also administered. The mean age was 53.4  ±  17.0 years. After adjustment of confounding factors using multiple linear regression analysis, no difference in actigraphy parameters was detected between the groups: NTST (p=0.468, WASO (p=0.88, % sleep (p=0.754, awakenings (p=0.648, naps (p=0.414, and DTST (p=0.805. Different from previous studies employing qualitative analysis, the present assessment did not observe an influence of hemodialysis modality on objective sleep parameters in chronic renal patients.

  1. Sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Although the literature has documented associations between sleep problems and internet addiction, the temporal direction of these relationships has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the bidirectional relationships between sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents longitudinally. A four-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 1253 children and adolescents in grades 3, 5 and 8 from March 2013 to January 2014. The sleep problems of the student participants were measured by parental reports on the Sleep Habit Questionnaire, which catalogues early insomnia, middle insomnia, disturbed circadian rhythm, periodic leg movements, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, nightmares, bruxism, snoring and sleep apnoea. The severity of internet addiction was measured by students' self-reports on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Based on the results of time-lag models, dyssomnias (odds ratio = 1.31), especially early and middle insomnias (odds ratio = 1.74 and 2.24), sequentially predicted internet addiction, and internet addiction sequentially predicted disturbed circadian rhythm (odds ratio = 2.40), regardless of adjustment for gender and age. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal relationship of early and middle insomnia predicting internet addiction, which subsequently predicts disturbed circadian rhythm. These findings imply that treatment strategies for sleep problems and internet addiction should vary according to the order of their occurrence. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Dissociative symptoms and sleep parameters--an all-night polysomnography study in patients with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Kloet, Dalena; Giesbrecht, Timo; Franck, Erik; Van Gastel, Ann; De Volder, Ilse; Van Den Eede, Filip; Verschuere, Bruno; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-08-01

    Dissociative disorders encompass a range of symptoms varying from severe absent-mindedness and memory problems to confusion about one's own identity. Recent studies suggest that these symptoms may be the by-products of a labile sleep-wake cycle. In the current study, we explored this issue in patients suffering from insomnia (N=46). We investigated whether these patients have raised levels of dissociative symptoms and whether these are related to objective sleep parameters. Patients stayed for at least one night in a specialized sleep clinic, while sleep EEG data were obtained. In addition, they completed self-report measures on dissociative symptoms, psychological problems, and sleep characteristics. Dissociative symptom levels were elevated in patients suffering from insomnia, and were correlated with unusual sleep experiences and poor sleep quality. Longer REM sleep periods and less time spent awake during the night were predictive of dissociation. This is the first study to show that insomnia patients have raised dissociative symptom levels and that their dissociative symptoms are related to objective EEG parameters. These findings are important because they may inspire sleep-related treatment methods for dissociative disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early pathology in sleep studies of patients with familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givaty, Gili; Maggio, Nicola; Cohen, Oren S; Blatt, Ilan; Chapman, Joab

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess sleep function in patients with recent-onset familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD). The largest cluster of fCJD patients is found in Jews of Libyan origin, linked to the prion protein gene (PRNP) E200K mutation. The high index of suspicion in these patients often leads to early diagnosis, with complaints of insomnia being a very common presenting symptom of the disease. The study included 10 fCJD patients diagnosed by clinical manifestations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain, elevated tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positive PRNP E200K mutation. Standard polysomnography was performed after a brief interview confirming the presence of sleep disturbances. All patients showed a pathological sleep pattern according to all scoring evaluation settings. The sleep stages were characterized by (i) disappearance of sleep spindles; (ii) outbursts of periodic sharp waves and shallowing of sleep consisting in increased Stage 2 and wake periods during the night, as well as decrease of slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Recordings of respiratory functions reported irregular breathing with central and obstructive apnea and hypopnea. The typical hypotonia occurring during the night and atonia during REM sleep were replaced by hyperactive sleep consisting of multiple jerks, movements and parasomnia (mainly talking) throughout the night. In conclusion, we report unique pathological sleep patterns in early fCJD associated with the E200K mutation. Specific respiratory disturbances and lack of atonia could possibly serve as new, early diagnostic tools in the disease. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Effects of aging on sleep structure throughout adulthood: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Walter; Piovezan, Ronaldo; Poyares, Dalva; Bittencourt, Lia Rita; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have shown the evolution of sleep parameters across the lifespan, not many have included a representative sample of the general population. The objective of this study was to describe age-related changes in sleep structure, sleep respiratory parameters and periodic limb movements of the adult population of São Paulo. We selected a representative sample of the city of São Paulo, Brazil that included both genders and an age range of 20-80 years. Pregnant and lactating women, people with physical or mental impairments that prevent self-care and people who work every night were not included. This sample included 1024 individuals who were submitted to polysomnography and structured interviews. We subdivided our sample into five-year age groups. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare age groups. Pearson product-moment was used to evaluate correlation between age and sleep parameters. Total sleep time, sleep efficiency, percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow wave sleep showed a significant age-related decrease (Pincrease (Pincreased and oxygen saturation decreased with age. The reduction in the percentage of REM sleep significantly correlated with age in women, whereas the reduction in the percentage of slow wave sleep correlated with age in men. The periodic limb movement (PLM) index increased with age in men and women. Sleep structure and duration underwent significant alterations throughout the aging process in the general population. There was an important correlation between age, sleep respiratory parameters and PLM index. In addition, men and women showed similar trends but with different effect sizes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep and academic performance in Indigenous Australian children from a remote community: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patrick; Kohler, Mark; Blunden, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Disruptions to sleep in childhood are associated with poor behaviour and deficits in academic performance and executive function. Although academic performance of indigenous children from remote communities in Australia is documented as well below that of non-indigenous children, the extent of sleep disruption and its contribution to academic performance among this population has not been assessed. This pilot study aimed to objectively assess the sleep of remote indigenous children and the association between sleep disruption and both academic performance and executive function. Twenty-one children from a remote Australian indigenous community aged 6-13 years wore actigraphy for two consecutive nights, reported subjective sleepiness, and were objectively assessed for academic performance (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd Edition) and executive function (NEuroloPSYcological Assessment-II). Results show marked reduction in sleep time, sleep fragmentation, academic performance and auditory attention compared with non-indigenous norms. Sleep duration was not associated with performance, possibly because of reduced sleep and performance observed across the entire group. Sleep fragmentation was associated with reduced reading and numerical skills (P sleep of indigenous children in remote communities is an important area of future inquiry, and our initial findings of poor sleep and an association between sleep disruption and academic performance may have important implications for intervention strategies aimed at 'closing the gap'. Further studies should assess a broader range of demographic, social and economic factors to better understand the associations reported here and guide future intervention. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Central Nervous Insulin Signaling in Sleep-Associated Memory Formation and Neuroendocrine Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Gordon B; Wilhem, Ines; Benedict, Christian; Rüdel, Benjamin; Klameth, Corinna; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    The neurochemical underpinnings of sleep's contribution to the establishment and maintenance of memory traces are largely unexplored. Considering that intranasal insulin administration to the CNS improves memory functions in healthy and memory-impaired humans, we tested whether brain insulin signaling and sleep interact to enhance memory consolidation in healthy participants. We investigated the effect of intranasal insulin on sleep-associated neurophysiological and neuroendocrine parameters and memory consolidation in 16 men and 16 women (aged 18-30 years), who learned a declarative word-pair task and a procedural finger sequence tapping task in the evening before intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo administration and 8 h of nocturnal sleep. On the subsequent evening, they learned interfering word-pairs and a new finger sequence before retrieving the original memories. Insulin increased growth hormone concentrations in the first night-half and EEG delta power during the second 90 min of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Insulin treatment impaired the acquisition of new contents in both the declarative and procedural memory systems on the next day, whereas retrieval of original memories was unchanged. Results indicate that sleep-associated memory consolidation is not a primary mediator of insulin's acute memory-improving effect, but that the peptide acts on mechanisms that diminish the subsequent encoding of novel information. Thus, by inhibiting processes of active forgetting during sleep, central nervous insulin might reduce the interfering influence of encoding new information.

  7. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh M Punjabi; Brian S Caffo; James L Goodwin; Daniel J Gottlieb; Anne B Newman; George T O'Connor; David M Rapoport; Susan Redline; Helaine E Resnick; John A Robbins; Eyal Shahar; Mark L Unruh; Jonathan M Samet

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 1 in 10 women and 1 in 4 men have a chronic condition called sleep-disordered breathing although most are unaware of their problem. Sleep-disordered breathing, which is commonest in middle-aged and elderly people, is characterized by numerous, brief (10 second or so) interruptions of breathing during sleep. These interruptions, which usually occur when relaxation of the upper airway muscles decreases airflow, lower the level of oxygen in the blood and, as a r...

  8. Delayed sleep timing and symptoms in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a controlled actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Karen L; May, Roberta S; Besing, Rachel C; Tankersly, Amelia P; Fargason, Rachel E

    2013-05-01

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms. Determination of whether sleep disturbance and/or circadian disruption are differentially associated with symptom severity is necessary to guide development of future treatment strategies. Therefore, we measured sleep and ADHD symptoms in participants aged 19-65 who met the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria for ADHD and insomnia without psychiatric comorbidities by monitoring actigraphy and daily sleep logs for 2 wks, as well as the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), and a clinic-designed sleep behavior questionnaire. Principal components analysis identified correlated circadian- and sleep-related variables in all participants with ADHD who completed the study (n = 24). The identified components were entered into a backwards stepwise linear regression analysis, which indicated that delayed sleep timing and increased sleepiness (ESS) (but not sleep duration or sleep efficiency) significantly predicted greater severity of both hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptoms (p sleep quality (PSQI scores; p sleep" compared with 57.2% and 50% of inattentive and symptom-controlled participants, respectively (p sleep timing and daytime sleepiness, suggesting that treatment interventions aimed at advancing circadian phase may improve daytime sleepiness. In addition, ADHD adults with combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms have decreased sleep quality as well as the delayed sleep timing of predominately inattentive subtypes.

  9. Long-Term Effects of Extreme Trauma on Sleep Quality and the Circadian Rhythm of Sleep and Wakefulness: An Actigraphy Study of Utøya Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Ugland, Kaja Skullerud; Landrø, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    The terror attack at Utøya Island in 2011 was a national tragedy. Most of the survivors were adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore how sleep and circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness was affected after the Utøya massacre. In addition we wanted to examine the general sleep pattern among adolescents. Methods: 42 Utøya survivors and 46 control subjects matched on gender, age and socio- demographical variables were studied 18-30 months after the attack. Sleep was assessed by ac...

  10. Objectively measured sleep and β-amyloid burden in older adults: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam P Spira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/aims: Although disturbed sleep is associated with cognitive deficits, the association between sleep disturbance and Alzheimer’s disease pathology is unclear. In this pilot study, we examined the extent to which sleep duration, sleep quality, and sleep-disordered breathing are associated with β-amyloid (Aβ deposition in the brains of living humans. Methods: We studied 13 older adults (8 with normal cognition and 5 with mild cognitive impairment. Participants completed neuropsychological testing, polysomnography, and Aβ imaging with [11C]-Pittsburgh compound B. Results: Among participants with mild cognitive impairment, higher apnea–hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index were associated with greater Aβ deposition, globally and regionally in the precuneus. There were no significant associations between sleep-disordered breathing and Aβ deposition among cognitively normal participants. There were no significant associations between sleep duration or sleep fragmentation and Aβ deposition. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that among older adults with mild cognitive impairment, greater sleep-disordered breathing severity is associated with greater Aβ deposition.

  11. The effect of sleep quality on academic performance is mediated by Internet use time: DADOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelantado-Renau, Mireia; Diez-Fernandez, Ana; Beltran-Valls, Maria Reyes; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego

    2018-05-19

    The aims of the present study were to analyze the association of sleep patterns with academic and cognitive performance in adolescents, and to test the potential mediating effect of different activities of screen media usage on this association. A sample of 269 adolescents (140 boys) aged 14 years from the baseline data of the Deporte, ADOlescencia y Salud study completed questionnaires about sleep quality, cognitive performance, and leisure-time sedentary behaviors. Sleep duration was objectively computed using a wrist-worn GENEActiv accelerometer and academic performance was analyzed through school records. Sleep quality (but not sleep duration) was associated with all the academic performance indicators (all p<0.05). Analysis of covariance revealed higher grades among adolescents with better sleep quality (PSQI≤5; all p<0.05). These analyses showed no differences regarding cognitive performance. Internet use time was revealed as a mediator of the association between sleep quality and academic performance, being significant for all academic performance indicators (P M ranging from 15.5% to 16.0%). The association between sleep quality and academic performance in adolescents is mediated by time of Internet use. Overall, reducing Internet use in adolescents could be an achievable intervention for improving sleep quality, with potentially positive effects on academic performance. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep-induced periodic breathing and apnea: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, M C; Gottschalk, A; Pack, A I

    1991-05-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms that lead to sleep-disordered breathing, we have developed a mathematical model that allows for dynamic interactions among the chemical control of respiration, changes in sleep-waking state, and changes in upper airway patency. The increase in steady-state arterial PCO2 accompanying sleep is shown to be inversely related to the ventilatory response to CO2. Chemical control of respiration becomes less stable during the light stage of sleep, despite a reduction in chemoresponsiveness, due to a concomitant increase in "plant gain" (i.e., responsiveness of blood gases to ventilatory changes). The withdrawal of the "wakefulness drive" during sleep onset represents a strong perturbation to respiratory control: higher magnitudes and rates of withdrawal of this drive favor instability. These results may account for the higher incidence of periodic breathing observed during light sleep and sleep onset. Periodic ventilation can also result from repetitive alternations between sleep onset and arousal. The potential for instability is further compounded if the possibility of upper airway occlusion is also included. In systems with high controller gains, instability is mediated primarily through chemoreflex overcompensation. However, in systems with depressed chemoresponsiveness, rapid sleep onset and large blood gas fluctuations trigger repetitive episodes of arousal and hyperpnea alternating with apneas that may or may not be obstructive. Between these extremes, more complex patterns can arise from the interaction between chemoreflex-mediated oscillations of shorter-cycle-duration (approximately 36 s) and longer-wavelength (approximately 60-80 s) state-driven oscillations.

  13. The Impact of Sleep-Disordered Breathing on Body Mass Index (BMI): The Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark A; Goodwin, James L; Silva, Graciela E; Behari, Ajay; Newman, Anne B; Punjabi, Naresh M; Resnick, Helaine E; Robbins, John A; Quan, Stuart F

    2011-12-08

    INTRODUCTION: It is well known that obesity is a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). However, whether SDB predicts increase in BMI is not well defined. Data from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) were analyzed to determine whether SDB predicts longitudinal increase in BMI, adjusted for confounding factors. METHODS: A full-montage unattended home polysomnogram (PSG) and body anthropometric measurements were obtained approximately five years apart in 3001 participants. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was categorized using clinical thresholds: sleep apnea), and ≥ 15 (moderate to severe sleep apnea). Linear regression was used to examine the association between the three AHI groups and increased BMI. The model included age, gender, race, baseline BMI, and change in AHI as covariates. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age was 62.2 years (10.14), 55.2% were female and 76.1% were Caucasian. Five-year increase in BMI was modest with a mean (SD) change of 0.53 (2.62) kg/m(2) (p=0.071). A multivariate regression model showed that subjects with a baseline AHI between 5-15 had a mean increase in BMI of 0.22 kg/m(2) (p=0.055) and those with baseline AHI ≥ 15 had a BMI increase of 0.51 kg/m(2) (plosing weight.

  14. Study protocol: the sleeping sound with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Gerner, Bibi; Davey, Margot; Mensah, Fiona; Oberklaid, Frank; Hiscock, Harriet

    2010-12-30

    Up to 70% of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience sleep problems including difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep. Sleep problems in children with ADHD can result in poorer child functioning, impacting on school attendance, daily functioning and behaviour, as well as parental mental health and work attendance. The Sleeping Sound with ADHD trial aims to investigate the efficacy of a behavioural sleep program in treating sleep problems experienced by children with ADHD. We have demonstrated the feasibility and the acceptability of this treatment program in a pilot study. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) is being conducted with 198 children (aged between 5 to 12 years) with ADHD and moderate to severe sleep problems. Children are recruited from public and private paediatric practices across the state of Victoria, Australia. Upon receiving informed written consent, families are randomised to receive either the behavioural sleep intervention or usual care. The intervention consists of two individual, face-to-face consultations and a follow-up phone call with a trained clinician (trainee consultant paediatrician or psychologist), focusing on the assessment and management of child sleep problems. The primary outcome is parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms (ADHD Rating Scale IV). Secondary outcomes are child sleep (actigraphy and parent report), behaviour, daily functioning, school attendance and working memory, as well as parent mental health and work attendance. We are also assessing the impact of children's psychiatric comorbidity (measured using a structured diagnostic interview) on treatment outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT of a behavioural intervention aiming to treat sleep problems in children with ADHD. If effective, this program will provide a feasible non-pharmacological and acceptable intervention improving child sleep and ADHD symptoms in this patient group. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN

  15. Characterizing Adult Sleep Behavior Over 20 Years-The Population-Based Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomers, Margot L; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Proper, Karin I.; Verschuren, W M Monique; Picavet, H. Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe sleep duration patterns of adults over a 20-year period; to compare sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics across these patterns; and to relate the patterns to sleep quality. Methods: The study population consisted of 3695 adults aged 20 to 59 years at

  16. Melatonin for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children: A Randomized placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.G.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Heijden, J.A.M. van der; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    To establish the efficacy of melatonin treatment in childhood sleep onset insomnia, 40 elementary school children, 6 to 12 years of age, who suffered more than 1 year from chronic sleep onset insomnia, were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The children were randomly assigned to

  17. Correlation of obstructive sleep apnoea and laryngopharyngeal reflux: phmetry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhennawi, D M; Ahmed, M R; Abou-Halawa, A S

    2016-12-01

    To study the correlation of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). A descriptive study. Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. 62 patients with polysomnography confirmed OSA. Patients were evaluated with ambulatory 24-h double channel pH monitoring. Mean reflux symptom index in the study group was 9 ± 5.5, and it was > 13 in all patients with severe OSA. Signs of LPR reflux were present in 34 (55%) patients. Abnormal reflux was detected in the distal oesophagus in 41 patients (66%) and in the proximal oesophagus in 21 patients (34%). Patients with severe OSA had significantly higher nocturnal LPR reflux episodes compared to patients with mild disease (P .05). LPR is common in patients with OSA. Patients with severe OSA have significantly higher nocturnal LPR. This should be considered when treating this group of patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluating Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Sleep in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tim I.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have found beneficial effects of aromatherapy massage for agitation in people with dementia, for pain relief and for poor sleep. Children with autism often have sleep difficulties, and it was thought that aromatherapy massage might enable more rapid sleep onset, less sleep disruption and longer sleep duration. Twelve children with autism and learning difficulties (2 girls and 10 boys aged between 12 years 2 months to 15 years 7 months) in a residential school participated in a within subjects repeated measures design: 3 nights when the children were given aromatherapy massage with lavender oil were compared with 14 nights when it was not given. The children were checked every 30 min throughout the night to determine the time taken for the children to settle to sleep, the number of awakenings and the sleep duration. One boy's data were not analyzed owing to lengthy absence. Repeated measures analysis revealed no differences in any of the sleep measures between the nights when the children were given aromatherapy massage and nights when the children were not given aromatherapy massage. The results suggest that the use of aromatherapy massage with lavender oil has no beneficial effect on the sleep patterns of children with autism attending a residential school. It is possible that there are greater effects in the home environment or with longer-term interventions. PMID:16951722

  19. Functional gastrointestinal disorders among adolescents with poor sleep: a school-based study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui-Qing; Yao, Min; Chen, Guang-Yu; Ding, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Yan-Ping; Li, Ding-Guo

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether functional gastrointestinal disorders are more common among adolescents with self-reported poor sleep. Junior middle school and senior high school students (n = 1,362) were recruited from schools in Shanghai. Students completed two questionnaires: the questionnaire for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adolescents and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The prevalence of poor sleep was 34.29% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 31.77-36.81] and there was no significant difference between genders (P = 0.991). The tendency towards poor sleep increased with age, with age group yielding a significant effect (P = 0.001). In junior middle school and senior high school students, the propensity towards poor sleep was 30.10% (95% CI = 27.08-33.12%) and 42.11% (95% CI = 37.67-46.55%), respectively. Among students with poor sleep, the prevalence of IBS was 19.70% (95% CI = 16.09-23.31). After adjusting for age, sex, night pain, and psychological factors, IBS was significantly more common in students with poor sleep (odds ratio = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.07-2.58). We conclude that IBS is prevalent in students with poor sleep. Poor sleep was independently associated with IBS among adolescents in Shanghai China.

  20. Gastrointestinal motility during sleep assessed by tracking of telemetric capsules combined with polysomnography - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Anne-Mette; Fallet, Sibylle; Otto, Marit; Scott, S Mark; Schlageter, Vincent; Krogh, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Studies of gastrointestinal function during sleep are hampered by lack of applicable techniques. Recent development of a novel ambulatory telemetric capsule system, which can be used in conjunction with polysomnography, offers a solution to this problem. The 3D-Transit system consists of ingestible electromagnetic capsules traceable through a portable extracorporeal receiver while traversing the gut. During sleep monitored by polysomnography, gastrointestinal motility was concurrently investigated using 3D-Transit in nine healthy subjects. Overall, the amplitude of gastric contractions decreased with depth of sleep (light sleep, N2 versus deep sleep, N3; P<0.05). Progression through the small intestine did not change with depth of sleep (Kruskal-Wallis probability =0.1), and there was no association between nocturnal awakenings or arousals and the occurrence of colonic or small intestinal propagating movements. Basal colonic activity was suppressed during both deep sleep (P<0.05) and light sleep (P<0.05) when compared with nocturnal wake periods. In conclusion, the novel ambulatory 3D-Transit system combined with polysomnography allows minimally invasive and completely ambulatory investigation of associations between sleep patterns and gastrointestinal motility.

  1. Changes in Sleep Duration During Transition to Statutory Retirement: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllyntausta, Saana; Salo, Paula; Kronholm, Erkki; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari

    2017-07-01

    This study examined whether sleep duration changes during the transition from full-time work to statutory retirement and, if this were the case, which preretirement factors, including sociodemographic, work, lifestyle, and health factors, predict these changes. Data from repeated surveys of the Finnish Public Sector study, linked to records of retirement, were used. The study population consisted of 5785 participants who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who had responded to surveys on sleep duration at least once immediately before and after their retirement (mean number of repeat study waves 3.6). Linear regression analyses with generalized estimating equations were used to examine changes in sleep duration around retirement. Before retirement there was a slight decrease in sleep duration. During the 4-year retirement transition, sleep duration increased from 7 hours 0 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 6 hours 54 minutes to 7 hours 6 minutes) to 7 hours and 22 minutes (95% CI 7 hours 16 minutes to 7 hours 27 minutes); thus, mean increase being 22 minutes. Increase in sleep duration was greatest in those who were short sleepers, heavy drinkers, or had sleep difficulties. After the retirement transition, sleep duration remained at approximately the same level, as no significant changes were observed. This longitudinal study suggests that transition from full-time work to statutory retirement is associated with an increase in sleep duration. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemma Seblewngel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling procedures were used to enroll 2,817 students into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and selected modules of the World Health Organization STEPS instrument was used for the study. This research included 2,551 students. Frequency, median, mean with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were used to characterize sleep quality and other variables. Analysis of variance and binary logistic regression procedures were also used. Result The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score > 5 was 55.8% (1,424. Female students (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.57, second year (AOR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.02 and third year students (AOR 2.25; 95% CI 1.62, 3.12 had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Perceived stress level and symptoms of depression and anxiety were strongly associated with sleep quality. Conclusion A substantial proportion of university students are affected by poor sleep quality. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, health promotion and educational programs for students should emphasize the importance of sleep and mental health.

  3. Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, Seblewngel; Gelaye, Bizu; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Williams, Michelle A

    2012-12-28

    Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling procedures were used to enroll 2,817 students into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and selected modules of the World Health Organization STEPS instrument was used for the study. This research included 2,551 students. Frequency, median, mean with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were used to characterize sleep quality and other variables. Analysis of variance and binary logistic regression procedures were also used. The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score > 5) was 55.8% (1,424). Female students (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.57), second year (AOR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.02) and third year students (AOR 2.25; 95% CI 1.62, 3.12) had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Perceived stress level and symptoms of depression and anxiety were strongly associated with sleep quality. A substantial proportion of university students are affected by poor sleep quality. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, health promotion and educational programs for students should emphasize the importance of sleep and mental health.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as an accident risk factor in professional drivers in Yekaterinburg. Dangerous Sleep (DS-1 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Belkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 20% of all road traffic accidents may be associated with falling asleep while driving. This may be caused by sleep disorders leading to daytime sleepiness, the most common of which is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Objective: to study somatic and mental health, sleep disorders, OSAS in particular, in the population of Russian drivers (Sverdlovsk Region. Patients and methods. The descriptive cohort «Dangerous Sleep» (DS-1 study of 20 professional drivers having more than 5-year driving experience was conducted at the Clinical Institute of the Brain. The mean age of the drivers was 45.8 years. They underwent somatic evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors and a psychological examination involving a risk readiness diagnostic procedure, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and an electroencephalographic examination. A somnological examination assumed testing using the Epworth sleepiness scale, polysomnography, or overnight pulse metry. Results and discussion. 30% of the drivers were found to have marked attention disorders and an inability to adapt to extreme conditions, which create a risk for professional duties. The predisposing factors were noted to be alcohol addiction, overweight, and OSAS, the rate of the latter proved to be higher than that in the general population of able-bodied men. It was shown that a somnological examination should be obligatorily performed while hiring professional drivers, particularly to long hauliers. The drivers having a long length of experience, in whom a periodic examination detects sleep disorders, should be treated for somatic diseases and should also have individual working schedules to rule out their long night-time driving. 

  5. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  6. Role of basal ganglia in sleep-wake regulation: neural circuitry and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vetrivelan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers over the last decade have made substantial progress towards understanding the roles of dopamine and the basal ganglia in the control of sleep-wake behavior. In this review, we outline recent advancements regarding dopaminergic modulation of sleep through the basal ganglia (BG and extra-BG sites. Our main hypothesis is that dopamine promotes sleep by its action on the D2 receptors in the BG and promotes wakefulness by its action on D1 and D2 receptors in the extra-BG sites. This hypothesis implicates dopamine depletion in the BG (such as in Parkinson’s disease in causing frequent nighttime arousal and overall insomnia. Furthermore, the arousal effects of psychostimulants (methamphetamine, cocaine and modafinil may be linked to the ventral periaquductal grey (vPAG dopaminergic circuitry targeting the extra-BG sleep-wake network.

  7. 78 FR 11981 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Lakeshore (SLBE or Lakeshore) was established in 1970 ``for the benefit, inspiration, education, recreation... home destination. SLBE offers visitors recreational activities such as hiking, backpacking, kayaking...-Benefit and Regulatory Flexibility Analyses Leelanau Scenic Heritage Route Trailway, Sleeping Bear Dunes...

  8. Impact of Impulse Control Disorders on Sleep-Wake Regulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atbin Djamshidian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and are even more prevalent in patients with behavioural addictions, such as pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behaviour, compulsive buying, binge eating, punding, and the compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy. An overview of the relationship between these impulse control disorders and sleep disturbances is given and potential underlying mechanisms and treatment strategies are covered.

  9. The National Veteran Sleep Disorder Study: Descriptive Epidemiology and Secular Trends, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Melannie; Ray, Meredith A; Hébert, James R; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Zhang, Hongmei; Steck, Susan E; Bogan, Richard K; Burch, James B

    2016-07-01

    A large proportion of individuals affected by sleep disorders are untreated and susceptible to accidents, injuries, long-term sequelae (e.g., risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, psychiatric disorders), and increased mortality risk. Few studies have examined the scope and magnitude of sleep disorder diagnoses in the United States (US) or factors influencing them. Veterans are particularly vulnerable to factors that elicit or exacerbate sleep disorders. This serial cross-sectional study characterized secular trends in diagnosed sleep disorders among veterans seeking care in US Veterans Health Administration facilities over an eleven-year span (FY2000-2010, n = 9,786,778). Electronic medical records from the national Veterans Administration Informatics and Computing Infrastructure database were accessed. Cases were defined using diagnostic codes specified by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Age-adjusted annual prevalence was summarized by sex, race, combat exposure, body mass index, and comorbid diagnoses (cardiovascular disease, cancer, mental disorders). Sleep apnea (47%) and insomnia (26%) were the most common diagnoses among patients with any sleep disorder. There was a six-fold relative increase in total sleep disorder prevalence over the study period. Posttraumatic stress disorder, which tripled over the same time period, was associated with the highest prevalence of sleep disorders (16%) among the comorbid conditions evaluated. The results indicate a growing need for integration of sleep disorder management with patient care and health care planning among US veterans. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1331. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Sleep characteristics in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebela, Antonin; Novak, Tomas; Kemlink, David; Goetz, Michal

    2017-05-26

    Impairment of sleep and circadian rhythm is a typical feature of bipolar disorder (BD). We carried out an exploratory cross-sectional case-control study to extend the knowledge of sleep characteristics in offspring at risk for BD. We investigated 42 offspring of bipolar parents (OB) (mean age 12.5 ± 3.2) and 42 sex and age matched comparison offspring of healthy parents. We administered the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire and The General Behavior Inventory Sleep Subscale (GBISS) to assess circadian preference, and to identify sleep impairment symptoms. In addition, the participants completed 14 days of actigraphy to characterise sleep and wake patterns. The current psychopathology profile was assessed using Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Prevalence of sleep disturbance symptoms was higher among OB than controls (headache after waking up, 17.9% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.03; excessive daytime sleepiness, 38.5% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.004; apparent tiredness at wake-up times, 43.6% vs. 15.0%, p = 0.007 and nightmares, 21.6% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.01), but the differences between groups were not significant after adjusting for current psychopathology. OB had higher GBISS total score (parental version, p < 0.001; self-assessment, p = 0.07) than the controls. OB had higher preference for eveningness than the controls (p = 0.047). According to the actigraphy, OB had longer sleep onset latency (p = 0.048) than the controls. Evidence suggests that the offspring of bipolar parents experience sleep disturbance symptoms, which was associated with psychopathology in this study. Prospective longitudinal sleep studies would clarify whether sleep disturbance could be a predictor of mood disorder onset in this high-risk population.

  11. Sleep and its disorders in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Louise M; Nutt, David J; Wilson, Sue J

    2011-09-01

    The study of sleep is a useful approach to studying the brain in psychiatric disorders and in investigating the effects of psychotropic drugs. Sleep physiology lends itself well to pharmacological and physiological manipulation, as it has the advantage of a functional output, the electroencephalograph, which is common to all mammals, and can be measured in freely moving (or naturally sleeping) animals under controlled laboratory conditions or in a naturalistic home environment. The complexity of sleep architecture varies between species but all share features which are comparable. In addition, sleep architecture is sensitive to changes in brain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, so cross-species sleep measurement can be combined with pharmacological manipulation to investigate the receptor mechanisms controlling sleep-wake regulation and sleep architecture in response to known and novel agents. Translational approaches such as these have improved our understanding of sleep circuitry and facilitated the development of new treatments for sleep disorders, particularly insomnia. This review provides examples of how research findings within the sleep field have been translated between animal models, healthy volunteers and patient populations with particular focus on the serotonergic system.

  12. Sleep duration of underserved minority children in a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration has been shown to associate with increased risk of obesity. Childhood obesity is more prevalent among underserved minority children. The study measured the sleep duration of underserved minority children living in a large US urban environment using accelerometry and its relation...

  13. Mobile Learning in Medical Education: A Case Study through the Lens of Sleep Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders affect millions of Americans and are directly associated with many deadly diseases, including neurological disorders. Despite this impact, sleep medicine education is not included in many U.S.-based neurology residency education programs, resulting in under-diagnosed patients and missed therapeutic opportunities. This study aims to…

  14. Exploring the impact of natural light exposure on sleep of healthy older adults: a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.P.J.; Stapel, J.C.; Schoutens, A.M.C.; van Hoof, J.

    Studies among people with dementia demonstrated that the sleep quality and rhythm improves significantly when people are exposed to ambient bright light. Since almost half of the healthy older people also indicate to suffer from chronic sleep disorders, the question arises whether ambient bright

  15. Exploring the impact of natural light exposure on sleep of healthy older adults: A field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.P.J.; Stapel, J.C.; Schoutens, A.M.C.; Hoof, J. van

    2018-01-01

    Studies among people with dementia demonstrated that the sleep quality and rhythm improves significantly when people are exposed to ambient bright light. Since almost half of the healthy older people also indicate to suffer from chronic sleep disorders, the question arises whether ambient bright

  16. Novel loci associated with usual sleep duration: the CHARGE Consortium Genome-Wide Association Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottlieb, D.J.; Hek, K.; Chen, T.H.; Watson, N.F.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Byrne, E.M.; Cornelis, M.; Warby, S.C.; Bandinelli, S.; Cherkas, L.; Evans, D.S.; Grabe, H.J.; Lahti, J.; Li, M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Lumley, T.; Marciante, K.; Pérusse, L.; Psaty, B.M.; Robbins, J.; Tranah, G.; Vink, J.M.; Wilk, J.B.; Stafford, J.M.; Bellis, M.; Biffar, R.; Bouchard, C.; Cade, B.; Curhan, G.C.; Eriksson, J.G.; Ewert, R.; Ferrucci, L.; Fülöp, T.; Gehrman, P.R.; Goodloe, R.; Harris, T.B.; Heath, A.C.; Hernandez, D.; Hofman, A.; Hottenga, J.J.; Hunter, D.J.; Jensen, M.K.; Johnson, A.D.; Kähönen, M.; Kao, L.; Kraft, P.; Larkin, E.K.; Lauderdale, D.S.; Luik, A.I.; Medici, M.; Montgomery, G.W.; Palotie, A.; Patel, S.R.; Pistis, G.; Porcu, E.; Quaye, L.; Raitakari, O.; Redline, S.; Rimm, E.B.; Rotter, J.I.; Smith, A.V.; Spector, T.D.; Teumer, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Vohl, M.-C.; Widén, E.; Willemsen, G.; Young, T.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Blanger, J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Gudnason, V.; Hu, F.; Mangino, M.; Martin, N.G.; O'Connor, G.T.; Stone, K.L.; Tanaka, T.; Viikari, J.; Gharib, S.A.; Punjabi, N.M.; Räikkönen, K.; Völzke, H.; Mignot, E.; Tiemeier, H.

    2015-01-01

    Usual sleep duration is a heritable trait correlated with psychiatric morbidity, cardiometabolic disease and mortality, although little is known about the genetic variants influencing this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of usual sleep duration was conducted using 18 population-based

  17. Novel loci associated with usual sleep duration: The CHARGE Consortium Genome-Wide Association Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Gottlieb (Daniel J); K. Hek (Karin); T.-H. Chen; N.F. Watson; G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); E.M. Byrne; M. Cornelis (Marilyn); S.C. Warby; S. Bandinelli; L. Cherkas (Lynn); D.S. Evans (Daniel); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); J. Lahti (Jari); M. Li (Man); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); T. Lumley (Thomas); K. Marciante (Kristin); L. Perusse (Louis); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Robbins; G.J. Tranah (Gregory); J.M. Vink; J.B. Wilk; J.M. Stafford; C. Bellis (Claire); R. Biffar; C. Bouchard (Claude); B. Cade; G.C. Curhan (Gary); J. Eriksson; R. Ewert; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Fülöp; P.R. Gehrman (Philip); R. Goodloe (Robert); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Hofman (Albert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); D. Hunter (David); M.K. Jensen (Majken K.); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); M. Kähönen (Mika); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); P. Kraft (Peter); E.K. Larkin; D.S. Lauderdale; A.I. Luik (Annemarie I); M. Medici; G.W. Montgomery (Grant W.); A. Palotie; S.R. Patel (Sanjay); G. Pistis (Giorgio); E. Porcu; L. Quaye (Lydia); O. Raitakari (Olli); S. Redline (Susan); E.B. Rimm (Eric B.); J.I. Rotter; A.V. Smith; T.D. Spector (Timothy); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); E. Widen; G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); T.L. Young (Terri L.); X. Zhang; Y. Liu; J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); F. Hu; M. Mangino; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); G.T. O'Connor (George); K.L. Stone (Katie L); T. Tanaka; J. Viikari (Jorma); S.A. Gharib (Sina); N.M. Punjabi (Naresh); K. Räikkönen (Katri); H. Völzke (Henry); E. Mignot; H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractUsual sleep duration is a heritable trait correlated with psychiatric morbidity, cardiometabolic disease and mortality, although little is known about the genetic variants influencing this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of usual sleep duration was conducted using 18

  18. Sleep duration and the risk of obesity – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: So far, the association between a longer sleep duration, state of health, and the risk of obesity and the influence of gender on the association between sleep duration and the risk of obesity has not been fully explained. Aim of the research: To examine the relationships between self-reported sleep duration, body mass index (BMI, and body fat percentage (%BF, and also to determine whether such associations are the same in men and in women. Material and methods : This study included 10,367 participants aged 37 to 66 years. Logistic regression was applied for risk assessment of the prevalence of abnormal BMI values and %BF in groups of sleep duration. Sleep of 7–8 h per night was adopted as a reference level. Results: In men, the risk of obesity was significantly greater only in the group sleeping ≤ 6 h (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08–1.28; p < 0.05; however, in women, only among those sleeping ≥ 9 h (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02–1.26; p < 0.05. The risk of obesity, determined on the basis of %BF, was higher only in individuals sleeping ≥ 9 h. In the adjusted model, it turned out to be significant in the general study population (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07–1.53; p < 0.05 and in women (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03–1.27; p < 0.05. Conclusions: In women, a greater risk of obesity was related to a longer sleep duration (≥ 9 h, whereas in men, the tendency of obesity occurrence along with shorter sleep (≤ 6 h. Thus, the physiological consequences of sleep duration may be different in women than in men.

  19. Association between elder abuse and poor sleep: A cross-sectional study among rural older Malaysians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raudah Mohd Yunus

    Full Text Available To examine the association between elder abuse and poor sleep using a Malay validated version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI.This study was divided into two phases. Phase I tested the construct validity and reliability of the Malay version of PSQI. Phase II was a population-based, cross-sectional study with a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Home-based interviews were conducted by trained personnel using a structured questionnaire, to determine exposure and outcome.Kuala Pilah, a district in Negeri Sembilan which is one of the fourteen states in Malaysia.1648 community-dwelling older Malaysians.The Malay version of PSQI had significant test re-test reliability with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.62. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that one factor PSQI scale with three components (subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, and sleep disturbances was most suitable. Cronbach's Alpha was 0.60 and composite reliability was 0.63. PSQI scores were highest among neglect (4.11, followed by physical (4.10, psychological (3.96 and financial abuse (3.60. There was a dose-response relationship between clustering of abuse and PSQI scores; 3.41, 3.50 and 3.84 for "no abuse", "1 type of abuse" and "2 types or more". Generalized linear models revealed six variables as significant determinants of sleep quality-abuse, co-morbidities, self-rated health, income, social support and gait speed. Among abuse subtypes, only neglect was significantly associated with poor sleep.The Malay PSQI was valid and reliable. Abuse was significantly associated with poor sleep. As sleep is essential for health and is a good predictor for mortality among older adults, management of abuse victims should entail sleep assessment. Interventions or treatment modalities which focus on improving sleep quality among abuse victims should be designed.

  20. An observational clinical and video-polysomnographic study of the effects of rotigotine in sleep disorder in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Yang, Yue-Chang; Lan, Dan-Mei; Wu, Hui -Juan; Zhao, Zhong-Xin

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and negatively impacts quality of life. There is little data on how dopamine agonists influence nocturnal sleep in PD, particularly in sleep laboratory data to measure sleep parameters and their changes objectively. The goal of this open-label study was to objectively evaluate the effect of rotigotine on sleep in PD patients by video-polysomnographic methods. A total of 25 PD patients with complaints of nocturnal sleep impairment were enrolled. The sleep quality before and after stable rotigotine therapy was evaluated subjectively through questionnaire assessments and objectively measured by video-polysomnographic methods. The Parkinsonism, depression, anxiety, and quality of life of PD patients were also evaluated through questionnaire assessments. At the end of rotigotine treatment, the PD daytime functioning, motor performance, depression, subjective quality of sleep, and the quality of life improved. Video-polysomnographic analysis showed that the sleep efficiency and stage N1% were increased, while the sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and the periodic leg movements in sleep index were decreased after rotigotine treatment. Video-polysomnographic analysis confirmed the subjective improvement of sleep after rotigotine treatment. This observation suggests that in PD rotigotine is a treatment option for patients complaining from sleep disturbances.

  1. Sleep and wakefulness in somnambulism: a spectral analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminault, C; Poyares, D; Aftab, F A; Palombini, L; Abat, F

    2001-08-01

    The sleep structure and the dynamics of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) were investigated in 12 young adults and age- and gender-matched controls. Polysomnography was performed in subjects with well-documented chronic sleepwalking and in matched controls. Blinded visual scoring was performed using the international criteria from the Rechtschaffen and Kales atlas [A manual of standardized technology, techniques and scoring systems for sleep stages of human subjects. Los Angeles: UCLA Brain Information Service, Brain Research Institute, 1968.] and by determining the presence of microarousals as defined in the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) atlas [Sleep 15 (1992) 173.]. An evaluation of SWA overnight was performed on total nocturnal sleep to determine if a difference existed between groups of subjects, since sleepwalking usually originates with slow-wave sleep. Investigation of the delta power in successive nonoverlapping 4-second windows in the 32 seconds just prior to EMG activity associated with a confusional arousal was also conducted. One central EEG lead was used for all analyses. Somnambulistic individuals experienced more disturbed sleep than controls during the first NREM-REM sleep cycle. They had a higher number of ASDA arousals and presented lower peak of SWA during the first cycle that led to a lower SWA decline overnight. When the investigation focused on the short segment immediately preceding a confusional arousal, they presented an important increase in the relative power of low delta (0.75-2 Hz) just prior to the confusional arousal. Sleepwalkers undergo disturbed nocturnal sleep at the beginning of the night. The increased power of low delta just prior to the confusional arousal experienced may not be related to Stages 3-4 NREM sleep. We hypothesize that it may be translated as a cortical reaction to brain activation.

  2. Impact of a Sleep Course on Sleep, Mood and Anxiety Symptoms in College Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Argelinda; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Di Bartolo, Christina A.; Ciarleglio, Adam; Shatkin, Jess P.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of a sleep course on sleep-related behaviors, mood, and anxiety in college students. Participants: Participants were 145 students enrolled in either the sleep course (n = 70) or a psychology course (n = 75); data were collected in September 2014, November 2014, and February 2015. Methods: Sleep characteristics and…

  3. The impact on sleep of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain management programme: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jennifer M; Blake, Catherine; Power, Camillus K; O'Keeffe, Declan; Kelly, Valerie; Horan, Sheila; Spencer, Orla; Fullen, Brona M

    2011-01-10

    Reduced sleep quality is a common complaint among patients with chronic pain, with 50-80% of patients reporting sleep disturbance. Improvements in pain and quality of life measures have been achieved using a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programme (CBT-PMP) that aims to recondition attitudes to pain, and improve patients' self-management of their condition. Despite its high prevalence in patients with chronic pain, there is very limited objective evidence for the effect of this intervention on sleep quality. The primary research objective is to investigate the short-term effect of a multidisciplinary CBT-PMP on subjective (measured by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep quality (measured by Actigraphy) in patients with chronic pain by comparison with a control group. The secondary objectives will investigate changes in function and mood, and then explore the relationship between objective and subjective sleep quality and physical and psychological outcome measures. Patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria for attendance on the multidisciplinary CBT-PMP in the Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin and are currently listed on the PMP waiting list will be invited to participate in this pilot study. Potential patients will be screened for sleep disturbance [determined by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Those patients with a sleep disturbance (PSQI >5) will be assigned to either the intervention group (immediate treatment), or control group (deferred treatment, i.e. the PMP they are listed for is more than six months away) based on where they appear on the waiting list. Baseline measures of sleep, function, and mood will be obtained using a combination of self-report questionnaires (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form 36 health survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia), and functional outcome measures. Sleep will be measured for seven days

  4. Work-family conflict and sleep disturbance: the Malaysian working women study

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAZAMI, Sanaz; MOZAFARI, Mosayeb; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; AKMAL, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts (strain and time-based work interference into family and family interference into work) on sleep disturbance in Malaysian working women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 325 Malaysian married working women. Multiple-stage simple random sampling method was used to recruit women from public service departments of Malaysia. Self-administrated questionnaires were used to measure the study variables and data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. We found that high level of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts significantly increase sleep disturbance. Our analyses also revealed an age-dependent effect of the work-family conflict on sleep disturbance. Women in their 20 to 30 yr old suffer from sleep disturbance due to high level of time-based and strain-based work-interference into family. However, the quality of sleep among women aged 30–39 were affected by strain-based family-interference into work. Finally, women older than 40 yr had significantly disturbed sleep due to strain-based work-interference into family as well as time-based family interference into work. Our findings showed that sleep quality of working women might be disturbed by experiencing high level of work-family conflict. However, the effects of inter-role conflicts on sleep varied among different age groups. PMID:26423332

  5. Work-family conflict and sleep disturbance: the Malaysian working women study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Mozafari, Mosayeb; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts (strain and time-based work interference into family and family interference into work) on sleep disturbance in Malaysian working women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 325 Malaysian married working women. Multiple-stage simple random sampling method was used to recruit women from public service departments of Malaysia. Self-administrated questionnaires were used to measure the study variables and data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. We found that high level of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts significantly increase sleep disturbance. Our analyses also revealed an age-dependent effect of the work-family conflict on sleep disturbance. Women in their 20 to 30 yr old suffer from sleep disturbance due to high level of time-based and strain-based work-interference into family. However, the quality of sleep among women aged 30-39 were affected by strain-based family-interference into work. Finally, women older than 40 yr had significantly disturbed sleep due to strain-based work-interference into family as well as time-based family interference into work. Our findings showed that sleep quality of working women might be disturbed by experiencing high level of work-family conflict. However, the effects of inter-role conflicts on sleep varied among different age groups.

  6. Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Buerger's Disease: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hosein Kazemzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in patients with thromboangiitis obliterans for reduction of crisis. In 40 patients with Buerger's disease daily sleepiness and risk of Obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated using the Epworth sleeping scale (ESS and the Stop-Bang score. An Apnea-link device was used for evaluation of chest motion, peripheral oxygenation, and nasal airflow during night-time sleep. The apnea/hypopnea index (AHI and respiratory tdisurbance index were used for Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnosis. All subjects were cigarette smokers and 80% were opium addicted. The prevalence of Obstructive sleep apnea (AHI>5 was 80%, but incidence of Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (AHI>5 + ESS≥10 was 5% (2/40. There was no association between duration or frequency of hospitalization and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (P=0.74 and 0.86, respectively. In addition, no correlation between ESS and Stop-Bang scores and AHI was observed (P=0.58 and 0.41, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between smoking rate and AHI (P=0.032, r = −0.48. We did not find an association between Buerger's disease and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the AHI was high (80% and daily sleepiness was low. The negative correlation of smoking with AHI and on the other hand daily napping in addiction may be caused by the absence of a clear relationship between Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and Buerger's disease.

  7. Sleep duration and disruption and prostate cancer risk: a 23-year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Sigurdardottir, Lara G.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Batista, Julie L.; Haneuse, Sebastien; Lockley, Steven W.; Stampfer, Meir; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deficiency is a major public health problem. There are limited human data on whether sleep duration or disruption are risk factors for prostate cancer. Methods We prospectively followed 32,141 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) who reported their typical sleep duration in 1987, 2000 and 2008. We identified 4,261 incident prostate cancer cases, including 563 lethal cases through 2010. Sleep disruption was assessed in 2004 among 19,639 men, with 930 prostate cancer cases (50 lethal) identified from 2004-2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between sleep insufficiency and risk of overall and lethal prostate cancer. Results In 1987, 2% of men reported sleeping ≤5 hours/night. We found no association between habitual sleep duration or change in sleep duration with risk of advanced or lethal prostate cancer. We also found no association between waking up during the night, difficulty falling asleep, or waking up too early and risk of prostate cancer. In 2004, 6% of men reported never feeling rested when they woke up; these men had an increased risk of developing lethal prostate cancer compared to those who reported always feeling rested when they woke up (RR=3.05, 95% CI=1.15-8.10). Conclusions We found no consistent association between self-reported sleep duration or sleep disruption and any of our prostate cancer outcomes. Impact We did not find support for a consistent association between self-reported sleep and risk of advanced or lethal prostate cancer in this large cohort of men. PMID:26677208

  8. Children's sleep patterns from 0 to 9 years: Australian population longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna M H; Brown, Judith E; Bittman, Michael; Wake, Melissa; Quach, Jon; Hiscock, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    To provide accurate population normative data documenting cross-sectional, age-specific sleep patterns in Australian children aged 0-9 years. The first three waves of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, comprising two cohorts recruited in 2004 at ages 0-1 years (n=5107) and 4-5 years (n=4983), and assessed biennially. Children with analysable sleep data for at least one wave. At every wave, parents prospectively completed 24-h time-use diaries for a randomly selected week or weekend day. 'Sleeping, napping' was one of the 26 precoded activities recorded in 15-min time intervals. From 0 to 9 years of age, 24-h sleep duration fell from a mean peak of 14 (SD 2.2) h at 4-6 months to 10 (SD 1.9) h at 9 years, mainly due to progressively later mean sleep onset time from 20:00 (SD 75 min) to 21:00 (SD 60 min) and declining length of day sleep from 3.0 (SD 1.7) h to 0.03 (SD 0.2) h. Number and duration of night wakings also fell. By primary school, wake and sleep onset times were markedly later on weekend days. The most striking feature of the centile charts is the huge variation at all ages in sleep duration, sleep onset time and, especially, wake time in this normal population. Parents and professionals can use these new centile charts to judge normalcy of children's sleep. In future research, these population parameters will now be used to empirically determine optimal child sleep patterns for child and parent outcomes like mental and physical health.

  9. Functional consequences of brain glycogen deficiency on the sleep-wake cycle regulation in PTG-KO mice

    KAUST Repository

    Burlet-Godinot, S.; Allaman, I.; Grenningloh, G.; Roach, P.J.; Depaoli-Roach, A.A.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Petit, J.-M.

    2017-01-01

    in the brain in mice while glycogen levels were paradoxically maintained and not affected. In order to gain further insight on the role of PTG in this process, we studied the sleep/wake cycle parameters in PTG knockout (PTG-KO) mice under baseline conditions

  10. Stability and Predictive Validity of the Parent-Child Sleep Interactions Scale: A Longitudinal Study Among Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Chelsey S; Jay, Samantha Y; Smith, Victoria C; Alfano, Candice A; Dougherty, Lea R

    2018-01-01

    Little research has examined the processes underlying children's persistent sleep problems and links with later psychopathology. The current study examined the stability of parent-child sleep interactions as assessed with the parent-reported Parent-Child Sleep Interactions Scale (PSIS) and examined whether sleep interactions in preschool-age children predict sleep problems and psychiatric symptoms later in childhood. Participants included 108 preschool-age children (50% female) and their parents. Parents completed the PSIS when children were 3-5 years (T1) and again when they were 6-9 years (T2). The PSIS includes three subscales-Sleep Reinforcement (reassurance of child sleep behaviors), Sleep Conflict (parent-child conflict at bedtime), Sleep Dependence (difficulty going to sleep without parent)-and a total score. Higher scores indicate more problematic bedtime interactions. Children's sleep problems and psychiatric symptoms at T1 and T2 were assessed with a clinical interview. PSIS scores were moderately stable from T1 to T2, and the factor structure of the PSIS remained relatively consistent over time. Higher total PSIS scores at T1 predicted increases in children's sleep problems at T2. Higher PSIS Sleep Conflict scores at T1 predicted increases in oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at T2. Children with more sleep problems and higher PSIS Sleep Reinforcement scores at T1 showed increases in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depressive, and anxiety symptoms at T2. These findings provide evidence for the predictive validity of the PSIS and highlight the importance of early parent-child sleep interactions in the development of sleep and psychiatric symptoms in childhood. Parent-child sleep interactions may serve as a useful target for interventions.

  11. Work-Family Conflict and Employee Sleep: Evidence from IT Workers in the Work, Family and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Orfeu M; Lee, Soomi; Beverly, Chloe; Berkman, Lisa F; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Hammer, Leslie B; Almeida, David M

    2016-10-01

    Work-family conflict is a threat to healthy sleep behaviors among employees. This study aimed to examine how Work-to-Family Conflict (demands from work that interfere with one's family/personal life; WTFC) and Family-to-Work Conflict (demands from family/personal life that interfere with work; FTWC) are associated with several dimensions of sleep among information technology workers. Employees at a U.S. IT firm (n = 799) provided self-reports of sleep sufficiency (feeling rested upon waking), sleep quality, and sleep maintenance insomnia symptoms (waking up in the middle of the night or early morning) in the last month. They also provided a week of actigraphy for nighttime sleep duration, napping, sleep timing, and a novel sleep inconsistency measure. Analyses adjusted for work conditions (job demands, decision authority, schedule control, and family-supportive supervisor behavior), and household and sociodemographic characteristics. Employees who experienced higher WTFC reported less sleep sufficiency, poorer sleep quality, and more insomnia symptoms. Higher WTFC also predicted shorter nighttime sleep duration, greater likelihood of napping, and longer nap duration. Furthermore, higher WTFC was linked to greater inconsistency of nighttime sleep duration and sleep clock times, whereas higher FTWC was associated with more rigidity of sleep timing mostly driven by wake time. Results highlight the unique associations of WTFC/FTWC with employee sleep independent of other work conditions and household and sociodemographic characteristics. Our novel methodological approach demonstrates differential associations of WTFC and FTWC with inconsistency of sleep timing. Given the strong associations between WTFC and poor sleep, future research should focus on reducing WTFC. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. [Pilot study to investigate sleep disorders in the blind and persons with relevant visual impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, C; Grünewald, D; Young, P; Heidbreder, A

    2018-05-22

    Sleep disorders are associated with serious health problems in blind and visually impaired persons. Loss of light perception may result in a shift of sleep-wake pattern, which may lead to significant impairments in daily life--the so-called non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. To date, epidemiologic data on non-24 only exist for the USA. This pilot study was conducted to provide first epidemiologic data for the prevalence of non-24 and other sleep disorders among blind and visually impaired persons in Germany. Recruited were 111 blind and visually impaired subjects (36 subjects without light perception; male [m] = 56, 27-85 years, average [Mx] = 59.53, standard deviation [SD] = 14.69) and 111 sighted controls (m = 41, 27-88 years, Mx = 58.32, SD = 14.21), who answered a set of validated questionnaires referring to general health status (SF-36), sleep characteristics (PSQI), and daytime sleepiness (ESS). In addition, a questionnaire to predict non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder, which is not yet validated in German, was provided. The prevalence of 72.2% for the non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder in blind people is in accordance with results from the USA. In contrast, our results indicated non-24 in only 21.3% of the subjects with residual light perception. Furthermore, other sleep disorders like problems falling asleep (100% vs. 79.9%), maintaining sleep (90% vs. 88.1%), sleep-disordered breathing (19.4% vs. 32%), or sleep-related movement disorders (28.1% vs. 32.9%) were also common in the group of blind or visually impaired persons. The non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder is a frequent problem among people with no light perception, associated with problems falling asleep, maintaining sleep, and daytime sleepiness. The perception of light as an external cue for our circadian rhythm plays a key role. However, sleep disruption is not fully explained by non-24, making a detailed sleep history essential.

  13. Medico-legal implications of sleep apnoea syndrome: Driving license regulations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonderis, A.; Barbee, F.; Bonsignore, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS), one of the main medical causes of excessive daytime sleepiness, has been shown to be a risk factor for traffic accidents. Treating SAS results in a normalized rate of traffic accidents. As part of the COST Action B-26, we looked at driving license regulati......Background: Sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS), one of the main medical causes of excessive daytime sleepiness, has been shown to be a risk factor for traffic accidents. Treating SAS results in a normalized rate of traffic accidents. As part of the COST Action B-26, we looked at driving license...... sleep apnoea syndrome is mentioned in 10 countries. A patient with untreated sleep apnoea is always considered unfit to drive. To recover the driving capacity, seven countries rely on a physician's medical certificate based on symptom control and compliance with therapy, whereas in two countries...... it is up to the patient to decide (on his doctor's advice) to drive again. Only FR requires a normalized electroencephalography (EEG)-based Maintenance of Wakefulness Test for professional drivers. Rare conditions (e.g., narcolepsy) are considered a driving safety risk more frequently than sleep apnoea...

  14. Epidemiological study of sleep habits among four-and-a-half-year-old children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Maki; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Shuji; Itani, Osamu; Ohida, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    To date, only limited epidemiological data on the sleep habits of young children in Japan have been available. This study used representative samples to examine the sleep habits of four-and-a-half-year-old children in Japan. We used data from a nationwide cross-sectional survey. A member of each subject's family was asked to complete the questionnaire. The questionnaire included personal characteristics, sleep habits, and lifestyle. The data for 39,813 subject children (collection rate: 74.3%) were analyzed. The mean value of total sleep duration, night-time sleep duration, and daytime napping duration was 10 h 40 min 30 s, 9 h 53 min 0 s, and 46 min 24 s, respectively. The prevalence of daytime napping was 45.8%. Those whose total sleep duration was less than 10h accounted for 13.7% of the sample. The factors associated with high odds ratios for shorter total sleep duration were: living in a less populated area, long hours spent watching television, longer maternal work hours, and attending preschool. In attempting to devise ways of improving the sleep habits of young children, the lifestyles of both the children and their parents must be considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transient insomnia versus chronic insomnia: a comparison study of sleep-related psychological/behavioral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ming; Lin, Shih-Chun; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Vulnerability to transient insomnia is regarded as a predisposing factor for chronic insomnia. However, most individuals with transient insomnia do not develop chronic insomnia. The current study investigated the differential contributing factors for these two conditions to further the understanding of this phenomenon. Chronic insomnia patients and normal sleepers with high and low vulnerability to transient insomnia completed measures of pre-sleep arousal, dysfunctional sleep beliefs, and sleep-related safety behaviors. Both cognitive and somatic pre-sleep arousals were identified as significant predictors for transient insomnia. Dysfunctional beliefs regarding worry about insomnia and cognitive arousal were predictors for chronic insomnia. Sleep-related safety behavior, although correlated with insomnia severity, was not a significant predictor for both conditions. Dysfunctional beliefs associated with worry and losing control over sleep are the most critical factors in differentiating chronic insomnia from transient insomnia. These factors should be addressed to help prevent individuals with high sleep vulnerability from developing chronic sleep disturbance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Silvia Alicia; Raimondi, Waldina; Rizzo, María Laura

    2014-09-05

    Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adventista del Plata. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test were applied. The main results indicate that students sleep an average of 6.48 hours. Generally half of the population tested had a good quality of sleep. However, the dispersion seen in some components demonstrates the heterogeneity of the sample in these variables. It was observed that the evaluated attention processes yielded different levels of alteration in the total sample: major variability in the process of process and in the divided-attention processes were detected. A lower percentage of alteration was observed in the process of attention support. Poor quality of sleep has more impact in the sub processes with greater participation of corticocortical circuits (selective and divided attention) and greater involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Fewer difficulties were found in the attention-support processes that rely on subcortical regions and have less frontal involvement.

  17. Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alicia Fontana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. PURPOSE The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adventista del Plata. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test were applied. RESULTS The main results indicate that students sleep an average of 6.48 hours. Generally half of the population tested had a good quality of sleep. However, the dispersion seen in some components demonstrates the heterogeneity of the sample in these variables. It was observed that the evaluated attention processes yielded different levels of alteration in the total sample: major variability in the process of process and in the divided-attention processes were detected. A lower percentage of alteration was observed in the process of attention support. CONCLUSION Poor quality of sleep has more impact in the sub processes with greater participation of corticocortical circuits (selective and divided attention and greater involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Fewer difficulties were found in the attention-support processes that rely on subcortical regions and have less frontal involvement.

  18. Sleep quality of German soldiers before, during and after deployment in Afghanistan-a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Sauter, Cornelia; Kowalski, Jens T; Kropp, Stefan; Ströhle, Andreas; Wesemann, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    In this prospective study, subjective sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness prior to, during and after deployment of German soldiers in Afghanistan were examined. Sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS) were assessed in 118 soldiers of the German army, who were deployed in Afghanistan for 6 months (deployment group: DG) and in 146 soldiers of a non-deployed control group (CG) at baseline. Results of the longitudinal analysis are reported, based on assessments conducted prior to, during the deployment and afterwards in the DG, and in the CG in parallel. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in the DG were already impaired during the predeployment training phase and remained at that level during the deployment phase, which clearly indicates the need for more attention on sleep in young soldiers, already at this early stage. The percentage of impaired sleepers decreased significantly after deployment. Programmes to teach techniques to improve sleep and reduce stress should be implemented prior to deployment to reduce sleep difficulties and excessive daytime sleepiness and subsequent psychiatric disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Sleep quality, the neglected outcome variable in clinical studies focusing on locomotor system; a construct validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röder Christoph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to general health and pain, sleep is highly relevant to judging the well-being of an individual. Of these three important outcome variables, however, sleep is neglected in most outcome studies. Sleep is a very important resource for recovery from daily stresses and strains, and any alteration of sleep will likely affect mental and physical health, especially during disease. Sleep assessment therefore should be standard in all population-based or clinical studies focusing on the locomotor system. Yet current sleep assessment tools are either too long or too specific for general use. Methods Based on a literature review and subsequent patient-based rating of items, an expert panel designed a four-item questionnaire about sleep. Construct validation of the questionnaire in a random sample of the German-speaking Swiss population was performed in 2003. Reliability, correlation, and tests for internal consistency and validity were analyzed. Results Overall, 16,634 (70% out of 23,763 eligible individuals participated in the study. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.87, and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83 indicates good internal consistency. Results show a moderate to good correlation between sleep disturbances and health perception, and between sleep disturbances and overall pain. Conclusions The Sleep Standard Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ-Sleep is a reliable and short tool with confirmed construct validity for sleep assessment in population-based observational studies. It is easy to administer and therefore suitable for postal surveys of the general population. Criterion validity remains to be determined.

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women: a comparative study using drug induced sleep endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Soo Kweon; Ahn, Gun Young; Choi, Jang Won; Kim, Young Jun; Jung, Sung Hoon; Moon, Ji Seung; Lee, Young Il

    The key to successful treatment of OSAS is to individually tailor such treatment. Thus, it is very important to determine the severity of OSAS, its pattern, and the extent of collapse, by gender, age, and BMI. The objective of the study was to understand the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women by comparing postmenopausal and premenopausal subjects, and men, using DISE. We hope that our work will help the medical community to consult on, diagnose, and treat OSAS more effectively. A total of 273 patients (195 males and 78 females) diagnosed with OSAS were enrolled. Female patients were divided into pre-menopausal (n=41) and post-menopausal patients (n=37). The group of post-menopausal female patients was matched with a group of male patients with similar age and body mass index (BMI). DISE findings were compared between pre-menopausal female patients and post-menopausal female patients, and also between post-menopausal female patients and male patients matched for age and BMI. Upon PSG examination, post-menopausal patients (who had a significantly higher BMI than did pre-menopausal patients; 25.6kg/m 2 vs. 23.5kg/m 2 ; p=0.019) tended to have a higher AHI and a lower lowest SaO 2 , but the differences did not attain statistical significance. With DISE analysis, post-menopausal female patients showed higher values in all obstruction sites, with significantly higher value in lateral diameter of retropalatal (1.49 vs. 0.90; p=0.001) and retrolingual levels (1.14 vs. 0.61; p=0.003) compared to pre-menopausal females patients. Post-menopausal female patients showed significantly more retrolingual collapse (antero-posterior, AP, p≤0.0001, and lateral diameter, p=0.042) in the lower BMI group (BMI<25) and more concentric retropalatal collapse (lateral diameter, p=0.017 and tonsillar obstruction, p=0.003) in higher BMI group (BMI≥25) than BMI and age matched male patients. Post-menopausal female patients showed a different pattern of airway

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women: a comparative study using drug induced sleep endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Kweon Koo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The key to successful treatment of OSAS is to individually tailor such treatment. Thus, it is very important to determine the severity of OSAS, its pattern, and the extent of collapse, by gender, age, and BMI. Objective: The objective of the study was to understand the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women by comparing postmenopausal and premenopausal subjects, and men, using DISE. We hope that our work will help the medical community to consult on, diagnose, and treat OSAS more effectively. Methods: A total of 273 patients (195 males and 78 females diagnosed with OSAS were enrolled. Female patients were divided into pre-menopausal (n = 41 and post-menopausal patients (n = 37. The group of post-menopausal female patients was matched with a group of male patients with similar age and body mass index (BMI. DISE findings were compared between pre-menopausal female patients and post-menopausal female patients, and also between post-menopausal female patients and male patients matched for age and BMI. Results: Upon PSG examination, post-menopausal patients (who had a significantly higher BMI than did pre-menopausal patients; 25.6 kg/m2 vs. 23.5 kg/m2; p = 0.019 tended to have a higher AHI and a lower lowest SaO2, but the differences did not attain statistical significance. With DISE analysis, post-menopausal female patients showed higher values in all obstruction sites, with significantly higher value in lateral diameter of retropalatal (1.49 vs. 0.90; p = 0.001 and retrolingual levels (1.14 vs. 0.61; p = 0.003 compared to pre-menopausal females patients. Post-menopausal female patients showed significantly more retrolingual collapse (antero-posterior, AP, p ≤ 0.0001, and lateral diameter, p = 0.042 in the lower BMI group (BMI < 25 and more concentric retropalatal collapse (lateral diameter, p = 0.017 and tonsillar obstruction, p = 0.003 in higher BMI group (BMI ≥ 25 than BMI and age matched

  2. Comparison of Sleep Latency and Number of SOREMPs in the Home and Hospital With a Modified Multiple Sleep Latency Test: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiske, Kornelia K; Sand, Trond; Rugland, Eyvind; Stavem, Knut

    2017-05-01

    Comparison of mean sleep latencies and number of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods (SOREMPs) between modified multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) performed in the unattended home and in-hospital laboratory setting. A randomized crossover single-blinded design. Thirty-four subjects referred to MSLT for suspected hypersomnia or narcolepsy were included. Participants were randomized to perform modified MSLT in the unattended home or in the hospital first. Scores in the two settings were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test or exact McNemar test. Agreement between home and hospital categorized mean sleep latency and number of SOREMPs was assessed using simple kappa (κ) and proportion agreement. Agreement between home and hospital mean sleep latency was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot and an intraclass correlation coefficient. There was no difference between home and hospital assessment of mean sleep latency (P = 0.86). Two or more SOREMPs were found more frequently on modified MSLTs performed at home compared with those at the hospital (7 and 2, respectively; P = 0.025). Agreement was moderate for categorized sleep latency (κ = 0.53) and fair for categorized SOREMPs (κ = 0.39) in the 2 settings. Analysis of mean sleep latency using intraclass correlation coefficient showed a very good agreement between the two settings. Group mean sleep latency for home modified MSLTs seems to be reliable compared with that for the attended sleep-laboratory setting. Higher rate of SOREMP in the unattended home suggests that napping in a familiar environment facilitates the transition into REM sleep. Further studies are needed to assess the normal limit, sensitivity, and specificity for SOREMP at home before the clinical utility of home-based napping can be determined.

  3. Core competencies for health professionals' training in pediatric behavioral sleep care: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Coulombe, J Aimée; Corkum, Penny

    2015-01-01

    The need to train non-sleep-specialist health professionals in evidence-based pediatric behavioral sleep care is well established. The objective of the present study was to develop a list of core competencies for training health professionals in assisting families of 1- to 10-year old children with behavioral insomnia of childhood. A modified Delphi methodology was employed, involving iterative rounds of surveys that were administered to 46 experts to obtain consensus on a core competency list. The final list captured areas relevant to the identification and treatment of pediatric behavioral sleep problems. This work has the potential to contribute to the development of training materials to prepare non-sleep-specialist health professionals to identify and treat pediatric behavioral sleep problems, ideally within stepped-care frameworks.

  4. A cohort study on self-reported role stressors at work and poor sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Rugulies, Reiner

    2018-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the bidirectional associations between subjective role ambiguity and role conflicts at work, respectively, and self-reported sleep 2 years later. In addition, we also examine whether sense of coherence (SOC) moderate or mediate the association...... were estimated using structural equation modelling. RESULTS: We found a prospective association between role stressors and sleep problems [beta values were 0.07 (95% CI 0.03-0.11) and 0.05 (CI 0.01-0.10) for DSI and AWI, respectively] when adjusting for sleep problems at baseline, age, sex, and life...... between role stressors and sleep problems. We also found support for sleep problems at baseline and role stressors 2 years later [DSI 0.04 (CI 0.00-0.08) and 0.15 (CI 0.09-0.21)] for role ambiguity and role conflicts, respectively. Similar results were observed for AWI. CONCLUSION: Subjective role...

  5. Exploring the Impact of Natural Light Exposure on Sleep of Healthy Older Adults: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëlle P. J. Aarts

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies among people with dementia demonstrated that the sleep quality and rhythm improves significantly when people are exposed to ambient bright light. Since almost half of the healthy older people also indicate to suffer from chronic sleep disorders, the question arises whether ambient bright light can be beneficial to healthy older people. Particularly the effect on sleep/wake rhythm in relation to the exposure to natural light is the focus. It was hypothesised that the sleep quality would be worse in winter due to a lower daylight dose than in summer due to the lower illuminance and exposure duration. A field study was conducted to examine the relationship between daylight exposure and sleep quality in 14 healthy older adults living independently in their own dwellings in the Netherlands. All participants were asked to take part of the study both during the summer period as well as during the winter period. Therefore, they had to wear an actigraph for five consecutive days which measured sleep, activity and light exposure. Results confirmed that people were significantly longer exposed to high illumination levels (>1000 lx in summer than in winter. Sleep quality measures, however, did not differ significantly between summer and winter. A significant, positive correlation was found between exposure duration to high illuminance from daylight during the day and the sleep efficiency the following night in summer, implying that being exposed to high illuminance for a longer time period has a positive effect on sleep efficiency for the individual data. There was also a tendency of less frequent napping in case of longer exposure duration to light for both seasons. Sleep quality does not differ between summer and winter but is related to the duration of the exposure to bright light the day prior to the night.

  6. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Momoko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kishimoto, Taishiro

    2017-01-01

    There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smart-phone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness-eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P sleep state ( R 2 =0.27, P sleep efficiency ( R 2 =0.35, P sleep latency ( R 2 =0.38, P smartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances.

  7. Sleep patterns in high school and university students: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urner, Martin; Tornic, Jure; Bloch, Konrad E

    2009-08-01

    We performed a longitudinal study to investigate whether changes in social zeitgebers and age alter sleep patterns in students during the transition from high school to university. Actimetry was performed on 24 high-school students (mean age+/-SD: 18.4+/-0.9 yrs; 12 females) for two weeks. Recordings were repeated in the same subjects 5 yrs later when they were university students. The sleep period duration and its center, the mid-sleep time, and total sleep time were estimated by actimetry. Actigraphic total sleep time was similar when in high school and at the university on school days (6.31+/-0.47 vs. 6.45+/-0.80 h, p = ns) and longer on leisure days by 1.10+/-1.10 h (p school days) when in high school, but not at the university. Compared to the high school situation, the mid-sleep time was delayed when at the university on school days (03:11+/-0.6 vs. 03:55+/-0.7 h, p sleep times on school and leisure days when in high school were significantly correlated with the corresponding values 5 yrs later when at the university (r = 0.58 and r = 0.55, p sleep time between school and leisure days when students attended high school and the delayed mid-sleep time on school days when students attended university are consistent with a circadian phase shift due to changes in class schedules, other zeitgebers, and lifestyle preferences. Age-related changes may also have occurred, although some individuality of the sleep pattern was maintained during the 5 yr study span. These findings have important implications for optimizing school and work schedules in students of different age and level of education.

  8. Relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yufei; Niu, Kaijun; Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Guan, Lei; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guo, Hui; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2015-12-29

    Isoflavones comprise a class of phytoestrogens that resemble human estrogen in chemical structure, and have weak estrogenic effects. Because estrogen modulates sleep duration and quality, we hypothesized that isoflavones would have a beneficial effect on sleep status in a way similar to estrogen. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep status in Japanese subjects. Our study included 1076 Japanese adults aged 20-78 years. Daily isoflavone intake was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, and sleep was evaluated using a self-reported questionnaire. The prevalence of regular sleep duration (7-8 h/day) and sufficient sleep quality were 13.3% and 56.2%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for optimal sleep duration (7-8 h) when higher isoflavone intakes (Q2-Q4) were compared with low isoflavone intake (Q1) were Q2: 0.94 (0.53-1.56); Q3: 1.28 (0.73-2.24); and Q4: 1.84 (1.06-3.18) (p for trend = 0.013). In the final adjusted model, sufficient sleep quality across categories of isoflavone intake was Q1: 1.00 (reference); Q2: 1.30 (0.91-1.84); Q3: 1.48 (1.03-2.12); and Q4: 1.78 (1.22-2.60); (p for trend = 0.002). Higher daily isoflavone intake was positively associated with optimal sleep duration and quality in a Japanese population. This finding suggests that daily isoflavone intake may have a potentially beneficial effect on sleep status.

  9. [Relationships between sleep and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.

  10. Brainstem circuitry regulating phasic activation of trigeminal motoneurons during REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Anaclet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS is characterized by activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG and atonia of non-respiratory muscles with superimposed phasic activity or twitching, particularly of cranial muscles such as those of the eye, tongue, face and jaw. While phasic activity is a characteristic feature of REMS, the neural substrates driving this activity remain unresolved. Here we investigated the neural circuits underlying masseter (jaw phasic activity during REMS. The trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5, which controls masseter motor function, receives glutamatergic inputs mainly from the parvocellular reticular formation (PCRt, but also from the adjacent paramedian reticular area (PMnR. On the other hand, the Mo5 and PCRt do not receive direct input from the sublaterodorsal (SLD nucleus, a brainstem region critical for REMS atonia of postural muscles. We hypothesized that the PCRt-PMnR, but not the SLD, regulates masseter phasic activity during REMS.To test our hypothesis, we measured masseter electromyogram (EMG, neck muscle EMG, electrooculogram (EOG and EEG in rats with cell-body specific lesions of the SLD, PMnR, and PCRt. Bilateral lesions of the PMnR and rostral PCRt (rPCRt, but not the caudal PCRt or SLD, reduced and eliminated REMS phasic activity of the masseter, respectively. Lesions of the PMnR and rPCRt did not, however, alter the neck EMG or EOG. To determine if rPCRt neurons use glutamate to control masseter phasic movements, we selectively blocked glutamate release by rPCRt neurons using a Cre-lox mouse system. Genetic disruption of glutamate neurotransmission by rPCRt neurons blocked masseter phasic activity during REMS.These results indicate that (1 premotor glutamatergic neurons in the medullary rPCRt and PMnR are involved in generating phasic activity in the masseter muscles, but not phasic eye movements, during REMS; and (2 separate brainstem neural circuits control postural and cranial muscle

  11. A model of BIS/BAS sensitivity, emotion regulation difficulties, and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in relation to sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarian, Shaunt A; Pickett, Scott M; Deveson, Danielle F; Kanona, Brenda B

    2013-11-30

    Recent research has indicated that interactions between behavioral inhibition system (BIS)/behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity and emotion regulation (ER) difficulties increases risk for psychopathology. Considering sleep quality (SQ) has been linked to emotion regulation difficulties (ERD) and psychopathology, further investigation of a possible mechanism is needed. The current study examined associations between BIS/BAS sensitivity, ERD, and SQ to depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in an undergraduate sample (n=459). Positive relationships between BIS sensitivity and both ERD and stress symptoms, and negative relationships between BAS-reward sensitivity and both ERD and depression symptoms were observed. Furthermore, ERD were positively related to depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Succeeding analyses revealed differential relationships between ERD and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms among good quality and poor quality sleepers. The findings are discussed within the context of personality dimensions and self-regulatory mechanisms, along with implications for the treatment of depression, anxiety and sleep difficulties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wave Dragon Buoyancy Regulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jens; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter, which was deployed offshore at Nissum Bredning in Denmark in 2003. The experience gained from operating Wave Dragon during 2003 and 2004 has shown that the buoyancy regulation system can be improved in a number of ways. This study describes the current...

  13. Sleep disorders in hepatolenticular degeneration: a primary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-fei YOU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the characteristics and potential mechanisms of sleep disorders in patients with hepatolenticular degeneration (HLD, also known as Wilson's disease (WD.  Methods Twenty-six patients with HLD completed a questionnaire concerning Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI.  Results The sleep quality of patients with HLD was significantly worse than controls. Their overall PDSS score was lower than the controls (P = 0.000, including sub tests such as worse overall quality of sleep at night (P = 0.010, more difficulty falling asleep (P = 0.009, increased difficulty staying asleep (P = 0.013, increased tremor (P = 0.005, more tiredness and sleepiness after waking up in the morning (P = 0.042 and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, P = 0.028. The mean ESS (P = 0.009 as well as PSQI (P = 0.005 scores of HLD patients was higher than those of the controls. Further analysis showed that total PDSS score of neurological HLD group was lower than hepatic HLD group and asymptomatic HLD group (P = 0.046, including sub tests such as worse overall quality of sleep at night (P = 0.021, increased difficulty falling asleep (P = 0.009 and more difficulty staying asleep (P = 0.002.  Conclusions Patients with HLD often suffer from sleep disturbances, mainly including difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep at night and EDS. Besides, sleep quality was significantly worse in patients with neurological HLD than that of hepatic HLD and asymptomatic HLD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.05.007

  14. The impact of an online prematriculation sleep course (sleep 101 on sleep knowledge and behaviors in college freshmen: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available College students have a high prevalence of poor sleep quality and sleep deficiency which negatively impacts their academic, mental and physical performance. A prematriculation course focused on improving sleep knowledge and behaviors may reduce sleep problems. “Sleep 101” is an online prematriculation course developed to educate incoming college freshmen about the importance of sleep in their lives and to recommend behaviors that will improve their sleep health. In a pilot program, “Sleep 101” was administered to freshman at four universities. The results of a voluntary survey after completion of the course indicated that there was an improvement in knowledge about sleep and the effects of caffeine use, and that students were less likely to drive drowsy and pull “all-nighters,” These pilot data suggest that an internet administered prematriculation course on the importance of sleep and the adoption of healthy sleep behaviors will be effective in reducing sleep problems among college students.

  15. Pilot study of a mindfulness-based, multi-component, in-school group sleep intervention in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Byrne, Michelle L; Ivens, Clare; Waloszek, Joanna; Woods, Michael J; Dudgeon, Paul; Murray, Greg; Nicholas, Christian L; Trinder, John; Allen, Nicholas B

    2013-05-01

    Existing literature links poor sleep and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. This pilot study aimed to develop a practical method through which a program to improve sleep could reach adolescents in need and to examine the feasibility of a mindfulness-based, multi-component group sleep intervention using sleep and anxiety as outcome measures. Sixty-two grade 9 students (aged 13-15) at a girls' school were screened with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Ten participants with self-reported poor sleep were enrolled into a six-session program based on Bootzin & Stevens, with added stress/anxiety-specific components. Sessions covered key aspects of basic mindfulness concepts and practice, sleep hygiene, sleep scheduling, evening/daytime habits, stimulus control, skills for bedtime worries and healthy attitudes to sleep. Treatment changes were measured by pre-post scores on the PSQI, SCAS and 7-day actigraphy-measured sleep. The program demonstrated high acceptability, with a completion rate of 90%. Based on effect-size analysis, participants showed significant improvement on objective sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep efficiency and total sleep time; actigraphy data also showed significantly earlier bedtime, rise time and smaller day-to-day bedtime variation. Post-intervention global PSQI scores were significantly lower than that of pre-intervention, with significant improvement in subjective SOL, sleep quality and sleep-related daytime dysfunction. There were small improvements on some subscales of the SCAS, but change on its total score was minimal. A mindfulness-based, multi-component, in-school group sleep intervention following brief screening is feasible, and has the potential to improve sleep. Its impact on anxiety needs further investigation. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. REM-sleep alterations in children with co-existence of tic disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: impact of hypermotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Banaschewski, Tobias; Uebel, Henrik; Kinkelbur, Jörg; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-06-01

    To characterize precisely the sleep pattern in children with co-existence of TD + ADHD. By means of polysomnography, sleep pattern was investigated in 19 children with TD + ADHD unmedicated before and during study and 19 healthy controls, matched for age, gender, and intelligence. Compared with healthy controls, children with TD + ADHD displayed shorter REM sleep latency and increased REM sleep duration. There was a negative correlational relationship between these REM-sleep alterations and they were determined by hyperactivity symptoms. Sleep in children with coexistence of TD + ADHD may be characterized by an elevated REM sleep drive. Common mechanisms are suggested to underpin hypermotor symptoms and REM sleep regulation.

  17. Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration. Data from a nationally representative sample☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric illness, and performance deficits. Likewise, long sleep duration is also associated with poor physical and mental health. The role of a healthy diet in habitual sleep duration represents a largely unexplored pathway linking sleep and health. This study evaluated associations between habitual sleep parameters and dietary/nutritional variables obtained via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2008. We hypothesized that habitual very short (theobromine (long sleep RR = 0.910, p < 0.05), vitamin C (short sleep RR = 0.890, p < 0.05), tap water (short sleep RR = 0.952, p < 0.001; very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.941, p < 0.05), lutein + zeaxanthin (short sleep RR = 1.123, p < 0.05), dodecanoic acid (long sleep RR = 0.812, p < 0.05), choline (long sleep RR = 0.450, p = 0.001), lycopene (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.950, p <0.05), total carbohydrate (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.494, p <0.05; long sleep RR = 0.509, p <0.05), selenium (short sleep RR = 0.670, p <0.01) and alcohol (long sleep RR = 1.172, p < 0.01). Overall, many nutrient variables were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, which may be explained by differences in food variety. Future studies should assess whether these associations are due to appetite dysregulation, due to short/long sleep and/or whether these nutrients have physiologic effects on sleep regulation. In addition, these data may help us better understand the complex relationship between diet and sleep and the potential role of diet in the relationship between sleep and obesity and other cardiometabolic risks. PMID:23339991

  18. Sleep disturbances and fatigue : independent predictors of sickness absence? A prospective study among 6538 employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    Background: Although sleep disturbances and fatigue are common conditions, frequently shown to be associated with sickness absence, only a few studies have prospectively investigated their independent effects on sickness absence, while adjusting for depressive symptoms. This study aims (i) to

  19. The Relationship between Perceived Sleep Quality, Polysomnographic Measures and Depressive Symptoms in Chemically-Injured Veterans: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moshkani Farahani, Davood; Tavallaie, Abbas; Vahedi, Ensieh; Rezaiemaram, Peyman; Naderi, Zohreh; Talaie, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep complaints are common among Iranian chemically-injured veterans. The growing body of research has investigated (in) equalities between such subjective complaints and objective sleep records. Moreover, sleep complaints are associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, also, have been frequently reported in chemically-injured veterans. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between perceived sleep quality, polysomnographic meas...

  20. The impact of sleep-disordered breathing on body mass index (BMI: the sleep heart health study (SHHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins JA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well known that obesity is a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB. However, whether SDB predicts increase in BMI is not well defined. Data from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS were analyzed to determine whether SDB predicts longitudinal increase in BMI, adjusted for confounding factors.Methods: A full-montage unattended home polysomnogram (PSG and body anthropometric measurements were obtained approximately five years apart in 3001 participants. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was categorized using clinical thresholds: < 5 (normal, ≥ 5 to <15 (mild sleep apnea, and ³ 15 (moderate to severe sleep apnea. Linear regression was used to examine the association between the three AHI groups and increased BMI. The model included age, gender, race, baseline BMI, and change in AHI as covariates.Results: Mean (SD age was 62.2 years (10.14, 55.2% were female and 76.1% were Caucasian. Five-year increase in BMI was modest with a mean (SD change of 0.53 (2.62 kg/m2 (p=0.071. A multivariate regression model showed that subjects with a baseline AHI between 5-15 had a mean increase in BMI of 0.22 kg/m2 (p=0.055 and those with baseline AHI ≥ 15 had a BMI increase of 0.51 kg/m2 (p<0.001 compared to those with baseline AHI of <5.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is a positive association between severity of SDB and subsequent increased BMI over approximately 5 years. This observation may help explain why persons with SDB have difficulty losing weight.

  1. Associations among sleep disturbances, nocturnal sleep duration, daytime napping, and incident prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowall, Bernd; Lehnich, Anna-Therese; Strucksberg, Karl-Heinz; Führer, Dagmar; Erbel, Raimund; Jankovic, Nicole; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stang, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Poor sleep quality as well as short and long sleep duration has been linked to type 2 diabetes. In addition to confirmational analyses, we examined the impact of daytime napping on incident diabetes, and we assessed associations between sleep characteristics and incident prediabetes. In a subgroup of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based cohort study in Germany (N = 2962; age 45-75 years, without history of cancer, stroke, or cardiovascular diseases), diabetes at baseline and at 5-year follow-up was assessed by self-report and measurement of serum glucose levels. Prediabetes was defined as impaired fasting glucose (6.1-6.9 mmol/L). A sleep questionnaire was used to assess difficulties falling asleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, early morning arousal, and duration of nocturnal and daytime sleep. In adjusted regression models, short (≤5 hours) and long (≥7.5 hours) sleepers were at greater risk for diabetes (relative risk [RR] = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.39, and 1.40, 95% CI = 1.01-1.96, respectively [reference: 7 hours]). Moreover, the prevalence of any regular sleep disorder was associated with incident diabetes (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.01-1.68), and with incident prediabetes (RR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.00-1.72). Regular daytime nappers had no increased risk of incident diabetes (RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.70-1.41). This study shows that people with regular sleep disorders, people with short and long sleep duration, but not regular daytime nappers are at increased risk of diabetes. Furthermore, regular sleep disorders are associated with an increased risk of prediabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Regular Practice of Competitive Sports Does Not Impair Sleep in Adolescents: DADOS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Valls, María Reyes; García Artero, Enrique; Capdevila-Seder, Ana; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; Adelantado-Renau, Mireia; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego

    2018-05-01

    To analyze differences in sleep quality and duration by athletic status and sex, and to examine the association between physical activity (PA) recommendation and sleep in adolescents. A total of 267 adolescents [13.9 (0.3) y] from Deporte, ADOlescencia y Salud (DADOS) study (129 girls) were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes competed regularly in organized sport events and trained ≥3 days per week, but nonathletes did not compete. PA was assessed by GENEActiv accelerometer. PA values were dichotomized into inactive (Sleep quality was evaluated with the Spanish version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index values were dichotomized into >5 (poor quality) or ≤5 (good quality). Sleep duration was objectively measured by accelerometer. Sleep quality and duration were not statistically different between athletes [median (Mdn) = 4.0, interquartile range (IQR) = 3.0-6.0 and Mdn = 8.0, IQR = 7.4-8.6 h, respectively] and nonathletes (Mdn = 5.0, IQR = 3.0-7.0 and Mdn = 7.9; IQR = 7.3-8.6 h, respectively), P > .05. Nonathlete or inactive adolescents did not show higher risk for poor sleep quality or short sleep duration than athletes [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-2.00 and OR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.56-1.55, respectively] or active peers (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.66-2.89 and OR = 1.62; 95% CI, 0.78-3.37, respectively). In our group of adolescents, competitive sport practice did not alter sleep patterns. PA recommendations for adolescents may not discriminate between good and poor sleepers.

  3. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Toshiaki; Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Nagata, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke). During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke) were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16-1.97) and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16-2.35) for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep) was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.01), although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06). The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98; P for trend = 0.08). The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16-0.64). Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.

  4. Sleep duration and sleep quality are associated differently with alterations of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byberg, S; Hansen, A-L S; Christensen, D L; Vistisen, D; Aadahl, M; Linneberg, A; Witte, D R

    2012-09-01

    Studies suggest that inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality increase the risk of impaired glucose regulation and diabetes. However, associations with specific markers of glucose homeostasis are less well explained. The objective of this study was to explore possible associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and glucose tolerance status in a healthy population-based study sample. The study comprised 771 participants from the Danish, population-based cross-sectional 'Health2008' study. Sleep duration and sleep quality were measured by self-report. Markers of glucose homeostasis were derived from a 3-point oral glucose tolerance test and included fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, HbA(1c), two measures of insulin sensitivity (the insulin sensitivity index(0,120) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity), the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and glucose tolerance status. Associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and tolerance were analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression. A 1-h increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.3 mmol/mol (0.3%) decrement in HbA(1c) and a 25% reduction in the risk of having impaired glucose regulation. Further, a 1-point increment in sleep quality was associated with a 2% increase in both the insulin sensitivity index(0,120) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity, as well as a 1% decrease in homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. In the present study, shorter sleep duration was mainly associated with later alterations in glucose homeostasis, whereas poorer sleep quality was mainly associated with earlier alterations in glucose homeostasis. Thus, adopting healthy sleep habits may benefit glucose metabolism in healthy populations. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  5. Long sleep duration is associated with lower cognitive function among middle-age adults – the Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Sandra H.; Nooyens, Astrid C.J.; van Boxtel, Martin P.J.; Verschuren, W. M.Monique

    2018-01-01

    Objectives In older adults, both short and long sleep duration are associated with lower cognitive function, suggesting an inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive outcomes. This study examined whether sleep duration is associated with (changes in) cognitive function in a

  6. Chronic disruptions of circadian sleep regulation induce specific proinflammatory responses in the rat colon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polidarová, Lenka; Houdek, Pavel; Sumová, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 9 (2017), s. 1273-1287 ISSN 0742-0528 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07711S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : aging * colon * constant light * melatonin * proinflammatory cytokine * Rgs16 * sleep disruption Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2016

  7. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-05-01

    Sleep rebound-the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation-is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the duration and depth of sleep after

  8. Changes in the sleep-wake rhythm, sleep quality, mood, and quality of life of patients receiving treatment for lung cancer: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pei; Lin, Chia-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the diurnal sleep-wake rhythm of patients with lung cancer have mostly examined patients cross-sectionally, whereas the effects of lung cancer treatment over time have rarely been considered. Through long-term longitudinal tracking of patients with lung cancer, this study examined changes in their sleep-wake rhythm, sleep quality, anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue and quality of life (QoL) at various treatment stages. In addition, factors affecting their QoL were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was adopted to analyze a convenience sample of 82 patients with lung cancer. The changes in their sleep-wake rhythm, sleep, mood (anxiety, depressive symptoms and fatigue) and QoL were observed at five time points: prior to treatment and at weeks 6, 12, 24 and 48 after the start of the treatment. The effects of sex, age, cancer stage, treatment type, comorbidities and time were controlled to determine the predictors of patients' QoL. The results showed that patients' sleep-wake rhythms were poor before treatments. Compared with baseline, the sleep-wake rhythms of the patients significantly improved at week 48, and anxiety significantly improved at weeks 6, 12, 24 and 48. By contrast, their fatigue became exacerbated at weeks 8 and 48. Moreover, QoL improved significantly from week 6 until the end of the treatment period. QoL was negatively affected by poor sleep quality (β = -0.69, p = 0.00) and depressive symptoms (β = -2.59, p patients with lung cancer before, during and after treatment. Health-care professionals may also need to provide such patients with health education regarding sleep hygiene and with emotional support to assist them in maintaining regular sleep-wake rhythms in order to improve their QoL.

  9. Rapid eye movement-sleep is reduced in patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis—an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms.Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during which study endpoints were measured by polysomnography recordings, self-reported discomfort scores and blood samples of cytokines. One month later, the patients, who now were in complete remission, were readmitted and the endpoints were re-measured (the baseline values.Results. Total sleep time was reduced 4% and 7% the first (p = 0.006 and second (p = 0.014 nights of diverticulitis, compared to baseline, respectively. The rapid eye movement sleep was reduced 33% the first night (p = 0.016, compared to baseline. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were correlated to non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and fatigue.Conclusion. Total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep were reduced during nights with active diverticulitis and correlated with markers of inflammation.

  10. Sleep duration and sleep quality are associated differently with alterations of glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims  Studies suggest that inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality increase the risk of impaired glucose regulation and diabetes. However, associations with specific markers of glucose homeostasis are less well explained. The objective of this study was to explore possible...... associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and glucose tolerance status in a healthy population-based study sample. Methods  The study comprised 771 participants from the Danish, population-based cross-sectional ‘Health2008’ study. Sleep duration and sleep quality were...... measured by self-report. Markers of glucose homeostasis were derived from a 3-point oral glucose tolerance test and included fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, HbA1c, two measures of insulin sensitivity (the insulin sensitivity index0,120 and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity...

  11. Sleep disturbances in an arctic population: The Tromsø Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straand Jørund

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence estimates for insomnia range from 10 to 50% in the adult general population. Sleep disturbances cause great impairment in quality of life, which might even rival or exceed the impairment in other chronic medical disorders. The economic implications and use of health-care services related to chronic insomnia represent a clinical concern as well as a pronounced public health problem. Hypnotics are frequently prescribed for insomnia, but alcohol and over-the-counter sleep aids seem to be more widely used by insomniacs than prescription medications. Despite the complex relationship between insomnia and physical and mental health factors, the condition appears to be underrecognized and undertreated by health care providers, probably due to the generally limited knowledge of the causes and natural development of insomnia. Methods/Design The Tromsø Study is an ongoing population-based cohort study with five previous health studies undertaken between 1974 and 2001. This protocol outlines a planned study within the sixth Tromsø Study (Tromsø VI, aiming at; 1 describing sleep patterns in a community-based sample representative of the general population of northern Norway, and 2 examining outcome variables of sleep disturbances against possible explanatory and confounding variables, both within a cross-sectional approach, as well as retrospectively in a longitudinal study – exploring sleep patterns in subjects who have attended two or more of the previous Tromsø studies between 1974 and 2009. First, we plan to perform a simple screening in order to identify those participants with probable sleep disturbances, and secondly to investigate these sleep disturbances further, using an extensive sleep-questionnaire. We will also collect biological explanatory variables, i.e. blood samples, weight, height and blood pressure. We plan to merge data on an individual level from the Tromsø VI Study with data from the Norwegian

  12. The impact of sleep on health and learning. : A study of perceptions amongst 12 year olds.

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Emelie

    2013-01-01

    Sleep has a substantial effect on health status where good sleeping habits proves positive on learning. The aim of the present study was to map the views and perceptions of sleep and its effects on health and school performance on 12-year olds. The goal is to visualize these views to give teachers the possibility to better plan the education in concordance with the students’ abilities. The study is based on qualitative semi-structured interviews where 12 students aged 12 have partaken. The re...

  13. Solving the mystery of human sleep schedules one mutation at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallows, William C; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Sleep behavior remains one of the most enigmatic areas of life. The unanswered questions range from "why do we sleep?" to "how we can improve sleep in today's society?" Identification of mutations responsible for altered circadian regulation of human sleep lead to unique opportunities for probing these territories. In this review, we summarize causative circadian mutations found from familial genetic studies to date. We also describe how these mutations mechanistically affect circadian function and lead to altered sleep behaviors, including shifted or shortening of sleep patterns. In addition, we discuss how the investigation of mutations can not only expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the circadian clock and sleep duration, but also bridge the pathways between clock/sleep and other human physiological conditions and ailments such as metabolic regulation and migraine headaches.

  14. The Use of Mobile Applications to Monitor Sleep Quality and Alertness during Shift Work in Nurses: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Hee Joo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Fatigue or inattentiveness in nurses during shift work affects patient safety. Therefore, sleep quality and alertness during shift work requires monitoring. The aims of this study were to: 1 compare sleep parameters measured using sleep logs and mobile sleep applications and 2 evaluate sleep quality and alertness during shift work using mobile applications. Methods Twenty shift-work nurses voluntarily enrolled in the study. We compared sleep parameters including time in bed (TIB, sleep latency (SL, total sleep time, and wakefulness after sleep onset, recorded using sleep logs and mobile applications. An additional 66 female shift-work nurses voluntarily evaluated their sleep quality and alertness at work using the ‘Sleep Time’ and ‘Math Quiz’ applications. Results TIB was significantly lower in night-shift nurses (328.3 ± 8.9 than in nurses working other shifts (395.3 ± 9.1 min; p < 0.05. SL was significantly lower after a night shift (26.1 ± 1.7 min; p < 0.05 than after a day shift (31.5 ± 1.9 min or a day off (31.0 ± 1.4 min. The Math Quiz scores did not vary by shift type, but sleepiness scores were significantly higher immediately after waking up (5.57 ± 0.15 and during work (4.91 ± 0.14 in night-shift nurses, as compared to other nurses (p < 0.05. Conclusions Mobile applications and sleep logs were both effective in measuring sleep parameters. Most shift-work nurses, particularly those working nights, slept poorly. Mobile sleep and arithmetical applications are objective, reliable, and feasible means of monitoring the sleep quality and alertness of shift-work nurses.

  15. Sleep disorders as core symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Links between sleep and depression are strong. About three quarters of depressed patients have insomnia symptoms, and hypersomnia is present in about 40% of young depressed adults and 10% of older patients, with a preponderance in females. The symptoms cause huge distress, have a major impact on quality of life, and are a strong risk factor for suicide. As well as the subjective experience of sleep symptoms, there are well-documented changes in objective sleep architecture in depression. Mechanisms of sleep regulation and how they might be disturbed in depression are discussed. The sleep symptoms are often unresolved by treatment, and confer a greater risk of relapse and recurrence. Epidemiological studies have pointed out that insomnia in nondepressed subjects is a risk factor for later development of depression. There is therefore a need for more successful management of sleep disturbance in depression, in order to improve quality of life in these patients and reduce an important factor in depressive relapse and recurrence.

  16. Work time control, sleep & accident risk: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Philip; Albrecht, Sophie; Kecklund, Göran; Beckers, Debby G J; Leineweber, Constanze

    We examined whether the beneficial impact of work time control (WTC) on sleep leads to lower accident risk, using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Sweden. Logistic regressions examined WTC in 2010 and 2012 as predictors of accidents occurring in the subsequent 2 years (N = 4840 and 4337, respectively). Sleep disturbance and frequency of short sleeps in 2012 were examined as potential mediators of the associations between WTC in 2010 and subsequent accidents as reported in 2014 (N = 3636). All analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational category, weekly work hours, shift work status, job control and perceived accident risk at work. In both waves, overall WTC was inversely associated with accidents (p = 0.048 and p = 0.038, respectively). Analyses of the sub-dimensions of WTC indicated that Control over Daily Hours (influence over start and finish times, and over length of shift) did not predict accidents in either wave, while Control over Time-off (CoT; influence over taking breaks, running private errands during work and taking paid leave) predicted fewer accidents in both waves (p = 0.013 and p = 0.010). Sleep disturbance in 2012 mediated associations between WTC/CoT in 2010 and accidents in 2014, although effects' sizes were small (effectWTC = -0.006, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.018 to -0.001; effectCoT = -0.009, 95%CI = -0.022 to -0.001; unstandardized coefficients), with the indirect effects of sleep disturbance accounting for less than 5% of the total direct and indirect effects. Frequency of short sleeps was not a significant mediator. WTC reduces the risk of subsequently being involved in an accident, although sleep may not be a strong component of the mechanism underlying this association.

  17. Sleep patterns and insomnia among portuguese adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odete Amaral

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: There are high prevalence of inadequate sleep patterns, insufficient sleep and insomnia among Portuguese adolescents. Insufficient sleep is associated with sleep patterns and social and behavioural factors. These results add to our knowledge of adolescent sleep worldwide.

  18. Sleep stage distribution in persons with mild traumatic brain injury: a polysomnographic study according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollayeva, Tatyana; Colantonio, Angela; Cassidy, J David; Vernich, Lee; Moineddin, Rahim; Shapiro, Colin M

    2017-06-01

    Sleep stage disruption in persons with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has received little research attention. We examined deviations in sleep stage distribution in persons with mTBI relative to population age- and sex-specific normative data and the relationships between such deviations and brain injury-related, medical/psychiatric, and extrinsic factors. We conducted a cross-sectional polysomnographic investigation in 40 participants diagnosed with mTBI (mean age 47.54 ± 11.30 years; 56% males). At the time of investigation, participants underwent comprehensive clinical and neuroimaging examinations and one full-night polysomnographic study. We used the 2012 American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommendations for recording, scoring, and summarizing sleep stages. We compared participants' sleep stage data with normative data stratified by age and sex to yield z-scores for deviations from available population norms and then employed stepwise multiple regression analyses to determine the factors associated with the identified significant deviations. In patients with mTBI, the mean duration of nocturnal wakefulness was higher and consolidated sleep stage N2 and REM were lower than normal (p sleep stage duration. No sex differences were observed in the mean proportion of non-REM or REM sleep. We observed longer relative nocturnal wakefulness and shorter relative N2 and REM sleep in patients with mTBI, and these outcomes were associated with potentially modifiable variables. Addressing disruptions in sleep architecture in patients with mTBI could improve their health status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New technology to assess sleep apnea: wearables, smartphones, and accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, Thomas; Schöbel, Christoph; Fietze, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    Sleep medicine has been an expanding discipline during the last few decades. The prevalence of sleep disorders is increasing, and sleep centers are expanding in hospitals and in the private care environment to meet the demands. Sleep medicine has evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders. However, the number of sleep centers and caregivers in this area is not sufficient. Many new methods for recording sleep and diagnosing sleep disorders have been developed. Many sleep disorders are chronic conditions and require continuous treatment and monitoring of therapy success. Cost-efficient technologies for the initial diagnosis and for follow-up monitoring of treatment are important. It is precisely here that telemedicine technologies can meet the demands of diagnosis and therapy follow-up studies. Wireless recording of sleep and related biosignals allows diagnostic tools and therapy follow-up to be widely and remotely available. Moreover, sleep research requires new technologies to investigate underlying mechanisms in the regulation of sleep in order to better understand the pathophysiology of sleep disorders. Home recording and non-obtrusive recording over extended periods of time with telemedicine methods support this research. Telemedicine allows recording with little subject interference under normal and experimental life conditions. PMID:29707207

  20. Sleep Disturbances and Suicide Risk in an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shirley Xin; Lam, Siu Ping; Zhang, Jihui; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Chan, Joey Wing Yan; Chan, Cassandra Sheung Yan; Espie, Colin A; Freeman, Daniel; Mason, Oliver; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2016-06-01

    Disrupted sleep is one of the prominent but often overlooked presenting symptoms in the clinical course of psychotic disorders. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances, particularly insomnia and nightmares, and their prospective associations with the risk of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A naturalistic longitudinal study was conducted in outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a regional university-affiliated public hospital in Hong Kong. A detailed sleep questionnaire was completed by 388 patients at baseline in May-June 2006. Relevant clinical information was extracted from clinical case notes from June 2007-October 2014. Prevalence of frequent insomnia and frequent nightmares was 19% and 9%, respectively. Baseline frequent insomnia was significantly associated with an increased incidence of suicide attempts during the follow-up period (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.63, 95% confidence interval 1.40-15.36, P Sleep disturbances are common in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The association between sleep disturbances and suicidal risk underscores the need for enhanced clinical attention and intervention on sleep disturbances in patients with schizophrenia. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. A Sleep Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Schoen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children who have Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD commonly report sleep problems, which typically exacerbate daytime behavior problems. This pilot study sought to identify the short-term effects on sleep, behavior challenges, attention, and quality of life of children with ASD following use of the iLs Dreampad ™ pillow, which delivers bone conducted music and environmental sounds. Aims were to demonstrate acceptability and feasibility, identify measures sensitive to change, and describe individual characteristics responsive to change. Method: Parent report questionnaires assessed sleep behavior, attention, autism-related behaviors, and quality of life from 15 participants before and during intervention. A Sleep Diary documented average sleep duration and average time to fall asleep during the preintervention phase and the last 2 weeks of the treatment phase. Results: Procedures were acceptable and feasible for families. All measures were sensitive to change. Children with ASD demonstrated significant change in sleep duration and time needed to fall asleep from pretest to intervention. Improvements were noted in autism-related behaviors, attention, and quality of life. Parent satisfaction was high. Conclusions: The iLs Dreampad™ pillow may be one alternative intervention to pharmacological interventions for children with ASD who have sleep problems. Further study is warranted.

  2. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Shereen M; El Wakeel, Eman E; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ (2) = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ (2) = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ (2) = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ (2) = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ (2) = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ (2) = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  3. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen M. Shokry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women. A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ2=22.6, p=0.000, continuous sleep until morning (χ2=19.2, p=0.001, nighttime sleep duration (χ2=20.2, p=0.000, and length of daytime naps (χ2=28.35, p=0.000. There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ2=16.52, p=0.000 and increased nightmares (χ2=13.7, p=0.001. Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  4. Coping, Cognitive Emotion Regulation, and Burnout in Long-Term Care Nursing Staff: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamonti, Patricia; Conti, Elizabeth; Cavanagh, Casey; Gerolimatos, Lindsay; Gregg, Jeffrey; Goulet, Carol; Pifer, Marisa; Edelstein, Barry

    2017-06-01

    Direct care workers (e.g., certified nursing assistants [CNAs]) employed in long-term care (LTC) are particularly vulnerable to the experience of burnout, yet they have received relatively less research attention compared to Licensed Practical Nurses and Registered Nurses. Within the burnout literature, evidence suggests that the deployment of certain coping strategies influences levels of burnout. The current study examined the extent to which coping (e.g., problem-focused, emotion-focused, and dysfunctional coping) and cognitive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., positive reappraisal) predicted burnout after controlling for covariates (age, sleep duration). Fifty-six CNAs were surveyed at four skilled nursing facilities in the United States. Dysfunctional coping was significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Among cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive reappraisal was significantly associated with depersonalization. Shorter sleep duration was associated with significantly greater depersonalization. Findings suggest the need to develop interventions for CNAs aimed at reducing dysfunctional coping strategies and increasing sleep duration.

  5. Sleep alterations in mammals: did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Vibha; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-12-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates. Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state. During REM sleep, postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended. Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals, the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water. The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals, significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals. The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air. Also, these animals live in thermally challenging environments, where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air. Therefore, they have to be moving most of the time. As an adaptation, they have evolved unihemispheric sleep, during which they can rove as well as rest. A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery, as happens during REM sleep, is not suitable for these animals. It is possible that, in accord with Darwin's theory, aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  6. The Developmental Course of Sleep Disturbances Across Childhood Relates to Brain Morphology at Age 7: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevska, Desana; Muetzel, Ryan L; Luik, Annemarie I; Luijk, Maartje P C M; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of sleep disturbances on the structural properties of the developing brain. This study explored associations between childhood sleep disturbances and brain morphology at 7 years. Mothers from the Generation R cohort reported sleep disturbances in 720 children at ages 2 months, 1.5, 2, 3, and 6 years. T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images were used to assess brain structure at 7 years. Associations of sleep disturbances at each age and of sleep disturbance trajectories with brain volumes (total brain volume, cortical and subcortical grey matter, white matter) were tested with linear regressions. To assess regional differences, sleep disturbance trajectories were tested as determinants for cortical thickness in whole-brain analyses. Sleep disturbances followed a declining trend from toddlerhood onwards. Infant sleep was not associated with brain morphology at age 7. Per SD sleep disturbances (one frequent symptom or two less frequent symptoms) at 2 and 3 years of age, children had -6.3 (-11.7 to -0.8) cm3 and -6.4 (-11.7 to -1.7) cm3 smaller grey matter volumes, respectively. Sleep disturbances at age 6 years were associated with global brain morphology (grey matter: -7.3 (-12.1 to -2.6), p value = .01). Consistently, trajectory analyses showed that more adverse developmental course of childhood sleep disturbances are associated with smaller grey matter volumes and thinner dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Sleep disturbances from age 2 years onwards are associated with smaller grey matter volumes. Thinner prefrontal cortex in children with adverse sleep disturbance trajectories may reflect effects of sleep disturbances on brain maturation. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of caregivers and rehabilitation providers about disabled children's sleep health: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Velez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Gorman, Sara; Barbosa, Clarita; Zafonte, Ross D; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-10-01

    Children with disabilities are more likely to have sleep disturbances than children without disabilities. Identifying attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and perceptions of caregivers and health professionals is essential in developing effective intervention programs to improve disabled children's sleep health. However, no such qualitative data about adults who have key roles in the life and daytime activities of children with disabilities are available. This qualitative study aimed to understand attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and perceptions about disabled children's sleep hygiene among caregivers and rehabilitation providers of children with disabilities. Twenty seven adults, including nine primary caregivers and eighteen rehabilitation providers, participated in five focus group discussions between September and December 2012 at the Rehabilitation Center in Punta Arenas, Chile. A trained facilitator guided focus group discussions using a semi-structured script. Audiotapes and transcripts of focus group discussions were reviewed and analyzed for recurrent themes. Participants identified seven themes related to children's sleep hygiene: lifestyle behaviors, family factors, children's disabilities and/or comorbidities, environmental factors, adults' responsibilities for children's sleep, perception of good sleep, and parental distress about children's sleep problems. While both caregivers and rehabilitation providers recognized the importance of sleep for children's health and functioning, they differed in their understanding of how sleep hygiene practices influence sleep. Rehabilitation providers recognized the negative influence of electronics on sleep and the positive influence of sleep routines. In contrast, caregivers reported use of television/movie watching and stimulants as coping strategies for managing children's sleep problems. Caregivers may benefit from better understanding the influence of electronics and stimulant use on child sleep health. Rehabilitation

  8. What predicts inattention in adolescents? An experience-sampling study comparing chronotype, subjective, and objective sleep parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Krkovic, Katarina; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-10-01

    Many adolescents sleep insufficiently, which may negatively affect their functioning during the day. To improve sleep interventions, we need a better understanding of the specific sleep-related parameters that predict poor functioning. We investigated to which extent subjective and objective parameters of sleep in the preceding night (state parameters) and the trait variable chronotype predict daytime inattention as an indicator of poor functioning. We conducted an experience-sampling study over one week with 61 adolescents (30 girls, 31 boys; mean age = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.1 years). Participants rated their inattention two times each day (morning, afternoon) on a smartphone. Subjective sleep parameters (feeling rested, positive affect upon awakening) were assessed each morning on the smartphone. Objective sleep parameters (total sleep time, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset) were assessed with a permanently worn actigraph. Chronotype was assessed with a self-rated questionnaire at baseline. We tested the effect of subjective and objective state parameters of sleep on daytime inattention, using multilevel multiple regressions. Then, we tested whether the putative effect of the trait parameter chronotype on inattention is mediated through state sleep parameters, again using multilevel regressions. We found that short sleep time, but no other state sleep parameter, predicted inattention to a small effect. As expected, the trait parameter chronotype also predicted inattention: morningness was associated with less inattention. However, this association was not mediated by state sleep parameters. Our results indicate that short sleep time causes inattention in adolescents. Extended sleep time might thus alleviate inattention to some extent. However, it cannot alleviate the effect of being an 'owl'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep quality at 3 months postpartum considering maternal age: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shih-Yi; Ko, Yi-Li; Jou, Hei-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2018-03-01

    Poor sleep quality is related to old age among the general population, but few studies have focused on postpartum women of advanced maternal age. The present study aimed to describe and compare sleep quality between women younger or older than 35 years of age at 3 months postpartum, and to examine the related factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 160 postpartum women who had given birth at a teaching hospital in Taiwan. The participants were assigned to two groups according to age (≥35 years, n=80; and 20-34 years, n=80). Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index with a cut-off score of 5. The prevalence of poor sleep quality at 3 months postpartum was higher in older mothers (61.6%) than in younger mothers (38.4%, psleep quality was positively correlated with the severity of postpartum physical symptoms, lack of exercise, and room-sharing with infants. After adjustment for those variables, older mothers were three times more likely to have poor sleep quality than younger mothers (odds ratio=3.08; 95% confidence interval 1.52-6.23). Health care providers should pay attention to sleep problems among postpartum women, especially mothers of advanced maternal age. In particular, health care providers should evaluate sleep quality among postpartum women, instruct them not to share the bed with their infants at night, perform exercise, and manage their postpartum physical symptoms to improve the sleep quality. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. International aircrew sleep and wakefulness after multiple time zone flights - A cooperative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, R. Curtis; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.; Gander, Philippa H.

    1986-01-01

    An international research team has carried out an electroencephalographic study of sleep and wakefulness in flight crews operating long-haul routes across seven or eight time zones. Following baseline recordings, volunteer crews (n = 56) from four airlines spent their first outbound layover at a sleep laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the project's history, its research design, and the standardization of procedures. The overall results are remarkably consistent among the four participating laboratories and strongly support the feasibility of cooperative international sleep research in the operational arena.

  11. Influence on working hours among shift workers and effects on sleep quality - An intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Aust, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    in the high intensity group (p effects of interventions on sleep quality were observed. Thus, sleep quality was not improved by increasing work time influence in the present group of Danish elder care workers. This was partly due to program failure (failed intervention), but may also be due......The aim of the present intervention study was to examine if increased influence on working hours among shift workers led to better sleep quality. 391 employees were categorized into groups based on the performed activities: High (self-rostering), moderate (education and/or policy for working hours...

  12. Behavioral observation differentiates the effects of an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Linda; Casper, Tammy; Dixon, Melodie; Harmeyer, Joann; Haberman, Beth; Alberts, Jeffrey R; Simakajornboon, Narong; Visscher, Marty O

    2015-02-01

    Sleep and ongoing cycling of sleep states are required for neurosensory processing, learning, and brain plasticity. Many aspects of neonatal intensive care environments such as handling for routine and invasive procedures, bright lighting, and noise can create stress, disrupt behavior, and interfere with sleep in prematurely born infants. The study empirically investigated whether a 30-minute observation of infant sleep states and behavior could differentiate an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants with feeding difficulties relative to conventional care (standard positioning, standard crib mattress [SP]). We included an intervention to determine the ability of the method to discriminate treatments and generate a benchmark for future improvements. The intervention, a conformational positioner (CP), is contoured around the infant to provide customized containment and boundaries. To more fully verify the 30-minute observational sleep results, standard polysomnography was conducted simultaneously and sleep outcomes for the 2 modalities were compared. In a randomized crossover clinical trial, 25 infants, 31.5 ± 0.6 weeks' gestational age and 38.4 ± 0.6 weeks at the study, with gastrointestinal conditions or general feeding difficulties used each intervention during an overnight neonatal intensive care unit sleep study. Infant sleep states and behaviors were observed during two 30-minute periods--that is, on the positioner and mattress--using the naturalistic observation of newborn behavior. Two certified developmental care nurses assessed sleep state, self-regulatory, and stress behaviors during 2-minute intervals and summed over 30 minutes. Sleep characteristics from standard polysomnography were measured at the time of behavior observations. Infants on CP spent significantly less time in alert, active awake, or crying states by observation compared with SP. Surgical subjects spent more time awake, active awake, or crying and displayed a higher number

  13. Gender Differences in the Association between Sleep Duration and Body Composition: The Cardia Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre St-Onge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep duration has been inversely associated with body mass index (BMI. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat in Black and White individuals from the CARDIA study. Box-Tidwell regression models were adjusted for age and race (Model 1, additional lifestyle and demographic variables (Model 2, and physical activity (Model 3. There were significant interactions between sleep and gender for the main outcome variables. In men, there was a trend for an inverse relationship between reported sleep duration and BMI in Model 2  (β=−0.20,P=.053 but not model 3  (β=−0.139,P=.191. In women, inverse relationships were observed between sleep duration and BMI (β=−0.294,P=.005 and waist circumference (β=−0.442,P=.059, in Model 2. These associations became nonsignificant in model 3 (BMI: β=−0.172,P=.084; waist circumference: β=−0.161,P=.474. Our results are consistent with previous findings that sleep is associated with BMI and other body composition variables. However, the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and body composition may be stronger in women than in men.

  14. Decisions of black parents about infant bedding and sleep surfaces: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Taiwo I; Oden, Rosalind P; Joyner, Brandi L; Moon, Rachel Y

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this qualitative study was to examine factors influencing decisions by black parents regarding use of soft bedding and sleep surfaces for their infants. We conducted focus groups and individual interviews with black mothers of lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES). Mothers were asked about many infant care practices, including sleep surface and bedding. Eighty-three mothers were interviewed, 73 (47 lower and 26 higher SES) in focus groups and 10 (7 lower and 3 higher SES) in individual interviews. The primary reason for using soft surfaces was infant comfort. Parents perceived that infants were uncomfortable if the surface was not soft. Many parents also interpreted "firm sleep surface" to mean taut; they were comfortable with and believed that they were following recommendations for a firm sleep surface when they placed pillows/blankets on the mattress as long as a sheet was pulled tautly over the pillows/blankets. The primary reasons for using soft bedding (including bumper pads) were comfort, safety, and aesthetics. In addition to using bedding to soften sleep surfaces, bedding was used to prevent infant rollover and falls, particularly for infants sleeping on a bed or sofa. Some parents used soft bedding to create an attractive space for the infant. Many black parents believe that soft bedding will keep their infant safe and comfortable. There is much misunderstanding about the meaning of a "firm" sleep surface. Additional educational messages apparently are needed to change parental perceptions and practices.

  15. Inter-individual differences in sleep response to shift work in novice police officers - A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers-van der Holst, Heidi M; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Kerkhof, Gerard A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study on novice police officers was to investigate inter-individual differences in sleep response to shift work, and to identify potential baseline predictors thereof. A total of 42 subjects were assessed at baseline, prior to commencing shift work. They were re-assessed during three follow-up sessions within the first 2 years of shift work exposure after approximately 4, 12, and 20 months of rotating shift work. Wrist actigraphy and sleep logs were used to investigate nocturnal sleep at baseline and daytime sleep after night shifts during the follow-up sessions. Actigraphically estimated total sleep time and subjective sleep quality were analyzed as outcome variables, using mixed-effects analysis of variance. Systematic inter-individual differences were observed in the overall response of these outcome variables to shift work. In this sample, flexibility of sleeping habits and gender were found to be predictors of daytime total sleep time in the first 2 years of shift work exposure. Flexibility of sleeping habits and subjective quality of nighttime sleep prior to shift work were found to be predictors of subjective quality of daytime sleep. These results suggest that it may be possible to detect and even predict sleep deficiencies in response to shift work early on, which could be a basis for the development of individualized interventions to improve shift work tolerance.

  16. Bidirectional relationship between sleep and optimism with depressive mood as a mediator: A longitudinal study of Chinese working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Harry Hui, C; Cheung, Shu-Fai; Lam, Jasmine

    2015-11-01

    Sleep and optimism are important psycho-biological and personality constructs, respectively. However, very little work has examined the causal relationship between them, and none has examined the potential mechanisms operating in the relationship. This study aimed to understand whether sleep quality was a cause or an effect of optimism, and whether depressive mood could explain the relationship. Internet survey data were collected from 987 Chinese working adults (63.4% female, 92.4% full-time workers, 27.0% married, 90.2% Hong Kong residents, mean age=32.59 at three time-points, spanning about 19 months). Measures included a Chinese attributional style questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Cross-sectional analyses revealed moderate correlations among sleep quality, depressive mood, and optimism. Cross-lagged analyses showed a bidirectional causality between optimism and sleep. Path analysis demonstrated that depressive mood fully mediated the influence of optimism on sleep quality, and it partially mediated the influence of sleep quality on optimism. Optimism improves sleep. Poor sleep makes a pessimist. The effects of sleep quality on optimism could not be fully explained by depressive mood, highlighting the unique role of sleep on optimism. Understanding the mechanisms of the feedback loop of sleep quality, mood, and optimism may provide insights for clinical interventions for individuals presented with mood-related problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Analytical study of 63 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battikh, Mohamed H; Joobeur, Sameh; Ben Sayeh, Mohamed M; Rouetbi, Naceur; Maatallah, Anis; Daami, Monia; el Kamel, Ali

    2004-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a relatively common disorder, in developed country with prevalence estimated to lie between 2 and 4% in adult population. The diagnosis of this syndrome is made on the basis of characteristic clinical features and the results of nocturnal polysomnography. There is no data concerning the OSA in developing country. It is therefore of interest to determine the clinic and polysomnographic profile of this disease and to landmark factors correlated with severity in our country. This was achieved by studying a set of 63 OSA. The mean of age was 53 + 13 years with sex ratio 1. The means of Epworth sleepiness scale score, BMI and Apnoea/Hypopnoea index (AHI) were respectively 16 + 4, 38.8 + 7 kg/m2 and 51.7 + 28.6. 44% of patients have OSA severe with IAH > 50/h. Arousal index and desaturation index were respectively 36.4 + 21.7 and 49 + 26. Trial of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy was proposed first to 40 patients, 17 were able to use CPAP.

  18. The study of subjective and objective evaluation of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chun-feng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disorder is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. At present, there are subjective and objective tools to evaluate sleepdisorders. Nevertheless, previous studies commonly used single subjective questionnaires or objective examinations. Therefore, we used the combinations of subjective and objective tools to analyze clinical characteristics of sleep disturbances in PD and investigated differences and consistence between subjective and objective tools. Methods One hundred and sixteen PD patients were eligible to participate into this study. All participants were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS in "on" condition, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y stage, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD 24 items, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and underwent a video-polysomnography (Video-PSG. Results According to PSQI score of 116 PD patients, the proportion of PD patients with sleep disturbances (PSQI ≥ 7 was 50% (N = 58. Compared to PD patients without sleep disturbances, PD patients with sleep disturbances had lower score of MoCA (23.34 ± 3.50 vs 24.89 ± 3.52; t = 2.377, P = 0.019, higher score of UPDRSⅠ[4.00 (2.00, 5.00 vs 3.00 (2.00, 5.00; U = - 2.306, P = 0.021], UPDRSⅡ[12.00 (9.00, 16.00 vs 10.00 (6.00, 13.00; U = - 1.995, P = 0.046], higher levodopa equivalent daily dose [LED, (508.14 ± 335.85 vs (394.06 ± 236.40 mg/d; t = - 2.115, P = 0.037]. Although PD patients with sleep disturbances had more score of UPDSR Ⅲ and higher H-Y stage, the differences were not significant (P > 0.05. On the other hand, decreased total sleep time (TST, reduced sleep efficiency (SE, increased sleep latency (SL, decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅱ time were found for PD patients with sleep disturbances (P 0.05, for all. The score of PSQI was positively correlated with the score of ESS (r = 0.200, P = 0

  19. Brain Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging of Sleep Homeostasis and Restoration in Drug Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Trksak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports have documented a high occurrence of sleep difficulties in drug-dependent populations, prompting researchers to characterize sleep profiles and physiology in drug abusing populations. This mini-review examines studies indicating that drug-dependent populations exhibit alterations in sleep homeostatic and restoration processes in response to sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation is a principal sleep research tool that results in marked physiological challenge, which provides a means to examine sleep homeostatic processes in response to extended wakefulness. A report from our laboratory demonstrated that following recovery sleep from sleep deprivation, brain high-energy phosphates particularly beta–nucleoside triphosphate (beta-NTP are markedly increased as measured with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. A more recent study examined the effects of sleep deprivation in opiate-dependent methadone-maintained (MM subjects. The study demonstrated increases in brain beta-NTP following recovery sleep. Interestingly, these increases were of a markedly greater magnitude in MM subjects compared to control subjects. A similar study examined sleep deprivation in cocaine-dependent subjects demonstrating that cocaine-dependent subjects exhibit greater increases in brain beta-NTP following recovery sleep when compared to control subjects. The studies suggest that sleep deprivation in both MM subjects and cocaine-dependent subjects is characterized by greater changes in brain ATP levels than control subjects. Greater enhancements in brain ATP following recovery sleep may reflect a greater disruption to or impact of sleep deprivation in drug dependent subjects, whereby sleep restoration processes may be unable to properly regulate brain ATP and maintain brain high-energy equilibrium. These studies support the notion of a greater susceptibility to sleep loss in drug dependent populations. Additional sleep studies in drug abusing

  20. Sleep disorders and an increased risk of Parkinson's disease in individuals with non-apnea sleep disorders: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Chen, Yung-Tai; Tseng, Ching-Ming; Wu, Li-An; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Shi-Chuan; Chou, Kun-Ta

    2017-10-01

    Sleep disorders are common non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease. Our study aims to explore the relationship between non-apnea sleep disorders and future Parkinson's disease. This is a cohort study using a nationwide database. The participants were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2000 and 2003. A total of 91 273 adult patients who had non-apnea sleep disorders without pre-existing Parkinson's disease were enrolled. An age-, gender-, income-, urbanization- and Charlson comorbidity index score-matched control cohort consisting of 91 273 participants was selected for comparison. The two cohorts were followed for the occurrence of Parkinson's disease, death or until the end of 2010, whichever came first. The Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed patients with non-apnea sleep disorders tended to develop Parkinson's disease (log-rank test, P sleep disorders was an independent risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease [crude hazard ratio: 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54-1.73, P sleep disorders, especially chronic insomnia, are associated with a higher risk for future Parkinson's disease. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Duration and Brain MRI Markers of Cerebral Vascular Disease and Alzheimer's Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsey, Pamela L; Norby, Faye L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Mosley, Thomas; MacLehose, Richard F; Punjabi, Naresh M; Shahar, Eyal; Jack, Clifford R; Alonso, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature has suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and habitual short sleep duration are linked to poor cognitive function. Neuroimaging studies may provide insight into this relation. We tested the hypotheses that OSA and habitual short sleep duration, measured at ages 54-73 years, would be associated with adverse brain morphology at ages 67-89 years. Included in this analysis are 312 ARIC study participants who underwent in-home overnight polysomnography in 1996-1998 and brain MRI scans about 15 years later (2012-2013). Sleep apnea was quantified by the apnea-hypopnea index and categorized as moderate/severe (≥15.0 events/hour), mild (5.0-14.9 events/hour), or normal (sleep duration was categorized, in hours, as sleep study participants were 61.7 (SD: 5.0) years old and 54% female; 19% had moderate/severe sleep apnea. MRI imaging took place 14.8 (SD: 1.0) years later, when participants were 76.5 (SD: 5.2) years old. In multivariable models which accounted for body mass index, neither OSA nor abnormal sleep duration were statistically significantly associated with odds of cerebral infarcts, WMH brain volumes or regional brain volumes. In this community-based sample, mid-life OSA and habitually short sleep duration were not associated with later-life cerebral markers of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, selection bias may have influenced our results and the modest sample size led to relatively imprecise associations.

  2. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Duration and Brain MRI Markers of Cerebral Vascular Disease and Alzheimer's Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L Lutsey

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and habitual short sleep duration are linked to poor cognitive function. Neuroimaging studies may provide insight into this relation.We tested the hypotheses that OSA and habitual short sleep duration, measured at ages 54-73 years, would be associated with adverse brain morphology at ages 67-89 years.Included in this analysis are 312 ARIC study participants who underwent in-home overnight polysomnography in 1996-1998 and brain MRI scans about 15 years later (2012-2013. Sleep apnea was quantified by the apnea-hypopnea index and categorized as moderate/severe (≥15.0 events/hour, mild (5.0-14.9 events/hour, or normal (<5.0 events/hour. Habitual sleep duration was categorized, in hours, as <7, 7 to <8, ≥8. MRI outcomes included number of infarcts (total, subcortical, and cortical and white matter hyperintensity (WMH and Alzheimer's disease signature region volumes. Multivariable adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used. All models incorporated inverse probability weighting, to adjust for potential selection bias.At the time of the sleep study participants were 61.7 (SD: 5.0 years old and 54% female; 19% had moderate/severe sleep apnea. MRI imaging took place 14.8 (SD: 1.0 years later, when participants were 76.5 (SD: 5.2 years old. In multivariable models which accounted for body mass index, neither OSA nor abnormal sleep duration were statistically significantly associated with odds of cerebral infarcts, WMH brain volumes or regional brain volumes.In this community-based sample, mid-life OSA and habitually short sleep duration were not associated with later-life cerebral markers of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, selection bias may have influenced our results and the modest sample size led to relatively imprecise associations.

  3. Sleep and recovery in physicians on night call: a longitudinal field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmberg Birgitta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that physicians' night-call duty may cause impaired performance and adverse effects on subjective health, but there is limited knowledge about effects on sleep duration and recovery time. In recent years occupational stress and impaired well-being among anaesthesiologists have been frequently reported for in the scientific literature. Given their main focus on handling patients with life-threatening conditions, when on call, one might expect sleep and recovery to be negatively affected by work, especially in this specialist group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a 16-hour night-call schedule allowed for sufficient recovery in anaesthesiologists compared with other physician specialists handling less life-threatening conditions, when on call. Methods Sleep, monitored by actigraphy and Karolinska Sleep Diary/Sleepiness Scale on one night after daytime work, one night call, the following first and second nights post-call, and a Saturday night, was compared between 15 anaesthesiologists and 17 paediatricians and ear, nose, and throat surgeons. Results Recovery patterns over the days after night call did not differ between groups, but between days. Mean night sleep for all physicians was 3 hours when on call, 7 h both nights post-call and Saturday, and 6 h after daytime work (p Conclusions Despite considerable sleep loss during work on night call, and unexpectedly short sleep after ordinary day work, the physicians' self-reports indicate full recovery after two nights' sleep. We conclude that these 16-hour night duties were compatible with a short-term recovery in both physician groups, but the limited sleep duration in general still implies a long-term health concern. These results may contribute to the establishment of safe working hours for night-call duty in physicians and other health-care workers.

  4. Engineering a thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuit on SpiNNaker: a preliminary study towards modelling sleep and wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary study of a thalamo-cortico-thalamic (TCT implementation on SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network architecture, a brain inspired hardware platform designed to incorporate the inherent biological properties of parallelism, fault tolerance and energy efficiency. These attributes make SpiNNaker an ideal platform for simulating biologically plausible computational models. Our focus in this work is to design a TCT framework that can be simulated on SpiNNaker to mimic dynamical behaviour similar to Electroencephalogram (EEG time and power-spectra signatures in sleep-wake transition. The scale of the model is minimised for simplicity in this proof-of-concept study; thus the total number of spiking neurons is approximately 1000 and represents a `mini-column' of the thalamocortical tissue. All data on model structure, synaptic layout and parameters is inspired from previous studies and abstracted at a level that is appropriate to the aims of the current study as well as computationally suitable for model simulation on a small 4-chip SpiNNaker system. The initial results from selective deletion of synaptic connectivity parameters in the model show similarity with EEG time series characteristics of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide a positive perspective and a basis for future implementation of a very large scale biologically plausible model of thalamo-cortico-thalamic interactivity---the essential brain circuit that regulates the biological sleep-wake cycle and associated EEG rhythms.

  5. The Impact of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Sleep-Wake Behavior: A Prospective Electrophysiological Study in 50 Parkinson Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Vogel, Heide; Imbach, Lukas L; Sürücü, Oguzkan; Stieglitz, Lennart; Waldvogel, Daniel; Baumann, Christian R; Werth, Esther

    2017-05-01

    This prospective observational study was designed to systematically examine the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on subjective and objective sleep-wake parameters in Parkinson patients. In 50 consecutive Parkinson patients undergoing subthalamic DBS, we assessed motor symptoms, medication, the position of DBS electrodes within the subthalamic nucleus (STN), subjective sleep-wake parameters, 2-week actigraphy, video-polysomnography studies, and sleep electroencepahalogram frequency and dynamics analyses before and 6 months after surgery. Subthalamic DBS improved not only motor symptoms and reduced daily intake of dopaminergic agents but also enhanced subjective sleep quality and reduced sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale: -2.1 ± 3.8, p sleep efficiency (+5.2 ± 17.6%, p = .005) and deep sleep (+11.2 ± 32.2 min, p = .017) and increased accumulation of slow-wave activity over the night (+41.0 ± 80.0%, p = .005). Rapid eye movement sleep features were refractory to subthalamic DBS, and the dynamics of sleep as assessed by state space analyses did not normalize. Increased sleep efficiency was associated with active electrode contact localization more distant from the ventral margin of the left subthalamic nucleus. Subthalamic DBS deepens and consolidates nocturnal sleep and improves daytime wakefulness in Parkinson patients, but several outcomes suggest that it does not normalize sleep. It remains elusive whether modulated activity in the STN directly contributes to changes in sleep-wake behavior, but dorsal positioning of electrodes within the STN is linked to improved sleep-wake outcomes. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A pilot study to compare the cerebral hemodynamics between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS) during nocturnal sleep with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Hügli, Gordana; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement in sleep syndrome (PLMS) are two common sleep disorders. Previous studies showed that OSA and PLMS share common features, such as increased cardio-vascular risk, both apnea events and limb movements occur periodically, they are usually associated with cortical arousals, and both of them can induce declines in peripheral oxygen saturation measured with pulse oximetry. However, the question whether apnea events and limb movements also show similar characteristics in cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation has never been addressed. In this pilot study, we will first time compare the cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by apnea events and limb movements in patients with OSA (n=4) and PLMS (n=4) with NIRS. In patients with OSA, we found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, and blood volume induced by apnea/hypopnea events, HbO2 and HHb showed reverse changing trends. By contrast, the periodic oscillations linked to limb movements were only found in HbO2 and blood volume in patients with PLMS. These findings of different cerebral hemodynamics patterns between apnea events and limb movements may indicate different regulations of nervous system between these two sleep disorders.

  7. Impact of nocturnal heartburn on quality of life, sleep, and productivity: the SINERGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, José Luis; Bixquert, M; Maldonado, J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the SINERGE study was to assess the impact of nocturnal heartburn on quality of life, sleep, and productivity. Ambulatory patients >/=18 years old and classified as defined cases of nocturnal heartburn (n=337), nonnocturnal heartburn (n=139), uncontrolled hypertension (n=198), and symptomatic depression (n=104) were included in this cross-sectional study. Information on age, gender, body mass index, and comorbidity was collected and the following validated questionnaires were applied: SF-12, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. The prevalence of primary care consultation for heartburn and nocturnal heartburn was 4.7% and 1.9%, respectively. Health-related quality of life, sleep, and productivity were significantly impaired in patients with frequent nocturnal heartburn symptoms as compared with those of the patients without nocturnal symptoms or patients with hypertension. Nocturnal heartburn poses a considerable burden for the sufferer because of the impact on quality of life, sleep, and daily activities.

  8. Modeling the autonomic and metabolic effects of obstructive sleep apnea: A simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei eCheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation introduced by recurring obstructive sleep apnea has been linked to subsequent cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear, but impairment of the normal interactions among the systems that regulate autonomic and metabolic function is likely involved. We have extended an existing integrative model of respiratory, cardiovascular and sleep-wake state control, to incorporate a sub-model of glucose-insulin-fatty acid regulation. This computational model is capable of simulating the complex dynamics of cardiorespiratory control, chemoreflex and state-related control of breath-to-breath ventilation, state-related and chemoreflex control of upper airway potency, respiratory and circulatory mechanics, as well as the metabolic control of glucose insulin dynamics and its interactions with the autonomic control. The interactions between autonomic and metabolic control include the circadian regulation of epinephrine secretion, epinephrine regulation on dynamic fluctuations in glucose and free-fatty acid in plasma, metabolic coupling among tissues and organs provided by insulin and epinephrine, as well as the effect of insulin on peripheral vascular sympathetic activity. These model simulations provide insight into the relative importance of the various mechanisms that determine the acute and chronic physiological effects of sleep-disordered breathing. The model can also be used to investigate the effects of a variety of interventions, such as different glucose clamps, the intravenous glucose tolerance test and the application of continuous positive airway pressure on obstructive sleep apnea subjects. As such, this model provides the foundation on which future efforts to simulate disease progression and the long-term effects of pharmacological intervention can be based.

  9. Longitudinal study of self-awakening and sleep/wake habits in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeda H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hiroki Ikeda,1 Mitsuo Hayashi21Department of Adult Mental Health, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo; 2Department of Behavioral Sciences, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, JapanAbstract: Self-awakening is the ability to awaken without external assistance at a predetermined time. Cross-sectional studies reported that people who self-awaken have sleep/wake habits different from those of people who use external means to wake from sleep. However, no longitudinal study has examined self-awakening. The present study investigated self-awakening, both habitual and inconsistent, compared to awakening by external means in relation to sleep/wake schedules for five consecutive years in 362 students (starting at mean age 15.1 ± 0.3 years. Students who self-awakened consistently for five consecutive years (5% of all students went to bed earlier than those who inconsistently self-awakened (mixed group, 40% or consistently used forced awakening by external means (56%. Awakening during sleep was more frequent and sleep was lighter in the consistently self-awakened group than in the mixed and consistently forced-awakened groups. However, daytime dozing was less frequent and comfort immediately after awakening was greater for the consistently self-awakened group than for the mixed and consistently forced-awakened groups. These results indicate that the three groups have different sleep/wake habits. Previous studies of self-awakening using cross-sectional survey data may have confounded both consistent and inconsistent self-awakening habits. A longitudinal study is necessary to clarify the relationship between the self-awakening habit and sleep/wake patterns.Keywords: habitual self-awakening, sleep/wake pattern, adolescent

  10. Sleep Problems Before and After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belguzar Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare patients’ sleep problems before and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI and also to determine factors affecting sleep problems in patients undergoing AMI. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Coronary Intensive Care Unit in a training hospital between January 1 and April 30, 2007. The sample of the study was composed of 26 patients with a first-ever AMI. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to determine the patient and illness-related descriptive characteristics and the Post Sleep Inventory Scale (PSIS. The Shapiro-Wilks test, descriptive statistics, paired samples t test, Mann Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test, reliability analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean age of the study group was 53.2 ± 12.6 years and approximately 81% were males. The patients’ mean bedtime (t= -3.422, p= 0.001, quality of nocturnal sleep (t= -3.221, p= 0.001, awakening (t =-3.533, p<0.001 and total PSIS scores (t= -5.652, p<0.001 were significantly higher after AMI compared to before AMI. The mean PSIS scores of patients undergoing AMI were statistically significant different by gender (z= -2.164, p= 0.030 and working status (z= -2.171, p= 0.030. There was a negative correlation between the PSIS score and haemoglobin and haematocrit values (r= -0.503, p<0.01; r= -0.473, p<0.05; respectively. CONCLUSION: There were differences in the patients’ reported sleep problems between before and after AMI. The results of this study showed that sleep problems were more common among women, patients not working and those with anemia. Nurses should be aware of the sleep problems and factors that affect to sleep problems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 687-694

  11. Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in Chiari Malformation Type 1: A Prospective Study of 90 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Álex; Poca, Maria A; de la Calzada, Maria D; Moncho, Dulce; Romero, Odile; Sampol, Gabriel; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe the prevalence of sleep disorders in a large group of patients with Chiari malformation type 1 (CM-1) and determine the presence of risk factors associated with these abnormalities. Prospective study with consecutive patient selection. We included 90 adult patients with CM-1, defined by the presence of a cerebellar tonsillar descent (TD) ≥3 mm. Clinical, neuroradiological studies, and nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) was carried out. In addition, patients were also subclassified into 2 CM subtypes: CM-1, with the obex above the foramen magnum (FM) and CM-1.5, in which along with a TD ≥3 mm, the obex was located below the FM. We observed a high prevalence (50%) of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) with predominant hypopnea. Only six patients showed a central apnea index of ≥5. Hypoventilation was observed in only three patients. SRBD severity was associated with male sex, older age, excess weight, and the presence of hydrocephalus. No differences in clinical or PSG parameters were found when comparing CM subtypes (CM-1 and CM-1.5). Sleep architecture study showed decreased sleep efficiency with an increase in arousal and waking after sleep onset. The presence of SRBDs was found to be associated with poorer sleep architecture parameters. This study confirms a high prevalence of SRBDs in patients with CM-1 and CM-1.5, with a predominant obstructive component. Nocturnal PSG recordings should be systematically conducted in these patients, especially those who are male, older, or overweight or those who present hydrocephalus. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Functions and Mechanisms of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Zielinski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a complex physiological process that is regulated globally, regionally, and locally by both cellular and molecular mechanisms. It occurs to some extent in all animals, although sleep expression in lower animals may be co-extensive with rest. Sleep regulation plays an intrinsic part in many behavioral and physiological functions. Currently, all researchers agree there is no single physiological role sleep serves. Nevertheless, it is quite evident that sleep is essential for many vital functions including development, energy conservation, brain waste clearance, modulation of immune responses, cognition, performance, vigilance, disease, and psychological state. This review details the physiological processes involved in sleep regulation and the possible functions that sleep may serve. This description of the brain circuitry, cell types, and molecules involved in sleep regulation is intended to further the reader’s understanding of the functions of sleep.

  13. Exploring association between sleep deprivation and chronic periodontitis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep deprivation has become a global phenomenon, and epidemiologic data indicate that short sleep duration adversely impacts human physical health. Underlying mechanisms involve modulation of immune-inflammatory mechanisms. These changes might contribute to potentiation of destructive periodontal disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess if there is an association of sleep deprivation with chronic periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects were categorized into 3 groups (n = 20 each viz. clinically healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis. Periodontal status of subjects was assessed by gingival index and pocket probing depth. All the study subjects were administered Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire for the assessment of sleep deprivation. Results: Present investigation revealed that mean PSQI was highest in the periodontitis group as compared to other two groups and the difference among three groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study with preliminary results suggestive of the association of sleep deprivation with severity of periodontal disease, definitely calls on for future studies with larger samples.

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were...... recruited. Cathodal tDCS and sham stimulation were applied to the epileptic focus, before sleep (1 mA; 20 min). Cathodal tDCS did not reduce the spike-index in any of the patients....

  15. Social Integration and Sleep Disturbance: A Gene-Environment Interaction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sbarra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low levels of perceived social integration, or loneliness, are associated with increased risk for a range of poor health outcomes. Sleep disturbance plays a central role in the evolutionary theory of loneliness, which provides a mechanistic account of how low levels of social integration may negatively impact health. No studies, however, have examined whether the association between social integration and sleep disturbance is consistent with a causal effect after accounting for genes that are common to both variables.  Method: Using twin data ('N' = 905 twin pairs from the nationally-representative Midlife in the United States (MIDUS survey, I evaluated a series of bivariate twin models exploring whether the phenotypic association between low social integration and sleep disturbance can be explained by shared genetics. In addition, the current study specified a series of quantitative models for studying gene x environment (G X E interactions to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on sleep disturbance differ as a function of social integration. Results: The phenotypic association between social integration and sleep disturbance was fully accounted for by genes that are common between the two variables, suggesting that within-twin pair differences in social integration do not exert a causal influence on sleep disturbance. Social integration, however, moderated the non-shared environmental influence on sleep disturbances, with the greatest environmental influences observed at the lowest levels of social integration. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that an essential feature of the evolutionary model of loneliness may need refinement or elaboration. The moderation findings are discussed in terms of the fit with a stress-buffering model of social support in which environmental influences on sleep disturbance are strongest when social resources are low.

  16. Melatonin improves sleep in children with epilepsy: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sejal V; Horn, Paul S; Simakajornboon, Narong; Beebe, Dean W; Holland, Katherine; Byars, Anna W; Glauser, Tracy A

    2015-05-01

    Insomnia, especially maintenance insomnia, is widely prevalent in epilepsy. Although melatonin is commonly used, limited data address its efficacy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to identify the effects of melatonin on sleep and seizure control in children with epilepsy. Eleven prepubertal, developmentally normal children aged 6-11 years with epilepsy were randomized by a software algorithm to receive placebo or a 9-mg sustained release (SR) melatonin formulation for four weeks, followed by a one-week washout and a four-week crossover condition. The pharmacy performed blinding; patients, parents, and study staff other than a statistician were blinded. The primary outcomes were sleep onset latency and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) measured on polysomnography. The secondary outcomes included seizure frequency, epileptiform spike density per hour of sleep on electroencephalogram (EEG), and reaction time (RT) measures on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Statistical tests appropriate for crossover designs were used for the analysis. Data were analyzed from 10 subjects who completed the study. Melatonin decreased sleep latency (mean difference, MD, of 11.4 min and p = 0.02) and WASO (MD of 22 min and p = 0.04) as compared to placebo. No worsening of spike density or seizure frequency was seen. Additionally, slow-wave sleep duration and rapid eye movement (REM) latency were increased with melatonin and REM sleep duration was decreased. These changes were statistically significant. Worsening of headache was noted in one subject with migraine on melatonin. SR melatonin resulted in statistically significant decreases in sleep latency and WASO. No clear effects on seizures were observed, but the study was too small to allow any conclusions to be drawn in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations of Incident Cardiovascular Events With Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Leg Movements of Sleep in Older Men, for the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study (MrOS Sleep Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, John W; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Both restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) may be associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the individual contributions of these factors to adverse CVD outcomes are unknown. During the MrOS Sleep Study, 2823 men (mean age = 76.3 years) participated in a comprehensive sleep assessment from 2000 to 2002. RLS was identified by self-report of a physician diagnosis of RLS. A periodic limb movement of sleep index (PLMI) was derived from unattended in-home polysomnography. Incident cardiovascular events were centrally adjudicated during 8.7 ± 2.6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was all-cause CVD; secondary outcomes included incident myocardial infarction (MI) and cerebrovascular disease. Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for multiple covariates, including PLMI, to examine if there were independent associations of RLS and PLMI to the outcomes. Physician-diagnosed RLS was reported by 2.2% and a PLMI ≥ 15 was found in 59.6% of men. RLS was not associated with the composite CVD outcome. RLS was significantly associated with incident MI (Hazard ratio [HR] = 2.02, 95% CI, 1.04-3.91) even after adjustment for multiple covariates. Results were only modestly attenuated when PLMI was added to the model. PLMI also was found to predict incident MI (per SD increase in PLMI, HR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.00-1.30, p = .05), and was materially unchanged after addition of RLS. The independent risk that RLS confers for MI suggests a role for non-PLMS factors such as sleep disturbance, shared genetic factors, or PLM-independent sympathetic hyperactivity. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The association between mental health, chronic disease and sleep duration in Koreans: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Su; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung; Shin, Dongjin; Cho, Jae-Heung; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration holds considerable importance as an indicator of mental/physical health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between sleep duration, mental health, and chronic disease prevalence in Koreans. Of 31,596 subjects eligible for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010-2012), 17,638 participants who answered items on sleep duration (aged ≥ 19 yrs) were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Association between sleep duration, mental health, and chronic disease prevalence was assessed using logistic regression, and adjusted for various socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Short or long sleep duration showed correlations with mental health, and items of significance showed gender-specific patterns. Women displayed significant associations with stress and depressive symptoms, and men with stress, thoughts of suicide, and psychiatric counseling. While stress was related with short sleep duration in both genders, depressive symptoms showed a relationship with long duration in men, and short duration in women. Prevalence of any chronic disease was associated with ≤ 6 h sleep when adjusted for factors including mental health, and among chronic diseases, cancer and osteoarthritis showed associations with short sleep duration, while diabetes and dyslipidemia were associated with normal sleep duration. Mental health problems were associated with sleep duration with gender-specific patterns. Associations with osteoarthritis, cancer, diabetes, dyslipidemia and abnormal sleep duration persisted after adjustment for mental health.

  19. Periodontitis and Sleep Disordered Breathing in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne E.; Essick, Greg K.; Beck, James D.; Cai, Jianwen; Beaver, Shirley; Finlayson, Tracy L.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Loredo, Jose S.; Ramos, Alberto R.; Singer, Richard H.; Jimenez, Monik C.; Barnhart, Janice M.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and severe chronic periodontitis. Design: Cross-sectional data analysis from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Setting: Community-based setting with probability sampling from four urban US communities. Participants: 12,469 adults aged 18–74 y. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Severe chronic periodontitis was defined using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American Academy of Periodontology case classification based on full-mouth periodontal assessments performed by calibrated dentists. SDB was evaluated in standardized home sleep tests, and defined as the number of apnea plus hypopnea events associated with ≥ 3% desaturation, per hour of estimated sleep. SDB was quantified using categories of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): 0.0 events (nonapneic); 0.1–4.9 (subclinical); 5.0–14.9 (mild); and ≥ 15 (moderate/severe). Covariates were demographic characteristics and established periodontitis risk factors. C-reactive protein was a potential explanatory variable. Using survey estimation, multivariable binary logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence limits (CL). Following adjustment for confounding, the SDB and periodontitis relationship remained statistically significant, but was attenuated in strength and no longer dose-response. Compared with the nonapneic referent, adjusted odds of severe periodontitis were 40% higher with subclinical SDB (OR = 1.4, 95% CL: 1.0, 1.9), 60% higher with mild SDB (OR = 1.6, 95% CL: 1.1, 2.2) and 50% higher with moderate/severe SDB (OR = 1.5, 95% CL: 1.0, 2.3) demonstrating an independent association between SDB and severe periodontitis. Conclusions: This study identifies a novel association between mild sleep disordered breathing and periodontitis that was most pronounced in young adults. Citation: Sanders AE, Essick GK, Beck JD, Cai J, Beaver S, Finlayson TL, Zee PC

  20. Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Iñiguez, Carmen; Torrent, Maties; Vioque, Jesús; Turner, Michelle C; Julvez, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children. To examine the association between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in preschool and school-aged children. Longitudinal, multicenter study among birth cohorts in Menorca, Sabadell, and Valencia from the Spanish Infancia y Medio Ambiente (environment and childhood) project. The study sample included 1713 children (468 from Menorca, 560 from Sabadell, and 685 from Valencia). Parent-reported child television viewing duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. Parent-reported child sleep duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. In cross-sectional analysis, children with longer periods of television viewing reported at baseline (≥ 1.5 hours per day) had shorter sleep duration. Longitudinally, children with reported increases in television viewing duration over time (from <1.5 to ≥ 1.5 hours per day) had a reduction in sleep duration at follow-up visits. Results were similar when examining television viewing duration as a continuous variable, with each 1 hour per day of increased viewing decreasing sleep duration at follow-up visits (β = -0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). Associations were similar when television viewing duration was assessed during weekends and after adjusting for potential intermediate factors (child executive function and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms) and confounders (child physical activity level, parental mental health status, maternal IQ, and maternal marital status). Children spending longer periods watching television had shorter sleep duration. Changes in television viewing duration were inversely associated with changes in sleep duration in longitudinal analysis. Parents should consider avoiding long periods of

  1. Validation of commonly used reference genes for sleep-related gene expression studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Rosa MRPS

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep is a restorative process and is essential for maintenance of mental and physical health. In an attempt to understand the complexity of sleep, multidisciplinary strategies, including genetic approaches, have been applied to sleep research. Although quantitative real time PCR has been used in previous sleep-related gene expression studies, proper validation of reference genes is currently lacking. Thus, we examined the effect of total or paradoxical sleep deprivation (TSD or PSD on the expression stability of the following frequently used reference genes in brain and blood: beta-actin (b-actin, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT. Results Neither TSD nor PSD affected the expression stability of all tested genes in both tissues indicating that b-actin, B2M, GAPDH and HPRT are appropriate reference genes for the sleep-related gene expression studies. In order to further verify these results, the relative expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase1 (GPD1 was evaluated in brain and blood, respectively. The normalization with each of four reference genes produced similar pattern of expression in control and sleep deprived rats, but subtle differences in the magnitude of expression fold change were observed which might affect the statistical significance. Conclusion This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation does not alter the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in brain and blood. Nonetheless, the use of multiple reference genes in quantitative RT-PCR is required for the accurate results.

  2. Sleep respiratory parameters in children with idiopathic epilepsy: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogou, Maria; Haidopoulou, Katerina; Eboriadou, Maria; Pavlidou, Efterpi; Hatzistylianou, Maria; Pavlou, Evaggelos

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore and compare through polysomnography respiratory sleep parameters between children with idiopathic epilepsy and healthy children. Our cross-sectional study included 40 children with idiopathic epilepsy and 27 healthy children, who underwent overnight polysomnography. Data about sleep respiratory parameters were obtained and statistically analyzed. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. The prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome was significantly higher in the epilepsy group (35% vs 7.4%, pepilepsy group was 10.6 (95% Confidence Intervals: 3.08-37.08) in comparison to the control group. The mean value of the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly higher in children with epilepsy compared to healthy children (2.46±1.22 vs 1.21±0.83, p=0.027). The mean values of central apnea index and desaturation index were comparable between these two groups. Longest apnea duration was significantly higher in the group of poor seizure control. All other sleep respiratory variables did not differ significantly between children with poor and good seizure control and between children with generalized and focal epilepsy. Children with epilepsy seem to present more prominent sleep breathing instability in comparison to healthy children, which mainly includes a predisposition to obstructive respiratory events. More studies are needed to investigate the relationship between sleep apneas and seizure control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Michitaka Yoshimura,1,* Momoko Kitazawa,1–3,* Yasuhiro Maeda,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Kazuo Tsubota,1 Taishiro Kishimoto,4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Wako, Saitama, 3Department of Nursing, Aino University Junior College, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, NY, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smartphone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness–eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01. We found that the short viewing

  4. Interrelationship of sleep and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME): a sleep questionnaire-, EEG-, and polysomnography (PSG)-based prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandraiah, C T; Sinha, S; Taly, A B; Rao, S; Satishchandra, P

    2012-11-01

    We studied the effects of 'epilepsy on sleep and its architecture' and 'sleep on the occurrence and distribution of interictal epileptiform discharges (ED)' using 'sleep questionnaires', 'EEG', and 'PSG' in patients with JME. Forty patients with JME [20 on valproate (Group I - 20.8±4.0 years; M: F=9:11) and 20 drug-naïve (Group II - 24.4±6.7 years; M: F=9:11)] and 20 controls (M: F=9:11; age: 23.5±4.7 years) underwent assessment with Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), overnight PSG, and scalp-EEG. Epileptiform discharges (EDs) were quantified in different sleep stages. The 'ED Index' was derived as number of EDs/min per stage. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) vs. 11 was used for statistical analysis. A 'p' EEG revealed EDs in 22/40 (Group I: 7 and Group II: 15) patients. Thirty-five patients had EDs in various sleep stages during PSG (Group I: 17 and Group II: 18): N1 - Group I: 9 and Group II: 14, N2 - Group I: 14 and Group II: 14, N3 - Group I: 14 and Group II: 10, and REM - Group I: 9 and Group II: 11. The ED Index was higher during N2/N3 in Group I and N1/REM in Group II. The epileptiform discharges were frequently associated with arousals in N1/REM and K-complexes in N2. There was no other significant difference between Groups I and II. In conclusion, there was poor sleep quality in patients with JME compared to controls, especially those on valproate who had altered sleep architecture. Epileptiform activity was observed more often in sleep than wakefulness. Sleep stages had variable effect on epileptiform discharges with light sleep having a facilitatory effect in the drug-naïve group and slow wave sleep having a facilitatory effect in the valproate group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress and sleep: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Alcántara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hispanics/Latinos face specific sociocultural stressors associated with their marginalized status in the United States. While stress is known to cause poor sleep, the differential effects of the specific stressors faced by Hispanics/Latinos have not been evaluated. Using cross-sectional data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, we conducted weighted generalized linear models to evaluate the associations of acculturation stress, ethnic discrimination, and chronic moderate/severe stress with self-reported sleep outcomes (insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness, sleep duration in individual and aggregate models adjusted for site, socio-demographics, behavioral, and medical conditions. Participants included 5313 Hispanic/Latino adults; 43.5% ≥ age 45, 54.8% female, and 22.0% US-born. Chronic moderate/severe stress, ethnic discrimination, and acculturation stress were each positively associated with sleep. In the adjusted aggregate model, only chronic moderate/severe stress was associated with insomnia symptoms (exp(b = 1.07 for each additional stressor, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.09. Both acculturation stress (exp(b = 1.05 for each additional SD, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.10 and ethnic discrimination (exp(b = 1.05 for each additional SD, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.08 were associated with daytime sleepiness. Each SD increase in ethnic discrimination related to a 16% and 13% increased prevalence of short ( 9 h (RRR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.27, respectively. These associations were consistent across sex. Acculturation stress and ethnic discrimination are associated with poor sleep in Hispanics/Latinos. Future research should explore whether behavioral sleep interventions minimize the impact of sociocultural stressors on sleep.

  6. Understanding sleep disturbances in African-American breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Teletia R; Huntley, Edward D; Makambi, Kepher; Sween, Jennifer; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Frederick, Wayne; Mellman, Thomas A

    2012-08-01

    The goals of this study were (i) to report the prevalence and nature of sleep disturbances, as determined by clinically significant insomnia symptoms, in a sample of African-American breast cancer survivors; (ii) to assess the extent to which intrusive thoughts about breast cancer and fear of recurrence contributes to insomnia symptoms; and (iii) to assess the extent to which insomnia symptoms contribute to fatigue. African-American breast cancer survivors completed surveys pertaining to demographics, medical history, insomnia symptoms, and intrusive thoughts about breast cancer, fear of cancer recurrence, and fatigue. Hierarchical regression models were performed to investigate the degree to which intrusive thoughts and concerns of cancer recurrence accounted for the severity of insomnia symptoms and insomnia symptom severity's association with fatigue. Forty-three percent of the sample was classified as having clinically significant sleep disturbances. The most commonly identified sleep complaints among participants were sleep maintenance, dissatisfaction with sleep, difficulty falling asleep, and early morning awakenings. Intrusive thoughts about breast cancer were a significant predictor of insomnia symptoms accounting for 12% of the variance in insomnia symptom severity. After adjusting for covariates, it was found that insomnia symptom severity was independently associated with fatigue accounting for 8% of variance. A moderate proportion of African-American breast cancer survivors reported significant problems with sleep. Sleep disturbance was influenced by intrusive thoughts about breast cancer, and fatigue was associated with the severity of participants' insomnia symptoms. This study provides new information about sleep-related issues in African-American breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies: an open-access resource for instrument benchmarking and exploratory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christian; Gosselin, Nadia; Carrier, Julie; Nielsen, Tore

    2014-12-01

    Manual processing of sleep recordings is extremely time-consuming. Efforts to automate this process have shown promising results, but automatic systems are generally evaluated on private databases, not allowing accurate cross-validation with other systems. In lacking a common benchmark, the relative performances of different systems are not compared easily and advances are compromised. To address this fundamental methodological impediment to sleep study, we propose an open-access database of polysomnographic biosignals. To build this database, whole-night recordings from 200 participants [97 males (aged 42.9 ± 19.8 years) and 103 females (aged 38.3 ± 18.9 years); age range: 18-76 years] were pooled from eight different research protocols performed in three different hospital-based sleep laboratories. All recordings feature a sampling frequency of 256 Hz and an electroencephalography (EEG) montage of 4-20 channels plus standard electro-oculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory signals. Access to the database can be obtained through the Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies (MASS) website (http://www.ceams-carsm.ca/en/MASS), and requires only affiliation with a research institution and prior approval by the applicant's local ethical review board. Providing the research community with access to this free and open sleep database is expected to facilitate the development and cross-validation of sleep analysis automation systems. It is also expected that such a shared resource will be a catalyst for cross-centre collaborations on difficult topics such as improving inter-rater agreement on sleep stage scoring. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been stated that besides the traditional elements of lifestyle such as diet and physical activity, an additional factor, namely sleep, is involved in metabolic processes, hormonal functions, and energy homeostasis. Aim of the research: To examine relationships between self-reported sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, both for men and women. Material and methods: The study involved 10,367 individuals, aged 37 to 66 years. The definition of MetS applied in this paper was developed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Logistic regression was applied to assess the risk (odds ratio – OR of MetS and its components. Results : There was no relationship observed between short sleep duration (≤ 6 h and the risk of MetS. Long sleep duration (≥ 9 h was connected with a higher risk of MetS only in the unadjusted model (OR = 1.11. After adjusting for confounders, a significant association was found between long sleep duration and a higher risk of abdominal obesity in the test group as a whole (OR = 1.16, as well as in the men in the group (OR = 1.22. In women, both with short (OR = 1.08 and long (OR = 1.12 sleep duration, the risk of increased concentration of glucose was found. Conclusions : Our study did not confirm the existence of an association between inadequate sleep duration and the risk of MetS, defined in accordance with IDF criteria. Sleep duration, however, is connected with some of the MetS components. It is therefore necessary to conduct further, long-term tests in this regard.

  9. Sleep quality in long haul truck drivers: A study on Iranian national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh; Kazemifar, Amir-Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Iran has a high rate of road traffic accidents. Poor quality of sleep brings about loss of attention, which is an important cause of road traffic accidents particularly in monotonous roads. The causes of poor quality of sleep in occupational drivers are multifactorial. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of poor sleep quality among occupational drivers with rotating work schedules and analyze its different risk factors. 2200 professional long-haul truck drivers who had been referred to the Occupational Health Clinic for routine education course were invited. We obtained data from eight provinces from various parts of Iran during 2012-2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire including questions about demographic and job characteristics. Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess drivers' sleep quality. Mean working (driving) time was (9.3±2.5) hours daily and (55.5 ± 18.29) hours weekly. About 23.5% of the drivers reported history of smoking, 14.5% had low job satisfaction and 60% had irregular work schedule. 16.4% of drivers had an accidents leading to injury during the past five years. The mean PSQI score was 4.2 ± 2.7; 54% had a PSQI>5 (poor quality of sleep). Multivariate logistic regression showed that smoking, job satisfaction, history of accidents, shift work and work hours per day were the most important risk factors for poor sleep quality. Results obtained from the current study showed a high prevalence of poor quality of sleep among professional drivers. It warrants more attention to this significant problem using some measures to improve working conditions in professional drivers, as well as health promotion interventions.

  10. A Community-Based Study of Sleep and Cognitive Development in Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United