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Sample records for sleep deprivation affects

  1. Sleep deprivation affects extinction but not acquisition memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Syed Abid; Bogusch, Lisa; Landgraf, Tim; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-11-01

    Sleep-like behavior has been studied in honeybees before, but the relationship between sleep and memory formation has not been explored. Here we describe a new approach to address the question if sleep in bees, like in other animals, improves memory consolidation. Restrained bees were observed by a web camera, and their antennal activities were used as indicators of sleep. We found that the bees sleep more during the dark phase of the day compared with the light phase. Sleep phases were characterized by two distinct patterns of antennal activities: symmetrical activity, more prominent during the dark phase; and asymmetrical activity, more common during the light phase. Sleep-deprived bees showed rebound the following day, confirming effective deprivation of sleep. After appetitive conditioning of the bees to various olfactory stimuli, we observed their sleep. Bees conditioned to odor with sugar reward showed lesser sleep compared with bees that were exposed to either reward alone or air alone. Next, we asked whether sleep deprivation affects memory consolidation. While sleep deprivation had no effect on retention scores after odor acquisition, retention for extinction learning was significantly reduced, indicating that consolidation of extinction memory but not acquisition memory was affected by sleep deprivation.

  2. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How sleep deprivation affects psychological variables related to college students' cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, J J; Walters, A S

    1997-11-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance psychological variables related to cognitive performance were studied in 44 college students. Participants completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal after either 24 hours of sleep deprivation or approximately 8 hours of sleep. After completing the cognitive task, the participants completed 2 questionnaires, one assessing self-reported effort, concentration, and estimated performance, the other assessing off-task cognitions. As expected, sleep-deprived participants performed significantly worse than the nondeprived participants on the cognitive task. However, the sleep-deprived participants rated their concentration and effort higher than the nondeprived participants did. In addition, the sleep-deprived participants rated their estimated performance significantly higher than the nondeprived participants did. The findings indicate that college students are not aware of the extent to which sleep deprivation negatively affects their ability to complete cognitive tasks.

  4. Sleep deprivation and stressors: evidence for elevated negative affect in response to mild stressors when sleep deprived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkel, Jared D; Banks, Siobhan; Htaik, Oo; Moreta, Marisa C; Jones, Christopher W; McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Simpson, Norah S; Dinges, David F

    2012-10-01

    Stress often co-occurs with inadequate sleep duration, and both are believed to impact mood and emotion. It is not yet known whether inadequate sleep simply increases the intensity of subsequent stress responses or interacts with stressors in more complicated ways. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation on subjective stress and mood in response to low-stress and high-stress cognitive testing conditions in healthy adult volunteers in two separate experiments (total N = 53). Sleep was manipulated in a controlled, laboratory setting and stressor intensity was manipulated by changing difficulty of cognitive tasks, time pressure, and feedback about performance. Sleep-deprived participants reported greater subjective stress, anxiety, and anger than rested controls following exposure to the low-stressor condition, but not in response to the high-stressor condition, which elevated negative mood and stress about equally for both sleep conditions. These results suggest that sleep deprivation lowers the psychological threshold for the perception of stress from cognitive demands but does not selectively increase the magnitude of negative affect in response to high-stress performance demands.

  5. Chronic Sleep Deprivation Differentially Affects Short and Long-term Operant Memory in Aplysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C.; Noakes, Eric J.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6 h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24 hours. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4 h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation. PMID:27555235

  6. Functional neuroimaging insights into how sleep and sleep deprivation affect memory and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Michael W L; Chuah, Lisa Y M

    2008-08-01

    The review summarizes current knowledge about what fMRI has revealed regarding the neurobehavioral correlates of sleep deprivation and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Functional imaging studies of sleep deprivation have characterized its effects on a number of cognitive domains, the best studied of these being working memory. There is a growing appreciation that it is important to consider interindividual differences in vulnerability to sleep deprivation, task and task difficulty when interpreting imaging results. Our understanding of the role of sleep and the dynamic evolution of offline memory consolidation has benefited greatly from human imaging studies. Both hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory systems have been studied. Functional imaging studies contrasting sleep-deprived and well-rested brains provide substantial evidence that sleep is highly important for optimal cognitive function and learning. The experimental paradigms developed to date merit evaluation in clinical settings to determine the impact of sleep disruption in sleep disorders.

  7. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Sleep Deprivation and Stressors: Evidence for Elevated Negative Affect in Response to Mild Stressors When Sleep Deprived

    OpenAIRE

    Minkel, Jared D.; Banks, Siobhan; Htaik, Oo; Moreta, Marisa C.; Jones, Christopher W.; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Simpson, Norah S.; Dinges, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Stress often co-occurs with inadequate sleep duration, and both are believed to impact mood and emotion. It is not yet known whether inadequate sleep simply increases the intensity of subsequent stress responses or interacts with stressors in more complicated ways. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation on subjective stress and mood in response to low-stress and high-stress cognitive testing conditions in healthy adult volunteers in two sepa...

  10. Double Trouble? The Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Chronotype on Adolescent Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagys, Natasha; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Talbot, Lisa S.; Kaplan, Katherine A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two understudied risk factors that have been linked to emotional difficulties in adolescence are chronotype and sleep deprivation. This study extended past research by using an experimental design to investigate the role of sleep deprivation and chronotype on emotion in adolescents. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation and an…

  11. Sleep Deprivation affects Extinction but Not Acquisition Memory in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Syed Abid; Bogusch, Lisa; Landgraf, Tim; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-like behavior has been studied in honeybees before, but the relationship between sleep and memory formation has not been explored. Here we describe a new approach to address the question if sleep in bees, like in other animals, improves memory consolidation. Restrained bees were observed by a web camera, and their antennal activities were…

  12. Sleep Deprivation and Advice Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausser, J.A.; Leder, J.; Ketturat, C.; Dresler, M.; Faber, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by - more or less qualified - advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We

  13. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the "dark neuron" (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage.

  14. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study.

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    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses without affecting information processing and judgment

  15. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron AM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aimee M Caron, Richard Stephenson Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs (and concussion occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours total sleep deprivation (TSD and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons, and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%. Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%, and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%. Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. Keywords: sleep deprivation, concussion, traumatic brain injury, dark neuron, neurodegeneration, rat cortex

  16. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., ...

  17. Effects of sleep deprivation on prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundgeiger, Tobias; Bayen, Ute J; Horn, Sebastian S

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation reduces cognitive performance; however, its effects on prospective memory (remembering to perform intended actions) are unknown. One view suggests that effects of sleep deprivation are limited to tasks associated with prefrontal functioning. An alternative view suggests a global, unspecific effect on human cognition, which should affect a variety of cognitive tasks. We investigated the impact of sleep deprivation (25 hours of sleep deprivation vs. no sleep deprivation) on prospective-memory performance in more resource-demanding and less resource-demanding prospective-memory tasks. Performance was lower after sleep deprivation and with a more resource-demanding prospective-memory task, but these factors did not interact. These results support the view that sleep deprivation affects cognition more globally and demonstrate that sleep deprivation increases failures to carry out intended actions, which may have severe consequences in safety-critical situations.

  18. Are You Sleep Deprived?

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    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... even if you think you've had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are ...

  19. Chronic Sleep Deprivation Differentially Affects Short and Long-term Operant Memory in Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Harini C.; Noakes, Eric J.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia cali...

  20. Paradoxical sleep deprivation impairs spatial learning and affects membrane excitability and mitochondrial protein in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-Hua; Hu, San-Jue; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Luo, Wen-Jing; Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2008-09-16

    Previous research has demonstrated that paradoxical sleep has a key role in learning and memory, and sleep deprivation interferes with learning and memory. However, the mechanism of memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation is poorly understood. The present study investigated the effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) on spatial learning and memory using the Morris Water Maze. Effects of PSD on CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampus were also examined. PSD impaired spatial learning of rats. PSD induced translocation of Bax to mitochondria and cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, and decreased the membrane excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, effects which may contribute to the deficits in learning behavior. These results may partially explain the mechanism of the effect of PSD on learning. Modulating the excitability of hippocampal neurons and protecting mitochondrial function are possible targets for preventing the effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation.

  1. The effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation on the consolidation and affective evaluation of emotional memories.

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    Wiesner, Christian D; Pulst, Julika; Krause, Fanny; Elsner, Marike; Baving, Lioba; Pedersen, Anya; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Emotion boosts the consolidation of events in the declarative memory system. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is believed to foster the memory consolidation of emotional events. On the other hand, REM sleep is assumed to reduce the emotional tone of the memory. Here, we investigated the effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation, SWS deprivation, or wake on the affective evaluation and consolidation of emotional and neutral pictures. Prior to an 9-h retention interval, sixty-two healthy participants (23.5 ± 2.5 years, 32 female, 30 male) learned and rated their affect to 80 neutral and 80 emotionally negative pictures. Despite rigorous deprivation of REM sleep or SWS, the residual sleep fostered the consolidation of neutral and negative pictures. Furthermore, emotional arousal helped to memorize the pictures. The better consolidation of negative pictures compared to neutral ones was most pronounced in the SWS-deprived group where a normal amount of REM sleep was present. This emotional memory bias correlated with REM sleep only in the SWS-deprived group. Furthermore, emotional arousal to the pictures decreased over time, but neither sleep nor wake had any differential effect. Neither the comparison of the affective ratings (arousal, valence) during encoding and recognition, nor the affective ratings of the recognized targets and rejected distractors supported the hypothesis that REM sleep dampens the emotional reaction to remembered stimuli. The data suggest that REM sleep fosters the consolidation of emotional memories but has no effect on the affective evaluation of the remembered contents. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation.

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    Goel, Namni; Rao, Hengyi; Durmer, Jeffrey S; Dinges, David F

    2009-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with considerable social, financial, and health-related costs, in large measure because it produces impaired cognitive performance due to increasing sleep propensity and instability of waking neurobehavioral functions. Cognitive functions particularly affected by sleep loss include psychomotor and cognitive speed, vigilant and executive attention, working memory, and higher cognitive abilities. Chronic sleep-restriction experiments--which model the kind of sleep loss experienced by many individuals with sleep fragmentation and premature sleep curtailment due to disorders and lifestyle--demonstrate that cognitive deficits accumulate to severe levels over time without full awareness by the affected individual. Functional neuroimaging has revealed that frequent and progressively longer cognitive lapses, which are a hallmark of sleep deprivation, involve distributed changes in brain regions including frontal and parietal control areas, secondary sensory processing areas, and thalamic areas. There are robust differences among individuals in the degree of their cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss that may involve differences in prefrontal and parietal cortices, and that may have a basis in genes regulating sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythms. Thus, cognitive deficits believed to be a function of the severity of clinical sleep disturbance may be a product of genetic alleles associated with differential cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  3. Sleep deprivation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had

  4. Unihemispheric sleep deprivation in bottlenose dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksenko; Mukhametov; Polyakova; Supin; Kovalzon

    1992-03-01

    Unihemispheric and bihemispheric sleep deprivation were performed in bottlenose dolphins. One brain hemisphere was capable of being deprived of delta (0.5-3.0 Hz) sleep in the former condition. Here, an increase in sleep pressure was observed during sleep deprivation in the deprived hemisphere. In the recovery sleep, following unihemispheric sleep deprivation, there was a rebound of delta sleep only in the deprived hemisphere. Following bihemispheric sleep deprivation the animals exhibited an increase in delta sleep in both hemispheres.

  5. Sleep deprivation affects somatosensory cortex excitability as tested through median nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoni, Maurizio; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Moroni, Fabio; D'Atri, Aurora; Donarelli, Stefania; Fanelli, Stefania; Gizzi Torriglia, Isabella; Lauri, Giulia; Ferrara, Michele; Marzano, Cristina; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Bramanti, Placido; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Changes of cortical excitability after sleep deprivation (SD) in humans have been investigated mostly in motor cortex, while there is little empirical evidence concerning somatosensory cortex, and its plastic changes across SD. To assess excitability of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and EEG voltage topographical characteristics associated with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) during SD. Across 41 h of SD, 16 healthy subjects participated in 4 experimental sessions (11.00 a.m. and 11.00 p.m. of the 1st and 2nd day) with: a) subjective sleepiness ratings; b) EEG recordings; c) SEPs recordings; d) behavioral vigilance responses. A clear enhancement of cortical excitability after SD was indexed by: (a) an amplitude increase of different SEPs component in S1; (b) higher voltage in occipital (around 35-43 ms) and fronto-central areas (around 47-62 ms). Circadian fluctuations did not affect cortical excitability. Voltage changes in S1 were strongly related with post-SD fluctuations of subjective and behavioral sleepiness. Sleep may have a role in keeping cortical excitability at optimal (namely below potentially dangerous) levels for the human brain, rebalancing progressive changes in cortical responsiveness to incoming inputs occurred during time spent awake. On the other hand, higher level of cortical responsiveness after sleep loss may be one of the mechanisms accounting for post-SD alterations in vigilance and behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SLEEP DEPRIVATION INDUCED ANXIETY AND ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Arzu Vardar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1 following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements, (2 following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3 following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02 whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance

  7. Selective Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation Affects Cell Size and Number in Kitten Locus Coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Shaffery

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cells in the locus coeruleus (LC constitute the sole source of norepinephrine (NE in the brain, and change their discharge rates according to vigilance state. In addition to its well established role in vigilance, NE affects synaptic plasticity in the postnatal critical period (CP of development. One form of CP synaptic plasticity affected by NE results from monocular occlusion, which leads to physiological and cytoarchitectural alterations in central visual areas. Selective suppression of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS in the CP kitten enhances the central effects of monocular occlusion. The mechanisms responsible for heightened cortical plasticity following REMS deprivation (REMSD remain undetermined. One possible mediator of an increase in plasticity is continuous NE outflow, which presumably persists during extended periods of REMSD. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of NE and serves as a marker for NE-producing cells. We selectively suppressed REMS in kittens for one week during the CP. The number and size of LC cells expressing immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir was assessed in age-matched REMS-deprived (RD-, treatment-control (TXC-, and home cage-reared (HCC animals. Sleep amounts and slow wave activity (SWA were also examined relative to baseline. Time spent in REMS during the study was lower in RD compared to TXC animals, and RD kittens increased SWA delta power in the latter half of the REMSD period. The estimated total number of TH-ir cells in LC was significantly lower in the RD- than in the TXC kittens and numerically lower than in HCC animals. The size of LC cells expressing TH-ir was greatest in the HCC group. They were significantly larger than the cells in the RD kittens. These data are consistent with a possible reduction in NE in forebrain areas, including visual cortex, caused by one week of REMSD.

  8. Partial Sleep Deprivation Attenuates the Positive Affective System: Effects Across Multiple Measurement Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Patrick H; Quartana, Phillip J; Remeniuk, Bethany; Garland, Eric L; Rhudy, Jamie L; Hand, Matthew; Irwin, Michael R; Smith, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Ample behavioral and neurobiological evidence links sleep and affective functioning. Recent self-report evidence suggests that the affective problems associated with sleep loss may be stronger for positive versus negative affective state and that those effects may be mediated by changes in electroencepholographically measured slow wave sleep (SWS). In the present study, we extend those preliminary findings using multiple measures of affective functioning. In a within-subject randomized crossover experiment, we tested the effects of one night of sleep continuity disruption via forced awakenings (FA) compared to one night of uninterrupted sleep (US) on three measures of positive and negative affective functioning: self-reported affective state, affective pain modulation, and affect-biased attention. The study was set in an inpatient clinical research suite. Healthy, good sleeping adults (N = 45) were included. Results indicated that a single night of sleep continuity disruption attenuated positive affective state via FA-induced reductions in SWS. Additionally, sleep continuity disruption attenuated the inhibition of pain by positive affect as well as attention bias to positive affective stimuli. Negative affective state, negative affective pain facilitation, nor negative attention bias were altered by sleep continuity disruption. The present findings, observed across multiple measures of affective function, suggest that sleep continuity disruption has a stronger influence on the positive affective system relative to the negative affective affective system. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Age, performance and sleep deprivation.

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    Philip, Pierre; Taillard, Jacques; Sagaspe, Patricia; Valtat, Cédric; Sanchez-Ortuno, Montserrat; Moore, Nicholas; Charles, André; Bioulac, Bernard

    2004-06-01

    Young subjects are frequently involved in sleep-related accidents. They could be more affected than older drivers by sleep loss and therefore worsen their driving skills quicker, or have a different perception of their level of impairment. To test these hypotheses we studied variations of reaction time (RT), a fundamental prerequisite for safe performing, as measured by lapses, i.e. responses > or = 500 ms and self-assessment of performance and sleepiness after a night awake and after a night asleep in a balanced crossover design in young versus older healthy subjects. Ten young (20-25 years old) and 10 older volunteers (52-63 years old) were tested with and without 24 h of sleep deprivation. Without sleep deprivation, RTs were slower in older subjects than in the younger ones. However, after sleep deprivation, the RTs of young subjects increased while that of the older subjects remained almost unaffected. Sleepiness and self-perception of performance were equally affected in both age groups showing different perception of performance in the age groups. Our findings are discussed in terms of vulnerability to sleep-related accidents.

  10. Consequences of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzeł-Gryglewska, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the history of research and the results of recent studies on the effects of sleep deprivation in animals and humans. Humans can bear several days of continuous sleeplessness, experiencing deterioration in wellbeing and effectiveness; however, also a shorter reduction in the sleep time may lead to deteriorated functioning. Sleeplessness accounts for impaired perception, difficulties in keeping concentration, vision disturbances, slower reactions, as well as the appearance of microepisodes of sleep during wakefulness which lead to lower capabilities and efficiency of task performance and to increased number of errors. Sleep deprivation results in poor memorizing, schematic thinking, which yields wrong decisions, and emotional disturbances such as deteriorated interpersonal responses and increased aggressiveness. The symptoms are accompanied by brain tissue hypometabolism, particularly in the thalamus, prefrontal, frontal and occipital cortex and motor speech centres. Sleep deficiency intensifies muscle tonus and coexisting tremor, speech performance becomes monotonous and unclear, and sensitivity to pain is higher. Sleeplessness also relates to the changes in the immune response and the pattern of hormonal secretion, of the growth hormone in particular. The risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease increases. The impairment of performance which is caused by 20-25 hours of sleeplessness is comparable to that after ethanol intoxication at the level of 0.10% blood alcohol concentration. The consequences of chronic sleep reduction or a shallow sleep repeated for several days tend to accumulate and resemble the effects of acute sleep deprivation lasting several dozen hours. At work, such effects hinder proper performance of many essential tasks and in extreme situations (machine operation or vehicle driving), sleep loss may be hazardous to the worker and his/her environment.

  11. Sleep deprivation: consequences for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhefka, Julie King

    2011-09-01

    During the adolescent years, a delayed pattern of the sleep-wake cycle occurs. Many parents and health care providers are not aware that once established, these poor sleep habits can continue into adulthood. Early school hours start a pattern of sleep loss that begins a cycle of daytime sleepiness, which may affect mood, behavior, and increase risk for accidents or injury. These sleep-deprived habits established in adolescence can often lead to problems during college years. Sleep hygiene can be initiated to help break the cycle, along with education and implementation of a strict regimen. Monitoring all adolescents and college-aged students for sleep insufficiency is imperative to improve both academic and emotional well-being. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Sleep deprivation accelerates delay-related loss of visual short-term memories without affecting precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Natalie; Asplund, Christopher L; Chee, Michael W L

    2013-06-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is an important measure of information processing capacity and supports many higher-order cognitive processes. We examined how sleep deprivation (SD) and maintenance duration interact to influence the number and precision of items in VSTM using an experimental design that limits the contribution of lapses at encoding. For each trial, participants attempted to maintain the location and color of three stimuli over a delay. After a retention interval of either 1 or 10 seconds, participants reported the color of the item at the cued location by selecting it on a color wheel. The probability of reporting the probed item, the precision of report, and the probability of reporting a nonprobed item were determined using a mixture-modeling analysis. Participants were studied twice in counterbalanced order, once after a night of normal sleep and once following a night of sleep deprivation. Sleep laboratory. Nineteen healthy college age volunteers (seven females) with regular sleep patterns. Approximately 24 hours of total SD. SD selectively reduced the number of integrated representations that can be retrieved after a delay, while leaving the precision of object information in the stored representations intact. Delay interacted with SD to lower the rate of successful recall. Visual short-term memory is compromised during sleep deprivation, an effect compounded by delay. However, when memories are retrieved, they tend to be intact.

  13. Sleep deprivation impairs cAMP signalling in the hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecsey, Christopher G; Baillie, George S; Jaganath, Devan; Havekes, Robbert; Daniels, Andrew; Wimmer, Mathieu; Huang, Ted; Brown, Kim M; Li, Xiang-Yao; Descalzi, Giannina; Kim, Susan S; Chen, Tao; Shang, Yu-Ze; Zhuo, Min; Houslay, Miles D; Abel, Ted

    2009-01-01

    Millions of people regularly obtain insufficient sleep. Given the effect of sleep deprivation on our lives, understanding the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sleep deprivation is clearly of social and clinical importance. One of the major effects of sleep deprivation on the brain is to

  14. Neurobiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Alkadhi, Karim; Zagaar, Munder; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Although the physiological function of sleep is not completely understood, it is well documented that it contributes significantly to the process of learning and memory. Ample evidence suggests that adequate sleep is essential for fostering connections among neuronal networks for memory consolidation in the hippocampus. Sleep deprivation studies are extremely valuable in understanding why we sleep and what are the consequences of sleep loss. Experimental sleep deprivation in animals allows us...

  15. Sleep Deprivation and Neurobehavioral Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyles involving sleep deprivation are common, despite mounting evidence that both acute total sleep deprivation and chronically restricted sleep degrade neurobehavioral functions associated with arousal, attention, memory and state stability. Current research suggests dynamic differences in the way the central nervous system responds to acute versus chronic sleep restriction, which is reflected in new models of sleep-wake regulation. Chronic sleep restriction likely induces long-term neu...

  16. Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Nilsson, Emil; Nilsson, Victor C; Chapman, Colin D; Vogel, Heike; Lundberg, Lina S; Zarei, Sanaz; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2013-09-01

    Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (pbreakfast, sleep-deprived subjects chose larger portions of snacks (16%, p=0.02), whereas the selection of meal items did not differ between the sleep interventions (6%, p=0.13). Our results suggest that overeating in the morning after sleep loss is driven by both homeostatic and hedonic factors. Further, they show that portion size choice after sleep loss depend on both an individual's hunger status, and the type of food offered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurobiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim; Zagaar, Munder; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Although the physiological function of sleep is not completely understood, it is well documented that it contributes significantly to the process of learning and memory. Ample evidence suggests that adequate sleep is essential for fostering connections among neuronal networks for memory consolidation in the hippocampus. Sleep deprivation studies are extremely valuable in understanding why we sleep and what are the consequences of sleep loss. Experimental sleep deprivation in animals allows us to gain insight into the mechanism of sleep at levels not possible to study in human subjects. Many useful approaches have been utilized to evaluate the effect of sleep loss on cognitive function, each with relative advantages and disadvantages. In this review we discuss sleep and the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation mostly in experimental animals. The negative effects of sleep deprivation on various aspects of brain function including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and the state of cognition-related signaling molecules are discussed. PMID:24179461

  18. Sleep deprivation leads to a loss of functional connectivity in frontal brain regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, I.M.; Romeijn, N.; Smit, D.J.A.; Piantoni, G.; van Someren, E.J.W.; van der Werf, Y.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The restorative effect of sleep on waking brain activity remains poorly understood. Previous studies have compared overall neural network characteristics after normal sleep and sleep deprivation. To study whether sleep and sleep deprivation might differentially affect subsequent

  19. Sleep deprivation leads to a loss of functional connectivity in frontal brain regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Ilse M; Romeijn, Nico; Smit, Dirk Ja; Piantoni, Giovanni; Van Someren, Eus Jw; van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The restorative effect of sleep on waking brain activity remains poorly understood. Previous studies have compared overall neural network characteristics after normal sleep and sleep deprivation. To study whether sleep and sleep deprivation might differentially affect subsequent

  20. Nursing Interactions With Intensive Care Unit Patients Affected by Sleep Deprivation: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Gian Domenico; Tuteri, Debora; Giontella, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) often experience sleep deprivation due to different factors. Its consequences are damaging both physiologically and psychologically. This study focuses particularly on nursing interactions as the main factor involved in sleep deprivation issues. The aims of this study were to examine the frequency, pattern, and types of nocturnal care interactions with patients in the respiratory and cardiology ICUs; analyze the relationship between these interactions and patients' variables (age, sex, recovery diagnosis, and acuity of care); and analyze the differences in patterns of nocturnal care interactions among the units. This is an observational retrospective study that analyzes the frequency, pattern, and types of nocturnal care interactions with patients between 7 PM and 6 AM recording data in the activity data sheets. Data consisted of 93 data assessment sheets. The mean number of care interactions per night was 18.65 (SD, 3.71). In both ICUs, interactions were most frequent at 7 PM, 10 PM, and 6 AM. Only 8 uninterrupted sleep periods occurred. Frequency of interactions correlated significantly with patients' acuity scores and the number of nurse interventions in both ICUs. Patients in ICUs have fragmented sleep patterns. This study underlines the need to develop new management approaches to promote and maintain sleep.

  1. Sleep deprivation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Ulrich-Michael; Hemmeter-Spernal, Julia; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian

    2010-07-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is a powerful antidepressant treatment that shows antidepressant responses within hours in 40-60% of depressed patients. In more than 80% of responders to SD, a relapse into depression occurred after the recovery night. In addition, it serves as an excellent tool to examine the neurobiological disturbance of depression and may profoundly contribute to the development of new specific and more rapidly acting antidepressants. The reason why SD works and relapses occur is still unclear. A key to solve this problem is to include the current knowledge about the neurobiological disturbance of depression in research, with a focus on neurobiological aspects of sleep and SD (sleep EEG, neuroendocrinology, neurochemistry and chronobiology). Based on findings from these different areas, different strategies to stabilize the antidepressant effect of SD have been applied. This article provides an overview of clinical and neurobiological responses related to SD in depression.

  2. Sleep deprivation impairs recognition of specific emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D.S. Killgore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing is particularly sensitive to sleep deprivation, but research on the topic has been limited and prior studies have generally evaluated only a circumscribed subset of emotion categories. Here, we evaluated the effects of one night of sleep deprivation and a night of subsequent recovery sleep on the ability to identify the six most widely agreed upon basic emotion categories (happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust, anger. Healthy adults (29 males; 25 females classified a series of 120 standard facial expressions that were computer morphed with their most highly confusable expression counterparts to create continua of expressions that differed in discriminability between emotion categories (e.g., combining 70% happiness+30% surprise; 90% surprise+10% fear. Accuracy at identifying the dominant emotion for each morph was assessed after a normal night of sleep, again following a night of total sleep deprivation, and finally after a night of recovery sleep. Sleep deprivation was associated with significantly reduced accuracy for identifying the expressions of happiness and sadness in the morphed faces. Gender differences in accuracy were not observed and none of the other emotions showed significant changes as a function of sleep loss. Accuracy returned to baseline after recovery sleep. Findings suggest that sleep deprivation adversely affects the recognition of subtle facial cues of happiness and sadness, the two emotions that are most relevant to highly evolved prosocial interpersonal interactions involving affiliation and empathy, while the recognition of other more primitive survival-oriented emotional face cues may be relatively robust against sleep loss.

  3. Health Effects of Sleep Deprivation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    sleep -deprived subjects, they often observed frequent, but transient, psychotic behavior.32 These behavioral pathologies are easily missed because of...physical harm, sleep deprivation is also believed to result in mental harm, i.e., psychosis or intensification of psycho- pathology . 319 The belief that...Process. Glenview, IL, Scott, Foresman, 1973, pp 48-58. 80. Dement WC: The relevance of sleep pathologies to the function of sleep . In Drucker-Colin R

  4. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation does not affect fear memory reconsolidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaowen; Huang, Fulian; Li, Peng; Ouyang, Xinping; Li, Zengbang; Deng, Haifeng; Yang, Yufeng

    2009-09-29

    There is increasing evidence that sleep may be involved in memory consolidation. However, there remain comparatively few studies that have explored the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. At present study, we tested the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the reconsolidation of cued (experiment 1) and contextual (experiment 2) fear memory in rats. Behaviour procedure involved four training phases: habituation, fear conditioning, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation or 6h later. The control rats were returned to their home cages immediately after reactivation and left undisturbed. Contrary to those hypotheses speculating a potential role of sleep in reconsolidation, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on the reconsolidation of both cued and contextual fear memory. However, our present results did not exclude the potential roles of non-rapid eye movement sleep in the reconsolidation of fear memory or sleep in the reconsolidation of other memory paradigms.

  5. Sleep Deprivation and Neurobehavioral Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyles involving sleep deprivation are common, despite mounting evidence that both acute total sleep deprivation and chronically restricted sleep degrade neurobehavioral functions associated with arousal, attention, memory and state stability. Current research suggests dynamic differences in the way the central nervous system responds to acute versus chronic sleep restriction, which is reflected in new models of sleep-wake regulation. Chronic sleep restriction likely induces long-term neuromodulatory changes in brain physiology that could explain why recovery from it may require more time than from acute sleep loss. High intraclass correlations in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggest that these trait-like differences are phenotypic and may include genetic components. Sleep deprivation induces changes in brain metabolism and neural activation that involve distributed networks and connectivity. PMID:23523374

  6. One night of partial sleep deprivation affects habituation of hypothalamus and skin conductance responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Anja C; Blechert, Jens; Sämann, Philipp G; Eidner, Ines; Czisch, Michael; Spoormaker, Victor I

    2014-09-15

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent in clinical anxiety, but it remains unclear whether they are cause and/or consequence of this condition. Fear conditioning constitutes a valid laboratory model for the acquisition of normal and pathological anxiety. To explore the relationship between disturbed sleep and anxiety in more detail, the present study evaluated the effect of partial sleep deprivation (SD) on fear conditioning in healthy individuals. The neural correlates of 1) nonassociative learning and physiological processing and 2) associative learning (differential fear conditioning) were addressed. Measurements entailed simultaneous functional MRI, EEG, skin conductance response (SCR), and pulse recordings. Regarding nonassociative learning, partial SD resulted in a generalized failure to habituate during fear conditioning, as evidenced by reduced habituation of SCR and hypothalamus responses to all stimuli. Furthermore, SCR and hypothalamus activity were correlated, supporting their functional relationship. Regarding associative learning, effects of partial SD on the acquisition of conditioned fear were weaker and did not reach statistical significance. The hypothalamus plays an integral role in the regulation of sleep and autonomic arousal. Thus sleep disturbances may play a causal role in the development of normal and possibly pathological fear by increasing the susceptibility of the sympathetic nervous system to stressful experiences. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J W; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Experimental laboratory study. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P sleep deprivation (P sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life.

  8. Effects of sleep deprivation on neural circulatory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M; Phillips, B G; Sigurdsson, G; Narkiewicz, K; Pesek, C A; Somers, V K

    2000-05-01

    Effects of sleep deprivation on neural cardiovascular control may have important clinical implications. We tested the hypothesis that sleep deprivation increases heart rate, blood pressure, and sympathetic activity and potentiates their responses to stressful stimuli. We studied 8 healthy subjects (aged 40+/-5 years, 6 men and 2 women). Blood pressure, heart rate, forearm vascular resistance, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity were measured at rest and during 4 stressors (sustained handgrip, maximal forearm ischemia, mental stress, and cold pressor test). Measurements were obtained twice, once after normal sleep and once after a night of sleep deprivation. All measurements were obtained in a blinded, randomized manner. In comparison with normal sleep, sleep deprivation resulted in an increase in blood pressure (normal sleep versus sleep deprivation=82+/-8 versus 86+/-7 mm Hg, mean+/-SEM, P=0.012) and a decrease in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (normal sleep versus sleep deprivation=28+/-6 versus 22+/-6 bursts/min, P=0.017). Heart rate, forearm vascular resistance, and plasma catecholamines were not significantly changed by sleep deprivation, nor did sleep deprivation affect autonomic and hemodynamic responses to stressful stimuli. Sleep deprivation results in increased resting blood pressure, decreased muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and no change in heart rate. Thus, the pressor response to sleep deprivation is not mediated by muscle sympathetic vasoconstriction or tachycardia.

  9. Socializing by Day May Affect Performance by Night: Vulnerability to Sleep Deprivation is Differentially Mediated by Social Exposure in Extraverts vs Introverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Tracy L; Killgore, William D S; Balkin, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    to examine the effects of socially enriched versus socially impoverished environments on performance and alertness decline during sleep deprivation in extraverts versus introverts. participants (n = 29 men, n = 19 women) were assigned to socially enriched (n = 24; 13 introverts, 11 extraverts) or socially impoverished (n = 24; 12 introverts, 12 extraverts) conditions (activities matched) for 12 hours (1000-2200) on Day 1 followed by 22 hours of sleep deprivation (2200-2000; 36 h awake total), monitored by actigraphy. The median split of volunteers' Eysenck Extraversion scores was used for extravert/introvert categorization. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), and Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) were administered every 2 hours throughout. PVT speed, transformed lapses, modified MWT sleep-onset latency, and SSS were analyzed using mixed-model analyses of variance, with covariates of age and total actigraphic activity during enrichment or impoverishment. residential sleep/performance testing facility. forty-eight healthy adults (aged 18-39). Twelve hours of socially enriched or isolated environments in extraverts and introverts prior to sleep deprivation. Social experience interacted with personality type to affect alertness and vigilance. Social enrichment, as compared with social impoverishment, was associated with more PVT lapses at 04:00 overall. Similarly, following social enrichment, PVT speed was significantly slower among extraverts than among introverts during sleep deprivation, but no personality-group differences emerged following social impoverishment. MWT sleep latency and SSS subjective sleepiness did not show significant personality or social-condition effects during sleep deprivation. the effect of social exposure on vulnerability or resiliency to sleep deprivation was modulated by introversion and extraversion. Extraverts exposed to social environments were more vulnerable to subsequent sleep

  10. Daily acclimation handling does not affect hippocampal long-term potentiation or cause chronic sleep deprivation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecsey, Christopher G; Wimmer, Mathieu E J; Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Perron, Isaac J; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2013-04-01

    Gentle handling is commonly used to perform brief sleep deprivation in rodents. It was recently reported that daily acclimation handling, which is often used before behavioral assays, causes alterations in sleep, stress, and levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits prior to the actual period of sleep deprivation. It was therefore suggested that acclimation handling could mediate some of the observed effects of subsequent sleep deprivation. Here, we examine whether acclimation handling, performed as in our sleep deprivation studies, alters sleep/wake behavior, stress, or forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that are impaired by sleep deprivation. Adult C57BL/6J mice were either handled daily for 6 days or were left undisturbed in their home cages. On the day after the 6(th) day of handling, long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced in hippocampal slices with spaced four-train stimulation, which we previously demonstrated to be impaired by brief sleep deprivation. Basal synaptic properties were also assessed. In three other sets of animals, activity monitoring, polysomnography, and stress hormone measurements were performed during the 6 days of handling. Daily gentle handling alone does not alter LTP, rest/activity patterns, or sleep/wake architecture. Handling initially induces a minimal stress response, but by the 6(th) day, stress hormone levels are unaltered by handling. It is possible to handle mice daily to accustom them to the researcher without causing alterations in sleep, stress, or synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Therefore, effects of acclimation handling cannot explain the impairments in signaling mechanisms, synaptic plasticity, and memory that result from brief sleep deprivation.

  11. Can sleep deprivation studies explain why human adults sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee K

    2012-11-01

    This review will concentrate on the consequences of sleep deprivation in adult humans. These findings form a paradigm that serves to demonstrate many of the critical functions of the sleep states. The drive to obtain food, water, and sleep constitutes important vegetative appetites throughout the animal kingdom. Unlike nutrition and hydration, the reasons for sleep have largely remained speculative. When adult humans are nonspecifically sleep-deprived, systemic effects may include defects in cognition, vigilance, emotional stability, risk-taking, and, possibly, moral reasoning. Appetite (for foodstuffs) increases and glucose intolerance may ensue. Procedural, declarative, and emotional memory are affected. Widespread alterations of immune function and inflammatory regulators can be observed, and functional MRI reveals profound changes in regional cerebral activity related to attention and memory. Selective deprivation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, on the contrary, appears to be more activating and to have lesser effects on immunity and inflammation. The findings support a critical need for sleep due to the widespread effects on the adult human that result from nonselective sleep deprivation. The effects of selective REM deprivation appear to be different and possibly less profound, and the functions of this sleep state remain enigmatic.

  12. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the question of whether sleep deprivation affects nearly all cognitive capacities in a global manner through degraded alertness and attention, or whether sleep loss specifically impairs some aspects of cognition more than others. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex as a brain region that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep loss, but perplexingly, executive function tasks that putatively measure prefrontal functioning have yielded inconsistent findings within the context of sleep deprivation. Whereas many convergent and rule-based reasoning, decision making and planning tasks are relatively unaffected by sleep loss, more creative, divergent and innovative aspects of cognition do appear to be degraded by lack of sleep. Emerging evidence suggests that some aspects of higher level cognitive capacities remain degraded by sleep deprivation despite restoration of alertness and vigilance with stimulant countermeasures, suggesting that sleep loss may affect specific cognitive systems above and beyond the effects produced by global cognitive declines or impaired attentional processes. Finally, the role of emotion as a critical facet of cognition has received increasing attention in recent years and mounting evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may particularly affect cognitive systems that rely on emotional data. Thus, the extent to which sleep deprivation

  13. SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Vizir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In a review article extensively discusses the relationship between sleep duration and cardiovascular diseases. Sleep loss is a common condition in developed countries, with evidence showing that people in Western countries are sleeping on average only 6.8 hour per night, 1.5 hour less than a century ago. Although the effect of sleep deprivation on the human body is not completely unexplained, recent epidemiological studies have revealed relationships between sleep deprivation and arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Increased sympathetic nervous system activity and changes in melatonin secretion are considered as the main pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease in patients with insufficient duration of nighttime sleep. Adequate sleep duration may be important for preventing cardiovascular diseases in modern society.

  14. ONE NIGHT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION AFFECTS REACTION TIME, BUT NOT INTERFERENCE OR FACILITATION IN A STROOP TASK

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Sean W.; Silva, Edward J.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Ronda, Joseph M.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2011-01-01

    The Stroop color-naming task is one of the most widely studied tasks involving the inhibition of a prepotent response, regarded as an executive function. Several studies have examined performance on versions of the Stroop task under conditions of acute sleep deprivation. Though these studies revealed effects on Stroop performance, the results often do not differentiate between general effects of sleep deprivation on performance and effects specifically on interference in the Stroop task. To e...

  15. Daily Acclimation Handling Does Not Affect Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation or Cause Chronic Sleep Deprivation in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Wimmer, Mathieu E. J.; Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J.; Perron, Isaac J.; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Gentle handling is commonly used to perform brief sleep deprivation in rodents. It was recently reported that daily acclimation handling, which is often used before behavioral assays, causes alterations in sleep, stress, and levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits prior to

  16. Effects of sleep deprivation on neural functioning: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.W.; Stins, J.F.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has a broad variety of effects on human performance and neural functioning that manifest themselves at different levels of description. On a macroscopic level, sleep deprivation mainly affects executive functions, especially in novel tasks. Macroscopic and mesoscopic effects of

  17. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaine, Marie E; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Abel, Ted

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i) DNA methylation; (ii) histone modifications; and (iii) non-coding RNAs. We then discuss evidence suggesting that sleep loss impacts the epigenome and that these epigenetic alterations might mediate the changes in cognition seen following disruption of sleep. The link between sleep and the epigenome is only beginning to be elucidated, but clear evidence exists that epigenetic alterations occur following sleep deprivation. In the future, these changes to the epigenome could be utilized as biomarkers of sleep loss or as therapeutic targets for sleep-related disorders.

  18. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Gaine

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i DNA methylation; (ii histone modifications; and (iii non-coding RNAs. We then discuss evidence suggesting that sleep loss impacts the epigenome and that these epigenetic alterations might mediate the changes in cognition seen following disruption of sleep. The link between sleep and the epigenome is only beginning to be elucidated, but clear evidence exists that epigenetic alterations occur following sleep deprivation. In the future, these changes to the epigenome could be utilized as biomarkers of sleep loss or as therapeutic targets for sleep-related disorders.

  19. Polysomnographic diagnosis of sleepwalking: effects of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadra, Antonio; Pilon, Mathieu; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2008-04-01

    Somnambulism affects up to 4% of adults and constitutes one of the leading causes of sleep-related violence and self-injury. Diagnosing somnambulism with objective instruments is often difficult because episodes rarely occur in the laboratory. Because sleep deprivation can precipitate sleepwalking, we aimed to determine the effects of 25 hours of sleep deprivation on the frequency and complexity of somnambulistic episodes recorded in the laboratory. Thirty consecutive sleepwalkers were evaluated prospectively by video-polysomnography for one baseline night and during recovery sleep after 25 hours of sleep deprivation. Ten sleepwalkers with a concomitant sleep disturbance were investigated with the same protocol. Sleepwalkers experienced a significant increase in the mean frequency of somnambulistic episodes during postdeprivation recovery sleep. Postsleep deprivation also resulted in a significantly greater proportion of patients experiencing more complex forms of somnambulism. Sleep deprivation was similarly effective in 9 of the 10 patients presenting with a comorbid sleep disturbance. Combining data from all 40 patients shows that whereas 32 episodes were recorded from 20 sleepwalkers (50%) at baseline, recovery sleep resulted in 92 episodes being recorded from 36 patients (90%). The findings support the view that sleepwalkers suffer from a dysfunction of the mechanisms responsible for sustaining stable slow-wave sleep and suggest that these patients are particularly vulnerable to increased homeostatic sleep pressure. Strong evidence is provided that 25 hours of sleep deprivation can be a valuable tool that facilitates the polysomnographically based diagnosis of somnambulism in predisposed patients.

  20. One Night of Sleep Deprivation Affects Reaction Time, but Not Interference or Facilitation in a Stroop Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Sean W.; Silva, Edward J.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Ronda, Joseph M.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2011-01-01

    The Stroop color-naming task is one of the most widely studied tasks involving the inhibition of a prepotent response, regarded as an executive function. Several studies have examined performance on versions of the Stroop task under conditions of acute sleep deprivation. Though these studies revealed effects on Stroop performance, the results…

  1. Acute Short-Term Sleep Deprivation Does Not Affect Metacognitive Monitoring Captured by Confidence Ratings: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Simon A.; Martin, Gregory D.; Aidman, Eugene; Kleitman, Sabina

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of the literature surrounding the effects that acute sleep deprivation has on metacognitive monitoring. Metacognitive monitoring refers to the ability to accurately assess one's own performance and state of knowledge. The mechanism behind this assessment is captured by subjective feelings of…

  2. Spatial reversal learning is robust to total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; Kramer, Michiel; Post, Ger; Eggels, Leslie; Wuite, Mark; Dematteis, Maurice; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2012-04-21

    Sleep deprivation affects cognitive functions that depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) such as cognitive flexibility, and the consolidation of newly learned information. The identification of cognitive processes that are either robustly sensitive or robustly insensitive to the same experimental sleep deprivation procedure, will allow us to better focus on the specific effects of sleep on cognition, and increase understanding of the mechanisms involved. In the present study we investigate whether sleep deprivation differentially affects the two separate cognitive processes of acquisition and consolidation of a spatial reversal task. After training on a spatial discrimination between two levers in a Skinner box, male Wistar rats were exposed to a reversal of the previously learned stimulus-response contingency. We first evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the acquisition of reversal learning. Performance on reversal learning after 12h of sleep deprivation (n=12) was compared to performance after control conditions (n=12). The second experiment evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the consolidation of reversal learning; the first session of reversal learning was followed by 3h of nap prevention (n=8) or undisturbed control conditions (n=8). The experiments had sufficient statistical power (0.90 and 0.81, respectively) to detect differences with medium effect sizes. Neither the acquisition, nor the consolidation, of reversal learning was affected by acute sleep deprivation. Together with previous findings, these results help to further delineate the role of sleep in cognitive processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep deprivation impairs cAMP signalling in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecsey, Christopher G; Baillie, George S; Jaganath, Devan; Havekes, Robbert; Daniels, Andrew; Wimmer, Mathieu; Huang, Ted; Brown, Kim M; Li, Xiang-Yao; Descalzi, Giannina; Kim, Susan S; Chen, Tao; Shang, Yu-Ze; Zhuo, Min; Houslay, Miles D; Abel, Ted

    2009-10-22

    Millions of people regularly obtain insufficient sleep. Given the effect of sleep deprivation on our lives, understanding the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sleep deprivation is clearly of social and clinical importance. One of the major effects of sleep deprivation on the brain is to produce memory deficits in learning models that are dependent on the hippocampus. Here we have identified a molecular mechanism by which brief sleep deprivation alters hippocampal function. Sleep deprivation selectively impaired 3', 5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP)- and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampus, reduced cAMP signalling, and increased activity and protein levels of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), an enzyme that degrades cAMP. Treatment of mice with phosphodiesterase inhibitors rescued the sleep-deprivation-induced deficits in cAMP signalling, synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory. These findings demonstrate that brief sleep deprivation disrupts hippocampal function by interfering with cAMP signalling through increased PDE4 activity. Thus, drugs that enhance cAMP signalling may provide a new therapeutic approach to counteract the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation.

  4. Sleep Deprivation and Time-Based Prospective Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria José; Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, PierCarla

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on time-based prospective memory performance, that is, realizing delayed intentions at an appropriate time in the future (e.g., to take a medicine in 30 minutes). Between-subjects experimental design. The experimental group underwent 24 h of total sleep deprivation, and the control group had a regular sleep-wake cycle. Participants were tested at 08:00. Laboratory. Fifty healthy young adults (mean age 22 ± 2.1, 31 female). 24 h of total sleep deprivation. Participants were monitored by wrist actigraphy for 3 days before the experimental session. The following cognitive tasks were administered: one time-based prospective memory task and 3 reasoning tasks as ongoing activity. Objective and subjective vigilance was assessed by the psychomotor vigilance task and a visual analog scale, respectively. To measure the time-based prospective memory task we assessed compliance and clock checking behavior (time monitoring). Sleep deprivation negatively affected time-based prospective memory compliance (P sleep deprivation on human behavior, particularly the ability to perform an intended action after a few minutes. Sleep deprivation strongly compromises time-based prospective memory compliance but does not affect time check frequency. Sleep deprivation may impair the mechanism that allows the integration of information related to time monitoring with the prospective intention. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. [Effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation on growth and learning/memory in young rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Li, Sheng-Hui; Cui, Mao-Long; Zhang, Yin; Wang, Cheng; Yu, Xiao-Gang; Yan, Chong-Huai

    2009-02-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on the immature brain remain unknown. Based on a computer controlled chronic sleep deprivation animal model, the effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation on growth, learning and memory in young rats were explored. Twelve weaned male Spraque-Dawley rats (3-week-old) were randomly divided into sleep deprivation, test control and blank control groups. Sleep deprivation was performed using computer-controlled "disc-over-water" technique at 8-11 am daily, for 14 days. The temperature and weights were measured every 7 days. Morris water maze was used to test spatial learning and memory abilities before and 7 and 14 days after sleep deprivation. After 14 days of sleep deprivation, the rats were sacrificed for weighting their major organs. After 14 days of sleep deprivation, the rats' temperature increased significantly. During the sleep deprivation, the rate of weight gain in the sleep deprivation group was much slower than that in the test control and blank control groups. The thymus of the rats subjected to sleep deprivation was much lighter than that of the blank control group. After 7 days of sleep deprivation, the rats showed slower acquisition of reference memory, but were capable of successfully performing the task by repeated exposure to the test. Such impairment of reference memory was not seen 14 days after sleep deprivation. Chronic sleep deprivation can affect growth of immature rats, as well as their abilities to acquire spatial reference memory.

  6. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  7. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome

    OpenAIRE

    Marie E. Gaine; Snehajyoti Chatterjee; Ted Abel

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of e...

  8. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  9. Sleep deprivation increases formation of false memory

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, June C.; Chong, Pearlynne L. H.; Ganesan, Shankari; Leong, Ruth L. F.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Retrieving false information can have serious consequences. Sleep is important for memory, but voluntary sleep curtailment is becoming more rampant. Here, the misinformation paradigm was used to investigate false memory formation after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in healthy young adults (N?=?58, mean age???SD?=?22.10???1.60?years; 29 males), and 7 nights of partial sleep deprivation (5?h sleep opportunity) in these young adults and healthy adolescents (N?=?54, mean age???SD?=?1...

  10. Effects of sleep deprivation on dissociated components of executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M; Whitney, Paul; Belenky, Gregory; Hinson, John M; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effects of sleep deprivation on executive functions using a task battery which included a modified Sternberg task, a probed recall task, and a phonemic verbal fluency task. These tasks were selected because they allow dissociation of some important executive processes from non-executive components of cognition. Subjects were randomized to a total sleep deprivation condition or a control condition. Performance on the executive functions task battery was assessed at baseline, after 51 h of total sleep deprivation (or no sleep deprivation in the control group), and following 2 nights of recovery sleep, at fixed time of day (11:00). Performance was also measured repeatedly throughout the experiment on a control task battery, for which the effects of total sleep deprivation had been documented in previously published studies. Six consecutive days and nights in a controlled laboratory environment with continuous behavioral monitoring. Twenty-three healthy adults (age range 22-38 y; 11 women). Twelve subjects were randomized to the sleep deprivation condition; the others were controls. Performance on the control task battery was considerably degraded during sleep deprivation. Overall performance on the modified Sternberg task also showed impairment during sleep deprivation, as compared to baseline and recovery and compared to controls. However, two dissociated components of executive functioning on this task--working memory scanning efficiency and resistance to proactive interference--were maintained at levels equivalent to baseline. On the probed recall task, resistance to proactive interference was also preserved. Executive aspects of performance on the phonemic verbal fluency task showed improvement during sleep deprivation, as did overall performance on this task. Sleep deprivation affected distinct components of cognitive processing differentially. Dissociated non-executive components of cognition in executive functions tasks were degraded by sleep

  11. A review of sleep deprivation studies evaluating the brain transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Alisa S; Huber, Jason D; O'Callaghan, James P; Rosen, Charles L; Miller, Diane B

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show a positive association between adequate sleep and good health. Further, disrupted sleep may increase the risk for CNS diseases, such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease. However, there has been limited progress in determining how sleep is linked to brain health or how sleep disruption may increase susceptibility to brain insult and disease. Animal studies can aid in understanding these links. In reviewing the animal literature related to the effects of sleep disruption on the brain, we found most of the work was directed toward investigating and characterizing the role of various brain areas or structures in initiating and regulating sleep. In contrast, limited effort has been directed towards understanding how sleep disruption alters the brain's health or susceptibility to insult. We also note many current studies have determined the changes in the brain following compromised sleep by examining, for example, the brain transcriptome or to a more limited extent the proteome. However, these studies have utilized almost exclusively total sleep deprivation (e.g., 24 out of 24 hours) paradigms or single short periods of limited acute sleep deprivation (e.g., 3 out of 24 hours). While such strategies are beneficial in understanding how sleep is controlled, they may not have much translational value for determining links between sleep and brain health or for determining how sleep disruption may increase brain susceptibility to insult. Surprisingly, few studies have determined how the duration and recurrence of sleep deprivation influence the effects seen after sleep deprivation. Our aim in this review was to identify relevant rodent studies from 1980 through 2012 and analyze those that use varying durations of sleep deprivation or restriction in their effort to evaluate the effects of sleep deprivation on the brain transcriptome and to a more limited extent the proteome. We examined how differences in the duration of sleep deprivation affect

  12. Spatial reversal learning is robust to total sleep deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, C.H.; Joosten, R.N.J.M.; Kramer, M.; Post, G.; Eggels, L.; Wuite, M.; Dematteis, M.; Feenstra, M.G.P.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation affects cognitive functions that depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) such as cognitive flexibility, and the consolidation of newly learned information. The identification of cognitive processes that are either robustly sensitive or robustly insensitive to the same experimental

  13. The effects of sleep deprivation on dissociable prototype learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W Todd; Glass, Brian D; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Savarie, Zachary R; Bowen, Christopher; Matthews, Michael D; Schnyer, David M

    2011-03-01

    The cognitive neural underpinnings of prototype learning are becoming clear. Evidence points to 2 different neural systems, depending on the learning parameters. A/not-A (AN) prototype learning is mediated by posterior brain regions that are involved in early perceptual learning, whereas A/B (AB) is mediated by frontal and medial temporal lobe regions. To investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on AN and AB prototype learning and to use established prototype models to provide insights into the cognitive-processing locus of sleep-deprivation deficits. Participants performed an AN and an AB prototype learning task twice, separated by a 24-hour period, with or without sleep between testing sessions. Eighteen West Point cadets participated in the sleep-deprivation group, and 17 West Point cadets participated in a control group. Sleep deprivation led to an AN, but not an AB, performance deficit. Prototype model analyses indicated that the AN deficit was due to changes in attentional focus and a decrease in confidence that is reflected in an increased bias to respond non-A. The findings suggest that AN, but not AB, prototype learning is affected by sleep deprivation. Prototype model analyses support the notion that the effect of sleep deprivation on AN is consistent with lapses in attentional focus that are more detrimental to AN than to AB. This finding adds to a growing body of work that suggests that different performance changes associated with sleep deprivation can be attributed to a common mechanism of changes in simple attention and vigilance.

  14. Sleep deprivation due to shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation due to shift work is related to perturbation of the sleep/wake cycle, associated with the modified activity/rest pattern. This may cause a significant disruption of circadian rhythms of biologic functions, driven by the body clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Shift and night workers have to change sleep times and strategies according to their duty periods; consequently, both sleep length and quality can be considerably affected depending on the variable start and finish times on different shifts. About 10% of night and rotating shift workers, aged between 18 and 65 years, have been estimated to have a diagnosable "shift-work sleep disorder," according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2 (ICSD-2). In the long run, this may lead to persistent and severe disturbances of sleep, chronic fatigue and psychoneurotic syndromes, besides being a risk or aggravating factor for accidents, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and reproductive disorders, as well as, probably, for cancer. Preventive and corrective actions deal with the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria, careful health surveillance, appropriate education and training on effective countermeasures, in particular, sleep hygiene and napping. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... REM sleep? What is the effect of sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? ... Some hormones produced during sleep affect the body's use of energy. This may be how inadequate sleep ...

  16. Physiological responses of men during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The effects of 84 hours of sleep deprivation were examined in a group of six young men and compared with a group of six controls. Subjects were studied in pairs, one sleep-deprived and one control. Primary attention was given to the responses to acut...

  17. Sleep deprivation and neurobehavioral functioning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maski, Kiran P; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-08-01

    Sleep deprivation can result in significant impairments in daytime neurobehavioral functioning in children. Neural substrates impacted by sleep deprivation include the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and amygdala and result in difficulties with executive functioning, reward anticipation and emotional reactivity respectively. In everyday life, such difficulties contribute to academic struggles, challenging behaviors and public health concerns of substance abuse and suicidality. In this article, we aim to review 1) core neural structures impacted by sleep deprivation; 2) neurobehavioral problems associated with sleep deprivation; 3) specific mechanisms that may explain the relationship between sleep disturbances and neurobehavioral dysfunction; and 4) sleep problems reported in common neurodevelopmental disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Sleep deprivation reduces neuroglobin immunoreactivity in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo-Gutiérrez, Montserrat; Acosta-Peña, Eva; Venebra-Muñoz, Arturo; Escobar, Carolina; Santiago-García, Juan; Garcia-Garcia, Fabio

    2013-02-13

    Neuroglobin (Ngb), a protein located in the mammal's brain, is involved in oxygen transport and free radical scavenging inside the neurons. Ngb colocalizes with choline acetyltransferase in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and in the pontine tegmental nucleus, both involved in the sleep-wake cycle regulation. Some studies have shown that free radicals accumulated during prolonged wakefulness are removed during sleep. Therefore, Ngb could act as a regulator of free radicals generated during prolonged wakefulness in the brain. The aim of this study was to determine whether prolonged wakefulness affects Ngb immunoreactivity because of increases in the oxidative stress induced by continuous neuronal activity. For this purpose, male adult Wistar rats were implanted with electrodes for sleep recordings and were divided into control and sleep-deprived groups. Sleep deprivation was carried out for 24 h by gentle handling of the animals. Sleep-wake activity was determined during the deprivation period or 24 h of control conditions. Subsequently, both groups of animals were killed and their brains were obtained and processed for Ngb immunohistochemical analysis and detection of lipid peroxidation. Our data found no evidence of increased oxidative stress in the brains of sleep-deprived animals compared with the controls. The number of Ngb-positive cells was decreased in the sleep-deprived animals in all analyzed areas of the brain compared with the control group. Our results suggest that Ngb could be involved in sleep regulation, independent of its role in the control of oxidative stress.

  19. [Sleep deprivation and pain: a review of the newest literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmann, A J; Kundermann, B; Lautenbacher, S

    2014-04-01

    It has now been established that sleep deprivation or fragmentation causes hyperalgesia which cannot be explained by a general change in somatosensory perception. However, it has not yet been clarified which of the sleep stages are most relevant for this effect. The seemingly paradoxical effects of sleep deprivation on pain-evoked brain potentials on the one hand and the subjective pain report on the other hand suggest complex changes in gating mechanisms. As the effects on pain and affect can be dissociated a common mechanism of action seems unlikely. Data from animal studies suggest that hyperalgesia due to sleep deprivation might be particularly strong under preexisting neuropathic conditions. Together with results from animal research the finding that endogenous pain modulation (CPM) is impaired by sleep deprivation suggests that the serotoninergic system mediates the effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception. However, other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators still have to be considered. The clinically relevant question arises why sleep deprivation induces hyperalgesia more easily in certain individuals than in others and why this effect then has a longer duration?

  20. Immediate error correction process following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shulan; Cheng, I-Chen; Tsai, Ling-Ling

    2007-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that one night of sleep deprivation decreases frontal lobe metabolic activity, particularly in the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), resulting in decreased performance in various executive function tasks. This study thus attempted to address whether sleep deprivation impaired the executive function of error detection and error correction. Sixteen young healthy college students (seven women, nine men, with ages ranging from 18 to 23 years) participated in this study. Participants performed a modified letter flanker task and were instructed to make immediate error corrections on detecting performance errors. Event-related potentials (ERPs) during the flanker task were obtained using a within-subject, repeated-measure design. The error negativity or error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) and the error positivity (Pe) seen immediately after errors were analyzed. The results show that the amplitude of the Ne/ERN was reduced significantly following sleep deprivation. Reduction also occurred for error trials with subsequent correction, indicating that sleep deprivation influenced error correction ability. This study further demonstrated that the impairment in immediate error correction following sleep deprivation was confined to specific stimulus types, with both Ne/ERN and behavioral correction rates being reduced only for trials in which flanker stimuli were incongruent with the target stimulus, while the response to the target was compatible with that of the flanker stimuli following sleep deprivation. The results thus warrant future systematic investigation of the interaction between stimulus type and error correction following sleep deprivation.

  1. Sleep deprivation impairs object recognition in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palchykova, S; Winsky-Sommerer, R; Meerlo, P; Durr, R; Tobler, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Many studies in animals and humans suggest that sleep facilitates learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval. Moreover, sleep deprivation (SD) incurred after learning, impaired memory in humans, mice, rats, and hamsters. We investigated the importance of sleep and its timing in in object

  2. Deconstructing and Reconstructing Cognitive Performance in Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M.; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. PMID:22884948

  3. Deconstructing and reconstructing cognitive performance in sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2013-06-01

    Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep deprivation and interference by emotional distracters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Lisa Y M; Dolcos, Florin; Chen, Annette K; Zheng, Hui; Parimal, Sarayu; Chee, Michael W L

    2010-10-01

    We determined if sleep deprivation would amplify the effect of negative emotional distracters on working memory. A crossover design involving 2 functional neuroimaging scans conducted at least one week apart. One scan followed a normal night of sleep and the other followed 24 h of sleep deprivation. Scanning order was counterbalanced across subjects. The study took place in a research laboratory. 24 young, healthy volunteers with no history of any sleep, psychiatric, or neurologic disorders. N/A. Study participants were scanned while performing a delayed-response working memory task. Two distracters were presented during the maintenance phase, and these differed in content: highly arousing, negative emotional scenes; low-arousing, neutral scenes; and digitally scrambled versions of the pictures. Irrespective of whether volunteers were sleep deprived, negative emotional (relative to neutral) distracters elicited greater maintenance-related activity in the amygdala, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and fusiform gyri, while concurrently depressing activity in cognitive control regions. Individuals who maintained or increased distracter-related amygdala activation after sleep deprivation showed increased working memory disruptions by negative emotional distracters. These individuals also showed reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, regions postulated to mediate cognitive control against emotional distraction. Increased distraction by emotional stimuli following sleep deprivation is accompanied by increases in amygdala activation and reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cognitive control regions. These findings shed light on the neural basis for interindividual variation in how negative emotional stimuli might distract sleep deprived persons.

  5. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Derrick J; Schei, Jennifer L; Rector, David M

    2013-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65 dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80 cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma.

  6. Acute Sleep Deprivation Blocks Short- and Long-Term Operant Memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Gandour, Catherine E; Ramos, Joshua L; Wrinkle, Mariah C; Sanchez-Pacheco, Joseph J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Insufficient sleep in individuals appears increasingly common due to the demands of modern work schedules and technology use. Consequently, there is a growing need to understand the interactions between sleep deprivation and memory. The current study determined the effects of acute sleep deprivation on short and long-term associative memory using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica , a relatively simple model system well known for studies of learning and memory. Aplysia were sleep deprived for 9 hours using context changes and tactile stimulation either prior to or after training for the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI). The effects of sleep deprivation on short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) were assessed. Acute sleep deprivation prior to LFI training impaired the induction of STM and LTM with persistent effects lasting at least 24 h. Sleep deprivation immediately after training blocked the consolidation of LTM. However, sleep deprivation following the period of molecular consolidation did not affect memory recall. Memory impairments were independent of handling-induced stress, as daytime handled control animals demonstrated no memory deficits. Additional training immediately after sleep deprivation failed to rescue the induction of memory, but additional training alleviated the persistent impairment in memory induction when training occurred 24 h following sleep deprivation. Acute sleep deprivation inhibited the induction and consolidation, but not the recall of memory. These behavioral studies establish Aplysia as an effective model system for studying the interactions between sleep and memory formation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Sleepability and Wakeability Following Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Physiology & Pathology . Philadelphia: Lippincott, 206-220, 1969. Johnson, L.C. and Naitoh, P. The operational consequences of sleep depriva- tion and sleep ...ARI Research Note 86-64 "SLEEPABILITY" AND "WAKEABILITY" FOLLOWING SLEEP DEPRIVATION 00 N Peretz Lavie SFaculty of MedicineLfl Technion, Israel...Note 86-64 A ___/___’_____ 4. TITLE (nd Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED "Sleepability" and "Wakeability" Final Report Following Sleep

  8. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep rebound—the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation—is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Methods: To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. Results: We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the

  9. A Time for Learning and a Time for Sleep : The Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Contextual Fear Conditioning at Different Times of the Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagewoud, Roelina; Whitcomb, Shamiso N.; Heeringa, Amarins N.; Havekes, Robbert; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep deprivation negatively affects memory consolidation, especially in the case of hippocampus-dependent memories. Studies in rodents have shown that 5 hours of sleep deprivation immediately following footshock exposure selectively impairs the formation of a contextual fear

  10. Sleep deprivation leads to mood deficits in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Louca, Mia

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of 36 h of sleep deprivation on the discrete mood states of anger, depression, anxiety, confusion, fatigue, and vigour in healthy adolescents. Twelve healthy adolescent good sleepers (six male), aged 14-18 years (M = 16.17, standard deviation (SD) = 0.83), spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory of the Centre for Sleep Research: two baseline nights with 10-h sleep opportunities and one night of total sleep deprivation. Every 2 h during wakefulness, they completed the Profile of Mood States - Short Form. Mood across two baseline days was compared to mood at the same clock time (0900 h to 1900 h) following one night without sleep. The subscales of depression, anger, confusion, anxiety, vigour, and fatigue were compared across days. All mood states significantly worsened following one night without sleep. Females showed a greater vulnerability to mood deficits following sleep loss, with greater depressed mood and anxiety following sleep deprivation only witnessed among female participants. While both males and females reported more confusion following sleep deprivation, the magnitude of this effect was greater for females. This study provides empirical support for the notion that sleep loss can causally affect mood states in healthy adolescents, with females having heightened vulnerability. Understanding the detrimental effects of insufficient sleep during adolescence is important, as it is a stage where sleep loss and mood dysregulation are highly prevalent. These findings escalate the importance of promoting sleep for the well-being of adolescents at this critical life phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-05-01

    Sleep rebound-the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation-is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the duration and depth of sleep after

  12. Sleep deprivation increases formation of false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Chong, Pearlynne L H; Ganesan, Shankari; Leong, Ruth L F; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-12-01

    Retrieving false information can have serious consequences. Sleep is important for memory, but voluntary sleep curtailment is becoming more rampant. Here, the misinformation paradigm was used to investigate false memory formation after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in healthy young adults (N = 58, mean age ± SD = 22.10 ± 1.60 years; 29 males), and 7 nights of partial sleep deprivation (5 h sleep opportunity) in these young adults and healthy adolescents (N = 54, mean age ± SD = 16.67 ± 1.03 years; 25 males). In both age groups, sleep-deprived individuals were more likely than well-rested persons to incorporate misleading post-event information into their responses during memory retrieval (P sleep in optimal cognitive functioning, reveal the vulnerability of adolescents' memory during sleep curtailment, and suggest the need to assess eyewitnesses' sleep history after encountering misleading information. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Recovery sleep after sleep deprivation almost completely abolishes dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Luigi; Marzano, Cristina; Moroni, Fabio; Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; Cipolli, Carlo

    2010-01-20

    The study investigated the effect of one night of sleep deprivation on dream recall at morning awakening after recovery sleep. Forty healthy subjects were studied after adaptation (A) and baseline nights (B), and a recovery (R) night following 40 h of prolonged wakefulness. Parallel to the well-known recovery sleep changes (slow-wave sleep--SWS--rebound, decreased number of awakenings and of REM sleep amount), an almost complete abolition of dream recall was found, with an around 75% decrease with respect to the adaptation and baseline nights. The number of dreams recalled by those subjects with successful recall (REC) did not significantly differ between nights. Moreover, gender and sleep stage at awakening did not affect either the proportion of REC subjects or the number of dreams recalled by REC subjects during each night. Finally, the drastic impairment of dream recall after R night was associated to a larger increase of SWS and a shorter REM sleep duration. We suggest that dream recall could have been impaired during R night because: (i) the lower number of spontaneous awakenings over the night reduced the contents available in memory as possible cues for the retrieval of dream experiences at morning; (ii) mental experiences, having been elaborated during SWS more than in the other nights, were less dreamlike (i.e., perceptually vivid and bizarre) and, thus less accessible at morning recall than those elaborated during the nights with a higher proportion of REM sleep; (iii) dream contents, as a peculiar type of episodic information, were less consolidated because of the lower effectiveness of declarative memory during recovery sleep.

  14. Total sleep deprivation study in delayed sleep-phase syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, Md Dilshad; Hameed, Unaise Abdul; Hussain, M Ejaz

    2011-04-01

    Delayed sleep-phase syndrome (DSPS) is characterized by delayed sleep onset against the desired clock time. It often presents with symptoms of sleep-onset insomnia or difficulty in awakening at the desired time. We report the finding of sleep studies after 24 h total sleep deprivation (TSD) in a 28-year-old DSPS male patient. He had characteristics of mild chronic DSPS, which may have been precipitated by his frequent night shift assignments. The TSD improved the patients sleep latency and efficiency but all other sleep variables showed marked differences.

  15. Tail-pinch stress and REM sleep deprivation differentially affect sensorimotor gating function in modafinil-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yia-Ping; Tung, Che-Se; Chuang, Chia-Hsin; Lo, Shih-Mao; Ku, Yu-Chi

    2011-05-16

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a phenomenon in which a mild stimulus attenuates a cross-modality startle response to later intense stimulation. PPI is thought to index the central inhibitory mechanism through which behavioural responses are filtered. The present study compared the effects of two stress paradigms on the acoustic startle response (ASR) and on PPI in a rat model. The tail-pinch (TP) method produces an acute and immediate stressful condition, whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) leads to a more persistent and long-term stress. Our results demonstrated that in rats, TP stress reduced the size of the ASR, and REMSD impaired PPI. The wake-promoting agent modafinil (MOD) had no effect on PPI if given alone. However, MOD reduced the ASR and PPI under TP stress, whereas only PPI was reduced by MOD after 96 h of REMSD. These results suggest that distinct stress paradigms differentially mediated sensorimotor gating abilities in terms of either responsiveness to the stimulus or information-filtering capabilities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased dietary fat prevents sleep deprivation-induced immune suppression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horohov, D W; Pourciau, S S; Mistric, L; Chapman, A; Ryan, D H

    2001-06-01

    Fatty acid composition of rodent diets can affect baseline immune function as measured in vitro and in vivo. Stress, in a variety of forms, can also affect immune function. Possible interaction between diet and other stressors has not been fully explored. We examined the interaction between sleep deprivation stress and dietary fatty acid composition in altering lymphocyte responses to mitogen stimulation. Rats were fed diets containing various sources of fatty acids, then were subjected to sleep deprivation. Splenocytes were harvested and assayed for responsiveness to various mitogens, using a 72-h proliferation assay. Rats subjected to sleep deprivation experienced significant suppression of in vitro proliferative response to various mitogens. This immune suppression was dependent on duration of sleep deprivation. Feeding sleep deprived rats a diet enriched in fatty acids abrogated the effect of sleep deprivation. The fat content of rodent diets can have a marked effect on baseline and stress-modulated immune responses.

  17. Occurrence of epileptiform discharges and sleep during EEG recordings in children after melatonin intake versus sleep-deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Greta; Broström, Anders; Ulander, Martin; Vrethem, Magnus; Svanborg, Eva

    2015-08-01

    To determine if melatonin is equally efficient as partial sleep deprivation in inducing sleep without interfering with epileptiform discharges in EEG recordings in children 1-16 years old. We retrospectively analysed 129 EEGs recorded after melatonin intake and 113 EEGs recorded after partial sleep deprivation. Comparisons were made concerning occurrence of epileptiform discharges, the number of children who fell asleep and the technical quality of EEG recordings. Comparison between different age groups was also made. No significant differences were found regarding occurrence of epileptiform discharges (33% after melatonin intake, 36% after sleep deprivation), or proportion of unsuccessful EEGs (8% and 10%, respectively). Melatonin and sleep deprivation were equally efficient in inducing sleep (70% in both groups). Significantly more children aged 1-4 years obtained sleep after melatonin intake in comparison to sleep deprivation (82% vs. 58%, p⩽0.01), and in comparison to older children with melatonin induced sleep (58-67%, p⩽0.05). Sleep deprived children 9-12 years old had higher percentage of epileptiform discharges (62%, p⩽0.05) compared to younger sleep deprived children. Melatonin is equally efficient as partial sleep deprivation to induce sleep and does not affect the occurrence of epileptiform discharges in the EEG recording. Sleep deprivation could still be preferable in older children as melatonin probably has less sleep inducing effect. Melatonin induced sleep have advantages, especially in younger children as they fall asleep easier than after sleep deprivation. The procedure is easier for the parents than keeping a young child awake for half the night. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of anesthesia on the response to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Aaron B; Faraguna, Ugo; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2010-12-01

    Slow wave activity (SWA) during NREM sleep is the best characterized marker of sleep homeostasis, and the occurrence of sleep slow waves is necessary to reduce sleep need. Recent evidence suggests that sleep slow waves may mediate several beneficial effects of sleep on performance, from the prevention of cognitive impairments to memory consolidation. However, slow waves are also triggered by low doses of many anesthetics, but very few reports have examined whether anesthesia-mediated slow waves affect the homeostatic regulation of sleep. Moreover, no study has examined how sleep is affected by higher doses of anesthetics, which lead to a predominantly "isoelectric" EEG tracing without slow waves. We studied in rats whether 1 hour of a dose of isoflurane or desflurane able to induce almost continuous slow waves (ISO-sw, DES-sw), and of a dose of desflurane resulting in a predominantly isoelectric EEG (DES-iso) reduces the sleep pressure caused by 4 h of sleep deprivation. Anesthesia was compared to a mock condition in which rats were only anesthetized for 2-3 min. Basic sleep research laboratory. Male WKY rats (n=31). Total sleep deprivation by exposure to novel objects starting at light onset, followed by one hour of anesthesia or mock anesthesia. One hour of anesthesia (sw or iso) did not affect either sleep duration or the overall sleep pattern. Anesthesia with ISO-sw or DES-sw, both associated with the occurrence of almost continuous slow waves, reduced the SWA rebound expected following 4 h of sleep deprivation. One hour of anesthesia with DES-iso, associated with isoelectric EEG and few slow waves, also reduced the SWA rebound after sleep deprivation, and did so to an extent similar to that observed after DES-sw. However, in contrast to DES-sw, SWA after DES-iso remained chronically lower than in baseline, resulting in reduced slow wave energy (SWE, SWA × time) for at least 2 days. The blunted SWA rebound after ISO-sw and DES-sw suggests that anesthesia slow

  19. Slow wave and REM sleep deprivation effects on explicit and implicit memory during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sarah J; Solomons, Luke C; Steier, Joerg; Kabra, Neeraj; Burnside, Anna; Pengo, Martino F; Moxham, John; Goldstein, Laura H; Kopelman, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    It has been debated whether different stages in the human sleep cycle preferentially mediate the consolidation of explicit and implicit memories, or whether all of the stages in succession are necessary for optimal consolidation. Here we investigated whether the selective deprivation of slow wave sleep (SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep over an entire night would have a specific effect on consolidation in explicit and implicit memory tasks. Participants completed a set of explicit and implicit memory tasks at night, prior to sleep. They had 1 control night of undisturbed sleep and 2 experimental nights, during which either SWS or REM sleep was selectively deprived across the entire night (sleep conditions counterbalanced across participants). Polysomnography recordings quantified precisely the amount of SWS and REM sleep that occurred during each of the sleep conditions, and spindle counts were recorded. In the morning, participants completed the experimental tasks in the same sequence as the night before. SWS deprivation disrupted the consolidation of explicit memories for visuospatial information (ηp2 = .23), and both SWS (ηp2 = .53) and REM sleep (ηp2 = .52) deprivation adversely affected explicit verbal recall. Neither SWS nor REM sleep deprivation affected aspects of short-term or working memory, and did not affect measures of verbal implicit memory. Spindle counts did not correlate significantly with memory performance. These findings demonstrate the importance of measuring the sleep cycles throughout the entire night, and the contribution of both SWS and REM sleep to memory consolidation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effects of sleep deprivation on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghimi, L; Obermeyer, W H; Ballamudi, B; Martinez-Gonzalez, D; Benca, R M

    2005-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is widely regarded as a stressor and has been shown to have significant effects on host defences. Severely sleep-deprived rats develop lesions on their paws and tails, suggesting possible deficits in the healing process. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RSD) on wound healing in a rat model. Male dark-hooded Long-Evans rats, 2-4 months old, were subjected to dorsal application of two sterile punch biopsies, each 3.5 mm in size. Biopsies were performed either immediately before or immediately after 5 days of sleep deprivation. Wound healing in REM sleep-deprived animals was compared with home cage control and yoked control animals. RSD did not produce differences in the rate of healing, regardless of the timing of the biopsy punch. RSD does not appear to have significant effects on wound healing and thus appears to act differently from other types of stressors on wound healing.

  1. Effects of proprioceptive vibratory stimulation on body movement at 24 and 36h of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, S; Patel, M; Berg, S; Magnusson, M; Johansson, R; Fransson, P A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether postural stability and adaptation differed after a normal night of sleep, after 24h (24 SDep) and 36h (36 SDep) of sleep deprivation while subjected to repeated balance perturbations. Also, to determine whether there was any correlation between subjective alertness scores and objective posturographic measurements. Lastly, to investigate the effects of vision on the stability during sleep deprivation. Body movements at five locations were recorded in 18 subjects (mean age 23.8years) using a 3D movement measurement system while subjected with eyes open and closed to vibratory proprioceptive calf stimulation after a normal night of sleep, 24 and 36 SDep. The clearest sleep deprivation effect was reduced ability to adapt head, shoulder and hip movements, both with eyes open and eyes closed. Additionally, several near falls occurred after being subjected to balance perturbations for 2-3min while sleep deprived. Unexpectedly, postural performance did not continue to deteriorate between 24 and 36h of sleep deprivation, but showed some signs of improvement. Subjective scores of sleepiness correlated poorly with actual changes in postural control performance. Sleep deprivation might affect postural stability through reduced adaptation ability and lapses in attention. Subjective alertness might not be an accurate indicator of the physiological effects of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation could increase the risk of accidents in attention demanding tasks. There is a need for objective evaluation methods to determine actual performance capacity during sleep deprivation.

  2. The impact of sleep deprivation on neuronal and glial signalling pathways important for memory and synaptic plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Havekes, Robbert; Vecsey, Christopher G.; Abel, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is a common feature in modern society, and one of the consequences of sleep loss is the impairment of cognitive function. Although it has been widely accepted that sleep deprivation affects learning and memory, only recently has research begun to address which molecular signalling pathways are altered by sleep loss and, more importantly, which pathways can be targeted to reverse the memory impairments resulting from sleep deprivation. In this review, we discuss the different...

  3. Feedback Blunting: Total Sleep Deprivation Impairs Decision Making that Requires Updating Based on Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Jackson, Melinda L; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-05-01

    To better understand the sometimes catastrophic effects of sleep loss on naturalistic decision making, we investigated effects of sleep deprivation on decision making in a reversal learning paradigm requiring acquisition and updating of information based on outcome feedback. Subjects were randomized to a sleep deprivation or control condition, with performance testing at baseline, after 2 nights of total sleep deprivation (or rested control), and following 2 nights of recovery sleep. Subjects performed a decision task involving initial learning of go and no go response sets followed by unannounced reversal of contingencies, requiring use of outcome feedback for decisions. A working memory scanning task and psychomotor vigilance test were also administered. Six consecutive days and nights in a controlled laboratory environment with continuous behavioral monitoring. Twenty-six subjects (22-40 y of age; 10 women). Thirteen subjects were randomized to a 62-h total sleep deprivation condition; the others were controls. Unlike controls, sleep deprived subjects had difficulty with initial learning of go and no go stimuli sets and had profound impairment adapting to reversal. Skin conductance responses to outcome feedback were diminished, indicating blunted affective reactions to feedback accompanying sleep deprivation. Working memory scanning performance was not significantly affected by sleep deprivation. And although sleep deprived subjects showed expected attentional lapses, these could not account for impairments in reversal learning decision making. Sleep deprivation is particularly problematic for decision making involving uncertainty and unexpected change. Blunted reactions to feedback while sleep deprived underlie failures to adapt to uncertainty and changing contingencies. Thus, an error may register, but with diminished effect because of reduced affective valence of the feedback or because the feedback is not cognitively bound with the choice. This has important

  4. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Acute Sleep Deprivation Blocks Short- and Long-Term Operant Memory in Aplysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C.; Gandour, Catherine E.; Ramos, Joshua L.; Wrinkle, Mariah C.; Sanchez-Pacheco, Joseph J.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insufficient sleep in individuals appears increasingly common due to the demands of modern work schedules and technology use. Consequently, there is a growing need to understand the interactions between sleep deprivation and memory. The current study determined the effects of acute sleep deprivation on short and long-term associative memory using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, a relatively simple model system well known for studies of learning and memory. Methods: Aplysia were sleep deprived for 9 hours using context changes and tactile stimulation either prior to or after training for the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI). The effects of sleep deprivation on short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) were assessed. Results: Acute sleep deprivation prior to LFI training impaired the induction of STM and LTM with persistent effects lasting at least 24 h. Sleep deprivation immediately after training blocked the consolidation of LTM. However, sleep deprivation following the period of molecular consolidation did not affect memory recall. Memory impairments were independent of handling-induced stress, as daytime handled control animals demonstrated no memory deficits. Additional training immediately after sleep deprivation failed to rescue the induction of memory, but additional training alleviated the persistent impairment in memory induction when training occurred 24 h following sleep deprivation. Conclusions: Acute sleep deprivation inhibited the induction and consolidation, but not the recall of memory. These behavioral studies establish Aplysia as an effective model system for studying the interactions between sleep and memory formation. Citation: Krishnan HC, Gandour CE, Ramos JL, Wrinkle MC, Sanchez-Pacheco JJ, Lyons LC. Acute sleep deprivation blocks short- and long-term operant memory in Aplysia. SLEEP 2016;39(12):2161–2171. PMID:27748243

  6. Decrease in monocular sleep after sleep deprivation in the domestic chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, AS; Riedstra, B; Strijkstra, AM

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the trade-off between sleep need and alertness, by challenging chickens to modify their monocular sleep. We sleep deprived domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to increase their sleep need. We found that in response to sleep deprivation the fraction of monocular sleep within sleep

  7. Countermeasures for sleep loss and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Clete A

    2006-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is ubiquitous and carries profound consequences in terms of personal and public health and safety. There is no substitute for a good night's sleep. Sleep that is optimal in quality and quantity for individuals, factoring in their age and personal sleep requirements, will minimize sleep debt and maximize daytime performance. Therefore, setting aside an adequate amount of time for sleep should be a priority; sleep should not be sacrificed at the expense of other activities of daily living. Nevertheless, there are certain therapeutic countermeasures available for individuals who are unable to obtain adequate sleep because of medical or sleep-related conditions (eg, narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea) when excessive daytime sleepiness is the main feature of the condition, or residual sleepiness despite treatment for the main conditions is present. These therapeutic countermeasures may also be considered in situations in which occupational constraints (eg, rotating shift work, military duty) dictate that constant or heightened vigilance is important or critical to work performance, crucial decision making, and/or survival. Exploration of the causes of sleep loss or deprivation, whether it is voluntary, or work or family induced, and/or the effects of a medical or sleep disorder, is a necessary first step in the evaluation of a patient who has significant daytime fatigue or sleepiness. Wake-promoting substances and medications such as caffeine, modafinil, methylphenidate, and dextroamphetamine may be considered in situations in which sleep loss is unavoidable or persists despite treatment of an underlying disorder that is characterized by or associated with daytime fatigue or sleepiness.

  8. Prevention and treatment of sleep deprivation among emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas

    2007-07-01

    Emergency physicians commonly experience sleep deprivation because of the need to work shifts during evening and late night hours. The negative effects of this problem are compounded by job stress and traditional methods of scheduling work shifts. Sleep deprivation may be reduced by schedules designed to lessen interference with normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms. Pharmacological treatments for sleep deprivation exist in the form of alertness-enhancing agents, caffeine and modafinil. Sleep-promoting agents may also help treat the problem by helping physicians to sleep during daytime hours. Minimizing sleep deprivation may help prevent job burnout and prolong the length of an emergency physician's career.

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Antidepressant Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Elaine M; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F; Smith, Rachel V; Goel, Namni; Detre, John A; Basner, Mathias; Sheline, Yvette I; Thase, Michael E; Gehrman, Philip R

    To provide a quantitative meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation to complement qualitative reviews addressing response rates. English-language studies from 1974 to 2016 using the keywords sleep deprivation and depression searched through PubMed and PsycINFO databases. A total of 66 independent studies met criteria for inclusion: conducted experimental sleep deprivation, reported the percentage of the sample that responded to sleep deprivation, provided a priori definition of antidepressant response, and did not seamlessly combine sleep deprivation with other therapies (eg, chronotherapeutics, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation). Data extracted included percentage of responders, type of sample (eg, bipolar, unipolar), type of sleep deprivation (eg, total, partial), demographics, medication use, type of outcome measure used, and definition of response (eg, 30% reduction in depression ratings). Data were analyzed with meta-analysis of proportions and a Poisson mixed-effects regression model. The overall response rate to sleep deprivation was 45% among studies that utilized a randomized control group and 50% among studies that did not. The response to sleep deprivation was not affected significantly by the type of sleep deprivation performed, the nature of the clinical sample, medication status, the definition of response used, or age and gender of the sample. These findings support a significant effect of sleep deprivation and suggest the need for future studies on the phenotypic nature of the antidepressant response to sleep deprivation, on the neurobiological mechanisms of action, and on moderators of the sleep deprivation treatment response in depression. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Measurement of cognition in studies of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M

    2010-01-01

    Controlled laboratory studies of the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition have the potential to further our understanding of why some complex tasks are more affected by lack of sleep than other tasks. However, apparently simple cognitive tasks reflect multiple cognitive processes at once. Some of the component processes involved in a task may be more affected by sleep deprivation than others. Thus, interpreting measures of overall performance without consideration of the specific task requirements can lead to misleading conclusions. Using examples from studies of attention, working memory and executive functioning, we demonstrate the importance of analysing how different task components contribute to performance and how the nature of the stimulus content can influence outcomes of sleep deprivation studies. Recent developments in cognitive neuropsychology may help sleep researchers conduct more precise tests of fatigue effects on cognition. In turn, studies of sleep and cognition hold promise as a strategy for the development of better general models of how the cognitive system adjusts dynamically to impairments in processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Item and Associative Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation adversely affects the ability to perform cognitive tasks, but theories range from predicting an overall decline in cognitive functioning because of reduced stability in attentional networks to specific deficits in various cognitive domains or processes. We measured the effects of sleep deprivation on two memory tasks, item…

  12. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep–wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598

  13. Sleep deprivation effects on object discrimination task in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro-da-Silva, Jaquelinne; Silva, Priscila Fernandes; Nogueira, Marcelo Borges; Luchiari, Ana Carolina

    2017-03-01

    The zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate model for neurobehavioral studies with translational relevance to humans. Many aspects of sleep have been studied, but we still do not understand how and why sleep deprivation alters behavioral and physiological processes. A number of hypotheses suggest its role in memory consolidation. In this respect, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sleep deprivation on memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio), using an object discrimination paradigm. Four treatments were tested: control, partial sleep deprivation, total sleep deprivation by light pulses, and total sleep deprivation by extended light. The control group explored the new object more than the known object, indicating clear discrimination. The partially sleep-deprived group explored the new object more than the other object in the discrimination phase, suggesting a certain degree of discriminative performance. By contrast, both total sleep deprivation groups equally explored all objects, regardless of their novelty. It seems that only one night of sleep deprivation is enough to affect discriminative response in zebrafish, indicating its negative impact on cognitive processes. We suggest that this study could be a useful screening tool for cognitive dysfunction and a better understanding of the effect of sleep-wake cycles on cognition.

  14. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Renata; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Goel, Namni; Cardinale, Christopher J; Dinges, David F; Kuna, Samuel T; Maislin, Greg; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Tufik, Sergio; Hogenesch, John B; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pack, Allan I

    2014-08-01

    Earlier work described a mutation in DEC2 also known as BHLHE41 (basic helix-loophelix family member e41) as causal in a family of short sleepers, who needed just 6 h sleep per night. We evaluated whether there were other variants of this gene in two well-phenotyped cohorts. Sequencing of the BHLHE41 gene, electroencephalographic data, and delta power analysis and functional studies using cell-based luciferase. We identified new variants of the BHLHE41 gene in two cohorts who had either acute sleep deprivation (n = 200) or chronic partial sleep deprivation (n = 217). One variant, Y362H, at another location in the same exon occurred in one twin in a dizygotic twin pair and was associated with reduced sleep duration, less recovery sleep following sleep deprivation, and fewer performance lapses during sleep deprivation than the homozygous twin. Both twins had almost identical amounts of non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. This variant reduced the ability of BHLHE41 to suppress CLOCK/BMAL1 and NPAS2/BMAL1 transactivation in vitro. Another variant in the same exome had no effect on sleep or response to sleep deprivation and no effect on CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Random mutagenesis identified a number of other variants of BHLHE41 that affect its function. There are a number of mutations of BHLHE41. Mutations reduce total sleep while maintaining NREM sleep and provide resistance to the effects of sleep loss. Mutations that affect sleep also modify the normal inhibition of BHLHE41 of CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Thus, clock mechanisms are likely involved in setting sleep length and the magnitude of sleep homeostasis. Pellegrino R, Kavakli IH, Goel N, Cardinale CJ, Dinges DF, Kuna ST, Maislin G, Van Dongen HP, Tufik S, Hogenesch JB, Hakonarson H, Pack AI. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1327-1336.

  15. Sleep deprivation influences some but not all processes of supervisory attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J. R.; Monk, T. H.; van der Molen, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    Does one night of sleep deprivation alter processes of supervisory attention in general or only a specific subset of such processes? Twenty college-aged volunteers, half female, performed a choice reaction time task. A cue indicated that compatible (e.g., right button, right-pointing arrow) or incompatible (e.g., left button, right-pointing arrow) responses were to be given to a stimulus that followed 50 or 500 ms later. The paradigm assessed response inhibition, task-shifting skill, and task strategy-processes inherent in supervisory attention. Performance, along with heart rate, was assessed for 12 hr following normal sleep or a night of complete sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation altered neither preparation for task shifting nor response inhibition. The ability to use preparatory bias to speed performance did decrease with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation appears to selectively affect this supervisory attention process, which is perceived as an active effort to cope with a challenging task.

  16. Cold hands, warm feet: sleep deprivation disrupts thermoregulation and its association with vigilance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, N.; Verweij, I.M.; Koeleman, A.; Mooij, A.; Steimke, R.; Virkkala, J.; van der Werf, Y.D.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Vigilance is affected by induced and spontaneous skin temperature fluctuations. Whereas sleep deprivation strongly affects vigilance, no previous study examined in detail its effect on human skin temperature fluctuations and their association with vigilance. Design: In a

  17. Too tired to inspire or be inspired: Sleep deprivation and charismatic leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Guarana, Cristiano L; Nauman, Shazia; Kong, Dejun Tony

    2016-08-01

    We draw from theory on sleep and affect regulation to extend the emotional labor model of leadership. We examine both leader and follower sleep as important antecedents of attributions of charismatic leadership. In Study 1, we manipulate the sleep of leaders, and find that leader emotional labor in the form of deep acting (but not surface acting or authentically experienced positive affect) mediates the harmful effect of leader sleep deprivation on follower ratings of charismatic leadership. In Study 2, we manipulate the sleep of followers, and find that follower experienced positive affect mediates the harmful effect of follower sleep deprivation on follower ratings of charismatic leadership of the leader. Thus, both leader and follower sleep deprivation harm attributions of charismatic leadership, with the regulation and experience of affect as causal mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. [Effects of sleep deprivation in hippocampal neurogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Virgen, Verónica; Zárate-López, David; Adirsch, Fabián L; Collas-Aguilar, Jorge; González-Pérez, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus is a process that involves proliferation, differentiation, maturation, migration, and integration of young neurons in the granular layer of DG. These newborn neurons mature in three to four weeks and incorporate into neural circuits in the hippocampus. There, these new neurons play a role in cognitive functions, such as acquisition and retention of memory, which are consolidated during sleep period. In this review, we describe recent findings that associate sleep deprivation with changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive processes. In addition, we describe possible mechanisms implicated in this deterioration such as circadian rhythm, melatonin receptors, and growth factors.

  19. The prospective association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robert E; Duong, Hao T

    2014-02-01

    To examine the prospective, reciprocal association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. A community-based two-wave cohort study. A metropolitan area with a population of over 4 million. 4,175 youths 11-17 at baseline, and 3,134 of these followed up a year later. Depression is measured using both symptoms of depression and DSM-IV major depression. Sleep deprivation is defined as ≤ 6 h of sleep per night. Sleep deprivation at baseline predicted both measures of depression at follow-up, controlling for depression at baseline. Examining the reciprocal association, major depression at baseline, but not symptoms predicted sleep deprivation at follow-up. These results are the first to document reciprocal effects for major depression and sleep deprivation among adolescents using prospective data. The data suggest reduced quantity of sleep increases risk for major depression, which in turn increases risk for decreased sleep.

  20. In surgeons performing cardiothoracic surgery is sleep deprivation significant in its impact on morbidity or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfour, Leila; Asfour, Victoria; McCormack, David; Attia, Rizwan

    2014-09-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is there a difference in cardiothoracic surgery outcomes in terms of morbidity or mortality of patients operated on by a sleep-deprived surgeon compared with those operated by a non-sleep-deprived surgeon? Reported search criteria yielded 77 papers, of which 15 were deemed to represent the best evidence on the topic. Three studies directly related to cardiothoracic surgery and 12 studies related to non-cardiothoracic surgery. Recommendations are based on 18 121 cardiothoracic patients and 214 666 non-cardiothoracic surgical patients. Different definitions of sleep deprivation were used in the studies, either reviewing surgeon's sleeping hours or out-of-hours operating. Surgical outcomes reviewed included: mortality rate, neurological, renal, pulmonary, infectious complications, length of stay, length of intensive care stay, cardiopulmonary bypass times and aortic-cross-clamp times. There were no significant differences in mortality or intraoperative complications in the groups of patients operated on by sleep-deprived versus non-sleep-deprived surgeons in cardiothoracic studies. One study showed a significant increase in the rate of septicaemia in patients operated on by severely sleep-deprived surgeons (3.6%) compared with the moderately sleep-deprived (0.9%) and non-sleep-deprived groups (0.8%) (P = 0.03). In the non-cardiothoracic studies, 7 of the 12 studies demonstrated statistically significant higher reoperation rate in trauma cases (P sleep deprivation in cardiothoracic surgeons on morbidity or mortality. However, overall the non-cardiothoracic studies have demonstrated that operative time and sleep deprivation can have a significant impact on overall morbidity and mortality. It is likely that other confounding factors concomitantly affect outcomes in out-of-hours surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  1. Sleep deprivation selectively disrupts top-down adaptation to cognitive conflict in the Stroop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Wim; Deliens, Gaetane; Hoffmann, Sophie; Notebaert, Wim; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to exert detrimental effects on various cognitive domains, including attention, vigilance and working memory. Seemingly at odds with these findings, prior studies repeatedly failed to evidence an impact of prior sleep deprivation on cognitive interference in the Stroop test, a hallmark paradigm in the study of cognitive control abilities. The present study investigated further the effect of sleep deprivation on cognitive control using an adapted version of the Stroop test that allows to segregate top-down (attentional reconfiguration on incongruent items) and bottom-up (facilitated processing after repetitions in responses and/or features of stimuli) components of performance. Participants underwent a regular night of sleep or a night of total sleep deprivation before cognitive testing. Results disclosed that sleep deprivation selectively impairs top-down adaptation mechanisms: cognitive control no longer increased upon detection of response conflict at the preceding trial. In parallel, bottom-up abilities were found unaffected by sleep deprivation: beneficial effects of stimulus and response repetitions persisted. Changes in vigilance states due to sleep deprivation selectively impact on cognitive control in the Stroop test by affecting top-down, but not bottom-up, mechanisms that guide adaptive behaviours. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  3. Sleep deprivation in Depression : What do we know, where do we go?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirz-Justice, A; Van den Hoofdakker, RH

    1999-01-01

    Manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle, whether of duration (total or partial sleep deprivation [SD]) or timing (partial SD, phase advance), have profound and rapid effects on depressed mood in 60% of all diagnostic subgroups of affective disorders. Relapse after recovery sleep is less when patients

  4. Total and Partial Sleep Deprivation in Clomipramine-Treated Endogenous Depressives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon; Beersma, Domien; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1990-01-01

    Improvement in depression after total sleep deprivation (TSD) is, as a rule, followed by relapse after subsequent ad libitum sleep. This study is addressed to the question of how nocturnal partial sleep following TSD affects this relapse. Thirty endogenously depressed patients participated in the

  5. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Brendan P; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB(9ed4)), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (sei(ts1)) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB(9ed4) flies was also assessed. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB(9ed4)/+ and sei(ts1) mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB(9ed4)/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB(9ed4)/+ became adults. These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Sleep deprivation among critical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Christine J; Pittiglio, Laura I

    2010-01-01

    To gain an understanding and increased knowledge regarding the presence and affects of ambient stressors on patients' sleep and the efficacy of implementing sleep promotion measures within the intensive care unit environment, the author reviewed 10 empirical studies. Research indicates that ambient stressors within the intensive care unit have detrimental effects on patients' sleep, and nursing interventions that focus on the abatement of ambient stressors enhance patients' sleep. In the intensive care unit, optimizing the environment to promote sleep requires the active removal of ambient stressors.

  7. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on motor and reversal learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kang, Mihwa; Ramesh, Priyanka V; Klann, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative memories, and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of memories. In human subjects, natural sleep either during a nap or overnight leads to long-lasting improvements in visuomotor and fine motor tasks, but rodent models recapitulating these findings have been scarce. Here we present evidence that 5h of acute sleep deprivation impairs mouse skilled reach learning compared to a matched period of ad libitum sleep. In sleeping mice, the duration of total sleep time during the 5h of sleep opportunity or during the first bout of sleep did not correlate with ultimate gain in motor performance. In addition, we observed that reversal learning during the skilled reaching task was also affected by sleep deprivation. Consistent with this observation, 5h of sleep deprivation also impaired reversal learning in the water-based Y-maze. In conclusion, acute sleep deprivation negatively impacts subsequent motor and reversal learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Motor and Reversal Learning in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W.; Kang, Mihwa; Ramesh, Priyanka V.; Klann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative memories, and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of memories. In human subjects, natural sleep either during a nap or overnight leads to long-lasting improvements in visuomotor and fine motor tasks, but rodent models recapitulating these findings have been scarce. Here we present evidence that 5 hours of acute sleep deprivation impairs mouse skilled reach learning compared to a matched period of ad libitum sleep. In sleeping mice, the duration of total sleep time during the 5 hours of sleep opportunity or during the first bout of sleep did not correlate with ultimate gain in motor performance. In addition, we observed that reversal learning during the skilled reaching task was also affected by sleep deprivation. Consistent with this observation, 5 hours of sleep deprivation also impaired reversal learning in the water-based Y-maze. In conclusion, acute sleep deprivation negatively impacts subsequent motor and reversal learning and memory. PMID:25046627

  9. Stress-free automatic sleep deprivation using air puffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Brooks A; Vanderheyden, William M; Urpa, Lea M; Davis, Devon E; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J; Prabhu, Kaustubh; Poe, Gina R

    2015-08-15

    Sleep deprivation via gentle handling is time-consuming and personnel-intensive. We present here an automated sleep deprivation system via air puffs. Implanted EMG and EEG electrodes were used to assess sleep/waking states in six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected from an implanted intravenous catheter every 4h during the 12-h light cycle on baseline, 8h of sleep deprivation via air puffs, and 8h of sleep deprivation by gentle handling days. The automated system was capable of scoring sleep and waking states as accurately as our offline version (∼90% for sleep) and with sufficient speed to trigger a feedback response within an acceptable amount of time (1.76s). Manual state scoring confirmed normal sleep on the baseline day and sleep deprivation on the two manipulation days (68% decrease in non-REM, 63% decrease in REM, and 74% increase in waking). No significant differences in levels of ACTH and corticosterone (stress hormones indicative of HPA axis activity) were found at any time point between baseline sleep and sleep deprivation via air puffs. There were no significant differences in ACTH or corticosterone concentrations between sleep deprivation by air puffs and gentle handling over the 8-h period. Our system accurately detects sleep and delivers air puffs to acutely deprive rats of sleep with sufficient temporal resolution during the critical 4-5h post learning sleep-dependent memory consolidation period. The system is stress-free and a viable alternative to existing sleep deprivation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional connectivity during rested wakefulness predicts vulnerability to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B T Thomas; Tandi, Jesisca; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-05-01

    Significant inter-individual differences in vigilance decline following sleep deprivation exist. We characterized functional connectivity in 68 healthy young adult participants in rested wakefulness and following a night of total sleep deprivation. After whole brain signal regression, functionally connected cortical networks during the well-rested state exhibited reduced correlation following sleep deprivation, suggesting that highly integrated brain regions become less integrated during sleep deprivation. In contrast, anti-correlations in the well-rested state became less so following sleep deprivation, suggesting that highly segregated networks become less segregated during sleep deprivation. Subjects more resilient to vigilance decline following sleep deprivation showed stronger anti-correlations among several networks. The weaker anti-correlations overlapped with connectivity alterations following sleep deprivation. Resilient individuals thus evidence clearer separation of highly segregated cortical networks in the well-rested state. In contrast to corticocortical connectivity, subcortical-cortical connectivity was comparable across resilient and vulnerable groups despite prominent state-related changes in both groups. Because sleep deprivation results in a significant elevation of whole brain signal amplitude, the aforesaid signal changes and group contrasts may be masked in analyses omitting their regression, suggesting possible value in regressing whole brain signal in certain experimental contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cold hands, warm feet: sleep deprivation disrupts thermoregulation and its association with vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeijn, Nico; Verweij, Ilse M; Koeleman, Anne; Mooij, Anne; Steimke, Rosa; Virkkala, Jussi; van der Werf, Ysbrand; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2012-12-01

    Vigilance is affected by induced and spontaneous skin temperature fluctuations. Whereas sleep deprivation strongly affects vigilance, no previous study examined in detail its effect on human skin temperature fluctuations and their association with vigilance. In a repeated-measures constant routine design, skin temperatures were assessed continuously from 14 locations while performance was assessed using a reaction time task, including eyes-open video monitoring, performed five times a day for 2 days, after a normal sleep or sleep deprivation night. Participants were seated in a dimly lit, temperature-controlled laboratory. Eight healthy young adults (five males, age 22.0 ± 1.8 yr (mean ± standard deviation)). One night of sleep deprivation. Mixed-effect regression models were used to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on skin temperature gradients of the upper (ear-mastoid), middle (hand-arm), and lower (foot-leg) body, and on the association between fluctuations in performance and in temperature gradients. Sleep deprivation induced a marked dissociation of thermoregulatory skin temperature gradients, indicative of attenuated heat loss from the hands co-occurring with enhanced heat loss from the feet. Sleep deprivation moreover attenuated the association between fluctuations in performance and temperature gradients; the association was best preserved for the upper body gradient. Sleep deprivation disrupts coordination of fluctuations in thermoregulatory skin temperature gradients. The dissociation of middle and lower body temperature gradients may therefore be evaluated as a marker for sleep debt, and the upper body gradient as a possible aid in vigilance assessment when sleep debt is unknown. Importantly, our findings suggest that sleep deprivation affects the coordination between skin blood flow fluctuations and the baroreceptor-mediated cardiovascular regulation that prevents venous pooling of blood in the lower limbs when there is the orthostatic

  12. Effects of vitamin E and melatonin on serum testosterone level in sleep deprived Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, O O; Kunle-Alabi, O T; Adeyemi, D H; Oghenetega, B O; Raji, Y

    2014-12-01

    Sleep deprivation affects a significant proportion of the global population. It has been reported to induce oxidative stress in the testes and reduce serum testosterone levels. Exogenous anti-oxidants have been known to prevent damages and diseases associated with oxidative stress but there is dearth of knowledge on their effectiveness during sleep deprivation. This study was designed to investigate the effects of two anti-oxidants; melatonin and vitamin E on serum testosterone concentration in sleep deprived male Wistar rats. Thirty (30) male Wistar rats were used for this study. Animals were divided into six (6) groups (n = 5). Group 1 was the control, group 2 rats were sleep deprived, group 3 received vitamin E (200 mg/ kg bwt) only, group 4 rats received vitamin E and were sleep deprived, group 5 received melatonin only (10 mg/kg bwt), and group 6 rats received melatonin (10 mg/kg bwt) and were sleep deprived. Sleep deprivation was induced using the modified multiple platform technique. Body weights were taken on days 7, 14 and 21. Blood was collected at sacrifice and serum was obtained for analyses of testosterone, corticosterone and melatonin. Testicular malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were determined by the methods of Adam-Vizi and Seregi (1982), Misra and Fridovich (1972), and Sinha, (1972) respectively. Data obtained were analyzed using one way ANOVA and p sleep deprived animals (0.6 ± 0.3) reduced significantly (p sleep deprived+vitamin E group (2.8 ± 0.5) and sleep deprived+melatonin group (2.0 ± 0.3). Also, melatonin+sleep deprived group had reduced testosterone compared with control. There were no significant changes in the serum corticosterone (nmol/l) and melatonin levels in all the groups compared with the sleep deprived group. However, corticosterone was increased in the sleep deprived+Vitamin E group (51.6 ± 20.5) compared with control (6.3 ± 0.6) Sleep deprived group had increased testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) (1

  13. Impact of monetary incentives on cognitive performance and error monitoring following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shulan; Li, Tzu-Hsien; Tsai, Ling-Ling

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether monetary incentives attenuate the negative effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in a flanker task that requires higher-level cognitive-control processes, including error monitoring. Twenty-four healthy adults aged 18 to 23 years were randomly divided into 2 subject groups: one received and the other did not receive monetary incentives for performance accuracy. Both subject groups performed a flanker task and underwent electroencephalographic recordings for event-related brain potentials after normal sleep and after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in a within-subject, counterbalanced, repeated-measures study design. Monetary incentives significantly enhanced the response accuracy and reaction time variability under both normal sleep and sleep-deprived conditions, and they reduced the effects of sleep deprivation on the subjective effort level, the amplitude of the error-related negativity (an error-related event-related potential component), and the latency of the P300 (an event-related potential variable related to attention processes). However, monetary incentives could not attenuate the effects of sleep deprivation on any measures of behavior performance, such as the response accuracy, reaction time variability, or posterror accuracy adjustments; nor could they reduce the effects of sleep deprivation on the amplitude of the Pe, another error-related event-related potential component. This study shows that motivation incentives selectively reduce the effects of total sleep deprivation on some brain activities, but they cannot attenuate the effects of sleep deprivation on performance decrements in tasks that require high-level cognitive-control processes. Thus, monetary incentives and sleep deprivation may act through both common and different mechanisms to affect cognitive performance.

  14. Effects of cocaine, methamphetamine and modafinil challenge on sleep rebound after paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, R C S; Andersen, M L; Shih, M C; Tufik, S

    2008-01-01

    Sleep loss is both common and critically relevant to our society and might lead to the abuse of psychostimulants such as amphetamines, cocaine and modafinil. Since psychoactive substance abuse often occurs within a scenario of sleep deficit, the purpose of this investigation was to compare the sleep patterns of rats challenged with cocaine (7 mg/kg, ip), methamphetamine (7 mg/kg, ip), or modafinil (100 mg/kg, ip) subsequent to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 96 h. Our results show that, immediately after 96 h of PSD, rats (10 per group) that were injected with a psychostimulant presented lower percentages of paradoxical sleep compared to those injected with saline (P sleep (SWS), rats injected with psychostimulants after PSD presented a late rebound (on the second night subsequent to the injection) in the percentage of this phase of sleep when compared to PSD rats injected with saline (P sleep architecture. Home cage control rats injected with modafinil and methamphetamine showed a reduction in SWS compared with the saline group. Methamphetamine affected sleep patterns most, since it significantly reduced paradoxical sleep, SWS and sleep efficiency before and after PSD compared to control (P sleep pattern in relation to those observed after saline injection. Therefore, our results suggest that abuse of these psychostimulants in a PSD paradigm aggravates their impact on sleep patterns.

  15. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Possible mechanism involved in sleep deprivation-induced memory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonia, H; Bishnoi, M; Kumar, A

    2008-09-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts various vital biological and metabolic processes that are necessary for health. The present study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of sleep deprivation-induced memory dysfunction by using different behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical parameters. Male Wistar rats were sleep deprived for 72 h using a grid suspended over water. Elevated plus maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests were used to assess memory retention in 72-h sleep-deprived animals. Various electrophysiological (sleep-wake cycle), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, nitrite, catalase, acetylcholinesterase) and neurochemical parameters (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) were also assessed. Sleep deprivation resulted in memory dysfunction in all the behavioral paradigms, alteration in the sleep-wake cycle (delayed sleep latency, shortening of rapid eye movement [REM] and non-REM [NREM] sleep and increased waking period) and oxidative stress (increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels, depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity). In addition, increased levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE; the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine) and reduction in norepinephrine and dopamine levels were seen in 72-h sleep-deprived animals. In conclusion, sleep deprivation-induced memory deficits may possibly be due to the combined effect of oxidative damage and alterations in neurotransmitter levels. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  17. A time for learning and a time for sleep: the effect of sleep deprivation on contextual fear conditioning at different times of the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagewoud, Roelina; Whitcomb, Shamiso N; Heeringa, Amarins N; Havekes, Robbert; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Meerlo, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Sleep deprivation negatively affects memory consolidation, especially in the case of hippocampus-dependent memories. Studies in rodents have shown that 5 hours of sleep deprivation immediately following footshock exposure selectively impairs the formation of a contextual fear memory. In these studies, both acquisition and subsequent sleep deprivation were performed in the animals' main resting phase. However, in everyday life, subjects most often learn during their active phase. Here we examined the effects of sleep deprivation on memory consolidation for contextual fear in rats when the task was performed at different times of the day, particularly, at the beginning of the resting phase or right before the onset of the active phase. Results show that sleep deprivation immediately following training affects consolidation of contextual fear, independent of time of training. However, in the resting phase memory consolidation was impaired by 6 hours of posttraining sleep deprivation, whereas, in the active phase, the impairment was only seen after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. Since rats sleep at least twice as much during the resting phase compared with the active phase, these data suggest that the effect of sleep deprivation depends on the amount of sleep that was lost. Also, control experiments show that effects of sleep deprivation were not related to the amount of stimulation the animals received and were therefore not likely an indirect effect of the sleep-deprivation method. These results support the notion that sleep immediately following acquisition, independent of time of day, promotes memory consolidation and that sleep deprivation may disrupt this process depending on the amount of sleep that is lost.

  18. The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trošt Bobić, Tatjana; Šečić, Ana; Zavoreo, Iris; Matijević, Valentina; Filipović, Branimir; Kolak, Željka; Bašić Kes, Vanja; Ciliga, Dubravka; Sajković, Dubravka

    2016-09-01

    Each sleep phase is characterized by specific chemical, cellular and anatomic events of vital importance for normal neural functioning. Different forms of sleep deprivation may lead to a decline of cognitive functions in individuals. Studies in this field make a distinction between total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction, and the situation of sleep disruption. Investigations covering the acute effects of sleep deprivation on the brain show that the discovered behavioral deficits in most cases regenerate after two nights of complete sleep. However, some studies done on mice emphasize the possible chronic effects of long-term sleep deprivation or chronic restriction on the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. In order to better understand the acute and chronic effects of sleep loss, the mechanisms of neural adaptation in the situations of insufficient sleep need to be further investigated. Future integrative research on the impact of sleep deprivation on neural functioning measured through the macro level of cognitive functions and the micro molecular and cell level could contribute to more accurate conclusions about the basic cellular mechanisms responsible for the detected behavioral deficits occurring due to sleep deprivation.

  19. Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axelsson, J.; Ingre, M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Olsson, A.; Lekander, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether sleep deprived people are perceived as less healthy, less attractive, and more tired than after a normal night's sleep. Design Experimental study. Setting Sleep laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants 23 healthy, sleep deprived adults (age 18-31) who were

  20. Sleep deprivation compromises resting-state emotional regulatory processes: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinxiao; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Hsiao, Janet H

    2018-03-01

    Resting-state spontaneous neural activities consume far more biological energy than stimulus-induced activities, suggesting their significance. However, existing studies of sleep loss and emotional functioning have focused on how sleep deprivation modulates stimulus-induced emotional neural activities. The current study aimed to investigate the impacts of sleep deprivation on the brain network of emotional functioning using electroencephalogram during a resting state. Two established resting-state electroencephalogram indexes (i.e. frontal alpha asymmetry and frontal theta/beta ratio) were used to reflect the functioning of the emotion regulatory neural network. Participants completed an 8-min resting-state electroencephalogram recording after a well-rested night or 24 hr sleep deprivation. The Sleep Deprivation group had a heightened ratio of the power density in theta band to beta band (theta/beta ratio) in the frontal area than the Sleep Control group, suggesting an effective approach with reduced frontal cortical regulation of subcortical drive after sleep deprivation. There was also marginally more left-lateralized frontal alpha power (left frontal alpha asymmetry) in the Sleep Deprivation group compared with the Sleep Control group. Besides, higher theta/beta ratio and more left alpha lateralization were correlated with higher sleepiness and lower vigilance. The results converged in suggesting compromised emotional regulatory processes during resting state after sleep deprivation. Our work provided the first resting-state neural evidence for compromised emotional functioning after sleep loss, highlighting the significance of examining resting-state neural activities within the affective brain network as a default functional mode in investigating the sleep-emotion relationship. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Sleep deprivation during a specific 3-hour time window post-training impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Wimmer, Mathieu; Choi, Jennifer; Havekes, Robbert; Aton, Sara; Abel, Ted

    2014-03-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts hippocampal function and plasticity. In particular, long-term memory consolidation is impaired by sleep deprivation, suggesting that a specific critical period exists following learning during which sleep is necessary. To elucidate the impact of sleep deprivation on long-term memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity, long-term memory was assessed when mice were sleep deprived following training in the hippocampus-dependent object place recognition task. We found that 3h of sleep deprivation significantly impaired memory when deprivation began 1h after training. In contrast, 3 h of deprivation beginning immediately post-training did not impair spatial memory. Furthermore, a 3-h sleep deprivation beginning 1h after training impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas sleep deprivation immediately after training did not affect LTP. Together, our findings define a specific 3-h critical period, extending from 1 to 4h after training, during which sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep Deprivation Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattasali, Tapalina; Chaki, Rituparna; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-02-01

    Deployment of sensor network in hostile environment makes it mainly vulnerable to battery drainage attacks because it is impossible to recharge or replace the battery power of sensor nodes. Among different types of security threats, low power sensor nodes are immensely affected by the attacks which cause random drainage of the energy level of sensors, leading to death of the nodes. The most dangerous type of attack in this category is sleep deprivation, where target of the intruder is to maximize the power consumption of sensor nodes, so that their lifetime is minimized. Most of the existing works on sleep deprivation attack detection involve a lot of overhead, leading to poor throughput. The need of the day is to design a model for detecting intrusions accurately in an energy efficient manner. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework based on distributed collaborative mechanism for detecting sleep deprivation torture in wireless sensor network efficiently. Proposed model uses anomaly detection technique in two steps to reduce the probability of false intrusion.

  3. Creatine supplementation, sleep deprivation, cortisol, melatonin and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, T; Harris, R C; Howard, A N; Langridge, G; Hall, B; Corbett, J; Dicks, M; Hodgson, C

    2007-01-30

    The effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with intermittent moderate-intensity exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, effort and salivary concentrations of cortisol and melatonin were examined. Subjects were divided into a creatine supplementation group and a placebo group. They took 5 g of creatine monohydrate or a placebo, dependent on their group, four times a day for 7 days immediately prior to the experiment. They undertook tests examining central executive functioning, short-term memory, choice reaction time, balance, mood state and effort at baseline and following 18-, 24- and 36-h sleep deprivation, with moderate intermittent exercise. Saliva samples were taken prior to each set of tests. A group x time analysis of covariance, with baseline performance the covariate, showed that the creatine group performed significantly (p Cortisol concentrations on Day 1 were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than on Day 2. Mood significantly (p < 0.001) deteriorated up to 24 h with no change from 24 to 36 h. Effort at baseline was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in the other conditions. It was concluded that, during sleep deprivation with moderate-intensity exercise, creatine supplementation only affects performance of complex central executive tasks.

  4. Posturography as an indicator of fatigue due to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, Yair; Azaria, Bella; Avni, Isaac; Barkana, Yaniv; Zadok, David; Kohen-Raz, Reuven; Barenboim, Erez

    2007-09-01

    Fatigue is one of the main causes for accidents in transportation. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of a short objective posturographic test as an indicator of fatigue due to sleep deprivation. To assess the efficiency of a short objective posturographic test as an indicator of fatigue due to sleep deprivation. Postural control was measured using four-plate posturograhy with eyes open and eyes closed. Over a period of 26 h of sleep deprivation (from 08:00 to 10:00 the following day) 12 subjects were studied 10 times. The posturographic data were correlated with a subjective fatigue assessed by means of the Stanford Sleepiness Score. Stability and sway intensity while eyes were closed showed a statistically significant circadian pattern with a peak at early morning hours and a recovery at 10:00 the following day. When eyes were open, only changes within the medium-low frequency band (0.1-0.05 Hz), believed to be linked with vestibular function, reached statistical significance. The Subjective Feeling Scale pattern was similar to the postural parameters, but with an absence of recovery at 10:00 the following day. Excluding this point, significant correlations were found between posturography with eyes closed and this scale. Fatigue caused by sleep deprivation can be objectively assessed by a short, non-invasive, postural test. The vestibular function appears to be relatively more strongly affected by fatigue than the visual and somato-sensory sub-systems. Occlusion of vision appears to enhance the effect of fatigue on postural performance. Our results may imply that this test could be used as an efficient screening tool for detection of fatigue.

  5. Effects of modafinil and amphetamine on sleep-wake cycle after sleep deprivation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y P; Lin, J S

    1999-09-01

    The effects of modafinil and amphetamine on sleep-wake cycle and cortical power spectrum were assessed in the cats before and after sleep deprivation. The sleep deprivation in the cats was used with the water tank technique. Cats were administrated with modafinil (5 mg.kg-1 p.o.) or amphetamine (1 mg.kg-1) before and after sleep deprivation. The waking effect of 8-10 h induced by modafinil before and after sleep deprivation was similar and was not followed by an increase in sleep rebound. On the contrary, the arousal effect about 8 h evoked by amphetamine after sleep deprivation was less lasting than that of 10-12 h observed in normal conditions and followed by an amplified rebound in both deep slow wave sleep and paradoxical sleep. These results suggest the efficiency of modafinil against somnolence and hypersomnia without increasing subsequent sleep.

  6. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  7. Sleep deprivation and spike-wave discharges in epileptic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Vossen, J.M.H.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation were studied on the occurrence of spike-wave discharges in the electroencephalogram of rats of the epileptic WAG/Rij strain, a model for absence epilepsy. This was done before, during and after a period of 12 hours of near total sleep deprivation. A substantial

  8. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundelin, T.; Lekander, M.; Kecklund, G.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Olsson, A.; Axelsson, J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial

  9. Effect of sleep deprivation on saccades and eyelid blinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crevits, Luc; Simons, Brian; Wildenbeest, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    In this study the effect of sleep deprivation on specific components of eye and eyelid movement was investigated in a group of young and healthy subjects. The duration of sleep deprivation was 20 h. Each subject had to execute different saccade tasks: reflexive saccades, voluntary prosaccades and

  10. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beilin; Gao, Yanxia; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  11. The effect of one night's sleep deprivation on adolescent neurobehavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Mia; Short, Michelle A

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of one night's sleep deprivation on neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents. Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery measuring sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, sleepiness, and fatigue every 2 h during wakefulness. Baseline performance (defined as those test bouts between 09:00 and 19:00 on days 2 and 3, following two 10-h sleep opportunities) were compared to performance at the same clock time the day following total sleep deprivation. The sleep laboratory at the Centre for Sleep Research. Twelve healthy adolescents (6 male), aged 14-18 years (mean = 16.17, standard deviation = 0.83). Sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, and subjective sleepiness were all significantly worse following one night without sleep than following 10-h sleep opportunities (all main effects of day, P Sleep deprivation led to increased variability on objective performance measures. There were between-subjects differences in response to sleep loss that were task-specific, suggesting that adolescents may not only vary in terms of the degree to which they are affected by sleep loss but also the domains in which they are affected. These findings suggest that one night of total sleep deprivation has significant deleterious effects upon neurobehavioral performance and subjective sleepiness. These factors impair daytime functioning in adolescents, leaving them at greater risk of poor academic and social functioning and accidents and injuries.

  12. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  13. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Chouchou

    Full Text Available The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers. Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1 placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2 pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3 REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  14. Unsupervised online classifier in sleep scoring for sleep deprivation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Corneyllie, Alexandra; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Chouvet, Guy; Gervasoni, Damien

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate an unsupervised adaptive algorithm for real-time detection of sleep and wake states in rodents. We designed a Bayesian classifier that automatically extracts electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) features and categorizes non-overlapping 5-s epochs into one of the three major sleep and wake states without any human supervision. This sleep-scoring algorithm is coupled online with a new device to perform selective paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD). Controlled laboratory settings for chronic polygraphic sleep recordings and selective PSD. Ten adult Sprague-Dawley rats instrumented for chronic polysomnographic recordings. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparison with the score obtained by a human expert reader. Online detection of PS is then validated with a PSD protocol with duration of 72 hours. Our algorithm gave a high concordance with human scoring with an average κ coefficient > 70%. Notably, the specificity to detect PS reached 92%. Selective PSD using real-time detection of PS strongly reduced PS amounts, leaving only brief PS bouts necessary for the detection of PS in EEG and EMG signals (4.7 ± 0.7% over 72 h, versus 8.9 ± 0.5% in baseline), and was followed by a significant PS rebound (23.3 ± 3.3% over 150 minutes). Our fully unsupervised data-driven algorithm overcomes some limitations of the other automated methods such as the selection of representative descriptors or threshold settings. When used online and coupled with our sleep deprivation device, it represents a better option for selective PSD than other methods like the tedious gentle handling or the platform method. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Effects of different sleep deprivation protocols on sleep perception in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Leonardo I; Pinto, Luciano R; Perlis, Michael L; Martins, Raquel; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2014-10-01

    To investigate whether different protocols of sleep deprivation modify sleep perception. The effects of total sleep deprivation (TD) and selective rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RD) on sleep perception were analyzed in normal volunteers. Thirty-one healthy males with normal sleep were randomized to one of three conditions: (i) normal uninterrupted sleep; (ii) four nights of RD; or (iii) two nights of TD. Morning perception of total sleep time was evaluated for each condition. Sleep perception was estimated using total sleep time (in hours) as perceived by the volunteer divided by the total sleep time (in hours) measured by polysomnography (PSG). The final value of this calculation was defined as the perception index (PI). There were no significant differences among the three groups of volunteers in the total sleep time measured by PSG or in the perception of total sleep time at baseline condition. Volunteers submitted to RD exhibited lower sleep PI scores as compared with controls during the sleep deprivation period (P <0.05). Both RD and TD groups showed PI similar to controls during the recovery period. Selective REM sleep deprivation reduced the ability of healthy young volunteers to perceive their total sleep time when compared with time measured by PSG. The data reinforce the influence of sleep deprivation on sleep perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep deprivation decreases neuronal excitability and responsiveness in rats both in vivo and ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbély, Sándor; Világi, Ildikó; Haraszti, Zsófia; Szalontai, Örs; Hajnik, Tünde; Tóth, Attila; Détári, László

    2018-03-01

    Sleep deprivation has severe consequences for higher nervous functions. Its effects on neuronal excitability may be one of the most important factors underlying functional deterioration caused by sleep loss. In the present work, excitability changes were studied using two complementary in vivo and ex vivo models. Auditory evoked potentials were recorded from freely-moving animals in vivo. Amplitude of evoked responses showed a near-continuous decrease during deprivation. Prevention of sleep also reduced synaptic efficacy ex vivo, measured from brain slices derived from rats that underwent sleep deprivation. While seizure susceptibility was not affected significantly by sleep deprivation in these preparations, the pattern of spontaneous seizure activity was altered. If seizures developed, they lasted longer and tended to contain more spikes in slices obtained from sleep-deprived than from control rats. Current-source density analysis revealed that location and sequence of activation of local cortical networks recruited by seizures did not change by sleep deprivation. Moderate differences seen in the amplitude of individual sinks and sources might be explained by smaller net transmembrane currents as a consequence of decreased excitability. These findings contradict the widely accepted conception of synaptic homeostasis suggesting gradual increase of excitability during wakefulness. Our results also indicate that decreased neuronal excitability caused by sleep deprivation is preserved in slices prepared from rats immediately after deprivation. This observation might mean new opportunities to explore the effects of sleep deprivation in ex vivo preparations that allow a wider range of experimental manipulations and more sophisticated methods of analysis than in vivo preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The variable response-stimulus interval effect and sleep deprivation: an unexplored aspect of psychomotor vigilance task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M; Basner, Robert C; Stern, Yaakov; Rakitin, Brian C

    2009-10-01

    The Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) contains variable response-stimulus intervals (RSI). Our goal is to investigate the effect of RSI on performance to determine whether sleep deprivation affects the ability to attend to events across seconds and whether this effect is independent of impairment in sustaining attention across minutes, as measured by time on task. A control group following their normal sleep routines and 3 groups exposed to 54 hours of total sleep deprivation performed a 10-minute PVT every 6 hours for 9 total test runs. Sleep deprivation occurred in a sleep laboratory with continuous behavioral monitoring; the control group took the PVT at home. Eighty-four healthy sleepers (68 sleep deprivation, 16 controls; 22 women; aged 18-35 years). Across groups, as the RSI increased from 2 to 10 seconds, mean RT was reduced by 69 milliseconds (main effect of RSI, P sleep deprivation and RSI effects. As expected, there was a significant interaction of sleep deprivation and time on task for mean RT (P = 0.002). Time on task and RSI effects were independent. Parallel analyses of percentage of lapses and percentage of false starts produced similar results. We demonstrate that the cognitive mechanism of attention responsible for response preparation across seconds is distinct from that for maintaining attention to task performance across minutes. Of these, only vigilance across minutes is degraded by sleep deprivation. Theories of sleep deprivation should consider how this pattern of spared and impaired aspects of attention may affect real-world performance.

  18. Are seizures in the setting of sleep deprivation provoked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Nicholas; Lieblich, Sam; Lee, Judy; Dunne, John

    2014-04-01

    It is generally accepted that sleep deprivation contributes to seizures. However, it is unclear whether a seizure occurring in the setting of sleep deprivation should be considered as provoked or not and whether this is influenced by seizure type and etiology. This information may have an important impact on epilepsy diagnosis and management. We prospectively analyzed the influence of sleep deprivation on the risk of seizure recurrence in patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures and compared the findings with patients with first-ever provoked seizures. Of 1026 patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures, 204 (20%) were associated with sleep deprivation. While the overall likelihood of seizure recurrence was slightly lower in sleep-deprived patients with first-ever seizures (log-rank p=0.03), sleep deprivation was not an independent predictor of seizure recurrence on multivariate analysis. Seizure recurrence following a first-ever unprovoked seizure associated with sleep deprivation was far more likely than for 174 patients with a provoked first-ever seizure (log-rank psleep deprivation should not be regarded as provoked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute versus chronic partial sleep deprivation in middle-aged people: differential effect on performance and sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Pierre; Sagaspe, Patricia; Prague, Mélanie; Tassi, Patricia; Capelli, Aurore; Bioulac, Bernard; Commenges, Daniel; Taillard, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction on vigilance, performance, and self-perception of sleepiness. Habitual night followed by 1 night of total sleep loss (acute sleep deprivation) or 5 consecutive nights of 4 hr of sleep (chronic sleep restriction) and recovery night. Eighteen healthy middle-aged male participants (age [(± standard deviation] = 49.7 ± 2.6 yr, range 46-55 yr). Multiple sleep latency test trials, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores, simple reaction time test (lapses and 10% fastest reaction times), and nocturnal polysomnography data were recorded. Objective and subjective sleepiness increased immediately in response to sleep restriction. Sleep latencies after the second and third nights of sleep restriction reached levels equivalent to those observed after acute sleep deprivation, whereas Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores did not reach these levels. Lapse occurrence increased after the second day of sleep restriction and reached levels equivalent to those observed after acute sleep deprivation. A statistical model revealed that sleepiness and lapses did not progressively worsen across days of sleep restriction. Ten percent fastest reaction times (i.e., optimal alertness) were not affected by acute or chronic sleep deprivation. Recovery to baseline levels of alertness and performance occurred after 8-hr recovery night. In middle-aged study participants, sleep restriction induced a high increase in sleep propensity but adaptation to chronic sleep restriction occurred beyond day 3 of restriction. This sleepiness attenuation was underestimated by the participants. One recovery night restores daytime sleepiness and cognitive performance deficits induced by acute or chronic sleep deprivation. Philip P; Sagaspe P; Prague M; Tassi P; Capelli A; Bioulac B; Commenges D; Taillard J. Acute versus chronic partial sleep deprivation in middle-aged people: differential effect on performance and sleepiness. SLEEP 2012;35(7):997-1002.

  20. Effects of donepezil on cognitive performance after sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Chris M; Bullmore, Edward T; Henson, Richard N; Christensen, Soren; Miller, Sam; Smith, Marie; Dewit, Odile; Lawrence, Phil; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2011-12-01

    To identify tasks that were sensitive to a temporary decline in cognitive performance after sleep deprivation and to investigate the ability of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to reverse any sleep deprivation-induced impairment. Thirty healthy volunteers were administered either a 5-mg daily dose of donepezil or placebo for 14-17 days, in a double-blind parallel group design, then underwent either 24 h sleep deprivation or a normal night of sleep in non-blinded crossover, and were subsequently tested on a battery of cognitive tasks designed to measure different components of memory and executive function. Sleep deprivation selectively impaired performance on several memory tasks whilst also impairing non-memory function on these tasks. Performance on other tasks was spared. Despite partially reversing the decline in subjective alertness associated with sleep deprivation, treatment with donepezil failed to significantly reverse the decline in cognitive performance on any of the tasks. The results demonstrate the sensitivity of certain tests, particularly those that measure memory function, to cognitive impairment after sleep deprivation. The inability of donepezil to reverse this performance decline suggests that the sleep deprivation model of cognitive impairment may not be suitable for detecting pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic augmentation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Sleep Deprivation Selectively Impairs Memory Consolidation for Contextual Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Laurel A.; Heller, Elizabeth A.; Pack, Allan I.; Abel, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Many behavioral and electrophysiological studies in animals and humans have suggested that sleep and circadian rhythms influence memory consolidation. In rodents, hippocampus-dependent memory may be particularly sensitive to sleep deprivation after training, as spatial memory in the Morris water maze is impaired by rapid eye movement sleep deprivation following training. Spatial learning in the Morris water maze, however, requires multiple training trials and performan...

  2. Sleep deprivation leads to a loss of functional connectivity in frontal brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Ilse M; Romeijn, Nico; Smit, Dirk Ja; Piantoni, Giovanni; Van Someren, Eus Jw; van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2014-07-19

    The restorative effect of sleep on waking brain activity remains poorly understood. Previous studies have compared overall neural network characteristics after normal sleep and sleep deprivation. To study whether sleep and sleep deprivation might differentially affect subsequent connectivity characteristics in different brain regions, we performed a within-subject study of resting state brain activity using the graph theory framework adapted for the individual electrode level.In balanced order, we obtained high-density resting state electroencephalography (EEG) in 8 healthy participants, during a day following normal sleep and during a day following total sleep deprivation. We computed topographical maps of graph theoretical parameters describing local clustering and path length characteristics from functional connectivity matrices, based on synchronization likelihood, in five different frequency bands. A non-parametric permutation analysis with cluster correction for multiple comparisons was applied to assess significance of topographical changes in clustering coefficient and path length. Significant changes in graph theoretical parameters were only found on the scalp overlying the prefrontal cortex, where the clustering coefficient (local integration) decreased in the alpha frequency band and the path length (global integration) increased in the theta frequency band. These changes occurred regardless, and independent of, changes in power due to the sleep deprivation procedure. The findings indicate that sleep deprivation most strongly affects the functional connectivity of prefrontal cortical areas. The findings extend those of previous studies, which showed sleep deprivation to predominantly affect functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex, such as working memory. Together, these findings suggest that the restorative effect of sleep is especially relevant for the maintenance of functional connectivity of prefrontal brain regions.

  3. [Sleep deprivation in somnambulism. Effect of arousal, deep sleep and sleep stage changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, G; Neissner, V; Schwarzmayr, P; Meier-Ewert, K

    1998-06-01

    Diagnosis of parasomnias in the sleep laboratory is difficult since the nocturnal behavior reported by the patients often does not show up in the laboratory. To test the efficacy of sleep deprivation as a tool to provoke somnambulism we investigated ten patients (three women and seven men, mean age 27 +/- 3.4) with somnambulism. Their standard polysomnographies and videomonitored nocturnal behavior was compared to that of sex- and age-matched controls and to polysomnography and behavior after sleep deprivation. Patients with parasomnias and controls did not show significant differences in sleep parameters with the exception of longer arousal duration in controls, which was nonsignificant. In magnetic resonance tomography, patients with parasomnias did not reveal abnormality of the brain that might explain release of nocturnal behavior. Sleep deprivation led to significantly reduced number of arousals, reduced arousal index, significantly prolonged arousal duration and more stage shifts from all sleep stages (nonsignificant). Complex behavior during sleep increased under sleep deprivation, whereas sleepwalking did not increase. The majority of complex behavior during sleep is triggered by stage shifts and not by arousal in the sense of the arousal definition of the American Sleep Disorder Society. Complex behavior in sleep is stereotypical and nonviolent. Its complexity seems to depend on the duration and intensity of arousals. Sleep deprivation can be recommended as an efficacious method of increasing complex behavior in sleep, which is a preliminary stage of sleepwalking. Concerning the underlying pathology it seems to be important to register the quality and duration of stimuli that trigger arousals instead of focusing the number of arousals alone.

  4. The sleep-deprived electroencephalogram: evidence and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Thomas H

    2002-08-01

    Sleep deprivation for the initial electroencephalogram for suspected seizures is a widespread but inconsistent practice not informed by balanced evidence. Daily practice suggests that nonneurologists are confused by the meaning and value of, and indications for, "sleep" (tracing) vs "sleep deprivation" (and other alternatives). They need specific, informed guidance from general neurologists on best practices. To document illustratively the variability of neurologists' practices, the level of relevant information among nonneurologists, and the current state of published evidence; and to stimulate formulation of consensus advisories. I surveyed knowledge and practices of (1) nonneurologists in a community teaching hospital; (2) local and national neurologists and epileptologists; (3) electroencephalogram laboratory protocols; and (4) textbook accounts and recommendations and the relevant journal literature. National professional organizations were contacted for advisories or guidelines. Most nonneurologists surveyed misunderstood "sleep" vs "sleep-deprived" electroencephalograms and their actual protocols. They are unaware of evidence on benefits vs burdens. Neurologists' practices are inconsistent. Experts generally agree that sleep deprivation produces substantial activation of interictal epileptiform discharges beyond the activation of sleep per se. However, most published recommendations and interviewed epileptologists do not suggest sleep deprivation for the initial electroencephalogram because of "inconvenience" (burdens) for the patient. Evidence-based or reasoned guidance is minimal, and professional societies have not issued advisories. Confusion over sleep deprivation, disparities between evidence and recommendations, and inconsistent practices create a need for expert consensus for guidance, as well as comparative research on alternative methods of increasing diagnostic yield.

  5. Sleep Deprivation Disrupts Recall of Conditioned Fear Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Laura D; Acheson, Dean T; Risbrough, Victoria B; Drummond, Sean P A

    2017-03-01

    Learned fear is crucial in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other anxiety disorders, and extinction of learned fear is necessary for response to exposure-based treatments. In humans, research suggests disrupted sleep impairs consolidation of extinction, though no studies have examined this experimentally using total sleep deprivation. Seventy-one healthy controls underwent a paradigm to acquire conditioned fear to a visual cue. Twenty-four hours after fear conditioning, participants underwent extinction learning. Twenty-four hours after extinction learning, participants underwent extinction recall. Participants were randomized to three groups: 1) well-rested throughout testing ("normal sleep"; n = 21); 2) 36 hours total sleep deprivation before extinction learning ("pre-extinction deprivation"; n = 25); or 3) 36 hours total sleep deprivation after extinction learning and before extinction recall ("post-extinction deprivation"; n = 25). The groups were compared on blink EMG reactivity to the condition stimulus during extinction learning and recall. There were no differences among the three groups during extinction learning. During extinction recall, the pre-extinction deprivation group demonstrated significantly less extinction recall than the normal sleep group. There was no significant difference between the normal sleep and post-extinction deprivation group during extinction recall. Results indicated sleep deprivation prior to extinction training significantly disrupts extinction recall. These findings suggest that (1) sleep deprivation in the immediate aftermath of trauma could be a potential contributor to PTSD development and maintenance via interference with natural extinction processes and (2) management of sleep symptoms should be considered during extinction-based therapy.

  6. Melatonin improves experimental colitis with sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Sook; Chung, Sook-Hee; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Ja-Hyun; Kim, Jun-Bong; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Shin; Baik, Haing-Woon

    2015-04-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an epidemic phenomenon in modern countries, and its harmful effects are well known. SD acts as an aggravating factor in inflammatory bowel disease. Melatonin is a sleep-related neurohormone, also known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the effects of melatonin on colitis have been poorly characterized. Thus, in this study, we assessed the measurable effects of SD on experimental colitis and the protective effects of melatonin. For this purpose, male imprinting control region (ICR) mice (n = 24) were used; the mice were divided into 4 experimental groups as follows: the control, colitis, colitis with SD and colitis with SD and melatonin groups. Colitis was induced by the administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for 6 days. The mice were sleep-deprived for 3 days. Changes in body weight, histological analyses of colon tissues and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes were evaluated. SD aggravated inflammation and these effects were reversed by melatonin in the mice with colitis. In addition, weight loss in the mice with colitis with SD was significantly reduced by the injection of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin led to high survival rates in the mice, in spite of colitis with SD. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the serum of mice were significantly increased by SD and reduced by melatonin treatment. The melatonin-treated group showed a histological improvement of inflammation. Upon gene analysis, the expression of the inflammatory genes, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and calmodulin 3 (CALM3), was increased by SD, and the levels decreased following treatment with melatonin. The expression levels of the apoptosis-related inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A (Wnt5a) genes was

  7. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Yusuf; Lee, Alice; Raha, Oishik; Pillai, Kavya; Gupta, Shubham; Sethi, Sonika; Mukeshimana, Felicite; Gerard, Lothaire; Moghal, Mohammad U; Saleh, Sohag N; Smith, Susan F; Morrell, Mary J; Moss, James

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is common among university students, and has been associated with poor academic performance and physical dysfunction. However, current literature has a narrow focus in regard to domains tested, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a night of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in students. A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 64 participants [58% male ( n  = 37); 22 ± 4 years old (mean ± SD)]. Participants were randomized into two conditions: normal sleep or one night sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was monitored using an online time-stamped questionnaire at 45 min intervals, completed in the participants' homes. The outcomes were cognitive: working memory (Simon game© derivative), executive function (Stroop test); and physical: reaction time (ruler drop testing), lung function (spirometry), rate of perceived exertion, heart rate, and blood pressure during submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Data were analysed using paired two-tailed T tests and MANOVA. Reaction time and systolic blood pressure post-exercise were significantly increased following sleep deprivation (mean ± SD change: reaction time: 0.15 ± 0.04 s, p  = 0.003; systolic BP: 6 ± 17 mmHg, p  = 0.012). No significant differences were found in other variables. Reaction time and vascular response to exercise were significantly affected by sleep deprivation in university students, whilst other cognitive and cardiopulmonary measures showed no significant changes. These findings indicate that acute sleep deprivation can have an impact on physical but not cognitive ability in young healthy university students. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms of change and the impact of longer term sleep deprivation in this population.

  8. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial working memory and reduces hippocampal AMPA receptor phosphorylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagewoud, Roelina; Havekes, Robbert; Novati, Arianna; Keijser, Jan N.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Meerlo, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is important for brain function and cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation (SD) may affect subsequent learning capacity and ability to form new memories, particularly in the case of hippocampus-dependent tasks. In the present study we examined whether SD for 6 or 12 h during the normal

  9. Tempol prevents chronic sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Albawaana, Amal S; Alhashimi, Farah H; Athamneh, Rabaa Y

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with oxidative stress that causes learning and memory impairment. Tempol is a nitroxide compound that promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has antioxidant and neuroprotective effect. The current study investigated whether chronic administration of tempol can overcome oxidative stress and prevent learning and memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was induced in rats using multiple platform model. Tempol was administered to rats via oral gavages. Behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze. The hippocampus was dissected; antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG ratio, GPx, SOD, and catalase) were assessed. The result of this project revealed that chronic sleep deprivation impaired both short and long term memory (Ptempol treatment prevented such effect. Furthermore, tempol normalized chronic sleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD (PTempol also enhanced the ratio of GSH/GSSG in chronically sleep deprived rats treated with tempol as compared with only sleep deprived rats (Ptempol prevented this impairment probably through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of One Night's Sleep Deprivation on Adolescent Neurobehavioral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Mia; Short, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of one night's sleep deprivation on neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents. Design: Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery measuring sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, sleepiness, and fatigue every 2 h during wakefulness. Baseline performance (defined as those test bouts between 09:00 and 19:00 on days 2 and 3, following two 10-h sleep opportunities) were compared to performance at the same clock time the day following total sleep deprivation. Setting: The sleep laboratory at the Centre for Sleep Research. Participants: Twelve healthy adolescents (6 male), aged 14-18 years (mean = 16.17, standard deviation = 0.83). Measurements and Results: Sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, and subjective sleepiness were all significantly worse following one night without sleep than following 10-h sleep opportunities (all main effects of day, P Sleep deprivation led to increased variability on objective performance measures. There were between-subjects differences in response to sleep loss that were task-specific, suggesting that adolescents may not only vary in terms of the degree to which they are affected by sleep loss but also the domains in which they are affected. Conclusions: These findings suggest that one night of total sleep deprivation has significant deleterious effects upon neurobehavioral performance and subjective sleepiness. These factors impair daytime functioning in adolescents, leaving them at greater risk of poor academic and social functioning and accidents and injuries. Citation: Louca M, Short MA. The effect of one night's sleep deprivation on adolescent neurobehavioral performance. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1799-1807. PMID:25364075

  11. Sleep Extension Improves Neurocognitive Functions in Chronically Sleep-Deprived Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Lucassen, Eliane A.; Piaggi, Paolo; Dsurney, John; de Jonge, Lilian; Zhao, Xiong-ce; Mattingly, Megan S.; Ramer, Angela; Gershengorn, Janet; Csako, Gyorgy; Cizza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals. Objective To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. Patients A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (

  12. The effects of total sleep deprivation on Bayesian updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Dickinson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjects performed a decision task (Grether, 1980 in both a well-rested and experimentally sleep-deprived state. We found two main results: 1 final choice accuracy was unaffected by sleep deprivation, and yet 2 the estimated decision model differed significantly following sleep-deprivation. Following sleep deprivation, subjects placed significantly less weight on new information in forming their beliefs. Because the altered decision process still maintains decision accuracy, it may suggest that increased accident and error rates attributed to reduced sleep in modern society stem from reduced auxiliary function performance (e.g., slowed reaction time, reduced motor skills or other components of decision making, rather than the inability to integrate multiple pieces of information.

  13. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Gaétane; Stercq, Fanny; Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep deprivation might

  14. Impact of partial sleep deprivation on immune markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Mustafa, F B; Earnest, A; Gen, L; Macary, P A

    2013-10-01

    Sleep quality is considered to be an important predictor of immunity. Lack of sleep therefore may reduce immunity, thereby increasing the susceptibility to respiratory pathogens. A previous study showed that reduced sleep duration was associated with an increased likelihood of the common cold. It is important to understand the role of sleep in altering immune responses to understand how sleep deprivation leads to an increased susceptibility to the common cold or other respiratory infections. We sought to examine the impact of partial sleep deprivation on various immune markers. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were partially sleep deprived for one night. We took blood samples before the sleep deprivation, immediately after, and 4 and 7 days after sleep deprivation. We measured various immune markers and used a generalized estimating equation (GEE) to examine the differences in the repeated measures. CD4, CD8, CD14, and CD16 all showed significant time-dependent changes, but CD3 did not. The most striking time-dependent change was observed for the mitogen proliferation assay and for HLA-DR. There was a significant decrease in the mitogen proliferation values and HLA-DR immediately after the sleep deprivation experiment, which started to rise again on day 4 and normalized by day 7. The transiently impaired mitogen proliferation, the decreased HLA-DR, the upregulated CD14, and the variations in CD4 and CD8 that we observed in temporal relationship with partial sleep deprivation could be one possible explanation for the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections reported after reduced sleep duration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An ERP examination of the different effects of sleep deprivation on exogenously cued and endogenously cued attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Logan T; Kornguth, Steve; Schnyer, David M

    2009-10-01

    Behavior and neuroimaging studies have shown selective attention to be negatively impacted by sleep deprivation. Two unresolved questions are (1) whether sleep deprivation impairs attention modulation of early visual processing or of a later stage of cognition and (2) how sleep deprivation affects exogenously versus endogenously driven selective attention. To investigate the time course and different effects of sleep deprivation on exogenously and endogenously cued selective attention. Participants performed modified Attention Network Tests (ANTs) using exogenously and endogenously cued targets to index brain networks underlying selective attention. Target-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as participants performed the Attention Network Tests on 2 days separated by 24 hours of total sleeplessness. Fourteen US Military Academy cadets and 12 US Army soldiers from the Ironhorse Brigade, Ft. Hood, Texas. For both Attention Network Tests, sleep deprivation led to slowed response times, decreased accuracy rates, a diminished positive P3 (450- to 550-ms) ERP component, and an enhanced P2 (312- to 434-ms) ERP component. In contrast, the parietal N1 (157- to 227-ms) ERP response was reduced with sleep deprivation for endogenously, but not exogenously, cued targets. These sleep deprivation-related effects occurred in the context of typical behavior and ERP patterns expected in a cued spatial-attention task. These findings suggest that as little as 24 hours of sleep deprivation affects both early and late stages of attention selection but affects endogenously driven selective attention to a greater degree than it does exogenously driven selective attention.

  16. Gender differences in sleep deprivation effects on risk and inequality aversion: evidence from an economic experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Bottasso, Anna; Tempesta, Daniela; Carrieri, Marika; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ponti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Excessive working hours--even at night--are becoming increasingly common in our modern 24/7 society. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss and, consequently, the specific behaviors subserved by the functional integrity of the PFC, such as risk-taking and pro-social behavior, may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects' risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics. This novel cross-over study employs thirty-two university students (gender-balanced) participating to 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions in which they perform standard risk and social preference elicitation protocols. One session was after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, and the other was after one night of sleep deprivation in the laboratory. Sleep deprivation causes increased sleepiness and decreased alertness in all subjects. After sleep loss males make riskier decisions compared to the rested condition, while females do the opposite. Females likewise show decreased inequity aversion after sleep deprivation. As for the relationship between cognitive ability and economic decisions, sleep deprived individuals with higher cognitive reflection show lower risk aversion and more altruistic behavior. These results show that one night of sleep deprivation alters economic behavior in a gender-sensitive way. Females' reaction to sleep deprivation, characterized by reduced risky choices and increased egoism compared to males, may be related to intrinsic psychological gender differences, such as in the way men and women weigh up probabilities in their decision-making, and/or to the different neurofunctional substrate of their decision-making.

  17. Gender differences in sleep deprivation effects on risk and inequality aversion: evidence from an economic experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ferrara

    Full Text Available Excessive working hours--even at night--are becoming increasingly common in our modern 24/7 society. The prefrontal cortex (PFC is particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss and, consequently, the specific behaviors subserved by the functional integrity of the PFC, such as risk-taking and pro-social behavior, may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects' risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics. This novel cross-over study employs thirty-two university students (gender-balanced participating to 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions in which they perform standard risk and social preference elicitation protocols. One session was after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, and the other was after one night of sleep deprivation in the laboratory. Sleep deprivation causes increased sleepiness and decreased alertness in all subjects. After sleep loss males make riskier decisions compared to the rested condition, while females do the opposite. Females likewise show decreased inequity aversion after sleep deprivation. As for the relationship between cognitive ability and economic decisions, sleep deprived individuals with higher cognitive reflection show lower risk aversion and more altruistic behavior. These results show that one night of sleep deprivation alters economic behavior in a gender-sensitive way. Females' reaction to sleep deprivation, characterized by reduced risky choices and increased egoism compared to males, may be related to intrinsic psychological gender differences, such as in the way men and women weigh up probabilities in their decision-making, and/or to the different neurofunctional substrate of their decision-making.

  18. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh Dang-Vu

    Full Text Available Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD, during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation.Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers.During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls.Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness.

  19. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Zadra, Antonio; Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Petit, Dominique; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD), during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation. Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers. During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls. Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness.

  20. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Herzog

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin, the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory. After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG. Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also

  1. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nina; Friedrich, Alexia; Fujita, Naoko; Gais, Steffen; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Benedict, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin), the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD) could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory) and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory). After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG). Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also sensitive to the

  2. Extended remediation of sleep deprived-induced working memory deficits using fMRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Bruce; Steffener, Jason; Tucker, Adrienne; Habeck, Christian; Peterchev, Angel V; Deng, Zhi-De; Basner, Robert C; Stern, Yaakov; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2013-06-01

    We attempted to prevent the development of working memory (WM) impairments caused by sleep deprivation using fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Novel aspects of our fMRI-guided rTMS paradigm included the use of sophisticated covariance methods to identify functional networks in imaging data, and the use of fMRI-targeted rTMS concurrent with task performance to modulate plasticity effects over a longer term. Between-groups mixed model. TMS, MRI, and sleep laboratory study. 27 subjects (13 receiving Active rTMS, and 14 Sham) completed the sleep deprivation protocol, with another 21 (10 Active, 11 Sham) non-sleep deprived subjects run in a second experiment. Our previous covariance analysis had identified a network, including occipital cortex, which demonstrated individual differences in resilience to the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on WM performance. Five Hz rTMS was applied to left lateral occipital cortex while subjects performed a WM task during 4 sessions over the course of 2 days of total sleep deprivation. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, Sham sleep deprived subjects exhibited degraded performance in the WM task. In contrast, those receiving Active rTMS did not show the slowing and lapsing typical in sleep deprivation, and instead performed similarly to non- sleep deprived subjects. Importantly, the Active sleep deprivation group showed rTMS-induced facilitation of WM performance a full 18 hours after the last rTMS session. Over the course of sleep deprivation, these results indicate that rTMS applied concurrently with WM task performance affected neural circuitry involved in WM to prevent its full impact.

  3. The impact of sleep deprivation on neuronal and glial signaling pathways important for memory and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Vecsey, Christopher G; Abel, Ted

    2012-06-01

    Sleep deprivation is a common feature in modern society, and one of the consequences of sleep loss is the impairment of cognitive function. Although it has been widely accepted that sleep deprivation affects learning and memory, only recently has research begun to address which molecular signaling pathways are altered by sleep loss and, more importantly, which pathways can be targeted to reverse the memory impairments resulting from sleep deprivation. In this review, we discuss the different methods used to sleep deprive animals and the effects of different durations of sleep deprivation on learning and memory with an emphasis on hippocampus-dependent memory. We then review the molecular signaling pathways that are sensitive to sleep loss, with a focus on those thought to play a critical role in the memory and synaptic plasticity deficits observed after sleep deprivation. Finally, we highlight several recent attempts to reverse the effects of sleep deprivation on memory and synaptic plasticity. Future research building on these studies promises to contribute to the development of novel strategies to ameliorate the effects of sleep loss on cognition.

  4. The impact of sleep deprivation on neuronal and glial signalling pathways important for memory and synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Vecsey, Christopher G.; Abel, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is a common feature in modern society, and one of the consequences of sleep loss is the impairment of cognitive function. Although it has been widely accepted that sleep deprivation affects learning and memory, only recently has research begun to address which molecular signalling pathways are altered by sleep loss and, more importantly, which pathways can be targeted to reverse the memory impairments resulting from sleep deprivation. In this review, we discuss the different methods used to sleep deprive animals and the effects of different durations of sleep deprivation on learning and memory with an emphasis on hippocampus-dependent memory. We then review the molecular signalling pathways that are sensitive to sleep loss, with a focus on those thought to play a critical role in the memory and synaptic plasticity deficits observed after sleep deprivation. Finally, we highlight several recent attempts to reverse the effects of sleep deprivation on memory and synaptic plasticity. Future research building on these studies promises to contribute to the development of novel strategies to ameliorate the effects of sleep loss on cognition. PMID:22570866

  5. Oculomotor responses during partial and total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Laura M; Thomas, Maria L; Thorne, David R; Sing, Helen C; Krichmar, Jeffrey L; Davis, H Quigg; Balwinski, Sharon M; Peters, Robert D; Kloeppel-Wagner, Esther; Redmond, Daniel P; Alicandri, Elizabeth; Belenky, Gregory

    2005-07-01

    Oculomotor responses related to the pupil light reflex (PLR) and saccadic velocity may be sensitive to the effects of sleepiness and therefore could be used to evaluate an individual's fitness for duty. There were 12 normal subjects who completed an 8-d study. They were allowed 8 h in bed on the first three nights, 4 h in bed on the fourth night, and then were sleep deprived for the following 64 h. Approximately every 3 h, subjects performed a battery of tests which included a 45-s automated oculomotor test and a 40-min PC-based driving simulator task. Sleepiness was evaluated with a self-assessment instrument. Subjects were allowed 10 h of recovery sleep following sleep deprivation. Oculomotor results for nine subjects showed a significant increase in latency to pupil constriction and a significant decrease in saccadic velocity with total, but not partial, sleep deprivation. The most robust changes during sleep deprivation occurred for saccadic velocity. A night of recovery sleep reversed the effects of total sleep deprivation on latency to pupil constriction and saccadic velocity. Subjective sleepiness and off-road accidents were found to significantly increase over the sleep deprivation period. A significant positive correlation between increasing latency to pupil constriction and increasing sleepiness and driving accidents, and a significant negative correlation between decreasing saccadic velocity and increasing sleepiness and driving accidents during sleep deprivation were found. These findings suggest that oculomotor functions, particularly saccadic velocity, are feasible for assessing neurophysiological changes associated with and predictive of sleep deprivation-induced operational performance degradation.

  6. Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation Resulting from Night Shift Work on Young Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Inês; Teixeira, Fátima; dos Santos, José Moutinho; Ferreira, António Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate sleep deprivation and its effects on young physicians in relation to concentration capacity and psychomotor performance. Eighteen physicians aged 26 - 33 years were divided into 2 groups: non-sleep deprived group (with no night work) and sleep deprived group (minimum 12 hour of night work/week). We applied Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to screen the presence of sleep pathology and Epworth Sleepiness Scale to evaluate subjective daytime sleepiness; we used actigraphy and sleep diary to assess sleep hygiene and standard sleep-wake cycles. To demonstrate the effects of sleep deprivation, we applied Toulouse-Piéron's test (concentration test) and a battery of three reaction time tasks after the night duty. Sleep deprived group had higher daytime sleepiness on Epworth Sleepiness Scale (p sleep deprivation was higher (p sleep during the period of night duty was 184.2 minutes to sleep deprived group and 397.7 minutes to non-sleep deprived group (p sleep deprived group had more omissions (p Sleep deprived group; in reaction to instruction test the sleep deprived group showed worse perfection index (p sleep deprivation resulting from nocturnal work in medical professions is associated with a reduction in attention and concentration and delayed response to stimuli. This may compromise patient care as well as the physician's health and quality of life. It is essential to study the effects of acute sleep deprivation on the cognitive abilities and performance of health professionals.

  7. Coping with sleep deprivation: shifts in regional brain activity and learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagewoud, Roelina; Havekes, Robbert; Tiba, Paula A; Novati, Arianna; Hogenelst, Koen; Weinreder, Pim; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Meerlo, Peter

    2010-11-01

    dissociable cognitive strategies are used for place navigation. Spatial strategies rely on the hippocampus, an area important for flexible integration of novel information. Response strategies are more rigid and involve the dorsal striatum. These memory systems can compensate for each other in case of temporal or permanent damage. Sleep deprivation has adverse effects on hippocampal function. However, whether the striatal memory system can compensate for sleep-deprivation-induced hippocampal impairments is unknown. with a symmetrical maze paradigm for mice, we examined the effect of sleep deprivation on learning the location of a food reward (training) and on learning that a previously nonrewarded arm was now rewarded (reversal training). five hours of sleep deprivation after each daily training session did not affect performance during training. However, in contrast with controls, sleep-deprived mice avoided a hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy and preferentially used a striatum-dependent response strategy. In line with this, the training-induced increase in phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB) shifted from hippocampus to dorsal striatum. Importantly, although sleep-deprived mice performed well during training, performance during reversal training was attenuated, most likely due to rigidity of the striatal system they used. together, these findings suggest that the brain compensates for negative effects of sleep deprivation on the hippocampal memory system by promoting the use of a striatal memory system. However, effects of sleep deprivation can still appear later on because the alternative learning mechanisms and brain regions involved may result in reduced flexibility under conditions requiring adaptation of previously formed memories.

  8. A survey of sleep deprivation patterns and their effects on cognitive functions of residents and interns in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Jee Hyun; Park, Kee-Duk; Choi, Kyoung-Gyu; Lee, Hyang Woon

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on physical health, cognition, and work performance in residents and interns who suffer from chronic sleep deprivation. Fifty-eight residents and interns were recruited in this study. They completed sleep diary for 2 weeks and questionnaires including health complaints, daytime sleepiness and work performance, and were evaluated with actigraphy. Stroop test, continuous performance test (CPT), trail-making test (TMT) and Korean-California verbal learning test (K-CVLT) were done as neuropsychological evaluations. Subjects were divided into severe sleep deprived (S-SD, average night sleep less than 4 h), mild to moderate deprived (M-SD, 4-6 h), and non-sleep deprived (Non-SD, more than 6 h) groups. Forty-one subjects (70.7%) were sleep-deprived. Mean sleep duration was 5.0±1.2 h/night and work duration was 14.9±2.7 h/day. The S-SD group showed higher Epworth Sleepiness Scales than M-SD and Non-SD groups. Severe sleep deprivation was associated with higher level of stress, more frequent attention deficit, and difficulty in learning (Psleep deprivation in residents and interns might affect their health as well as work performance that might influence the quality of patient care, although active compensatory brain mechanisms could be involved to preserve their performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive deterioration and changes of P300 during total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kim, Leen; Suh, Kwang-Yoon

    2003-10-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the cognitive deteriorations induced by sleep deprivation with the computerized neurocognitive tests and the P300 event-related potential. Thirty healthy college students (22 men, eight women) participated in the present study. Subjects remained awake for 38 h under continuous surveillance. In the morning and the evening of the two study days, the computerized neurocognitive tests and the P300 were performed. In vigilance test and reaction unit test, there were significant cognitive impairments during sleep deprivation. However, in the cognitrone test there was significant functional improvement, which might be due to the practice effect. The P300 latency was significantly prolonged and the amplitudes decreased during sleep deprivation. The cognitive impairment during 38 h of sleep deprivation was mainly in terms of vigilance and reaction time. In contrast, higher complex cognitive function such as fine perceptual analyses, visual discrimination and working memory might be not affected by 38 h of total sleep deprivation. The changes of P300 were significantly correlated with the results of vigilance and reaction unit tests but not with the cognitrone test. Taken together, these results suggest that the P300 changes that occur during sleep deprivation are a reflection of the decrement in vigilance, which prolongs reaction time.

  10. The effect of a REM sleep deprivation procedure on different aspects of memory function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild West; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Grønli, Janne; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Portas, Chiara Maria

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that memory is dependent on the occurrence of REM sleep. Research has mainly focused on two distinct types of memory function, declarative and procedural, and it seems that the latter may more directly depend on REM sleep. Memory consolidation has been more investigated than acquisition, maintenance, and recall, despite the fact that sleep may affect flow of information into/from storage. Moreover, tests have often been limited to stimuli within only one modality (usually visual or verbal). This study aimed to clarify the role of REM sleep in memory by investigating aspects of memory function, processing, and modality in the same experimental setting. Tests of acquisition and consolidation of multiple aspects of memory function within the visual and verbal modalities were administrated to subjects before and after REM sleep deprivation. Results show that test performance was not affected by REM sleep deprivation.

  11. AMPA receptors mediate passive avoidance deficits induced by sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiela, Francisco Paulino; Queiroz, Claudio Marcos; Moreira, Karin Di Monteiro; Nobrega, Jose N; Sita, Luciane Valéria; Tufik, Sergio; Hipolide, Debora Cristina

    2013-11-15

    The present study addressed the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) binding in brain regions associated with learning and memory, and investigated whether treatment with drugs acting on AMPAR could prevent passive avoidance deficits in sleep deprived animals. [(3)H]AMPA binding and GluR1 in situ hybridization signals were quantified in different brain regions of male Wistar rats either immediately after 96 h of sleep deprivation or after 24h of sleep recovery following 96 h of sleep deprivation. Another group of animals were sleep deprived and then treated with either the AMPAR potentiator, aniracetam (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, acute administration) or the AMPAR antagonist GYKI-52466 (5 and 10mg/kg, acute and chronic administration) before passive avoidance training. Task performance was evaluated 2h and 24h after training. A significant reduction in [(3)H]AMPA binding was found in the hippocampal formation of SD animals, while no alterations were observed in GluR1 mRNA levels. The highest dose of aniracetam (100mg/kg) reverted SD-induced impairment of passive avoidance performance in both retention tests, whereas GYKI-52466 treatment had no effect. Pharmacological enhancement of AMPAR function may revert hippocampal-dependent learning impairments produced after SD. We argue that such effects might be associated with reduced AMPAR binding in the hippocampus of sleep deprived animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep Deprivation Impairs the Human Central and Peripheral Nervous System Discrimination of Social Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Greer, Stephanie M; Saletin, Jared M; Walker, Matthew P

    2015-07-15

    Facial expressions represent one of the most salient cues in our environment. They communicate the affective state and intent of an individual and, if interpreted correctly, adaptively influence the behavior of others in return. Processing of such affective stimuli is known to require reciprocal signaling between central viscerosensory brain regions and peripheral-autonomic body systems, culminating in accurate emotion discrimination. Despite emerging links between sleep and affective regulation, the impact of sleep loss on the discrimination of complex social emotions within and between the CNS and PNS remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate in humans that sleep deprivation impairs both viscerosensory brain (anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala) and autonomic-cardiac discrimination of threatening from affiliative facial cues. Moreover, sleep deprivation significantly degrades the normally reciprocal associations between these central and peripheral emotion-signaling systems, most prominent at the level of cardiac-amygdala coupling. In addition, REM sleep physiology across the sleep-rested night significantly predicts the next-day success of emotional discrimination within this viscerosensory network across individuals, suggesting a role for REM sleep in affective brain recalibration. Together, these findings establish that sleep deprivation compromises the faithful signaling of, and the "embodied" reciprocity between, viscerosensory brain and peripheral autonomic body processing of complex social signals. Such impairments hold ecological relevance in professional contexts in which the need for accurate interpretation of social cues is paramount yet insufficient sleep is pervasive. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510135-11$15.00/0.

  13. Effects of cocaine, methamphetamine and modafinil challenge on sleep rebound after paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.S Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep loss is both common and critically relevant to our society and might lead to the abuse of psychostimulants such as amphetamines, cocaine and modafinil. Since psychoactive substance abuse often occurs within a scenario of sleep deficit, the purpose of this investigation was to compare the sleep patterns of rats challenged with cocaine (7 mg/kg, ip, methamphetamine (7 mg/kg, ip, or modafinil (100 mg/kg, ip subsequent to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD for 96 h. Our results show that, immediately after 96 h of PSD, rats (10 per group that were injected with a psychostimulant presented lower percentages of paradoxical sleep compared to those injected with saline (P < 0.01. Regarding slow wave sleep (SWS, rats injected with psychostimulants after PSD presented a late rebound (on the second night subsequent to the injection in the percentage of this phase of sleep when compared to PSD rats injected with saline (P < 0.05. In addition, the current study has produced evidence of the characteristic effect of each drug on sleep architecture. Home cage control rats injected with modafinil and methamphetamine showed a reduction in SWS compared with the saline group. Methamphetamine affected sleep patterns most, since it significantly reduced paradoxical sleep, SWS and sleep efficiency before and after PSD compared to control (P < 0.05. Cocaine was the psychostimulant causing the least changes in sleep pattern in relation to those observed after saline injection. Therefore, our results suggest that abuse of these psychostimulants in a PSD paradigm aggravates their impact on sleep patterns.

  14. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = -0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b(0E) = -0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b(0Au) = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. A brief period of sleep deprivation causes spine loss in the dentate gyrus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Frank; Meerlo, Peter; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert

    2018-03-24

    Sleep and sleep loss have a profound impact on hippocampal function, leading to memory impairments. Modifications in the strength of synaptic connections directly influences neuronal communication, which is vital for normal brain function, as well as the processing and storage of information. In a recently published study, we found that as little as five hours of sleep deprivation impaired hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation, which was accompanied by a reduction in dendritic spine numbers in hippocampal area CA1. Surprisingly, loss of sleep did not alter the spine density of CA3 neurons. Although sleep deprivation has been reported to affect the function of the dentate gyrus, it is unclear whether a brief period of sleep deprivation impacts spine density in this region. Here, we investigated the impact of a brief period of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure in the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus. We found that five hours of sleep loss reduces spine density in the dentate gyrus with a prominent effect on branched spines. Interestingly, the inferior blade of the dentate gyrus seems to be more vulnerable in terms of spine loss than the superior blade. This decrease in spine density predominantly in the inferior blade of the dentate gyrus may contribute to the memory deficits observed after sleep loss, as structural reorganization of synaptic networks in this subregion is fundamental for cognitive processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tired and misconnected: A breakdown of brain modularity following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Simon, Eti; Maron-Katz, Adi; Lahav, Nir; Shamir, Ron; Hendler, Talma

    2017-06-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) critically affects a range of cognitive and affective functions, typically assessed during task performance. Whether such impairments stem from changes to the brain's intrinsic functional connectivity remain largely unknown. To examine this hypothesis, we applied graph theoretical analysis on resting-state fMRI data derived from 18 healthy participants, acquired during both sleep-rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that parameters indicative of graph connectivity, such as modularity, will be impaired by sleep deprivation and that these changes will correlate with behavioral outcomes elicited by sleep loss. As expected, our findings point to a profound reduction in network modularity without sleep, evident in the limbic, default-mode, salience and executive modules. These changes were further associated with behavioral impairments elicited by SD: a decrease in salience module density was associated with worse task performance, an increase in limbic module density was predictive of stronger amygdala activation in a subsequent emotional-distraction task and a shift in frontal hub lateralization (from left to right) was associated with increased negative mood. Altogether, these results portray a loss of functional segregation within the brain and a shift towards a more random-like network without sleep, already detected in the spontaneous activity of the sleep-deprived brain. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3300-3314, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sleep Deprivation in Humans, Immunodepression and Glutamine Supplementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castell, Linda M; Gough, Elizabeth; Cardenas, Rebecca; Miller, James C

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking University of Oxford as follows: The Grantee will investigate the immunological response of subjects to one night of sleep deprivation with respect to the following areas...

  18. Effect of sleep deprivation on responses to airway obstruction in the sleeping dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, C P; King, E D; Schwartz, A R; Smith, P L; Robotham, J L

    1994-10-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation on sleep architecture and respiratory responses to repetitive airway obstruction during sleep was investigated in four chronically instrumented tracheostomized dogs during 12-h nocturnal experiments. A 24-h period of prior sleep deprivation increased (P airway obstruction could be induced from 20 +/- 3 (SE) to 37 +/- 10 times/h compared with non-sleep-deprived dogs. During non-rapid-eye-movement sleep the duration of obstruction, minimum arterial hemoglobin saturation, and peak negative inspiratory effort at arousal were 20.5 +/- 1.0 s, 91.7 +/- 0.5%, and 28.4 +/- 1.8 mmHg, respectively, in non-sleep-deprived dogs. Sleep deprivation increased (P obstruction to 28.0 +/- 0.9 s, worsened (P airway obstruction at the end of the study. We conclude that airway obstruction in the sleeping dog can reproduce the disturbances in sleep architecture and respiration that occur in obstructive sleep apnea and that prior sleep deprivation will increase apnea severity, degree of somnolence, and REM sleep rebound independent of change in upper airway collapsibility.

  19. Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Kahn-Greene, Ellen T; Lipizzi, Erica L; Newman, Rachel A; Kamimori, Gary H; Balkin, Thomas J

    2008-07-01

    Insufficient sleep can adversely affect a variety of cognitive abilities, ranging from simple alertness to higher-order executive functions. Although the effects of sleep loss on mood and cognition are well documented, there have been no controlled studies examining its effects on perceived emotional intelligence (EQ) and constructive thinking, abilities that require the integration of affect and cognition and are central to adaptive functioning. Twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi) and the Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI) at rested baseline and again after 55.5 and 58 h of continuous wakefulness, respectively. Relative to baseline, sleep deprivation was associated with lower scores on Total EQ (decreased global emotional intelligence), Intrapersonal functioning (reduced self-regard, assertiveness, sense of independence, and self-actualization), Interpersonal functioning (reduced empathy toward others and quality of interpersonal relationships), Stress Management skills (reduced impulse control and difficulty with delay of gratification), and Behavioral Coping (reduced positive thinking and action orientation). Esoteric Thinking (greater reliance on formal superstitions and magical thinking processes) was increased. These findings are consistent with the neurobehavioral model suggesting that sleep loss produces temporary changes in cerebral metabolism, cognition, emotion, and behavior consistent with mild prefrontal lobe dysfunction.

  20. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberalesso Paulo Breno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP. Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT, and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT. Baseline (BSL performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005, for males (p = 0.0066, and for females (p = 0.0208. Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p  Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  1. Evoked Electrical and Cerebral Vascular Responses Following Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Jennifer L.; Rector, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal activity elicits vascular dilation, delivering additional blood and metabolites to the activated region. With increasing neural activity, vessels stretch and may become less compliant. Most functional imaging studies assume that limits to vascular expansion are not normally reached except under pathological conditions, with the possibility that metabolism could outpace supply. However, we previously demonstrated that evoked hemodynamic responses were larger during quiet sleep when compared to both waking and REM sleep, suggesting that high basal activity during wake may elicit blunted evoked hemodynamic responses due to vascular expansion limits. We hypothesized that extended brain activity through sleep deprivation will further dilate blood vessels, and exacerbate the blunted evoked hemodynamic responses observed during wake, and dampen responses in subsequent sleep. We measured evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses from rats using auditory clicks (0.5 s, 10 Hz, 2–13 s random ISIs) for one hour following 2, 4, or 6 hours of sleep deprivation. Time-of-day matched controls were recorded continuously for 7 hours. Within quiet sleep periods following deprivation, ERP amplitude did not differ; however, the evoked vascular response was smaller with longer sleep deprivation periods. These results suggest that prolonged neural activity periods through sleep deprivation may diminish vascular compliance as indicated by the blunted vascular response. Subsequent sleep may allow vessels to relax, restoring their ability to deliver blood. These results also suggest that severe sleep deprivation or chronic sleep disturbances could push the vasculature to critical limits, leading to metabolic deficit and the potential for tissue trauma. PMID:21854966

  2. Effects of acute caffeine withdrawal on Short Category Test performance in sleep-deprived individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Kahn-Greene, Ellen T; Killgore, Desiree B; Kamimori, Gary H; Balkin, Thomas J

    2007-12-01

    Caffeine is a popular stimulant often used to counter the effects of sleep loss and fatigue. Withdrawal from caffeine may produce mild declines in simple cognitive capacities such as attention and concentration, but it is unclear whether more complex cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning or concept formation, may be similarly affected. To assess the effect of acute caffeine withdrawal on executive functioning during sleep deprivation, 26 healthy volunteers were administered in double-blind form either repeated doses of caffeine or placebo over two nights of continuous wakefulness. The 108-item Short Category Test was administered after 56 hr. of total sleep deprivation (9 hr. post-caffeine administration). The caffeine group scored significantly more poorly, making approximately 57% more errors on the test than the placebo group. These findings suggest that acute caffeine withdrawal during prolonged sleep deprivation has an adverse effect on abstract reasoning and concept formation.

  3. The effect of sleep deprivation on choice reaction time and anaerobic power of college student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Morteza; Arabameri, Elaheh

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep deprivation on anaerobic performance and Reaction time of subjects in the morning of the following day. Eighteen male college student athletes were studied twice in a balanced, randomized design. Subjects were measured for peak power, mean power and Reaction time. The performance showed no significant difference in both tests of anaerobic power (peak power, mean power) over the sleep deprivation period (P= 0.3; P= 0.4 respectively), but reaction time differed significantly from baseline (P=0.003). Results support the hypothesis that sleep serves a function of cognitive restitution, particularly in the maintenance of attentional mechanisms. In the light of the above considerations. It was concluded that short-term sleep deprivation is not effective on anaerobic performance, but adversely affects cognitive function such as Reaction Time.

  4. Effects of Partial and Acute Total Sleep Deprivation on Performance across Cognitive Domains, Individuals and Circadian Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C.; Groeger, John A.; Santhi, Nayantara; Arbon, Emma L.; Lazar, Alpar S.; Hasan, Sibah; von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive performance deteriorates during extended wakefulness and circadian phase misalignment, and some individuals are more affected than others. Whether performance is affected similarly across cognitive domains, or whether cognitive processes involving Executive Functions are more sensitive to sleep and circadian misalignment than Alertness and Sustained Attention, is a matter of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a 2 × 12-day laboratory protocol to characterize the interaction of repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation and circadian phase on performance across seven cognitive domains in 36 individuals (18 males; mean ± SD of age = 27.6±4.0 years). The sample was stratified for the rs57875989 polymorphism in PER3, which confers cognitive susceptibility to total sleep deprivation. We observed a deterioration of performance during both repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation. Furthermore, prior partial sleep deprivation led to poorer cognitive performance in a subsequent total sleep deprivation period, but its effect was modulated by circadian phase such that it was virtually absent in the evening wake maintenance zone, and most prominent during early morning hours. A significant effect of PER3 genotype was observed for Subjective Alertness during partial sleep deprivation and on n-back tasks with a high executive load when assessed in the morning hours during total sleep deprivation after partial sleep loss. Overall, however, Subjective Alertness and Sustained Attention were more affected by both partial and total sleep deprivation than other cognitive domains and tasks including n-back tasks of Working Memory, even when implemented with a high executive load. Conclusions/Significance Sleep loss has a primary effect on Sleepiness and Sustained Attention with much smaller effects on challenging Working Memory tasks. These findings have implications for understanding how sleep debt and circadian rhythmicity

  5. Effects of partial and acute total sleep deprivation on performance across cognitive domains, individuals and circadian phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Groeger, John A; Santhi, Nayantara; Arbon, Emma L; Lazar, Alpar S; Hasan, Sibah; von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance deteriorates during extended wakefulness and circadian phase misalignment, and some individuals are more affected than others. Whether performance is affected similarly across cognitive domains, or whether cognitive processes involving Executive Functions are more sensitive to sleep and circadian misalignment than Alertness and Sustained Attention, is a matter of debate. We conducted a 2 × 12-day laboratory protocol to characterize the interaction of repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation and circadian phase on performance across seven cognitive domains in 36 individuals (18 males; mean ± SD of age = 27.6 ± 4.0 years). The sample was stratified for the rs57875989 polymorphism in PER3, which confers cognitive susceptibility to total sleep deprivation. We observed a deterioration of performance during both repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation. Furthermore, prior partial sleep deprivation led to poorer cognitive performance in a subsequent total sleep deprivation period, but its effect was modulated by circadian phase such that it was virtually absent in the evening wake maintenance zone, and most prominent during early morning hours. A significant effect of PER3 genotype was observed for Subjective Alertness during partial sleep deprivation and on n-back tasks with a high executive load when assessed in the morning hours during total sleep deprivation after partial sleep loss. Overall, however, Subjective Alertness and Sustained Attention were more affected by both partial and total sleep deprivation than other cognitive domains and tasks including n-back tasks of Working Memory, even when implemented with a high executive load. Sleep loss has a primary effect on Sleepiness and Sustained Attention with much smaller effects on challenging Working Memory tasks. These findings have implications for understanding how sleep debt and circadian rhythmicity interact to determine waking performance across cognitive domains

  6. Effects of partial and acute total sleep deprivation on performance across cognitive domains, individuals and circadian phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June C Lo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive performance deteriorates during extended wakefulness and circadian phase misalignment, and some individuals are more affected than others. Whether performance is affected similarly across cognitive domains, or whether cognitive processes involving Executive Functions are more sensitive to sleep and circadian misalignment than Alertness and Sustained Attention, is a matter of debate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a 2 × 12-day laboratory protocol to characterize the interaction of repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation and circadian phase on performance across seven cognitive domains in 36 individuals (18 males; mean ± SD of age = 27.6 ± 4.0 years. The sample was stratified for the rs57875989 polymorphism in PER3, which confers cognitive susceptibility to total sleep deprivation. We observed a deterioration of performance during both repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation. Furthermore, prior partial sleep deprivation led to poorer cognitive performance in a subsequent total sleep deprivation period, but its effect was modulated by circadian phase such that it was virtually absent in the evening wake maintenance zone, and most prominent during early morning hours. A significant effect of PER3 genotype was observed for Subjective Alertness during partial sleep deprivation and on n-back tasks with a high executive load when assessed in the morning hours during total sleep deprivation after partial sleep loss. Overall, however, Subjective Alertness and Sustained Attention were more affected by both partial and total sleep deprivation than other cognitive domains and tasks including n-back tasks of Working Memory, even when implemented with a high executive load. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sleep loss has a primary effect on Sleepiness and Sustained Attention with much smaller effects on challenging Working Memory tasks. These findings have implications for understanding how sleep debt and

  7. Sleep deprivation suppresses the increase of rapid eye movement density across sleep cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Cristina; De Simoni, Elisa; Tempesta, Daniela; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the association between rapid eye movement (REM) density (REMd) and electroencephalogram (EEG) activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep, within the re-assessment, in a large sample of normal subjects, of the reduction of oculomotor activity in REM sleep after total sleep deprivation (SD). Coherently with the hypothesis of a role of homeostatic sleep pressure in influencing REMd, a negative correlation between changes in REMd and slow-wave activity (SWA) was expected. A further aim of the study was to evaluate if the decreased REMd after SD affects ultradian changes across sleep periods. Fifty normal subjects (29 male and 21 female; mean age=24.3 ± 2.2 years) were studied for four consecutive days and nights. Sleep recordings were scheduled in the first (adaptation), second (baseline) and fourth night (recovery). After awakening from baseline sleep, a protocol of 40 h SD started at 10:00 hours. Polysomnographic measures, REMd and quantitative EEG activity during NREM and REM sleep of baseline and recovery nights were compared. We found a clear reduction of REMd in the recovery after SD, due to the lack of REMd changes across cycles. Oculomotor changes positively correlated with a decreased power in a specific range of fast sigma activity (14.75-15.25 Hz) in NREM, but not with SWA. REMd changes were also related to EEG power in the 12.75-13.00 Hz range in REM sleep. The present results confirm the oculomotor depression after SD, clarifying that it is explained by the lack of changes in REMd across sleep cycles. The depression of REMd can not simply be related to homeostatic mechanisms, as REMd changes were associated with EEG power changes in a specific range of spindle frequency activity, but not with SWA. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. [Effects of sleep deprivation on human performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z J; Ma, R S

    2000-08-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on human performance. Method. 8 healthy male college students participated the test. During 26 h of continuous awakeness (from 6:00 to 8:00 the next day), the volunteers were demanded to perform a battery of tests at 9 different time (7:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, 0:00, 2:00, 4:00, 6:00, 8:00). The tests include: (1) single task: aural Oddball response, the response time (RT1) and correct rate (CR1) were recorded; (2) dual tasks: manual tracking and aural Oddball response, the response time (RT2), tracking error (ER) and correct rate (CR2) were recorded; (3) The Stanford sleepiness scale and subjective ratings of task difficulty access. Result. SD had significant effects on CT1, CT2 and ER (P=0.0001, P=0.00001, P=0.0004 respectively); SD increased RT1, RT2, ER at night time. SD had significant effects on SR, SSS score (P=0.0001, P=0.0000 respectively); SD increased SR, SSS score at night time. Since the subjects changed their response strategy, CR1 and CR2 were not influenced by SD at night time. Conclusion. SD has significant effects on response time, tracking error, subjective difficulty of cognitive tasks and subjective sleepiness.

  9. A Study of Possible Sleep Deprivation in Medical Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred medical students were investigated for possible sleep deprivation using questionnaires. The use of drugs in form of stimulants, use of sleeping pills, and the nature of hostel space accommodation for the students were also investigated. A similar sizeable number of non-medical students were also investigated.

  10. REM Sleep Phase Preference in the Crepuscular Octodon degus Assessed by Selective REM Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián; Hernández, Felipe; Palacios, Adrian G.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phase preference in a crepuscular mammal (Octodon degus) by challenging the specific REM sleep homeostatic response during the diurnal and nocturnal anticrepuscular rest phases. Design: We have investigated REM sleep rebound, recovery, and documented REM sleep propensity measures during and after diurnal and nocturnal selective REM sleep deprivations. Subjects: Nine male wild-captured O. degus prepared for polysomnographic recordings Interventions: Animals were recorded during four consecutive baseline and two separate diurnal or nocturnal deprivation days, under a 12:12 light-dark schedule. Three-h selective REM sleep deprivations were performed, starting at midday (zeitgeber time 6) or midnight (zeitgeber time 18). Measurements and Results: Diurnal and nocturnal REM sleep deprivations provoked equivalent amounts of REM sleep debt, but a consistent REM sleep rebound was found only after nocturnal deprivation. The nocturnal rebound was characterized by a complete recovery of REM sleep associated with an augment in REM/total sleep time ratio and enhancement in REM sleep episode consolidation. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that the circadian system actively promotes REM sleep. We propose that the sleep-wake cycle of O. degus is modulated by a chorus of circadian oscillators with a bimodal crepuscular modulation of arousal and a unimodal promotion of nocturnal REM sleep. Citation: Ocampo-Garcés A; Hernández F; Palacios AG. REM sleep phase preference in the crepuscular Octodon degus assessed by selective REM sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1247-1256. PMID:23904685

  11. Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Disruption: Stress, Allostasis, and Allostatic Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S; Karatsoreos, Ilia N

    2015-03-01

    Sleep has important homeostatic functions, and circadian rhythms organize physiology and behavior on a daily basis to insure optimal function. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption can be stressors, enhancers of other stressors that have consequences for the brain and many body systems. Whether the origins of circadian disruption and sleep disruption and deprivation are from anxiety, depression, shift work, long-distance air travel, or a hectic lifestyle, there are consequences that impair brain functions and contribute to the cumulative wear and tear on body systems caused by too much stress and/or inefficient management of the systems that promote adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep Deprivation and Performance: The Optimum Use of Limited Sleep Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND PERFORMANCE: THE OPTIMUM USE OF LIMITED SLEEP PERIODS Final Report Wilse B. Webb, Ph. D. April, 1983 Supported by U. S. ARMY...ve... ,de It necessary m.d identify b• block n.um.ber) Continuous Performance Sleep Loss Cognitive Testing Optimum Sleep Periods IZ. A"E11ACT (Cr--t...V. or/ Avnil:ibiltty Codes i Avail onl/or Dist Special A I, SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND PERFORMANCE: THE OPTIMUM USE OF LIMITED SLEEP PERIODS Summary This

  13. The Effects of Two Types of Sleep Deprivation on Visual Working Memory Capacity and Filtering Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Sean P. A.; Anderson, Dane E.; Straus, Laura D.; Vogel, Edward K.; Perez, Veronica B.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has adverse consequences for a variety of cognitive functions. The exact effects of sleep deprivation, though, are dependent upon the cognitive process examined. Within working memory, for example, some component processes are more vulnerable to sleep deprivation than others. Additionally, the differential impacts on cognition of different types of sleep deprivation have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of one night of total sleep depri...

  14. Comparing technical dexterity of sleep-deprived versus intoxicated surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtashami, Fariba; Thiele, Allison; Karreman, Erwin; Thiel, John

    2014-01-01

    The evidence on the effect of sleep deprivation on the cognitive and motor skills of physicians in training is sparse and conflicting, and the evidence is nonexistent on surgeons in practice. Work-hour limitations based on these data have contributed to challenges in the quality of surgical education under the apprentice model, and as a result there is an increasing focus on competency-based education. Whereas the effects of alcohol intoxication on psychometric performance are well studied in many professions, the effects on performance in surgery are not well documented. To study the effects of sleep deprivation on the surgical performance of surgeons, we compared simulated the laparoscopic skills of staff gynecologists "under 2 conditions": sleep deprivation and ethanol intoxication. We hypothesized that the performance of unconsciously competent surgeons does not deteriorate postcall as it does under the influence of alcohol. Nine experienced staff gynecologists performed 3 laparoscopic tasks in increasing order of difficulty (cup drop, rope passing, pegboard exchange) on a box trainer while sleep deprived (0.08 mg/mL blood alcohol concentration). Three expert laparoscopic surgeons scored the anonymous clips online using Global Objective Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills criteria: depth perception, bimanual dexterity, and efficiency. Data were analyzed by a mixed-design analysis of variance. There were large differences in mean performance between the tasks. With increasing task difficulty, mean scores became significantly (P sleep-deprived and intoxicated participants were similar for all variables except time. Surprisingly, participants took less time to complete the easy tasks when intoxicated. However, the most difficult task took less time but was performed significantly worse compared with being sleep deprived. Notably, the evaluators did not recognize a lack of competence for the easier tasks when intoxicated; incompetence surfaced only in the most

  15. Lithium prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced impairments on memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Simone M; Moreira, Karin Di Monteiro; Suchecki, Deborah; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M; Tiba, Paula A

    2013-11-01

    Pre-training rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) deprivation affects memory acquisition and/or consolidation. It also produces major REMS rebound at the cost of waking and slow wave sleep (SWS). Given that both SWS and REMS appear to be important for memory processes, REMS rebound after training may disrupt the organization of sleep cycles, i.e., excessive amount of REMS and/or little SWS after training could be harmful for memory formation. To examine whether lithium, a drug known to increase SWS and reduce REMS, could prevent the memory impairment induced by pre-training sleep deprivation. Animals were divided in 2 groups: cage control (CC) and REMS-deprived (REMSDep), and then subdivided into 4 subgroups, treated either with vehicle or 1 of 3 doses of lithium (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) 2 h before training on the multiple trial inhibitory avoidance task. Animals were tested 48 h later to make sure that the drug had been already metabolized and eliminated. Another set of animals was implanted with electrodes and submitted to the same experimental protocol for assessment of drug-induced sleep-wake changes. Wistar male rats weighing 300-400 g. Sleep deprived rats required more trials to learn the task and still showed a performance deficit during test, except from those treated with 150 mg/kg of lithium, which also reduced the time spent in REM sleep during sleep recovery. Lithium reduced rapid eye movement sleep and prevented memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. These results indicate that these phenomena may be related, but cause-effect relationship cannot be ascertained.

  16. Sleep-deprivation effect on human performance: a meta-analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candice D. Griffith; Candice D. Griffith; Sankaran Mahadevan

    2006-05-01

    Human fatigue is hard to define since there is no direct measure of fatigue, much like stress. Instead fatigue must be inferred from measures that are affected by fatigue. One such measurable output affected by fatigue is reaction time. In this study the relationship of reaction time to sleep deprivation is studied. These variables were selected because reaction time and hours of sleep deprivation are straightforward characteristics of fatigue to begin the investigation of fatigue effects on performance. Meta-analysis, a widely used procedure in medical and psychological studies, is applied to the variety of fatigue literature collected from various fields in this study. Meta-analysis establishes a procedure for coding and analyzing information from various studies to compute an effect size. In this research the effect size reported is the difference between standardized means, and is found to be -0.6341, implying a strong relationship between sleep deprivation and performance degradation.

  17. Benefits of Sleep Extension on Sustained Attention and Sleep Pressure Before and During Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; van Beers, Pascal; Bayon, Virginie; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Millet, Guillaume Y; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of 6 nights of sleep extension on sustained attention and sleep pressure before and during total sleep deprivation and after a subsequent recovery sleep. Subjects participated in two experimental conditions (randomized cross-over design): extended sleep (EXT, 9.8 ± 0.1 h (mean ± SE) time in bed) and habitual sleep (HAB, 8.2 ± 0.1 h time in bed). In each condition, subjects performed two consecutive phases: (1) 6 nights of either EXT or HAB (2) three days in-laboratory: baseline, total sleep deprivation and after 10 h of recovery sleep. Residential sleep extension and sleep performance laboratory (continuous polysomnographic recording). 14 healthy men (age range: 26-37 years). EXT vs. HAB sleep durations prior to total sleep deprivation. Total sleep time and duration of all sleep stages during the 6 nights were significantly higher in EXT than HAB. EXT improved psychomotor vigilance task performance (PVT, both fewer lapses and faster speed) and reduced sleep pressure as evidenced by longer multiple sleep latencies (MSLT) at baseline compared to HAB. EXT limited PVT lapses and the number of involuntary microsleeps during total sleep deprivation. Differences in PVT lapses and speed and MSLT at baseline were maintained after one night of recovery sleep. Six nights of extended sleep improve sustained attention and reduce sleep pressure. Sleep extension also protects against psychomotor vigilance task lapses and microsleep degradation during total sleep deprivation. These beneficial effects persist after one night of recovery sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Sleep deprivation impairs consolidation of cued fear memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tankesh; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-01-01

    Post-learning sleep facilitates negative memory consolidation and also helps preserve it over several years. It is believed, therefore, that sleep deprivation may help prevent consolidation of fearful memory. Its effect, however, on consolidation of negative/frightening memories is not known. Cued fear-conditioning (CuFC) is a widely used model to understand the neural basis of negative memory associated with anxiety disorders. In this study, we first determined the suitable circadian timing for consolidation of CuFC memory and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC. Thereafter, we studied the effect of sleep deprivation on CuFC memory consolidation. Three sets of experiments were performed in male Wistar rat (n=51). In experiment-I, animals were conditioned to cued-fear by presenting ten tone-shock paired stimuli during lights-on (7 AM) (n=9) and lights-off (7 PM) (n=9) periods. In experiment-II, animals were prepared for polysomnographic recording (n=8) and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC was determined. Further in experiment-III, animals were cued fear-conditioned during the lights-off period and were randomly divided into four groups: Sleep-Deprived (SD) (n=9), Non-Sleep Deprived (NSD) (n=9), Stress Control (SC) (n=9) and Tone Control (n=7). Percent freezing amount, a hallmark of fear, was compared statistically in these groups. Rats trained during the lights-off period exhibited significantly more freezing compared to lights-on period. In CuFC trained animals, total sleep amount did not change, however, REM sleep decreased significantly. Further, out of total sleep time, animals spent proportionately more time in NREM sleep. Nevertheless, SD animals exhibited significantly less freezing compared to NSD and SC groups. These data suggest that sleep plays an important role in the consolidation of cued fear-conditioned memory.

  19. Sleep deprivation impairs consolidation of cued fear memory in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankesh Kumar

    Full Text Available Post-learning sleep facilitates negative memory consolidation and also helps preserve it over several years. It is believed, therefore, that sleep deprivation may help prevent consolidation of fearful memory. Its effect, however, on consolidation of negative/frightening memories is not known. Cued fear-conditioning (CuFC is a widely used model to understand the neural basis of negative memory associated with anxiety disorders. In this study, we first determined the suitable circadian timing for consolidation of CuFC memory and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC. Thereafter, we studied the effect of sleep deprivation on CuFC memory consolidation. Three sets of experiments were performed in male Wistar rat (n=51. In experiment-I, animals were conditioned to cued-fear by presenting ten tone-shock paired stimuli during lights-on (7 AM (n=9 and lights-off (7 PM (n=9 periods. In experiment-II, animals were prepared for polysomnographic recording (n=8 and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC was determined. Further in experiment-III, animals were cued fear-conditioned during the lights-off period and were randomly divided into four groups: Sleep-Deprived (SD (n=9, Non-Sleep Deprived (NSD (n=9, Stress Control (SC (n=9 and Tone Control (n=7. Percent freezing amount, a hallmark of fear, was compared statistically in these groups. Rats trained during the lights-off period exhibited significantly more freezing compared to lights-on period. In CuFC trained animals, total sleep amount did not change, however, REM sleep decreased significantly. Further, out of total sleep time, animals spent proportionately more time in NREM sleep. Nevertheless, SD animals exhibited significantly less freezing compared to NSD and SC groups. These data suggest that sleep plays an important role in the consolidation of cued fear-conditioned memory.

  20. Sleep Deficiency and Deprivation Leading to Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Kohansieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays a vital role in an individual’s mental, emotional, and physiological well-being. Not only does sleep deficiency lead to neurological and psychological disorders, but also the literature has explored the adverse effects of sleep deficiency on the cardiovascular system. Decreased quantity and quality of sleep have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We explore the literature correlating primary sleep deficiency and deprivation as a cause for cardiovascular disease and cite endothelial dysfunction as a common underlying mechanism.

  1. The effects of sleep deprivation on oculomotor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldich, Yakov; Barkana, Yaniv; Pras, Eran; Zadok, David; Hartstein, Morris; Morad, Yair

    2010-12-01

     Fatigue due to sleep deprivation is one of the main causes of accidents. An objective and efficient method for determining whether the person is tired could provide a valuable tool in accident prevention. In this study, we evaluated whether oculomotor responses related to pupillary light reflex and saccadic velocity can identify subjects with sleep deprivation and whether these objective values correlate with subjective feeling of sleepiness.  Thirteen normal subjects (5 male, 8 female) participated in a 4-day study. During the first two days following a full night's (8 hr in bed) sleep, they underwent baseline automated oculomotor testing using the FIT-2500-Fatigue-Analyzer. Following a third full night's sleep, participants were then sleep-deprived for 28 hr. Ten measurements of automated oculomotor tests were performed during the sleep deprivation period. Visually-guided saccadic velocity (SV), initial pupil diameter (PD), pupillary constriction latency (CL), and amplitude of pupil constriction (CA) were assessed using the FIT-2500-Fatigue-Analyzer. The FIT-index, which expresses the deviation of the ocular parameters from the baseline measurements, was calculated. Correlation of oculomotor parameters with the subjective Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) was performed.  We found that oculomotor measures showed a significant increase in CL (298.6 to 308.4 msec, P sleep deprivation. The SSS was found to significantly increase over the sleep deprivation period (2.05 to 5.05, P  0.66, P < 0.02).  Evaluation of oculomotor responses, particularly CL and SV together with the FIT-index, might have practical applications for the assessment of an individual's state of alertness or fatigue. Correlation of the FIT-index to the SSS provides evidence for the potential usefulness of oculomotor function measurements in the detection of subjective sleepiness.

  2. Sleep Deprivation in Humans And Transient Immunodepression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-21

    sleep periods . Reported Sleep Latency. The participants reported usual sleep latencies of 2 to 30 min (xx +/- 10.1 min). These numbers suggested...Thus, it appeared that they usually acquired their ideal amount of sleep, but 11 occasionally experienced acute fatigue from shortened sleep ... periods . About 1/8 of the participants reported taking occasional naps of 30 minutes to 2-hrs. Reported Sleep Latency. The participants reported

  3. The effects of low-intensity cycling on cognitive performance following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Alexis B; Diekfuss, Jed A; Janssen, James A; Berry, Nate T; Shih, Chia-Hao; Raisbeck, Louisa D; Wideman, Laurie; Etnier, Jennifer L

    2017-10-15

    This study examined the effect of 24h of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and assessed the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance following sleep deprivation. Young, active, healthy adults (n=24, 14 males) were randomized to control (age=24.7±3.7years, BMI=27.2±7.0) or exercise (age=25.3±3.3years, BMI=25.6±5.1) groups. Cognitive testing included a 5-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), three memory tasks with increasing cognitive load, and performance of the PVT a second time. On morning one, cognitive testing followed a typical night's sleep. Following 24-h of sustained wakefulness, cognitive testing was conducted again prior to and after the acute intervention. Participants in the exercise condition performed low-intensity cycling (∼40%HRR) for 15-min and those in the control condition sat quietly on the bike for 15-min. t-Tests revealed sleep deprivation negatively affected performance on the PVT, but did not affect memory performance. Following the acute intervention, there were no cognitive performance differences between the exercise and rested conditions. We provide support for previous literature suggesting that during simple tasks, sleep deprivation has negative effects on cognitive performance. Importantly, in contrast to previous literature which has shown multiple bouts of exercise adding to cognitive detriment when combined with sleep deprivation, our results did not reveal any further detriments to cognitive performance from a single-bout of exercise following sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Voluntary oculomotor performance upon awakening after total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, M; De Gennaro MFL; Bertini, M

    2000-09-15

    The potential impact of sleep inertia on measures of voluntary oculomotor control have been surprisingly neglected. The present study examined the effects of 40 hours of sleep deprivation on saccadic (SAC) and smooth pursuit (SP) performance, attentional/visual search performance (Letter Cancellation Task, LCT) and subjective sleepiness (Sleepiness Visual Analog Scale, SVAS) recorded immediately after awakening. Standard polysomnography of nine normal subjects was recorded for 3 nights (1 adaptation, AD; 1 baseline, BSL; 1 recovery, REC); BSL and REC were separated by a period of 40 h of continuous wakefulness, during which subjects were tested every two hours. Within 30 s of each morning awakening, a test battery (SAC, SP, LCT, SVAS) was administered to subjects in bed. For data analysis, mean performance obtained during the day preceding the sleep deprivation night was considered as "Diurnal Baseline" and compared to performance upon awakening from nocturnal sleep. As a consequence of sleep deprivation, SWS percentage was doubled during REC. Saccade latency increased and velocity decreased significantly upon awakening from REC as compared to the other three conditions (Diurnal baseline, AD awakening, BSL awakening); accuracy was unaffected. As regards SP, phase did not show any impairment upon awakening, while velocity gain upon awakening from REC was significantly lower as compared to the other conditions. Finally, number of hits on LCT upon awakening from REC was significantly lower and subjective sleepiness higher as compared to Diurnal Baseline. It is concluded that 40 h of sleep deprivation significantly impaired performance to SAC and SP tasks recorded upon awakening from recovery sleep. This performance worsening is limited to the measures of speed, while both SAC accuracy and SP phase do not show a significant decrease upon awakening. Since saccadic velocity has recently been found to negatively correlate with simulator vehicle crash rates, it is

  5. Sleep deprivation and sleep recovery modifies connexin36 and connexin43 protein levels in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pérez, Javier; Ballesteros-Zebadúa, Paola; Fernández-Figueroa, Edith A; Ruiz-Olmedo, Isabel; Reyes-Grajeda, Pablo; Paz, Carlos

    2012-01-25

    Gap junctional communication is mainly mediated by connexin36 and connexin43 in neurons and astrocytes, respectively. It has been suggested that connexin36 allows electrical coupling between neurons whereas connexin43 participates in several process including release of ATP. It was recently reported that blockage of gap junctional communication mediated by connexin36 can disrupt the sleep architecture of the rat. However, there is no experimental approach about effects of sleep deprivation on connexins expression. Therefore, we examined in adult male Wistar rats whether protein levels of connexin36 and connexin43 change in pons, hypothalamus, and frontal cortex after 24 h of total sleep deprivation and 4 h of sleep recovery. Western blot revealed that total sleep deprivation significantly decreases the levels of connexin36 in the hypothalamus and this decrease maintains after sleep recovery. Meanwhile, connexin43 is not altered by total sleep deprivation but interestingly the sleep recovery period induces an increase of this connexin. These results suggest that electrical coupling between hypothalamic neurons could be altered by sleep deprivation and that sleep recovery drives changes in connexin43 expression probably as a mechanism related to ATP release and energy regulation during sleep. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  6. Melatonin modulates adiponectin expression on murine colitis with sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Baik, Haing-Woon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong; Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Sook Hee; Gye, Myung Chan; Lim, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jun Bong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-09-07

    To determine adiponectin expression in colonic tissue of murine colitis and systemic cytokine expression after melatonin treatments and sleep deprivation. The following five groups of C57BL/6 mice were used in this study: (1) group I, control; (2) group II, 2% DSS induced colitis for 7 d; (3) group III, 2% DSS induced colitis and melatonin treatment; (4) group IV, 2% DSS induced colitis with sleep deprivation (SD) using specially designed and modified multiple platform water baths; and (5) group V, 2% DSS induced colitis with SD and melatonin treatment. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily to mice for 4 d. The body weight was monitored daily. The degree of colitis was evaluated histologically after sacrificing the mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis was performed using anti-adiponectin antibody. After sampling by intracardiac punctures, levels of serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. Sleep deprivation in water bath exacerbated DSS induced colitis and worsened weight loss. Melatonin injection not only alleviated the severity of mucosal injury, but also helped survival during stressful condition. The expression level of adiponectin in mucosa was decreased in colitis, with the lowest level observed in colitis combined with sleep deprivation. Melatonin injection significantly (P sleep deprivation.

  7. Sleep deprivation increases cognitive workload during simulated surgical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasko, Jonathan M; Pauli, Eric M; Kunselman, Allen R; Haluck, Randy S

    2012-01-01

    There have been conflicting reports of the effects of modest sleep deprivation on surgical skills. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 24-hour call shift on technical and cognitive function, as well as the ability to learning a new skill. Thirty-one students trained to expert proficiency on a virtual reality part-task trainer. They then were randomized to either a control or sleep-deprived group. On the second testing day they were given a novel task. Fatigue was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index was used to assess cognitive capabilities. There was no difference between the control and sleep-deprived groups for performance or learning of surgical tasks. Subjectively, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale showed an increase in sleepiness. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index showed an increase in total subjective mental workload for the sleep-deprived group. Sleep-deprived subjects were able to complete the tasks despite the increased workload, and were able to learn a new task proficiently, despite an increase in sleepiness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep deprivation increases blood pressure in healthy normotensive elderly and attenuates the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Lanfranchi, Paola A; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    To determine how aging affects the impact of sleep deprivation on blood pressure at rest and under orthostatic challenge. Subjects underwent a night of sleep and 24.5 h of sleep deprivation in a crossover counterbalanced design. Sleep laboratory. Sixteen healthy normotensive men and women: 8 young adults (mean 24 years [SD 3.1], range 20-28 years) and 8 elderly adults (mean 64.1 years [SD 3.4], range 60-69 years). Sleep deprivation. Brachial cuff arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in semi-recumbent and upright positions. These measurements were compared across homeostatic sleep pressure conditions and age groups. Sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly but not young adults. Moreover, sleep deprivation attenuated the systolic blood pressure orthostatic response in both age groups. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation alters the regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure and might increase the risk of hypertension in healthy normotensive elderly.

  9. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain Bioenergetics, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Trksak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent [31]P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, [31]P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate, α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse.

  10. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain Bioenergetics, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trksak, George H.; Bracken, Bethany K.; Jensen, J. Eric; Plante, David T.; Penetar, David M.; Tartarini, Wendy L.; Maywalt, Melissa A.; Dorsey, Cynthia M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent [31]P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, [31]P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse. PMID:24250276

  11. Effects of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, sleep, and cognitive performance in cocaine-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trksak, George H; Bracken, Bethany K; Jensen, J Eric; Plante, David T; Penetar, David M; Tartarini, Wendy L; Maywalt, Melissa A; Dorsey, Cynthia M; Renshaw, Perry F; Lukas, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent ³¹P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, ³¹P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse.

  12. Sleep deprivation, pain and prematurity: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Santos de Carvalho Bonan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants.

  13. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. Citation: Watson NF, Horn E, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Vitiello MV, Turkheimer E. Sleep duration and area

  14. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Soccer Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Ståle; Gundersen, Hilde Stokvold; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Thun, Eirunn; Harris, Anette

    2017-08-01

    Many athletes sleep poorly due to stress, travel, and competition anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on soccer skills (juggling, dribbling, ball control, continuous kicking, 20 and 40 m sprint, and 30 m sprint with changes of direction). In all, 19 male junior soccer players (14-19 years old) were recruited and participated in a cross-balanced experimental study comprising two conditions; habitual sleep and 24 hours sleep deprivation. In both conditions, testing took place between 8 a.m. and 10 a.m. Order of tests was counterbalanced. Each test was conducted once or twice in a sequence repeated three times. The results revealed a negative effect of sleep deprivation on the continuous kicking test. On one test, 30 meter sprint with directional changes, a significant condition × test repetition interaction was found, indicating a steeper learning curve in the sleep deprived condition from Test 1 to Test 2 and a steeper learning curve in the rested condition from Test 2 to Test 3. The results are discussed in terms of limitations and strengths, and recommendations for future studies are outlined.

  15. Effects of sleep deprivation on spontaneous arousals in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Emilia; Chapotot, Florian; Pigeau, Ross; Paul, Paul Naitoh; Buguet, Alain

    2004-09-15

    The hierarchical definition of arousals from sleep includes a range of physiologic responses including microarousals, delta and K-complex bursts, and variations in autonomic system. Whether patterns in slow-wave electroencephalographic activity and autonomic activation are primary forms of arousal response can be addressed by studying effects of total sleep deprivation. We therefore examined changes in arousal density during recovery sleep in healthy subjects. Participants spent 6 consecutive 24-hour periods in the laboratory. Nights 1 and 2 were baseline nights followed by 64-hour total sleep deprivation, then 2 consecutive recovery nights. Sleep-deprivation protocol was conducted under laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral and electrophysiologic monitoring. Twelve drug-free men aged 27.4 +/- 7.9 years were studied. None reported sleepiness or altered sleep-wake cycle, and none had neurologic, psychiatric or sleep disorders. N/A. Arousals were classified into 4 levels: microarousals, phases of transitory activation, and delta and K-complex bursts. Sleep deprivation induced changes in the density of considered arousals except phases of transitory activation, with a distinct pattern among the different types. The greatest change was found for microarousals, which showed a significant decrease in the first recovery night (P = .01), with return to baseline thereafter. A fall in K-complex and delta-burst density was noted in the first recovery night, not, however, reaching statistical significance. The phases of transitory activation rate were virtually unaffected throughout the experimental nights. We conclude that homeostatic sleep processes exert an inhibitory effect on arousal response from sleep with a significant effect only on the microarousal density. Decreased delta and K-complex burst rates, though not significant, support the hypothesis that they may be activating processes, probably modulated by factors independent from those implicated in

  16. Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lack of sleep (called "sleep deprivation") is common in modern societies with 24/7 availability of commodities. Accumulating evidence supports the role of reduced sleep as contributing to the current obesity epidemic in children and youth. Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and the development of obesity. Recent experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction leads to weight gain in humans. Increased food intake appears to be the main mechanism by which insufficient sleep results in weight gain. Voluntary sleep restriction has been shown to increase snacking, the number of meals eaten per day, and the preference for energy-dense foods. Although the causes of sleep loss in the pediatric population are numerous, more research looking at screen exposure before bedtime and its effects on sleep is needed given the pervasiveness of electronic media devices in today's environment. Health professionals should routinely ask questions about sleep and promote a good night's sleep because insufficient sleep impacts activity and eating behaviors. Future research should examine the clinical benefits of increasing sleep duration on eating behaviors and body weight control and determine the importance of adequate sleep to improve the treatment of obesity.

  17. Increased Automaticity and Altered Temporal Preparation Following Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Danyang; Asplund, Christopher L; Ling, Aiqing; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-08-01

    Temporal expectation enables us to focus limited processing resources, thereby optimizing perceptual and motor processing for critical upcoming events. We investigated the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on temporal expectation by evaluating the foreperiod and sequential effects during a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). We also examined how these two measures were modulated by vulnerability to TSD. Three 10-min visual PVT sessions using uniformly distributed foreperiods were conducted in the wake-maintenance zone the evening before sleep deprivation (ESD) and three more in the morning following approximately 22 h of TSD. TSD vulnerable and nonvulnerable groups were determined by a tertile split of participants based on the change in the number of behavioral lapses recorded during ESD and TSD. A subset of participants performed six additional 10-min modified auditory PVTs with exponentially distributed foreperiods during rested wakefulness (RW) and TSD to test the effect of temporal distribution on foreperiod and sequential effects. Sleep laboratory. There were 172 young healthy participants (90 males) with regular sleep patterns. Nineteen of these participants performed the modified auditory PVT. Despite behavioral lapses and slower response times, sleep deprived participants could still perceive the conditional probability of temporal events and modify their level of preparation accordingly. Both foreperiod and sequential effects were magnified following sleep deprivation in vulnerable individuals. Only the foreperiod effect increased in nonvulnerable individuals. The preservation of foreperiod and sequential effects suggests that implicit time perception and temporal preparedness are intact during total sleep deprivation. Individuals appear to reallocate their depleted preparatory resources to more probable event timings in ongoing trials, whereas vulnerable participants also rely more on automatic processes. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep

  18. Extended Remediation of Sleep Deprived-Induced Working Memory Deficits Using fMRI-guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Bruce; Steffener, Jason; Tucker, Adrienne; Habeck, Christian; Peterchev, Angel V.; Deng, Zhi-De; Basner, Robert C.; Stern, Yaakov; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: We attempted to prevent the development of working memory (WM) impairments caused by sleep deprivation using fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Novel aspects of our fMRI-guided rTMS paradigm included the use of sophisticated covariance methods to identify functional networks in imaging data, and the use of fMRI-targeted rTMS concurrent with task performance to modulate plasticity effects over a longer term. Design: Between-groups mixed model. Setting: TMS, MRI, and sleep laboratory study. Participants: 27 subjects (13 receiving Active rTMS, and 14 Sham) completed the sleep deprivation protocol, with another 21 (10 Active, 11 Sham) non-sleep deprived subjects run in a second experiment. Interventions: Our previous covariance analysis had identified a network, including occipital cortex, which demonstrated individual differences in resilience to the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on WM performance. Five Hz rTMS was applied to left lateral occipital cortex while subjects performed a WM task during 4 sessions over the course of 2 days of total sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: At the end of the sleep deprivation period, Sham sleep deprived subjects exhibited degraded performance in the WM task. In contrast, those receiving Active rTMS did not show the slowing and lapsing typical in sleep deprivation, and instead performed similarly to non- sleep deprived subjects. Importantly, the Active sleep deprivation group showed rTMS-induced facilitation of WM performance a full 18 hours after the last rTMS session. Conclusions: Over the course of sleep deprivation, these results indicate that rTMS applied concurrently with WM task performance affected neural circuitry involved in WM to prevent its full impact. Citation: Luber B; Steffener J; Tucker A; Habeck C; Peterchev AV; Deng ZD; Basner RC; Stern Y; Lisanby SH. Extended remediation of sleep deprived-induced working memory deficits using f

  19. Sleep mechanisms: Sleep deprivation and detection of changing levels of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, W. C.; Barchas, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to obtain information relevant to assessing the need to sleep and make up for lost sleep. Physiological and behavioral parameters were used as measuring parameters. Sleep deprivation in a restricted environment, derivation of data relevant to determining sleepiness from EEG, and the development of the Sanford Sleepiness Scale were discussed.

  20. Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances Post-Infection Sleep and Promotes Survival during Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Conclusions: Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(5):859-869. PMID:24790264

  1. Sleep deprivation and the organization of the behavioral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    Questions concerning the significance of sleep in the developing organism are investigated, together with the mechanisms that underlie the unique distribution of behavioral states at any particular age and during any particular experimental manipulation. It is attempted to define the states of sleep and wakefulness in terms of a temporal confluence of a number of more or less independent processes, taking also into account the functional consequences of these attributes. The results of a selective deprivation of rapid eye movement sleep are explored, giving attention to effects on sleep, behavioral changes, brain excitability, pharmacological changes, and biochemical changes.

  2. The impact of sleep deprivation on the quality of learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rozumová, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with issue of sleep, memory and learning.The primary aim of this work is to understand the relationship, and find a connection between sleep and learning and their influence on short-term memory.The work outlines the issues of learning and the associated memory, the influence of sleep deprivation on a certain type of memory and the interconnection of concentration and the nervous system. In the following chapters will be discussed issues of sleep and wakefulness, sle...

  3. The effects of sleep deprivation on brain fMRI activation during motion detection and tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, G.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is common and leads to inattention and impaired vigilance. Sleep deprived drivers have an increased road traffic accident rate. Police data suggest that sleep deprivation accounts for up to 23% of all accidents on UK roads. How sleep deprivation leads to impaired driving is uncertain. The skills needed for error free driving are the detection of moving objects, and the ability to track. Work using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has established which brain areas...

  4. Changes in Plasma Lipids during Exposure to Total Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Shui, Guanghou; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Wenk, Markus R; Gooley, Joshua J

    2015-11-01

    The effects of sleep loss on plasma lipids, which play an important role in energy homeostasis and signaling, have not been systematically examined. Our aim was to identify lipid species in plasma that increase or decrease reliably during exposure to total sleep deprivation. Twenty individuals underwent sleep deprivation in a laboratory setting. Blood was drawn every 4 h and mass spectrometry techniques were used to analyze concentrations of 263 lipid species in plasma, including glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols. Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. Healthy ethnic-Chinese males aged 21-28 y (n = 20). Subjects were kept awake for 40 consecutive hours. Each metabolite time series was modeled as a sum of sinusoidal (circadian) and linear components, and we assessed whether the slope of the linear component differed from zero. More than a third of all individually analyzed lipid profiles exhibited a circadian rhythm and/or a linear change in concentration during sleep deprivation. Twenty-five lipid species showed a linear and predominantly unidirectional trend in concentration levels that was consistent across participants. Choline plasmalogen levels decreased, whereas several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and triacylglycerides (TAG) carrying polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. The decrease in choline plasmalogen levels during sleep deprivation is consistent with prior work demonstrating that these lipids are susceptible to degradation by oxidative stress. The increase in phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerides suggests that sleep loss might modulate lipid metabolism, which has potential implications for metabolic health in individuals who do not achieve adequate sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control during wakefulness in adult sleepwalkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Petit, Dominique; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Sleepwalkers often complain of excessive daytime somnolence. Although excessive daytime somnolence has been associated with cognitive impairment in several sleep disorders, very few data exist concerning sleepwalking. This study aimed to investigate daytime cognitive functioning in adults diagnosed with idiopathic sleepwalking. Fifteen sleepwalkers and 15 matched controls were administered the Continuous Performance Test and Stroop Colour-Word Test in the morning after an overnight polysomnographic assessment. Participants were tested a week later on the same neuropsychological battery, but after 25 h of sleep deprivation, a procedure known to precipitate sleepwalking episodes during subsequent recovery sleep. There were no significant differences between sleepwalkers and controls on any of the cognitive tests administered under normal waking conditions. Testing following sleep deprivation revealed significant impairment in sleepwalkers' executive functions related to inhibitory control, as they made more errors than controls on the Stroop Colour-Word Test and more commission errors on the Continuous Performance Test. Sleepwalkers' scores on measures of executive functions were not associated with self-reported sleepiness or indices of sleep fragmentation from baseline polysomnographic recordings. The results support the idea that sleepwalking involves daytime consequences and suggest that these may also include cognitive impairments in the form of disrupted inhibitory control following sleep deprivation. These disruptions may represent a daytime expression of sleepwalking's pathophysiological mechanisms. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Sleep deprivation impairs contextual fear conditioning and attenuates subsequent behavioural, endocrine and neuronal responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagewoud, Roelina; Bultsma, Lillian J.; Barf, R. Paulien; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) affects hippocampus-dependent memory formation. Several studies in rodents have shown that brief SD immediately following a mild foot shock impairs consolidation of contextual fear memory as reflected in a reduced behavioural freezing response during re-exposure to the shock

  7. Selective neuronal lapses precede human cognitive lapses following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Yuval; Andrillon, Thomas; Marmelshtein, Amit; Suthana, Nanthia; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio; Fried, Itzhak

    2017-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, through study of electroencephalograms (EEGs) in humans and local field potentials (LFPs) in nonhuman primates and rodents it was found that, during sleep deprivation, regional 'sleep-like' slow and theta (slow/theta) waves co-occur with impaired behavioral performance during wakefulness. Here we used intracranial electrodes to record single-neuron activities and LFPs in human neurosurgical patients performing a face/nonface categorization psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) over multiple experimental sessions, including a session after full-night sleep deprivation. We find that, just before cognitive lapses, the selective spiking responses of individual neurons in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) are attenuated, delayed, and lengthened. These 'neuronal lapses' are evident on a trial-by-trial basis when comparing the slowest behavioral PVT reaction times to the fastest. Furthermore, during cognitive lapses, LFPs exhibit a relative local increase in slow/theta activity that is correlated with degraded single-neuron responses and with baseline theta activity. Our results show that cognitive lapses involve local state-dependent changes in neuronal activity already present in the MTL.

  8. Gambling when sleep deprived: don't bet on stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Grugle, Nancy L; Balkin, Thomas J

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that sleep deprivation leads to suboptimal decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a pattern that appears to be unaffected by moderate doses of caffeine. It is not known whether impaired decision-making could be reversed by higher doses of caffeine or by other stimulant countermeasures, such as dextroamphetamine or modafinil. Fifty-four diurnally active healthy subjects completed alternate versions of the IGT at rested baseline, at 23 and 46 h awake, and following a night of recovery sleep. After 44 h awake, participants received a double-blind dose of caffeine (600 mg), dextroamphetamine (20 mg), modafinil (400 mg), or placebo. At baseline, participants showed a normal pattern of advantageous performance, whereas both sleep-deprived sessions were associated with suboptimal decision-making on the IGT. Following stimulant administration on the second night of sleep deprivation, groups receiving caffeine, dextroamphetamine, or modafinil showed significant reduction in subjective sleepiness and improvement in psychomotor vigilance, but decision-making on the IGT remained impaired for all stimulants and did not differ from placebo. Decision-making returned to normal following recovery sleep. These findings are consistent with prior research showing that sleep deprivation leads to suboptimal decision-making on some types of tasks, particularly those that rely heavily on emotion processing regions of the brain, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the deficits in decision-making were not reversed by commonly used stimulant countermeasures, despite restoration of psychomotor vigilance and alertness. These three stimulants may restore some, but not all, aspects of cognitive functioning during sleep deprivation.

  9. Sleep deprivation before stroke is neuroprotective: a pre-ischemic conditioning related to sleep rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, E; Gao, B; Imbach, L; Hodor, A; Bassetti, C L

    2013-09-01

    We have previously shown in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia that sleep deprivation after stroke onset aggravates brain damage. Others reported that sleep deprivation prior to stroke is neuroprotective. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the neuroprotection may be related to an increase in sleep (sleep rebound) during the acute phase of stroke. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=36) were subjected to continuous polygraphic recordings for baseline, total sleep deprivation (TSD), and 24h after ischemia. TSD for 6h was performed by gentle handling and immediately followed by ischemia. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by permanent occlusion of distal branches of the middle cerebral artery. Control experiments included ischemia without SD (nSD) and sham surgery with TSD (n=6/group). Shortly after stroke, the amount of slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS) increased significantly (psleep time by 30% compared to baseline, or by 20% compared with the nSD/ischemia group. The infarct volume decreased significantly by 50% in the TSD/ischemia compared to nSD group (psleep rebound by allowing TSD-rats sleep for 24h before ischemia eliminated the reduction in the infarct size. Sleep deprivation results in sleep rebound and reduces brain damage. Sleep rebound may be causally related to the neuroprotection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep deprivation amplifies reactivity of brain reward networks, biasing the appraisal of positive emotional experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Ninad; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Hu, Peter; Walker, Matthew P

    2011-03-23

    Appropriate interpretation of pleasurable, rewarding experiences favors decisions that enhance survival. Conversely, dysfunctional affective brain processing can lead to life-threatening risk behaviors (e.g., addiction) and emotion imbalance (e.g., mood disorders). The state of sleep deprivation continues to be associated with maladaptive emotional regulation, leading to exaggerated neural and behavioral reactivity to negative, aversive experiences. However, such detrimental consequences are paradoxically aligned with the perplexing antidepressant benefit of sleep deprivation, elevating mood in a proportion of patients with major depression. Nevertheless, it remains unknown how sleep loss alters the dynamics of brain and behavioral reactivity to rewarding, positive emotional experiences. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), here we demonstrate that sleep deprivation amplifies reactivity throughout human mesolimbic reward brain networks in response to pleasure-evoking stimuli. In addition, this amplified reactivity was associated with enhanced connectivity in early primary visual processing pathways and extended limbic regions, yet with a reduction in coupling with medial frontal and orbitofrontal regions. These neural changes were accompanied by a biased increase in the number of emotional stimuli judged as pleasant in the sleep-deprived group, the extent of which exclusively correlated with activity in mesolimbic regions. Together, these data support a view that sleep deprivation not only is associated with enhanced reactivity toward negative stimuli, but imposes a bidirectional nature of affective imbalance, associated with amplified reward-relevant reactivity toward pleasure-evoking stimuli also. Such findings may offer a neural foundation on which to consider interactions between sleep loss and emotional reactivity in a variety of clinical mood disorders.

  11. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.

  12. Diurnal rhythms in the human urine metabolome during sleep and total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giskeødegård, Guro F; Davies, Sarah K; Revell, Victoria L; Keun, Hector; Skene, Debra J

    2015-10-09

    Understanding how metabolite levels change over the 24 hour day is of crucial importance for clinical and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the association between sleep deprivation and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity requires investigation into the links between sleep and metabolism. Here, we characterise time-of-day variation and the effects of sleep deprivation on urinary metabolite profiles. Healthy male participants (n = 15) completed an in-laboratory study comprising one 24 h sleep/wake cycle prior to 24 h of continual wakefulness under highly controlled environmental conditions. Urine samples were collected over set 2-8 h intervals and analysed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Significant changes were observed with respect to both time of day and sleep deprivation. Of 32 identified metabolites, 7 (22%) exhibited cosine rhythmicity over at least one 24 h period; 5 exhibiting a cosine rhythm on both days. Eight metabolites significantly increased during sleep deprivation compared with sleep (taurine, formate, citrate, 3-indoxyl sulfate, carnitine, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, TMAO and acetate) and 8 significantly decreased (dimethylamine, 4-DTA, creatinine, ascorbate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, allantoin, 4-DEA, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate). These data indicate that sampling time, the presence or absence of sleep and the response to sleep deprivation are highly relevant when identifying biomarkers in urinary metabolic profiling studies.

  13. Impairment of male reproductive function after sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Hirotsu, Camila; Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of sleep loss on sexual behavior, hormone levels, sperm parameters, and testis-specific gene expression in male rats. Experimental research. Animal laboratory. Male adult Wistar-Hannover rats. Sexually experienced rats were subjected to paradoxic sleep deprivation (PSD) for 96 hours or sleep restriction (SR) for 21 days or kept in their home cage as control (CTRL). Sexual behavior, hormone levels, sperm parameters and expression of stress and nitric oxide-related genes were evaluated. PSD significantly decreased sexual behavior compared with the CTRL group, whereas SR had no effect. The PSD group had significantly lower testosterone levels than the CTRL group. Both PSD and SR groups had lower sperm viabilities than the CTRL group. The decrease in the number of live sperm compared with the CTRL group was larger in the PSD group than in the SR group. Regarding testicular gene expression, both PSD and SR led to an increase of iNOS and hydroxysteroid 11β-dehydrogenase 1 expressions compared with the CTRL group. These changes were more pronounced in the PSD group. A significant increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression was observed in the PSD groups compared with the CTRL group. No changes were observed in dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 and casein kinase 2β-polypeptide expressions. Sleep loss can promote marked changes in the male reproductive system of rats, particularly affecting spermatic function in part by interfering in the testicular nitric oxide pathway. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inflammatory markers are associated with inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esumi, L A; Palma, B D; Gomes, V L; Tufik, S; Hipólide, D C

    2011-08-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) causes detrimental effects to the body, such as memory impairment and weight loss. SD also changes the concentration of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, which, in turn, can affect cognitive functioning. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of these inflammatory mediators in inhibitory avoidance memory deficit in sleep-deprived rats. Male Wistar rats were deprived of sleep by the modified multiple platform method for 96 h, while their respective controls remained in their housing cages. To assess memory after SD, all animals underwent training, followed by the inhibitory avoidance task test 24h later. Also, the weight of each animal was recorded daily. In the first experiment, animals received an acute administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 or 75 μg/kg i.p.) 3h before the inhibitory avoidance training. In the experiment 2, the animals received acute or chronic administration of anti-IL-6 antibody (Ab, 2 μg/kg i.p.). The acute administration was performed 3h before the inhibitory avoidance training, while the chronic treatment administrations were performed daily during the SD period. The 75 μg/kg dose of LPS, but not the 50 μg/kg dose, caused a significant attenuation of memory impairment in the sleep-deprived animals. Although the treatments with the anti-IL-6 Ab did not produce any significant changes in cognitive performance, the Ab attenuated weight loss in sleep-deprived animals. Taken together, these results suggest the involvement of inflammatory mediators in the modulation of memory deficit and weight loss that are observed in sleep-deprived rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modafinil as an adjunctive treatment to sleep deprivation in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Even, Christian; Thuile, Jacques; Santos, Johana; Bourgin, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is a rapid-acting treatment for depression, but its clinical efficacy is hampered by high relapse rates after recovery sleep, and its effectiveness is reduced by the demanding effort needed for the patient to stay awake. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a successful treatment of depression with the combination of SD and the wakefulness-promoting agent modafinil. We suggest that modafinil may reinforce the action of SD, possibly by preventing daytime ...

  16. The impact of sleep deprivation on surgeons' performance during night shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian, Ilda

    2014-09-01

    The median incidence of adverse events that may result in patient injury is a total of 9% of all in-hospital admissions. In order to reduce this high incidence initiatives are continuously worked on that can reduce the risk of patient harm during admission by strengthening hospital systems. However, the influence of physicians' shift work on the risk on adverse events in patients remains controversial. In the studies included in this PhD thesis we wished to examine the impact of sleep deprivation and circadian rhythm disturbances on surgeons' during night shifts. Further we wished to examine the impact sleep deprivation had on surgeons' performance as a measure of how patient safety would be affected. We found that sleep deprivation subjectively had an impact on the surgeons and that they were aware of the effect fatigue had on their work performance. As a result they applied different mechanisms to cope with fatigue. Attending surgeons felt that they had a better overview now, due to more experience and better skills, than when they were residents, despite the fatigue on night shifts. We monitored surgeons' performance during night shifts by laparoscopic simulation and cognitive tests in order to assess their performance; no deterioration was found when pre call values were compared to on call values. The surgeons were monitored prospectively for 4 days across a night shift in order to assess the circadian rhythm and sleep. We found that surgeons' circadian rhythm was affected by working night shifts and their sleep pattern altered, resembling that of shift workers on the post call day. We assessed the quality of admission in medical records as a measure of surgeons' performance, during day, evening and night hours and found no deterioration in the quality of night time medical records. However, consistent high errors were found in several categories. These findings should be followed up in the future with respect of clarifying mechanism and consequences for

  17. Sleep deprivation induces differential morphological changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in young and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Peña, Eva; Camacho-Abrego, Israel; Melgarejo-Gutiérrez, Montserrat; Flores, Gonzalo; Drucker-Colín, René; García-García, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is a fundamental state necessary for maintenance of physical and neurological homeostasis throughout life. Several studies regarding the functions of sleep have been focused on effects of sleep deprivation on synaptic plasticity at a molecular and electrophysiological level, and only a few studies have studied sleep function from a structural perspective. Moreover, during normal aging, sleep architecture displays some changes that could affect normal development in the elderly. In this study, using a Golgi-Cox staining followed by Sholl analysis, we evaluate the effects of 24 h of total sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology of pyramidal neurons from Layer III of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the dorsal hippocampal CA1 region from male Wistar rats at two different ages (3 and 22 months). We found no differences in total dendritic length and branching length in both analyzed regions after sleep deprivation. Spine density was reduced in the CA1 of young-adults, and interestingly, sleep deprivation increased spine density in PFC of aged animals. Taken together, our results show that 24 h of total sleep deprivation have different effects on synaptic plasticity and could play a beneficial role in cognition during aging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sleep deprivation decreases binding of [11C]raclopride to dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher; Ma, Jim; Pradhan, Kith; Tomasi, Dardo; Thanos, Peter K; Ferré, Sergi; Jayne, Millard

    2008-08-20

    Sleep deprivation did not affect dopamine transporters (target for most wake-promoting medications) and thus dopamine increases are likely to reflect increases in dopamine cell firing and/or release rather than decreases in dopamine reuptake. Because dopamine-enhancing drugs increase wakefulness, we postulate that dopamine increases after sleep deprivation is a mechanism by which the brain maintains arousal as the drive to sleep increases but one that is insufficient to counteract behavioral and cognitive impairment. Sleep deprivation can markedly impair human performance contributing to accidents and poor productivity. The mechanisms underlying this impairment are not well understood, but brain dopamine systems have been implicated. Here, we test whether one night of sleep deprivation changes dopamine brain activity. We studied 15 healthy subjects using positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride (dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand) and [11C]cocaine (dopamine transporter radioligand). Subjects were tested twice: after one night of rested sleep and after one night of sleep deprivation. The specific binding of [11C]raclopride in the striatum and thalamus were significantly reduced after sleep deprivation and the magnitude of this reduction correlated with increases in fatigue (tiredness and sleepiness) and with deterioration in cognitive performance (visual attention and working memory). In contrast, sleep deprivation did not affect the specific binding of [11C]cocaine in the striatum. Because [11C]raclopride competes with endogenous dopamine for binding to D2/D3 receptors, we interpret the decreases in binding to reflect dopamine increases with sleep deprivation. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that decreased [11C]raclopride binding reflects decreases in receptor levels or affinity. Sleep deprivation did not affect dopamine transporters (target for most wake-promoting medications) and thus dopamine increases are likely to reflect increases in

  19. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain Bioenergetics, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Trksak, George H.; Bracken, Bethany K.; Jensen, J. Eric; Plante, David T.; Penetar, David M.; Tartarini, Wendy L.; Maywalt, Melissa A.; Dorsey, Cynthia M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nig...

  20. The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2007-01-01

    .... Although considerable data show that sleep deprivation alters many aspects of behavior, little is known about changes in the brain substrate underlying the behavioral effects, and even less is known...

  1. The Effect of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive on Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2005-01-01

    .... Although considerable data show that sleep deprivation alters many aspects of behavior, little is known about changes in the brain substrate underlying the behavioral effects, and even less is known...

  2. EEG spectral power and cognitive performance during sleep inertia: the effect of normal sleep duration and partial sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Patricia; Bonnefond, Anne; Engasser, Ophélie; Hoeft, Alain; Eschenlauer, Roland; Muzet, Alain

    2006-01-30

    Sleep inertia (SI) is a transient period occurring immediately after awakening, usually characterized by performance decrement. When sleep is sufficient, SI is moderate, and produces few or no deficit. When it is associated with prior sleep deprivation, SI shows dose-dependent negative effects on cognitive performance, especially when subjects have been awaken in slow wave sleep (SWS). In the present study, spectral analysis was applied during the last 10 min before and the first 10 min after awakening, and during 1 h after awakening while subjects performed the Stroop test. Seventeen subjects were divided into a Control group who slept 8 h, and a Sleep Deprived group who slept only 2 h. The results show that performance was normal in the Control group, whereas reaction time was increased during the first half hour and error level during the second half hour in the Sleep Deprived group. Spectral analysis applied on the waking EEG during the whole test session showed that alpha activity was increased in both groups, but theta power only in the Sleep Deprived group. There was a high positive correlation in sleep deprived subjects between delta power during the last 10 min of sleep and subsequent performance decrement in speed and accuracy. Comparison of individual records showed a high positive correlation between spectral power before and after awakening in the Control group (generally in the sense of an increased frequency band), but no correlation was found in the Sleep Deprived group who exhibited a rather disorganized pattern. We discuss these results in terms of incoherence in the EEG continuity during sleep offset after prior sleep loss, which could partly account for the performance decrement observed during SI in sleep deprived subjects.

  3. Evoked electrical and cerebral vascular responses during sleep and following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Jennifer L; Rector, David M

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal activity elicits vascular dilation, delivering additional blood and metabolites to the activated region. With increasing neural activity, vessels stretch and may become less compliant. Most functional imaging studies assume that limits to vascular expansion are not normally reached except under pathological conditions, with the possibility that metabolism could outpace supply. However, we previously demonstrated that evoked hemodynamic responses were larger during quiet sleep when compared to both waking and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, suggesting that high basal activity during wake may elicit blunted evoked hemodynamic responses due to vascular expansion limits. We hypothesized that extended brain activity through sleep deprivation will further dilate blood vessels and exacerbate the blunted evoked hemodynamic responses observed during wake, and dampen responses in subsequent sleep. We measured evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses from rats using auditory clicks (0.5s, 10 Hz, 2-13s random ISIs) for 1h following 2, 4, or 6h of sleep deprivation. Time-of-day matched controls were recorded continuously for 7h. Within quiet sleep periods following deprivation, evoked response potential (ERP) amplitude did not differ; however, the evoked vascular response was smaller with longer sleep deprivation periods. These results suggest that prolonged neural activity periods through sleep deprivation may diminish vascular compliance as indicated by the blunted vascular response. Subsequent sleep may allow vessels to relax, restoring their ability to deliver blood. These results also suggest that severe sleep deprivation or chronic sleep disturbances could push the vasculature to critical limits, leading to metabolic deficit and the potential for tissue trauma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prolonged sleep deprivation decreases cell proliferation and immature newborn neurons in both dorsal and ventral hippocampus of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yusuke; Oka, Ayana; Iseki, Ayaka; Mori, Masayoshi; Ohe, Kenji; Mine, Kazunori; Enjoji, Munechika

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sleep deprivation negatively affects hippocampal neurogenesis, which may explain the reason for the relation between sleep loss and depression. Increasing evidence indicates that the hippocampus is anatomically and functionally segregated along a dorsolateral (cognitive function)/ventromedial (control for mood and stress response) axis. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate regional differences in the adverse effects of sleep deprivation on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sleep deprivation using the "platform on the water" method for 24- or 72-h. Quantification of hippocampal cell proliferation and immature newborn neurons was stereologically estimated using immunostaining with Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively, by optical fractionator method. A consecutive three days of sleep deprivation significantly reduced the density of Ki-67- and DCX-immunopositive cells both in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal subgranular zone and the decrease in DCX-labeled cells was more pronounced in the ventral hippocampus than in dorsal region. Our results indicate that prolonged sleep deprivation decreases hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in both the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus. Future studies will be needed to clarify the impact of sleep deprivation-induced decreases in hippocampal neurogenesis on the development of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilduff Liam P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of sleep deprivation with or without acute supplementation of caffeine or creatine on the execution of a repeated rugby passing skill. Method Ten elite rugby players completed 10 trials on a simple rugby passing skill test (20 repeats per trial, following a period of familiarisation. The players had between 7-9 h sleep on 5 of these trials and between 3-5 h sleep (deprivation on the other 5. At a time of 1.5 h before each trial, they undertook administration of either: placebo tablets, 50 or 100 mg/kg creatine, 1 or 5 mg/kg caffeine. Saliva was collected before each trial and assayed for salivary free cortisol and testosterone. Results Sleep deprivation with placebo application resulted in a significant fall in skill performance accuracy on both the dominant and non-dominant passing sides (p Conclusion Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.

  6. Vitamin C Prevents Sleep Deprivation-induced Elevation in Cortisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Olayaki, L.A., Sulaiman S.O. and Anoba N.B.. Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences,. University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Summary: Sleep deprivation (SD) is biological stressor that alters metabolic parameters, induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Previous ...

  7. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought ... night may be at higher risk of developing high blood pressure or worsening already high blood pressure. There's also ...

  8. Exercise‐Induced growth hormone during acute sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsche, Kevin; Nindl, Bradly C.; Wideman, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effect of acute (24‐h) sleep deprivation on exercise‐induced growth hormone (GH) and insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) was examined. Ten men (20.6 ± 1.4 years) completed two randomized 24‐h sessions including a brief, high‐intensity exercise bout following either a night of sleep (SLEEP) or (24‐h) sleep deprivation (SLD). Anaerobic performance (mean power [MP], peak power [PP], minimum power [MinP], time to peak power [TTPP], fatigue index, [FI]) and total work per sprint [TWPS]) was determined from four maximal 30‐sec Wingate sprints on a cycle ergometer. Self‐reported sleep 7 days prior to each session was similar between SLEEP and SLD sessions (7.92 ± 0.33 vs. 7.98 ± 0.39 h, P =0.656, respectively) and during the actual SLEEP session in the lab, the total amount of sleep was similar to the 7 days leading up to the lab session (7.72 ± 0.14 h vs. 7.92 ± 0.33 h, respectively) (P =0.166). No differences existed in MP, PP, MinP, TTPP, FI, TWPS, resting GH concentrations, time to reach exercise‐induced peak GH concentration (TTP), or free IGF‐1 between sessions. GH area under the curve (AUC) (825.0 ± 199.8 vs. 2212.9 ± 441.9 μg/L*min, P exercise‐induced peak GH concentration (17.8 ± 3.7 vs. 39.6 ± 7.1 μg/L, P SLEEP versus SLD session. Our results indicate that the exercise‐induced GH response was significantly augmented in sleep‐deprived individuals. PMID:25281616

  9. Sleep deprivation and accidental fall risk in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boto, Leonor Reis; Crispim, João Núncio; de Melo, Isabel Saraiva; Juvandes, Carla; Rodrigues, Teresa; Azeredo, Paula; Ferreira, Rosário

    2012-01-01

    To look for an association between sleep deprivation and risk of accidental falls (AF) in children. A questionnaire was applied to two groups of children aged 1-14 years, encompassing children observed in an emergency room for AF (G1) and children attending health care visits (HV) (G2). Collected data included demographic characteristics, medical history, previous week's sleep pattern (PWSP), sleep duration and sleep pattern in the preceding 24 h, mechanism of fall, and injury severity. acute or chronic disease or exposure to drugs interfering with sleep. Statistical analyses included Fisher's exact test, Pearson Chi-square, Fisher-Freeman-Halton test, T and Mann-Whitney tests for independent samples, and multivariate logistic regression (α=5%). We obtained 1756 questionnaires in G1 and 277 in G2. Of those, 834 in G1 and 267 in G2 were analyzed. We found an increased risk of AF in boys (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.4). After controlling for age, gender, summer holidays, parental education and profession, lack of naps and PWSP were associated with increased risk (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3-3.3 and OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.2-6.1). In 3-5 year-old children there was an association between AF and a shorter than usual sleep duration in the previous 24 h (p=0.02). To our knowledge, our study is the largest so far to assess the association between sleep deprivation and childhood injury. It evidences a protective effect of naps in children. Sleep duration of less than 8 h increases risk of AF. Pre-schoolers may be particularly susceptible to sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissimilarity of slow-wave activity enhancement by torpor and sleep deprivation in a hibernator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    1998-01-01

    Sleep regulation processes have been hypothesized to be involved in function and timing of arousal episodes in hibernating ground squirrels. We investigated the importance of sleep regulation during arousal episodes by sleep deprivation experiments. After sleep deprivation of 4, 12, and 24 h,

  11. Sleep deprivation and daily torpor impair object recognition in Djungarian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palchykova, S; Crestani, F; Meerlo, P; Tobler, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to play a facilitating role in memory consolidation, whereas sleep deprivation leads to performance impairment both in humans and rodents. The effects of 4-h sleep deprivation on recognition memory were investigated in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Because sleep

  12. Modafinil as an adjunctive treatment to sleep deprivation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Christian; Thuile, Jacques; Santos, Johana; Bourgin, Patrice

    2005-11-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is a rapid-acting treatment for depression, but its clinical efficacy is hampered by high relapse rates after recovery sleep, and its effectiveness is reduced by the demanding effort needed for the patient to stay awake. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a successful treatment of depression with the combination of SD and the wakefulness-promoting agent modafinil. We suggest that modafinil may reinforce the action of SD, possibly by preventing daytime naps and microsleep, and may sustain the antidepressant effect of SD, possibly by stabilizing the resynchronization between the circadian clock and the sleep-wake cycle.

  13. Effects of exercise on brain and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers induced by total sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, M; Gomez-Merino, D; Drogou, C; Geoffroy, H; Dispersyn, G; Langrume, C; Ciret, S; Gallopin, T; Sauvet, F

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise induces neuroprotection through anti-inflammatory effects and total sleep deprivation is reported an inflammatory process. We examined whether 7 weeks of exercise training attenuates markers of inflammation during total sleep deprivation (24-h wakefulness) in the rat brain and periphery. Four groups of 10 rats were investigated: Sedentary control, Sedentary sleep-deprived, Exercised control, and Exercised sleep-deprived. Sleep deprivation and exercise training were induced using slowly rotating wheels and a motorized treadmill. We examined mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) cytokine-related genes using real-time PCR, and protein levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, as well as circulating concentrations. Compared to Sedentary control rats, hippocampal and cortical IL-1β mRNA expressions in Sedentary sleep-deprived rats were up-regulated (p sleep-deprived rats (p sleep-deprived rats compared to Sedentary control (p sleep deprivation-induced hippocampal IL-1β increases (mRNA expression and protein content) (p sleep deprivation-induced increase of IL-6 concentration (p sleep deprivation prevents pro-inflammatory responses in the rat hippocampus, particularly the IL-1β cytokine at the gene expression level and protein content.

  14. THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON PRION PROTEIN IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five Wister albino rats were used in this research work. Twenty four of the albino rats were successfully sleep deprived and used as test group while eleven were not sleep deprived and used as control group. These rats were respectively sleep deprived for fourteen days using single platform sleep deprivation technique. The rats, both the sleep deprived and non sleep deprived were sacrificed by euthanization technique after the sleep deprivation period. Brain tissue of every rat was extracted by surgical dissection. Part of the brain tissues were homogenized and assayed for prion protein while a part of each brain tissue was histologically treated for the brain tissue morphological studies. The results presented evidence of the presence of prion protein (PrP in the albino rats when compared with the commercial PrP positive control used. The results also showed a significant increase (P and lt;0.05 in the PrP concentration after sleep deprivation when compared with the non sleep deprived control group but when compared with the commercial positive PrP control group, there was a significant decrease (P and lt;0.05. The brain tissue micrograph showed neither abnormal cell morphology nor evidence of amyloid protein plaques. These results suggest that although there was a significant increase in prion protein concentration due to 14 days sleep deprivation, there was no abnormal protein conformation or protein misfolding due to sleep deprivation stress.

  15. Melatonin attenuates dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis with sleep deprivation: possible mechanism by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sook Hee; Park, Young Sook; Kim, Ok Soon; Kim, Ja Hyun; Baik, Haing Woon; Hong, Young Ok; Kim, Sang Su; Shin, Jae-Ho; Jun, Jin-Hyun; Jo, Yunju; Ahn, Sang Bong; Jo, Young Kwan; Son, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be aggravated by stress, like sleep deprivation, and improved by anti-inflammatory agents, like melatonin. We aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation and melatonin on inflammation. We also investigated genes regulated by sleep deprivation and melatonin. In the 2% DSS induced colitis mice model, sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform water bath. Melatonin was injected after induction of colitis and colitis with sleep deprivation. Also mRNA was isolated from the colon of mice and analyzed via microarray and real-time PCR. Sleep deprivation induced reduction of body weight, and it was difficult for half of the mice to survive. Sleep deprivation aggravated, and melatonin attenuated the severity of colitis. In microarrays and real-time PCR of mice colon tissues, mRNA of adiponectin and aquaporin 8 were downregulated by sleep deprivation and upregulated by melatonin. However, mRNA of E2F transcription factor (E2F2) and histocompatibility class II antigen A, beta 1 (H2-Ab1) were upregulated by sleep deprivation and downregulated by melatonin. Melatonin improves and sleep deprivation aggravates inflammation of colitis in mice. Adiponectin, aquaporin 8, E2F2 and H2-Ab1 may be involved in the inflammatory change aggravated by sleep deprivation and attenuated by melatonin.

  16. Sleep Deprivation and CSF Biomarkers for Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Martin; Ärlig, Johan; Hedner, Jan; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2018-02-07

    To investigate the cumulative effect of 5 consecutive nights of partial sleep deprivation on a panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in healthy adults. A randomized, cross-over study conducted at the University of Gothenburg. The participants (N=13) were healthy adults (20-40 years of age) with a normal sleeping pattern. The participants underwent a baseline sleep period consisting of 5 nights with 8h spent in bed. A subsequent period with partial sleep deprivation (PSD) consisted of 5 nights of maximum 4h of sleep per night. Four participants were also subjected to a prolonged period of PSD consisting of 8 nights with 4h of sleep per night. Sleep was monitored by means of observation, actigraphy and continuous polysomnographic recordings. CSF samples were collected by routine lumbar puncture after each period. CSF biomarkers included the 38, 40 and 42 amino acid-long Aβ isoforms, total-tau, phospho-tau, orexin, monoamine metabolites (MHPG, HVA and 5-HIAA), neuron-derived biomarkers (NF-L, NSE, FABP) and astro- and microglia-derived biomarkers (GFAP, S-100B, YKL-40). PSD was associated with a 27% increase in CSF orexin concentrations (P= 0.001). No PSD-related changes in CSF biomarkers for amyloid build-up in the brain, Alzheimer disease (AD)-type neurodegeneration or astroglial activation were observed. PSD led to a shortening of time spent in all sleep stages except slow wave sleep (SWS). 5-8 consecutive nights of PSD, with preserved SWS, increased CSF orexin but had no effect on CSF biomarkers for amyloid deposition, neuronal injury and astroglial activation. © Sleep Research Society 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Good night, sleep tight: The effects of sleep deprivation on spatial associative learning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro-da-Silva, Jaquelinne; Tran, Steven; Silva, Priscila Fernandes; Luchiari, Ana Carolina

    2017-08-01

    Learning and memory are vital to an animal's survival, and numerous factors can disrupt cognitive performance. Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved physiological process known to be important for the consolidation of learning and memory. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism sharing organizational and functional characteristics with other vertebrates, providing great translational relevance. In our study, we used a simple spatial associative learning task to quantify the effects of sleep deprivation (partial vs. total) on learning performance in zebrafish, using an animated conspecific shoal image as a reward. Control animals maintained on a regular light:dark cycle were able to acquire the association between the unconditioned and conditioned stimulus, reinforcing zebrafish as a valid and reliable model for appetitive conditioning tasks. Notably, sleep deprivation did not alter the perception of and response to the conspecific image. In contrast, although partial sleep deprivation did not impair cognitive performance, total sleep deprivation significantly impaired performance on the associative learning task. Our results suggest that sleep is important for learning and memory, and that the effects of sleep deprivation on these processes can be investigated in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Facilitation of task performance and removal of the effects of sleep deprivation by an ampakine (CX717 in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Porrino

    2005-09-01

    one brain region affected by sleep deprivation was also returned to the normal alert pattern by the drug. The ampakine CX717, in addition to enhancing cognitive performance under normal alert conditions, also proved effective in alleviating impairment of performance due to sleep deprivation. Therefore, the ability to activate specific brain regions under normal alert conditions and alter the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on activity in those same regions indicate a potential role for ampakines in sustaining performance under these types of adverse conditions.

  19. Novel Measures to Assess the Effects of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Sensory, Working, and Permanent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Dominique; De Koninck, Joseph; Campbell, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Sleepiness has repeatedly been demonstrated to affect performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. While the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) have been extensively studied, acute partial sleep deprivation (PSD), a more frequent form of sleep loss, has been studied much less often. The present study examined the effects of sleep deprivation on novel tasks involving classic sensory, working, and permanent memory systems. While the tasks did implicate different memory systems, they shared a need for effortful, sustained attention to maintain successful performance. Because of the novelty of the tasks, an initial study of the effects of TSD was carried out. The effects of PSD were subsequently examined in a second study, in which subjects were permitted only 4 h of sleep. A general detrimental effect of both total and PSD on accuracy of detection was observed and to a lesser extent, a slowing of the speed of responding on the different tasks. This overall effect is best explained by the often-reported inability to sustain attention following sleep loss. Specific effects on distinct cognitive processes were also observed, and these were more apparent following total than PSD.

  20. Novel Measures to Assess the Effects of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Sensory, Working, and Permanent Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Gosselin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleepiness has repeatedly been demonstrated to affect performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. While the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD have been extensively studied, acute partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a more frequent form of sleep loss, has been studied much less often. The present study examined the effects of sleep deprivation on novel tasks involving classic sensory, working, and permanent memory systems. While the tasks did implicate different memory systems, they shared a need for effortful, sustained attention to maintain successful performance. Because of the novelty of the tasks, an initial study of the effects of TSD was carried out. The effects of PSD were subsequently examined in a second study, in which subjects were permitted only 4 h of sleep. A general detrimental effect of both total and PSD on accuracy of detection was observed and to a lesser extent, a slowing of the speed of responding on the different tasks. This overall effect is best explained by the often-reported inability to sustain attention following sleep loss. Specific effects on distinct cognitive processes were also observed, and these were more apparent following total than PSD.

  1. Effects of Extreme Sleep Deprivation on Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Tran; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Elizabeth T. Cady; Bradford Amstutz; Pete D. Elgin; Christopher Vowels; Gerald Deehan

    2007-04-01

    Sleep is a fundamental recuperative process for the nervous system. Disruption of this homeostatic drive can lead to severe impairments of the operator’s ability to perceive, recognize, and respond to emergencies and/or unanticipated events, putting the operator at risk. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive understanding of how sleep deprivation influences human performance is essential in order to counter fatigue or to develop mitigation strategies. The goal of the present study was to examine the psychological effects of prolonged sleep deprivation (approx. 75 hrs) over a four-day span on a general aviation pilot flying a fixed-based flight simulator. During the study, a series of tasks were employed every four hours in order to examine the pilot’s perceptual and higher level cognitive abilities. Overall, results suggest that the majority of cognitive and perceptual degradation occurs between 30-40 hours into the flight. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.

  2. Circadian Modulation of Consolidated Memory Retrieval Following Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glou, Eric Le; Seugnet, Laurent; Shaw, Paul J.; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several lines of evidence indicate that sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia resistant memory following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Design: Four to 16 h after aversive olfactory training, flies were sleep deprived for 4 h. Memory was assessed 24 h after training. Training, sleep deprivation, and memory tests were performed at different times during the day to evaluate the importance of the time of day for memory formation. The role of circadian rhythms was further evaluated using circadian clock mutants. Results Memory was disrupted when flies were exposed to 4 h of sleep deprivation during the consolidation phase. Interestingly, normal memory was observed following sleep deprivation when the memory test was performed during the 2 h preceding lights-off, a period characterized by maximum wake in flies. We also show that anesthesia resistant memory was less sensitive to sleep deprivation in flies with disrupted circadian rhythms. Conclusions Our results indicate that anesthesia resistant memory, a consolidated memory less costly than long-term memory, is sensitive to sleep deprivation. In addition, we provide evidence that circadian factors influence memory vulnerability to sleep deprivation and memory retrieval. Taken together, the data show that memories weakened by sleep deprivation can be retrieved if the animals are tested at the optimal circadian time. Citation: Le Glou E; Seugnet L; Shaw PJ; Preat T; Goguel V. Circadian modulation of consolidated memory retrieval following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. SLEEP 2012;35(10):1377-1384. PMID:23024436

  3. Waking and sleeping following water deprivation in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Martelli

    Full Text Available Wake-sleep (W-S states are affected by thermoregulation. In particular, REM sleep (REMS is reduced in homeotherms under a thermal load, due to an impairment of hypothalamic regulation of body temperature. The aim of this work was to assess whether osmoregulation, which is regulated at a hypothalamic level, but, unlike thermoregulation, is maintained across the different W-S states, could influence W-S occurrence. Sprague-Dawley rats, kept at an ambient temperature of 24°C and under a 12 h∶12 h light-dark cycle, were exposed to a prolonged osmotic challenge of three days of water deprivation (WD and two days of recovery in which free access to water was restored. Two sets of parameters were determined in order to assess: i the maintenance of osmotic homeostasis (water and food consumption; changes in body weight and fluid composition; ii the effects of the osmotic challenge on behavioral states (hypothalamic temperature (Thy, motor activity, and W-S states. The first set of parameters changed in WD as expected and control levels were restored on the second day of recovery, with the exception of urinary Ca(++ that almost disappeared in WD, and increased to a high level in recovery. As far as the second set is concerned, WD was characterized by the maintenance of the daily oscillation of Thy and by a decrease in activity during the dark periods. Changes in W-S states were small and mainly confined to the dark period: i REMS slightly decreased at the end of WD and increased in recovery; ii non-REM sleep (NREMS increased in both WD and recovery, but EEG delta power, a sign of NREMS intensity, decreased in WD and increased in recovery. Our data suggest that osmoregulation interferes with the regulation of W-S states to a much lesser extent than thermoregulation.

  4. The relationship between tiredness prior to sleep deprivation and the antidepressant response to sleep deprivation in depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Burg, W.; Bouhuys, A.L; van den Hoofdakker, R.H

    1995-01-01

    Recently it was hypothesized that the antidepressant response to total sleep deprivation (SD) results from a disinhibition process induced by the increase of tiredness in the course of SD. In the present study, the role of tiredness in the antidepressant response to SD is further investigated,

  5. Sleep deprivation and hippocampal vulnerability : Changes in neuronal plasticity, neurogenesis and cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzmann, J C; Havekes, R; Abel, T; Meerlo, P

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ongoing fundamental controversy about the physiological function of sleep, there is general consensus that sleep benefits neuronal plasticity, which ultimately supports brain function and cognition. In agreement with this are numerous studies showing that sleep deprivation (SD) results

  6. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on neurogenesis.

  7. Disrupted directed connectivity along the cingulate cortex determines vigilance after sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, Giovanni; Cheung, Bing Leung P.; Van Veen, Barry D.; Romeijn, Nico; Riedner, Brady A.; Tononi, Giulio; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Van Someren, Eus J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The cingulate cortex is regarded as the backbone of structural and functional connectivity of the brain. While its functional connectivity has been intensively studied, little is known about its effective connectivity, its modulation by behavioral states, and its involvement in cognitive performance. Given their previously reported effects on cingulate functional connectivity, we investigated how eye-closure and sleep deprivation changed cingulate effective connectivity, estimated from resting-state high-density electroencephalography (EEG) using a novel method to calculate Granger Causality directly in source space. Effective connectivity along the cingulate cortex was dominant in the forward direction. Eyes-open connectivity in the forward direction was greater compared to eyes-closed, in well-rested participants. The difference between eyes-open and eyes-closed connectivity was attenuated and no longer significant after sleep deprivation. Individual variability in the forward connectivity after sleep deprivation predicted subsequent task performance, such that those subjects who showed a greater increase in forward connectivity between the eyes-open and the eyes-closed periods also performed better on a sustained attention task. Effective connectivity in the opposite, backward, direction was not affected by whether the eyes were open or closed or by sleep deprivation. These findings indicate that the effective connectivity from posterior to anterior cingulate regions is enhanced when a well-rested subject has his eyes open compared to when they are closed. Sleep deprivation impairs this directed information flow, proportional to its deleterious effect on vigilance. Therefore, sleep may play a role in the maintenance of waking effective connectivity. PMID:23643925

  8. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  9. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A

    2014-05-01

    Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection.

  10. Modafinil ameliorates cognitive deficits induced by maternal separation and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Vanessa Athaíde; Hirotsu, Camila; Matos, Gabriela; Alvarenga, Tathiana; Pires, Gabriel Natan; Kapczinski, Flávio; Schröder, Nadja; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2013-09-15

    Animals exposed to an early adverse event may be more susceptible to a second source of stress later in life, and these stressors may have additive deleterious effects. Sleep deprivation is known to be a stressor, affecting multiple body functions such as the cognition. Modafinil enhances working memory and attention in healthy non-sleep deprived subjects and in animal models of sleep deprivation. The first aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal separation (MS) combined with paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in adulthood on recognition memory in rats. Second, we aimed to evaluate whether the administration of modafinil would be able to ameliorate memory deficits induced by MS and PSD. Wistar rat pups were initially distributed into MS and handling (H) groups, with their litters standardized in 4 females and 4 males. In adulthood, the male rats were submitted to PSD or control condition, being redistributed afterwards in modafinil- or vehicle-treatment immediately after the training session of object recognition task. PSD did not potentiate the cognitive deficit due to MS. However, modafinil was able to recover memory impairments associated to PSD and also to MS in the neonatal period. This study demonstrates for the first time that modafinil ameliorates cognitive deficits associated to MS and to PSD in adulthood, independent from MS in the neonatal period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Grooming analysis algorithm: use in the relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel N; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2013-03-05

    Increased anxiety is a classic effect of sleep deprivation. However, results regarding sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior are contradictory in rodent models. The grooming analysis algorithm is a method developed to examine anxiety-like behavior and stress in rodents, based on grooming characteristics and microstructure. This study evaluated the applicability of the grooming analysis algorithm to distinguish sleep-deprived and control rats in comparison to traditional grooming analysis. Forty-six animals were distributed into three groups: control (n=22), paradoxical sleep-deprived (96 h, n=10) and total sleep deprived (6 h, n=14). Immediately after the sleep deprivation protocol, grooming was evaluated using both the grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures (grooming latency, frequency and duration). Results showed that both paradoxical sleep-deprived and total sleep-deprived groups displayed grooming in a fragmented framework when compared to control animals. Variables from the grooming analysis algorithm were successful in distinguishing sleep-deprived and normal sleep animals regarding anxiety-like behavior. The grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures were strongly correlated. In conclusion, the grooming analysis algorithm is a reliable method to assess the relationship between anxiety-like behavior and sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of two types of sleep deprivation on visual working memory capacity and filtering efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Sean P A; Anderson, Dane E; Straus, Laura D; Vogel, Edward K; Perez, Veronica B

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has adverse consequences for a variety of cognitive functions. The exact effects of sleep deprivation, though, are dependent upon the cognitive process examined. Within working memory, for example, some component processes are more vulnerable to sleep deprivation than others. Additionally, the differential impacts on cognition of different types of sleep deprivation have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation and 4 nights of partial sleep deprivation (4 hours in bed/night) on two components of visual working memory: capacity and filtering efficiency. Forty-four healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the two sleep deprivation conditions. All participants were studied: 1) in a well-rested condition (following 6 nights of 9 hours in bed/night); and 2) following sleep deprivation, in a counter-balanced order. Visual working memory testing consisted of two related tasks. The first measured visual working memory capacity and the second measured the ability to ignore distractor stimuli in a visual scene (filtering efficiency). Results showed neither type of sleep deprivation reduced visual working memory capacity. Partial sleep deprivation also generally did not change filtering efficiency. Total sleep deprivation, on the other hand, did impair performance in the filtering task. These results suggest components of visual working memory are differentially vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation, and different types of sleep deprivation impact visual working memory to different degrees. Such findings have implications for operational settings where individuals may need to perform with inadequate sleep and whose jobs involve receiving an array of visual information and discriminating the relevant from the irrelevant prior to making decisions or taking actions (e.g., baggage screeners, air traffic controllers, military personnel, health care providers).

  13. The effects of two types of sleep deprivation on visual working memory capacity and filtering efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P A Drummond

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation has adverse consequences for a variety of cognitive functions. The exact effects of sleep deprivation, though, are dependent upon the cognitive process examined. Within working memory, for example, some component processes are more vulnerable to sleep deprivation than others. Additionally, the differential impacts on cognition of different types of sleep deprivation have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation and 4 nights of partial sleep deprivation (4 hours in bed/night on two components of visual working memory: capacity and filtering efficiency. Forty-four healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the two sleep deprivation conditions. All participants were studied: 1 in a well-rested condition (following 6 nights of 9 hours in bed/night; and 2 following sleep deprivation, in a counter-balanced order. Visual working memory testing consisted of two related tasks. The first measured visual working memory capacity and the second measured the ability to ignore distractor stimuli in a visual scene (filtering efficiency. Results showed neither type of sleep deprivation reduced visual working memory capacity. Partial sleep deprivation also generally did not change filtering efficiency. Total sleep deprivation, on the other hand, did impair performance in the filtering task. These results suggest components of visual working memory are differentially vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation, and different types of sleep deprivation impact visual working memory to different degrees. Such findings have implications for operational settings where individuals may need to perform with inadequate sleep and whose jobs involve receiving an array of visual information and discriminating the relevant from the irrelevant prior to making decisions or taking actions (e.g., baggage screeners, air traffic controllers, military personnel, health care

  14. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondel, Laurent; Romer, Michael A; Nougues, Pauline M; Touyarou, Peio; Davenne, Damien

    2010-06-01

    Acute partial sleep deprivation increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and decreases those of leptin. The objective was to observe modifications in energy intake and physical activity after acute partial sleep deprivation in healthy men. Twelve men [age: 22 +/- 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.30 +/- 1.83] completed a randomized 2-condition crossover study. During the first night of each 48-h session, subjects had either approximately 8 h (from midnight to 0800) or approximately 4 h (from 0200 to 0600) of sleep. All foods consumed subsequently (jam on buttered toast for breakfast, buffet for lunch, and a free menu for dinner) were eaten ad libitum. Physical activity was recorded by an actimeter. Feelings of hunger, perceived pleasantness of the foods, desire to eat some foods, and sensation of sleepiness were also evaluated. In comparison with the 8-h sleep session, subjects consumed 559 +/- 617 kcal (ie, 22%) more energy on the day after sleep restriction (P < 0.01), and preprandial hunger was higher before breakfast (P < 0.001) and dinner (P < 0.05). No change in the perceived pleasantness of the foods or in the desire to eat the foods was observed. Physical activity from 1215 to 2015 was higher after sleep restriction than after 8 h of sleep (P < 0.01), even though the sensation of sleepiness was more marked (P < 0.01). One night of reduced sleep subsequently increased food intake and, to a lesser extent, estimated physical activity-related energy expenditure in healthy men. These experimental results, if confirmed by long-term energy balance measurements, suggest that sleep restriction could be a factor that promotes obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00986492.

  15. Differential effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation on memory and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Alisson Menezes Araujo; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales; Rios, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo

    2014-05-01

    Sleep has important functions for every organ in the body and sleep deprivation (SD) leads to disorders that cause irreparable damage. The aim of this study was to investigate behavioral and brain structural alterations in mice deprived of paradoxical sleep for 48 and 72 h. Working memory, aversive memory as well as levels of nitric oxide (NO) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the hippocampus, body striatum, and prefrontal cortex were evaluated. Working memory was affected in the 48- and 72-h SD groups while aversive memory was altered only in the 48-h SD group (p ≤ 0.05). Our findings showed that SD reduces NO levels in most brain areas (p sleep-deprived for 48 h. Higher levels of TBARS were observed in all areas of the SD groups (p ≤ 0.05). Thus, we confirmed that SD has duration-dependent effects on behavior as well as on NO and TBARS levels in the brain. Preserved striatum NO levels suggest that this structure is less vulnerable to oxidative stress and is only affected by SD of longer duration. Increased TBARS and reduced NO levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex confirm a central role for both these structures in working memory and aversive memory. Contextual fear conditioning was not affected by longer periods of SD. Thus, our findings suggest that shorter SD time may be more beneficial to avoid aversive memory where this may have implications for the management of posttraumatic stress.

  16. Sleep deprivation alters effort discounting but not delay discounting of monetary rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libedinsky, Camilo; Massar, Stijn A A; Ling, Aiqing; Chee, Weiyan; Huettel, Scott A; Chee, Michael W L

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether sleep deprivation would affect the discounting of delayed rewards, of rewards entailing the expense of effort, or both. We measured rates of two types of reward discounting under conditions of rested wakefulness (RW) and sleep deprivation (SD). Delay discounting was defined as the willingness to accept smaller monetary rewards sooner rather than larger monetary rewards later. Effort discounting was defined as the willingness to accept smaller rewards that require less effort to obtain (e.g., typing a small number of letter strings backward) over larger but more effortful rewards (e.g., typing more letter strings to receive the reward). The first two experiments used a crossover design in which one session was conducted after a normal night of sleep (RW), and the other after a night without sleep (SD). The first experiment evaluated only temporal discounting whereas the second evaluated temporal and effort discounting. In the second experiment, the discounting tasks were repeatedly administered prior to the state comparisons to minimize the effects of order and/or repeated testing. In a third experiment, participants were studied only once in a between-subject evaluation of discounting across states. The study took place in a research laboratory. Seventy-seven healthy young adult participants: 20 in Experiment 1, 27 in Experiment 2, and 30 in Experiment 3. N/A. Sleep deprivation elicited increased effort discounting but did not affect delay discounting. The dissociable effects of sleep deprivation on two forms of discounting behavior suggest that they may have differing underlying neural mechanisms.

  17. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Eliane A; Piaggi, Paolo; Dsurney, John; de Jonge, Lilian; Zhao, Xiong-ce; Mattingly, Megan S; Ramer, Angela; Gershengorn, Janet; Csako, Gyorgy; Cizza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals. To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (Sleep extension (468±88 days) with life-style modifications. Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration. At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39). Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02), and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001). Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74), subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (psleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (pattention improved by 7% and 10%, respectively (both p = 0.001), and memory and executive functions tended to improve (p = 0.07 and p = 0.06). Serum cortisol increased by 17% (p = 0.02). In a multivariate mixed model, subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function. Drop-out rate. Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population. www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898. NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036.

  18. Investigating systematic individual differences in sleep-deprived performance on a high-fidelity flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A; Caldwell, John A; Caldwell, J Lynn

    2006-05-01

    Laboratory research has revealed considerable systematic variability in the degree to which individuals' alertness and performance are affected by sleep deprivation. However, little is known about whether or not different populations exhibit similar levels of individual variability. In the present study, we examined individual variability in performance impairment due to sleep loss in a highly select population of militaryjet pilots. Ten active-duty F-117 pilots were deprived of sleep for 38 h and studied repeatedly in a high-fidelity flight simulator. Data were analyzed with a mixed-model ANOVA to quantify individual variability. Statistically significant, systematic individual differences in the effects of sleep deprivation were observed, even when baseline differences were accounted for. The findings suggest that highly select populations may exhibit individual differences in vulnerability to performance impairment from sleep loss just as the general population does. Thus, the scientific and operational communities' reliance on group data as opposed to individual data may entail substantial misestimation of the impact of job-related stressors on safety and performance.

  19. Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation on Auditory and Linguistic Perception: A Comparison among Young Controls, Sleep-Deprived Participants, Dyslexic Readers, and Aging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Method: Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29…

  20. Sleep deprivation increases cerebral serotonin 2A receptor binding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenhorst, David; Kroll, Tina; Matusch, Andreas; Bauer, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin and its cerebral receptors play an important role in sleep-wake regulation. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of 24-h total sleep deprivation on the apparent serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) binding capacity in the human brain to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation induces global molecular alterations in the cortical serotonergic receptor system. Volunteers were tested twice with the subtype-selective radiotracer [(18)F]altanserin and positron emission tomography (PET) for imaging of 5-HT(2A)Rs at baseline and after 24 h of sleep deprivation. [(18)F]Altanserin binding potentials were analyzed in 13 neocortical regions of interest. The efficacy of sleep deprivation was assessed by questionnaires, waking electroencephalography, and cognitive performance measurements. Sleep laboratory and neuroimaging center. Eighteen healthy volunteers. Sleep deprivation. A total of 24 hours of sleep deprivation led to a 9.6% increase of [(18)F]altanserin binding on neocortical 5-HT(2A) receptors. Significant region-specific increases were found in the medial inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and anterior cingulate, parietal, sensomotoric, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. This study demonstrates that a single night of total sleep deprivation causes significant increases of 5-HT(2A)R binding potentials in a variety of cortical regions although the increase declines as sleep deprivation continued. It provides in vivo evidence that total sleep deprivation induces adaptive processes in the serotonergic system of the human brain.

  1. Modafinil vs. caffeine: effects on fatigue during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesensten, Nancy Jo; Belenky, Gregory; Thorne, David R; Kautz, Mary A; Balkin, Thomas J

    2004-06-01

    The extent to which modafinil and caffeine reverse fatigue effects (defined as performance decrements with time on task) during total sleep deprivation was investigated. There were 50 healthy young adults who remained awake for 54.5 h (06:30 day 1 to 13:00 day 3). A 10-min vigilance test was administered bi-hourly from 08:00 day 1 until 22:00 day 2. At 23:55 day 2 (after 41.5 h awake), double-blind administration of one of five drug doses (placebo; modafinil 100, 200, or 400 mg; or caffeine 600 mg; n = 10 per group) was followed by hourly testing from 00:00 through 12:00 day 3. Response speed (reciprocal of reaction time) across the 10-min task (by 1-min block) was analyzed prior to and after drug administration. A fatigue effect (response speed degradation across the 10-min task) was exacerbated by sleep deprivation and circadian rhythmicity. Prior to the drug, this effect was maximal between 08:00 and 12:00 day 3 (24-28 h sleep deprivation). Modafinil 400 mg attenuated fatigue in a manner comparable to that seen with caffeine 600 mg; these effects were especially salient during the circadian nadir of performance (06:00 through 10:00); modafinil 200 mg also reversed fatigue, but for a shorter duration (3 min) than modafinil 400 mg (8 min) or caffeine 600 mg (6 min). Time-on-task effects contributed to the performance degradation seen during sleep deprivation; effects which were reversed by caffeine and, at appropriate doses, by modafinil. Because the duration of efficacy for reversing time-on-task effects was shorter at lower drug dosages, the latter must be considered when determining the appropriate dose to use during sustained operations.

  2. Comparing Technical Dexterity of Sleep-Deprived Versus Intoxicated Surgeons

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtashami, Fariba; Thiele, Allison; Karreman, Erwin; Thiel, John

    2014-01-01

    Background: The evidence on the effect of sleep deprivation on the cognitive and motor skills of physicians in training is sparse and conflicting, and the evidence is nonexistent on surgeons in practice. Work-hour limitations based on these data have contributed to challenges in the quality of surgical education under the apprentice model, and as a result there is an increasing focus on competency-based education. Whereas the effects of alcohol intoxication on psychometric performance are wel...

  3. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott; Gaviglio, Chris M

    2011-02-16

    We investigated the effects of sleep deprivation with or without acute supplementation of caffeine or creatine on the execution of a repeated rugby passing skill. Ten elite rugby players completed 10 trials on a simple rugby passing skill test (20 repeats per trial), following a period of familiarisation. The players had between 7-9 h sleep on 5 of these trials and between 3-5 h sleep (deprivation) on the other 5. At a time of 1.5 h before each trial, they undertook administration of either: placebo tablets, 50 or 100 mg/kg creatine, 1 or 5 mg/kg caffeine. Saliva was collected before each trial and assayed for salivary free cortisol and testosterone. Sleep deprivation with placebo application resulted in a significant fall in skill performance accuracy on both the dominant and non-dominant passing sides (p sleep deprivation, but trended higher with the 100 mg/kg creatine dose, compared to the placebo treatment (p = 0.067). Salivary cortisol was elevated (p = 0.001) with the 5 mg/kg dose of caffeine (vs. placebo). Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.

  4. Sleepless in Adolescence: Prospective Data on Sleep Deprivation, Health and Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Duong, Hao T.

    2009-01-01

    We estimate prevalence, incidence and persistence of short sleep or sleep deprivation in a two wave cohort study of 4175 youths 11-17 years old at baseline and 3134 of these a year later. Data were collected using computer interviews and questionnaires. Sleep deprivation was defined as 6 h or less per night during the past 4 weeks. Weighted…

  5. Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology IV: Patrick and Gilbert (1896) on Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas; Burgdorf, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    We report an attempted replication of G. T. W. Patrick and J. A. Gilbert's pioneering sleep deprivation experiment "Studies from the psychological laboratory of the University of Iowa. On the effects of loss of sleep", conducted in 1895/96. Patrick and Gilbert's study was the first sleep deprivation experiment of its kind, performed by some of the…

  6. Sweet taste perception not altered after acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Nilsson, E; Chapman, C D; Cedernaes, J; Vogel, H; Dickson, S L; Broman, J-E; Schiöth, H B; Benedict, C

    2013-06-01

    We hypothesized that acutely sleep-deprived participants would rate ascending concentrations of sucrose as more intense and pleasant, than they would do after one night of normal sleep. Such a finding would offer a potential mechanism through which acute sleep loss could promote overeating in humans. A total of 16 healthy normal-weight men participated in 2 conditions: sleep (permitted between 22:30 and 06:30 h) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) respectively. On the morning after regular sleep and TSD, circulating concentrations of ghrelin and glucose were measured. In addition, participants hunger level was assessed by means of visual analogue scales, both before and after a caloric preload. Finally, following the preload, participants rated both intensity and pleasantness of six orally presented yogurt probes with varying sucrose concentrations (2-29 %). Feelings of hunger were significantly more intense under both fasted and sated conditions when subjects were sleep-deprived. In contrast, the change in hunger induced by the preload was similar between the sleep and TSD conditions. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were significantly higher under conditions of TSD, whereas plasma glucose did not differ between the conditions. No effects were found either on sweet taste intensity or on pleasantness after TSD. One night of TSD increases morning plasma concentrations of the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin in healthy young men. In contrast, sweet taste perception was not affected by nocturnal wakefulness. This suggests that an altered sweet taste perception is an unlikely mechanism by which TSD enhances food intake.

  7. Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep Prior to a Noxious Inflammatory Insult Influence Characteristics and Duration of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep and chronic pain are public health epidemics. Sleep loss worsens pain and predicts the development of chronic pain. Whether previous, acute sleep loss and recovery sleep determine pain levels and duration remains poorly understood. This study tested whether acute sleep deprivation and recovery sleep prior to formalin injection alter post-injection pain levels and duration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) underwent sleep deprivation or ad libitum sleep for 9 hours. Thereafter, rats received a subcutaneous injection of formalin or saline into a hind paw. In the recovery sleep group, rats were allowed 24 h between sleep deprivation and the injection of formalin. Mechanical and thermal nociception were assessed using the von Frey test and Hargreaves' method. Nociceptive measures were performed at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days post-injection. Formalin caused bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia) that persisted for up to 21 days post-injection. Sleep deprivation significantly enhanced bilateral allodynia. There was a synergistic interaction when sleep deprivation preceded a formalin injection. Rats allowed a recovery sleep period prior to formalin injection developed allodynia only in the injected limb, with higher mechanical thresholds (less allodynia) and a shorter recovery period. There were no persistent changes in thermal nociception. The data suggest that acute sleep loss preceding an inflammatory insult enhances pain and can contribute to chronic pain. The results encourage studies in a model of surgical pain to test whether enhancing sleep reduces pain levels and duration. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D.; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as w...

  9. Selective REM-Sleep Deprivation Does Not Diminish Emotional Memory Consolidation in Young Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D.; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C.; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N = 29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both ...

  10. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Selective slow-wave sleep deprivation and time-of-night effects on cognitive performance upon awakening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, M; De Gennaro, L; Casagrande, M; Bertini, M

    2000-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of selective slow-wave sleep (SWS) deprivation and time-of-night factors on cognitive performance upon awakening. Ten normal men slept for 6 consecutive nights in the laboratory: 1 adaptation, 2 baseline, 2 selective SWS deprivation, and 1 recovery night. Cognitive performance was assessed by means of a Descending Subtraction Task after 2, 5, and 7.5 h of sleep. There was an almost complete selective SWS suppression during both deprivation nights, and a significant SWS rebound during the recovery sleep. Regarding cognitive performance, a progressive linear decrease of sleep inertia upon successive awakenings was found during all experimental nights except for the recovery night. In addition, a significant decrease of sleep inertia was observed upon the morning awakening of the second deprivation night for the measure of performance speed, and a significant increase of sleep inertia upon the morning awakening of the recovery night for the measure of performance accuracy. The results show that cognitive performance upon awakening is adversely affected by sleep depth and that, during the sleep-wake transition, cognitive performance accuracy is more impaired than performance speed.

  12. Electrophysiological correlates of cognition improve with nap during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Usha; Ray, Koushik; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Bhaumik, Sangeet; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2010-02-01

    The efficacy of a 30-min nap as a countermeasure in the reduction of cognitive decline following 24 h of sleep deprivation (SD) on subjective sleepiness scales, event-related potential (ERP) P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV) was evaluated. The experiment was performed in three sessions on different days between 7 and 8 a.m. on nine normal, healthy males, of age 25-30 years: Session 1. Baseline recordings; Session 2, after one night's total sleep deprivation, and; Session 3, after 1 week of Session 1, following one night's sleep deprivation along with a 30-min nap opportunity between 1.00 and 3.00 a.m. Subjective sleepiness scores increased after SD as compared to baseline, but reduced significantly after nap (P effects on ERP N1, P1, N2 latencies, P2 and P3 amplitudes and CNV N1, P3, M2 peak latencies and M1, and M2 amplitudes were observed. It was concluded that a 30-min nap, between 1.00 and 3.00 a.m. during night SD, reduces the cognitive decline following 24 h of SD in terms of its electro-physiological correlates. The study is of applied value in optimization of cognitive performance in professions demanding night work schedules.

  13. Circadian modulation of consolidated memory retrieval following sleep deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Glou, Eric; Seugnet, Laurent; Shaw, Paul J; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2012-10-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia resistant memory following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Four to 16 h after aversive olfactory training, flies were sleep deprived for 4 h. Memory was assessed 24 h after training. Training, sleep deprivation, and memory tests were performed at different times during the day to evaluate the importance of the time of day for memory formation. The role of circadian rhythms was further evaluated using circadian clock mutants. Memory was disrupted when flies were exposed to 4 h of sleep deprivation during the consolidation phase. Interestingly, normal memory was observed following sleep deprivation when the memory test was performed during the 2 h preceding lights-off, a period characterized by maximum wake in flies. We also show that anesthesia resistant memory was less sensitive to sleep deprivation in flies with disrupted circadian rhythms. Our results indicate that anesthesia resistant memory, a consolidated memory less costly than long-term memory, is sensitive to sleep deprivation. In addition, we provide evidence that circadian factors influence memory vulnerability to sleep deprivation and memory retrieval. Taken together, the data show that memories weakened by sleep deprivation can be retrieved if the animals are tested at the optimal circadian time.

  14. Psychological Effect of an Analogue Traumatic Event Reduced by Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheret, Kate; Holmes, Emily A; Goodwin, Guy M; Foster, Russell G; Wulff, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effect of sleep deprivation compared to sleep, immediately after experimental trauma stimuli on the development of intrusive memories to that trauma stimuli. Participants were exposed to a film with traumatic content (trauma film). The immediate response to the trauma film was assessed, followed by either total sleep deprivation (sleep deprived group, N = 20) or sleep as usual (sleep group, N = 22). Twelve hours after the film viewing the initial psychological effect of the trauma film was measured and for the subsequent 6 days intrusive emotional memories related to the trauma film were recorded in daily life. Academic sleep laboratory and participants' home environment. Healthy paid volunteers. On the first day after the trauma film, the psychological effect as assessed by the Impact of Event Scale - Revised was lower in the sleep deprived group compared to the sleep group. In addition, the sleep deprived group reported fewer intrusive emotional memories (mean 2.28, standard deviation [SD] 2.91) compared to the sleep group (mean 3.76, SD 3.35). Because habitual sleep/circadian patterns, psychological health, and immediate effect of the trauma film were similar at baseline for participants of both groups, the results cannot be accounted for by pre-existing inequalities between groups. Our findings suggest that sleep deprivation on one night, rather than sleeping, reduces emotional effect and intrusive memories following exposure to experimental trauma. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: A 36-Hour Sleep Deprivation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jacqueline; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In space, astronauts may experience effects of cumulative sleep loss due to demanding work schedules that can result in cognitive performance impairments, mood state deteriorations, and sleep-wake cycle disruption. Individuals who experience sleep deprivation of six hours beyond normal sleep times experience detrimental changes in their mood and performance states. Hence, the potential for life threatening errors increases exponentially with sleep deprivation. We explored the effects of 36-hours of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance, mood states, and physiological responses to identify which metrics may best predict fatigue induced performance decrements of individuals.

  16. The effect of sleep deprivation on the encoding of contextual and non-contextual aspects of emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesta, Daniela; Socci, Valentina; Coppo, Martina; Dello Ioio, Giada; Nepa, Valeria; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ferrara, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Sleep loss affects emotional memory, but the specific effects on its contextual and non-contextual aspects are unknown. In this study we investigated the possible differential influence of one night of sleep deprivation on the encoding and subsequent recall of these two aspects of emotional information. Forty-eight healthy subjects, divided in a sleep deprivation (SD) and a well-rested group (WR), completed two testing sessions: the encoding session took place after one night of sleep for the WR and after one night of sleep deprivation for the SD group; the recall session after two nights of recovery sleep for both groups. During the encoding session, 6 clips of films of different valence (2 positive, 2 neutral and 2 negative) were presented to the participants. During the recall session, the non-contextual emotional memory was assessed by a recognition task, while the contextual emotional memory was evaluated by a temporal order task. The SD group showed a worst non-contextual recognition of positive and neutral events compared to WR subjects, while recognition of negative items was similar in the two groups. Instead, the encoding of the temporal order resulted deteriorated in the SD participants, independent of the emotional valence of the items. These results indicate that sleep deprivation severely impairs the encoding of both contextual and non-contextual aspects of memory, resulting in significantly worse retention two days later. However, the preserved recognition of negative non-contextual events in sleep deprived subjects suggests that the encoding of negative stimuli is more "resistant" to the disruptive effects of sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults: results from the Stockholm Sleepy Brain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsonne, Gustav; Tamm, Sandra; Schwarz, Johanna; Almeida, Rita; Fischer, Håkan; Kecklund, Göran; Lekander, Mats; Fransson, Peter; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2017-08-25

    Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably reducing connectivity in the default mode network. Studies to date have however shown inconsistent effects, in many cases lacked monitoring of wakefulness, and largely included young participants. We investigated effects of sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Participants aged 20-30 (final n = 30) and 65-75 (final n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two 8-minutes eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session, monitored by eye-tracking. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. Changes in investigated resting state networks and in regional homogeneity were not statistically significant. Younger participants had higher connectivity in most examined networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In conclusion, we found that sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, and we speculate that this may be caused by wake-state instability.

  18. Sleep deprivation in the rat: XI. The effect of guanethidine-induced sympathetic blockade on the sleep deprivation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, J J; Bergmann, B M; Fang, V S; Refetoff, S; Rechtschaffen, A

    1990-06-01

    In earlier studies, rats totally deprived of sleep by a disk-over-water apparatus (TSD rats) had shown an increase in energy expenditure (EE) that could not be explained by increased motor activity or the metabolic expense of wakefulness. Excessive activation of a calorigenic mediator was a possibility, and norepinephrine-mediated sympathetic activation was the most likely candidate, because plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels had risen sharply in TSD rats. To determine whether this activation was necessary for increased EE in sleep deprived rats, the peripheral sympathetic blocking agent guanethidine (GU) was administered to six sleep-deprived (GD) rats and their yoked control (GC) rats. GU attenuated the increase in NE previously seen in TSD rats, but the increase in EE was not attenuated. Apparently, NE-mediated sympathetic activation was not critical for increased EE in sleep-deprived rats. On the other hand, plasma epinephrine (EPI) levels were significantly increased in GD (but not in GC) rats above those previously seen in TSD rats, suggesting the substitution of one calorigenic mediator for another in response to an abnormally elevated need for EE. Temperature data suggest that increased need for EE could arise from an elevated temperature setpoint and an inability to retain body heat. GD (but not GC) rats also showed other effects previously seen in TSD rats, including debilitated appearance; severe ulcerative and hyperkeratotic lesions on the tails and plantar surfaces; initially increased and later decreased body temperature; decreased plasma thyroxine; increased triiodothyronine-thyroxine ratio; and eventual death. Evidently, NE-mediated sympathetic activation was not critical to any of these effects, although a role for catecholamines cannot be ruled out.

  19. Effects of cocaine, methamphetamine and modafinil challenge on sleep rebound after paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, R.C.S; Andersen, M.L; Shih, M.C; Tufik, S

    2008-01-01

    Sleep loss is both common and critically relevant to our society and might lead to the abuse of psychostimulants such as amphetamines, cocaine and modafinil. Since psychoactive substance abuse often occurs within a scenario of sleep deficit, the purpose of this investigation was to compare the sleep patterns of rats challenged with cocaine (7 mg/kg, ip), methamphetamine (7 mg/kg, ip), or modafinil (100 mg/kg, ip) subsequent to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 96 h. Our results show tha...

  20. The effects of stimulus degradation after 48 hours of total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitin, Brian C; Tucker, Adrienne M; Basner, Robert C; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that total sleep deprivation (TSD) slows stimulus detection and evaluation processes. Towards that end we manipulate degradation of the imperative stimulus, a manipulation well established to affect the processes of interest, in a delayed letter recognition (DLR) task and the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and predicted that after TSD the ordinary reaction time (RT) slowing effect of stimulus degradation would be increased. These hypotheses were only partially confirmed (see below). Participants were exposed to 48 h of total sleep loss. The PVT and DLR were administered to the same participants. The PVT was administered 8 times -every 6 h from 12:00 on Day 1. The DLR was administered twice, at 09:00 of Day 1 and 48 h later. Participants were continuously monitored in a sleep laboratory. 26 healthy young adults enrolled. Due to dropouts and technical failures, the final n's were 20 for the DLR and 21 for the PVT. General linear mixed models were employed. In the DLR task there was no interaction between TSD and degradation on any variable. There was, however, a significant interaction between TSD and degradation on mean reaction time in the PVT (P = 0.01). As in our previous reports, we observe the specificity with which total sleep deprivation affects cognitive processes. One aspect of visual processing, stimulus detection, was affected by total sleep deprivation and made a significant contribution to the performance impairments observed. Another aspect of visual processing, stimulus evaluation, remained unaffected after 2 days and nights of total sleep loss.

  1. Modafinil restores memory performance and neural activity impaired by sleep deprivation in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Piérard , Christophe; Liscia , Pierrette; Philippin , Jean-Nicolas; Mons , Nicole; Lafon , Thierry; Chauveau , Frédéric; Van Beers , Pascal; Drouet , Isabelle; Serra , André; Jouanin , Jean-Claude; Béracochéa , Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The original aims of our study have been to investigate in sleep-deprived mice, the effects of modafinil administration on spatial working memory, in parallel with the evaluation of neural activity level, as compared to non-sleep-deprived animals. For this purpose, an original sleep deprivation apparatus was developed and validated with continuous electroencephalography recording. Memory performance was evaluated using spontaneous alternation in a T-maze, whereas the neural activity level was...

  2. Total sleep deprivation alters cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Huan; Durocher, John J.; Larson, Robert A.; DellaValla, Joseph P.; Carter, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress (MS) and cold pressor test (CPT) has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent epidemiological studies identify sleep deprivation as an important risk factor for hypertension, yet the relations between sleep deprivation and cardiovascular reactivity remain equivocal. We hypothesized that 24-h total sleep deprivation (TSD) would augment cardiovascular reactivity to MS and CPT and blunt the MS-induced forearm vasodilat...

  3. Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction: Implications for Treatment of PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0001 TITLE: Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction: Implications for Treatment of PTSD...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Oct 2010 – 30 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and...especially adequate REM during exposure therapy may enhance efficacy and reduce remission after treatment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS PTSD, sleep deprivation , fear

  4. Urinary Metabolite Profiles May be Predictive of Cognitive Performance Under Conditions of Acute Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Performance Under Conditions of Acute Sleep Deprivation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER Nicholas J...cognitive assessments as having a high tolerance (n=6) or low tolerance (n=6) to sleep deprivation could be classified separately with statistical...at early (0-12h) and late (28h) times during the 36-h sleep deprivation period. Man of these metabolites (11 of 20) appeared to be associated with

  5. Simulated Spaceflight Operations Under Sleep Deprivation and Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijing; Li, Zhizhong; Liu, Xueyong; Liu, Fang; Jing, Xiaolu; Wu, Bin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated how operation complexity and type affect Chinese individuals' performance of simulated spaceflight operations under conditions of sleep deprivation and confinement (SDC). There were 20 male volunteers who were randomly divided into 2 groups: the SDC group (N = 8) and the control group (N = 12). During the 72-h experimental period, the volunteers were asked to perform 11 computerized spaceflight emergency procedures, varying in operation complexity and type, three times at the 9(th), 33(rd), and 57(th) hours, respectively. Operation times and errors of each spaceflight emergency procedure were recorded. Three complexity levels (i.e., low complexity, high complexity, and combined complexity) and three operation types (i.e., two-way judgment, manual operation, and mixed operation) were identified according to an operation complexity measure and an engineering definition. Mixed model ANOVAs indicated that performance of the three complex operations and three operation types were negatively affected by SDC. Moreover, the results showed that the operation time of the manual operation (10.67 ± 1.706 at the 9th hour, 13.94 ± 4.261 at the 33rd hour) and mixed operation (4.88 ± 0.247 at the 9th hour, 5.15 ± 1.308 at the 57th [corrected] hour) increased significantly with the increase of waking time. It was also shown that the high complexity operation and manual operation got less variation in operation time compared with low complexity and two-way judgment, respectively. The result indicated that the task assignment with high complexity requiring cognition could be a useful way to counteract the effect of SDC. It was also implied that psychomotor abilities were more easily affected by SDC than perception and judgment.

  6. Childbirth fear, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep deprivation in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wendy A; Hauck, Yvonne L; Carty, Elaine M; Hutton, Eileen K; Fenwick, Jennifer; Stoll, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    To explore women's levels of childbirth fear, sleep deprivation, anxiety, and fatigue and their relationships during the third trimester of pregnancy. A cross-sectional descriptive survey of a community sample. Six hundred and fifty English-speaking nulliparous and multiparous women, 17 to 46 years of age and between 35 and 39 weeks gestation, with uncomplicated pregnancies. Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Mindell's Sleep Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Questionnaire. Twenty-five percent of women reported high levels of childbirth fear and 20.6% reported sleeping less than 6 hours per night. Childbirth fear, fatigue, sleep deprivation, and anxiety were positively correlated. Fewer women attending midwives reported severe fear of childbirth than those attending obstetricians. Women with high childbirth fear were more likely to have more daily stressors, anxiety, and fatigue, as well as less help. Higher levels of anxiety predicted higher levels of childbirth fear among women. One fourth of women reported high childbirth fear. Women's fear of childbirth was related to fatigue, available help, stressors, and anxiety. Fear of childbirth appears to be part of a complex picture of women's emotional experiences during pregnancy.

  7. Brain Networks are Independently Modulated by Donepezil, Sleep, and Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsich, Jonathan; Rey, Marc; Guye, Maxime; Bénar, Christian; Lanteaume, Laura; Ridley, Ben; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cassé-Perrot, Catherine; Soulier, Elisabeth; Viout, Patrick; Rouby, Franck; Lefebvre, Marie-Noëlle; Audebert, Christine; Truillet, Romain; Jouve, Elisabeth; Payoux, Pierre; Bartrés-Faz, David; Bordet, Régis; Richardson, Jill C; Babiloni, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Micallef, Joelle; Blin, Olivier; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe

    2017-11-23

    Resting-state connectivity has been widely studied in the healthy and pathological brain. Less well-characterized are the brain networks altered during pharmacological interventions and their possible interaction with vigilance. In the hopes of finding new biomarkers which can be used to identify cortical activity and cognitive processes linked to the effects of drugs to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, the analysis of networks altered by medication would be particularly interesting. Eleven healthy subjects were recruited in the context of the European Innovative Medicines Initiative 'PharmaCog'. Each underwent five sessions of simultaneous EEG-fMRI in order to investigate the effects of donepezil and memantine before and after sleep deprivation (SD). The SD approach has been previously proposed as a model for cognitive impairment in healthy subjects. By applying network based statistics (NBS), we observed altered brain networks significantly linked to donepezil intake and sleep deprivation. Taking into account the sleep stages extracted from the EEG data we revealed that a network linked to sleep is interacting with sleep deprivation but not with medication intake. We successfully extracted the functional resting-state networks modified by donepezil intake, sleep and SD. We observed donepezil induced whole brain connectivity alterations forming a network separated from the changes induced by sleep and SD, a result which shows the utility of this approach to check for the validity of pharmacological resting-state analysis of the tested medications without the need of taking into account the subject specific vigilance.

  8. Sleep deprivation during a specific 3-hour time window post-training impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Wimmer, Mathieu; Choi, Jennifer; Havekes, Robbert; Aton, Sara; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts hippocampal function and plasticity. In particular, long-term memory consolidation is impaired by sleep deprivation, suggesting that a specific critical period exists following learning during which sleep is necessary. To elucidate the impact of sleep deprivation on

  9. Placebo sleep affects cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-05-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether perceived sleep quality affects cognitive functioning, 164 participants reported their previous night's sleep quality. They were then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 sleep quality conditions or 2 control conditions. Those in the "above average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had spent 28.7% of their total sleep time in REM, whereas those in the "below average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had only spent 16.2% of their time in REM sleep. Assigned sleep quality but not self-reported sleep quality significantly predicted participants' scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Task. Assigned sleep quality did not predict participants' scores on the Digit Span task, as expected, nor did it predict scores on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, which was unexpected. The control conditions showed that the findings were not due to demand characteristics from the experimental protocol. These findings supported the hypothesis that mindset can influence cognitive states in both positive and negative directions, suggesting a means of controlling one's health and cognition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Effect of caffeine and taurine on simulated laparoscopy performed following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R; Mishra, A; Crochet, P; Sirimanna, P; Darzi, A

    2011-11-01

    Sleep deprivation affects surgical performance and has the potential to endanger patient safety. Pharmacological stimulants may counter this consequence of long working hours. This study aimed to investigate whether commonly available stimulants can counter the effects of fatigue on technical and neurocognitive skill. This was a single-blind crossover study of surgical novices trained to proficiency on the Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality laparoscopic simulator. Participants were acutely sleep-deprived three times each, followed by administration of either placebo, 150 mg caffeine, or 150 mg caffeine combined with 2 g taurine before simulated laparoscopy. Outcome measures were: laparoscopic psychomotor skill, cognitive performance and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (range 1-7). Rested baselines were gathered following completion of test sessions. Baseline performance was recorded for 18 participants in the rested state. Sleep-deprived participants receiving the placebo took longer (median 41 versus 35 s; P = 0·016), were less economical with movement (3·25 versus 2·95 m; P = 0·016) and made more errors (66 versus 59; P = 0·021) on the laparoscopic task compared with the rested state. Caffeine restored psychomotor skills to baseline for time taken (37 versus 35 s; P = 0·101), although the number of errors remained significantly greater than in the rested state (63 versus 59; P = 0·046). Sleep-deprived subjects receiving placebo had slower reaction times (377 versus 299 ms; P = 0·008) and a higher score on the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (6 versus 2 points; P = 0·001) than rested surgeons. Negative effects of sleep deprivation on reaction time were reversed when caffeine (307 ms versus 299 ms in rested state; P = 0·214) or caffeine plus taurine (326 versus 299 ms; P = 0·110) was administered. Subjective sleepiness was also improved, but not to baseline levels. Sleep deprivation affects laparoscopic psychomotor skills, reaction time and

  11. Sex differences in cognitive estimation during sleep deprivation: effects of stimulant countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Muckle, Alison E; Grugle, Nancy L; Killgore, Desiree B; Balkin, Thomas J

    2008-11-01

    Stimulant medications restore simple alertness during sleep loss, but it is not clear how they affect complex executive functions, particularly in light of sex differences in cerebral organization. The effectiveness of caffeine, modafinil, dextroamphetamine, or placebo for sustaining performance on the Biber Cognitive Estimation Test (BCET) was compared in 29 men and 25 women following 46 hr of sleep deprivation. Stimulants had differential effects on BCET performance as a function of the sex of the subjects. Women receiving placebo or caffeine scored significantly worse than males, while modafinil and dextroamphetamine were effective at sustaining BCET performance of men and women.

  12. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other normal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. Roth and colleagues (1993) have shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low ( or = 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep (Roth et al., 1993), as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended (Roehrs et al., 1996). We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have low MSLT scores (e.g., Sleepy subjects) will show an exaggerated response (performance decrement) to sleep loss

  13. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Spatial Learning and Memory in Juvenile and Young Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christopher P; Wooden, Jessica I; Kieltyka, Ryan

    2017-03-01

    Sleepiness is commonly seen in adolescents and can negatively impact school performance. Little research has investigated the impact of sleepiness in juvenile animals on spatial learning. Sprague-Dawley juvenile (60 days) rats were sleep deprived for 24 hours and tested, along with controls, in a water maze task. Sleep deprived juveniles were slower to learn the location of the hidden platform than controls; however, adult performance was not impaired. Sleep deprivation did not impair recall during a probe trial for either age group. Sleep deprivation prior to testing slowed spatial learning in juveniles but not adults.

  14. Sleep deprivation during a specific 3-hour time window post-training impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Wimmer, Mathieu; Choi, Jennifer; Havekes, Robbert; Aton, Sara; Abel, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts hippocampal function and plasticity. In particular, long-term memory consolidation is impaired by sleep deprivation, suggesting that a specific critical period exists following learning during which sleep is necessary. To elucidate the impact of sleep deprivation on long-term memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity, long-term memory was assessed when mice were sleep deprived following training in the hippocampus-dependent object place recognition task. We found...

  15. Phosphorous31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy after total sleep deprivation in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Cynthia M; Lukas, Scott E; Moore, Constance M; Tartarini, Wendy L; Parow, Aimee M; Villafuerte, Rosemond A; Renshaw, Perry F

    2003-08-01

    To investigate chemical changes in the brains of healthy adults after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep, using phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Three consecutive nights (baseline, sleep deprivation, recovery) were spent in the laboratory. Objective sleep measures were assessed on the baseline and recovery nights using polysomnography. Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans took place beginning at 7 am to 8 am on the morning after each of the 3 nights. Sleep laboratory in a private psychiatric teaching hospital. Eleven healthy young men. Following a baseline night of sleep, subjects underwent a night of total sleep deprivation, which involved supervision to ensure the absence of sleep but was not polysomnographically monitored. No significant changes in any measure of brain chemistry were observed the morning after a night of total sleep deprivation. However, after the recovery night, significant increases in total and beta-nucleoside triphosphate and decreases in phospholipid catabolism, measured by an increase in the concentration of glycerylphosphorylcholine, were observed. Chemical changes paralleled some changes in objective sleep measures. Significant chemical changes in the brain were observed following recovery sleep after 1 night of total sleep deprivation. The specific process underlying these changes is unclear due to the large brain region sampled in this exploratory study, but changes may reflect sleep inertia or some aspect of the homeostatic sleep mechanism that underlies the depletion and restoration of sleep. Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a technique that may be of value in further exploration of such sleep-wake functions.

  16. Performance and alertness effects of caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesensten, Nancy J; Killgore, William D S; Balkin, Thomas J

    2005-09-01

    Stimulants may provide short-term performance and alertness enhancement during sleep loss. Caffeine 600 mg, d-amphetamine 20 mg, and modafinil 400 mg were compared during 85 h of total sleep deprivation to determine the extent to which the three agents restored performance on simple psychomotor tasks, objective alertness and tasks of executive functions. Forty-eight healthy young adults remained awake for 85 h. Performance and alertness tests were administered bi-hourly from 8:00 hours day 2 to 19:00 hours day 5. At 23:50 hours on day 4 (after 64 h awake), subjects ingested placebo, caffeine 600 mg, dextroamphetamine 20 mg, or modafinil 400 mg (n=12 per group). Performance and alertness testing continued, and probe tasks of executive function were administered intermittently until the recovery sleep period (20:00 hours day 5 to 8:00 hours day 5). Bi-hourly postrecovery sleep testing occurred from 10:00 hours to 16:00 hours day 6. All three agents improved psychomotor vigilance speed and objectively measured alertness relative to placebo. Drugs did not affect recovery sleep, and postrecovery sleep performance for all drug groups was at presleep deprivation levels. Effects on executive function tasks were mixed, with improvement on some tasks with caffeine and modafinil, and apparent decrements with dextroamphetamine on others. At the doses tested, caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil are equally effective for approximately 2-4 h in restoring simple psychomotor performance and objective alertness. The duration of these benefits vary in accordance with the different elimination rates of the drugs. Whether caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil differentially restore executive functions during sleep deprivation remains unclear.

  17. Notch signaling modulates sleep homeostasis and learning after sleep deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Merlin, Gabriel; Gottschalk, Laura; Duntley, Stephen P; Shaw, Paul J

    2011-05-24

    The role of the transmembrane receptor Notch in the adult brain is poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that bunched, a negative regulator of Notch, is involved in sleep homeostasis. Genetic evidence indicates that interfering with bunched activity in the mushroom bodies (MBs) abolishes sleep homeostasis. Combining bunched and Delta loss-of-function mutations rescues normal homeostasis, suggesting that Notch signaling may be involved in regulating sensitivity to sleep loss. Preventing the downregulation of Delta by overexpressing a wild-type transgene in MBs reduces sleep homeostasis and, importantly, prevents learning impairments induced by sleep deprivation. Similar resistance to sleep loss is observed with Notch(spl-1) gain-of-function mutants. Immunohistochemistry reveals that the Notch receptor is expressed in glia, whereas Delta is localized in neurons. Importantly, the expression in glia of the intracellular domain of Notch, a dominant activated form of the receptor, is sufficient to prevent learning deficits after sleep deprivation. Together, these results identify a novel neuron-glia signaling pathway dependent on Notch and regulated by bunched. These data highlight the emerging role of neuron-glia interactions in regulating both sleep and learning impairments associated with sleep loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep Deprivation During Early-Adult Development Results in Long-Lasting Learning Deficits in Adult Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Donlea, Jeff M.; Gottschalk, Laura; Shaw, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Multiple lines of evidence indicate that sleep is important for the developing brain, although little is known about which cellular and molecular pathways are affected. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the early adult life of Drosophila, which is associated with high amounts of sleep and critical periods of brain plasticity, could be used as a model to identify developmental processes that require sleep. Subjects: Wild type Canton-S Drosophila melanogaster. Design; Intervention: Flies were sleep deprived on their first full day of adult life and allowed to recover undisturbed for at least 3 days. The animals were then tested for short-term memory and response-inhibition using aversive phototaxis suppression (APS). Components of dopamine signaling were further evaluated using mRNA profiling, immunohistochemistry, and pharmacological treatments. Measurements and Results: Flies exposed to acute sleep deprivation on their first day of life showed impairments in short-term memory and response inhibition that persisted for at least 6 days. These impairments in adult performance were reversed by dopamine agonists, suggesting that the deficits were a consequence of reduced dopamine signaling. However, sleep deprivation did not impact dopaminergic neurons as measured by their number or by the levels of dopamine, pale (tyrosine hydroxylase), dopadecarboxylase, and the Dopamine transporter. However, dopamine pathways were impacted as measured by increased transcript levels of the dopamine receptors D2R and dDA1. Importantly, blocking signaling through the dDA1 receptor in animals that were sleep deprived during their critical developmental window prevented subsequent adult learning impairments. Conclusions: These data indicate that sleep plays an important and phylogenetically conserved role in the developing brain. Citation: Seugnet L; Suzuki Y; Donlea JM; Gottschalk L; Shaw PJ. Sleep deprivation during early-adult development results in

  19. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  20. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [ 11 C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([ 11 C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [ 11 C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  1. Evidence that sleep deprivation downregulates dopamine D2R in ventral striatum in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Logan, Jean; Benveniste, Helene; Kim, Ron; Thanos, Panayotis K; Ferré, Sergi

    2012-05-09

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [(11)C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([(11)C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [(11)C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  2. Sleep deprivation in resident physicians, work hour limitations, and related outcomes: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansukhani, Meghna P; Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Surani, Salim; Varon, Joseph; Ramar, Kannan

    2012-07-01

    Extended work hours, interrupted sleep, and shift work are integral parts of medical training among all specialties. The need for 24-hour patient care coverage and economic factors have resulted in prolonged work hours for resident physicians. This has traditionally been thought to enhance medical educational experience. These long and erratic work hours lead to acute and chronic sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality, resulting in numerous adverse consequences. Impairments may occur in several domains, including attention, cognition, motor skills, and mood. Resident performance, professionalism, safety, and well-being are affected by sleep deprivation, causing potentially adverse implications for patient care. Studies have shown adverse health consequences, motor vehicle accidents, increased alcohol and medication use, and serious medical errors to occur in association with both sleep deprivation and shift work. Resident work hour limitations have been mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in response to patient safety concerns. Studies evaluating the impact of these regulations on resident physicians have generated conflicting reports on patient outcomes, demonstrating only a modest increase in sleep duration for resident physicians, along with negative perceptions regarding their education. This literature review summarizes research on the effects of sleep deprivation and shift work, and examines current literature on the impact of recent work hour limitations on resident physicians and patient-related outcomes.

  3. Effects of sleep and sleep deprivation on interleukin-6, growth hormone, cortisol, and melatonin levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, L; Hauger, R L; Gillin, J C; Irwin, M

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nocturnal sleep, partial night sleep deprivation, and sleep stages on circulating concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in relation to the secretory profiles of GH, cortisol, and melatonin. In 31 healthy male volunteers, blood samples were obtained every 30 min during 2 nights: uninterrupted, baseline sleep and partial sleep deprivation-early night (awake until 0300 h). Sleep was measured by electroencephalogram polysomnography. Sleep onset was associated with an increase in serum levels of IL-6 (P cortisol and melatonin showed no concordance with sleep. Loss of sleep may serve to decrease nocturnal IL-6 levels, with effects on the integrity of immune system functioning. Alternatively, given the association between sleep stages and IL-6 levels, depressed or aged populations who show increased amounts of REM sleep and a relative loss of slow wave sleep may have elevated nocturnal concentrations of IL-6 with implications for inflammatory disease risk.

  4. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on state anxiety levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Bezerra, Andreia Gomes; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2016-08-01

    Increased anxiety levels have been widely recognized as one of the most important consequences of sleep deprivation. However, despite this general consensus, there are still aspects of this relationship, such as the extent of the anxiogenic potential and the specific effects of different types of sleep deprivation, which remain unclear. As no broad review has been undertaken to evaluate this relationship, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the effects of sleep deprivation on state anxiety. Our search strategy encompassed two databases - Pubmed/Medline and Scopus - through which we were able to identify 756 articles. After the selection process, 18 articles, encompassing 34 experiments, composed our final sample. Our analyses indicate that sleep deprivation, whether total or not, leads to a significant increase in state anxiety levels, but sleep restriction does not. Regarding the effect of the length of the period of sleep deprivation, no significant results were observed, but there was a notable tendency for an increase in anxiety in longer sleep deprivations. With regard to tools, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) seems to be the best one to measure sleep-induced anxiogenesis, while the Profile of Mood States (POMS) presented inconclusive results. In conclusion, it can be affirmed that sleep deprivation induces a state of increased anxiety, with similar results also in the case of total sleep deprivation; however, results in more specific experimental conditions are not definitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R; Olmstead, Richard; Carroll, Judith E

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammatory disease risk and all-cause mortality. Here, we assess global evidence linking sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation in adult humans. A systematic search of English language publications was performed, with inclusion of primary research articles that characterized sleep disturbance and/or sleep duration or performed experimental sleep deprivation and assessed inflammation by levels of circulating markers. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted and pooled using a random effect model. A total of 72 studies (n > 50,000) were analyzed with assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Sleep disturbance was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .12; 95% CI = .05-.19) and IL-6 (ES .20; 95% CI = .08-.31). Shorter sleep duration, but not the extreme of short sleep, was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .09; 95% CI = .01-.17) but not IL-6 (ES .03; 95% CI: -.09 to .14). The extreme of long sleep duration was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .17; 95% CI = .01-.34) and IL-6 (ES .11; 95% CI = .02-20). Neither sleep disturbances nor sleep duration was associated with TNFα. Neither experimental sleep deprivation nor sleep restriction was associated with CRP, IL-6, or TNFα. Some heterogeneity among studies was found, but there was no evidence of publication bias. Sleep disturbance and long sleep duration, but not short sleep duration, are associated with increases in markers of systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance in sleep-deprived military pilot students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohi, Jouni J; Huttunen, Kerttu H; Lahtinen, Taija M M; Kilpeläinen, Airi A; Muhli, Arto A; Leino, Tuomo K

    2007-09-01

    Caffeine has been suggested to act as a countermeasure against fatigue in military operations. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance was examined in 13 military pilots during 37 hours of sleep deprivation. Each subject performed a flight mission in simulator four times. The subjects received either a placebo (six subjects) or 200 mg of caffeine (seven subjects) 1 hour before the simulated flights. A moderate 200 mg intake of caffeine was associated with higher axillary temperatures, but it did not affect subjectively assessed sleepiness. Flight performance was similar in both groups during the four rounds flown under sleep deprivation. However, subjective evaluation of overall flight performance in the caffeine group tended to be too optimistic, indicating a potential flight safety problem. Based on our results, we do not recommend using caffeine pills in military flight operations.

  7. Short-term sleep deprivation leads to decreased systemic redox metabolites and altered epigenetic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Malav S; Holger, Dana; Bui, Anh Tuyet; Craddock, Travis J A; Tartar, Jaime L

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is critical for repair as well as the rejuvenation processes in the body and many of these functions are regulated via underlying cellular metabolic homeostasis. Changes in sleep pattern are reported to alter such metabolic function resulting in altered disease susceptibility or behavior. Here, we measured the extent to which overnight total sleep deprivation (SD) in young adult humans can influence systemic (plasma-derived) redox-metabolism including the major antioxidant, glutathione as well as DNA methylation levels. Nineteen participants (n = 19, μ age = 21, SD = 3.09) underwent morning testing before and after overnight total SD. Biochemical measures before and after SD revealed that glutathione, ATP, cysteine, and homocysteine levels were significantly reduced following one night of sleep deprivation (all p's sleep deprivation (maintaining wakefulness) uses up metabolic reserves, we observed that morning cortisol levels were blunted after sleep deprivation. There were no significant correlations between self-reported or actigraphy-measured sleep and the biochemical measurements, strongly indicating that prior sleep behavior did not have any direct influence on the biochemical measures taken at baseline or after sleep deprivation. Results from the current investigation supports the previous literature implicating the induction of oxidative stress and ATP depletion with sleep deprivation. Furthermore, such altered antioxidant status can also induce downstream epigenetic changes. Although we did not measure the specific genes that were altered under the influence of such sleep deprivation, such epigenetic changes could potentially contribute towards disease predisposition.

  8. Effects of acute sleep deprivation and caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joss Moore

    Full Text Available Purpose: Athletes involved in team sports may be subject to varying degrees of sleep deprivation either before or after training and competition. Despite the belief among athletes and coaches of the importance of adequate sleep for ensuing performance, the effect of sleep loss on team-sport anaerobic performance remains unclear. There is conflicting evidence in the scientific literature as to the impact of acute sleep deprivation and caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance indices. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 24 hours of acute sleep deprivation on anaerobic performance and the effect of caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance in the sleep deprived state. Methods: 11 club level games players (n=11, 25±4 yr, 178±7.5 cm, 80.2±10.4 kg, 15.1±5.6% body fat participated in a repeated measures double-blinded placebo control trial. Following familiarisation, each participant returned for testing on three separate occasions. One of the testing sessions took place following a night of normal sleep and the other two sessions took place following 24 hours of sleep deprivation with supplementation of either placebo or 6 mg.kg- 1 of caffeine. During each testing session participants performed the vertical jump height, 20-m straight sprint, Illinois speed agility test and 5-m shuttle run. Results: No significant differences were detected comparing non sleep deprived and sleep deprived interventions in any of the assessed outcome measures. There were also no significant differences observed in any of the outcome measures when comparing caffeine and placebo data in the sleep deprived state. Conclusion: In this cohort of athletes, a 24-h period of acute sleep deprivation did not have any significant impact on anaerobic performance. Caffeine also did not have any effect of on anaerobic performance in the sleep-deprived state.

  9. REM sleep deprivation during 5 hours leads to an immediate REM sleep rebound and to suppression of non-REM sleep intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, D.G.M.; Dijk, D.J.; Blok, Guus; Everhardus, I.

    Nine healthy male subjects were deprived of REM sleep during the first 5 h after sleep onset. Afterwards recovery sleep was undisturbed. During the deprivation period the non-REM EEG power spectrum was reduced when compared to baseline for the frequencies up to 7 Hz, despite the fact that non-REM

  10. THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON SERUM IGG RESPONSES TO AEROBIC ACTIVITY IN COLLEGE STUDENT ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Jamshidi Far Saeed; Hossein Norouzi Kamareh Mirza

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims: Sleep is a restorative process for the immune system. There are many situations in which sleep is disturbed prior to an athletic event. However, the effect of sleep deprivation on immune indices in response to exercise remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum IgG responses to aerobic activity. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 10 male physical education students were voluntarily participated. St...

  11. Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Motor and Reversal Learning in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andrew W.; Kang, Mihwa; Ramesh, Priyanka V.; Klann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative memories, and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of memories. In human subjects, natural sleep either during a nap or overnight leads to long-lasting improvements in visuomotor and fine motor tasks, but rodent models recapitulating these findings have been scarce. Here we present evidence that 5 hours of acute sleep deprivation impairs mouse skilled reach learning compared to a matched period of ad libitum s...

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea is a predictor of abnormal glucose metabolism in chronically sleep deprived obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizza, Giovanni; Piaggi, Paolo; Lucassen, Eliane A; de Jonge, Lilian; Walter, Mary; Mattingly, Megan S; Kalish, Heather; Csako, Gyorgy; Rother, Kristina I

    2013-01-01

    Sleep abnormalities, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), have been associated with insulin resistance. To determine the relationship between sleep, including OSA, and glucose parameters in a prospectively assembled cohort of chronically sleep-deprived obese subjects. Cross-sectional evaluation of a prospective cohort study. Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. Sleep duration and quality assessed by actigraphy, sleep diaries and questionnaires, OSA determined by a portable device; glucose metabolism assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT), and HbA1c concentrations in 96 obese individuals reporting sleeping less than 6.5 h on a regular basis. Sixty % of subjects had an abnormal respiratory disturbance index (RDI≥5) and 44% of these subjects had abnormal oGTT results. Severity of OSA as assessed by RDI score was associated with fasting glucose (R = 0.325, p = 0.001) and fasting insulin levels (ρ = 0.217, p = 0.033). Subjects with moderate to severe OSA (RDI>15) had higher glucose concentrations at 120 min than those without OSA (RDIsleep deprived individuals. Since sleep apnea is common and frequently undiagnosed, health care providers should be aware of its occurrence and associated risks. This study was conducted under the NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036 and is listed in ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898.

  13. Modafinil reduces microsleep during partial sleep deprivation in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J; Hemmeter, U; Brand, S; Muheim, F; Hatzinger, M; Holsboer-Trachsler, E

    2010-10-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) can induce a prompt decrease in depressive symptoms within 24h. Following the recovery night, however, a relapse into depression occurs in most patients. Recovery sleep, naps and even very short episodes of sleep (microsleep; MS) during SD have been shown to provoke a rapid relapse into depression. This study tested the hypothesis that modafinil reduces MS during SD and stabilizes the treatment response to PSD compared to placebo. A total of 28 patients (13 men, 15 women; age 45.1+/-12.1 years) with a major depressive episode and a cumulative daytime microsleep of five or more minutes were investigated using a double-blind placebo-controlled study design. All patients were treated with a stable mirtazapine monotherapy. A partial SD (PSD) was performed after one week. Additional morning treatment with modafinil vs. placebo started during PSD and was maintained over two weeks. Sleep-EEG and MS episodes were recorded with a portable EEG. Depression severity was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale before, during and after PSD and at follow-ups after one and two weeks. Patients treated with modafinil showed significantly reduced microsleep during PSD (11.63+/-15.99 min) compared to the placebo group (47.77+/-65.31 min). This suppression of MS was not associated with the antidepressive effect of PSD. Compared to placebo, modafinil was efficient in reducing daytime microsleep following partial sleep deprivation but did not enhance the antidepressive effects of PSD and did not stabilize antidepressive effects over two weeks.

  14. Does sleep deprivation impair orthopaedic surgeons' cognitive and psychomotor performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; O'Toole, Robert V; Newell, Mary Zadnik; Lydecker, Alison D; Nascone, Jason; Sciadini, Marcus; Pollak, Andrew; Turen, Clifford; Eglseder, W Andrew

    2012-11-07

    Sleep deprivation may slow reaction time, cloud judgment, and impair the ability to think. Our purpose was to study the cognitive and psychomotor performances of orthopaedic trauma surgeons on the basis of the amount of sleep that they obtained. We prospectively studied the performances of thirty-two orthopaedic trauma surgeons (residents, fellows, and attending surgeons) over two four-week periods at an urban academic trauma center. Testing sessions used handheld computers to administer validated cognitive and psychomotor function tests. We conducted a multivariate analysis to examine the independent association between test performance and multiple covariates, including the amount of sleep the night before testing. Our analysis demonstrated that orthopaedic surgeons who had slept four hours or less the night before the test had 1.43 times the odds (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.95; p = 0.03) of committing at least one error on an individual test compared with orthopaedic surgeons who had slept more than four hours the previous night. The Running Memory test, which assesses sustained attention, concentration, and working memory, was most sensitive to deterioration in performance in participants who had had four hours of sleep or less; when controlling for other covariates, the test demonstrated a 72% increase in the odds of making at least one error (odds ratio, 1.72 [95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.90]; p = 0.04). No significant decrease in performance with sleep deprivation was shown with the other three tests. Orthopaedic trauma surgeons showed deterioration in performance on a validated cognitive task when they had slept four hours or less the previous night. It is unknown how performance on this test relates to surgical performance.

  15. Modafinil restores memory performance and neural activity impaired by sleep deprivation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, Christophe; Liscia, Pierrette; Philippin, Jean-Nicolas; Mons, Nicole; Lafon, Thierry; Chauveau, Frédéric; Van Beers, Pascal; Drouet, Isabelle; Serra, André; Jouanin, Jean-Claude; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    The original aims of our study have been to investigate in sleep-deprived mice, the effects of modafinil administration on spatial working memory, in parallel with the evaluation of neural activity level, as compared to non-sleep-deprived animals. For this purpose, an original sleep deprivation apparatus was developed and validated with continuous electroencephalography recording. Memory performance was evaluated using spontaneous alternation in a T-maze, whereas the neural activity level was estimated by the quantification of the c-Fos protein in various cerebral zones. This study allowed altogether: First, to evidence that a diurnal 10-h sleep deprivation period induced an impairment of spatial working memory. Second, to observe a decrease in c-Fos expression after sleep deprivation followed by a behavioural test, as compared to non-sleep-deprived mice. This impairment in neural activity was evidenced in areas involved in wake-sleep cycle regulation (anterior hypothalamus and supraoptic nucleus), but also in memory (frontal cortex and hippocampus) and emotions (amygdala). Finally, to demonstrate that modafinil 64 mg/kg is able to restore on the one hand memory performance after a 10-h sleep deprivation period, and on the other hand, the neural activity level in the very same brain areas where it was previously impaired by sleep deprivation and cognitive task.

  16. Cognitive Performance, Sleepiness, and Mood in Partially Sleep Deprived Adolescents: The Need for Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C.; Ong, Ju Lynn; Leong, Ruth L.F.; Gooley, Joshua J.; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of sleep restriction (7 nights of 5 h time in bed [TIB]) on cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood in adolescents. Methods: A parallel-group design was adopted in the Need for Sleep Study. Fifty-six healthy adolescents (25 males, age = 15–19 y) who studied in top high schools and were not habitual short sleepers were randomly assigned to Sleep Restriction (SR) or Control groups. Participants underwent a 2-w protocol consisting of 3 baseline nights (TIB = 9 h), 7 nights of sleep opportunity manipulation (TIB = 5 h for the SR and 9 h for the control groups), and 3 nights of recovery sleep (TIB = 9 h) at a boarding school. A cognitive test battery was administered three times each day. Results: During the manipulation period, the SR group demonstrated incremental deterioration in sustained attention, working memory and executive function, increase in subjective sleepiness, and decrease in positive mood. Subjective sleepiness and sustained attention did not return to baseline levels even after 2 recovery nights. In contrast, the control group maintained baseline levels of cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood throughout the study. Incremental improvement in speed of processing, as a result of repeated testing and learning, was observed in the control group but was attenuated in the sleep-restricted participants, who, despite two recovery sleep episodes, continued to perform worse than the control participants. Conclusions: A week of partial sleep deprivation impairs a wide range of cognitive functions, subjective alertness, and mood even in high-performing high school adolescents. Some measures do not recover fully even after 2 nights of recovery sleep. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 497. Citation: Lo JC, Ong JL, Leong RL, Gooley JJ, Chee MW. Cognitive performance, sleepiness, and mood in partially sleep deprived adolescents: the need for sleep study

  17. The effects of caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil on humor appreciation during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; McBride, Sharon A; Killgore, Desiree B; Balkin, Thomas J

    2006-06-01

    Sleep loss consistently impairs performance on measures of alertness, vigilance, and response speed, but its effects on higher-order executive functions are not well delineated. Similarly, whereas deficits in arousal and vigilance can be temporarily countered by the use of several different stimulant medications, it is not clear how these compounds affect complex cognitive processes in sleep-deprived individuals. We evaluated the effects of double-blind administration of 3 stimulant medications or placebo on the ability to appreciate humor in visual (cartoons) or verbal (headlines) stimuli presented on a computer screen following 49.5 hours of sleep deprivation. In-residence sleep-laboratory facility at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Fifty-four healthy adults (29 men, 24 women), ranging in age from 18 to 36 years. Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stimulant medication groups, including caffeine, 600 mg, n = 12; modafinil, 400 mg, n = 11; dextroamphetamine, 20 mg, n = 16; or placebo, n = 14. Humor appreciation for cartoon stimuli was enhanced by modafinil relative to both placebo and caffeine, but there was no effect of any stimulant medication on the appreciation of verbal humor during sleep loss. In contrast, all 3 stimulants improved psychomotor response speed, whereas only caffeine and dextroamphetamine improved ratings of subjective sleepiness. Findings suggest that, despite similar alerting and vigilance-promoting effects, these 3 compounds have significantly different effects on those highly complex cognitive abilities mediated by the pre-frontal cortex.

  18. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on the Cognitive Performance of Nurses Working in Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyaperumal, Deepalakshmi; Elango, Yaal; Alagesan, Murali; Santhanakrishanan, Iswarya

    2017-08-01

    Sleep deprivation and altered circadian rhythm affects the cognitive performance of an individual. Quality of sleep is compromised in those who are frequently involved in extended working hours and shift work which is found to be more common among nurses. Cognitive impairment leads to fatigability, decline in attention and efficiency in their workplace which puts their health and patients' health at risk. To find out the prevalence of sleep deprivation and its impact on cognition among shift working nurses. Sleep deprivation among 97 female and three male healthy nurses of age 20-50 years was assessed by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Cognition was assessed by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) questionnaire. Mobile applications were used to test their vigilance, reaction time, photographic memory and numerical cognition. The above said parameters were assessed during end of day shift and 3-4 days after start of night shift. Poor sleep quality was observed among 69% of shift working nurses according to ESS scores. The cognitive performance was analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The MoCA score was found to be lesser among 66% of nurses during night (25.72) than day (26.81). During the night, 32% made more mathematical errors. It was also found that, 71%, 83% and 68% of the nurses scored lesser during night in the Stroop's colour test, vigilance test and memory tests respectively. Thus, impairment in cognitive performance was statistically significant (pCognitive performance was found to be impaired among shift working nurses, due to poor sleep quality and decreased alertness during wake state. Thus, shift work poses significant cognitive risks in work performance of nurses.

  19. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A Lucassen

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals.To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility.Prospective cohort study.Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center.A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (<6.5 h/night obese (BMI 30-55 kg/m(2 men and pre-menopausal women.Sleep extension (468±88 days with life-style modifications.Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration.At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39. Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02, and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001. Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74, subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (p<0.001, self-reported sleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (p<0.001 and by 4% by diaries (p = 0.04, and daytime sleepiness tended to improve (p = 0.10. Global cognitive function and attention improved by 7% and 10%, respectively (both p = 0.001, and memory and executive functions tended to improve (p = 0.07 and p = 0.06. Serum cortisol increased by 17% (p = 0.02. In a multivariate mixed model, subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function.Drop-out rate.Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population.www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898

  20. Dual conception of risk in the Iowa Gambling Task: effects of sleep deprivation and test-retest gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    intertemporal decision making at retest suggesting that intertemporal decision making benefited from repeated task exposure. The present findings add to understanding of the emotion-cognition dichotomy. Further, they show an important time-dependent effect of a universally experienced constraint (sleep deprivation) on decision making. It is concluded that risky decision making in the IGT is contingent on the attribute under consideration and is affected by factors such as time elapsed and constraint experienced before the retest.

  1. Effects of sleep deprivation on memory in mice: role of state-dependent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Camilla L; Zanin, Karina A; Sanday, Leandro; Kameda, Sonia R; Fernandes-Santos, Luciano; Fernandes, Helaine A; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    A considerable amount of experimental evidence suggests that sleep plays a critical role in learning/memory processes. In addition to paradoxical sleep, slow wave sleep is also reported to be involved in the consolidation process of memories. Additionally, sleep deprivation can induce other behavioral modifications, such as emotionality and alternations in locomotor activity in rodents. These sleep deprivation-induced alterations in the behavioral state of animals could produce state-dependent learning and contribute, at least in part, to the amnestic effects of sleep deprivation. The aim of the present study was to examine the participation of state-dependent learning during memory impairment induced by either paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) or total sleep deprivation (TSD) in mice submitted to the plus-maze discriminative avoidance or to the passive avoidance task. Paradoxical sleep deprivation (by the multiple platform method) and total sleep deprivation (by the gentle handling method) were applied to animals before training and/or testing. Whereas pre-training or pre-test PSD impaired retrieval in both memory models, pre-training plus pre-test PSD counteracted this impairment. For TSD, pre-training, pre-test, and pre-training plus pre-test TSD impaired retrieval in both models. Our data demonstrate that PSD- (but not TSD-) memory deficits are critically related to state-dependent learning.

  2. Effects of sleep deprivation and other stressors on the immune and inflammatory responses of influenza-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, L A; Rehg, J E

    1998-01-01

    Many stressors have well-documented effects on host immune competence. However, two important stressors that have not been extensively characterized in terms of their immune-modulatory properties are sleep deprivation and alterations in light:dark cycles. We therefore evaluated the effects of these stressors on the immune and inflammatory responses of mice inoculated intranasally with influenza virus. In contrast to a previous report, sleep deprivation did not significantly alter viral clearance or antibody titers of either virus-naive or immunized mice. Exposure to constant light also failed to affect these variables. However, repeated overnight restraint, a well-characterized stressor, reduced the pulmonary inflammatory response elicited by influenza virus, as previously reported. The data indicate that sleep deprivation and altered light cycles do not markedly influence selected host defense responses to influenza infection under the conditions tested.

  3. Effects of SWS deprivation on subsequent EEG power density and spontaneous sleep duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.

    In order to test predictions of the 2-process model of sleep regulation, the effects of slow wave sleep (SWS) deprivation by acoustic stimulation during the first part of the sleep period on EEG power density and sleep duration were investigated in 2 experiments. In the first experiment, 8 subjects

  4. Identification of genes associated with resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation and starvation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimgan, Matthew S; Seugnet, Laurent; Turk, John; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    Flies mutant for the canonical clock protein cycle (cyc(01)) exhibit a sleep rebound that is ∼10 times larger than wild-type flies and die after only 10 h of sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, when starved, cyc(01) mutants can remain awake for 28 h without demonstrating negative outcomes. Thus, we hypothesized that identifying transcripts that are differentially regulated between waking induced by sleep deprivation and waking induced by starvation would identify genes that underlie the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation and/or protect flies from the negative consequences of waking. We used partial complementary DNA microarrays to identify transcripts that are differentially expressed between cyc(01) mutants that had been sleep deprived or starved for 7 h. We then used genetics to determine whether disrupting genes involved in lipid metabolism would exhibit alterations in their response to sleep deprivation. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Sleep deprivation and starvation. We identified 84 genes with transcript levels that were differentially modulated by 7 h of sleep deprivation and starvation in cyc(01) mutants and were confirmed in independent samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Several of these genes were predicted to be lipid metabolism genes, including bubblegum, cueball, and CG4500, which based on our data we have renamed heimdall (hll). Using lipidomics we confirmed that knockdown of hll using RNA interference significantly decreased lipid stores. Importantly, genetically modifying bubblegum, cueball, or hll resulted in sleep rebound alterations following sleep deprivation compared to genetic background controls. We have identified a set of genes that may confer resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation and demonstrate that genes involved in lipid metabolism modulate sleep homeostasis. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Monitoring sleep depth: analysis of bispectral index (BIS) based on polysomnographic recordings and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Sandra; Romero, Sergio; Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miguel Ángel; Pujol, Anna; Baxarias, Pilar; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria

    2017-02-01

    The assessment and management of sleep are increasingly recommended in the clinical practice. Polysomnography (PSG) is considered the gold standard test to monitor sleep objectively, but some practical and technical constraints exist due to environmental and patient considerations. Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring is commonly used in clinical practice for guiding anesthetic administration and provides an index based on relationships between EEG components. Due to similarities in EEG synchronization between anesthesia and sleep, several studies have assessed BIS as a sleep monitor with contradictory results. The aim of this study was to evaluate objectively both the feasibility and reliability of BIS for sleep monitoring through a robust methodology, which included full PSG recordings at a baseline situation and after 40 h of sleep deprivation. Results confirmed that the BIS index was highly correlated with the hypnogram (0.89 ± 0.02), showing a progressive decrease as sleep deepened, and an increase during REM sleep (awake: 91.77 ± 8.42; stage N1: 83.95 ± 11.05; stage N2: 71.71 ± 11.99; stage N3: 42.41 ± 9.14; REM: 80.11 ± 8.73). Mean and median BIS values were lower in the post-deprivation night than in the baseline night, showing statistical differences for the slow wave sleep (baseline: 42.41 ± 9.14 vs. post-deprivation: 39.49 ± 10.27; p = 0.02). BIS scores were able to discriminate properly between deep (N3) and light (N1, N2) sleep. BIS values during REM overlapped those of other sleep stages, although EMG activity provided by the BIS monitor could help to identify REM sleep if needed. In conclusion, BIS monitors could provide a useful measure of sleep depth in especially particular situations such as intensive care units, and they could be used as an alternative for sleep monitoring in order to reduce PSG-derived costs and to increase capacity in ambulatory care.

  6. Free recall of word lists under total sleep deprivation and after recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Valverde Zanini, Gislaine; Tufik, Sérgio; Andersen, Monica Levy; da Silva, Raquel Cristina Martins; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Rodrigues, Camila Cruz; Pompéia, Sabine

    2012-02-01

    One task that has been used to assess memory effects of prior total sleep deprivation (TSD) is the immediate free recall of word lists; however, results have been mixed. A possible explanation for this is task impurity, since recall of words from different serial positions reflects use of distinct types of memory (last words: short-term memory; first and intermediate words: episodic memory). Here we studied the effects of 2 nights of TSD on immediate free recall of semantically unrelated word lists considering the serial position curve. Random allocation to a 2-night TSD protocol followed by one night of recovery sleep or to a control group. Study conducted under continuous behavioral monitoring. 24 young, healthy male volunteers. 2 nights of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and one night of recovery sleep. Participants were shown five 15 unrelated word-lists at baseline, after one and 2 nights of TSD, and after one night of recovery sleep. We also investigated the development of recall strategies (learning) and susceptibility to interference from previous lists. No free recall impairment occurred during TSD, irrespective of serial position. Interference was unchanged. Both groups developed recall strategies, but task learning occurred earlier in controls and was evident in the TSD group only after sleep recovery. Prior TSD spared episodic memory, short-term phonological memory, and interference, allowed the development of recall strategies, but may have decreased the advantage of using these strategies, which returned to normal after recovery sleep.

  7. Olfactory impairment is related to REM sleep deprivation in rotenone model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana F. Aurich

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olfactory dysfunction affects about 85-90% of Parkinson's disease (PD patients with severe deterioration in the ability of discriminate several types of odors. In addition, studies reported declines in olfactory performances during a short period of sleep deprivation. Besides, PD is also known to strongly affect the occurrence and maintenance of rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Methods: Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms involved on discrimination of a social odor (dependent on the vomeronasal system and a non-social odor (related to the main olfactory pathway in the rotenone model of PD. Also, a concomitant impairment in REM sleep was inflicted with the introduction of two periods (24 or 48 h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD. Rotenone promoted a remarkable olfactory impairment in both social and non-social odors, with a notable modulation induced by 24 h of REMSD for the non-social odor. Results: Our findings demonstrated the occurrence of a strong association between the density of nigral TH-ir neurons and the olfactory discrimination capacity for both odorant stimuli. Specifically, the rotenone-induced decrease of these neurons tends to elicit reductions in the olfactory discrimination ability. Conclusions: These results are consistent with the participation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system mainly in the olfactory discrimination of a non-social odor, probably through the main olfactory pathway. Such involvement may have produce relevant impact in the preclinical abnormalities found in PD patients.

  8. Arbutus andrachne L. Reverses Sleep Deprivation-Induced Memory Impairments in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Malkawi, Bayan S; Khabour, Omar F; El-Elimat, Tamam; Alali, Feras Q

    2018-02-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with cognitive deficits. It was found to affect the hippocampus region of the brain by impairing memory formation. This impairment is suggested to be caused by elevation in oxidative stress in the body, including the brain during SD. It was hypothesized that the methanolic extract of the fruits of Arbutus andrachne L. (Ericaceae) will prevent chronic SD-induced impairment of hippocampal memory via its antioxidative properties. The methanolic extract of the fruits of A. andrachne was evaluated for its beneficial properties to reverse SD-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Animals were sleep deprived for 8 weeks using a multiple platform model. The extract was administered i.p. at three doses (50, 200, and 500 mg/kg). Behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM). In addition, the hippocampus was dissected to analyze the following oxidative stress markers: glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. Chronic SD impaired short- and long-term memories (P memory impairment induced by SD while such treatment prevented short-term memory impairment only at 200 and 500 mg/kg dose levels. Moreover, A. andrachne fruit extract normalized the reduction in the hippocampus GSH/GSSG ratio and activity of GPx, and catalase (P sleep deprivation. Chronic sleep deprivation impaired both short- and long-term memory formation, while methanolic extract of A. andrachne fruits reversed this impairment, probably through normalizing oxidative stress in the hippocampus.

  9. Sleep deprivation attenuates experimental stroke severity in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Constantinescu, Alexandra Oana; Balseanu, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Indirect epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that the severity of injury during stroke is influenced by prior sleep history. The aim of our study was to test the effect of acute sleep deprivation on early outcome following experimental stroke. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20...... with a 2.5 fold smaller infarct volume and reduced morphological signs of neuronal injury at day 7 after MCAO. Our data suggest that brief TSD induces a neuroprotective response that limits the severity of a subsequent stroke, similar to rapid ischemic preconditioning....... after stroke was monitored using a battery of behavioral tests investigating the asymmetry of sensorimotor deficit (tape removal test and cylinder test), bilateral sensorimotor coordination (rotor-rod and Inclined plane) and memory (T-maze and radial maze). Following MCAO, control rats had impaired...

  10. Differential effects of total sleep deprivation on contextual and spatial memory: modulatory effects of modafinil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, Christophe; Liscia, Pierrette; Chauveau, Frédéric; Coutan, Mathieu; Corio, Marc; Krazem, Ali; Beracochea, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate in mice the effects of a total 10-hr sleep deprivation on contextual (episodic-like) and spatial (reference) memory tasks. For that purpose, mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a 4-hole board involving either identical (Serial Spatial Discrimination, SSD) or distinct (Contextual Serial Discrimination, CSD) internal contextual cues. In a second step, we intended to assess the corrective effect of modafinil on memory impairments generated by sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was triggered through an alternative platform apparatus (water box), previously validated using EEG recording and spectral analysis. We showed that a 10-hr total sleep deprivation impaired the CSD task but not the SSD one. Moreover, the impairment of contextual memory in sleep-deprived animals was dose-dependently corrected by modafinil. Indeed, modafinil administered after the sleep deprivation period and 30 min before the test session restored a memory retrieval pattern identical to non sleep-deprived animals at the doses of 32 and 64 mg/kg, however not at 16 mg/kg. Results hereby evidence that the vigilance-enhancing drug modafinil is able to restore the contextual memory performance at a low dose as compared to other memory tasks, possibly by an enhancement of hippocampal activity known to be both involved in the processing of contextual information and impaired following our sleep deprivation procedure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep deprivation in bright and dim light : antidepressant effects on major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, W. van den; Bouhuys, A.L.; Hoofdakker, R.H. van den; Beersma, D.G.M.

    Twenty-three patients with a major depressive disorder were deprived of a night’s sleep twice weekly, one week staying up in the dimly lit living room of the ward (< 60 lux), and one week in a brightly lit room (> 2000 lux). Immediate, but transient beneficial effects of sleep deprivation were

  12. The influence of sleep deprivation and oscillating motion on sleepiness, motion sickness, and cognitive and motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Janna; Ventura, Joel; Bakshi, Avijit; Pierobon, Alberto; Lackner, James R; DiZio, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Our goal was to determine how sleep deprivation, nauseogenic motion, and a combination of motion and sleep deprivation affect cognitive vigilance, visual-spatial perception, motor learning and retention, and balance. We exposed four groups of subjects to different combinations of normal 8h sleep or 4h sleep for two nights combined with testing under stationary conditions or during 0.28Hz horizontal linear oscillation. On the two days following controlled sleep, all subjects underwent four test sessions per day that included evaluations of fatigue, motion sickness, vigilance, perceptual discrimination, perceptual learning, motor performance and learning, and balance. Sleep loss and exposure to linear oscillation had additive or multiplicative relationships to sleepiness, motion sickness severity, decreases in vigilance and in perceptual discrimination and learning. Sleep loss also decelerated the rate of adaptation to motion sickness over repeated sessions. Sleep loss degraded the capacity to compensate for novel robotically induced perturbations of reaching movements but did not adversely affect adaptive recovery of accurate reaching. Overall, tasks requiring substantial attention to cognitive and motor demands were degraded more than tasks that were more automatic. Our findings indicate that predicting performance needs to take into account in addition to sleep loss, the attentional demands and novelty of tasks, the motion environment in which individuals will be performing and their prior susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to provocative motion stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined effects of alcohol and sleep deprivation in normal young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeke, S C; Callaway, E; Jones, R T; Stone, G C; Doyle, J

    1980-01-01

    The effect of combining sleep deprivation and moderate alcohol consumption in male college students differed from the effects of each treatment alone. Following either alcohol or sleep deprivation, there was mild performance impairment, decreased alertness and reduced amplitude and increased latency of cortical evoked potential (EP) components. Heart rate increased after alcohol and anxiety increased after sleep deprivation. When alcohol and sleep deprivation were combined, antagonistic effects were found for most measures (reaction time, heart rate, alertness, anxiety, latency of early EP components), but synergistic effects also occurred (performance accuracy, latency of late EP components). These effects were found in a double-blind experiment using 24 subjects. The experimental treatments were alcohol doses of 0, 0.45 and 0.90 ml/kg of 95% ethanol and 0 and 26 h of sleep deprivation.

  14. The tired hippocampus: the molecular impact of sleep deprivation on hippocampal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Abel, Ted

    2017-06-01

    Memory consolidation, the process by which information is stored following training, consists of synaptic consolidation and systems consolidation. It is widely acknowledged that sleep deprivation has a profound effect on synaptic consolidation, particularly for memories that require the hippocampus. It is unclear, however, which of the many molecular changes associated with sleep deprivation directly contribute to memory deficits. In this review, we highlight recent studies showing that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP and mTOR signaling, and ultimately causes spine loss in CA1 neurons in a cofilin-dependent fashion. Reversing these molecular alterations made memory consolidation resistant to the negative impact of sleep deprivation. Together, these studies have started to identify the molecular underpinnings by which sleep deprivation impairs synaptic consolidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery responses after total sleep deprivation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispersyn, Garance; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Ciret, Sylvain; Drogou, Catherine; Leger, Damien; Gallopin, Thierry; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-10-01

    Many studies on sleep deprivation effects lack data regarding the recovery period. We investigated the 2-day homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery response to 24 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) induced by brief rotation of an activity wheel. Eight mice were implanted with telemetry transmitters (DSI F40-EET) that recorded simultaneously their electroencephalography (EEG), locomotor activity and temperature during 24 h of baseline (BSL), TSD and 2 days of recovery (D1 and D2). In a second experiment, two groups of five non-implanted mice underwent TSD or ad libitum sleep, after which they were killed, adrenal glands were weighed and blood was collected for analysis of corticosterone concentration. During TSD mice were awake at least 97% of the time, with a consecutive sleep rebound during D1 that persisted during D2. This was characterized by increases of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (44.2 ± 6.9% for D1 and 43.0 ± 7.7% for D2 versus 33.8 ± 9.2% for BSL) and the relative delta band power (179.2 ± 34.4% for D1 and 81.9 ± 11.2% for D2). Greater NREM and REM sleep amounts were observed during the 'light' periods. Temperature and locomotor activity characteristics were unchanged during D1 and D2 versus BSL. In non-implanted mice, corticosterone levels as well as adrenal gland and overall body weights did not differ between TSD and ad libitum sleep groups. In conclusion, 24 h of TSD in an activity wheel without stress responses influence homeostatic sleep regulation with no effect on the circadian regulation over at least 2 days of recovery in mice. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. UEffect of acute sleep deprivation on concentration and mood states with a controlled effect of experienced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kajtna

    2011-05-01

    Conclusions: As previous studies have shown, mood changes rather than decreased concentration occur after acute sleep deprivation – cognitive abilities seem to be more resistant to sleep deprivation. Further studies with longer sleep deprivation should show how long it takes to disrupt our concentration and higher cognitive abilities.

  17. Circadian rhythm of rectal temperature during sleep deprivation with modafinil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Jean-Claude; Savourey, Gustave; Guinet, Angélique; Lallement, Guy; Besnard, Yves; Bittel, Jacques

    2002-10-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) induces many adverse psychological and physiological effects, particularly on vigilance and the thermoregulatory system. The drug modafinil appears to suppress or diminish the harmful effects on vigilance. However, the effects of modafinil combined with SD on the circadian rhythm of core temperature are not well established. We studied the circadian rhythm of rectal temperature (CRTre) during 62 h of SD alone or with three dosage levels of modafinil. Six men underwent repeated SD experiments lasting 7 d each, including a 24-h control period, 62 h of SD, and a 24-h recovery period. Experiments were repeated four times in mixed order for placebo and three levels of modafinil (50, 150, or 300 mg x 24 h(-1)). The Tre was recorded each minute throughout the experiment and the CRTre was studied by the single cosinor method. Independent of modafinil, SD increased the mesor (p modafinil, but not the higher doses, induced a lower mesor (p modafinil on core temperature. The hyperthermic effect reported in the literature for SD with modafinil may actually result from the sleep deprivation alone.

  18. The wake-promoting hypocretin/orexin neurons change their response to noradrenaline after sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivel, Jeremy; Cvetkovic, Vesna; Bayer, Laurence; Machard, Danièle; Tobler, Irene; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2005-04-20

    Sleep deprivation is accompanied by the progressive development of an irresistible need to sleep, a phenomenon whose mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we identified for the first time a reflection of that phenomenon in vitro by showing that, after a short 2 h period of total sleep deprivation, the action of noradrenaline on the wake-promoting hypocretin/orexin neurons changes from an excitation to an inhibition. We propose that such a conspicuous modification of responsiveness should contribute to the growing sleepiness that accompanies sleep deprivation.

  19. Sleep deprivation increases A1 adenosine receptor density in the rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Elmenhorst, David; Basheer, Radhika; McCarley, Robert W.; Bauer, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine, increasing after sleep deprivation and acting via the A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR), is likely a key factor in the homeostatic control of sleep. This study examines the impact of sleep deprivation on A1AR density in different parts of the rat brain with [3H]CPFPX autoradiography. Binding of [3H]CPFPX was significantly increased in parietal cortex (PAR) (7%), thalamus (11%) and caudate-putamen (9%) after 24 h of sleep deprivation compared to a control group with an undisturbed circad...

  20. Cognitive flexibility: A distinct element of performance impairment due to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honn, K A; Hinson, J M; Whitney, P; Van Dongen, H P A

    2018-03-14

    In around-the-clock operations, reduced alertness due to circadian misalignment and sleep loss causes performance impairment, which can lead to catastrophic errors and accidents. There is mounting evidence that performance on different tasks is differentially affected, but the general principles underlying this differentiation are not well understood. One factor that may be particularly relevant is the degree to which tasks require executive control, that is, control over the initiation, monitoring, and termination of actions in order to achieve goals. A key aspect of this is cognitive flexibility, i.e., the deployment of cognitive control resources to adapt to changes in events. Loss of cognitive flexibility due to sleep deprivation has been attributed to "feedback blunting," meaning that feedback on behavioral outcomes has reduced salience - and that feedback is therefore less effective at driving behavior modification under changing circumstances. The cognitive mechanisms underlying feedback blunting are as yet unknown. Here we present data from an experiment that investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on performance after an unexpected reversal of stimulus-response mappings, requiring cognitive flexibility to maintain good performance. Nineteen healthy young adults completed a 4-day in-laboratory study. Subjects were randomized to either a total sleep deprivation condition (n = 11) or a control condition (n = 8). Athree-phase reversal learning decision task was administered at baseline, and again after 30.5 h of sleep deprivation, or matching well-rested control. The task was based on a go/no go task paradigm, in which stimuli were assigned to either a go (response) set or a no go (no response) set. Each phase of the task included four stimuli (two in the go set and two in the no go set). After each stimulus presentation, subjects could make a response within 750 ms or withhold their response. They were then shown feedback on the accuracy of

  1. Effects on prolactin secretion and binding to dopaminergic receptors in sleep-deprived lupus-prone mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Palma

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances have far-reaching effects on the neuroendocrine and immune systems and may be linked to disease manifestation. Sleep deprivation can accelerate the onset of lupus in NZB/NZWF1 mice, an animal model of severe systemic lupus erythematosus. High prolactin (PRL concentrations are involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus in human beings, as well as in NZB/NZWF1 mice. We hypothesized that PRL could be involved in the earlier onset of the disease in sleep-deprived NZB/NZWF1 mice. We also investigated its binding to dopaminergic receptors, since PRL secretion is mainly controlled by dopamine. Female NZB/NZWF1 mice aged 9 weeks were deprived of sleep using the multiple platform method. Blood samples were taken for the determination of PRL concentrations and quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to map binding of the tritiated dopaminergic receptor ligands [³H]-SCH23390, [³H]-raclopride and [³H]-WIN35,428 to D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and dopamine transporter sites throughout the brain, respectively. Sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in plasma PRL secretion (2.58 ± 0.95 ng/mL compared with the control group (25.25 ± 9.18 ng/mL. The binding to D1 and D2 binding sites was not significantly affected by sleep deprivation; however, dopamine transporter binding was significantly increased in subdivisions of the caudate-putamen - posterior (16.52 ± 0.5 vs 14.44 ± 0.6, dorsolateral (18.84 ± 0.7 vs 15.97 ± 0.7 and ventrolateral (24.99 ± 0.5 vs 22.54 ± 0.7 µCi/g, in the sleep-deprived mice when compared to the control group. These results suggest that PRL is not the main mechanism involved in the earlier onset of the disease observed in sleep-deprived NZB/NZWF1 mice and the reduction of PRL concentrations after sleep deprivation may be mediated by modifications in the dopamine transporter sites of the caudate-putamen.

  2. Sleep deprivation increases A(1) adenosine receptor density in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenhorst, David; Basheer, Radhika; McCarley, Robert W; Bauer, Andreas

    2009-03-03

    Adenosine, increasing after sleep deprivation and acting via the A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR), is likely a key factor in the homeostatic control of sleep. This study examines the impact of sleep deprivation on A(1)AR density in different parts of the rat brain with [(3)H]CPFPX autoradiography. Binding of [(3)H]CPFPX was significantly increased in parietal cortex (PAR) (7%), thalamus (11%) and caudate-putamen (9%) after 24 h of sleep deprivation compared to a control group with an undisturbed circadian sleep-wake rhythm. Sleep deprivation of 12 h changed receptor density regionally between -5% and +9% (motor cortex (M1), statistically significant) compared to the circadian control group. These results suggest cerebral A(1)ARs are involved in effects of sleep deprivation and the regulation of sleep. The increase of A(1)AR density could serve the purpose of not only maintaining the responsiveness to increased adenosine levels but also amplifying the effect of sleep deprivation and is in line with a sleep-induced homoeostatic reorganization at the synaptic level.

  3. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep: A high density EEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, David T; Goldstein, Michael R; Cook, Jesse D; Smith, Richard; Riedner, Brady A; Rumble, Meredith E; Jelenchick, Lauren; Roth, Andrea; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M; Peterson, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Changes in slow waves during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in response to acute total sleep deprivation are well-established measures of sleep homeostasis. This investigation utilized high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to examine topographic changes in slow waves during repeated partial sleep deprivation. Twenty-four participants underwent a 6-day sleep restriction protocol. Spectral and period-amplitude analyses of sleep hdEEG data were used to examine changes in slow wave energy, count, amplitude, and slope relative to baseline. Changes in slow wave energy were dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized for analysis, with widespread increases during sleep restriction and recovery when comparing data from the first portion of the sleep period, but restricted to recovery sleep if the entire sleep episode was considered. Period-amplitude analysis was less dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized, and demonstrated topographic changes in the count, amplitude, and distribution of slow waves, with frontal increases in slow wave amplitude, numbers of high-amplitude waves, and amplitude/slopes of low amplitude waves resulting from partial sleep deprivation. Topographic changes in slow waves occur across the course of partial sleep restriction and recovery. These results demonstrate a homeostatic response to partial sleep loss in humans. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

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    Jarste Morgenthaler

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived. Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  5. Naps and modafinil as countermeasures for the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batéjat, D M; Lagarde, D P

    1999-05-01

    Disruptions in wake-sleep rhythms, particularly induced by sleep deprivation are limiting factors for military personnel in operations. The role of sleep and naps in the recovery of performance is generally accepted. Pharmacological aids, for example hypnotic or stimulant substances can also be effective countermeasures. Recently, a new stimulant compound, modafinil (MODIODAL) has also proven effective. Considering the excellent results obtained with napping and modafinil, we have studied the combined effect of these two countermeasures on psychomotor performance under conditions simulating an operational situation. Beneficial effects of a few hours' nap on performance were confirmed. Consequently naps should be encouraged, even if limited and diurnal. Modafinil, which combines wakening and stimulating properties without any known side effects, was useful for longer periods of sleep deprivation and when there was no real possibility of sleep recovery. Modafinil did not prevent sleep if sleep opportunities were available. The combination of naps and modafinil demonstrated the best cognitive performance during sleep deprivation.

  6. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional) between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  7. The effects of sleep restriction and sleep deprivation in producing false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatburn, Alex; Kohler, Mark J; Payne, Jessica D; Drummond, Sean P A

    2017-01-01

    False memory has been claimed to be the result of an associative process of generalisation, as well as to be representative of memory errors. These can occur at any stage of memory encoding, consolidation, or retrieval, albeit through varied mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to experimentally determine: (i) if cognitive dysfunction brought about by sleep loss at the time of stimulus encoding can influence false memory production; and (ii) whether this relationship holds across sensory modalities. Subjects undertook both the Deese-Roedigger-McDermott (DRM) false memory task and a visual task designed to produce false memories. Performance was measured while subjects were well-rested (9h Time in Bed or TIB), and then again when subjects were either sleep restricted (4h TIB for 4 nights) or sleep deprived (30h total SD). Results indicate (1) that partial and total sleep loss produced equivalent effects in terms of false and veridical verbal memory, (2) that subjects performed worse after sleep loss (regardless of whether this was partial or total sleep loss) on cued recognition-based false and veridical verbal memory tasks, and that sleep loss interfered with subjects' ability to recall veridical, but not false memories under free recall conditions, and (3) that there were no effects of sleep loss on a visual false memory task. This is argued to represent the dysfunction and slow repair of an online verbal associative process in the brain following inadequate sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of tyrosine against placebo, phentermine, caffeine, and D-amphetamine during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, William F; Magill, Richard A; Bray, George A; Volaufova, Julia; Smith, Steven R; Lieberman, Harris R; Rood, Jennifer; Hurry, Mark; Anderson, Tai; Ryan, Donna H

    2003-08-01

    Sleep deprivation can impair alertness and cognitive and motor performance. We hypothesized that the amino acid tyrosine might reduce deleterious effects of sleep deprivation. Seventy-six healthy males, age 18-35 years, participated in a four-day protocol that included a habituation night, a baseline night, a 40.5 h period without sleep, and a recovery night. Tyrosine 150 mg/kg, caffeine 300 mg/70 kg, phentermine 37.5 mg, D-amphetamine 20 mg and placebo were administered in a double-blind, randomized fashion to compare their effects on the time it took to fall asleep, on endocrine responses during sleep deprivation, and on sleep quantity, quality and architecture as measured by polysomnography during recovery sleep. When given after 36 h without sleep, tyrosine had no significant effect on any parameter of sleep. D-amphetamine produced marked decrease in sleep drive but caused deleterious effects on many aspects of recovery sleep. Still, D-amphetamine was associated with increased alertness on the first recovery day. Phentermine and caffeine both decreased sleep drive during sleep deprivation, but phentermine impaired rapid-eye-movement (REM) recovery sleep. Tyrosine (when compared to placebo) had no effect on any sleep related measure, but it did stimulate prolactin release.

  9. Precipitating factors of somnambulism: impact of sleep deprivation and forced arousals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, Mathieu; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2008-06-10

    Experimental attempts to induce sleepwalking with forced arousals during slow-wave sleep (SWS) have yielded mixed results in children and have not been investigated in adult patients. We hypothesized that the combination of sleep deprivation and external stimulation would increase the probability of inducing somnambulistic episodes in sleepwalkers recorded in the sleep laboratory. The main goal of this study was to assess the effects of forced arousals from auditory stimuli (AS) in adult sleepwalkers and control subjects during normal sleep and following post-sleep deprivation recovery sleep. Ten sleepwalkers and 10 controls were investigated. After a baseline night, participants were presented with AS at predetermined sleep stages either during normal sleep or recovery sleep following 25 hours of sleep deprivation. One week later, the conditions with AS were reversed. No somnambulistic episodes were induced in controls. When compared to the effects of AS during sleepwalkers' normal sleep, the presentation of AS during sleepwalkers' recovery sleep significantly increased their efficacy in experimentally inducing somnambulistic events and a significantly greater proportion of sleepwalkers (100%) experienced at least one induced episode during recovery SWS as compared to normal SWS (30%). There was no significant difference between the mean intensity of AS that induced episodes during sleepwalkers' SWS and the mean intensity of AS that awakened sleepwalkers and controls from SWS. Sleep deprivation and forced arousals during slow-wave sleep can induce somnambulistic episodes in predisposed adults. The results highlight the potential value of this protocol in establishing a video-polysomnographically based diagnosis for sleepwalking.

  10. Genomic analysis of sleep deprivation reveals translational regulation in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecsey, Christopher G; Peixoto, Lucia; Choi, Jennifer H K; Wimmer, Mathieu; Jaganath, Devan; Hernandez, Pepe J; Blackwell, Jennifer; Meda, Karuna; Park, Alan J; Hannenhalli, Sridhar; Abel, Ted

    2012-10-17

    Sleep deprivation is a common problem of considerable health and economic impact in today's society. Sleep loss is associated with deleterious effects on cognitive functions such as memory and has a high comorbidity with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the molecular basis of the effect of sleep deprivation in the brain. In this study, we combined genome-wide and traditional molecular biological approaches to determine the cellular and molecular impacts of sleep deprivation in the mouse hippocampus, a brain area crucial for many forms of memory. Microarray analysis examining the effects of 5 h of sleep deprivation on gene expression in the mouse hippocampus found 533 genes with altered expression. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that a prominent effect of sleep deprivation was to downregulate translation, potentially mediated through components of the insulin signaling pathway such as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulator of protein synthesis. Consistent with this analysis, sleep deprivation reduced levels of total and phosphorylated mTOR, and levels returned to baseline after 2.5 h of recovery sleep. Our findings represent the first genome-wide analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation on the mouse hippocampus, and they suggest that the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation may be mediated by reductions in protein synthesis via downregulation of mTOR. Because protein synthesis and mTOR activation are required for long-term memory formation, our study improves our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the memory impairments induced by sleep deprivation.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea is a predictor of abnormal glucose metabolism in chronically sleep deprived obese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cizza

    Full Text Available Sleep abnormalities, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, have been associated with insulin resistance.To determine the relationship between sleep, including OSA, and glucose parameters in a prospectively assembled cohort of chronically sleep-deprived obese subjects.Cross-sectional evaluation of a prospective cohort study.Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center.Sleep duration and quality assessed by actigraphy, sleep diaries and questionnaires, OSA determined by a portable device; glucose metabolism assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT, and HbA1c concentrations in 96 obese individuals reporting sleeping less than 6.5 h on a regular basis.Sixty % of subjects had an abnormal respiratory disturbance index (RDI≥5 and 44% of these subjects had abnormal oGTT results. Severity of OSA as assessed by RDI score was associated with fasting glucose (R = 0.325, p = 0.001 and fasting insulin levels (ρ = 0.217, p = 0.033. Subjects with moderate to severe OSA (RDI>15 had higher glucose concentrations at 120 min than those without OSA (RDI<5 (p = 0.017. Subjects with OSA also had significantly higher concentrations of plasma ACTH (p = 0.009. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in subjects with OSA (p<0.050. CRP levels were elevated in this sample, suggesting increased cardiovascular risk.OSA is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in obese, sleep deprived individuals. Since sleep apnea is common and frequently undiagnosed, health care providers should be aware of its occurrence and associated risks.This study was conducted under the NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036 and is listed in ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898.

  12. Stationary gaze entropy predicts lane departure events in sleep-deprived drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Brook A; Downey, Luke A; Westlake, Justine; Stevens, Bronwyn; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Berlowitz, David J; Swann, Phillip; Howard, Mark E

    2018-02-02

    Performance decrement associated with sleep deprivation is a leading contributor to traffic accidents and fatalities. While current research has focused on eye blink parameters as physiological indicators of driver drowsiness, little is understood of how gaze behaviour alters as a result of sleep deprivation. In particular, the effect of sleep deprivation on gaze entropy has not been previously examined. In this randomised, repeated measures study, 9 (4 male, 5 female) healthy participants completed two driving sessions in a fully instrumented vehicle (1 after a night of sleep deprivation and 1 after normal sleep) on a closed track, during which eye movement activity and lane departure events were recorded. Following sleep deprivation, the rate of fixations reduced while blink rate and duration as well as saccade amplitude increased. In addition, stationary and transition entropy of gaze also increased following sleep deprivation as well as with amount of time driven. An increase in stationary gaze entropy in particular was associated with higher odds of a lane departure event occurrence. These results highlight how fatigue induced by sleep deprivation and time-on-task effects can impair drivers' visual awareness through disruption of gaze distribution and scanning patterns.

  13. Sleep deprivation impairs object-selective attention: a view from the ventral visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most prior studies on selective attention in the setting of total sleep deprivation (SD have focused on behavior or activation within fronto-parietal cognitive control areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of SD on the top-down biasing of activation of ventral visual cortex and on functional connectivity between cognitive control and other brain regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-three healthy young adult volunteers underwent fMRI after a normal night of sleep (RW and after sleep deprivation in a counterbalanced manner while performing a selective attention task. During this task, pictures of houses or faces were randomly interleaved among scrambled images. Across different blocks, volunteers responded to house but not face pictures, face but not house pictures, or passively viewed pictures without responding. The appearance of task-relevant pictures was unpredictable in this paradigm. SD resulted in less accurate detection of target pictures without affecting the mean false alarm rate or response time. In addition to a reduction of fronto-parietal activation, attending to houses strongly modulated parahippocampal place area (PPA activation during RW, but this attention-driven biasing of PPA activation was abolished following SD. Additionally, SD resulted in a significant decrement in functional connectivity between the PPA and two cognitive control areas, the left intraparietal sulcus and the left inferior frontal lobe. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SD impairs selective attention as evidenced by reduced selectivity in PPA activation. Further, reduction in fronto-parietal and ventral visual task-related activation suggests that it also affects sustained attention. Reductions in functional connectivity may be an important additional imaging parameter to consider in characterizing the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

  14. Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction: Implications for Treatment of PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Day 3) 13 + Methods Testing was scheduled in the evening each day, 10-12 hours after participants’ habitual wake time Night 1 Sleep Day 2 Extinction ...Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0001 TITLE: “Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction : Implications for Treatment of PTSD...Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 OCT 2014- 30 SEP 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction

  15. Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction: Implications for Treatment of PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    and suicidal ideation in a college student sample. Sleep 34:93–98. Medline Nappi CM, Drummond SP, Hall JM (2012) Treating nightmares and in- somnia...Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction: Implications for...the mechanism underlying the most successful treatment for PTSD, Prolonged Exposure. In animal models, sleep deprivation has been shown to impair

  16. Genomic analysis of sleep deprivation reveals translational regulation in the hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Peixoto, Lucia; Choi, Jennifer H. K.; Wimmer, Mathieu; Jaganath, Devan; Hernandez, Pepe J.; Blackwell, Jennifer; Meda, Karuna; Park, Alan J.; Hannenhalli, Sridhar; Abel, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is a common problem of considerable health and economic impact in today's society. Sleep loss is associated with deleterious effects on cognitive functions such as memory and has a high comorbidity with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the molecular basis of the effect of sleep deprivation in the brain. In this study, we combined genome-wide and traditional molecular biological approaches to determine the cellular ...

  17. Physical Fitness as a Moderator of Cognitive Degradation During Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    A. Habitation : A model phenomenon for the study of neural substrates of behavior. Psychological Review, 1966, 73, 16-43. Webb, W. Current sleep ...G. Edholm & A. L. Backarach (Eds.), The physiology of human survival. New York: Academic Press, 1965. Wilkerson, R. T. Sleep deprivation...PHYSICAL FITNESS AS A MODERATOR OF COGNITIVE DEGRADATION DURING SLEEP DEPRIVATION A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and

  18. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan F; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A; Alcalá, Marta; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Giménez, Sandra

    2016-04-14

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE). Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  19. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan F. Alonso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE. Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  20. Blood-gene expression reveals reduced circadian rhythmicity in individuals resistant to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnardottir, Erna S; Nikonova, Elena V; Shockley, Keith R; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A; Anafi, Ron C; Tanis, Keith Q; Maislin, Greg; Stone, David J; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J; Pack, Allan I

    2014-10-01

    To address whether changes in gene expression in blood cells with sleep loss are different in individuals resistant and sensitive to sleep deprivation. Blood draws every 4 h during a 3-day study: 24-h normal baseline, 38 h of continuous wakefulness and subsequent recovery sleep, for a total of 19 time-points per subject, with every 2-h psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) assessment when awake. Sleep laboratory. Fourteen subjects who were previously identified as behaviorally resistant (n = 7) or sensitive (n = 7) to sleep deprivation by PVT. Thirty-eight hours of continuous wakefulness. We found 4,481 unique genes with a significant 24-h diurnal rhythm during a normal sleep-wake cycle in blood (false discovery rate [FDR] sleep. After accounting for circadian effects, two genes (SREBF1 and CPT1A, both involved in lipid metabolism) exhibited small, but significant, linear changes in expression with the duration of sleep deprivation (FDR sleep deprivation was a reduction in the amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of expression of normally cycling probe sets. This reduction was noticeably higher in behaviorally resistant subjects than sensitive subjects, at any given P value. Furthermore, blood cell type enrichment analysis showed that the expression pattern difference between sensitive and resistant subjects is mainly found in cells of myeloid origin, such as monocytes. Individual differences in behavioral effects of sleep deprivation are associated with differences in diurnal amplitude of gene expression for genes that show circadian rhythmicity. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Progesterone reduces erectile dysfunction in sleep-deprived spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Tufik Sergio

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD associated with cocaine has been shown to enhance genital reflexes (penile erection-PE and ejaculation-EJ in Wistar rats. Since hypertension predisposes males to erectile dysfunction, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PSD on genital reflexes in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR compared to the Wistar strain. We also extended our study to examine how PSD affect steroid hormone concentrations involved in genital events in both experimental models. Methods The first experiment investigated the effects of PSD on genital reflexes of Wistar and SHR rats challenged by saline and cocaine (n = 10/group. To further examine the impact of the PSD on concentrations of sexual hormones, we performed a hormonal analysis of testosterone and progesterone in the Wistar and in SHR strains. Since after PSD progesterone concentrations decreased in the SHR compared to the Wistar PSD group we extended our study by investigating whether progesterone (25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg or testosterone (0.5 mg/kg or 1.0 mg/kg administration during PSD would have a facilitator effect on the occurrence of genital reflexes in this hypertensive strain. Results A 4-day period of PSD induced PE in 50% of the Wistar rats against 10% for the SHR. These genital reflexes was potentiated by cocaine in Wistar rats whereas this scenario did not promote significant enhancement in PE and EJ in hypertensive rats, and the percentage of SHR displaying genital reflexes still figured significantly lower than that of the Wistar strain. As for hormone concentrations, both sleep-deprived Wistar and SHR showed lower testosterone concentrations than their respective controls. Sleep deprivation promoted an increase in concentrations of progesterone in Wistar rats, whereas no significant alterations were found after PSD in the SHR strain, which did not present enhancement in erectile responses. In order to explore the role

  2. THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON SERUM IGG RESPONSES TO AEROBIC ACTIVITY IN COLLEGE STUDENT ATHLETES

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    Jamshidi Far Saeed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Sleep is a restorative process for the immune system. There are many situations in which sleep is disturbed prior to an athletic event. However, the effect of sleep deprivation on immune indices in response to exercise remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum IgG responses to aerobic activity. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 10 male physical education students were voluntarily participated. Study was performed in two separate occasions; control and experimental within two weeks. In the control occasion, normal sleep and aerobic activity and in the experimental occasion, sleep deprivation and aerobic activity was applied. Aerobic activity was performed on bicycle ergometer for 30 minutes at intensity of 70 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. Changes in serum IgG concentrations in pre-test, before and after aerobic activity in both occasions were analyzed by the two repeated measures ANOVA and dependent T-test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that sleep deprivation not significantly effect on Serum IgG response to aerobic activity (p=0.130. Also, aerobic activity not significantly effect on Serum IgG concentration (p=0.357. But sleep deprivation caused a significantly increase in serum IgG concentration (p=0.035. Conclusion: No significant effect of sleep deprivation on serum IgG concentrations response to aerobic activity.

  3. Sleep deprivation impairs memory by attenuating mTORC1-dependent protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Jennifer C; Davis, Emily J; Peixoto, Lucia; Wimmer, Mathieu E; van Tilborg, Erik; Park, Alan J; Poplawski, Shane G; Chung, Caroline W; Havekes, Robbert; Huang, Jiayan; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe; Abel, Ted

    2016-04-26

    Sleep deprivation is a public health epidemic that causes wide-ranging deleterious consequences, including impaired memory and cognition. Protein synthesis in hippocampal neurons promotes memory and cognition. The kinase complex mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) stimulates protein synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 2 (4EBP2). We investigated the involvement of the mTORC1-4EBP2 axis in the molecular mechanisms mediating the cognitive deficits caused by sleep deprivation in mice. Using an in vivo protein translation assay, we found that loss of sleep impaired protein synthesis in the hippocampus. Five hours of sleep loss attenuated both mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of 4EBP2 and the interaction between eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and eIF4G in the hippocampi of sleep-deprived mice. Increasing the abundance of 4EBP2 in hippocampal excitatory neurons before sleep deprivation increased the abundance of phosphorylated 4EBP2, restored the amount of eIF4E-eIF4G interaction and hippocampal protein synthesis to that seen in mice that were not sleep-deprived, and prevented the hippocampus-dependent memory deficits associated with sleep loss. These findings collectively demonstrate that 4EBP2-regulated protein synthesis is a critical mediator of the memory deficits caused by sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. The effect of sleep deprivation on retrieval of emotional memory: a behavioural study using film stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesta, Daniela; Socci, Valentina; Dello Ioio, Giada; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ferrara, Michele

    2017-10-01

    Although the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on memory consolidation are well documented, it is still unclear how the facilitating effect of emotions on memory consolidation processes could be modulated by the lack of sleep. In this study, we investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on episodic memory using emotional and non-emotional film stimuli. Forty-eight healthy subjects, divided into a sleep group (SG) and a sleep-deprived (SD) group, completed an Encoding and a Recall phase. Participants in the SD group were sleep deprived the night immediately following the Encoding phase, whereas the control group slept at home. The Recall phase was administered to all subjects 48 h after the Encoding. During the Encoding phase, six film clips of different valence (two positive, two neutral and two negative) were presented to the participants. During the Recall phase, episodic memory was assessed by a recognition task. Results showed that the SD group had a lower discrimination memory performance for all stimuli compared to the SG, confirming the deleterious effect of sleep deprivation on episodic memory consolidation. Therefore, lack of sleep severely impairs the consolidation of both emotional and neutral memories, as valence-related effects on memory consolidation were not observed after sleep deprivation.

  5. The impact of sleep deprivation in military surgical teams: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Rachael Sv; Parker, P

    2017-06-01

    Fatigue in military operations leads to safety and operational problems due to a decrease in alertness and performance. The primary method of counteracting the effects of sleep deprivation is to increase nightly sleep time, which in operational situations is not always feasible. History has taught us that surgeons and surgical teams are finite resources that cannot operate on patients indefinitely. A systematic review was conducted using the search terms ' sleep ' and ' deprivation ' examining the impact of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in military surgical teams. Studies examining outcomes on intensive care patients and subjects with comorbidities were not addressed in this review. Sleep deprivation in any ' out-of-hours ' surgery has a significant impact on overall morbidity and mortality. Sleep deprivation in surgeons and surgical trainees negatively impacts cognitive performance and puts their own and patients' health at risk. All published research lacks consensus when defining ' sleep deprivation ' and ' rested ' states. It is recognised that it would be unethical to conduct a well-designed randomised controlled trial, to determine the effects of fatigue on performance in surgery; however, there is a paucity between surrogate markers and applying simulated results to actual clinical performance. This requires further research. Recommended methods of combating fatigue include: prophylactically ' sleep-banking ' prior to known periods of sleep deprivation, napping, use of stimulant or alerting substances such as modafinil, coordinated work schedules to reduce circadian desynchronisation and regular breaks with enforced rest periods. A forward surgical team will become combat-ineffective after 48 hours of continuous operations. This systematic review recommends implementing on-call periods of no more than 12 hours in duration, with adequate rest periods every 24 hours. Drug therapies and sleep banking may, in the short term, prevent negative

  6. Sleep deprivation predisposes Gujarati Indian adolescents to obesity

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    Shaikh Wasim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1. Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN and 2 Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF % , FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. Results: In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Conclusion : Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population.

  7. Novel application of brain-targeting polyphenol compounds in sleep deprivation-induced cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Jun; Bi, Weina; Ferruzzi, Mario; Yemul, Shrishailam; Freire, Daniel; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Dubner, Lauren; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2015-10-01

    Sleep deprivation produces deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent memory storage. Recent evidence suggests that sleep deprivation disrupts memory consolidation through multiple mechanisms, including the down-regulation of the cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. In this study, we tested the effects of a Bioactive Dietary Polyphenol Preparation (BDPP), comprised of grape seed polyphenol extract, Concord grape juice, and resveratrol, on the attenuation of sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment. We found that BDPP significantly improves sleep deprivation-induced contextual memory deficits, possibly through the activation of CREB and mTOR signaling pathways. We also identified brain-available polyphenol metabolites from BDPP, among which quercetin-3-O-glucuronide activates CREB signaling and malvidin-3-O-glucoside activates mTOR signaling. In combination, quercetin and malvidin-glucoside significantly attenuated sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment in -a mouse model of acute sleep deprivation. Our data suggests the feasibility of using select brain-targeting polyphenol compounds derived from BDPP as potential therapeutic agents in promoting resilience against sleep deprivation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of sleep deprivation and exercise on cognitive, motor performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathon P R; McNaughton, Lars R; Polman, Remco C J

    2006-02-28

    This study examined the effect of 30 h of sleep deprivation and intermittent physical exercise, on both cognitive and psychomotor function as well subjective ratings of mood. Six subjects with the following physical characteristics participated in the study (Mean +/- S.D.): age 22 +/- 0.3 years, height 180 +/- 5 cm, body mass: 77 +/- 5 kg, VO2peak 44 +/- 5 ml kg(-1) min(-1). Three subjects engaged in normal sedentary activities while three others cycled on a cycle ergometer at 50% VO2peak for 20 min out of every 2 h during 30 h of sleep deprivation. One week later sleep deprivation was repeated with a cross over of subjects. Every 4 h, subjects completed simple and two-choice reaction time tasks at both rest and during exercise, a computerized tracking task, a number cancellation task, and an assessment of subjective mood state as measured by the POMS questionnaire. A 3 x 4 repeated measures ANOVA revealed that resting but not exercising reaction times were significantly slower with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was also associated with significantly greater negative disturbances to subjective vigour, fatigue and depression assessed by the Profile of Mood States questionnaire. Compared to those who have been deprived of sleep alone, individuals that performed 5 h of intermittent moderate exercise during 30 h of sleep deprivation appeared to be more vulnerable to negative mood disturbances and impairment in reaction times. This could result in greater risk of accident due to a reduced capacity to respond quickly.

  9. [Effect of sleep deprivation on p38MAPK phosphorylation in the rat hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Chen, Chang-xiang; Chen, Gui-zhi; Li, Shu-xing; Li, Jian-min; Zhao, Ya-ning

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effect of sleep deprivation (SD) on the expression of p38Mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) phosphorylation in the rat hippocampus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided randomly into control and sleep deprivation groups. The sleep deprivation models were established with the modified multiple platform methods. At 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, and 7 d after sleep deprivations, changes of neuron morphous in the hippocampal region of the rats were observed by HE staining. The expression of p38MAPK phosphorylation was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The learning-memory function was tested with Morris water maze and 4-PTT dry path maze. More obvious neuronal morphous damages, increased p38MAPK phosphorylation cells and p38MAPK phosphorylation expression, and decreased learning-memory function were found in the rats subject to sleep deprivation than those in the control. The changes were enhanced with the length of sleep deprivation. p38MAPK can be activated by sleep deprivation, which mediates the process of neuronal injury.

  10. Effects of sleep or food deprivation during civilian survival training on cognition, blood glucose and 3-OH-butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhle, Lars; Ståhle, Ewa Ljungdahl; Granström, Elisabeth; Isaksson, Sven; Annas, Peter; Sepp, Harry

    2011-09-01

    The study was designed to compare effects of food deprivation (FD) and sleep deprivation (SD) on cognition during survival training. In a cross-over design (n=12), the effects of FD (up to 66 hours followed by 500 kcal intake over 24 hours) and SD (up to 50 hours) on cognitive variables, blood glucose, and 3-OH-butyrate were studied. Food deprivation and SD impaired attention-dependent tasks. The FD impairment of simple reaction time was independent of blood glucose levels, which were normalized by a 500 kcal intake over 24 hours while the reaction time was not. Sleep deprivation and FD impaired maze-solving performance on all variables except rule breaks, which were significantly occurring after 50 hours of SD. Delayed word recall was impaired by SD for 50 hours. On the Balloon Analogue Risk Task, SD was associated with reduced risk-taking. In a gambling task, both SD for 50 hours and FD for 66 hours were associated with a tendency to make early choices when presented with consecutive choices, but the risk-taking was not affected. Sleep deprivation has multiple cognitive effects, including attention, memory, visual-spatial ability, and risk-taking. Food deprivation had no affect on risk-taking, while the other tasks were affected in a way similar to SD but were less pronounced. The FD effects on cognition did not appear to depend on blood sugar levels. The need to sleep should be prioritized in survival situations to avoid cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep deprivation impairs recall of social transmission of food preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Jessica I; Pido, Jennifer; Mathews, Hunter; Kieltyka, Ryan; Montemayor, Bertha A; Ward, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that sleep plays an important role in learning and memory, and disruption of sleep especially seems to interfere with hippocampal memory processes. Social transmission of food preference (STFP), a natural test of paired associative learning, has been shown to be dependent on the hippocampus. While social transmission of food preference is not a novel task, it has not been used to examine the role of sleep in memory consolidation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: cage control; sleep-deprived; and device control. Demonstrator rats were given powdered food mixed with a target spice. Test rats then interacted with demonstrator rats before being given a two choice test of powered food with the target spice or a novel spice. Sleep-deprived rats were then placed in an automated device that prevented sleep for 24 hours. After sleep deprivation, animals were given a preference test again to determine memory for the target spice at both 24 hours and 72 hours. Polysomnography was used to validate the method of sleep deprivation. During immediate preference testing, rats demonstrated a clear preference for the food containing the target spice. Rats that experienced 24 hours of sleep deprivation following the initial testing indicated a significant reduction in the recall of the target spice at 24 and 72 hours. The cage control and device animals maintained their preference for food containing the target spice. Therefore, the loss of sleep interfered with memory consolidation for food preference learned via social transmission.

  12. Effects of time of day and sleep deprivation on motorcycle-driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougard, Clément; Espié, Stéphane; Larnaudie, Bruno; Moussay, Sébastien; Davenne, Damien

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether motorcycle handling capabilities--measured by means of the efficiency of emergency manoeuvres--were dependent on prior sleep deprivation and time of day. Twelve male participants voluntarily took part in four test sessions, starting at 6 a.m., 10 a.m., 2 p.m., and 6 p.m., following a night either with or without sleep. Each test session comprised temperature and sleepiness measurements, before three different types of motorcycling tests were initiated: (1) stability in straight ahead riding at low speed (in "slow motion" mode and in "brakes and clutch" mode), (2) emergency braking and (3) crash avoidance tasks performed at 20 kph and 40 kph. The results indicate that motorcycle control at low speed depends on time of day, with an improvement in performance throughout the day. Emergency braking performance is affected at both speeds by time of day, with poorer performance (longer total stopping distance, reaction time and braking distance) in the morning, and also by sleep deprivation, from measurements obtained at 40 kph (incorrect initial speed). Except for a tendency observed after the sleepless night to deviate from the initial speed, it seems that crash avoidance capabilities are quite unaffected by the two disturbance factors. Consequently, some motorcycle handling capabilities (stability at low speed and emergency braking) change in the same way as the diurnal fluctuation observed in body temperature and sleepiness, whereas for others (crash avoidance) the participants were able to maintain their initial performance level despite the high levels of sleepiness recorded after a sleepless night. Motorcycle riders have to be aware that their handling capabilities are limited in the early morning and/or after sleep deprivation. Both these situations can increase the risk of falls and of being involved in a road accident.

  13. Effects of time of day and sleep deprivation on motorcycle-driving performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Bougard

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether motorcycle handling capabilities--measured by means of the efficiency of emergency manoeuvres--were dependent on prior sleep deprivation and time of day. Twelve male participants voluntarily took part in four test sessions, starting at 6 a.m., 10 a.m., 2 p.m., and 6 p.m., following a night either with or without sleep. Each test session comprised temperature and sleepiness measurements, before three different types of motorcycling tests were initiated: (1 stability in straight ahead riding at low speed (in "slow motion" mode and in "brakes and clutch" mode, (2 emergency braking and (3 crash avoidance tasks performed at 20 kph and 40 kph. The results indicate that motorcycle control at low speed depends on time of day, with an improvement in performance throughout the day. Emergency braking performance is affected at both speeds by time of day, with poorer performance (longer total stopping distance, reaction time and braking distance in the morning, and also by sleep deprivation, from measurements obtained at 40 kph (incorrect initial speed. Except for a tendency observed after the sleepless night to deviate from the initial speed, it seems that crash avoidance capabilities are quite unaffected by the two disturbance factors. Consequently, some motorcycle handling capabilities (stability at low speed and emergency braking change in the same way as the diurnal fluctuation observed in body temperature and sleepiness, whereas for others (crash avoidance the participants were able to maintain their initial performance level despite the high levels of sleepiness recorded after a sleepless night. Motorcycle riders have to be aware that their handling capabilities are limited in the early morning and/or after sleep deprivation. Both these situations can increase the risk of falls and of being involved in a road accident.

  14. Global Prevalence of Sleep Deprivation in Students and Heavy Media Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meilan; Tillman, Daniel A.; An, Song A.

    2017-01-01

    The latest two international educational assessments found global prevalence of sleep deprivation in students, consistent with what has been reported in sleep research. However, despite the fundamental role of adequate sleep in cognitive and social functioning, this important issue has been largely overlooked by educational researchers. Drawing…

  15. Human Hippocampal Structure: A Novel Biomarker Predicting Mnemonic Vulnerability to, and Recovery from, Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N.; Greer, Stephanie M.; Stark, Shauna; Stark, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs the formation of new memories. However, marked interindividual variability exists in the degree to which sleep loss compromises learning, the mechanistic reasons for which are unclear. Furthermore, which physiological sleep processes restore learning ability following sleep deprivation are similarly unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the structural morphology of human hippocampal subfields represents one factor determining vulnerability (and conversely, resilience) to the impact of sleep deprivation on memory formation. Moreover, this same measure of brain morphology was further associated with the quality of nonrapid eye movement slow wave oscillations during recovery sleep, and by way of such activity, determined the success of memory restoration. Such findings provide a novel human biomarker of cognitive susceptibility to, and recovery from, sleep deprivation. Moreover, this metric may be of special predictive utility for professions in which memory function is paramount yet insufficient sleep is pervasive (e.g., aviation, military, and medicine). SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sleep deprivation does not impact all people equally. Some individuals show cognitive resilience to the effects of sleep loss, whereas others express striking vulnerability, the reasons for which remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that structural features of the human brain, specifically those within the hippocampus, accurately predict which individuals are susceptible (or conversely, resilient) to memory impairments caused by sleep deprivation. Moreover, this same structural feature determines the success of memory restoration following subsequent recovery sleep. Therefore, structural properties of the human brain represent a novel biomarker predicting individual vulnerability to (and recovery from) the effects of sleep loss, one with occupational relevance in professions where insufficient sleep is pervasive yet memory function is paramount. PMID:26911684

  16. Does sleep deprivation alter functional EEG networks in children with focal epilepsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric evan Diessen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG recordings after sleep deprivation increase the diagnostic yield in patients suspected of epilepsy if the routine EEG remains inconclusive. Sleep deprivation is associated with increased interictal EEG abnormalities in patients with epilepsy, but the exact mechanism is unknown. In this feasibility study, we used a network analytical approach to provide novel insights into this clinical observation. The aim was to characterize the effect of sleep deprivation on interictal functional network organization using a unique dataset of paired routine and sleep deprivation recordings in patients and controls. We included twenty-one children referred to the first seizure clinic of our center with suspected new onset focal epilepsy in whom a routine interictal and a sleep deprivation EEG (SD-EEG were performed. Seventeen children, in whom the diagnosis of epilepsy was excluded, served as controls. For both time points weighted functional networks were constructed based on interictal artifact free time-series. Routine and sleep deprivation networks were characterized at different frequency bands using minimum spanning tree (MST measures (leaf number and diameter and classical measures of integration (path length and segregation (clustering coefficient. A significant interaction was found for leaf number and diameter between patients and controls after sleep deprivation: patients showed a shift towards a more path-like MST network whereas controls showed a shift towards a more star-like MST network. This shift in network organization after sleep deprivation in patients is in accordance with previous studies showing a more regular network organization in the ictal state and might relate to the increased epileptiform abnormalities found in patients after sleep deprivation. Larger studies are needed to verify these results. Finally, MST measures were more sensitive in detecting network changes as compared to the classical measures of

  17. Sleep deprivation during early-adult development results in long-lasting learning deficits in adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Donlea, Jeff M; Gottschalk, Laura; Shaw, Paul J

    2011-02-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that sleep is important for the developing brain, although little is known about which cellular and molecular pathways are affected. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the early adult life of Drosophila, which is associated with high amounts of sleep and critical periods of brain plasticity, could be used as a model to identify developmental processes that require sleep. Wild type Canton-S Drosophila melanogaster. DESIGN; Flies were sleep deprived on their first full day of adult life and allowed to recover undisturbed for at least 3 days. The animals were then tested for short-term memory and response-inhibition using aversive phototaxis suppression (APS). Components of dopamine signaling were further evaluated using mRNA profiling, immunohistochemistry, and pharmacological treatments. Flies exposed to acute sleep deprivation on their first day of life showed impairments in short-term memory and response inhibition that persisted for at least 6 days. These impairments in adult performance were reversed by dopamine agonists, suggesting that the deficits were a consequence of reduced dopamine signaling. However, sleep deprivation did not impact dopaminergic neurons as measured by their number or by the levels of dopamine, pale (tyrosine hydroxylase), dopadecarboxylase, and the Dopamine transporter. However, dopamine pathways were impacted as measured by increased transcript levels of the dopamine receptors D2R and dDA1. Importantly, blocking signaling through the dDA1 receptor in animals that were sleep deprived during their critical developmental window prevented subsequent adult learning impairments. These data indicate that sleep plays an important and phylogenetically conserved role in the developing brain.

  18. PER3 polymorphism predicts cumulative sleep homeostatic but not neurobehavioral changes to chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namni Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism 5-repeat allele of the circadian gene PERIOD3 (PER3(5/5 has been associated with cognitive decline at a specific circadian phase in response to a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD, relative to the 4-repeat allele (PER3(4/4. PER3(5/5 has also been related to higher sleep homeostasis, which is thought to underlie this cognitive vulnerability. To date, no study has used a candidate gene approach to investigate the response to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a condition distinct from TSD and one commonly experienced by millions of people on a daily and persistent basis. We evaluated whether the PER3 VNTR polymorphism contributed to cumulative neurobehavioral deficits and sleep homeostatic responses during PSD.PER3(5/5 (n = 14, PER3(4/5 (n = 63 and PER3(4/4 (n = 52 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y demonstrated large, but equivalent cumulative decreases in cognitive performance and physiological alertness, and cumulative increases in sleepiness across 5 nights of sleep restricted to 4 h per night. Such effects were accompanied by increasing daily inter-subject variability in all groups. The PER3 genotypes did not differ significantly at baseline in habitual sleep, physiological sleep structure, circadian phase, physiological sleepiness, cognitive performance, or subjective sleepiness, although during PSD, PER3(5/5 subjects had slightly but reliably elevated sleep homeostatic pressure as measured physiologically by EEG slow-wave energy in non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with PER3(4/4 subjects. PER3 genotypic and allelic frequencies did not differ significantly between Caucasians and African Americans.The PER3 VNTR polymorphism was not associated with individual differences in neurobehavioral responses to PSD, although it was related to one marker of sleep homoeostatic response during PSD. The comparability of PER3 genotypes at baseline and their equivalent inter-individual vulnerability

  19. Sleep Deprivation Promotes Habitual Control over Goal-Directed Control: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Liang, Jie; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2017-12-06

    Sleep is one of the most fundamental processes of life, playing an important role in the regulation of brain function. The long-term lack of sleep can cause memory impairments, declines in learning ability, and executive dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on instrumental learning behavior, particularly goal-directed and habitual actions in humans, and investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Healthy college students of either gender were enrolled and randomly divided into sleep deprivation group and sleep control group. fMRI data were collected. We found that one night of sleep deprivation led to greater responsiveness to stimuli that were associated with devalued outcomes in the slips-of-action test, indicating a deficit in the formation of goal-directed control and an overreliance on habits. Furthermore, sleep deprivation had no effect on the expression of acquired goal-directed action. The level of goal-directed action after sleep deprivation was positively correlated with baseline working memory capacity. The neuroimaging data indicated that goal-directed learning mainly recruited the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), the activation of which was less pronounced during goal-directed learning after sleep deprivation. Activation of the vmPFC during goal-directed learning during training was positively correlated with the level of goal-directed action performance. The present study suggests that people rely predominantly on habits at the expense of goal-directed control after sleep deprivation, and this process involves the vmPFC. These results contribute to a better understanding of the effects of sleep loss on decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation has become extremely important over the past half century, given the continued decline in sleep duration in industrialized societies. Our results provide novel evidence that goal-directed action may be

  20. Synaptic plasticity model of therapeutic sleep deprivation in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Elias; Kuhn, Marion; Normann, Claus; Mainberger, Florian; Maier, Jonathan G; Maywald, Sarah; Bredl, Aliza; Klöppel, Stefan; Biber, Knut; van Calker, Dietrich; Riemann, Dieter; Sterr, Annette; Nissen, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic sleep deprivation (SD) is a rapid acting treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Within hours, SD leads to a dramatic decrease in depressive symptoms in 50-60% of patients with MDD. Scientifically, therapeutic SD presents a unique paradigm to study the neurobiology of MDD. Yet, up to now, the neurobiological basis of the antidepressant effect, which is most likely different from today's first-line treatments, is not sufficiently understood. This article puts the idea forward that sleep/wake-dependent shifts in synaptic plasticity, i.e., the neural basis of adaptive network function and behavior, represent a critical mechanism of therapeutic SD in MDD. Particularly, this article centers on two major hypotheses of MDD and sleep, the synaptic plasticity hypothesis of MDD and the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis of sleep-wake regulation, and on how they can be integrated into a novel synaptic plasticity model of therapeutic SD in MDD. As a major component, the model proposes that therapeutic SD, by homeostatically enhancing cortical synaptic strength, shifts the initially deficient inducibility of associative synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) in patients with MDD in a more favorable window of associative plasticity. Research on the molecular effects of SD in animals and humans, including observations in the neurotrophic, adenosinergic, monoaminergic, and glutamatergic system, provides some support for the hypothesis of associative synaptic plasticity facilitation after therapeutic SD in MDD. The model proposes a novel framework for a mechanism of action of therapeutic SD that can be further tested in humans based on non-invasive indices and in animals based on direct studies of synaptic plasticity. Further determining the mechanisms of action of SD might contribute to the development of novel fast acting treatments for MDD, one of the major health problems worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep deprivation alters valuation signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo eLibedinsky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Even a single night of total sleep-deprivation (SD can have dramatic effects on economic decision making. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that SD influences economic decisions by altering the valuation process. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we identified value signals related to the anticipation and the experience of monetary and social rewards (attractive female faces. We then derived decision value signals that were predictive of each participant’s willingness to exchange money for brief views of attractive faces in an independent market task. Strikingly, SD altered decision value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC in proportion to the corresponding change in economic preferences. These changes in preference were independent of the effects of SD on attention and vigilance. Our results provide novel evidence that signals in VMPFC track the current state of the individual, and thus reflect not static but constructed preferences.

  2. [Physical therapies for depression--light, exercise, TMS and sleep deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Klaus; Bengtsson, Pernille; Lund, Vibeke

    2007-04-16

    This paper reviews the status of some physical therapies for depression. Light is the treatment of choice for seasonal affective disorder. Light is also effective in non-seasonal depression as mono-therapy and as add-on to drug therapy. Exercise is effective in moderate depression, but onset of action, duration and compliance need to be examined. TMS treatment has a moderate, albeit transient effect on depression, but further development is needed before it can be used as a standard treatment. Sleep deprivation has the fastest known antidepressant effect, but the risk of relapse limits its use. New regimens including drugs and light may sustain the response.

  3. PR01 - The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2006-01-01

    .... Although considerable data show that sleep deprivation alters many aspects of behavior, little is known about changes in the brain substrate underlying the behavioral effects, and even less is known...

  4. Homeostatic & Circadian Regulation of Wakefulness During Jet Lag and Sleep. Sleep Deprivation: Effect of Wake-Promoting Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dinges, David

    2000-01-01

    .... Major human research projects on the effects of induced jet lag and sleep deprivation and their mitigation by sustained low-dose caffeine and naps were undertaken at the University of Pennsylvania...

  5. Classifying vulnerability to sleep deprivation using baseline measures of psychomotor vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanaik, Amiya; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Chua, Eric C P; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-05-01

    To identify measures derived from baseline psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance that can reliably predict vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Subjects underwent total sleep deprivation and completed a 10-min PVT every 1-2 h in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants were categorized as vulnerable or resistant to sleep deprivation, based on a median split of lapses that occurred following sleep deprivation. Standard reaction time, drift diffusion model (DDM), and wavelet metrics were derived from PVT response times collected at baseline. A support vector machine model that incorporated maximum relevance and minimum redundancy feature selection and wrapper-based heuristics was used to classify subjects as vulnerable or resistant using rested data. Two academic sleep laboratories. Independent samples of 135 (69 women, age 18 to 25 y), and 45 (3 women, age 22 to 32 y) healthy adults. In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively. In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively. Despite differences in experimental conditions across studies, drift diffusion model parameters associated reliably with individual differences in performance during total sleep deprivation. These results demonstrate the utility of drift diffusion modeling of baseline performance in estimating vulnerability to psychomotor vigilance decline

  6. Modafinil prevents inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Karin Monteiro; Ferreira, Tatiana Lima; Hipolide, Debora Cristina; Fornari, Raquel Vecchio; Tufik, Sergio; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2010-07-01

    Evaluation of modafinil effects on the inhibitory avoidance task (IA). Rats were trained on a multiple trial IA task after receiving modafinil or vehicle injections. In experiment 1 they were trained with a weak protocol under baseline condition and in experiment 2, with a stronger protocol under sleep-deprivation condition. In experiment 1 modafinil improved rats' acquisition whereas the retention test remained unaffected. In Experiment 2 modafinil did not interfere with training performance, but the lower dose prevented the retention impairment in sleep-deprived animals. Modafinil is able to improve acquisition in normal rats and reverse the long-term memory impairment induced by sleep-deprivation.

  7. Partial sleep deprivation by environmental noise increases food intake and body weight in obesity resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Methods OR and SD rats (n=12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light-phase for 9 d. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake and body weight were documented. Results Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery-sleep during active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls Conclusions PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during rest phase increases active period sleep. PMID:23666828

  8. Microstructure of frontoparietal connections predicts individual resistance to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiaolong; Tkachenko, Olga; Gogel, Hannah; Kipman, Maia; Preer, Lily A; Weber, Mareen; Divatia, Shreya C; Demers, Lauren A; Olson, Elizabeth A; Buchholz, Jennifer L; Bark, John S; Rosso, Isabelle M; Rauch, Scott L; Killgore, William D S

    2015-02-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) can degrade cognitive functioning, but growing evidence suggests that there are large individual differences in the vulnerability to this effect. Some evidence suggests that baseline differences in the responsiveness of a fronto-parietal attention system that is activated during working memory (WM) tasks may be associated with the ability to sustain vigilance during sleep deprivation. However, the neurocircuitry underlying this network remains virtually unexplored. In this study, we employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the association between the microstructure of the axonal pathway connecting the frontal and parietal regions--i.e., the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)--and individual resistance to SD. Thirty healthy participants (15 males) aged 20-43 years underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at rested wakefulness prior to a 28-hour period of SD. Task-related fronto-parietal fMRI activation clusters during a Sternberg WM Task were localized and used as seed regions for probabilistic fiber tractography. DTI metrics, including fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial and radial diffusivity were measured in the SLF. The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was used to evaluate resistance to SD. We found that activation in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) positively correlated with resistance. Higher fractional anisotropy of the left SLF comprising the primary axons connecting IPL and DLPFC was also associated with better resistance. These findings suggest that individual differences in resistance to SD are associated with the functional responsiveness of a fronto-parietal attention system and the microstructural properties of the axonal interconnections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Opposite effects of sleep deprivation on the continuous reaction times in patients with liver cirrhosis and normal persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Munk; Frøjk, Jesper; de Muckadell, Ove B Schaffalitzky

    2014-01-01

    The continuous reaction times (CRT) method describes arousal functions. Reaction time instability in a patient with liver disease indicates covert hepatic encephalopathy (cHE). The effects of sleep deprivation are unknown although cirrhosis patients frequently suffer from sleep disorders. The aim...... of this study was to determine if sleep deprivation influences the CRT test. Eighteen cirrhosis patients and 27 healthy persons were tested when rested and after one night's sleep deprivation. The patients filled out validated sleep quality questionnaires. Seven patients (38 %) had unstable reaction times (a...... or after the sleep deprivation. In the healthy participants, the sleep deprivation slowed their reaction times by 11 % (p sleep deprivation normalized or improved the reaction time stability of the patients with a CRTindex below 1.9 and had...

  10. Cognitive Performance, Sleepiness, and Mood in Partially Sleep Deprived Adolescents: The Need for Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Ong, Ju Lynn; Leong, Ruth L F; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of sleep restriction (7 nights of 5 h time in bed [TIB]) on cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood in adolescents. A parallel-group design was adopted in the Need for Sleep Study. Fifty-six healthy adolescents (25 males, age = 15-19 y) who studied in top high schools and were not habitual short sleepers were randomly assigned to Sleep Restriction (SR) or Control groups. Participants underwent a 2-w protocol consisting of 3 baseline nights (TIB = 9 h), 7 nights of sleep opportunity manipulation (TIB = 5 h for the SR and 9 h for the control groups), and 3 nights of recovery sleep (TIB = 9 h) at a boarding school. A cognitive test battery was administered three times each day. During the manipulation period, the SR group demonstrated incremental deterioration in sustained attention, working memory and executive function, increase in subjective sleepiness, and decrease in positive mood. Subjective sleepiness and sustained attention did not return to baseline levels even after 2 recovery nights. In contrast, the control group maintained baseline levels of cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood throughout the study. Incremental improvement in speed of processing, as a result of repeated testing and learning, was observed in the control group but was attenuated in the sleep-restricted participants, who, despite two recovery sleep episodes, continued to perform worse than the control participants. A week of partial sleep deprivation impairs a wide range of cognitive functions, subjective alertness, and mood even in high-performing high school adolescents. Some measures do not recover fully even after 2 nights of recovery sleep. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 497. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge F T; Dáttilo, Murilo; de Mello, Marco T; Tufik, Sergio; Antunes, Hanna K M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is emerging as a potential strategy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation. Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18-35 years, who declared taking 7-8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition), 24 h of total sleep deprivation ( SD condition), HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition), and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+ SD condition). They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8-12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were performed. Res