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Sample records for sleep bruxism

  1. Sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among Brazilian dental students: a cross-sectional study.

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    Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Tirsa-Costa, Débora; Guimarães, Flávia Helena; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among dental students of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed including 183 Brazilian dental students aged from 17 to 46 years old. The complete course curriculum consists of 9 semesters. Students enrolled in the first semester, the middle semester and the final semester of the course participated in the survey. The PSQI-BR (the Brazilian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) was used for data collection. The PSQI-BR was distributed during lecture classes. Sleep bruxism and awake bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. Descriptive analysis, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression with robust estimator were the statistical tests used. Sleep bruxism prevalence was 21.5% and awake bruxism prevalence was 36.5%. Sleep duration components were associated with sleep bruxism (PR=1.540; 95% CI: 1.00-2.37) and awake bruxism (PR=1.344; 95% CI: 1,008-1,790). There was an association between awake bruxism and habitual sleep efficiency component (PR=1.323; 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). Sleep disturbance component and awake bruxism were associated (PR=1.533; 95% CI: 1.03-2.27). Poor sleep quality was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism as well as among those who presented awake bruxism.

  2. [Etiology of sleep bruxism: a review of the literature].

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    Cuccia, Antonino Marco

    2008-06-01

    Bruxism is a para-function with tooth clenching and grinding. Particularly, the sleep bruxism is a frequent phenomenon that causes cephalalgia and muscular/joint pains to the awakening, besides an increased dental abrasion and sensibility. The etiology of sleep bruxism is uncertain: while the occlusal discrepancies and the anatomy of the bony structures of the orofacial region play only a minor role, others factors, like smoking, alcohol, drugs, systemic diseases, stress, trauma and heredity, appear to have an important role in the sleep bruxism genesis. Recent polysomnographic studies, suggest that sleep bruxism episodes are part of an sleep arousal response. The sleep arousal response is a sudden change in the depth of sleep. Besides the sleep bruxism appears to be an disturbance in the dopaminergic system. Further psychological factors (like stress, anxiety) are implicated in the aetiology of sleep bruxism as well. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the aetiology of bruxism.

  3. Sleep bruxism: challenges and restorative solutions

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    Mengatto CM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cristiane Machado Mengatto, Fábio Herrmann Coelho-de-Souza, Oswaldo Baptista de Souza Junior Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil Abstract: Bruxism is a parafunctional activity related to clenching or grinding the teeth and tooth wear can be a consequence of sleep bruxism (SB. Management of severe tooth wear due to SB is a challenging situation because of the common reduced amount of remaining dental structure and loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. Rationale for the planning of oral rehabilitation of patients with SB presenting severe tooth wear should rely on evidence-based approaches; however, few studies have discussed properties of dental materials for SB rehabilitation and how to cosmetically manage severe tooth wear. This review aimed to provide an overview into bruxism cosmetic rehabilitation and how this can be implemented with good outcomes for the patient. Keywords: sleep bruxism, restoration, rehabilitation, prosthodontics, dentistry

  4. [Sleep bruxism in children and adolescents].

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    Firmani, Mónica; Reyes, Milton; Becerra, Nilda; Flores, Guillermo; Weitzman, Mariana; Espinosa, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Bruxism is a rhythmic masticatory muscle activity, characterized by teeth grinding and clenching. This is a phenomenon mainly regulated by the central nervous system and peripherally influenced. It has two circadian manifestations, during sleep (sleep bruxism) and awake states (awake bruxism). Bruxism is much more than just tooth wearing. It is currently linked to orofacial pain; headaches; sleep disorders; sleep breathing disorders, such as apnea and hypopnea sleep syndrome; behavior disorders, or those associated with the use of medications. It is also influenced by psycho-social and behavior factors, which means that oromandibular parafunctional activities, temporomandibular disorders, malocclusion, high levels of anxiety and stress, among others, may precipitate the occurrence of bruxism. Nowadays, its etiology is multifactorial. The dentist and the pediatrician are responsible for its early detection, diagnosis, management, and prevention of its possible consequences on the patients. The aim of this review is to update the concepts of this disease and to make health professionals aware of its early detection and its timely management. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Biopsychosocial aspects of sleep bruxism in children

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    Restrepo Serna, C.C.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to obtain an insight into the interactions between the biopsychological aspects of sleep bruxism (SB) in children. To that end, validated instruments and calibrated devices for the assessment of SB in children were used. The studies were performed in Medellin, Colombia. In

  6. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management

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    Yap, Adrian U.; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that “cures” or “stops” SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief. PMID:27656052

  7. Sleep bruxism: challenges and restorative solutions

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    Mengatto, Cristiane Machado; Coelho-de-Souza, Fábio Herrmann; de Souza Junior, Oswaldo Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is a parafunctional activity related to clenching or grinding the teeth and tooth wear can be a consequence of sleep bruxism (SB). Management of severe tooth wear due to SB is a challenging situation because of the common reduced amount of remaining dental structure and loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. Rationale for the planning of oral rehabilitation of patients with SB presenting severe tooth wear should rely on evidence-based approaches; however, few studies have discussed properties of dental materials for SB rehabilitation and how to cosmetically manage severe tooth wear. This review aimed to provide an overview into bruxism cosmetic rehabilitation and how this can be implemented with good outcomes for the patient. PMID:27217798

  8. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that "cures" or "stops" SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief.

  9. Effect of mandibular advancement device on sleep bruxism score and sleep quality.

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    Solanki, Nehal; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Chand, Pooran; Siddharth, Ramashankar; Arya, Deeksha; Kumar, Lakshya; Tripathi, Suryakant; Jivanani, Hemant; Dubey, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    The use of mandibular advancement devices (MADs) in the treatment of sleep bruxism is gaining widespread importance. However, the effects of MADs on sleep bruxism scores, sleep quality, and occlusal force are not clear. The purpose of this clinical study was to analyze the effect of MADs on sleep bruxism scores, sleep quality, and occlusal force. This uncontrolled before and after study enrolled 30 participants with sleep bruxism. Outcomes assessed were sleep quality, sleep bruxism scores (sleep bruxism bursts and sleep bruxism episodes/hour), and occlusal force before and after 15 and 30 days of using a MAD. Sleep bruxism scores were assessed by ambulatory polysomnography and sleep quality by using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Occlusal force was recorded by using a digital gnathodynamometer in the first molar region on both sides. Statistical analysis was done by 1-factor repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05). Statistically significant reductions in sleep bruxism bursts/h, sleep bruxism episodes/h, and PSQI scores were found after 15 and 30 days of using a MAD (Pbruxism scores, sleep quality, and reduction in occlusal force in sleep bruxism participants after using MADs. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep bruxism. Conceptual review and update

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    Hoz Aizpurua, José Luis de la; Díaz Alonso, Esperanza; LaTouche Arbizu, Roy; Mesa Jiménez, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is a parafunctional oromotor habit that can sometimes pose a threat to the integrity of the structures of the masticatory system if the magnitude and direction of the forces exerted exceed the system?s adaptive capacity. Over the years science has tried to provide a consistent explanation of the etiopathogenesis and physiopathology of SB, although the pathophysiological mechanisms are even now not yet fully understood. There is at present no specific, effective treatme...

  11. Community based study of sleep bruxism during early childhood

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    Insana, Salvatore P.; Gozal, David; McNeil, Daniel W.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims for this study were to determine the prevalence of sleep-bruxism among young children, explore child behavior problems that may be associated with sleep-bruxism, and identify relations among sleep-bruxism, health problems, and neurocognitive performance. Methods The current study was a retrospective analysis of parent report surveys, and behavioral and neurocognitive assessments. Parents of 1953 preschool and 2888 first grade children indicated their child’s frequency of bruxism during sleep. A subsample of preschool children (n = 249) had additional behavioral, as well as neurocognitive assessments. Among the subsample, parents also reported on their child’s health, and completed the Child Behavioral Checklist; children were administered the Differential Ability Scales, and Pre-Reading Abilities subtests of the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. Results 36.8% of preschoolers and 49.6% of first graders were reported to brux ≥ 1 time per week. Among the preschool subsample, bruxing was independently associated with increased internalizing behaviors (β = .17). Bruxism was also associated with increased health problems (β = .19), and increased health problems were associated with decreased neurocognitive performance (β = .22). Conclusions The prevalence of sleep-bruxism was high. A dynamic and potentially clinically relevant relation exists among sleep-bruxism, internalizing behaviors, health, and neurocognition. Pediatric sleep-bruxism may serve as a sentinel marker for possible adverse health conditions, and signal a need for early intervention. These results support the need for an interdisciplinary approach to pediatric sleep medicine, dentistry, and psychology. PMID:23219144

  12. Sleep bruxism. Conceptual review and update.

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    de la Hoz-Aizpurua, José-Luis; Díaz-Alonso, Esperanza; LaTouche-Arbizu, Roy; Mesa-Jiménez, Juan

    2011-03-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is a parafunctional oromotor habit that can sometimes pose a threat to the integrity of the structures of the masticatory system if the magnitude and direction of the forces exerted exceed the system 's adaptive capacity. Over the years science has tried to provide a consistent explanation of the etiopathogenesis and physiopathology of SB, although the pathophysiological mechanisms are even now not yet fully understood. There is at present no specific, effective treatment to eliminate the habit of bruxism permanently. There are only palliative therapeutic alternatives steered at preventing the pathological effects of SB on the stomatognathic system and alleviating the negative clinical consequences of the habit. The objective of this article is to review and update the fundamental scientific concepts of SB and to furnish an approach to the main types of therapy used, based on the scientific literature.

  13. Medical image of the week: sleep bruxism

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    Bartell J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 42 year-old man with a past medical history of insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and both migraine and tension headaches was referred for an overnight sleep study. He had presented to the sleep clinic with symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. Medications included sumatriptan, amitryptiline, sertraline, and trazodone. His sleep study showed: sleep efficiency of 58.2%, apnea-hypopnea index of 33 events per hour, and arousal index of 14.5/hr. Periodic limb movement index was 29.2/hr. The time spent in the sleep stages included N1 (3.6%, N2 (72.5%, N3 (12.9%, and REM (10.9%. Figure 1 is representative of the several brief waveforms seen on his EEG and chin EMG. Sleep bruxism (SB is a type of sleep-related movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary masticatory muscle contraction resulting in grinding and clenching of the teeth and typically associated with arousals from sleep (1,2. The American academy of sleep medicine (AASM criteria for ...

  14. Temporomandibular disorders, sleep bruxism, and primary headaches are mutually associated.

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    Fernandes, Giovana; Franco, Ana Lúcia; Gonçalves, Daniela Aparecida; Speciali, José Geraldo; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo; Camparis, Cinara Maria

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the association among temporomandibular disorders (TMD), sleep bruxism, and primary headaches, assessing the risk of occurrence of primary headaches in patients with or without painful TMD and sleep bruxism. The sample consisted of 301 individuals (253 women and 48 men) with ages varying from 18 to 76 years old (average age of 37.5 years). The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used to classify TMD. Sleep bruxism was diagnosed by clinical criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, and primary headaches were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II. Data were analyzed by chi-square and odds ratio tests with a 95% confidence interval, and the significance level adopted was .05. An association was found among painful TMD, migraine, and tension-type headache (P headache (3.7; 1.59-8.75). With regard to sleep bruxism, the association was significant only for chronic migraine (3.8; 1.83-7.84). When the sample was stratified by the presence of sleep bruxism and painful TMD, only the presence of sleep bruxism did not increase the risk for any type of headache. The presence of painful TMD without sleep bruxism significantly increased the risk in particular for chronic migraine (30.1; 3.58-252.81), followed by episodic migraine (3.7; 1.46-9.16). The association between painful TMD and sleep bruxism significantly increased the risk for chronic migraine (87.1; 10.79-702.18), followed by episodic migraine (6.7; 2.79-15.98) and episodic tension-type headache (3.8; 1.38-10.69). The association of sleep bruxism and painful TMD greatly increased the risk for episodic migraine, episodic tension-type headache, and especially for chronic migraine.

  15. Sleep bruxism: an updated review of an old problem.

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    Castrillon, Eduardo E; Ou, Keng-Liang; Wang, Kelun; Zhang, Jinglu; Zhou, Xinwen; Svensson, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Objective To provide an update on what is known about bruxism and some of the major clinical highlights derived from new insights into this old problem in dentistry. Materials and methods A selective, non-systematic but critical review of the available scientific literature was performed. Results There are two main different types of bruxism, which are related to different circadian periods (sleep and awake bruxism) that may differ in terms of pathophysiology, but they share some common signs and symptoms. Approximately one out of 10 adult individuals may suffer from bruxism, but not all bruxers may need treatment. Bruxism is complicated to diagnose in the clinic and self-report of bruxism may not necessarily reflect the true presence of jaw muscle activity. Better understanding has been acquired of bruxism relationships with sleep stages, arousal responses and autonomic function with the help of polysomnography and controlled sleep studies. Meanwhile, there is still much more to learn about awake bruxism. With the available scientific knowledge it is possible to systematically assess the effects of bruxism and its potential risk factors for oral and general health. Moreover, we can be aware of the realistic possibilities to manage/treat the patient suffering from bruxism. Conclusion Bruxism is a parafunctional activity involving the masticatory muscles and probably it is as old as human mankind. Different ways have been proposed to define, diagnose, assess the impact and consequences, understand the pathophysiology and treat or manage bruxism. Despite the vast research efforts made in this field, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge.

  16. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sleep bruxism.

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    Lavigne, G J; Kato, T; Kolta, A; Sessle, B J

    2003-01-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is reported by 8% of the adult population and is mainly associated with rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) characterized by repetitive jaw muscle contractions (3 bursts or more at a frequency of 1 Hz). The consequences of SB may include tooth destruction, jaw pain, headaches, or the limitation of mandibular movement, as well as tooth-grinding sounds that disrupt the sleep of bed partners. SB is probably an extreme manifestation of a masticatory muscle activity occurring during the sleep of most normal subjects, since RMMA is observed in 60% of normal sleepers in the absence of grinding sounds. The pathophysiology of SB is becoming clearer, and there is an abundance of evidence outlining the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of rhythmic jaw movements (RJM) in relation to chewing, swallowing, and breathing. The sleep literature provides much evidence describing the mechanisms involved in the reduction of muscle tone, from sleep onset to the atonia that characterizes rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Several brainstem structures (e.g., reticular pontis oralis, pontis caudalis, parvocellularis) and neurochemicals (e.g., serotonin, dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid [GABA], noradrenaline) are involved in both the genesis of RJM and the modulation of muscle tone during sleep. It remains unknown why a high percentage of normal subjects present RMMA during sleep and why this activity is three times more frequent and higher in amplitude in SB patients. It is also unclear why RMMA during sleep is characterized by co-activation of both jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscles instead of the alternating jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscle activity pattern typical of chewing. The final section of this review proposes that RMMA during sleep has a role in lubricating the upper alimentary tract and increasing airway patency. The review concludes with an outline of questions for future research.

  17. Sleep Bruxism in Respiratory Medicine Practice.

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    Mayer, Pierre; Heinzer, Raphael; Lavigne, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) consists of involuntary episodic and repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by occasional tooth grinding or jaw clenching during sleep. Prevalence decreases from 20% to 14% in childhood to 8% to 3% in adulthood. Although the causes and mechanisms of idiopathic primary SB are unknown, putative candidates include psychologic risk factors (eg, anxiety, stress due to life events, hypervigilance) and sleep physiologic reactivity (eg, sleep arousals with autonomic activity, breathing events). Although certain neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin, histamine) have been proposed to play an indirect role in SB, their exact contribution to rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) (the electromyography marker of SB) genesis remains undetermined. No specific gene is associated with SB; familial environmental influence plays a significant role. To date, no single explanation can account for the SB mechanism. Secondary SB with sleep comorbidities that should be clinically assessed are insomnia, periodic limb movements during sleep, sleep-disordered breathing (eg, apnea-hypopnea), gastroesophageal reflux disease, and neurologic disorders (eg, sleep epilepsy, rapid eye movement behavior disorder). SB is currently quantified by scoring RMMA recordings in parallel with brain, respiratory, and heart activity recordings in a sleep laboratory or home setting. RMMA confirmation with audio-video recordings is recommended for better diagnostic accuracy in the presence of neurologic conditions. Management strategies (diagnostic tests, treatment) should be tailored to the patient's phenotype and comorbidities. In the presence of sleep-disordered breathing, a mandibular advancement appliance or CPAP treatment is preferred over single occlusal splint therapy on the upper jaw. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Topical review: sleep bruxism, headaches, and sleep-disordered breathing in children and adolescents.

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    Carra, Maria Clotilde; Bruni, Olivero; Huynh, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    Sleep bruxism, a well-known burden for dentists, is commonly observed in pediatric populations. Dentists are responsible for the detection and prevention of the detrimental consequences on the stomatognathic system that may occur in some patients with sleep bruxism. However, sleep bruxism is much more than tooth wear, since it is frequently associated with orofacial pain, headaches, and other more severe sleep disorders, such as sleep-disordered breathing. Although the mechanisms underlying the possible interactions among sleep bruxism, headaches, and sleep-disordered breathing need further research, these conditions are often concomitant. A literature search was performed to identify relevant publications related to the topic, which have been integrated in this topical review. The aim of this article was to provide a brief overview on sleep bruxism, headaches, and sleep-disordered breathing in pediatric patients and to promote a multispecialist approach (including dentists, sleep specialist physicians, and psychologists) in the diagnosis and management of these frequently associated disorders.

  19. Association among stress, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in children.

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    Serra-Negra, Junia M; Paiva, Saul M; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen E; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association among stress levels, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in children. A population-based case control study (proportion=1:2) was conducted involving 120 7- to 11-year-olds with sleep bruxism and 240 children without sleep bruxism. The sample was randomly selected from schools in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following instruments were used for data collection: questionnaire administered to parents; child stress scale; and neuroticism and responsibility scales of the big five questionnaire for children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. Sleep bruxism was diagnosed from parents' reports. The chi-square test, as well as binary and multivariate logistic regression, was applied for statistical analysis. In the adjusted logistic model, children with a high level of stress, due to psychological reactions (odds ratio=1.8; confidence interval=1.1-2.9) and a high sense of responsibility (OR=1.6; CI=1.0-2.5) vs those with low levels of these psychological traits, presented a nearly 2-fold greater chance of exhibiting the habit of sleep bruxism. High levels of stress and responsibility are key factors in the development of sleep bruxism among children.

  20. Occlusal Grinding Pattern during Sleep Bruxism and Temporomandibular Disorder

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    Yeni Wijaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep Bruxism is a significant etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD and causes many dental or oral problems such as tooth wear or facet. There is no study analyzing the relationship between sleep bruxism and TMD. Objective: To investigate any relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and temporomandibular disorder. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 30 sleep bruxism patients attended the Faculty Dentistry Universitas Indonesia Teaching Hospital (RSGMP FKG UI. Completion of 2 forms of ID-TMD index and questionnaire from American Academy of Sleep Medicine were done. BruxChecker was fabricated and used for two nights to record the occlusal grinding pattern. The occlusal grinding pattern was categorized into laterotrusive grinding (LG and mediotrusive side. Further divisons of LG were: incisor-canine (IC, incisor-caninepremolar (ICP and incisor-canine-premolar-molar (ICPM. Mediotrusive side was classified as mediotrusive contact (MC and mediotrusive grinding (MG. Results: It was found that occlusal grinding pattern in non-TMD subjects were IC+MC, in subjects with mild TMD were ICP+MG and in subjects with moderate TMD were ICP+MG and ICPM+MG. TMJ was more significantly affected by ICP and ICPM grinding pattern than that of IC. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and TMD.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.149

  1. Associations of sleep bruxism with age, sleep apnea, and daytime problematic behaviors in children.

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    Tachibana, M; Kato, T; Kato-Nishimura, K; Matsuzawa, S; Mohri, I; Taniike, M

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of sleep bruxism in children in Japan, and its relationships with sleep-related factors and daytime problematic behavior. Guardians of 6023 children aged 2-12 years completed the Japanese Sleep Questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling were performed. Sleep bruxism was reported in 21.0% children (n = 1263): the prevalence was highest in the age group of 5-7 years (27.4%). Multiple regression analysis showed that sleep bruxism had significant correlations with age 5-7 years (OR: 1.72; P bruxism had a significant but weak direct effect on daytime problematic behavior, while sleep bruxism significantly correlated with obstructive sleep apnea, which had a higher direct effect on daytime problematic behavior. Sleep bruxism was reported in 21.0% of Japanese children and had independent relationships with age, movements during sleep, and snoring. A comorbidity of sleep-disordered breathing might be related to daytime problematic behavior in children with sleep bruxism. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sleep bruxism and sleep-disordered breathing: a systematic review.

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    De Luca Canto, Graziela; Singh, Vandana; Gozal, David; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    To carry out a systematic review to consolidate current knowledge on the potential association between sleep bruxism (SB) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). For this systematic review, articles were retained only if they reported studies using full ambulatory polysomnography as "the gold standard" reference test to determine SDB and the international diagnostic criteria proposed by the American Association of Sleep Medicine to determine SB. Detailed individual search strategies from MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and LILACS databases were developed. The references cited in the selected articles were also checked, and a partial literature search was undertaken. The selection was completed independently by two reviewers in two phases. The methodology of selected studies was evaluated using the seven-item quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies. During the initial search, 333 different citations were identified across the six electronic databases. After a comprehensive evaluation of the abstracts, and the full papers when considered necessary, only one study was finally selected for the qualitative/quantitative synthesis. This study did not support the putative association between SB and SDB, since SB was not observed during or in temporal conjunction with snoring or apneic events in any of the evaluated patients. In addition, masseter activity was not observed during apneic episodes. There is not sufficient scientific evidence either to confirm or discredit the association between SB and SDB.

  3. Sleep bruxism and myofascial temporomandibular disorders

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    Raphael, Karen G.; Sirois, David A.; Janal, Malvin N.; Wigren, Pia E.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Nemelivsky, Lena V.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many dentists believe that sleep bruxism (SB) is a pathogenic factor in myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD), but almost all supportive data rely on patients’ self-reports rather than on direct observation. Methods The authors administered a structured self-report interview to determine whether a large and well-characterized sample of patients with myofascial TMD (124 women) experienced SB more often than did matched control participants (46 women). The authors then used data from a two-night laboratory-based polysomnographic (PSG) study to determine whether the case participants exhibited more SB than the control participants. Results The results of independent sample t tests and χ2 analyses showed that, although self-reported rates of SB were significantly higher in case participants (55.3 percent) than in control participants (15.2 percent), PSG-based measures showed much lower and statistically similar rates of SB in the two groups (9.7 percent and 10.9 percent, respectively). Grinding noises were common in both case participants (59.7 percent) and control participants (78.3 percent). Conclusions Most case participants did not exhibit SB, and the common belief that SB is a sufficient explanation for myofascial TMD should be abandoned. Clinical Implications Although other reasons to consider treating SB may exist, misplaced concern about SB’s sustaining or exacerbating a chronic myofascial TMD condition should not be used to justify SB treatment. PMID:23115152

  4. Prevalence of sleep bruxism and awake bruxism in different chronotype profiles: Hypothesis of an association.

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    Serra-Negra, J M; Lobbezoo, F; Martins, C C; Stellini, E; Manfredini, D

    2017-04-01

    Sleep (SB) and awake bruxism (AB) recognize a multifactorial etiology and have a relationship with several psychological factors. Psychological disorders have recently been associated also with the chronotype, which is the propensity for an individual to be especially active at a particular time during a 24-h period. Based on the chronotype, the two extreme profiles are morningness and eveningness individuals. Due to the relationship that both the chronotype and bruxism have with psychological factors and the fact that performing tasks not compatible with chronotype can trigger stress, this review presents the hypothesis that the prevalence of SB and AB can differ with the various chronotype profiles. New perspectives for the study of bruxism etiology may emerge from investigations on the topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occlusal splints for treating sleep bruxism (tooth grinding).

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    Macedo, C R; Silva, A B; Machado, M A; Saconato, H; Prado, G F

    2007-10-17

    Sleep bruxism is an oral activity characterised by teeth grinding or clenching during sleep. Several treatments for sleep bruxism have been proposed such as pharmacological, psychological, and dental. To evaluate the effectiveness of occlusal splints for the treatment of sleep bruxism with alternative interventions, placebo or no treatment. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to May 2007); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1); MEDLINE (1966 to May 2007); EMBASE (1980 to May 2007); LILACS (1982 to May 2007); Biblioteca Brasileira de Odontologia (1982 to May 2007); Dissertation, Theses and Abstracts (1981 to May 2007); and handsearched abstracts of particular importance to this review. Additional reports were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports and from article reviews about treating sleep bruxism. There were no language restrictions. We selected randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), in which splint therapy was compared concurrently to no treatment, other occlusal appliances, or any other intervention in participants with sleep bruxism. Data extraction was carried out independently and in duplicate. Validity assessment of the included trials was carried out at the same time as data extraction. Discrepancies were discussed and a third review author consulted. The author of the primary study was contacted when necessary. Thirty-two potentially relevant RCTs were identified. Twenty-four trials were excluded. Five RCTs were included. Occlusal splint was compared to: palatal splint, mandibular advancement device, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, and no treatment. There was just one common outcome (arousal index) which was combined in a meta-analysis. No statistically significant differences between the occlusal splint and control groups were found in the meta-analyses. There is not sufficient evidence to state that the occlusal splint is

  6. Are there associations between sleep bruxism, chronic stress, and sleep quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Brigitte; Bömicke, Wolfgang; Habibi, Yasamin; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schmitter, Marc

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify associations between definite sleep bruxism, as defined by the American academy of sleep medicine, and chronic stress and sleep quality. Sleep bruxism was determined by use of questionnaires, assessment of clinical symptoms, and recording of electromyographic and electrocardiographic data (recorded by the Bruxoff ® device). The study included 67 participants. Of these, 38 were identified as bruxers and 29 as non-bruxers. The 38 bruxers were further classified as 17 moderate and 21 intense bruxers. Self-reported stress and self-reported sleep quality were determined by use of the validated questionnaires "Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress" (TICS) and the "Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index" (PSQI). No statistically significant association was found between sleep bruxism and self-reported stress or sleep quality. However, a significant association between specific items of chronic stress and poor sleep quality was identified. The results of this study indicate an association between subjective sleep quality and subjective chronic stress, irrespective of the presence or absence of sleep bruxism. Chronic stress and sleep quality do not seem to be associated with sleep bruxism. (clinical trial no. NCT03039985). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biofeedback treatment for sleep bruxism: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Fei; Long, Hu; Deng, Meng; Xu, Hui; Fang, Jie; Fan, Yi; Bai, Ding; Han, Xiang-Long

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of any biofeedback treatment on sleep bruxism. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, ISI Web of Science, System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and PsycINFO up to October 2012 for randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials involving biofeedback treatment for sleep bruxism. Reference lists of relevant studies were hand searched. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. Seven eligible studies involving 240 participants were finally included. Three of them had moderate risk of bias, and four had high risk of bias. In an electromyographic-measured sleep bruxism episode, meta-analysis showed no significant difference between contingent electrical stimulation and blank control (95% confidence interval = -12.33, 3.38, P = 0.26). Moreover, five studies reported electromyographic activity index. Due to the diversity of biofeedback modalities (auditory, electrical, and visual stimulus) and controls (splint, occlusal adjustment, etc.), these data were unable to be pooled, so only qualitative description was provided. In the current stage, there is no powerful evidence to support the use of biofeedback technology on sleep bruxism treatment. Contingent electrical stimulation which is defined as a kind of biofeedback modality shows no effect on reducing sleep bruxism episode compared with the no-treatment group. Although many studies support the efficacy of biofeedback treatment, more large sample-sized randomized controlled trials which adopt uniform outcome index are necessitated to verify its application.

  8. Effects of sleep bruxism on functional and occlusal parameters: a prospective controlled investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia Ommerborn, Michelle; Giraki, Maria; Schneider, Christine; Michael Fuck, Lars; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Hans-Michael Raab, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to verify the results of a preceding retrospective pilot study by means of a prospective controlled investigation including a larger sample size. Therefore, the aim of this clinical investigation was to analyze the relationship between sleep bruxism and several functional and occlusal parameters. The null hypothesis of this study was that there would be no differences among sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism controls regarding several functional and occlusal parameters. Fifty-eight sleep bruxism subjects and 31 controls participated in this study. The diagnosis sleep bruxism was based on clinical criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sixteen functional and occlusal parameters were recorded clinically or from dental study casts. Similar to the recently published retrospective pilot study, with a mean slide of 0.77 mm (s.d., 0.69 mm) in the sleep bruxism group and a mean slide of 0.4 mm (s.d., 0.57 mm) in the control group, the evaluation of the mean comparison between the two groups demonstrated a larger slide from centric occlusion to maximum intercuspation in sleep bruxism subjects (Mann–Whitney U-test; P=0.008). However, following Bonferroni adjustment, none of the 16 occlusal and functional variables differed significantly between the sleep bruxism subjects and the non-sleep bruxism controls. The present study shows that the occlusal and functional parameters evaluated do not differ between sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism subjects. However, as the literature reveals a possible association between bruxism and certain subgroups of temporomandibular disorders, it appears advisable to incorporate the individual adaptive capacity of the stomatognathic system into future investigations. PMID:22935746

  9. Effects of sleep bruxism on functional and occlusal parameters: a prospective controlled investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommerborn, Michelle Alicia; Giraki, Maria; Schneider, Christine; Fuck, Lars Michael; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Hans-Michael Raab, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to verify the results of a preceding retrospective pilot study by means of a prospective controlled investigation including a larger sample size. Therefore, the aim of this clinical investigation was to analyze the relationship between sleep bruxism and several functional and occlusal parameters. The null hypothesis of this study was that there would be no differences among sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism controls regarding several functional and occlusal parameters. Fifty-eight sleep bruxism subjects and 31 controls participated in this study. The diagnosis sleep bruxism was based on clinical criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sixteen functional and occlusal parameters were recorded clinically or from dental study casts. Similar to the recently published retrospective pilot study, with a mean slide of 0.77 mm (s.d., 0.69 mm) in the sleep bruxism group and a mean slide of 0.4 mm (s.d., 0.57 mm) in the control group, the evaluation of the mean comparison between the two groups demonstrated a larger slide from centric occlusion to maximum intercuspation in sleep bruxism subjects (Mann-Whitney U-test; P=0.008). However, following Bonferroni adjustment, none of the 16 occlusal and functional variables differed significantly between the sleep bruxism subjects and the non-sleep bruxism controls. The present study shows that the occlusal and functional parameters evaluated do not differ between sleep bruxism subjects and non-sleep bruxism subjects. However, as the literature reveals a possible association between bruxism and certain subgroups of temporomandibular disorders, it appears advisable to incorporate the individual adaptive capacity of the stomatognathic system into future investigations.

  10. The effectiveness of occlusal splints for sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Searches were made using the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS (Latin American & Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Biblioteca Brasileira de Odontologia, and Dissertations, Theses and Abstracts. Hand searches were made of abstracts of particular importance to this review. Additional reports were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports and from article reviews about treating sleep bruxism. There were no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) or quasi-RCT were chosen that compared splint therapy concurrently with no treatment, other occlusal appliances, or any other intervention in participants who had sleep bruxism. Data extraction was carried out independently and in duplicate. Validity assessment of the included trials was carried out at the same time as data extraction. Discrepancies were discussed and a third review author consulted. The author of the primary study was contacted when necessary. Thirty-two potentially relevant RCT were identified of which five were eventually included. In these, use of an occlusal splint was compared with palatal splint, mandibular advancement device, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, and no treatment. There was just one common outcome (arousal index) which was combined in a meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference between the occlusal splint and control groups were found in meta-analysis. There is not enough evidence to state that the occlusal splint is effective for treating sleep bruxism. Indication of its use is questionable with regard to sleep outcomes, but there may be some benefit with regard to tooth wear. This systematic review suggests the need for further investigation in more controlled RCT that pay attention to method of allocation, outcome assessment, large sample size, and sufficient duration of followup. The study design must be parallel in order to eliminate

  11. Weighing the potential effectiveness of various treatments for sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nelly; Manzini, Christiane; Rompré, Pierre H; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2007-10-01

    Sleep bruxism may lead to a variety of problems, but its pathophysiology has not been completely elucidated. As such, there is no definitive treatment, but certain preventive measures and/or drugs may be used in acute cases, particularly those involving pain. This article is intended to guide clinician scientists to the treatment most appropriate for future clinical studies. To determine the best current treatment, 2 measures were used to compare the results of 10 clinical studies on sleep bruxism, 3 involving oral devices and 7 involving pharmacologic therapy. The first measure, the number needed to treat (NNT), allows several randomized clinical studies to be compared and a general conclusion to be drawn. The second measure, effect size, allows evaluation of the impact of treatment relative to a placebo using different studies of similar design. Taking into account the NNT, the effect size and the power of each study, it can be concluded that the following treatments reduce sleep bruxism: mandibular advancement device, clonidine and occlusal splint. However, the first 2 of these have been linked to adverse effects. The occlusal splint is therefore the treatment of choice, as it reduces grinding noise and protects the teeth from premature wear with no reported adverse effects. The NNT could not be calculated for an alternative pharmacologic treatment, short-term clonazepam therapy, which had a large effect size and reduced the average bruxism index. However, the risk of dependency limits its use over long periods. Assessment of efficacy and safety of the most promising treatments will require studies with larger sample sizes over longer periods.

  12. Headache secondary to sleep-related bruxism: A case with polysomnographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related bruxism may present with headache. However, in clinical practice it may be difficult to differentiate from other causes of headache, especially in subjects with substance abuse. We are presenting a case of sleep-related bruxism that presented with headache and sleep-related symptoms in the presence of substance abuse. Polysomnography was used to ascertain cause of headache. How the other possible causes of headache ruled out is also discussed in report. In short, Sleep-related bruxism can cause headache that is worse in the morning. It is associated with poor quality sleep.

  13. Bruxism in children: effect on sleep architecture and daytime cognitive performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Marcela; Valencia, Ignacio; Grant, Mitzie; Metroka, David; Chialastri, Augustine; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2006-09-01

    Sleep bruxism is an involuntary mandibular movement with tooth grinding during sleep. The prevalence of sleep bruxism in children is high and may lead to frequent arousals with altered daytime functioning. We investigated the sleep architecture, the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux, and the daytime cognitive behavioral functioning in a group of children with sleep bruxism. DESIGN-PATIENTS: This prospective pilot study included 10 children. Polysomnographic data with pH-probe analysis was compared with 10 age- and sex-matched controls. Each patient completed a dental evaluation, a nighttime polysomnogram, and cognitive behavioral tests (Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist). Eight of 10 children had clinically significant bruxism and the 2 remaining patients had recent teeth exfoliation. There was no difference on sleep architecture between patients and controls, except for a higher arousal index for the bruxism group (36.7 vs 20.7, p Sleep bruxism occurred more frequently in stage 2 and rapid eye movement sleep, with arousals in 66% of the cases. There was no relationship of bruxism to gastroesophageal reflux or intelligence. However, 40% of the patients had elevated scores on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, indicating significant attention and behavior problems, and there were moderate correlations between the arousal index and several of the behavior-problem scales from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (0.5 to 0.6). The data suggest that children with bruxism have a higher arousal index, which may be associated with an increased incidence of attention-behavior problems. Future studies investigating pediatric sleep bruxism will need to focus on behavior issues that may be prevalent in this population.

  14. Management of sleep bruxism in adults: a qualitative systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Winocur, E.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper updates the bruxism management review published by Lobbezoo et al. in 2008 (J Oral Rehabil 2008; 35: 509-23). The review focuses on the most recent literature on management of sleep bruxism (SB) in adults, as diagnosed with polysomnography (PSG) with audio-video (AV) recordings, or with

  15. A systematic review of therapeutic modalities used in sleep bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Wathiq Al-Khudhairy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sleep bruxism (SB has been present for over a century. There are many treatment modalities in the literature. The objective of this systematic review of randomized controlled clinical therapeutic trials of SB in adults diagnosed by clinical and/or electromyogram and/or polysomnography of SB is to elucidate the most effective of treatment modalities via documentation of the levels of evidence. Materials and Method: This review conducted electronically on PubMed included only English Full text human clinical trials with or without randomization. Twenty-one articles were included in this review. The therapeutic modalities of SB were classified into behavioral therapy, appliance therapy, local pharmacotherapy, and systemic pharmacotherapy. Each article was further allotted a level of evidence. Results: This review suggests that Oral appliances expressed the most positive outcome on SB episodes per hour of sleep. Conclusion: There is still not sufficient evidence to support behavioral and pharmaco-therapeutic approach

  16. Interepisode Sleep Bruxism Intervals and Myofascial Face Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzalev, Konstantin; Lobbezoo, Frank; Janal, Malvin N; Raphael, Karen G

    2017-08-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is considered as a possible etiological factor for temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. However, polysomnographic (PSG) studies, which are current "gold standard" diagnostic approach to SB, failed to prove an association between SB and TMD. A possible explanation could be that PSG studies have considered only limited characteristics of SB activity: the number of SB events per hour and, sometimes, the total duration of SB per night. According to the sports sciences literature, lack of adequate rest time between muscle activities leads to muscle overloading and pain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the intervals between bruxism events differ between patients with and without TMD pain. Two groups of female volunteers were recruited: myofascial TMD pain group (n=124) and non-TMD control group (n=46). From these groups, we selected 86 (69%) case participants and 37 (80%) controls who had at least two SB episodes per night based on PSG recordings. A linear mixed model was used to compare case and control groups over the repeated observations of interepisode intervals. The duration of interepisode intervals was statistically similar in the case (mean [standard deviation {SD}] 1137.7 [1975.8] seconds)] and control (mean [SD] 1192.0 [1972.0] seconds) groups. There were also a similar number of SB episodes per hour and a total duration of SB episodes in both groups. The current data fail to support the idea that TMD pain can be explained by increasing number of SB episodes per hour of sleep or decreasing the time between SB events. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Association between sleep bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengatto, Cristiane Machado; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Scheeren, Betina; Barros, Sérgio Gabriel Silva de

    2013-11-01

    Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity, including sleep bruxism (SB), can be induced in healthy individuals by experimental esophageal acidification, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, no robust evidence supports the association between SB and GERD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between SB and GERD. Forty-five individuals were eligible to participate in this observational transversal study at the Gastroenterology Service of the Clinical Hospital of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The participants were classified into 2 groups, those with and without GERD, according to the Montreal Criteria and pH-metry/endoscopy findings. The diagnosis of SB was not assessed in a sleep laboratory but was based on self-report plus clinical inspection, according to the minimal diagnostic criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory was used to evaluate self-perceived stress. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed with SB as dependent variable and GERD, sex, age, body mass index, and stress as predictors (α=.05; 90% power). The study population included individuals with SB without GERD (13.3%) and individuals with SB with GERD (31.1%). In participants with GERD, the prevalence of SB was 73.7%. Only the variable GERD was significantly associated with SB (P=.017; odds ratio 6.58; 95% confidence interval 1.40-30.98), although adjusted for stress and age. Sleep bruxism is prevalent in GERD patients, and GERD is highly associated with SB. Copyright © 2013 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bruxism: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, S Varalakshmi; Kumar, M Praveen; Sravanthi, D; Mohsin, Abdul Habeeb Bin; Anuhya, V

    2014-01-01

    Parafunctional activities associated with the stomatognathic system include lip and cheek chewing, nail biting, and teeth clenching. Bruxism can be classified as awake or sleep bruxism. Patients with sleep bruxism are more likely to experience jaw pain and limitation of movement, than people who do not experience sleep bruxism. Faulty occlusion is one of the most common causes of bruxism that further leads to temporomandibular joint pain. Bruxism has been described in various ways by differen...

  19. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, D; Restrepo, C; Diaz-Serrano, K; Winocur, E; Lobbezoo, F

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the issue of sleep bruxism prevalence in children at the general population level. Quality assessment of the reviewed papers was performed to identify flaws in the external and internal validity. Cut-off criteria for an acceptable external validity were established to select studies for the discussion of prevalence data. A total of 22 publications were included in the review, most of which had methodological problems limiting their external validity. Prevalence data extraction was performed only on eight papers that were consistent as for the sampling strategy and showed only minor external validity problems, but they had some common internal validity flaws related with the definition of sleep bruxism measures. All the selected papers based sleep bruxism diagnosis on proxy reports by the parents, and no epidemiological data were available from studies adopting other diagnostic strategies (e.g. polysomnography or electromyography). The reported prevalence was highly variable between the studies (3·5-40·6%), with a commonly described decrease with age and no gender differences. A very high variability in sleep bruxism prevalence in children was found, due to the different age groups under investigation and the different frequencies of self-reported sleep bruxism. This prevented from supporting any reliable estimates of the prevalence of sleep bruxism in children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Eduardo; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB. There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately.

  1. Clinical significance of sleep bruxism on several occlusal and functional parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommerborn, Michelle A; Giraki, Maria; Schneider, Christine; Fuck, Lars Michael; Zimmer, Stefan; Franz, Matthias; Raab, Wolfgang Hans-michael; Schaefer, Ralf

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between various functional and occlusal parameters and sleep bruxism. Thirty-nine (39) sleep bruxism patients and 30 controls participated in this investigation. The assessment of sleep bruxism was performed using the Bruxcore Bruxism-Monitoring Device (BBMD) combined with a new computer-based analyzing method. Sixteen functional and/or occlusal parameters were recorded. With a mean slide of 0.95 mm in the sleep bruxism group and a mean slide of 0.42 mm in the control group (Mann Whitney U test; p<0.003), results solely demonstrated a significant group difference regarding the length of a slide from centric occlusion to maximum intercuspation. The results suggest that the slightly pronounced slide could be of clinical importance in the development of increased wear facets in patients with current sleep bruxism activity. Following further evaluation including polysomnographic recordings, the BBMD combined with this new analyzing technique seems to be a clinically feasible instrument that allows the practitioner to quantify abrasion over a short period.

  2. Association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuya; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yuka; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Sakai, Takuro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Kawana, Fusae; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism. A total of 35 university students and staff members participated in this study after providing informed consent. All participants were divided into either a sleep bruxism group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 14), based on the following clinical diagnostic criteria: (1) reports of tooth-grinding sounds for at least two nights a week during the preceding 6 months by their sleep partner; (2) presence of tooth attrition with exposed dentin; (3) reports of morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness; and (4) presence of masseter muscle hypertrophy. Video-polysomnography was performed in the sleep laboratory for two nights. Sleep bruxism episodes were measured using masseter electromyography, visually inspected and then categorized into phasic or tonic episodes. Phasic episodes were categorized further into episodes with or without grinding sounds as evaluated by audio signals. Sleep bruxism subjects with reported grinding sounds had a significantly higher total number of phasic episodes with grinding sounds than subjects without reported grinding sounds or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P bruxism subjects with tooth attrition exhibited significantly longer phasic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P bruxism subjects with morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness exhibited significantly longer tonic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P bruxism represents different aspects of jaw motor activity during sleep. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Use of electromyographic and electrocardiographic signals to detect sleep bruxism episodes in a natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroflorio, Tommaso; Mesin, Luca; Tartaglia, Gianluca Martino; Sforza, Chiarella; Farina, Dario

    2013-11-01

    Diagnosis of bruxism is difficult since not all contractions of masticatory muscles during sleeping are bruxism episodes. In this paper, we propose the use of both EMG and ECG signals for the detection of sleep bruxism. Data have been acquired from 21 healthy volunteers and 21 sleep bruxers. The masseter surface EMGs were detected with bipolar concentric electrodes and the ECG with monopolar electrodes located on the clavicular regions. Recordings were made at the subjects' homes during sleeping. Bruxism episodes were automatically detected as characterized by masseter EMG amplitude greater than 10% of the maximum and heart rate increasing by more than 25% with respect to baseline within 1 s before the increase in EMG amplitude above the 10% threshold. Furthermore, the subjects were classified as bruxers and nonbruxers by a neural network. The number of bruxism episodes per night was 24.6 ± 8.4 for bruxers and 4.3 ± 4.5 for controls ( P bruxism.

  4. Is there a First Night Effect on Sleep Bruxism? A Sleep Laboratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Lavigne, Gilles; Rompré, Pierre; Kato, Takafumi; Urade, Masahiro; Huynh, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep bruxism (SB) is reported to vary in frequency over time. The aim of this study was to assess the first night effect on SB. Methods: A retrospective polysomnographic (PSG) analysis was performed of data from a sample of SB patients (12 females, 4 males; age range: 17-39 years) recorded in a sleep laboratory over 2 consecutive nights. Sleep parameters and jaw muscle activity variables (i.e., rhythmic masticatory muscle activity [RMMA]) for SB were quantified and compared between the 2 nights. Subjects were classified into groups according to severity of RMMA frequency, such as low frequency (2-4 episodes/h and/or bruxism time index, and mean burst duration (repeated measure ANOVAs, p ≤ 0.05). Five patients of 8 in the low frequency group were classified into the moderate-high frequency group on the second night, whereas only one patient in the moderate-high frequency group moved to the low frequency group. Conclusions: The results showed no overall first night effect on severity of RMMA frequency in young and healthy patients with SB. In clinical practice, one-night sleep recording may be sufficient for moderate-high frequency SB patients. However, low RMMA frequency in the first night could be confirmed by a second night based on the patient's medical and dental history. Citation: Hasegawa Y; Lavigne G; Rompré P; Kato T; Urade M; Huynh N. Is there a first night effect on sleep bruxism? A sleep laboratory study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(11):1139-1145. PMID:24235894

  5. Lifestyle and oral facial disorders associated with sleep bruxism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Nashalie Andrade de; Fernandes, Alline Birra Nolasco; Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes de; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the routine, sleep history, and orofacial disorders associated with children aged 3-7 years with nocturnal bruxism. Children (n = 66) were divided into groups of parent reported nocturnal bruxism (n = 34) and those without the disorder (n = 32). Data about the child's routine during the day, during sleep and awakening, headache frequency, temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and hearing impairments were obtained through interviews with parents/caregivers. Electromyography examination was used to assess the activity of facial muscles. Multiple logistic regression (MLR), chi-square test, and t-test analyses were performed. MLR revealed association of nightmares (p = 0.002; OR = 18.09) and snoring (p = 0.013; OR = 0.14) with bruxism. Variables related to awakening revealed an association with bruxism (p bruxism) reported more complaints of orofacial pain, facial appearance, and headache occurrence (p  0.05). Nightmares and snoring are associated with nocturnal bruxism in children. Bruxism in children elicits consequences such as headache, orofacial pain, and pain related to awakening.

  6. Biofeedback for treatment of awake and sleep bruxism in adults: systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ilovar, Sasa; Zolger, Danaja; Castrillon, Eduardo; Car, Josip; Huckvale, Kit

    2014-01-01

    Background Bruxism is a disorder of jaw-muscle activity characterised by repetitive clenching or grinding of the teeth which results in discomfort and damage to dentition. The two clinical manifestations of the condition (sleep and awake bruxism) are thought to have unrelated aetiologies but are palliated using similar techniques. The lack of a definitive treatment has prompted renewed interest in biofeedback, a behaviour change method that uses electronic detection to provide a stimulus when...

  7. Association between painful temporomandibular disorders, sleep bruxism and tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the association between sleep bruxism (SB, tinnitus and temporomandibular disorders (TMD. The sample consisted of 261 women (mean age of 37.0 years. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used to classify TMD and self-reported tinnitus. SB was diagnosed by clinical criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The results showed an association between painful TMD and tinnitus (OR = 7.3; 95%CI = 3.50-15.39; p < 0.001. With regard to SB, the association was of lower magnitude (OR = 1.9; 95%CI = 1.16-3.26; p < 0.0163. When the sample was stratified by the presence of SB and painful TMD, only SB showed no association with tinnitus. The presence of painful TMD without SB was significantly associated with tinnitus (OR = 6.7; 95%CI = 2.64-17.22; p < 0.0001. The concomitant presence of painful TMD and SB was associated with a higher degree of tinnitus severity (OR = 7.0; 95%CI = 3.00-15.89; p < 0.0001. It may be concluded that there is an association between SB, painful TMD and self-reported tinnitus; however, no relationship of a causal nature could be established.

  8. Cross-sectional study of anxiety symptoms and self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in female TMD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Luisa Maria Faria; da Silva Parente Macedo, Leonora Cristina; Duarte, Cristina Maria Rabelais; de Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal; de Souza Tesch, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between levels of anxiety symptoms and prevalence of self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). One hundred and eighty-one female patients, aged 19-77 years, were consecutively evaluated. The patients were selected from among those who sought treatment at the TMD and Orofacial Pain Outpatient Clinic of the Petrópolis School of Medicine. All patients completed the questionnaire and underwent clinical examination, both components of the RDC/TMD, in addition to answering questions pertaining to the assessment of levels of anxiety symptoms, taken from the Symptom Check List 90 self-report instrument. The subjects were classified according to the presence of self-reported only awake bruxism, only sleep bruxism, both, or none. A logistic regression procedure was performed to evaluate the possible association through odds ratio between anxiety symptoms and self-reported awake or sleep bruxism. The cofactors for each outcome were age, self-reported bruxism during the circadian period other than the one being evaluated, and the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It was possible to demonstrate the presence of a positive and statistically significant relationship between anxiety levels and self-reported awake bruxism. This finding was not observed in those subjects who reported sleep bruxism. A positive relationship was found between self-reported awake bruxism and levels of anxiety symptoms, but not between sleep bruxism and anxiety.

  9. Respiratory disorders and the prevalence of sleep bruxism among schoolchildren aged 8 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Clarissa Lopes; Souza, Débora Souto; Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Ramos-Jorge, Joana

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between respiratory disorders and sleep bruxism, with an evaluation of demographic/socioeconomic factors and childhood stress as confounding variables. A cross-sectional study was performed in the city of Diamantina, Brazil, with 448 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 8 to 11 years. The schoolchildren underwent an oral examination for the evaluation of bruxism. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire for the assessment of sleep bruxism; socioeconomic-demographic factors; and respiratory disorders, such as rhinitis, sinusitis, and bronchitis. The schoolchildren filled out the Children's Stress Scale. Poisson regression models were constructed separately for each respiratory disorder to determine prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sleep bruxism was more prevalent among children with rhinitis (PR = 1.45; 95%CI 1.08-1.93; p = 0.012) and sinusitis (PR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.06-2.36; p = 0.023). No significant association was found between sleep bruxism and bronchitis. A greater frequency of sleep bruxism was found among children whose mothers had a higher level of schooling and those who reported stress in the resistance/exhaustion phase. Rhinitis and sinusitis were associated with sleep bruxism. Moreover, sleep bruxism was more prevalent among children whose mothers had a higher level of schooling and those with higher degrees of stress.

  10. Bruxism: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Varalakshmi; Kumar, M Praveen; Sravanthi, D; Mohsin, Abdul Habeeb Bin; Anuhya, V

    2014-01-01

    Parafunctional activities associated with the stomatognathic system include lip and cheek chewing, nail biting, and teeth clenching. Bruxism can be classified as awake or sleep bruxism. Patients with sleep bruxism are more likely to experience jaw pain and limitation of movement, than people who do not experience sleep bruxism. Faulty occlusion is one of the most common causes of bruxism that further leads to temporomandibular joint pain. Bruxism has been described in various ways by different authors. This article gives a review of the literature on bruxism since its first description. PMID:25628497

  11. Bruxism: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Varalakshmi; Kumar, M Praveen; Sravanthi, D; Mohsin, Abdul Habeeb Bin; Anuhya, V

    2014-01-01

    Parafunctional activities associated with the stomatognathic system include lip and cheek chewing, nail biting, and teeth clenching. Bruxism can be classified as awake or sleep bruxism. Patients with sleep bruxism are more likely to experience jaw pain and limitation of movement, than people who do not experience sleep bruxism. Faulty occlusion is one of the most common causes of bruxism that further leads to temporomandibular joint pain. Bruxism has been described in various ways by different authors. This article gives a review of the literature on bruxism since its first description.

  12. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Shereen M; El Wakeel, Eman E; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ (2) = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ (2) = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ (2) = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ (2) = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ (2) = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ (2) = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  13. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen M. Shokry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women. A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ2=22.6, p=0.000, continuous sleep until morning (χ2=19.2, p=0.001, nighttime sleep duration (χ2=20.2, p=0.000, and length of daytime naps (χ2=28.35, p=0.000. There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ2=16.52, p=0.000 and increased nightmares (χ2=13.7, p=0.001. Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  14. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB in children is subject to discussions in the literature.OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children.METHODS: Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children.RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB.CONCLUSION: There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately.

  15. Sleep bruxism: review and update for the restorative dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Hoz, José L

    2013-01-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is a parafunctional oromotor activity that can sometimes pose a threat to the integrity of the structures of the masticatory system if the magnitude and direction of the forces exerted exceed the system's adaptive capacity. Over the years science has tried to provide a consistent explanation of the etiopathogenesis and physiopathology of SB, although the pathophysiological mechanisms are, even now, not fully understood yet. There is at present no specific, effective treatment to permanently eliminate the habit of SB. There are only palliative therapeutic alternatives steered at preventing the pathological effects of SB on the stomatognathic system and alleviating the negative clinical consequences of the habit. The aim of this paper is to review and update the fundamental scientific concepts of SB based on the scientific literature and to furnish an approach to the main types of therapy available, in an attempt to assist the general and restorative dentist to manage those clinical situations in which SB is a significant risk factor for the oral health and/or dental treatment of the patient.

  16. Neuro-behavioral pattern of sleep bruxism in wakefulness

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    Marila Rezende Azevedo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Sleep Bruxism (SB is a non-functional rhythmic movement of the mandible with multifactorial aetiology and complex diagnose. It has been the subject of various studies over the past decades and it is considered a result of actions of the Central Nervous System modulated by Autonomous Nervous System. In this work, we test the hypothesis that SB subjects present a typical and defined neurobehavioral pattern that can be distinct from that of non-bruxers subjects and can be measured during wakefulness. Methods Fifteen sleep bruxers (experimental-group EG and fifteen non-bruxers (control-group CG took part in the experiments. To verify the presence and severity of SB, clinical examinations, anamneses and questionnaires, including Visual Analogic Scale - faces (VAS-f and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were applied. To legitimate the diagnoses of SB, a disposable instrument (Bitestrip® to assess the masseter activity during sleep was employed. All subjects were submitted to a set of experiments for measuring various visual evoked responses during the presentation of visual stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral images. Events in Visual Evoked Potential (VEP were used to compare the neural responses of both CG and EG. Results VAS-f showed EG with higher perception of stress than CG (trait: p=0.05, and lower quality of life for (state: p=0.007. STAI I and II showed significant differences of anxiety between CG and EG (p=0.013 and p=0.004, respectively, being EG the highest. The EG Bitestrip scores confirmed that 100% of subjects were sleep bruxers. Significant differences were found between EG and CG for events associated with emotional (pleasant and unpleasant images in the first 250 ms after stimulation. In general, EG subjects showed higher amplitude and shorter latency of VEP events. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish between SB and non-bruxers subjects during wakefulness, based on differences in amplitude and

  17. Integrated orofacial therapy in chronic rhinosinusitis management for children with sleep bruxism

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    Haryono Utomo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of rhinosinusitis was 20% in ambulatory patients and was mostly affected by viral infections and allergy. If conservative treatments of rhinosinusitis failed, surgical procedure is an alternative choice. Previous case report revealed that the rhinosinusitis symptoms were successfully relieved by the "assisted drainage" therapy only. Nevertheless, this therapy was less successful in children with sleep bruxism (SB. Purpose: To report an integrated orofacial therapy for management of rhinosinusitis children with sleep bruxism (SB which consisted of the assisted drainage, night-guard and masseter muscle massage therapies. Case: Two boys who suffered from rhinosinusitis with bruxism were unsuccessfully treated with conventional treatment. Case management: Patients was subjected to the assisted drainage therapy that was scaling and root planning combined with gingival massage, and masseter muscle massage; night guard was worn in night sleep. They successfully relieved the rhinosinusitis symptoms. Conclusion: Based on the successful result, this integrated therapy could be suggested as an adjuvant in rhinosinusitis management.Latar belakang: Prevalensi rinosinusitis adalah 20% pasien rawat jalan dan umumnya disebabkan oleh infeksi virus dan alergi. Apabila terapi konservatif rinosinusitis mengalami kegagalan maka pilihan terakhir adalah operasi. Pada laporan kasus yang ada telah terjadi perbaikan gejala rinosinusitis setelah dilakukan terapi “assisted drainage” saja. Akan tetapi, terapi ini kurang berhasil pada anak dengan sleep bruxism (SB. Tujuan: Melaporkan suatu terapi orofasial terintegrasi untuk tatalaksana rinosinusitis pada anak dengan sleep bruxism (SB yang terdiri dari terapi assisted drainage, night guard dan masase otot masseter. Kasus: Dua anak laki-laki yang menderita rinosinusitis dengan bruxism telah mengalami kegagalan pada perawatan konsvensional. Tatalaksana kasus: Pasien dilakukan terapi assisted

  18. Association between sleep bruxism and psychosocial factors in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca Canto, Graziela; Singh, Vandana; Conti, Paulo; Dick, Bruce D; Gozal, David; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    To summarize the association between sleep bruxism and psychosocial factors in children and adolescents. Individual search strategies for five databases were developed. The references cited in the selected articles were checked and a partial gray literature search was undertaken. Only articles that used the international diagnostic criteria for sleep bruxism as proposed by the American Association of Sleep Medicine were included. Any form of reporting of psychosocial factors was considered. Of the 44 retained articles, only 7 studies were finally included for the qualitative/quantitative synthesis. No evidence supportive of an association between sleep bruxism and psychosocial factors in children younger than 5 years emerged. A significant association was present in children between 6 and 11 years old and in adolescents 12 to 17 years old. Risk of bias was low-to-moderate in most of the included studies. The current available evidence suggests an association between sleep bruxism and psychological factors in children older than 6 years. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Association of temporomandibular disorder pain with awake and sleep bruxism in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierwald, Ira; John, Mike T; Schierz, Oliver; Hirsch, Christian; Sagheri, Darius; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Reissmann, Daniel R

    2015-07-01

    Parafunctional habits such as clenching or grinding (bruxism) during daytime and at night are considered to have a great impact on the etiopathogenesis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the size of the effect and how daytime activities interact with nocturnal activities is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to assess the association of TMD pain with both awake and sleep bruxism in adults. In this case-control study, data of a consecutive sample of 733 TMD patients (cases; mean age ± SD: 41.4 ± 16.3 years; 82% women) with at least one pain-related TMD diagnosis according to the German version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) and of a community-based probability sample of 890 subjects (controls; mean age ± SD: 40.4 ± 11.8 years; 57% female) without TMD were evaluated. Clenching or grinding while awake and/or asleep was assessed with self-reports. Association of TMD pain with awake and sleep bruxism was analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses and controlled for potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. While 11.2% of the controls reported clenching or grinding while awake, this proportion was significantly higher in TMD patients (33.9%; p bruxism (OR 1.8; CI 1.4-2.4). However, risk for TMD pain substantially increased in cases of simultaneous presence of awake and sleep bruxism (OR 7.7; CI 5.4-11.1). When occurring separately, awake and sleep bruxism are significant risk factors for TMD pain. In case of simultaneous presence, the risk for TMD pain is even higher.

  20. Quality of life evaluation of children with sleep bruxism

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    Gavião Maria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of potential factors associated with sleep bruxism (SB may help in determining the etiology of such parafunction. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of life (QoL of children with SB by means of a generic scale, in addition to the association of sociodemographic characteristics and other parafunctional habits. Methods This cross-sectional study included healthy children of both genders, aged 7.18 ± 0.59 years, with (n = 25 and without (n = 69 signs and symptoms of SB. Data were collected in caries-free children from public schools by applying a translated and validated version of the Autoquestionnaire Qualite de Vie Enfant Image (AUQUEI, clinical examination and interview with the parents. The psychometric properties evaluated for the scale referred to internal consistency (ceiling and floor effects, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, Items Correlation Matrix, and corrected Item-Total Correlation and the discriminant validity (t-test. By means of logistic regression with stepwise backward elimination, associations were evaluated between SB and age, gender, body mass index, maternal use of alcohol/tobacco/medicine during pregnancy, maternal age at birth, parent's schooling, presence of sucking habit, nail biting, enuresis, number of children, child's order (first born, occurrence of divorce/parent's death, and AUQUEI scores. Results The results of the AUQUEI psychometric analysis showed homogeneity of items and a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.65; no negative correlations between the items were found. The mean AUQUEI scores for children with SB did not differ significantly from those of children without the parafunction. Only the independent variable "maternal age at birth" showed a significant negative association with SB. Conclusions In the studied sample, children with SB presented scores of QoL that were similar to those without the parafunction, and children from the youngest mothers were more likely

  1. Quality of life evaluation of children with sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo, Paula M; Barbosa, Taís S; Gavião, Maria Beatriz D

    2010-06-14

    The study of potential factors associated with sleep bruxism (SB) may help in determining the etiology of such parafunction. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) of children with SB by means of a generic scale, in addition to the association of sociodemographic characteristics and other parafunctional habits. This cross-sectional study included healthy children of both genders, aged 7.18 +/- 0.59 years, with (n = 25) and without (n = 69) signs and symptoms of SB. Data were collected in caries-free children from public schools by applying a translated and validated version of the Autoquestionnaire Qualite de Vie Enfant Image (AUQUEI), clinical examination and interview with the parents. The psychometric properties evaluated for the scale referred to internal consistency (ceiling and floor effects, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, Items Correlation Matrix, and corrected Item-Total Correlation) and the discriminant validity (t-test). By means of logistic regression with stepwise backward elimination, associations were evaluated between SB and age, gender, body mass index, maternal use of alcohol/tobacco/medicine during pregnancy, maternal age at birth, parent's schooling, presence of sucking habit, nail biting, enuresis, number of children, child's order (first born), occurrence of divorce/parent's death, and AUQUEI scores. The results of the AUQUEI psychometric analysis showed homogeneity of items and a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.65; no negative correlations between the items were found. The mean AUQUEI scores for children with SB did not differ significantly from those of children without the parafunction. Only the independent variable "maternal age at birth" showed a significant negative association with SB. In the studied sample, children with SB presented scores of QoL that were similar to those without the parafunction, and children from the youngest mothers were more likely to present SB.

  2. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Restrepo, C.; Diaz-Serrano, K.; Winocur, E.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the issue of sleep bruxism prevalence in children at the general population level. Quality assessment of the reviewed papers was performed to identify flaws in the external and internal validity.

  3. Association of sleep bruxism with oral health-related quality of life and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara-Souza, Mariana Barbosa; de Figueredo, Olívia Maria Costa; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus

    2018-03-27

    To compare the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and sleep quality of subjects with and without sleep bruxism (SB). Participants of both genders were assigned as bruxers (n = 30, age 21-45 years) and non-bruxers (n = 30, age 24-40 years). SB was clinically diagnosed and confirmed with an electromyography/electrocardiograph portable device (Bruxoff). The OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). The sleep quality was determined using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaires. OHIP-14, PSQI, and ESS data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, considering a significance level of 5%. Bruxers had worse OHRQoL (mean = 16.43) than controls (mean = 4.1), with an effect size (ES) of 1.58. Moreover, SB volunteers showed the highest PSQI scores (mean = 7.07; ES = 0.82) and excessive daytime sleepiness (mean = 10.33; ES = 0.65), compared to non-bruxers (means = 4.7 and 7.8, respectively). SB may be associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL and sleep quality. Determining that SB may have a marked role in OHRQoL and sleep quality is important for dental professionals establish proper multifactorial management, and understand patient-related psychosocial aspects.

  4. Sleep bruxism associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome - A pilot study using a new portable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, M; Drummond, M; Viana, P; Pinho, J C; Winck, J C

    Sleep bruxism (SB) and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) share common pathophysiologic pathways. We aimed to study the presence and relationship of SB in a OSAS population. Patients referred with OSAS suspicion and concomitant SB complains were evaluated using a specific questionnaire, orofacial evaluation and cardio-respiratory polygraphy that could also monitor audio and EMG of the masseter muscles. From 11 patients studied 9 had OSAS. 55.6% were male, mean age was 46.3±11.3 years, and apnea hypopnea index of 11.1±5.7/h. Through specific questionnaire 55.6% had SB criteria. Orofacial examination (only feasible in 3) confirmed tooth wear in all. 77.8% had polygraphic SB criteria (SB index>2/h). Mean SB index was 5.12±3.6/h, phasic events predominated (72.7%). Concerning tooth grinding episodes, we found a mean of 10.7±9.2 per night. All OSAS patients except two (77.8%) had more than two audible tooth-grinding episodes. These two patients were the ones with the lowest SB index (1.0 and 1.4 per hour). Only in one patient could we not detect tooth grinding episodes. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between tooth grinding episodes and SB index and phasic event index (R=0.755, p=0.019 and R=0.737, p=0.023 respectively, Pearson correlation). Mean apnoea to bruxism index was 0.4/h, meaning that only a minority of SB events were not secondary to OSAS. We could not find any significant correlation between AHI and bruxism index or phasic bruxism index (R=-0.632 and R=-0.611, p>0.05, Pearson correlation). This pilot study shows that SB is a very common phenomenon in a group of mild OSAS patients, probably being secondary to it in the majority of cases. The new portable device used may add diagnostic accuracy and help to tailor therapy in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Biofeedback for treatment of awake and sleep bruxism in adults: systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovar, Sasa; Zolger, Danaja; Castrillon, Eduardo; Car, Josip; Huckvale, Kit

    2014-05-02

    Bruxism is a disorder of jaw-muscle activity characterised by repetitive clenching or grinding of the teeth which results in discomfort and damage to dentition. The two clinical manifestations of the condition (sleep and awake bruxism) are thought to have unrelated aetiologies but are palliated using similar techniques. The lack of a definitive treatment has prompted renewed interest in biofeedback, a behaviour change method that uses electronic detection to provide a stimulus whenever bruxism occurs. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of research into biofeedback for bruxism; to assess the efficacy and acceptability of biofeedback therapy in management of awake bruxism and, separately, sleep bruxism in adults; and to compare findings between the two variants. A systematic review of published literature examining biofeedback as an intervention directed at controlling primary bruxism in adults. We will search electronic databases and the grey literature using a predefined search strategy to identify randomised and non-randomised studies, technical reports and patents. Searches will not be restricted by language or date and will be expanded through contact with authors and experts, and by following up reference lists and citations. Two authors, working independently, will conduct screening of search results, study selection, data extraction and quality assessment and a third will resolve any disagreements. The primary outcomes of acceptability and effectiveness will be assessed using only randomised studies, segregated by bruxism subtype. A meta-analysis of these data will be conducted only if pre-defined conditions for quality and heterogeneity are met, otherwise the data will be summarized in narrative form. Data from non-randomised studies will be used to augment a narrative synthesis of the state of technical developments and any safety-related issues. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013006880. Biofeedback is not new

  6. Self-Reported Sleep Bruxism and Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Relationship to Gender and Ethnicity§

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives : Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethn...

  7. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and sleep bruxism: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokubauskas, L; Baltrušaitytė, A

    2017-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a clinical risk factor for sleep bruxism (SB). Both OSAS and SB are reported to be associated with sleep-related arousal reactions, although no clear causative link has been established. An electronic literature search was conducted of the MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Wiley Online Library, SAGE Journals and EBSCOhost databases covering the period January 2006 and September 2016. Sequential screenings at the title, abstract and full-text levels were performed. The review included observational studies in the English language with a clearly established aim to assess the relationship between OSAS and SB using full-night PSG. The seven-item quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies was used to assess the methodology across the studies. After a comprehensive screening of titles, abstracts and full texts, only three studies that met the pre-defined criteria were finally included in this systematic review. Two studies gave evidence that OSAS is associated with the occurrence of SB events: (i) SB events frequently occur during micro-arousal events consequent on apnoea-hypopnoea (AH) events and (ii) most SB events occur in temporal conjunction with AH events termination. However, one study did not report a strong association between AH and SB events. It can be concluded that there are not enough scientific data to define a clear causative link between OSAS and SB. However, they appear to share common clinical features. Further studies should focus on the intermediate mechanisms between respiratory and SB events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of trazodone on sleep bruxism in children and adolescents 6-18 years of age, a pilot study

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    Fereshteh Shakibaei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Sleep bruxism is a common sleep disorder with unclear etiology and no definitive treatment. Recent
    • suggested medications are not often practically used due to their numerous limitations. Based on the fact that sleep bruxism occurs most often in the second stage of non-REM sleep, this study aimed to assess the effect of trazodone on sleep bruxism.
    • METHODS: This pilot study was conducted as a before-after design on 28 children and adolescents with 6-18 years of age suffering from sleep bruxism referring by children and adolescents mental health clinic, children dental specialists and pediatricians. The treatment started with 0.5mg/kg/day. In non-responders, it was weekly added by 0.5 mg/kg/day (with optimum of 2 mg/kg/day. Frequency of bruxism and related morning face/jaw pain were assessed daily from two weeks before (baseline to four weeks after starting the intervention by the parents/roommate.
    • RESULTS: Findings showed a significant reduction in the frequency of both bruxism and related morning pain from baseline to the 2nd and the 4th weeks of the intervention (P<0.001. Minor side effects such as drowsiness, nausea and dry mouth were seen among approximately one-third of the patients. These side effects were self-limited and tolerable.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Trazodone could be effective in reducing the frequency of sleep bruxism and its related morning face/jaw pain. Well-designed placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the results.
    • KEY WORDS: Sleep bruxism, trazodone, teeth clenching, teeth grinding.

  9. Sleep bruxism: contemporary insights in diagnosis, etiology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zaag, J.

    2012-01-01

    Jac. van der Zaag deed onderzoek naar de diagnose, de etiologie en de behandelingsmethoden van slaapbruxisme Bruxisme is een bewegingsstoornis van het kauwstelsel die onder andere wordt gekenmerkt door tandenknarsen en klemmen. Het treedt zowel op gedurende de dag (waakbruxisme) als tijdens de slaap

  10. Efficacy of biofeedback therapy via a mini wireless device on sleep bruxism contrasted with occlusal splint: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, WeiPing; Yang, Jie; Zhang, FeiMin; Yin, XinMin; Wei, XiaoLong; Wang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The putative causes of bruxism are multifactorial and there are no definite measures for bruxism management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of biofeedback therapy on sleep bruxism, compared with occlusal splint. Twenty-four volunteers with sleep bruxism were divided into two groups: the GTB group that were treated with biofeedback therapy (n  = 12) and the GTO group that were treated with occlusal splint (n  = 12). A mini pressure sensor integrated with a monitoring circuit by use of a maxillary biofeedback splint was fabricated. To foster the relaxation of the masticatory muscles and the nervous system, the wireless device received signals from bruxism events and vibrations alerted the bruxer when the threshold was exceeded. Total episodes and average duration of bruxism events during 8 hours of sleep were analyzed with the monitoring program (TRMY1.0). After 6 and 12 weeks, the episodes (P  =  0.001) and duration (P 0.05). Furthermore, the episodes had significant differences between the GTB group and the GTO group after the same period of treatment (P  =  0.000). The results suggest that biofeedback therapy may be an effective and convenient measure for mild bruxers, when compared with occlusal splint therapy. The mini wireless biofeedback method may be of value for the diagnosis and management of bruxism in the future. PMID:25859272

  11. Prevalence of Sleep Bruxism in IBD Patients and Its Correlation to Other Dental Disorders and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bucci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases could experience mouth and teeth disorders and alterations in psychological mood. Vice versa, the psychological status may influence the presence of oral diseases. Aim. To evaluate in inflammatory bowel disease patients the prevalence of sleep bruxism and its correlation with the presence of oral diseases, quality of sleep, and psychological disturbances. Methods. Patients were consecutively recruited in our clinic and examined for temporomandibular disorders, dental enamel disorders, sleep bruxism, and recurrent aphthous stomatitis by two dentists. Patients also underwent Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Beck Depression Inventory Scale questionnaires. Results. 47 patients and 46 controls were included. Sleep bruxism and enamel wear disorders were more frequent in Crohn’s disease patients when compared with ulcerative colitis patients and controls (p=0.03 and p=0.02, resp.. Among groups, no differences were noted for enamel hypoplasia, temporomandibular disorders, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, depression, and quality of sleep. We found a positive correlation between bruxism and temporomandibular disorders (Spearman 0.6, p 5 (Spearman 0.3, p<0.005. Conclusion. Bruxism and enamel wear disorders should be routinely searched in Crohn’s disease patients. Moreover, the attention of healthcare givers to sleep disturbances should be addressed to all inflammatory bowel disease patients.

  12. Grinding patterns in migraine patients with sleep bruxism: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Momoko; Saruta, Juri; Takeuchi, Mifumi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Kamata, Yohei; Shimizu, Tomoko; To, Masahiro; Fuchida, Shinya; Igarashi, Hisaka; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2016-11-01

    Details on grinding patterns and types of contact during sleep bruxism in association with migraine headache have not yet been elucidated. This study compared the characteristics of sleep bruxism between patients with migraine and controls. The study included 80 female patients who had been diagnosed with migraine and 52 women with no history of migraine. Grinding patterns were measured using the BruxChecker® (Scheu Dental, Iserlohn, Germany). There was a significant difference between the two groups in the distribution of grinding patterns at the laterotrusive side (p grinding area at all sites was significantly larger in the migraine group than in the control group (p grinding over a large area among migraine patients, particularly in the molar region.

  13. Prevalence and potential factors associated with probable sleep or awake bruxism and dentin hypersensitivity in undergraduate students

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    Neusa Barros DANTAS-NETA

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of probable sleep or awake bruxism and cervical dentin hypersensitivity of undergraduate students and to determine the symptoms associated with these conditions.METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study. A diagnosis of probable bruxism was reached when students reported clenching or grinding of the teeth during sleep and/or wakefulness, and when they also presented some of the signs and symptoms of bruxism and masseter muscle pain on palpation. Cervical dentinal hypersensitivity was diagnosed by testing for sensitivity to pain in the cervical region of the teeth. Pain was triggered either by touch (using a #5 probe or by an air jet spray. The sample consisted of 306 university students aged between 19 and 35 years old. The data were stored and analysed using SPSS software, version 15.0 for Windows.RESULT: The prevalence of probable bruxism was 34.3%, with no predominance regarding sex. Probable awake bruxism was more prevalent (61.9%, mostly occurring when the individual reported being in a state of mental concentration (63.1%. There was no association between probable sleep or awake bruxism and dentin hypersensitivity (p = 0.195. Individuals with probable sleep bruxism had increased odds of having muscular pain in the face upon waking (OR = 14.14, 95% CI 5.06-39.55, and those with probable awake bruxism had a increased odds of having facial muscle fatigue when chewing or talking for a long time (OR = 2.88, 95% CI 1.53-5.43 and muscular pain in the face upon waking (OR = 5.31, 95% CI 1.93-14.62.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of probable bruxism was 34.3% and that of HDC was 57.8%, with 22.2% of these subjects also showing probable bruxism. Individuals with probable bruxism tended to have a higher odds of facial pain when they awakened and when chewing or talking for long periods. There were no associations between probable sleep and awake bruxism and cervical dentin hypersensitivity.

  14. Sleep and awake bruxism in adults and its relationship with temporomandibular disorders: A systematic review from 2003 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Silva, Antonio; Peña-Durán, Consuelo; Tobar-Reyes, Julio; Frugone-Zambra, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    In order to establish a relationship between bruxism and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), a systematic review was performed. A systematic research was performed based on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, BIREME, Lilacs and Scielo data bases, between 2003 and 2014 including all languages. Descriptive clinical cases were identified. Two independent authors selected the articles. PICO format was used to analyse the studies and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to verify the quality of the evidence. Thirty-nine studies (n = 39) were analysed in this review. According to bruxism diagnosis, articles were grouped as follows: polysomnographic diagnosis (PSG) (n = 7), clinical diagnosis (n = 11) and survey/self-report (n = 21). Thirty-three articles (n = 33) established a positive relation between bruxism and TMD and six (n = 6) did not. Quality of evidence was low to moderate. In general, the most part of the studies showed shortcomings on their design with bias risk, and also had a low sensitivity on bruxism diagnosis. The evidence based on PSG was not as conclusive as the studies that used surveys and clinical exam to diagnosis bruxism, when bruxism was related to TMD. Sleep bruxism could be associated with myofascial pain, arthralgia and joint pathology as disc displacement and joint noises. Although the evidence at present is inconclusive and does not provide information according to the type of bruxism (bruxism sleep and wakefulness), it is possible to suggest that bruxism would be associated with TMD.

  15. Self-Reported Sleep Bruxism and Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Relationship to Gender and Ethnicity§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives : Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethnicity. Methods : A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with OSA at an academic sleep center. The patients completed a sleep questionnaire prior to undergoing polysomnography. Patients with confirmed OSA were evaluated based on gender and ethnicity. Associations were determined between sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, and daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs symptoms, and markers of OSA severity in each group. Results : In these patients with OSA, the prevalence of nocturnal GERD (35%) and sleep bruxism (26%) were higher than the general population. Sleep bruxism was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans or Hispanics; there was no gender difference. Nocturnal GERD was similar among all gender and ethnic groups. Bruxism was associated with nocturnal GERD in females, restless legs symptoms in all subjects and in males, sleepiness in African Americans, and insomnia in Hispanics. Nocturnal GERD was associated with sleepiness in males and African Americans, insomnia in females, and restless legs symptoms in females and in Caucasians. Conclusion : Patients with OSA commonly have comorbid sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, which may require separate treatment. Providers should be aware of differences in clinical presentation among different ethnic and gender groups. PMID:25352924

  16. Self-reported sleep bruxism and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: relationship to gender and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethnicity. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with OSA at an academic sleep center. The patients completed a sleep questionnaire prior to undergoing polysomnography. Patients with confirmed OSA were evaluated based on gender and ethnicity. Associations were determined between sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, and daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs symptoms, and markers of OSA severity in each group. In these patients with OSA, the prevalence of nocturnal GERD (35%) and sleep bruxism (26%) were higher than the general population. Sleep bruxism was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans or Hispanics; there was no gender difference. Nocturnal GERD was similar among all gender and ethnic groups. Bruxism was associated with nocturnal GERD in females, restless legs symptoms in all subjects and in males, sleepiness in African Americans, and insomnia in Hispanics. Nocturnal GERD was associated with sleepiness in males and African Americans, insomnia in females, and restless legs symptoms in females and in Caucasians. Patients with OSA commonly have comorbid sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, which may require separate treatment. Providers should be aware of differences in clinical presentation among different ethnic and gender groups.

  17. Sleep Bruxism and Anxiety Impacts in Quality of Life Related to Oral Health of Brazilian Children and their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar, Nashalie Andrade; Leão, Cecília Sued; Leão, Anna Thereza Thomé; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    This study aimed to assess the impact of parent reported sleep bruxism, trait anxiety and sociodemographic/socioeconomic features on quality of life related to oral health (OHRQoL) of children and their families. Healthy children aged 3-7 years, with (n=34) and without (n=32) bruxism were select for this study. Data was collected by applying the following instruments: The Early Childhood Oral Health Scale (B-ECOHIS) and Trait-anxiety Scale (TAS). The sociodemographic/socioeconomic characteristics were obtained by interviews with parents. Multiple logistic regression tests were performed to observe the influence of sociodemographic/socioeconomic characteristics, bruxism and trait-anxiety on the children's OHRQoL. No association between sleep bruxism and all evaluated sociodemographic/socioeconomic conditions, with exception of being the only child (p=0.029), were observed. Mean B-ECOHIS and TAS scores were different (pbruxism. Although an association between bruxism and OHRQoL (p=0.015) was observed, it was dropped (p=0.336; OR=1.77) in the logistic regression model. Trait anxiety was the variable responsible for the impact on the OHRQoL of children (p=0.012; OR=1.05). Our results indicated anxiety as the main factor that interfered in the OHRQoL of children with sleep bruxism.

  18. Agreement between two different approaches to assess parent-reported sleep bruxism in children

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    Joyce Duarte

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents' report is the most used method for the study of sleep bruxism (SB in children, especially in research with large samples. However, there is no consensus about the questions used to assess SB, what may difficult the comparisons between studies. Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the agreement between two different approaches to assess possible sleep bruxism (PSB in children using parents' report. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 parents/caregivers. Prior to the questionnaire completion, all participants received a standard explanation of SB concept. Subsequently, the parents/caregivers answered a general question (GQ and a frequency-time question (FTQ about SB, and the answers were compared. Results: The majority of the participants were the children's mothers (73% and the childrens mean age was 7.5 years (SD: 2.25. PSB frequency in children did not differ statistically through the two questions [GQ: 30.7% (CI95%: 24.2 - 37.1 and FTQ: 26.6% (CI95%: 20.4 - 32.8], and an almost perfect agreement was observed between the answers (kp=0.812. Nevertheless, the FTQ showed a more coherent relation with the factors already recognized as associated with childhood bruxism than GQ. Conclusions: Different approaches result in similar PSB frequency, however, they show different ability to identify PSB associated factors and suggest the need of questions including frequency and time in further studies.

  19. The study of grinding patterns and factors influencing the grinding areas during sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianxiang; Liu, Weicai; Wu, Junhua; Zhang, Xuying; Zhang, Yongting

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the grinding patterns and discuss the factors influencing the position relationship between intercuspal position (ICP) and grinding area during sleep bruxism. Lateral condylar inclination, inclination of lateral incisal path and freedom in long centric of thirty subjects were measured. The grinding patterns during sleep bruxism were recorded with a bruxism recording device, BruxChecker. The position relationship between ICP and the grinding area was examined. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis between grinding area and free factors (grinding patterns, freedom in long centric and discrepancy between lateral condylar inclination and inclination of lateral incisal path). All 12 subjects with 0mm-freedom in long centric exhibited that ICP of both sides located within the grinding areas. 4 subjects showed that ICP of both sides located outside the grinding areas. There is a significant correlation between 0mm-freedom in long centric and ICP within the grinding areas (p grinding area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bruxism: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Shilpa; Pitti, Varun; Satish Babu, C. L.; Surendra Kumar, G. P.; Deepthi, B. C.

    2010-01-01

    Bruxism is a movement disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of teeth. Awake bruxism is found more in females as compared to males while sleep bruxism shows no such gender prevalence. Etiology of bruxism can be divided into three groups psychosocial factors, peripheral factors and pathophysiological factors. Treatment modalities involve occlusal correction, behavioural changes and pharmacological approach. A literature search was performed using National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) ...

  1. Current Treatments of Bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    Guaita, Marc; H?gl, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Despite numerous case reports, the evidence for treatment of bruxism is still low. Different treatment modalities (behavioral techniques, intraoral devices, medications, and contingent electrical stimulation) have been applied. A clinical evaluation is needed to differentiate between awake bruxism and sleep bruxism and rule out any medical disorder or medication that could be behind its appearance (secondary bruxism). A polysomnography is required only in a few cases of slee...

  2. Risk factors related to sleep bruxism in children: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroflorio, Tommaso; Bargellini, Andrea; Rossini, Gabriele; Cugliari, Giovanni; Rainoldi, Alberto; Deregibus, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article was to systematically review the literature to identify papers dealing with risk factors associated with sleep bruxism (SB) in children. A systematic search was carried out based on the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trial Register and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACs, SciELO. Studies investigating risk factors related to SB after multiple regression analysis and bruxism symptoms assessed with clinical diagnosis or specific questionnaires were searched. Six out of the 4546 initially identified studies were selected. This review was conducted according to the guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, with reporting in agreement to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Among the six analyzed articles, one randomized clinical trial (RCT) suggested the increase of SB in heavily exposed patients to second hand smoke (SHS) (OR=4.5, CI=2.2-9.4), two cross-sectional studies suggested neuroticism as determinant factor for the development of sleep bruxism (OR=1.9, CI=1.3-2.6), among children and three case-control studies suggested that children with sleep disturbances were more likely to have SB (OR=3.3, CI=1.6-6.6). Parafunctional behaviours (OR=2.3, CI=1.2-4.3) had a moderate association. SHS and sleep disturbances presented the strongest association with SB. The most recurrent source of bias was the lack of blinding procedures. Furthermore, the use of reliable SB diagnostic procedures should be recommended to increase the quality of future studies. The evidence emerged from the considered studies was clinically relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlled assessment of the efficacy of occlusal stabilization splints on sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaag, Jacques; Lobbezoo, Frank; Wicks, Darrel J; Visscher, Corine M; Hamburger, Hans L; Naeije, Machiel

    2005-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of occlusal stabilization splints in the management of sleep bruxism (SB) in a double-blind, parallel, controlled, randomized clinical trial. Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to an occlusal splint group (n = 11; mean age = 34.2 +/- 13.1 years) or a palatal splint (ie, an acrylic palatal coverage) group (n = 10; mean age = 34.9 +/- 11.2 years). Two polysomnographic recordings that included bilateral masseter electromyographic activity were made: one prior to treatment, the other after a treatment period of 4 weeks. The number of bruxism episodes per hour of sleep (Epi/h), the number of bursts per hour (Bur/h), and the bruxism time index (ie, the percentage of total sleep time spent bruxing) were established as outcome variables at a 10% maximum voluntary contraction threshold level. A general linear model was used to test both the effects between splint groups and within the treatment phase as well as their interaction for each outcome variable. Neither occlusal stabilization splints nor palatal splints had an influence on the SB outcome variables or on the sleep variables measured on a group level. In individual cases, variable outcomes were found: Some patients had an increase (33% to 48% of the cases), while others showed no change (33% to 48%) or a decrease (19% to 29%) in SB outcome variables. The absence of significant group effects of splints in the management of SB indicates that caution is required when splints are indicated, apart from their role in the protection against dental wear. The application of splints should therefore be considered at the individual patient level.

  4. Influence of experimental esophageal acidification on sleep bruxism: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmure, H; Oikawa, K; Kanematsu, K; Saito, Y; Yamamoto, T; Nagahama, H; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this cross-over, randomized, single-blinded trial was to examine whether intra-esophageal acidification induces sleep bruxism (SB). Polysomnography with electromyogram (EMG) of masseter muscle, audio-video recording, and esophageal pH monitoring were performed in a sleep laboratory. Twelve healthy adult males without SB participated. Intra-esophageal infusions of 5-mL acidic solution (0.1 N HCl) or saline were administered. The frequencies of EMG bursts, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes, grinding noise, and the RMMA/microarousal ratio were significantly higher in the 20-minute period after acidic infusion than after saline infusion. RMMA episodes including SB were induced by esophageal acidification. This trial is registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000002923. ASDA, American Sleep Disorders Association; EMG, electromyogram; GER, gastroesophageal reflux; LES, lower esophageal sphincter; NREM, non-rapid eye movement; REM, rapid eye movement; RMMA, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity; SB, sleep bruxism; SD, standard deviation; UES, upper esophageal sphincter.

  5. Prevalence and predictive factors of sleep bruxism in children with and without cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batista Miamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have found a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB in individuals with cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with the clinical manifestation of SB in children with and without cognitive impairment. The sample was made up of 180 individuals: Group 1 - without cognitive impairment; Group 2 - with Down syndrome; Group 3 - with cerebral palsy. Malocclusions were assessed based on the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI; lip competence was assessed based on Ballard's description. The bio-psychosocial characteristics were assessed via a questionnaire and clinical exam. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of bruxism was 23%. There were no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.970. Individuals with sucking habits (OR [95% CI] = 4.44 [1.5 to 13.0], posterior crossbite (OR [95% CI] = 3.04 [1.2 to 7.5] and tooth wear facets (OR [95% CI] = 3.32 [1.2 to 8.7] had a greater chance of exhibiting SB. Sucking habits, posterior crossbite and tooth wear facets were identified as being directly associated with the clinical manifestations of bruxism.

  6. Topical review: sleep bruxism and the role of peripheral sensory influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takafumi; Thie, Norman M; Huynh, Nelly; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2003-01-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is an unusual orofacial movement described as a parafunction in dentistry and as a parasomnia in sleep medicine. Since several peripheral influences could be involved in sleep-wake regulation and the genesis of rhythmic jaw movements, the authors have reviewed the relevant literature to facilitate understanding of mechanisms possibly involved in SB genesis. Various animal and human studies indicate that during either wakefulness or anesthesia, orofacial sensory inputs (e.g., from periodontium, mucosa, and muscle) could influence jaw muscle activity. However, the role of these sensory inputs in jaw motor activity during sleep is unclear. Interestingly, during sleep, the jaw is usually open due to motor suppression; tooth contact most likely occurs in association with sleep arousal. Recent physiologic evidence supports an association between sleep arousal and SB; a sequential change from autonomic (cardiac) and brain cortical activities precede SB-related jaw motor activity. This suggests that the central and/or autonomic nervous systems, rather than peripheral sensory factors, have a dominant role in SB genesis. However, some peripheral sensory factors may exert an influence on SB through their interaction with sleep-wake mechanisms. The intent of this review is to integrate various physiologic concepts in order to better understand the mechanisms underlying the genesis of SB.

  7. Current Treatments of Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaita, Marc; Högl, Birgit

    2016-02-01

    Despite numerous case reports, the evidence for treatment of bruxism is still low. Different treatment modalities (behavioral techniques, intraoral devices, medications, and contingent electrical stimulation) have been applied. A clinical evaluation is needed to differentiate between awake bruxism and sleep bruxism and rule out any medical disorder or medication that could be behind its appearance (secondary bruxism). A polysomnography is required only in a few cases of sleep bruxism, mostly when sleep comorbidities are present. Counselling with regard to sleep hygiene, sleep habit modification, and relaxation techniques has been suggested as the first step in the therapeutic intervention, and is generally considered not harmful, despite low evidence of any efficacy. Occlusal splints are successful in the prevention of dental damage and grinding sounds associated with sleep bruxism, but their effects on reducing bruxism electromyographic (EMG) events are transient. In patients with psychiatric and sleep comorbidities, the acute use of clonazepam at night has been reported to improve sleep bruxism, but in the absence of double-blind randomized trials, its use in general clinical practice cannot be recommended. Severe secondary bruxism interfering with speaking, chewing, or swallowing has been reported in patients with neurological disorders such as in cranial dystonia; in these patients, injections of botulinum toxin in the masticatory muscles may decrease bruxism for up to 1-5 months and improve pain and mandibular functions. Long-term studies in larger and better specified samples of patients with bruxism, comparing the effects of different therapeutic modalities on bruxism EMG activity, progression of dental wear, and orofacial pain are current gaps of knowledge and preclude the development of severity-based treatment guidelines.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of portable instrumental devices to measure sleep bruxism: a systematic literature review of polysomnographic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Castroflorio, T.; Poggio, C.E.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the sleep bruxism (SB) literature published in the MEDLINE and Scopus databases to answer the following question: What is the validity of the different portable instrumental devices that have been proposed to measure SB if compared with polysomnographic (PSG)

  9. Electromyogram biofeedback training for daytime clenching and its effect on sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Iizuka, T; Watanabe, A; Iwase, N; Otsuka, H; Terada, N; Fujisawa, M

    2015-02-01

    Bruxism contributes to the development of temporomandibular disorders as well as causes dental problems. Although it is an important issue in clinical dentistry, no treatment approaches have been proven effective. This study aimed to use electromyogram (EMG) biofeedback (BF) training to improve awake bruxism (AB) and examine its effect on sleep bruxism (SB). Twelve male participants (mean age, 26·8 ± 2·5 years) with subjective symptoms of AB or a diagnosis of SB were randomly divided into BF (n = 7) and control (CO, n = 5) groups to undergo 5-h daytime and night-time EMG measurements for three consecutive weeks. EMG electrodes were placed over the temporalis muscle on the habitual masticatory side. Those in the BF group underwent BF training to remind them of the occurrence of undesirable clenching activity when excessive EMG activity of certain burst duration was generated in week 2. Then, EMGs were recorded at week 3 as the post-BF test. Those in the CO group underwent EMG measurement without any EMG BF training throughout the study period. Although the number of tonic EMG events did not show statistically significant differences among weeks 1-3 in the CO group, events in weeks 2 and 3 decreased significantly compared with those in week 1, both daytime and night-time, in the BF group (P < 0·05, Scheffé's test). This study results suggest that EMG BF to improve AB tonic EMG events can also provide an effective approach to regulate SB tonic EMG events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Management of sleep bruxism in adults: a qualitative systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Winocur, Ephraim; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2015-11-01

    This paper updates the bruxism management review published by Lobbezoo et al. in 2008 (J Oral Rehabil 2008; 35: 509-23). The review focuses on the most recent literature on management of sleep bruxism (SB) in adults, as diagnosed with polysomnography (PSG) with audio-video (AV) recordings, or with any other approach measuring the sleep-time masticatory muscles' activity, viz., PSG without AV recordings or electromyography (EMG) recorded with portable devices. Fourteen (N = 14) papers were included in the review, of which 12 were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 were uncontrolled before-after studies. Structured reading of the included articles showed a high variability of topics, designs and findings. On average, the risk of bias for RCTs was low-to-unclear, whilst the before-after studies had several methodological limitations. The studies' results suggest that (i) almost every type of oral appliance (OA) (seven papers) is somehow effective to reduce SB activity, with a potentially higher decrease for devices providing large extent of mandibular advancement; (ii) all tested pharmacological approaches [i.e. botulinum toxin (two papers), clonazepam (one paper) and clonidine (one paper)] may reduce SB with respect to placebo; (iii) the potential benefit of biofeedback (BF) and cognitive-behavioural (CB) approaches to SB management is not fully supported (two papers); and (iv) the only investigation providing an electrical stimulus to the masseter muscle supports its effectiveness to reduce SB. It can be concluded that there is not enough evidence to define a standard of reference approach for SB treatment, except for the use of OA. Future studies on the indications for SB treatment are recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Association of sleep bruxism with ceramic restoration failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Melo, Gilberto; Batistella, Elis Ângela; Bertazzo-Silveira, Eduardo; Simek Vega Gonçalves, Thais Marques; Mendes de Souza, Beatriz Dulcineia; Porporatti, André Luís; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic restorations are popular because of their excellent optical properties. However, failures are still a major concern, and dentists are confronted with the following question: is sleep bruxism (SB) associated with an increased frequency of ceramic restoration failures? The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether the presence of SB is associated with increased ceramic restoration failure. Observational studies and clinical trials that evaluated the short- and long-term survival rate of ceramic restorations in SB participants were selected. Sleep bruxism diagnostic criteria must have included at least 1 of the following: questionnaire, clinical evaluation, or polysomnography. Seven databases, in addition to 3 nonpeer-reviewed literature databases, were searched. The risk of bias was assessed by using the meta-analysis of statistics assessment and review instrument (MAStARI) checklist. Eight studies were included for qualitative synthesis, but only 5 for the meta-analysis. Three studies were categorized as moderate risk and 5 as high risk of bias. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity across studies were considered high. Increased hazard ratio (HR=7.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.50 to 23.95) and odds ratio (OR=2.52; 95% CI=1.24 to 5.12) were observed considering only anterior ceramic veneers. Nevertheless, limited data from the meta-analysis and from the restricted number of included studies suggested that differences in the overall odds of failure concerning SB and other types of ceramic restorations did not favor or disfavor any association (OR=1.10; 95% CI=0.43 to 2.8). The overall quality of evidence was considered very low according to the GRADE criteria. Within the limitations of this systematic review, the overall result from the meta-analysis did not favor any association between SB and increased odds of failure for ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  12. Sleep bruxism possibly triggered by multiple sclerosis attacks and treated successfully with botulinum toxin: Report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevim, Serhan; Kaleağası, Hakan; Fidancı, Halit

    2015-09-01

    Sleep bruxism refers to a nocturnal parafunctional activity including the clenching, grinding or gnashing of teeth. While most of the nocturnal bruxism cases seen in the general population are apparently idiopathic, it has been reported to be associated with a range of neurological diseases such as Huntington's disease, cranio-cervical dystonia and post-anoxic brain damage, but not multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe three cases of MS patients who have had moderate to severe complaints of bruxism in the two weeks following their relevant MS attacks. None of the three patients had a diagnosis of bruxism prior to her attack. The diagnosis was confirmed in one out of three by a polysomnography. One patient did not have any complaints related to bruxism previous to her attack, whereas two had mild and infrequent complaints. The symptoms of the relevant attacks were left hemihypesthesia in all and hemiparesis in two. None of the patients had spasticity that could result in severe teeth clenching. All three patients presented with morning headaches and jaw pain or tightness and were treated successfully with botulinum toxin (Btx) injections applied to their masseter and temporalis muscles. The cause of bruxism is controversial but lesions of the cortico-basalganglia-thalamo-cotrical loops are thought to be most likely. However, acute or chronic lesions in those pathways were not demonstrated in the 3 patients. It is feasible that they had normal appearing white matter interruptions in their cortico-basalganglia-thalamocortical loops along with their relevant attack. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chewing over bruxism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.

    2014-01-01

    Bruxism has been studied increasingly over the past decades. Nevertheless, many aspects of this disorder are still unclear. In this article, a concise overview is provided on the current insights into sleep and awake bruxism, especially related to its definition, epidemiology, etiology,

  14. Sleep bruxism in adolescents: a systematic literature review of related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroflorio, Tommaso; Bargellini, Andrea; Rossini, Gabriele; Cugliari, Giovanni; Deregibus, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Multiple risk factors have been associated to sleep bruxism (SB). Nevertheless, there are still many unsolved issues concerning the etiology of SB that have consequences on the clinical management strategies. Systematically review the literature to assess the relationship between risk factors and SB symptoms in adolescents (age 11-19 years). PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trial Register and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACs, and SciELO were searched to identify all peer-reviewed articles potentially relevant to the review. The risk of bias was assessed according to the guidelines from the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, with reporting in agreement to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Four out of the 4546 initially identified articles were selected. According to the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation assessment (GRADE), the magnitude of agreement was almost perfect for all checklist items. Sleep disturbances, and snoring in particular, headache, jaw muscle fatigue, and tooth wear seem to be associated to SB in adolescents from 11 to 19 years old. Despite the large interest of the scientific community in the field of oral parafunctions, only four articles met the eligibility criteria. Furthermore only associations and not definite cause-effect relationships were highlighted in the selected articles. Sleep disturbances presented the strongest association with SB while very few occlusal features had a moderate association. As a common sense the investigation of sleep respiratory disorders could be of great help in the management of SB in adolescents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Validity of self-reported sleep bruxism among myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J

    2015-10-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB), primarily involving rhythmic grinding of the teeth during sleep, has been advanced as a causal or maintenance factor for a variety of oro-facial problems, including temporomandibular disorders (TMD). As laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) assessment is extremely expensive and time-consuming, most research testing this belief has relied on patient self-report of SB. The current case-control study examined the accuracy of those self-reports relative to laboratory-based PSG assessment of SB in a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) and a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46). A clinical research coordinator administered a structured questionnaire to assess self-reported SB. Participants then spent two consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Audiovisual and electromyographic data from the second night were scored to assess whether participants met criteria for the presence of 2 or more (2+) rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes accompanied by grinding sounds, moderate SB, or severe SB, using previously validated research scoring standards. Contingency tables were constructed to assess positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity, and 95% confidence intervals surrounding the point estimates. Results showed that self-report significantly predicted 2+ grinding sounds during sleep for TMD cases. However, self-reported SB failed to significantly predict the presence or absence of either moderate or severe SB as assessed by PSG, for both cases and controls. These data show that self-report of tooth grinding awareness is highly unlikely to be a valid indicator of true SB. Studies relying on self-report to assess SB must be viewed with extreme caution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A novel protocol for occlusal splint adjustment to treat TMD in sleep bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Christyane Giannasi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sleep bruxism (SB is a stereotypical movement disorder that is characterized by rhythmic masticatory muscle activity associated with tooth grinding and occasional jaw clenching. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the relief time for temporomandibular disorders (TMD, cervical and otological signs and symptoms in patients with BS treated with occlusal splints (OS for a period of 180 days. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients, between ages 22 and 53 years old, presenting SB and TMD, including cervical and otological symptoms, were enrolled in this study. The patient’s treatment protocol consisted of using the OS applying a novel adjustment protocol. The total follow-up period was 180 days. The paired Student t-test was used to compare before and after long-term OS treatment. RESULTS: For all variables, the results were statistically significant (p < 0.001. As to the TMD symptoms, in most patients the relief of pain in masseter, temporalis, cervical and TMDs occurred in the 3rd month. Twenty percent of the patients were aware of clenching teeth while awake and reported that this parafunction decreased by the end of 6 months, and 90% reported an improvement in sleep quality as well. CONCLUSION: The use of an OS with a novel adjustment protocol was an effective treatment for TMD sign and symptoms in patients with SB.

  17. Evaluation of a Proton Pump Inhibitor for Sleep Bruxism: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmure, H; Kanematsu-Hashimoto, K; Nagayama, K; Taguchi, H; Ido, A; Tominaga, K; Arakawa, T; Miyawaki, S

    2016-12-01

    Bruxism is a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterized by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Recent advances have clarified the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and sleep bruxism (SB). However, the influence of pharmacological elimination of gastric acid secretion on SB has not been confirmed. The authors aimed to assess the efficacy of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) on SB and to examine the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and endoscopic findings of the upper GI tract in SB patients. The authors performed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study at Kagoshima University Hospital. Twelve patients with polysomnography (PSG)-diagnosed SB underwent an assessment of GI symptoms using the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. At baseline (i.e., before interventions), the mean frequencies of electromyography (EMG) bursts and rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes were 65.4 ± 49.0 bursts/h and 7.0 ± 4.8 episodes/h, respectively, and at least 1 RMMA episode with grinding noise was confirmed in all participants. The mean FSSG score was 8.4 ± 5.6, and 41.7% of patients were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mild reflux esophagitis was confirmed in 6 patients. PSG, including EMG of the left masseter muscle and audio-video recording, was performed on days 4 and 5 of administration of 10 mg of the PPI (rabeprazole) or placebo. PPI administration yielded a significant reduction in the frequency of EMG bursts, RMMA episodes, and grinding noise. No significant differences were observed regarding the swallowing events and sleep variables. Since the clinical application of PPI for SB treatment should remain on hold at present, the results of this trial highlight the potential application of pharmacological gastroesophageal reflux disease treatment for SB patients. Larger scale studies are warranted to

  18. Effects of Botulinum Toxin on Jaw Motor Events during Sleep in Sleep Bruxism Patients: A Polysomnographic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Young Joo; Lee, Moon Kyu; Kato, Takafumi; Park, Hyung Uk; Heo, Kyoung; Kim, Seong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection on jaw motor episodes during sleep in patients with or without orofacial pain who did not respond to oral splint treatment. Methods: Twenty subjects with a clinical diagnosis of SB completed this study. Ten subjects received bilateral BoNT-A injections (25 U per muscle) into the masseter muscles only (group A), and the other 10 received the injections into both the masseter and temporalis muscles (group B). Video-polysomnographic (vPSG) recordings were made before and at 4 weeks after injection. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) and orofacial activity (OFA) were scored and analyzed for several parameters (e.g., frequency of episodes, bursts per episode, episode duration). The peak amplitude of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the two muscles was also measured. Results: BoNT-A injection did not reduce the frequency, number of bursts, or duration for RMMA episodes in the two groups. The injection decreased the peak amplitude of EMG burst of RMMA episodes in the injected muscles (p < 0.001, repeated measure ANOVA) in both groups. At 4 weeks after injection, 9 subjects self-reported reduction of tooth grinding and 18 subjects self-reported reduction of morning jaw stiffness. Conclusions: A single BoNT-A injection is an effective strategy for controlling SB for at least a month. It reduces the intensity rather than the generation of the contraction in jaw-closing muscles. Future investigations on the efficacy and safety in larger samples over a longer follow-up period are needed before establishing management strategies for SB with BoNT-A. Citation: Shim YJ; Lee MK; Kato T; Park HU; Heo K; Kim ST. Effects of botulinum toxin on jaw motor events during sleep in sleep bruxism patients: a polysomnographic evaluation. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):291-298. PMID:24634627

  19. Efficacy of biofeedback therapy on sleep bruxism: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokubauskas, L; Baltrušaitytė, A

    2018-03-26

    This study updates the review published by Wang et al in 2014 (Sleep Breath 2014;18(2):235-242). The review focuses on the most recent literature on management of sleep bruxism (SB) with biofeedback. An electronic search was conducted in five databases searching for articles published later than the date of Wang et al's search, viz., October 2012. Six articles of 2320 identified citations involving 86 adult participants were included in the qualitative synthesis. Of them, 4 were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 were uncontrolled before-after studies. Different feedback modalities (electrical, auditory and vibratory stimulus) were investigated. The overall quality of the selected studies was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Due to heterogeneity between studies, the quantitative synthesis was performed out of three RCTs, of which two were retrieved from the previous review. The meta-analysis indicated a non-significant difference in electromyographic-measured SB episodes per hour after one night of contingent electrical stimulation (CES) compared with placebo control, yet a significant difference was shown after five nights of CES. The quality of evidence identified through GRADEpro was from low to moderate, due to imprecision and inconsistency between studies. Qualitative synthesis did not present a reliable reduction in clinical pain levels; however, no substantial sleep disturbances were indicated following the intervention. In conclusion, one of the biofeedback modalities, CES, is effective in reducing SB-related motor activities after a short-term treatment period. However, evidence of long-term effects is lacking. Further longitudinal studies with larger samples are necessary to acknowledge the clinical application of biofeedback. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. BiteStrip analysis of the effect of fluoxetine and paroxetine on sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa Kara, M; Ertaş, Elif Tarım; Ozen, Emrullah; Atıcı, Meral; Aksoy, Selami; Erdogan, Muharrem Serif; Kelebek, Seyfi

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between sleep bruxism (SB) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is still under debate because of the lack of well-designed objective studies. The current study investigates possible effects of SSRIs, fluoxetine, and paroxetine on SB in patients with anxiety and depression. Thirty users of SSRIs for treatment of depression or anxiety were enrolled in the study. After clinical and anamnestic examination, 15 fluoxetine and 15 paroxetine users were included. For an objective evaluation of SB, a single-use disposable home screening device, BiteStrip, was used prior to the first SSRI intake and was repeated on the 7th and 15th days. Patients' self-reported data also were obtained for assessment of patient awareness. BiteStrip scores were significantly higher on the 7th and 15th days than the first measurement (pfluoxetine or paroxetine. Fluoxetine and paroxetine, SSRIs used for the treatment of anxiety and depression, may initiate or aggravate SB. Clinicians should consider that SSRIs may be the cause of SB when SSRI users are referred to dental clinics for SB symptoms. As there is a shortage of researches on this subject, further studies are necessary to confirm the existence of SSRI-induced SB. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Is there an association between verbal school bullying and possible sleep bruxism in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, J M; Pordeus, I A; Corrêa-Faria, P; Fulgêncio, L B; Paiva, S M; Manfredini, D

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between verbal school bullying and possible sleep bruxism (SB) in adolescents. A case-control study was carried out at the population level by recruiting 13- to 15-year-old participants among the attendants of schools of Itabira, Brazil. The case group was composed of 103 adolescents with possible SB (i.e. self- or parental-reported), while the control group included 206 adolescents without possible SB. All participants answered a questionnaire on the occurrence of their involvement in verbal school bullying episodes, based on the National School of Health Research (PeNSE) as well as an evaluation of their economic class according to the criteria of the Brazilian Association of Research Companies. Pearson's chi-square, McNemar test and conditional logistic regression were performed to assess the association between possible SB, verbal school bullying and economic class. There were 134 (43·3%) participants who reported involvement in verbal school bullying episodes as a victim, bully or both. The majority of them were males (90·3%). Adolescents with possible SB were more likely to have been involved in episodes of verbal school bullying (OR: 6·20; 95% CI: 3·67-10·48). Based on these findings, it can be suggested that possible SB in young teenagers is associated with a history of episodes of verbal school bullying. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Association between tension-type headache and migraine with sleep bruxism: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca Canto, Graziela; Singh, Vandana; Bigal, Marcelo E; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the association between tension-type headache and migraine with sleep bruxism (SB). The association between SB and headaches has been discussed in both children and adults. Although several studies suggested a possible association, no systematic analysis of the available published studies exists to evaluate the quantity, quality, and risk of bias among those studies. A systematic review was undertaken, including articles that classified the headaches according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders and SB according to the criteria of the American Association of Sleep Medicine. Only articles in which the objective was to investigate the association between primary headaches (tension-type and migraine) and SB were selected. Detailed individual search strategies for The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and LILACS were developed. The reference lists from selected articles were also checked. A partial grey literature search was taken by using Google Scholar. The methodology of selected studies was evaluated using the quality in prognosis studies tool. Of 449 identified citations, only 2 studies, both studying adults, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The presence of SB significantly increased the odds (study 1: odds ratio [OR] 3.12 [1.25-7.7] and study 2: OR 3.8; 1.83-7.84) for headaches, although studies reported different headache type. There is not enough scientific evidence to either support or refute the association between tension-type headache and migraine with SB in children. Adults with SB appear to be more likely to have headache. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  3. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Sleep Bruxism-Tooth Grinding Prevalence, Characteristics and Familial Aggregation: A Large Cross-Sectional Survey and Polysomnographic Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Samar; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Huynh, Nelly; Montplaisir, Jacques; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep bruxism (SB) is characterized by tooth grinding and jaw clenching during sleep. Familial factors may contribute to the occurrence of SB. This study aims are: (1) revisit the prevalence and characteristics of SB in a large cross-sectional survey and assess familial aggregation of SB, (2) assess comorbidity such as insomnia and pain, (3) compare survey data in a subset of subjects diagnosed using polysomnography research criteria. Methods: A sample of 6,357 individuals from the general population in Quebec, Canada, undertook an online survey to assess the prevalence of SB, comorbidities, and familial aggregation. Data on familial aggregation were compared to 111 SB subjects diagnosed using polysomnography. Results: Regularly occurring SB was reported by 8.6% of the general population, decreases with age, without any gender difference. SB awareness is concomitant with complaints of difficulties maintaining sleep in 47.6% of the cases. A third of SB positive probands reported pain. A 2.5 risk ratio of having a first-degree family member with SB was found in SB positive probands. The risk of reporting SB in first-degree family ranges from 1.4 to 2.9 with increasing severity of reported SB. Polysomnographic data shows that 37% of SB subjects had at least one first-degree relative with reported SB with a relative risk ratio of 4.625. Conclusions: Our results support the heritability of SB-tooth grinding and that sleep quality and pain are concomitant in a significant number of SB subjects. Citation: Khoury S, Carra MC, Huynh N, Montplaisir J, Lavigne GJ. Sleep bruxism-tooth grinding prevalence, characteristics and familial aggregation: a large cross-sectional survey and polysomnographic validation. SLEEP 2016;39(11):2049–2056. PMID:27568807

  5. Association between psychotropic medications and presence of sleep bruxism: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Gilberto; Dutra, Kamile Leonardi; Rodrigues Filho, Rubens; de Oliveira Lira Ortega, Adriana; Porporatti, André Luís; Dick, Bruce; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2018-04-16

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for studies that investigated the association between use of psychotropic medications and presence of sleep bruxism (SB). Observational studies were selected in a two-phase process. Searches were performed on six electronic databases and a grey literature search was conducted on three databases. SB diagnosis was based on questionnaires or clinical examinations; no polysomnography exams were performed. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross-Sectional Studies. Overall quality of evidence was evaluated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria. Five analytical cross-sectional studies were included, evaluating antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and psychostimulants. One study was judged as low risk of bias, three as moderate risk, and one high risk. Antidepressants were evaluated in adult populations only; duloxetine (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.16; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.12-4.17), paroxetine (OR=3.63; 95%CI=2.15-6.13) and venlafaxine (OR=2.28; 95%CI=1.34-3.86) were positively associated with SB risk. No increased odds of SB were observed considering use of citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, mirtazapine, and sertraline. With regard to anticonvulsants, only barbiturates were associated with SB in children (OR=14.70; 95%CI =1.85-116.90), while no increased odds were observed for benzodiazepine, carbamazepine, and valproate. The only psychostimulant evaluated was methylphenidate and an association with SB was observed in adolescents (OR=1.67; 95%CI=1.03-2.68). Findings from this SR suggested that medications such as duloxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, barbiturates, and methylphenidate might be associated with SB; however, overall quality of evidence was considered very low and, therefore, caution is recommended. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This

  6. Association between sleep bruxism and alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and drug abuse: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzo-Silveira, Eduardo; Kruger, Cristian Maikel; Porto De Toledo, Isabela; Porporatti, André Luís; Dick, Bruce; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to answer the focused question, "In adults, is there any association between sleep bruxism (SB) and alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse?" This systematic review included studies in which the investigators assessed SB diagnosis by using questionnaires, clinical assessment, or polysomnography and evaluated its association with alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse. The authors graded SB as possible, probable, or definitive. The authors developed specific search strategies for Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. The authors searched the gray literature by using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The authors evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies by using the Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument. From among 818 studies, the authors selected 7 for inclusion in which samples ranged from 51 through 10,229 participants. SB was associated highly with alcohol and tobacco use. In 1 study, the investigators noted a positive and weak association for heavy coffee drinkers. The odds for SB seem to increase almost 2 times for those who drank alcohol, almost 1.5 times for those who drank more than 8 cups of coffee per day, and more than 2 times for those who were current smokers. The abuse of methylenedioxymethamphetamine associated with SB remained without sufficient evidence. On the basis of limited evidence, SB was associated positively with alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco. The association between the studied drugs could not be discredited; however, there is still a need for stronger evidence based on studies with greater methodological rigor. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep bruxism and related risk factors in adults: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroflorio, Tommaso; Bargellini, Andrea; Rossini, Gabriele; Cugliari, Giovanni; Deregibus, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this article was to systematically review the literature to assess the relationship between risk factors and sleep bruxism (SB) in adults (age ≥18 years). A systematic search of the following databases was carried out: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trial Register and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACs and SciELO. Nine out of the 4583 initially identified articles were selected. This review was conducted according to the guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, with reporting in agreement to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Among the nine analyzed articles, associations between SB and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR=6.6, CI=1.4-30.9) was found in one randomized clinical trial (RCT). Four cross-sectional studies suggested history of SB during childhood (OR=8.1 CI=5.4-12-2), age (OR=3.1, CI=2.3-4.1) and chronic migraine (OR=3.8, C.I=1.8-7.8) as determinant factors for the development of SB. In one case-control study, patients with genetic polymorphisms were more likely to present SB (OR=4.3, CI=1.6-11.3). Smoking (OR=2.8, CI=2.2-3.5) and alcohol intake (OR=1.9, CI=1.2-2.8) showed moderate association in two case-control studies. History of SB during childhood, gastro-esophageal reflux disease and genetic polymorphisms seem to be important risk factors associated to SB in adults. Dry mouth on awakening seems to be a protective factor. Association does not infer with causality. Even if the evidence emerged from the considered studies was clinically relevant, further studies are requested to better understand the biological mechanisms behind the described associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methadone treatment, bruxism, and temporomandibular disorders among male prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enguelberg-Gabbay, Judith V; Schapir, Lior; Israeli, Yair; Hermesh, Haggai; Weizman, Abraham; Winocur, Ephraim

    2016-06-01

    There is little information on bruxism related to illicit drug use. Prolonged drug use may damage the stomatognathic system via oral motor overactivity. The aim of the present study was to compare the rates of bruxism and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) between prisoners with and without drug-use disorders, to evaluate the association between methadone treatment and bruxism and to assess the possible relationship between bruxism and pain. The sample included 152 male prisoners, 69 of whom were drug users maintained on methadone. All prisoners were examined by an experienced dentist and completed a questionnaire on their oral habits, with the aim of detecting signs or symptoms of TMD and/or bruxism. Additional data were collected from medical files. The prevalence of sleep bruxism and awake bruxism, but not of TMDs, was significantly higher among drug-user than non-drug user prisoners (52.2% vs. 34.9% for sleep bruxism, 59.7% vs. 30.1% for awake bruxism, and 46.3% vs. 25.6% for TMDs, respectively). Participants with awake bruxism were statistically more sensitive to muscle palpation compared with participants with sleep bruxism [rating scores (mean ± SD): 0.32 ± 0.21 vs. 0.19 ± 0.28, respectively]. An association was found between sleep bruxism and awake bruxism. It seems that there is a direct or an indirect association between methadone maintenance treatment and sleep bruxism or awake bruxism in male prisoners. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. Diagnosis of sleep bruxism can assist in the detection of cases of verbal school bullying and measure the life satisfaction of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgencio, Livia Bonfim; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Lage, Carolina Freitas; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Serra-Negra, Junia Maria

    2017-07-01

    Adolescence is a period with changes and conflicts. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sleep bruxism, verbal bullying at school, and life satisfaction among Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 1344 Brazilian adolescents was performed. Possible sleep bruxism was identified using the consensus criteria based on the reports of parents. The parents and the adolescents answered validated questionnaires. The data were statistically analyzed using the chi-squared test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Poisson regression with robust variance. A total of 205 adolescents presented possible sleep bruxism (15.3%). This parafunction was more prevalent among adolescents who were victims of verbal bullying at school (PR: 6.31; 95% CI: 4.78-8.32), victim/perpetrators (PR: 5.27; 95% CI: 3.82-7.27), and who belonged to families from a higher socioeconomic status (RP: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.23-1.86). Possible sleep bruxism was also associated with higher scores in the domains of self (PR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08), school (PR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09) and self-efficacy (PR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03-1.12), and lower scores in the non-violence domain (PR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). Possible sleep bruxism can assist in the detection of adolescents involved in school bullying at school in the roles of victim and victim/perpetrator. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Psychotropic drugs and bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falisi, Giovanni; Rastelli, Claudio; Panti, Fabrizio; Maglione, Horacio; Quezada Arcega, Raul

    2014-10-01

    Sleep and awake bruxism is defined as 'a parafunctional activity including clenching, bracing, gnashing, and grinding of the teeth'. Some evidence suggests that bruxism may be caused by, or associated with, alterations in the CNS neurotransmission. Several classes of psychotropic drugs interfering with CNS activity may potentially contribute to bruxism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine relevant peer-reviewed papers to identify and describe the various classes of psychotropic substances that may cause, exacerbate or reduce bruxism as the result of their pharmacological action in CNS neurons. A literature search from 1980 to the present was performed using PubMed database. The term 'bruxism' was used in association with 'psychotropic', 'dopamine (DA)', 'serotonin', 'histamine', 'antipsychotics', 'antidepressants', 'antihistaminergics' and 'stimulants'. Studies on the effects of DA agonists (Levo-DOPA, psychostimulants) and antagonists (antipsychotics) identified a central role of DA in the pathogenesis of pharmacologically induced bruxism. Important information from studies on drugs acting on serotonin neurotransmission (antidepressants) was recognized. Other mechanisms involving different neurotransmitters are emerging. This is the case of antihistaminergic drugs which may induce bruxism as a consequence of their disinhibitory effect on the serotonergic system.

  11. Relationship between Tasks Performed, Personality Traits, and Sleep Bruxism in Brazilian School Children - A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, Junia Maria; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen Elvira; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Background Tasks can be instruments of stress and may affect the health of children. Sleep bruxism is a multifactorial sleep-related movement disorder that affects children and adults. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between children’s tasks, personality traits and sleep bruxism. Methods And Findings A cross-sectional, population-based study of 652 randomly selected Brazilian schoolchildren (52% of whom were female), aged from 7 to 10 years was conducted in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) was completed by parents. In addition, the Neuroticism and Responsibility sub-scales of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C) were administered to the children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city council database was used to determine the social classification of the families. Chi-square and Poisson regression statistical tests were used with a 95% confidence interval. The majority of families were classified as having low social vulnerability (61.3%), whereas, 38.7% were classified as having high social vulnerability. Regarding extracurricular activities, the majority of girls performed household work (56.4%) and some artistic activity (51.3%) while sporting activities were most common among boys (61%). The results of the Poisson regression model indicated that sleep bruxism was most prevalent in children who scored highly in the Neuroticism sub-scale, and who frequently performed household tasks. Conclusion Children whose personality domain has a high level of Neuroticism and who perform household chores imposed by the family are more vulnerable to sleep bruxism. PMID:24244614

  12. Relationship between tasks performed, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in Brazilian school children--a population-based cross-sectional study.

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    Junia Maria Serra-Negra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tasks can be instruments of stress and may affect the health of children. Sleep bruxism is a multifactorial sleep-related movement disorder that affects children and adults. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between children's tasks, personality traits and sleep bruxism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional, population-based study of 652 randomly selected Brazilian schoolchildren (52% of whom were female, aged from 7 to 10 years was conducted in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM was completed by parents. In addition, the Neuroticism and Responsibility sub-scales of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C were administered to the children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city council database was used to determine the social classification of the families. Chi-square and Poisson regression statistical tests were used with a 95% confidence interval. The majority of families were classified as having low social vulnerability (61.3%, whereas, 38.7% were classified as having high social vulnerability. Regarding extracurricular activities, the majority of girls performed household work (56.4% and some artistic activity (51.3% while sporting activities were most common among boys (61%. The results of the Poisson regression model indicated that sleep bruxism was most prevalent in children who scored highly in the Neuroticism sub-scale, and who frequently performed household tasks. CONCLUSION: Children whose personality domain has a high level of Neuroticism and who perform household chores imposed by the family are more vulnerable to sleep bruxism.

  13. A case of sleep bruxism treated through behavioural change using hypnosis

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    Shakir Quaid Johar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mouth has been a natural site for release of stress. Right from the time of birth, a new born child cries and attracts attention of parents during stress. As the child grows, they spit and bite to release stress and frustration. As an adult, the same child uses abusive language, alcohol, smokes, and uses drugs (all orally to release stress. Clenching, grinding, and bruxism are also a form of stress release using the oral route. Dentist is the first to detect such habit, and treat such cases with habit breaking appliances, which usually fail. This article highlights the need to refer cases for psychiatric treatment and hypnotherapy may be a choice of treatment. A female aged 26 year, reported with pain in all her teeth due to bruxism. All conventional dental treatments failed. This outlined a strong psychological component, hence hypnosis was tried. A 5-year follow-up showed no relapse.

  14. Does Sleep Bruxism Contribute to Headache-Related Disability After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury? A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Arbour, Caroline; Khoury, Samar; Giguère, Jean-François; Denis, Ronald; De Beaumont, Louis; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2017-01-01

    To explore whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients have a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) and a higher level of orofacial muscle activity than healthy controls and whether orofacial muscle activity in the context of mild TBI (mTBI) increases the risk for headache disability. Sleep laboratory recordings of 24 mTBI patients (15 males, 9 females; mean age ± standard deviation [SD]: 38 ± 11 years) and 20 healthy controls (8 males, 12 females; 31 ± 9 years) were analyzed. The primary variables included degree of headache disability, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) index (as a biomarker of SB), and masseter and mentalis muscle activity during quiet sleep periods. A significantly higher prevalence of moderate to severe headache disability was observed in mTBI patients than in controls (50% vs 5%; P = .001). Although 50% and 25% of mTBI patients had a respective RMMA index of ≥ 2 episodes/hour and ≥ 4 episodes/hour, they did not present more evidence of SB than controls. No between-group differences were found in the amplitude of RMMA or muscle tone. Logistic regression analyses suggested that while mTBI is a strong predictor of moderate to severe headache disability, RMMA frequency is a modest but significant mediator of moderate to severe headache disability in both groups (odds ratios = 21 and 2, respectively). Clinicians caring for mTBI patients with poorly controlled headaches should screen for SB, as it may contribute to their condition.

  15. Bruxism: Conceptual discussion and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, R. V.; Rangarajan, Priyadarshni; Mounissamy, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Bruxism is commonly considered a detrimental motor activity, potentially causing overload of the stomatognathic structures. The etiology of bruxism is unclear, but the condition has been associated with stress, occlusal disorders, allergies and sleep positioning. Due to its nonspecific pathology, bruxism may be difficult to diagnose. Unfortunately, very little data exists on the subject of a cause-and-effect relationship of bruxism to the point that expert opinions and cautionary approaches are still considered the best available sources for suggesting good practice indicators. The present paper reviewed current concepts on bruxism, etiology, diagnosis and management, underlining its effects on dental structures in an attempt to provide clinically useful suggestions based on scientifically sound data. PMID:26015729

  16. Bruxism as a neurological problem (literature review

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    O. R. Orlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bruxism is stereotypical movements of the mandibula accompanied by grinding or clenching of teeth. Bruxism has 2 circadian manifestations: during sleep (nocturnal bruxism and during wakefulness (diurnal bruxism. Etiology of the disease is unclear but occlusal disharmony, stress management, basal ganglia dysfunction, and genetic factors are being discussed. An association between bruxism and other motor disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, oromandibular dystonia, Huntington’s disease, as well as some drugs, is observed. For bruxism diagnosis, questionnaires, clinical examination, polysomnography, electromyography, and brux checkers are used. The leading treatment method for bruxism and accompanying dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint is local administration of botulinum neuroprotein into the temporal, masseter, and lateral pterygoid muscles.

  17. Peran 'Oral Splint' pada Bruxisme

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    Antonia Tanzil

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral splints have been frequently used in the treatment of bruxism to protect teeth and periodontium from damage, but the mechanism of action and efficacy of oral splints remain controversial. It has been suggested that they can be used to treat bruxism, based on the assumption that the device can eliminate or remove occlusal interference. Currently there are no reliable data to support the assumption of occlusion as an etiologic factor for bruxism, because several other factors have a role in bruxism, such as psychiatric, neurological and systemic disorders. In this paper, the mechanism of action and efficacy of oral splints in bruxism are discussed. Conclusions: although oral splint may be beneficial in protecting the dentition, the efficacy of this device in reducing bruxism is still not confirmed. There are several aspects that would support the broad usage of oral splints in the treatment of bruxism, but there are also limitations associated with each of these aspects. In conclusion, oral splints can be considered as useful adjuncts in the management of sleep bruxism but not as a definitive treatment.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i1.82

  18. Epigenetics and Bruxism: Possible Role of Epigenetics in the Etiology of Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čalić, Aleksandra; Peterlin, Borut

    2015-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as a repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or bracing or thrusting of the mandible. There are two distinct circadian phenotypes for bruxism: sleep bruxism (SB) and awake bruxism, which are considered separate entities due to the putative difference in their etiology and phenotypic variance. The detailed etiology of bruxism so far remains unknown. Recent theories suggest the central regulation of certain pathophysiological or psychological pathways. Current proposed causes of bruxism appear to be a combination of genetic and environmental (G×E) factors, with epigenetics providing a robust framework for investigating G×E interactions, and their involvement in bruxism makes it a suitable candidate for epigenetic research. Both types of bruxism are associated with certain epigenetically determined disorders, such as Rett syndrome (RTT), Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), and Angelman syndrome (AS), and these associations suggest a mechanistic link between epigenetic deregulation and bruxism. The present article reviews the possible role of epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology of both types of bruxism based on the epigenetic pathways involved in the pathophysiology of RTT, PWS, and AS, and on other epigenetic disruptions associated with risk factors for bruxism, including sleep disorders, altered stress response, and psychopathology.

  19. A study of the temporomandibular joint during bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    Commisso Cuñarro, María Soledad; Martínez Reina, Francisco Javier; Mayo Nuñez, Juana María

    2014-01-01

    A finite element model of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the human mandible was fabricated to study the effect of abnormal loading, such as awake and asleep bruxism, on the articular disc. A quasilinear viscoelastic model was used to simulate the behaviour of the disc. The viscoelastic nature of this tissue is shown to be an important factor when sustained (awake bruxism) or cyclic loading (sleep bruxism) is simulated. From the comparison of the two types of bruxism, it was seen that s...

  20. Jaw tremor as a physiological biomarker of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, C M; Yavuz, Ş U; D'Amico, J M; Gorassini, M A; Türker, K S; Farina, D

    2015-09-01

    To determine if sleep bruxism is associated with abnormal physiological tremor of the jaw during a visually-guided bite force control task. Healthy participants and patients with sleep bruxism were given visual feedback of their bite force and asked to trace triangular target trajectories (duration=20s, peak force bruxism have abnormal jaw tremor when engaged in a visually-guided bite force task. Measurement of jaw tremor may aid in the detection/evaluation of bruxism. In light of previous literature, our results also suggest that bruxism is marked by abnormal or mishandled peripheral feedback from the teeth. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Bruxism and associated factors among Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Selms, M.K.A.; Visscher, C.M.; Naeije, M.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence rates of self-reported sleep bruxism and awake bruxism and their associations with several demographical, exogenous, and psychosocial factors among Dutch adolescents. Methods In a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, 4285 questionnaires were completed, with an

  2. Bruxismo do sono: possibilidades terapêuticas baseadas em evidências Sleep bruxism: therapeutic possibilities based in evidences

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    Eduardo Machado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: o bruxismo do sono (BS é uma desordem de movimentos estereotipados e periódicos, associados ao ranger e/ou apertar de dentes durante o sono, decorrentes da contração rítmica dos músculos mastigatórios. Essa condição não é uma doença, porém quando exacerbada pode ocasionar desequilíbrio e alteração das estruturas orofaciais. Dessa forma, surge a necessidade de se obter terapêuticas efetivas e seguras para o controle e o manejo do paciente bruxômano. As alternativas de tratamento variam desde terapêuticas orodentais e farmacológicas até técnicas comportamentais-cognitivas. OBJETIVOS: através de uma revisão sistemática da literatura, tendo como bases de pesquisa a Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed, Lilacs e BBO, no período compreendido entre 1990 e 2008, e com enfoque em estudos clínicos randomizados e quasi-randomizados, revisões sistemáticas e meta-análises, esse trabalho teve como objetivo analisar e discutir métodos de tratamento para o BS. RESULTADOS: pela análise da literatura verifica-se que existe uma grande quantidade de opções terapêuticas para o BS, porém muitas das terapias não têm suporte científico que as sustente. Assim, a escolha terapêutica deve ser pautada em evidências científicas e no bom senso clínico, objetivando uma melhora na qualidade de vida do paciente bruxômano.INTRODUCTION: Sleep bruxism (SB is defined as a stereotyped and periodic movement disorder, characterized by tooth grinding and/or clenching occurring during sleep, associated with rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. This condition isn't a disease, but when exacerbated may cause an unbalance and changing of orofacial structures. Thus, it is necessary to obtain effective and safe treatments for the control and management of the bruxist patient. The treatment alternatives ranges from oral devices to pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral techniques. OBJECTIVES: This study, through a systematic literature

  3. The clinical management of awake bruxism.

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    Goldstein, Ronald E; Auclair Clark, Wendy

    2017-06-01

    Awake bruxism is a common clinical condition that often goes undetected, often leading to pain or damaged teeth and restorations. The authors searched electronic databases regarding the treatment and effects of awake bruxism compared with those of sleep bruxism. The authors used the search terms diurnal bruxism and oral parafunction. The authors combined information from relevant literature with clinical experience to establish a recommended protocol for diagnosis and treatment. The authors found articles regarding the diagnosis and treatment of bruxism. The authors combined information from the articles with a review of clinical cases to establish a treatment protocol for awake bruxism. Literature and clinical experience indicate a lack of patient awareness and, thus, underreporting of awake bruxism. As a result, myriad dental consequences can occur from bruxism. The authors propose a need for increased awareness, for both patients and professionals, particularly of the number of conditions related to awake bruxism. Clinicians should look for clinical signs and symptoms of awake bruxism and use minimally invasive treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of portable instrumental devices to measure sleep bruxism: a systematic literature review of polysomnographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, D; Ahlberg, J; Castroflorio, T; Poggio, C E; Guarda-Nardini, L; Lobbezoo, F

    2014-11-01

    This study systematically reviews the sleep bruxism (SB) literature published in the MEDLINE and Scopus databases to answer the following question: What is the validity of the different portable instrumental devices that have been proposed to measure SB if compared with polysomnographic (PSG) recordings assumed as the gold standard? Four clinical studies on humans, assessing the diagnostic accuracy of portable instrumental approaches (i.e. Bitestrip, electromyography (EMG)-telemetry recordings and Bruxoff) with respect to PSG, were included in the review. Methodological shortcomings were identified by QUADAS-2 quality assessment. Findings showed contrasting results and supported only in part the validity of the described diagnostic devices with respect to PSG. The positive predictive value (PPV) of the Bitestrip device was 59-100%, with a sensitivity of 71-84·2%, whilst EMG-telemetry recordings had an unacceptable rate of false-positive findings (76·9%), counterbalanced by an almost perfect sensitivity (98·8%). The Bruxoff device had the highest accuracy values, showing an excellent agreement with PSG for both manual (area under ROC = 0·98) and automatic scoring (0·96) options as well as for the simultaneous recording of events with respect to PSG (0·89-0·91). It can be concluded that the available information on the validity of portable instrumental diagnostic approaches with respect to PSG recordings is still scarce and not solid enough to support any non-PSG technique's employ as a stand-alone diagnostic method in the research setting, with the possible exception of the Bruxoff device that needs to be further confirmed with future investigations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Computerized occlusal analysis in bruxism

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    Lazić Vojkan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep bruxism as nocturnal parafunction, also known as tooth grinding, is the most common parasomnia (sleep disorder. Most tooth grinding occurs during rapid eye movement - REM sleep. Sleep bruxism is an oral habit characterized by rhythmic activity of the masticatory muscles (m. masseter that causes forced contact between dental surfaces during sleep. Sleep bruxism has been associated with craniomandibular disorders including temporomandibular joint discomfort, pulpalgia, premature loss of teeth due to excessive attrition and mobility, headache, muscle ache, sleep interruption of an individual and problems with removable and fixed denture. Basically, two groups of etiological factors can be distinguished, viz., peripheral (occlusal factors and central (pathophysiological and psychological factors. The role of occlusion (occlusal discrepancies as the causative factor is not enough mentioned in relation to bruxism. Objective. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the connection between occlusal factors and nocturnal parafunctional activities (occlusal disharmonies and bruxism. Method. Two groups were formed- experimental of 15 persons with signs and symptoms of nocturnal parafunctional activity of mandible (mean age 26.6 years and control of 42 persons with no signs and symptoms of bruxism (mean age 26.3 yrs.. The computerized occlusal analyses were performed using the T-Scan II system (Tekscan, Boston, USA. 2D occlusograms were analyzed showing the occlusal force, the center of the occlusal force with the trajectory and the number of antagonistic tooth contacts. Results. Statistically significant difference of force distribution was found between the left and the right side of the arch (L%-R% (t=2.773; p<0.02 in the group with bruxism. The difference of the centre of occlusal force - COF trajectory between the experimental and control group was not significant, but the trajectory of COF was longer in the group of

  6. Role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2009-01-01

    To summarize literature data about the role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism. A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Database was performed to identify all peer-reviewed papers in the English literature dealing with the bruxism-psychosocial factors relationship. All studies assessing the psychosocial traits of bruxers (by using questionnaires, interviews, and instrumental and laboratory exams) and reviews discussing the contribution of those factors to the etiology of bruxism were included in this review. A total of 45 relevant papers (including eight reviews) were retrieved with a search strategy combining the term "bruxism" with the words stress, anxiety, depression, psychosocial and psychological factors. The majority of data about the association between psychosocial disorders and bruxism came from studies adopting a clinical and/or self-report diagnosis of bruxism. These studies showed some association of bruxism with anxiety, stress sensitivity, depression and other personological characteristics, apparently in contrast with sleep laboratory investigations. A plausible hypothesis is that clinical studies are more suitable to detect awake bruxism (clenching type), while polysomnographic studies focused only on sleep bruxism (grinding type). Wake clenching seems to be associated with psychosocial factors and a number of psychopathological symptoms, while there is no evidence to relate sleep bruxism with psychosocial disorders. Future research should be directed toward the achievement of a better distinction between the two forms of bruxism in order to facilitate the design of experimental studies on this topic.

  7. Bruxism and associated factors among Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Selms, Maurits K A; Visscher, Corine M; Naeije, Machiel; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2013-08-01

    To assess the prevalence rates of self-reported sleep bruxism and awake bruxism and their associations with several demographical, exogenous, and psychosocial factors among Dutch adolescents. In a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, 4285 questionnaires were completed, with an about equal gender distribution and with ages ranging from 10 to 22 years. In the group of 4235 12- to 18-year-old adolescents, sleep bruxism had a reported prevalence of 14.8% and awake bruxism of 8.7%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that sleep bruxism was associated with female gender [OR = 1.49 (95% CI = 1.23-1.81)], pain or tense feeling in the jaws upon awakening in the morning [OR = 1.47 (95% CI = 1.17-1.86)], clicking joint sounds [OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.03-1.65)], stress [OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 1.00-1.55)], and depressive mood [OR = 1.35 (95% CI = 1.10-1.65)]. Awake bruxism was associated with orofacial pain [OR = 1.49 (95% CI = 1.16-1.91)], clicking joint sounds [OR = 1.50 (95% CI = 1.13-1.98)], scraping joint sounds [OR = 2.03 (95% CI = 1.21-3.37)], stress [OR = 1.36 (95% CI = 1.03-1.78)], depressive mood [OR = 1.82 (95% CI = 1.42-2.35)], and smoking [OR = 1.42 (95% CI = 1.06-1.89)]. Sleep bruxism and awake bruxism are common conditions among Dutch adolescents, with self-reported prevalence rates that are slightly higher than those derived from most large-scale studies on adults. Several predictor variables were found to be exclusively associated with either form of bruxism, corroborating the common suggestion that both circadian manifestations are, at least in part, different entities. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Perceived stress and bruxism in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Carpinelli, Luna; Savarese, Giulia

    2016-12-21

    Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation-for the first time-in a group of university students in Italy. We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 Italian undergraduate students (117 M). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the item n. 8 of the Fonseca Questionnaire for presence of bruxism. The perceived stress score using PSS-10 scale was 32.2 (SD 4.6, 95% CL 31.6-32.7) for all the subjects, with significant gender difference: M = 31.2 and F = 32.9 (P = 0.0019). The prevalence for awake bruxism was 37.9% (F = 40.8%; M = 34.2%,), while for sleep bruxism was 31.8% (F = 33.3%; M = 29.1%), both without significant gender difference. A positive correlation, with significant concordance and dependence, between stress score and awake bruxism was present for male students only. University students showed higher bruxism and stress levels compared to the general population, with higher stress for females, but, even if female students show higher stress, a correlation between stress and bruxism exists only for male gender. Further studies should be performed.

  9. [Chewing on bruxism. Diagnosis, imaging, epidemiology and aetiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Jacobs, R; De Laat, A; Aarab, G; Wetselaar, P; Manfredini, D

    2017-06-01

    Since the publication of a special issue on bruxism of the NTvT in July 2000, consensus has been reached on bruxism's definition as a repetitive masticatory muscle activity that is characterised by clenching and/or grinding while awake (awake bruxism) or during sleep (sleep bruxism). As yet, however, no consensus exists about the diagnosis of bruxism: sufficient evidence to establish the reliability and validity of the commonly used techniques (self-report, clinical examination, imaging, electromyography, polysomnography) has not yet been produced. Morphological factors are no longer considered important aetiological factors, while increasing evidence suggests aetiological roles for psychosocial, physiological, biological, and exogenous factors. This review paper is the first part of a diptych and is concerned with the definition, diagnostics, epidemiology and possible causes of this disorder. In the second part, that will be published in the next issue, associations of bruxism with other conditions will be discussed, along with its (purported) consequences and its management.

  10. Symptoms in different severity degrees of bruxism: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim, Cinthia Santos Miotto; Vieira, Glauco Fioranelli; Firsoff, Eliete Ferreira Osses; Frutuoso, Jecilene Rosana Costa; Puliti, Elizabeth; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate symptoms of the muscle pain, sleep quality, oral health, anxiety, stress and depression in individuals with different severity degrees of bruxism. Methods: Seventy-two individuals with bruxism were enrolled in the study, classified into: moderate (n=25) and severe (n=47) bruxism. Pain intensity was assessed using the Visual Analogical Scale, pain threshold with algometer, sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, ...

  11. The two main theories on dental bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Michael; Hahnel, Sebastian; Faltermeier, Andreas; Bürgers, Ralf; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard; Proff, Peter

    2012-03-20

    Bruxism is characterized by non-functional contact of mandibular and maxillary teeth resulting in clenching or grating of teeth. Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy in current literature. The dental profession has predominantly viewed peripheral local morphological disorders, such as malocclusion, as the cause of clenching and gnashing. This etiological model is based on the theory that occlusal maladjustment results in reduced masticatory muscle tone. In the absence of occlusal equilibration, motor neuron activity of masticatory muscles is triggered by periodontal receptors. The second theory assumes that central disturbances in the area of the basal ganglia are the main cause of bruxism. An imbalance in the circuit processing of the basal ganglia is supposed to be responsible for muscle hyperactivity during nocturnal dyskinesia such as bruxism. Some authors assume that bruxism constitutes sleep-related parafunctional activity (parasomnia). A recent model, which may explain the potential imbalance of the basal ganglia, is neuroplasticity. Neural plasticity is based on the ability of synapses to change the way they work. Activation of neural plasticity can change the relationship between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. It seems obvious that bruxism is not a symptom specific to just one disease. Many forms (and causes) of bruxism may exist simultaneously, as, for example, peripheral or central forms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. To see bruxism: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, S

    2015-01-01

    Since the pathophysiology of bruxism is not clearly understood, there exists no possible treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the cerebral activation differences between healthy subjects and patients with bruxism on behalf of possible aetiological factors. 12 healthy subjects and 12 patients with bruxism, a total of 24 right-handed female subjects (aged 20-27 years) were examined using functional MRI during tooth-clenching and resting tasks. Imaging was performed with 3.0-T MRI scanner with a 32-channel head coil. Differences in regional brain activity between patients with bruxism and healthy subjects (control group) were observed with BrainVoyager QX 2.8 (Brain Innovation, Maastricht, Netherlands) statistical data analysis program. Activation maps were created using the general linear model: single study and multistudy multisubject for statistical group analysis. This protocol was approved by the ethics committee of medical faculty of Kirikkale University, Turkey (02/04), based on the guidelines set forth in the Declaration of Helsinki. The group analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent signal of three clusters in the control group (pbruxism. Our findings indicate that there was a decrease of cortical activation pattern in patients with bruxism in clenching tasks. This indicates decreased blood flow and activation in regional neuronal activity. Bruxism, as an oral motor disorder concerns dentistry, neurology and psychiatry. These results might improve the understanding and physiological handling of sleep bruxism.

  13. A study of the temporomandibular joint during bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commisso, María S; Martínez-Reina, Javier; Mayo, Juana

    2014-06-01

    A finite element model of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the human mandible was fabricated to study the effect of abnormal loading, such as awake and asleep bruxism, on the articular disc. A quasilinear viscoelastic model was used to simulate the behaviour of the disc. The viscoelastic nature of this tissue is shown to be an important factor when sustained (awake bruxism) or cyclic loading (sleep bruxism) is simulated. From the comparison of the two types of bruxism, it was seen that sustained clenching is the most detrimental activity for the TMJ disc, producing an overload that could lead to severe damage of this tissue.

  14. Bruxism in Movement Disorders: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Bruno; Ghorayeb, Imad; Burbaud, Pierre; Guehl, Dominique

    2017-10-01

    Bruxism is an abnormal repetitive movement disorder characterized by jaw clenching and tooth gnashing or grinding. It is classified into two overlapping types: awake bruxism (AB) and sleep bruxism (SB). Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy, but a line of evidence suggests that it may to some extent be linked to basal ganglia dysfunction although so far, this topic has received little attention. The purpose of this article was to review cases of bruxism reported in various movement disorders. The biomedical literature was searched for publications reporting the association of bruxism with various types of movement disorders. As a whole, very few series were found, and most papers corresponded to clinical reports. In Parkinsonian syndromes, AB was rarely reported, but seems to be exacerbated by medical treatment, whereas SB is mainly observed during non-REM sleep, as in restless leg syndrome. AB is occasionally reported in Huntington's disease, primary dystonia, and secondary dystonia; however, its highest incidence and severity is reported in syndromes combining stereotypies and cognitive impairment, such as Rett's syndrome (97%), Down syndrome (42%), and autistic spectrum disorders (32%). Taken as a whole, AB seems to be more frequent in hyperkinetic movement disorders, notably those with stereotypies, and is influenced by anxiety, suggesting an involvement of the limbic part of the basal ganglia in its pathophysiology. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. The phenotype, psychotype and genotype of bruxism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Fierro, Norma; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.; Gómez-Govea, Mayra A.; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Martínez-De-Villarreal, Laura E.; González-Ramírez, Mónica T.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Bruxism is a jaw muscle activity that involves physio-pathological, psycho-social, hereditary and genetic factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between self-reported bruxism, anxiety, and neuroticism personality trait with the rs6313 polymorphism in the gene HTR2A. A sample of 171 subjects of both sexes (14–53 years of age) was included. The control group (group 1, n=60) exhibited no signs or symptoms of bruxism. The case group had signs and symptoms of bruxism (n=112) and was subdivided into group 2, bruxism during sleep (n=22); group 3, awake bruxism (n=44); and group 4 combined bruxism (n=46). As diagnostic tools, the Self-Reported Bruxism Questionnaire (SBQ), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated (EPQR-A) were used. HTR2A (rs6313) SNPs were determined by qPCR for all the participants. The packages SPSS, maxLik and EPI-INFO were used for data analysis. The combined bruxism group reported higher scores in bruxism symptoms, mean = 32.21; anxiety symptoms, mean = 14.80; and neuroticism, mean = 3.26. Combined bruxism was associated with a higher degree of neuroticism (OR=15.0; CI 1.52–148.32) and anxiety in grade 3-moderate (OR=3.56; CI 1.27–10.03), and grade 4-severe (OR=8.40; CI 1.45–48.61), as determined using EPISODE computer software. Genotypic homogeneity analysis revealed no significant differences in allele frequency (P=0.612) among the four groups. The population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (maxLik package). In conclusion, the three instruments confirm traits of bruxism, anxiety and neuroticism in individuals with bruxism. These data were ratified when the sample was divided by genotypic homogeneity. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the groups in the SNPs rs6313 from the HTR2A gene. PMID:29599979

  16. Psychopathological profile of patients with different forms of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Gurkan Rasit; Tutuncu, Recep; Acikel, Cengizhan

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prevalence of psychopathological symptoms in patients who self-reported different forms of bruxism by means of clinical and anamnestic diagnostic criteria. Eighty-five participants were divided into four groups as sleep bruxers (12), awake bruxers (24), sleep-awake bruxers (33), and non-bruxers (16). A self-report symptom inventory questionnaire (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)) was filled out by all groups to determine their psychopathological symptoms. As regards mean psychopathological scores, patients with sleep-awake bruxism endorsed the highest scores. In addition, patients with awake bruxism showed higher scores than patients with sleep bruxism and non-bruxism in most SCL-90-R subscales. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between groups in any of the SCL-90-R subscales, except for the psychoticism subscale. Mann-Whitney test followed by Bonferroni's test correction between non-bruxer and sleep-awake bruxer groups revealed significant differences in depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, global severity index, positive symptom distress index, and positive symptom total in all SCL-90-R subscales. Statistical analysis of our study showed that differences between groups were significant in all SCL-90-R subscales except for the psychoticism subscale. Better distinction of bruxism forms may help to develop new treatment strategies for bruxism disorder.

  17. Long-term variability of sleep bruxism and psychological stress in patients with jaw-muscle pain: Report of two longitudinal clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzalev, K; Visscher, C M; Koutris, M; Lobbezoo, F

    2018-02-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) and psychological stress are commonly considered as contributing factors in the aetiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. However, the lack of longitudinal studies and fluctuating nature of SB, psychological stress and TMD pain have led to contradictory results regarding the association between the possible aetiological factors and TMD pain. In the present study we investigated the contribution of SB and psychological stress to TMD pain in a longitudinal study of 2 clinical TMD pain cases during a 6-week study protocol. Two female volunteers with clinically diagnosed myalgia based on the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) participated in the study. Questionnaires were used to record jaw-muscle pain and psychological stress experience, and an ambulatory polysomnography technique was used to record SB intensity. Visual analysis of the data revealed that the intensity of TMD pain was not hardwired, neither with psychological stress experience nor with increased SB activity. Within the limitations of single-patient clinical cases design, our study suggested that the presence of TMD pain cannot be explained by a simple linear model which takes psychological stress or SB into account. It also seems that psychological stress was a more important predictor factor for TMD pain than SB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of massage therapy and occlusal splint therapy on electromyographic activity and the intensity of signs and symptoms in individuals with temporomandibular disorder and sleep bruxism: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; El Hage, Yasmin; Amaral, Ana Paula; Politti, Fabiano; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TDM) is the most common source of orofacial pain of a non-dental origin. Sleep bruxism is characterized by clenching and/or grinding the teeth during sleep and is involved in the perpetuation of TMD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of massage therapy, conventional occlusal splint therapy and silicone occlusal splint therapy on electromyographic activity in the masseter and anterior temporal muscles and the intensity of signs and symptoms in individuals with severe TMD and sleep bruxism. Sixty individuals with severe TMD and sleep bruxism were randomly distributed into four treatment groups: 1) massage group, 2) conventional occlusal splint group, 3) massage + conventional occlusal splint group and 4) silicone occlusal splint group. Block randomization was employed and sealed opaque envelopes were used to conceal the allocation. Groups 2, 3 and 4 wore an occlusal splint for four weeks. Groups 1 and 3 received three weekly massage sessions for four weeks. All groups were evaluated before and after treatment through electromyographic analysis of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles and the Fonseca Patient History Index. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the effects of the different treatments and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine the intensity of TMD. The inter-group analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences in median frequency among the groups prior to treatment. In the intra-group analysis, no statistically significant differences were found between pre-treatment and post-treatment evaluations in any of the groups. Group 3 demonstrated a greater improvement in the intensity of TMD in comparison to the other groups. Massage therapy and the use of an occlusal splint had no significant influence on electromyographic activity of the masseter or anterior temporal muscles. However, the combination of therapies led to a reduction in the intensity of signs and

  19. Bruxism and prosthetic treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders; Omar, Ridwaan; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2011-07-01

    Based on the findings from available research on bruxism and prosthetic treatment published in the dental literature, an attempt was made to draw conclusions about the existence of a possible relationship between the two, and its clinical relevance. MEDLINE/PubMed searches were conducted using the terms 'bruxism' and 'prosthetic treatment', as well as combinations of these and related terms. The few studies judged to be relevant were critically reviewed, in addition to papers found during an additional manual search of reference lists within selected articles. Bruxism is a common parafunctional habit, occurring both during sleep and wakefulness. Usually it causes few serious effects, but can do so in some patients. The etiology is multifactorial. There is no known treatment to stop bruxism, including prosthetic treatment. The role of bruxism in the process of tooth wear is unclear, but it is not considered a major cause. As informed by the present critical review, the relationship between bruxism and prosthetic treatment is one that relates mainly to the effect of the former on the latter. Bruxism may be included among the risk factors, and is associated with increased mechanical and/or technical complications in prosthodontic rehabilitation, although it seems not to affect implant survival. When prosthetic intervention is indicated in a patient with bruxism, efforts should be made to reduce the effects of likely heavy occlusal loading on all the components that contribute to prosthetic structural integrity. Failure to do so may indicate earlier failure than is the norm. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-Reported Bruxism and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in Finnish University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtela, Outi S; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Joensuu, Tiina; Raustia, Aune; Kunttu, Kristina; Sipilä, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of self-reported bruxism and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to investigate their association in academic and applied science university students in Finland. The data were gathered from 4,403 Finnish students included in the Finnish Student Health Survey 2012. The comprehensive questionnaire included five questions concerning bruxism and TMD symptoms. Bivariate associations between self-reported bruxism and TMD symptoms were evaluated using chi-square tests, and logistic regression model was used with age and gender as factors. Sleep bruxism was reported by 21.0% of women and by 12.5% of men, awake bruxism by 2.0% of women and by 2.8% of men, and both sleep and awake bruxism by 7.2% of women and by 3.2% of men. TMD pain was reported by 25.9% of women and by 11.4% of men and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain on jaw movement by 9.6% of women and by 4.2% of men. Report of sleep bruxism increased the risk for all TMD symptoms in both genders. Among women, report of awake bruxism increased the risk for TMD pain and TMJ pain on jaw movement. Reporting stress as a perpetuating factor for TMD pain increased the risk for both sleep and awake bruxism in both genders. The logistic regression analysis (including age and gender) showed that report of sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism was associated with TMD pain (Odds Ratio [OR] = 5.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.86-6.70), TMJ pain on jaw movement (OR = 4.49; 95% CI = 3.54-5.69), and TMJ locking (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 2.17-4.10). Bruxism and TMD symptoms are frequent in Finnish university students. Self-reported bruxism is associated with TMD symptoms, confirming earlier findings.

  1. Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching) KidsHealth / For Parents / Bruxism ( ... called bruxism , which is common in kids. About Bruxism Bruxism is the medical term for the grinding ...

  2. Different association between specific manifestations of bruxism and temporomandibular disorder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Marcin; Szalewski, Leszek; Szkutnik, Jacek; Ginszt, Michał; Ginszt, Apolinary

    A growing body of evidence suggests that bruxism exists in two separate manifestations. However, little is known about the association between specific manifestations of bruxism and temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. The aim of our study was to analyze the association between TMD pain and specific diagnoses of bruxism (sleep, awake, and mixed diagnosis of sleep and awake bruxism). 508 adult patients (296 women and 212 men), aged between 18 and 64 years (mean age 34±12 years), attending to a clinic for general dental treatment. Patients were asked to fill an anonymous questionnaire, consisting of three questions, verifying the presence of TMD pain and two forms of bruxism. All questions were based on the Polish version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders patient history questionnaire. Cross tabulation was done, and χ 2 was used as a test of significance to find the association between the variables. Awake bruxism was associated with TMD pain only in men (χ 2 =7.746, pbruxism was associated with TMD pain in both women (χ 2 =10.486, pbruxism and TMD pain. Gender-related differences in the presence of all bruxism diagnoses were also statistically insignificant. Interaction between sleep and awake bruxism may increase the risk for TMD pain. We suggest considering concomitance as a confounder, when studying sleep or awake bruxism. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Bruxism: Is There an Indication for Muscle-Stretching Exercises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouw, Simone; de Wijer, Anton; Creugers, Nico Hj; Kalaykova, Stanimira I

    Bruxism is a common phenomenon involving repetitive activation of the masticatory muscles. Muscle-stretching exercises are a recommended part of several international guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders and may be effective in management of the jaw muscle activity that gives rise to bruxism. However, most studies of muscle-stretching exercises have mainly focused on their influence on performance (eg, range of motion, coordination, and muscle strength) of the limb or trunk muscles of healthy individuals or individuals with sports-related injuries. Very few have investigated stretching of the human masticatory muscles and none muscle-stretching exercises in the management of (sleep) bruxism. This article reviews the literature on muscle-stretching exercises and their potential role in the management of sleep bruxism or its consequences in the musculoskeletal system.

  4. Association between respiratory problems and dental caries in children with bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Marques, Alyne Jacques; Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2014-01-01

    Bruxism is the habit of clenching or grinding one's teeth in non-functional activities and affects both children and adults alike. Respiratory problems, such as asthma and upper airway infections, are reported to be the etiological factors of bruxism. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is an association between respiratory problems and dental caries in children who exhibit the habit of bruxism. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out. Patient histories were taken and clinical exams were performed on 90 children for selection and allocation to one of two groups. For the determination of bruxism, a questionnaire was administered to parents/guardians and an oral clinical exam was performed based on the criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Thirty-three male and female children between 4 and 7 years of age participated in the study - 14 children with bruxism and 19 children without bruxism. The data were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test, with level of significance set at 5% (P bruxism. Seventy-seven percent of the children with bruxism had caries and 62.5% the children with respiratory problems exhibited the habit of bruxism. There seems to be an association between bruxism, respiratory problems, and dental caries in children.

  5. Association between nocturnal bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Fujii, Akihito; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2003-11-01

    and bruxism groups (1.0 +/- 0.6 vs 1.9 +/- 3.2 times per hour, and 3.7 +/- 1.9 vs. 6.0 +/- 2.2 times per hour, respectively). Nocturnal bruxism may be secondary to nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux, occurring via sleep arousal and often together with swallowing. The physiologic link between bruxism and the increase in salivation needs to be investigated.

  6. Bruxism: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatsouras, D; Kaberos, A; Psaltakos, V; Papaliakos, E; Economou, N

    2004-06-01

    The present report refers to two patients presenting with grinding of the teeth (bruxism). A brief review is made of the literature concerning the aetiology of the disease, the clinical manifestations and diagnosis, as well as the therapeutic approach.

  7. Evaluation of the association of bruxism, psychosocial and sociodemographic factors in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Neves, Érick Tássio; Perazzo, Matheus França; Souza, Emilly Gabrielle Carlos de; Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Paiva, Saul Martins; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia

    2018-02-05

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate factors associated with sleep bruxism in five-year-old preschool children. A preschool-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 761 pairs of children and their parents/caregivers. Sleep bruxism was diagnosed using a questionnaire administered to the parents/caregivers, who also answered questionnaires addressing sociodemographic data and parent's/caregiver's sense of coherence. Clinical oral evaluations of the children to determine dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, malocclusion and tooth wear were performed by two researchers who had undergone a training exercise (interexaminer Kappa: 0.70 to 0.91; intraexaminer Kappa: 0.81 to 1.00). Descriptive analysis and logistic regression for complex samples were carried out (α = 5%). The prevalence of sleep bruxism among the preschool children was 26.9%. The multivariate analysis revealed that bruxism was associated with poor sleep quality (OR = 2.93; 95 CI: 1.52-5.65) and tooth wear (OR = 2.34; 95%CI: 1.39-3.96). In the present study, sleep bruxism among preschool children was associated with tooth wear and poor sleep quality of the child. In contrast, psychosocial aspects (sense of coherence) were not associated with sleep bruxism.

  8. Prevalence of bruxism in children with episodic migraine - a case–control study with polysomnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents of children with migraine have described a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism and other sleep disturbances in their children. The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to investigate the prevalence of bruxism during sleep in children with episodic migraine relative to controls. Findings Controls and patients were matched by sex, age, years of formal education, presence of snoring, arousals per hour, and respiratory events per hour. A total of 20 controls, between 6 and 12 years old, with no history of headache, recruited from public schools in Sao Paulo between 2009 and 2012, and 20 patients with episodic migraine recruited from the Headache Clinic at the Federal University of Sao Paulo between 2009 and 2012 underwent polysomnography. No intervention was performed before sleep studies. Among migraine patients, 27.5% experienced aura prior to migraine onset. The sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM sleep latency, arousals per hour, percentage of sleep stages, and breathing events per hour were similar between groups. Five children (25%) with episodic migraine exhibited bruxism during the sleep study while this finding was not observed in any control (p = 0.045). Conclusions Our data demonstrate that bruxism during sleep is more prevalent in children with episodic migraine. Further prospective studies will help elucidate the underlying shared pathogenesis between bruxism and episodic migraine in children. PMID:24886343

  9. Prevalence of bruxism in children with episodic migraine--a case-control study with polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuko, Alice Hatsue; Villa, Thais Rodrigues; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Moszczynski, Alexander Joseph; Carvalho, Deusvenir de Souza; Tufik, Sergio; do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho Santos

    2014-05-14

    Parents of children with migraine have described a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism and other sleep disturbances in their children. The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to investigate the prevalence of bruxism during sleep in children with episodic migraine relative to controls. Controls and patients were matched by sex, age, years of formal education, presence of snoring, arousals per hour, and respiratory events per hour.A total of 20 controls, between 6 and 12 years old, with no history of headache, recruited from public schools in Sao Paulo between 2009 and 2012, and 20 patients with episodic migraine recruited from the Headache Clinic at the Federal University of Sao Paulo between 2009 and 2012 underwent polysomnography.No intervention was performed before sleep studies.Among migraine patients, 27.5% experienced aura prior to migraine onset. The sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM sleep latency, arousals per hour, percentage of sleep stages, and breathing events per hour were similar between groups. Five children (25%) with episodic migraine exhibited bruxism during the sleep study while this finding was not observed in any control (p = 0.045). Our data demonstrate that bruxism during sleep is more prevalent in children with episodic migraine. Further prospective studies will help elucidate the underlying shared pathogenesis between bruxism and episodic migraine in children.

  10. Bruxism and oral parafunctional hyperactivity in social phobia outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermesh, H; Schapir, L; Marom, S; Skopski, R; Barnea, E; Weizman, A; Winocur, E

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered aggravating factors for bruxism. We examined the influence of anxiety, depression and SSRI on bruxism in social phobia (SP). Twenty-three drug naïve, 17 SSRI-treated SP patients and 33 healthy controls underwent a psychiatric assessment and completed Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. Oral parafunctional activity (PF) was evaluated by TM-dental examination and by a questionnaire. Drug- naïve and SSRI-treated SP patients did not differ on demographic and clinical measures. Awake bruxism, 'JAW PLAY' and at least one PF were more prevalent in SP than in controls. Severity of SP predicted the presence of PF. SP, but not depression, was associated with higher risk of oral PF and awake bruxism. Chronic SSRI treatment of SP did not affect sleep and awake bruxism. Dental and anxiety screening may improve the prognosis psychiatric and dental patients. Effective treatment of SP may mitigate bruxism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Understanding bruxism in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulue, Paul; Carra, Maria-Clotilde; Laluque, Jean-François; d'Incau, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Screening for the various forms of bruxism in children and adolescents requires a sound knowledge of the physiopathology of this parafunction in addition to the etiologic and associated factors and comorbidities. The international literature contains various suggestions for suitable treatment. The optimal therapeutic approach often involves multidisciplinary management of these young patients. Sleep bruxism (SB) is a common sleep disorder which can cause serious problems to the stomatognathic system such as damaged teeth, headaches, muscle pain and TMD. Dental professionals are responsible for the detection and prevention of these harmful impacts on the patient's oral health. However, SB is much more than a question of worn teeth. Patients with SB consult for other medical comorbidities such as nighttime breathing problems, insomnia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, moodiness and gastroesophogeal reflux before any course of treatment is initiated. If a comorbidity is diagnosed, the treatment approach will be aimed in the first instance at the medical disorder, while concurrently managing the repercussions of SB. On the other hand, in as far as the majority of young bruxers cease to grind their teeth before adolescence or adulthood, it is feasible to adopt wait-and-see and non-interventionist strategies for young children. However, it is preferable to have a better understanding of SB, notably on account of its potential association with psychological disorders during childhood. Daytime bruxism is characterized by teeth clenching (TC). First-line treatment involves encouraging patients to monitor their harmful parafunctional behavior and, consequently, change and cease it. This protocol is not always easy to apply, particularly in younger children. In such cases, cognitive-behavioral treatments and biofeedback techniques can also be used in daytime bruxism.

  12. Current Concepts of Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Serra-Negra, Junia; Carboncini, Fabio; Lobbezoo, Frank

    Bruxism is a common phenomenon, and emerging evidence suggests that biologic, psychologic, and exogenous factors have greater involvement than morphologic factors in its etiology. Diagnosis should adopt the grading system of possible, probable, and definite. In children, it could be a warning sign of certain psychologic disorders. The proposed mechanism for the bruxism-pain relationship at the individual level is that stress sensitivity and anxious personality traits may be responsible for bruxism activities that may lead to temporomandibular pain, which in turn is modulated by psychosocial factors. A multiple-P (plates, pep talk, psychology, pills) approach involving reversible treatments is recommended, and adult prosthodontic management should be based on a common-sense cautionary approach.

  13. Do bruxism and temporomandibular disorders have a cause-and-effect relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Lavigne, G J

    1997-01-01

    Controversy continues to exist over the putative role of bruxism in the etiology of temporomandibular disorders. A commonly held concept is that bruxism leads to signs and symptoms characteristic of one or more of the subdiagnoses of temporomandibular disorders, while another hypothesis suggests that bruxism is a temporomandibular disorder itself that sometimes coexists with other forms of temporomandibular disorders. Following a thorough review of the literature in this article, it is concluded that the relationship between bruxism and temporomandibular disorders is still unclear. Future research should examine longitudinal epidemiologic and clinical/experimental data to establish or refute a cause-and-effect relationship. In doing so, the existence of various sub-groups of temporomandibular disorders should be taken into account, and sleep-related bruxism should be discriminated from its daytime variant.

  14. Mother's Work Status on Children's Bruxism in a Subset of Saudi Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouda, Rana; Alshehri, Maram; Alnaghmoosh, Shoog; Shafique, Maryam; Al-Khudhairy, May Wathiq

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of this study were to determine if an association exists between mothers work status and her children's incidence of bruxism and habits related to bruxism. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through data collection of a questionnaire answered by 561 mothers’ about their working status and their child's habits and behaviors. The survey consisted of 5 parts with a total of 34 questions: mother's information, child's behavior, child's sleeping pattern, mother's knowledge about bruxism, and child's medical history. Odds ratios, Chi-square, and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals are reported. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The work status of the mother was not statistically significant in increasing the incidence of a child to have bruxism. However, this study clearly elucidates that 7 of the 15 habits correlate significantly with a status of bruxism. According to this sample, a child, that is, reported to be aggressive is more than twice as likely to have nocturnal bruxism. Likewise, any child that bites their nails, complains of headaches, drools in their sleep, snores, complains of muscle cramps, and colic is more than twice as likely to be a nocturnal bruxer than a child that does not have these habits. Conclusion: The prevalence of children's bruxism in this convenient sample was 34.5% (n = 141). The concerning habits related to bruxism can serve the pediatric dentist, general dentist, general practitioner, and primary care provider of children having these red flags as indicators of bruxism. It is imperative that parents of these children be made aware these habits that may occur together, alone or even simultaneously with bruxism. PMID:29285473

  15. Botulinum toxin in bruxism treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Piech

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bruxism is defined as abnormal, fixed, unconscious chewing organ function, deviating qualitatively and quantitatively from normal function. Another definition speaks of motor dysfunction in the mouth, characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth, occurring during sleep. The etiology of this disorder has not been explained until now, but it is believed to be related to localized, mental, nervous and neurotransmitter disorders. Purpose: The aim of the study is to review literature and knowledge about the use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of bruxism. Methods of treatment: The patient reports to the physician usually after a distressing, difficult to locate pain. The basis for proper treatment is to detect parafunctions and to make the patient aware of their existence. Diagnostic symptoms include dentinal lesions, recesses, enamel cracks and abfractive cavities, as well as changes in the mucosal area of the cheeks. Treatment begins with the use of an occlusive therapy to relax muscles, reduce parafunction and relieve pain. In the form of severe pain, NSAIDs are introduced and, if necessary, anxiolytics, sedatives and antidepressants. In the absence of response to the treatment used, botulinum toxin type A injections are used. The dose of the agent depends on the initial muscle tone and the effect of decrease in its activity is maintained for 4 to 6 months. Conclusions: The use of botulinum toxin makes it possible to selectively exclude overactive muscles, which is a great advantage over other techniques. An additional benefit of this therapy is achieved good cosmetic effect, reversible effect and minimal amount of side effects.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in the serotonergic system are associated with circadian manifestations of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oporto, G H; Bornhardt, T; Iturriaga, V; Salazar, L A

    2016-11-01

    Bruxism (BRX) is a condition of great interest for researchers and clinicians in dental and medical areas. BRX has two circadian manifestations; it can occur during sleep (sleep bruxism, SB) or during wakefulness (awake bruxism, WB). However, it can be suffered together. Recent investigations suggest that central nervous system neurotransmitters and their genes could be involved in the genesis of BRX. Serotonin is responsible for the circadian rhythm, maintaining arousal, regulating stress response, muscle tone and breathing. Thus, serotonin could be associated with BRX pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the frequency of genetic polymorphisms in the genes HTR1A (rs6295), HTR2A (rs1923884, rs4941573, rs6313, rs2770304), HTR2C (rs17260565) and SLC6A4 (rs63749047) in subjects undergoing BRX treatment. Patients included were classified according to their diagnosis in awake bruxism (61 patients), sleep bruxism (26 patients) and both (43 patients). The control group included 59 healthy patients with no signs of BRX. Data showed significant differences in allelic frequencies for the HTR2A rs2770304 polymorphism, where the C allele was associated with increased risk of SB (odds ratio = 2·13, 95% confidence interval: 1·08-4·21, P = 0·03). Our results suggest that polymorphisms in serotonergic pathways are involved in sleep bruxism. Further research is needed to clarify and increase the current understanding of BRX physiopathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Mura, Rossano; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2015-04-01

    This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions (i.e., decreased attachment level, bone loss, tooth mobility/migration, altered periodontal perception) were eligible. Methodologic shortcomings were identified by the adoption of the Critical Appraisal Skills Program quality assessment, mainly concerning the internal validity of findings according to an unspecific bruxism diagnosis. The six included articles covered a high variability of topics, without multiple papers on the same argument. Findings showed that the only effect of bruxism on periodontal structures was an increase in periodontal sensation, whereas a relationship with periodontal lesions was absent. Based on the analysis of Hill criteria, the validity of causation conclusions was limited, mainly owing to the absence of a longitudinal evaluation of the temporal relationship and dose-response effects between bruxism and periodontal lesions. Despite the scarce quantity and quality of the literature that prevents sound conclusions on the causal link between bruxism and the periodontal problems assessed in this review, it seems reasonable to suggest that bruxism cannot cause periodontal damage per se. It is also important to emphasize, however, that because of methodologic problems, particularly regarding sleep bruxism assessment, more high-quality studies (e.g., randomized controlled trials) are needed to further clarify this issue.

  18. Bruxism: is it a new sign of the cardiovascular diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Z; Buyukkaya, R; Yaman, F; Tekbas, G; Atilgan, S; Gunay, A; Palanci, Y; Guven, S

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relationship between bruxism and cardiovascular diseases. 120 patients who referred to the Dentistry Faculty with the complaint of bruxism were selected. All patients gave informed consent for participation in the study. All of the patients were examined and bruxism was classified. And also these were examined by B-mode ultrasound to measure the Intima Media Thickness (IMT) at the far wall of the common carotid artery. A wide range of vascular risk factors including age, gender, body mass index, and previous history were surveyed. Spearman correlation analysis was performed to ascertain quantitative comparison, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for comparison of means There were 66 (55%) male and 54 (45%) female patients, with a female to male ratio of 1/1.2. The mean age was 35.6 +/- 1,25 years (range 18-65 years). In the analysis of bruxism classification and IMT there was a statistical significance between bruxism classification subgroup 1, 2, 3 and IMT. There was no statistical significance between bruxism classification Subgroup 4 and IMT due to the small number of the patients (n = 12). Stressful situations can cause both bruxism and cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery diseases, hypertension, arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy. The statistical analysis supported this hypothesis. However, we need to new studies with large number of samples to confirm this hypothesis. Clearly, future studies in this field will need to take into consideration the influence of the following variables: age, use of medication or drugs, smoking habits, and other sleep disorders.

  19. Prevalence of Bruxism in Hemifacial-Spasm Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Bruno; Guillaud, Etienne; Langbour, Nicolas; Guehl, Dominique; Burbaud, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    A previous study reported an increased prevalence of bruxism (25%) in patients with cranio-cervical dystonia (CCD) compared to normal controls (13%). CCD can affect the muscles of the head and neck. Besides the CCD affecting these muscles, hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a form of peripheral myoclonus due to a neurovascular conflict affecting the muscles of the face. The fact that they affect the same muscle regions could lead to other links in clinical manifestations such as bruxism, which is more common in patients with CCD than in the normal population. The aim was to study the prevalence of bruxism in patients with HFS. Patients with HFS were enrolled in the department of clinical neurophysiology (Bordeaux University Hospital) over a 6-month period. They were paired regarding age, the absence of neurological pathology or neuroleptics intake. To be included in the study, patients needed to have had unilateral involuntary facial muscle contractions affecting one hemiface. A hetero-questionnaire and a clinicial study were performed. The diagnostic criteria of bruxism included parafunction items such as grinding and clenching and at least one of the following clinical signs: abnormal tooth wear, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, TMJ clicking, muscle hypertonia (masseter or temporal muscles). Additional epidemiological data were collected including age, sex, disease duration, stress, and sleep disorders. Stress symptoms inventory included symptoms like depression, strong heartbeat, dry mouth, anger, inability to concentrate, weakness, fatigability, insomnia, headache, and excessive sweating. The sleep disorder diagnosis included at least two of the symptoms described in the ICSD-3. All these criteria were recorded as either present (scored "1") or absent (scored "0"). The prevalence of bruxism in the two groups (normal and HFS) was not significantly different (p = 0.37). The rate was not significantly different between sleep and awake bruxism (p = 0.15) in both groups

  20. BRUXISM, PERLUKAH DIRAWAT? (TINJAUAN PUSTAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Susanti Himawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Every dentist knows about bruxism. However, the etiology, the treatment, and the relationship between bruxism and temporomandibular disorders (TMD are still unknown and controversional. Bruxism can happen to all ages, from children (15% of all children to adults (96% of all adults, male and female. Given the data, what can a dentist do to help the patient with bruxism? The various clinical signs that can be found in these patients are excessive tooth wear, muscle and joint fatigue, headache, tooth sensitivity or mobility, fractures of teeth and restorations, as well as TMD symptoms. Currently no method can permanently eliminate bruxism, but there are several ways to help patients with symptoms caused by parafunctions. Two categories of bruxism are bruxism withous symptoms and bruxism with symptoms that lead to temporomandibular disorders. To make the patient aware of the destructive parafunctional activities, self-monitoring, biofeedback, medications, occlusal adjustment and fabricating a splint can reduce the unfavorable consequences of bruxism. Although they usually do not stop it. Periodical control is advisable.

  1. Is there enough evidence to use botulinum toxin injections for bruxism management? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre Canales, Giancarlo; Câmara-Souza, Mariana Barbosa; do Amaral, Camilla Fraga; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues; Manfredini, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature assessing the effects of botulinum toxin (BoNT-A) injections in the management of bruxism. Search for articles involved the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane, Scielo and Lilacs databases. Specific terms were used and the search carried out from 1980 to March 2016 by three independent researchers. Randomized controlled studies (RCTs), prospective and before-after studies that applied BoNT-A at the masseter and/or temporalis muscles were included. Three RCTs and two uncontrolled before-after studies out of 904 identified citations were included in this review. All five articles dealt with sleep bruxism and featured a small sample size. None of them was about awake bruxism. Two randomized clinical trials were double-blinded, with a control group using saline solution. Two studies used polysomnography/electromyography for sleep bruxism diagnosis, whilst others were based on history taking and clinical examination. All studies using subjective evaluations for pain and jaw stiffness showed positive results for the BoNT-A treatment. In contrast, the two studies using objective evaluations did not demonstrate any reduction in bruxism episodes, but a decrease in the intensity of muscles contractions. Despite the paucity of works on the topic, BoNT-A seems to be a possible management option for sleep bruxism, minimizing symptoms and reducing the intensity of muscle contractions, although further studies are necessary especially as far as the treatment indications for bruxism itself is concerned. BoNT-A has been increasingly diffused in dentistry over recent years, being also used for pain management in patients with bruxism. Nonetheless, there is no consensus about its effects in this disorder.

  2. Bruxism in prospective studies of veneered zirconia restorations-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, Marc; Boemicke, Wolfgang; Stober, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to systematically review the effect of bruxism on the survival of zirconia restorations on teeth and to assess the prevalence of nocturnal masseter muscle activity in a clinical sample. A Medline search was performed independently and in triplicate using the term "zirconia" and activating the filter "clinical trial." Furthermore, three other electronic databases were searched using the same term. Only papers published in English on prospective studies of veneered zirconia frameworks on teeth were included. To estimate the prevalence of sleep bruxism in clinical settings, subjects with no clinical signs of bruxism and who did not report grinding and/or clenching were examined by use of a disposable electromyographic device. The initial search resulted in 107 papers, of which 22 were included in the analysis. Bruxers were excluded in 20 of these articles. In 1 study bruxers were not excluded, and 1 study did not provide information regarding this issue. The methods used to identify bruxers were heterogeneous/not described, and no study used reliable, valid methods. Of 33 subjects without clinical signs of bruxism, nocturnal muscle activity exceeded predefined muscle activity for 63.8% of the subjects. There is a lack of information about the effect of bruxism on the incidence of technical failure of veneered zirconia restorations because all available studies failed to use suitable instruments for diagnosis of bruxism. Nocturnal muscle activity without clinical symptoms/report of bruxism was observed for a relevant number of patients.

  3. Bruxism in children and transverse plane of occlusion: Is there a relationship or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Raphaelli Nahás-Scocate

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of bruxism in deciduous dentition and a potential association between the habit and the presence or absence of posterior crossbite. METHODS: A total of 940 patient files were assessed. They were gathered from the archives of University of São Paulo City - UNICID; however, 67 patient files were dismissed for not meeting the inclusion criteria. Therefore, 873 children, males and females, comprised the study sample. They were aged between 2-6 years old and came from six different public primary schools from the east of the city of São Paulo. Data were collected through questionnaires answered by parents/guardians and by clinical examinations carried out in the school environment in order to obtain the occlusal characteristics in the transverse direction. First, a descriptive statistical analysis of all variables was performed (age, sex, race, posterior crossbite, bruxism, headache and restless sleep; then, the samples were tested by means of chi-square test with significance level set at 0.05%. A logistic regression model was applied to identify the presence of bruxism. RESULTS: The prevalence of this parafunctional habit was of 28.8%, with 84.5% of patients showing no posterior crossbite. Regarding the association of bruxism with crossbite, significant results were not found. Children with restless sleep have 2.1 times more chances of developing bruxism, whereas children with headache have 1.5 more chances. CONCLUSION: Transverse plane of occlusion was not associated with the habit of bruxism.

  4. Bruxism in children and transverse plane of occlusion: is there a relationship or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahás-Scocate, Ana Carla Raphaelli; Coelho, Fernando Vusberg; de Almeida, Viviane Chaves

    2014-01-01

    To assess the occurrence of bruxism in deciduous dentition and a potential association between the habit and the presence or absence of posterior crossbite. A total of 940 patient files were assessed. They were gathered from the archives of University of São Paulo City--UNICID; however, 67 patient files were dismissed for not meeting the inclusion criteria. Therefore, 873 children, males and females, comprised the study sample. They were aged between 2-6 years old and came from six different public primary schools from the east of the city of São Paulo. Data were collected through questionnaires answered by parents/guardians and by clinical examinations carried out in the school environment in order to obtain the occlusal characteristics in the transverse direction. First, a descriptive statistical analysis of all variables was performed (age, sex, race, posterior crossbite, bruxism, headache and restless sleep); then, the samples were tested by means of chi-square test with significance level set at 0.05%. A logistic regression model was applied to identify the presence of bruxism. The prevalence of this parafunctional habit was of 28.8%, with 84.5% of patients showing no posterior crossbite. Regarding the association of bruxism with crossbite, significant results were not found. Children with restless sleep have 2.1 times more chances of developing bruxism, whereas children with headache have 1.5 more chances. Transverse plane of occlusion was not associated with the habit of bruxism.

  5. Bruxism. Masticatory implications and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anne C; Alchieri, João C; Barbosa, Gustavo A S

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigate the phenomenon of bruxism, defined as the act of clenching and/or grinding the teeth, a habit that compromises the orofacial region. It is often associated with emotional aspects, such as anxiety and stress, and may result in alterations to orofacial structures, functional modifications and social repercussions. The aim of this study was to determine a possible association between bruxism and anxiety underscoring the primary complaints related to masticatory function. Eighty volunteers participated in the study. They were divided into bruxers (N = 40) and non-bruxers (N = 40) of both sexes. The diagnosis of bruxism was made by clinical examination. The Trait-State Anxiety Inventory was used to assess anxiety levels and a questionnaire with structured questions related to daily activities, focusing on masticatory function (for the bruxism group), was applied to evaluate psychosocial aspects. The results of the study show a significant difference in state anxiety. Mean and standard deviation of state anxiety in the bruxism and non-bruxism groups was 42.7 +/- 9.6 and 38.6 +/- 8.2 (p bruxism, resulting in compromised masticatory function.

  6. Comparison of jaw muscle EMG activity in awake and sleep bruxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo; Dreyer Nielsen, Patricia; Haugland, Morten

    2015-01-01

    , Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience (SCON), Aarhus, DENMARK; M. Haugland, DELTA, Copenhagen, DENMARK; W. Yachida, T. Arima, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, JAPAN; Group Author Abstracts: ABSTRACT: Objectives: Background: Bruxism has two different circadian manifestations (awake and sleep) that have...... been proposed to have different underlying pathophysiology. Objectives: To compare the characteristics of multiple days EMG assessment of the anterior temporalis muscles between patients with self-reported awake bruxism, sleep bruxism and healthy individuals. Methods: Methods: Participants...... with possible sleep bruxism (n=9) or awake bruxism (n=9) bruxism were included in an open study and compared with healthy individuals during awake (n=9) and sleep (n=7) states. All participants were assessed for a minimum of 4 days (awake or sleep) with a portable single-channel EMG recorder. The outcome...

  7. Epidemiology of bruxism in adults: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Winocur, Ephraim; Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Paesani, Daniel; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2013-01-01

    To perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the prevalence of bruxism in adult populations. A systematic search of the medical literature was performed to identify all peer-reviewed English-language papers dealing with the prevalence assessment of either awake or sleep bruxism at the general population level by the adoption of questionnaires, clinical assessments, and polysomnographic (PSG) or electromyographic (EMG) recordings. Quality assessment of the reviewed papers was performed according to the Methodological evaluation of Observational REsearch (MORE) checklist, which enables the identification of flaws in the external and internal validity. Cut-off criteria for an acceptable external validity were established to select studies for the discussion of prevalence data. For each included study, the sample features, diagnostic strategy, and prevalence of bruxism in relation to age, sex, and circadian rhythm, if available, were recorded. Thirty-five publications were included in the review. Several methodological problems limited the external validity of findings in most studies, and prevalence data extraction was performed only on seven papers. Of those, only one paper had a flaw less external validity, whilst internal validity was low in all the selected papers due to their self-reported bruxism diagnosis alone, mainly based on only one or two questionnaire items. No epidemiologic data were available from studies adopting other diagnostic strategies (eg, PSG, EMG). Generically identified "bruxism" was assessed in two studies reporting an 8% to 31.4% prevalence, awake bruxism was investigated in two studies describing a 22.1% to 31% prevalence, and prevalence of sleep bruxism was found to be more consistent across the three studies investigating the report of "frequent" bruxism (12.8% ± 3.1%). Bruxism activities were found to be unrelated to sex, and a decrease with age was described in elderly people. The present systematic review described

  8. Incidence of bruxism in TMD population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandwani, Briesh; Ceneviz, Caroline; Mehta, Noshir; Scrivani, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study presented here was to examine the incidence of bruxism in patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders. Two cohorts of patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders were evaluated. One group, composed of 163 patients, was asked specifically about the occurrence of bruxism, while the other group, composed of 200 patients, was not specifically asked about bruxism (self-reporting). The incidence of bruxism was only 20.5% for the group that only self-reported bruxism, while the incidence was 65% when asked specifically about bruxism. It is critical to ask specifically about bruxism. Patients are more likely to report bruxism when asked specifically about it. It is important to incorporate this as part of a TMD evaluation.

  9. Effectiveness of two physical therapy interventions, relative to dental treatment in individuals with bruxism: study protocol of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Miotto Amorim, Cinthia; Firsoff, Eliete Ferreira Osses; Vieira, Glauco Fioranelli; Costa, Jecilene Rosana; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2014-01-07

    Bruxism is a parafunctional habit characterized by grinding and/or clenching of the teeth. It may happen while awake (awake bruxism) or while sleeping (sleep bruxism). In adults, the prevalence is 20% for the awake bruxism and 8% for the sleep bruxism. Peripheral, central, and psychosocial factors influence the disorder, which may predispose to pain in the masticatory muscles and neck, headache, decreased pain thresholds in the masticatory and cervical muscles, limitation mandibular range of motion, sleep disorders, stress, anxiety, depression, and overall impairment of oral health. The aim of this study is to compare two distinct physical therapy interventions with dental treatment in pain, mandibular range of motion, sleep quality, anxiety, stress, depression, and oral health in individuals with bruxism. Participants will be randomized into one of three groups: Group 1 (n=24) intervention will consist of massage and stretching exercises; Group 2 (n=24) will consist of relaxation and imagination therapies; and Group 3 (n=24) will receive dental treatment. The evaluations will be performed at baseline, immediately after treatment, and at 2-month follow-up. Pain intensity will be assessed using the visual analogical scale, while pain thresholds will be determined using dolorimetry. Mandibular range of motion will be assessed using digital pachymeter. Sleep quality will be assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, stress by the Perceived Stress Scale-10, depression by the Beck Depression Inventory, and oral health will be assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile--14. Significance level will be determined at the 5% level. This project describes the randomization method that will be used to compare two physical therapy interventions with dental treatment in the management of pain, mandibular range of motion, sleep quality, anxiety, stress, depression, and oral health in individuals with bruxism. The study will

  10. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  11. PENGARUH BRUXISM TERHADAP PERUBAHAN MORFOLOGI GIGI PERMANEN

    OpenAIRE

    TAMRIL, RUDIN

    2014-01-01

    2014 Bruxism merupakan kebiasaan buruk menggerindingkan atau clenching gigi geligi pada saat tidur dalam keadaan sadar maupun tidak sadar dan terjadi pada hampir semua manusia diseluruh dunia, mulai dari anak-anak hingga dewasa. bruxism sangat erat kaitannya dengan perubahan morfologi gigi karena berhubungan dengan pengikisan permukaan gigi terutama pada bagian oklusal. Tujuan dari penelitaian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh bruxism terhada...

  12. Bruxism Is Associated With Nicotine Dependence: A Nationwide Finnish Twin Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, J.; Hublin, C.; Broms, U.; Madden, P. A. F.; Könönen, M.; Koskenvuo, M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Kaprio, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of smoking with bruxism while controlling for genetic and environmental factors using a co-twin-control design. Especially, the role of nicotine dependence was studied in this context. Methods: The material derives from the Finnish Twin Cohort consisting of 12,502 twin individuals who responded to a questionnaire in 1990 (response rate of 77%). All were born in 1930–1957, the mean age being 44 years. The questionnaire covered 103 multiple choice questions, 7 dealing with tobacco use and 22 with sleep and vigilance matters, including perceived bruxism. In addition, a subsample derived from the Nicotine Addiction Genetics Finland Study containing 445 twin individuals was studied. Results: In age- and gender-controlled multinomial logistic regression, both monthly and rarely reported bruxism associated with both current cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.74 and 1.64) and former cigarette smoking (OR = 1.64 and 1.47). Weekly bruxism associated with current smoking (OR = 2.85). Current smokers smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day reported weekly bruxism more likely (OR = 1.61–1.97) than those smoking less. Among twin pairs (N = 142) in which one twin was a weekly bruxer and the cotwin a never bruxer, there were 13 monozygotic pairs in which one twin was a current smoker and the other twin was not. In all cases, the bruxer was the smoker (p = .0003). Nicotine dependence associated significantly with bruxism. Conclusions: Our twin study provides novel evidence for a possible causal link between tobacco use and bruxism among middle-aged adults. Nicotine dependence may be a significant predisposing factor for bruxism. PMID:21041838

  13. Cyclic Alternating Pattern Associated with Catathrenia and Bruxism in a 10-Year-Old Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte-Trisolini, Brian; Adrianzén-Álvarez, Fiorella; Duque, Kevin R.; Palacios-García, Jimmy; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is widely recognized as an expression of sleep instability in electroencephalogram activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep. We report a case with sequences of CAP followed by bruxism and catathrenia in a 10-y-old male patient with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in treatment with methylphenidate. We found CAP in 83.1% of all episodes of catathrenia, and the CAP rate was 12.8%. We propose to consider catathrenia as one of the sleep disorders that may be accompanied by CAP. Citation: Villafuerte-Trisolini B, Adrianzén-Álvarez F, Duque KR, Palacios-García J, Vizcarra-Escobar D. Cyclic alternating pattern associated with catathrenia and bruxism in a 10-year-old patient. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(3):511–512. PMID:28095970

  14. Correlation between self-reported and clinically based diagnoses of bruxism in temporomandibular disorders patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesani, D A; Lobbezoo, F; Gelos, C; Guarda-Nardini, L; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D

    2013-11-01

    The present investigation was performed in a population of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and it was designed to assess the correlation between self-reported questionnaire-based bruxism diagnosis and a diagnosis based on history taking plus clinical examination. One-hundred-fifty-nine patients with TMD underwent an assessment including a questionnaire investigating five bruxism-related items (i.e. sleep grinding, sleep grinding referral by bed partner, sleep clenching, awake clenching, awake grinding) and an interview (i.e. oral history taking with specific focus on bruxism habits) plus a clinical examination to evaluate bruxism signs and symptoms. The correlation between findings of the questionnaire, viz., patients' report, and findings of the interview/oral history taking plus clinical examination, viz., clinicians' diagnosis, was assessed by means of φ coefficient. The highest correlations were achieved for the sleep grinding referral item (φ = 0·932) and for the awake clenching item (φ = 0·811), whilst lower correlation values were found for the other items (φ values ranging from 0·363 to 0·641). The percentage of disagreement between the two diagnostic approaches ranged between 1·8% and 18·2%. Within the limits of the present investigation, it can be suggested that a strong positive correlation between a self-reported and a clinically based approach to bruxism diagnosis can be achieved as for awake clenching, whilst lower levels of correlation were detected for sleep-time activities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Relationships between craniofacial pain and bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, P; Jadidi, F; Arima, T; Baad-Hansen, L; Sessle, B J

    2008-07-01

    A still commonly held view in the literature and clinical practice is that bruxism causes pain because of overloading of the musculoskeletal tissue and craniofacial pain, on the other hand, triggers more bruxism. Furthermore, it is often believed that there is a dose-response gradient so that more bruxism (intensity, duration) leads to more overloading and pain. Provided the existence of efficient techniques to treat bruxism, it would be straightforward in such a simple system to target bruxism as the cause of pain and hence treat the pain. Of course, human biological systems are much more complex and therefore, it is no surprise that the relationship between bruxism and pain is far from being simple or even linear. Indeed, there are unexpected relationships, which complicate the establishment of adequate explanatory models. Part of the reason is the complexity of the bruxism in itself, which presents significant challenges related to operationalized criteria and diagnostic tools and underlying pathophysiology issues, which have been dealt with in other reviews in this issue. However, another important reason is the multifaceted nature of craniofacial pain. This review will address our current understanding of classification issues, epidemiology and neurobiological mechanisms of craniofacial pain. Experimental models of bruxism may help to further the understanding of the relationship between craniofacial pain and bruxism in addition to insights from intervention studies. The review will enable clinicians to understand the reasons why simple cause-effect relationships between bruxism and craniofacial pain are inadequate and the current implications for management of craniofacial pain.

  16. Oral splints: the crutches for temporomandibular disorders and bruxism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, T T; Lavigne, G J

    1998-01-01

    Despite the extensive use of oral splints in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and bruxism, their mechanisms of action remain controversial Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain their apparent efficacy (i.e., true therapeutic value), including the repositioning of condyle and/or the articular disc, reduction in the electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles, modification of the patient's "harmful" oral behavior, and changes in the patient's occlusion. Following a comprehensive review of the literature, it is concluded that any of these theories is either poor or inconsistent, while the issue of true efficacy for oral splints remains unsettled. However, the results of a controlled clinical trial lend support to the effectiveness (i.e., the patient's appreciation of the positive changes which are perceived to have occurred during the trial) of the stabilizing splint in the control of myofascial pain. In light of the data supporting their effectiveness but not their efficacy, oral splints should be used as an adjunct for pain management rather than a definitive treatment. For sleep bruxism, it is prudent to limit their use as a habit management aid and to prevent/limit dental damage potentially induced by the disorder. Future research should study the natural history and etiologies of TMD and bruxism, so that specific treatments for these disorders can be developed.

  17. Cyclic Alternating Pattern Associated with Catathrenia and Bruxism in a 10-Year-Old Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte-Trisolini, Brian; Adrianzén-Álvarez, Fiorella; Duque, Kevin R; Palacios-García, Jimmy; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2017-03-15

    Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is widely recognized as an expression of sleep instability in electroencephalogram activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep. We report a case with sequences of CAP followed by bruxism and catathrenia in a 10-y-old male patient with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in treatment with methylphenidate. We found CAP in 83.1% of all episodes of catathrenia, and the CAP rate was 12.8%. We propose to consider catathrenia as one of the sleep disorders that may be accompanied by CAP. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  18. A systematic review of etiological and risk factors associated with bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feu, Daniela; Catharino, Fernanda; Quintão, Catia Cardoso Abdo; Almeida, Marco Antonio de Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to systematically review the literature and identify all peer-reviewed papers dealing with etiological and risk factors associated with bruxism. Data extraction was carried out according to the standard Cochrane systematic review methodology. The following databases were searched for randomized clinical trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT) or cohort studies: Cochrane Library, Medline, and Embase from 1980 to 2011. Unpublished literature was searched electronically using ClinicalTrials.gov. The primary outcome was bruxism etiology. Studies should have a standardized method to assess bruxism. Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality and data extraction were conducted independently and in duplicate. Two reviewers inspected the references using the same search strategy and then applied the same inclusion criteria to the selected studies. They used criteria for methodological quality that was previously described in the Cochrane Handbook. Among the 1247 related articles that were critically assessed, one randomized clinical trial, one controlled clinical trial and seven longitudinal studies were included in the critical appraisal. Of these studies, five were selected, but reported different outcomes. There is convincing evidence that (sleep-related) bruxism can be induced by esophageal acidification and also that it has an important relationship with smoking in a dose-dependent manner. Disturbances in the central dopaminergic system are also implicated in the etiology of bruxism.

  19. Is bruxism a disorder or a behaviour? Rethinking the international consensus on defining and grading of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, K G; Santiago, V; Lobbezoo, F

    2016-10-01

    Inspired by the international consensus on defining and grading of bruxism (Lobbezoo F, Ahlberg J, Glaros AG, Kato T, Koyano K, Lavigne GJ et al. J Oral Rehabil. 2013;40:2), this commentary examines its contribution and underlying assumptions for defining sleep bruxism (SB). The consensus' parsimonious redefinition of bruxism as a behaviour is an advance, but we explore an implied question: might SB be more than behaviour? Behaviours do not inherently require clinical treatment, making the consensus-proposed 'diagnostic grading system' inappropriate. However, diagnostic grading might be useful, if SB were considered a disorder. Therefore, to fully appreciate the contribution of the consensus statement, we first consider standards and evidence for determining whether SB is a disorder characterised by harmful dysfunction or a risk factor increasing probability of a disorder. Second, the strengths and weaknesses of the consensus statement's proposed 'diagnostic grading system' are examined. The strongest evidence-to-date does not support SB as disorder as implied by 'diagnosis'. Behaviour alone is not diagnosed; disorders are. Considered even as a grading system of behaviour, the proposed system is weakened by poor sensitivity of self-report for direct polysomnographic (PSG)-classified SB and poor associations between clinical judgments of SB and portable PSG; reliance on dichotomised reports; and failure to consider SB behaviour on a continuum, measurable and definable through valid behavioural observation. To date, evidence for validity of self-report or clinician report in placing SB behaviour on a continuum is lacking, raising concerns about their potential utility in any bruxism behavioural grading system, and handicapping future study of whether SB may be a useful risk factor for, or itself a disorder requiring treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Bruxism in craniocervical dystonia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borie, Laetitia; Langbour, Nicolas; Guehl, Dominique; Burbaud, Pierre; Ella, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Bruxism pathophysiology remains unclear, and its occurrence has been poorly investigated in movement disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of bruxism in patients with craniocervical dystonia vs. normal controls and to determine its associated clinical features. This is a prospective-control study. A total of 114 dystonic subjects (45 facial dystonia, 69 cervical dystonia) and 182 controls were included. Bruxism was diagnosed using a hetero-questionnaire and a clinical examination performed by trained dentists. Occurrence of bruxism was compared between the different study populations. A binomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine which clinical features influenced bruxism occurrence in each population. The frequency of bruxism was significantly higher in the dystonic group than in normal controls but there was no difference between facial and cervical dystonia. It was also higher in women than in men. Bruxism features were similar between normal controls and dystonic patients except for a higher score of temporomandibular jaw pain in the dystonic group. The higher frequency of bruxism in dystonic patients suggests that bruxism is increased in patients with basal ganglia dysfunction but that its nature does not differ from that seen in bruxers from the normal population.

  1. Management of bruxism-induced complications in removable partial denture wearers using specially designed dentures: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kazuyoshi; Aridome, Kumiko; Pallegama, Ranjith Wasantha

    2008-01-01

    In patients with a limited number of remaining teeth, bruxism force can be destructive for both the remaining teeth and periodontal structures. This paper reports the successful management of four such patients with severe sleep bruxism, using conventional removable partial dentures and specially designed, splint-like removable partial dentures called a night denture. The night denture was fabricated in two different designs, which depended upon the pattern of the remaining tooth contacts. The patients were followed up for 2-6 years using a night denture in either of the two designs. Within the limitations of these four reports of clinical cases, the night denture appeared to be effective in managing the problems related to sleep bruxism.

  2. Risk factors for bruxism among Croatian navy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajbeg, I Z; Zuvela, A; Tarle, Z

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between bruxism, and sociodemographic parameters, symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), personality and war experience among Croatian navy employees. The sample included 1092 subjects, aged 20-60 years (mean age 37·06 ± 7·85). An individual's bruxism status was based on clinical oral examination and participants' report of bruxism. Subjects with bruxism index values ≥ 90th percentile were included in severe bruxism group (n = 111), and those with scores below 90th percentile were labelled as negligible bruxism group (n = 981). No differences were found in gender distribution between the two groups. The proportion of military personnel presenting with bruxism is double the proportion of administrative employees with bruxism. A total of 23·34% subjects in negligible bruxism group and 48·65% in severe bruxism group participated in the war. Subjects in severe bruxism group presented more TMD-related signs and symptoms than those in negligible bruxism group. Higher prevalence of neuroticism and psychoticism was found in severe bruxism group. According to logistic regression, the probability of severe bruxism was significantly associated with marital status [Odds ratio (OR) 6·859, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·869-12·158 P bruxism than non-smokers. Subjects who participated in war were more represented in severe bruxism group. Further studies, including other potential risk factors, are required to clarify these relationships. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Implant rehabilitation in bruxism patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas

    2014-01-01

    A white female patient presented to the university clinic to obtain implant retained prostheses. She had an edentulous maxillary jaw and presented three teeth with poor prognosis (33, 34 and 43). The alveolar bone and the surrounding tissues were healthy. The patient did not report any relevant medical history contraindicating routine dental treatment or implant surgery, but self-reported a dental history of asymptomatic nocturnal bruxism. The treatment plan was set and two Branemark protocols supported by six implants in each arch were installed after a 6-month healing period. A soft occlusal splint was made due to the patient's history of bruxism, and the lack of its use by the patient resulted in an acrylic fracture. The prosthesis was repaired and the importance of using the occlusal splint was restated. In the 4-year follow-up no fractures were reported. PMID:24907215

  4. Self-reported bruxism and temporomandibular disorders: findings from two specialised centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, D; Winocur, E; Guarda-Nardini, L; Lobbezoo, F

    2012-05-01

    The aims of this investigation were to report the frequency of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) diagnoses and the prevalence of self-reported awake and sleep bruxism as well as to describe the possible differences between findings of two specialised centres as a basis to suggest recommendations for future improvements in diagnostic homogeneity and accuracy. A standardised Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) assessment was performed on patients attending both TMD Clinics, viz., at the University of Padova, Italy (n=219; 74% women) and at the University of Tel Aviv, Israel (n=397; 79% women), to assign axis I physical diagnoses and to record data on self-reported awake and sleep bruxism. Significant differences were shown between the two clinic samples as for the frequency of TMD diagnoses (chi-square, Pbruxism items (chi-square, Pbruxism in patients with myofascial pain alone described in the other clinic sample was not replicated, suggesting that the different adoption of clinical and imaging criteria to diagnose TMD may influence also reports on their association with bruxism. From this investigation, it emerged that the features of the study samples as well as the different interpretation of the same diagnostic guidelines may have strong influence on epidemiological reports on bruxism and TMD prevalence and on the association between the two disorders. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Bruxism and dental implant failures: a multilevel mixed effects parametric survival analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, B R; Kisch, J; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the insertion of dental implants in patients being diagnosed with bruxism negatively affected the implant failure rates. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the bruxism and the risk of dental implant failure. This retrospective study is based on 2670 patients who received 10 096 implants at one specialist clinic. Implant- and patient-related data were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants. Multilevel mixed effects parametric survival analysis was used to test the association between bruxism and risk of implant failure adjusting for several potential confounders. Criteria from a recent international consensus (Lobbezoo et al., J Oral Rehabil, 40, 2013, 2) and from the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (International classification of sleep disorders, revised: diagnostic and coding manual, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Chicago, 2014) were used to define and diagnose the condition. The number of implants with information available for all variables totalled 3549, placed in 994 patients, with 179 implants reported as failures. The implant failure rates were 13·0% (24/185) for bruxers and 4·6% (155/3364) for non-bruxers (P bruxism was a statistically significantly risk factor to implant failure (HR 3·396; 95% CI 1·314, 8·777; P = 0·012), as well as implant length, implant diameter, implant surface, bone quantity D in relation to quantity A, bone quality 4 in relation to quality 1 (Lekholm and Zarb classification), smoking and the intake of proton pump inhibitors. It is suggested that the bruxism may be associated with an increased risk of dental implant failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Therapies most frequently used for the management of bruxism by a sample of German dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommerborn, Michelle A; Taghavi, Jalleh; Singh, Preeti; Handschel, Joerg; Depprich, Rita A; Raab, Wolfgang H M

    2011-03-01

    At present, there is little information available on how practicing dentists manage bruxism patients with respect to conservative, reversible techniques as compared to irreversible techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine the most commonly applied therapies used for the management of bruxism by German general dentists (GDs) and dental specialists. In addition, efforts were made to gather information on the knowledge and opinion of GDs and specialists regarding the role of occlusal interferences, in particular, on the development of sleep bruxism. A 13-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to all active members of the statutory dental insurance providers of the German North Rhine (n=5500; 2006 roster) and the German Westphalia-Lippe area (n=4984; 2006 roster). Group differences were statistically analyzed using chi-square tests for the qualitative variables and Mann-Whitney U tests for the quantitative variables (α=.05). Occlusal splints were by far the most frequently prescribed therapy for the management of bruxism, followed by relaxation techniques, occlusal equilibration, physiotherapy, and prosthodontic reconstruction. The occlusal stabilization splint with canine protected articulation was the splint type most often prescribed, whereas respondents used unadjusted soft splints for approximately 8% of their bruxism patients. Comparison of the opinions of all responding practicing dentists with that of experts in regard to the statement that "sleep bruxism is caused by occlusal interferences" showed a significant difference between the 2 groups (P=.021). Eighty-five percent of the experts disagreed with this statement, and only 47.7% of the practicing dentists had the same opinion as the experts. Most practicing dentists seem to concur with current scientific recommendations, and express the opinion that the management of bruxism should predominantly be conservative and reversible; however, the findings of the present survey reveal diverse

  7. Familial aggregation of anxiety associated with bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gorski

    2015-07-01

    Practical Implications: Anxiety disorders are highly related to suicidal behaviors, particularly in children and adolescents. Additionally, awaken bruxism can often serve as an indicator of anxiety or stress. By recognizing bruxism as a possible manifestation of psychological distress, the dental practitioner may be able to direct patients to life-saving services like psychologists and crisis hotlines when appropriate.

  8. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D; Winocur, E

    2012-07-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion ('the bite') are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query 'Bruxism [Majr] AND (Dental Occlusion [Majr] OR Malocclusion [Majr])', yielded 93 articles, of which 46 papers were finally included in the present review*. Part of the included publications dealt with the possible associations between bruxism and aspects of occlusion, from which it was concluded that neither for occlusal interferences nor for factors related to the anatomy of the oro-facial skeleton, there is any evidence available that they are involved in the aetiology of bruxism. Instead, there is a growing awareness of other factors (viz. psychosocial and behavioural ones) being important in the aetiology of bruxism. Another part of the included papers assessed the possible mediating role of occlusion between bruxism and its purported consequences (e.g. tooth wear, loss of periodontal tissues, and temporomandibular pain and dysfunction). Even though most dentists agree that bruxism may have several adverse effects on the masticatory system, for none of these purported adverse effects, evidence for a mediating role of occlusion and articulation has been found to date. Hence, based on this review, it should be concluded that to date, there is no evidence whatsoever for a causal relationship between bruxism and the bite. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Functional analysis and treatment of diurnal bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Davenport, Katy; Britt, Courtney; Ninci, Jennifer; Garner, Jennifer; Moore, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    An analogue functional analysis identified attention as a function for a 5-year-old boy's bruxism (teeth grinding). Functional communication training resulted in a reduction of bruxism and an increase in alternative mands for attention. Results were maintained 3 weeks following the intervention. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Manfredini, D.; Winocur, E.

    2012-01-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion (‘the bite’) are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query ‘Bruxism [Majr

  11. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...

  12. Drugs and bruxism: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Ephraim; Gavish, Anat; Voikovitch, Michal; Emodi-Perlman, Alona; Eli, Ilana

    2003-01-01

    Bruxism associated with drugs can be destructive, resulting in severe consequences to health that include destruction of tooth structure, irreversible harm to the temporomandibular joint, severe myofascial pain, and muscle contraction headache. However, reports concerning a possible association between bruxism and various pharmacologic drugs are scarce and mostly anecdotal. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature concerning the exacerbating or ameliorating effect of drugs on bruxism in humans. A search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsicINFO databases from 1982 to 2001 was conducted, and the term bruxism and one of the following terms were used: drugs, medicine(s), pharmaceutical, movement disorders, akathisia, dyskinesia, dystonia, central or autonomic nervous system, dopamine, serotonin, and GABA. Furthermore, a search using the term bruxism was carried out on the weekly journal Reactions, which deals with side effects of drugs. Several chemical terms were searched separately (e.g., caffeine, nicotine). Relevant information was also derived from reference lists of the retrieved publications. The search yielded complex information referring to the association between bruxism and dopamine-related drugs, antidepressant drugs, sedative and anxiolytic drugs, and drugs of abuse. There is insufficient evidence-based data to draw definite conclusions concerning the effects of various drugs on bruxism. Although certain substances related to the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic systems suppress or exacerbate bruxist activity in humans and animals, the literature is still controversial, and based mostly on anecdotal case reports. More controlled, evidence-based research on this under-explored subject is needed.

  13. Evaluation of flurazepam and placebo on sleep disorders in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Reimão, Rubens; Lefévre, Antonio B.

    1982-01-01

    The clinically observed results in 40 patients, from 1 to 15 years old, presenting sleep disturbances, in a comparative and statistically approached study of flurazepam 15mg daily against placebo, are reported. Placebo was administered, followed by the drug, during 14 days each. The chief complaints were sleepwalking, sleep-talking, sleep terror, sleep-related bruxism, sleep-related headbanging, insomnia and excessive movements during sleep. A significant effect of flurazepam on sleepwalking,...

  14. Relation between bruxism and dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    TORCATO,Leonardo Bueno; ZUIM,Paulo Renato Junqueira; BRANDINI,Daniela Atili; FALCÓN-ANTENUCCI,Rosse Mary

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to gather information and discuss the predictability of implant-supported prostheses in patients with bruxism by performing a literature review.METHODS: In order to select the studies included in this review, a detailed search was performed in PubMed and Medlinedatabases, using the following key words: bruxism, dental implants, implant supported prosthesis, and dental restoration failure. Items that were included are: case reports, randomized controlled tr...

  15. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinastepe, Neslihan; Küçük, Burcu Bal; Oral, Koray

    2015-10-01

    Botulinum toxin, the most potent biological toxin, has been shown to be effective for a variety of disorders in several medical conditions, when used both therapeutically and cosmetically. In recent years, there has been a rising trend in the use of this pharmacological agent to control bruxing activity, despite its reported adverse effects. The aim of this review was to provide a brief overview to clarify the underlying essential ideas for the use of botulinum toxin in bruxism based on available scientific papers. An electronic literature search was performed to identify publications related to botulinum toxin and its use for bruxism in PubMed. Hand searching of relevant articles was also made to identify additional studies. Of the eleven identified studies, only two were randomized controlled trials, compared with the effectiveness of botulinum toxins on the reduction in the frequency of bruxism events and myofascial pain after injection. The authors of these studies concluded that botulinum toxin could be used as an effective treatment for reducing nocturnal bruxism and myofascial pain in patients with bruxism. Evidence-based research was limited on this topic. More randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm that botulinum toxin is safe and reliable for routine clinical use in bruxism.

  16. Association of infantile bruxism and the terminal relationships of the primary second molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Tatiana Helena; Nahás-Scocate, Ana Carla Raphaelli; Valle-Corotti, Karyna Martins do; Conti, Ana Claudia de Castro Ferreira; Trevisan, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between infantile bruxism and the terminal relationships of the primary second molars. A total of 937 pre-school children (both genders), aged from 2 to 6 years, from municipal schools in São Paulo were evaluated. In this study, a questionnaire considering the bruxism habit and the presence of headaches and/or restless sleep was answered by the parents/guardians. A clinical exam of occlusion in the anteroposterior direction (vertical plane - VP, mesial step - MS and distal step - DS) was performed by the examiners in the school environment. Student's t test, Fisher's test and a logistic regression test were applied for the statistical analysis at a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of the bruxism habit was 29.3% among the total sample. Because there was no significant difference between the sides evaluated, the left side was taken as the standard. Among those children with bruxism, 25.7% presented a mesial step terminal relationship at the primary second molars, 29.1% had DS, and 30.2% had VP. Regarding the association of the parafunctional habit with the type of terminal relationship, no significant results were found. Children who slept restlessly or suffered from headaches were verified to show a higher chance of expressing the habit (OR = 2.4 and 1.6, respectively). The prevalence of bruxism in the studied sample was 29.3%, and its association with the primary second molars' terminal relationship was not statistically significant.

  17. Therapies for bruxism: a systematic review and network meta-analysis (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesko, Mauro Elias; Hutton, Brian; Skupien, Jovito Adiel; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Moher, David; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2017-01-13

    Bruxism is a sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth that may be related to irreversible tooth injuries. It is a prevalent condition occurring in up to 31% of adults. However, there is no definitive answer as to which of the many currently available treatments (including drug therapy, intramuscular injections, physiotherapy, biofeedback, kinesiotherapy, use of intraoral devices, or psychological therapy) is the best for the clinical management of the different manifestations of bruxism. The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis is to answer the following question: what is the best treatment for adult bruxists? Comprehensive searches of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (via PubMed), Scopus, and LILACS will be completed using the following keywords: bruxism and therapies and related entry terms. Studies will be included, according to the eligibility criteria (Controlled Clinical Trials and Randomized Clinical Trials, considering specific outcome measures for bruxism). The reference lists of included studies will be hand searched. Relevant data will be extracted from included studies using a specially designed data extraction sheet. Risk of bias of the included studies will be assessed, and the overall strength of the evidence will be summarized (i.e., GRADE). A random effects model will be used for all pairwise meta-analyses (with a 95% confidence interval). A Bayesian network meta-analysis will explore the relative benefits between the various treatments. The review will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews incorporating Network Meta-Analyses (PRISMA-NMA) statement. This systematic review aims at identifying and evaluating therapies to treat bruxism. This systematic review may lead to several recommendations, for both patients and researchers, as which is the best therapy for a specific patient case and how future studies need to be designed, considering what is available now and what is

  18. [Temporomandibular joint, occlusion and bruxism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthlieb, J D; Ré, J P; Jeany, M; Giraudeau, A

    2016-09-01

    Temporomandibular joint and dental occlusion are joined for better and worse. TMJ has its own weaknesses, sometimes indicated by bad functional habits and occlusal disorders. Occlusal analysis needs to be addressed simply and clearly. The term "malocclusion" is not reliable to build epidemiological studies, etiologic mechanisms or therapeutic advice on this "diagnosis". Understanding the impact of pathogenic malocclusion is not just about occlusal relationships that are more or less defective, it requires to locate them within the skeletal framework, the articular and behavioural context of the patient, and above all to assess their impact on the functions of the masticatory system. The TMJ-occlusion couple is often symbiotic, developing together in relation to its environment, compensating for its own shortcomings. However, a third partner may alter this relationship, such as bruxism, or more generally oral parafunctions, trauma or an interventionist practitioner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep disorders and the dental patient: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Goulet, J P; Zuconni, M; Morrison, F; Lobbezoo, F

    1999-09-01

    This article is intended to briefly describe common sleep disorders of interest to the dental profession and to render general management guidelines. Topics include sleep-related bruxism, xerostomia, hypersalivation, gastroesophageal reflux, apnea, and the effect of orofacial pain on sleep quality. The term sleep-related is used instead of the term nocturnal because some of the activities described can occur with daytime sleep.

  20. Interactions between sleep disorders and oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, N T; Emami, E; Helman, J I; Chervin, R D

    2014-04-01

    Dental sleep medicine is a rapidly growing field that is in close and direct interaction with sleep medicine and comprises many aspects of human health. As a result, dentists who encounter sleep health and sleep disorders may work with clinicians from many other disciplines and specialties. The main sleep and oral health issues that are covered in this review are obstructive sleep apnea, chronic mouth breathing, sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux, and sleep bruxism. In addition, edentulism and its impact on sleep disorders are discussed. Improving sleep quality and sleep characteristics, oral health, and oral function involves both pathophysiology and disease management. The multiple interactions between oral health and sleep underscore the need for an interdisciplinary clinical team to manage oral health-related sleep disorders that are commonly seen in dental practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Bruxism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... molars) completely separated. This is based on the theory that most clenching is done on these back ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  2. Evaluation of flurazepam and placebo on sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Reimão

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinically observed results in 40 patients, from 1 to 15 years old, presenting sleep disturbances, in a comparative and statistically approached study of flurazepam 15mg daily against placebo, are reported. Placebo was administered, followed by the drug, during 14 days each. The chief complaints were sleepwalking, sleep-talking, sleep terror, sleep-related bruxism, sleep-related headbanging, insomnia and excessive movements during sleep. A significant effect of flurazepam on sleepwalking, sleep-talking, bruxism, sleep terror and excessive movement during sleep, was observed. The insomniac and headbanging patients were not enough for statistical analysis. Flurazepam side effects were excessive drowsiness during daytime in 3 cases; irritability, 3 cases; nausea and vomiting, 2 cases, and were not correlated with age. Placebo side effects were similar, except for nausea and vomiting which were not observed. It was necessary to discontinue flurazepam in 2 cases, because of excessive drowsiness during daytime, which did not improve when reducing the dose.

  3. Self-Reported bruxism and associated factors in Israeli adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  5. Effects of bruxism on the maximum bite force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Jelena T.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bruxism is a parafunctional activity of the masticatory system, which is characterized by clenching or grinding of teeth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of bruxism has impact on maximum bite force, with particular reference to the potential impact of gender on bite force values. Methods. This study included two groups of subjects: without and with bruxism. The presence of bruxism in the subjects was registered using a specific clinical questionnaire on bruxism and physical examination. The subjects from both groups were submitted to the procedure of measuring the maximum bite pressure and occlusal contact area using a single-sheet pressure-sensitive films (Fuji Prescale MS and HS Film. Maximal bite force was obtained by multiplying maximal bite pressure and occlusal contact area values. Results. The average values of maximal bite force were significantly higher in the subjects with bruxism compared to those without bruxism (p 0.01. Maximal bite force was significantly higher in the males compared to the females in all segments of the research. Conclusion. The presence of bruxism influences the increase in the maximum bite force as shown in this study. Gender is a significant determinant of bite force. Registration of maximum bite force can be used in diagnosing and analysing pathophysiological events during bruxism.

  6. Relationship between Bruxism and Malocclusion among Preschool Children in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafournia, Maryam; Hajenourozali Tehrani, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Bruxism is defined as a habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. In younger children bruxism may be a consequence of the masticatory neuromuscular system immaturity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bruxism and investigate the relationship between occlusal factors and bruxism among preschool children. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional survey, 400 3-6-year-old children were selected randomly from different preschools in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into two groups of bruxers and non-bruxers as determined by the clinical examination and their parents’ reports. The examiner recorded the primary canines (Class I, Class II, and Class III) and molars (mesial step, distal step, flash terminal plane) relationship, existence of anterior and posterior crossbite, open and deep bite. Also, rotated teeth, food impaction, sharp tooth edges, high restorations, extensive tooth caries, and painful teeth (categorized as irritating tooth conditions) were evaluated. The relationship between bruxism and occlusal factors and irritating tooth conditions was evaluated with chi-square test. Results Bruxism was seen in 12.75% of the subjects. Statistically significant relationships existed between bruxism and some occlusal factors, such as flash terminal plane (P = 0.023) and mesial step (P = 0.001) and also, between food impaction, extensive tooth caries, tooth pain, sharp tooth edge and bruxism. Conclusion The results showed significant relationship of bruxism with primary molar relationships and irritating tooth conditions among preschool children. PMID:23277860

  7. Treatment of bruxism in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Claudia; Gómez, Sandra; Manrique, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review to assess and analyze the scientific evidence about the available therapies for bruxism in children. The literature was searched using Medline, PubMed, Ovid, Biomed Central, EBSCOhost, ISI, Cochrane Library, Embase, LILACS, Scielo, Scirus, the Internet at large, and databases of universities from March 1985 to the end of September 2007. Studies had to be intervention studies for bruxism in children, and the children included in the studies had to be 3 to 10 years old. From 52 records found, 2 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In 1 study, bruxism was treated by widening the upper airway through adenoidectomy, and the other study proposed to treat bruxism in children with psychologic techniques. When analyzed, the 2 considered studies did not fully accomplish the requirements to treat the etiology of bruxism in children. The available literature does not provide adequate support to treat bruxism in children, as the diagnosis methods in the studies are insufficient and are not comparable to confirm the presence of bruxism. Very few studies about therapies for bruxism in children meet the quality criteria required for the evidence-based practice. Treatment for bruxism in children requires further study.

  8. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  9. Role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To summarize literature data about the role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism. METHODS: A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Database was performed to identify all peer-reviewed papers in the English literature dealing with the bruxism-psychosocial

  10. Prevalence of Bruxism among Mexican Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Perez, Ruben; Lopez-Morales, Patricia; Borges-Yanez, S. Aida; Maupome, Gerardo; Pares-Vidrio, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of bruxism in a Mexican community of children with Down syndrome, and to evaluate bruxism's relationship with age, sex, intellectual disability level, and type of chromosomal abnormality of trisomy 21. Using a cross-sectional design, 57 boys and girls (3 to 14 years old) were examined. Three approaches…

  11. Influence of bruxism on survival of porcelain laminate veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell-Ruíz, Maria; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Fons-Font, Antonio; Román-Rodríguez, Juan-Luis; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether bruxism and the use of occlusal splints affect the survival of porcelain laminate veneers in patients treated with this technique. Restorations were made in 70 patients, including 30 patients with some type of parafunctional habit. A total of 323 veneers were placed, 170 in patients with bruxism activity, and the remaining 153 in patients without it. A clinical examination determined the presence or absence of ceramic failure (cracks, fractures and debonding) of the restorations; these incidents were analyzed for association with bruxism and the use of splints. Analysis of the ceramic failures showed that of the 13 fractures and 29 debonding that were present in our study, 8 fractures and 22 debonding were related to the presence of bruxism. Porcelain laminate veneers are a predictable treatment option that provides excellent results, recognizing a higher risk of failure in patients with bruxism activity. The use of occlusal splints reduces the risk of fractures.

  12. Factors associated with bruxism in children with developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Aparecida Fernandes SOUZA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with bruxism in children aged from 1 to 13 years with developmental disabilities. A total of 389 dental records were examined. The bruxism analyzed was determined based on parental reports. The following variables were also analyzed: gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD, mouth breathing, history of gastroesophageal reflux, use of psychotropic drugs, gingival status, reports of xerostomia, hyperkinesis, pacifier use, thumb sucking and involuntary movements. For the purposes of analysis, the individuals were categorized as being with and without bruxism. Variables with a p-value < 0.25 in the bivariate analysis were incorporated into the logistic regression models. Females had a 0.44-fold (95%CI: 0.25 to 0.78 greater chance of exhibiting bruxism than males. Individuals with gastroesophageal reflux had a 2.28-fold (95%CI: 1.03 to 5.02 greater chance of exhibiting bruxism. Individuals with reported involuntary movements had a 2.24-fold (95%CI: 1.19 to 4.24 greater chance of exhibiting bruxism than those without such movements. Exhibiting involuntary movements, the male gender and gastroesophageal reflux are factors associated with bruxism in children with developmental disabilities.

  13. Factors associated with bruxism in children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Valeska Aparecida Fernandes; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with bruxism in children aged from 1 to 13 years with developmental disabilities. A total of 389 dental records were examined. The bruxism analyzed was determined based on parental reports. The following variables were also analyzed: gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mouth breathing, history of gastroesophageal reflux, use of psychotropic drugs, gingival status, reports of xerostomia, hyperkinesis, pacifier use, thumb sucking and involuntary movements. For the purposes of analysis, the individuals were categorized as being with and without bruxism. Variables with a p-value bruxism than males. Individuals with gastroesophageal reflux had a 2.28-fold (95%CI: 1.03 to 5.02) greater chance of exhibiting bruxism. Individuals with reported involuntary movements had a 2.24-fold (95%CI: 1.19 to 4.24) greater chance of exhibiting bruxism than those without such movements. Exhibiting involuntary movements, the male gender and gastroesophageal reflux are factors associated with bruxism in children with developmental disabilities.

  14. Taking the Bite out of Bruxism (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a warm bath or shower, listen to slow music, or read a good book. It just might help you say bye-bye to bruxism! Reviewed by: Kenneth H. Hirsch, ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  15. Bruxism Associated with Anoxic Encephalopathy: Successful Treatment with Baclofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bruce Janati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bruxism is a movement disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth. Etiology of bruxism can be divided into three groups: psychosocial factors, peripheral factors, and pathophysiological factors. Methods. The clinical investigation was conducted at King Khaled Hospital in Hail, Saudi Arabia, in 2012. Results. A 16-year-old Saudi female was brought to the hospital in a comatose state and with generalized convulsive seizures secondary to acute anoxic encephalopathy. In the third week of hospitalization, while still in a state of akinetic mutism, she developed incessant bruxism which responded favorably to a GABA receptor agonist (baclofen. Conclusion. Our data support the hypothesis that bruxism emanates from imbalance or dysregulation of the neurotransmitter system. Larger scale studies will be needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  16. Childhood bruxism: a clinical review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, B; Marya, C M; Anegundi, R

    2010-01-01

    The present case report refers to a patient who reported to the department with the complaint of teeth grinding (Bruxism). A brief review of the literature is reported concerning the aetiology, clinical diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of the disease.

  17. Bruxism affects stress responses in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chikatoshi; Sato, Sadao; Takashina, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hidenori; Onozuka, Minoru; Sasaguri, Kenichi

    2010-04-01

    It has been proposed that suppression of stress-related emotional responses leads to the simultaneous activation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and that the expression of these emotional states has a protective effect against ulcerogenesis. In the present study, we investigated whether stress-induced bruxism activity (SBA) has a physiological effect of on the stress-induced changes of the stomach, thymus, and spleen as well as blood leukocytes, cortisol, and adrenaline. This study demonstrated that SBA attenuated the stress-induced ulcer genesis as well as degenerative changes of thymus and spleen. SBA also attenuated increases of adrenaline, cortisol, and neutrophils in the blood. In conclusion, expression of aggression through SBA during stress exposure attenuates both stress-induced ANS response, including gastric ulcer formation.

  18. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements.

  19. Sleep less and bite more: sleep disorders associated with occlusal loads during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Okura, Kazuo; Abe, Susumu; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2013-04-01

    Occlusal overload during sleep is a significant clinical issue that has negative impacts on the maintenance of teeth and the longevity of dental prostheses. Sleep is usually viewed as an 'out-of-functional' mode for masticatory muscles. However, orodental structures and prostheses are not free from occlusal loads during sleep since masticatory muscles can be activated at a low level within normal sleep continuity. Thus, an increase in masticatory muscle contractions, by whatever the cause, can be associated with a risk of increased occlusal loads during sleep. Among such conditions, sleep bruxism (SB) is a type of sleep-related movement disorders with potential load challenge to the tooth and orofacial structures. Patients with SB usually report frequent tooth grinding noises during sleep and there is a consecutive increase in number and strength of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). Other types of masticatory muscle contractions can be non-specifically activated during sleep, such as brief contractions with tooth tapping, sleep talking, non-rhythmic contractions related to non-specific body movements, etc.; these occur more frequently in sleep disorders. Studies have shown that clinical signs and symptoms of SB can be found in patients with sleep disorders. In addition, sleep becomes compromised with aging process, and a prevalence of most sleep disorders is high in the elderly populations, in which prosthodontic rehabilitations are more required. Therefore, the recognition and understanding of the role of sleep disorders can provide a comprehensive vision for prosthodontic rehabilitations when prosthodontists manage complex orodental cases needing interdisciplinary collaborations between dentistry and sleep medicine. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occlusal factors are not related to self-reported bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Visscher, Corine M; Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the contribution of various occlusal features of the natural dentition that may identify self-reported bruxers compared to nonbruxers. Two age- and sex-matched groups of self-reported bruxers (n = 67) and self-reported nonbruxers (n = 75) took part in the study. For each patient, the following occlusal features were clinically assessed: retruded contact position (RCP) to intercuspal contact position (ICP) slide length ( 4 mm, a deep bite), horizontal overlap (> 4 mm was considered a large horizontal overlap), incisor dental midline discrepancy (bruxism (dependent variable). Accuracy values to predict self-reported bruxism were unacceptable for all occlusal variables. The only variable remaining in the final regression model was laterotrusive interferences (P = .030). The percentage of explained variance for bruxism by the final multiple regression model was 4.6%. This model including only one occlusal factor showed low positive (58.1%) and negative predictive values (59.7%), thus showing a poor accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported bruxism (59.2%). This investigation suggested that the contribution of occlusion to the differentiation between bruxers and nonbruxers is negligible. This finding supports theories that advocate a much diminished role for peripheral anatomical-structural factors in the pathogenesis of bruxism.

  1. Portable EMG devices, Biofeedback and Contingent Electrical Stimulation applications in Bruxism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo

    Portable EMG devices, Biofeedback and Contingent Electrical Stimulation applications in Bruxism Eduardo Enrique, Castrillon Watanabe, DDS, MSc, PhD Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience...... Summary: Bruxism is a parafunctional activity, which involves the masticatory muscles and probably it is as old as human mankind. Different methods such as portable EMG devices have been proposed to diagnose and understand the pathophysiology of bruxism. Biofeedback / contingent electrical stimulation...... characteristics make it complicated to assess bruxism using portable EMG devices. The possibility to assess bruxism like EMG activity on a portable device made it possible to use biofeedback and CES approaches in order to treat / manage bruxism. The available scientific information about CES effects on bruxism...

  2. Association of problem behavior with sleep problems and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Katsuyoshi; Yagi, Takakazu; Maeda, Aya; Nagayama, Kunihiro; Uehara, Sawako; Saito-Sakoguchi, Yoko; Kanematsu, Kyoko; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2014-02-01

    There are few large-scale epidemiologic studies examining the associations between sleep problems, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, lifestyle and food habits and problem behaviors (PB) in adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among these factors in Japanese adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1840 junior high school students was carried out using questionnaires. The subjects were classified into PB or normal behavior (NB) groups using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC). The scores of the sleep-related factors, sleep bruxism, lifestyle and food habits, and GERD symptoms were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors related to PB. Mean subject age was 13.3 ± 1.8 years. The PB group had significantly longer sleep latency and higher GERD symptom score (P sleep bruxism, difficulty falling asleep within 30 min, nightmares, feeling of low sleep quality, daytime somnolence, and daytime lack of motivation. Feelings of low sleep quality had the strongest association with PB, with an adjusted odds ratio of 12.88 (95% confidence interval: 8.99-18.46). PB in adolescents are associated with sleep problems, including sleep bruxism, as well as lifestyle and food habits and GERD symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.

  4. Bruxism and genetics: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D

    2014-09-01

    People who suffer from bruxism (teeth-grinding) often ask their dentists whether their condition is hereditary. The purpose of this study is to enable dentists to provide an 'evidence-based' answer to this question. The biomedical literature was searched using PubMed, and 32 publications were identified, of which nine proved relevant to the research question. The references cited by the publications identified yielded one further publication, bringing the total number of publications included in the analysis to 10. Four publications related to family studies, five related to twin studies and one related to a DNA analysis. With the exception of one of the twin studies, all the included studies concluded that bruxism appears to be (in part) genetically determined. Dentists whose patients ask them about bruxism can therefore tell them that teeth-grinding does indeed 'run in families'. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  6. Dentists' knowledge of occlusal splint therapy for bruxism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... bruxism, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and to assessment of treatment modalities. Materials ... While the dentists' with sufficient knowledge soft splint application rates were 11.6% ... might result in disease progression or the development of a different ... software “SPSS” version 15.0. (Inc.

  7. Bruxism and genetics: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Visscher, C.M.; Ahlberg, J.; Manfredini, D.

    2014-01-01

    People who suffer from bruxism (teeth-grinding) often ask their dentists whether their condition is hereditary. The purpose of this study is to enable dentists to provide an ‘evidence-based’ answer to this question. The biomedical literature was searched using PubMed, and 32 publications were

  8. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Clinical identification of the simple sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Arthur S

    2007-04-01

    Simple sleep-related movement disorders must be distinguished from daytime movement disorders that persist during sleep, sleep-related epilepsy, and parasomnias, which are generally characterized by activity that appears to be simultaneously complex, goal-directed, and purposeful but is outside the conscious awareness of the patient and, therefore, inappropriate. Once it is determined that the patient has a simple sleep-related movement disorder, the part of the body affected by the movement and the age of the patient give clues as to which sleep-related movement disorder is present. In some cases, all-night polysomnography with accompanying video may be necessary to make the diagnosis. Hypnic jerks (ie, sleep starts), bruxism, rhythmic movement disorder (ie, head banging/body rocking), and nocturnal leg cramps are discussed in addition to less well-appreciated disorders such as benign sleep myoclonus of infancy, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation.

  10. DENTAL WEAR CAUSED BY ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BRUXISM AND GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE: A REHABILITATION REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Naila Aparecida de Godoi; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Branco, Carolina Assaf; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra; Fernandes, Alfredo J?lio; Soares, Carlos Jos?

    2007-01-01

    Bruxism is a pathological activity of the stomatognathic system that involves tooth grinding and clenching during parafunctional jaw movements. Clinical signs of bruxism are mostly related to dental wear and muscular and joint discomforts, but a large number of etiological factors can be listed, as local, systemic, psychological and hereditary factors. The association between bruxism, feeding and smoking habits and digestive disorders may lead to serious consequences to dental and related str...

  11. Study of the relationship of psychosocial disorders to bruxism in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Katayoun E; Sima F; Naser V; Anahita D

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bruxism has been defined as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional habit. Etiology of bruxism has remained controversial and some investigators believe that psychological factors may play a major role in promoting and perpetuating this habit. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders in adolescents., Participants were chosen among 114, 12-14 year old students (girls). They were divided into t...

  12. [Sleep paroxysmal events in children in video/polysomnography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Anna; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara; Wesołowska, Ewa; Kaciński, Marek

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that about 25% of children have sleep disorders, from short problems with falling asleep to severe including primary sleep disorders. Majority of these problems are transitory and self-limiting and usually are not recognized by first care physicians and need education. Analysis of sleep structure at the developmental age and of sleep disorders associated with different sleep phases on the basis of video/polysomnography results. Literature review and illustration of fundamental problems associated with sleep physiology and pathology, with special attention to paroxysmal disorders. Additionally 4 cases from our own experience were presented with neurophysiological and clinical aspects. Discussion on REM and NREM sleep, its phases and alternating share according to child's age was conducted. Sleep disorders were in accordance with their international classification. Parasomnias, occupying most of the space, were divided in two groups: primary and secondary. Among primary parasomnias disorders associated with falling asleep (sleep myoclonus, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome) are important. Another disorders are parasomians associated with light NREM sleep (bruxism, periodic limb movement disorder) and with deeper NREM sleep (confusional arousals, somnabulism, night terrors), with REM sleep (nightmares, REM sleep behavior disorder) and associated with NREM and REM sleep (catathrenia, sleep enuresis, sleep talking). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and epileptic seizures occurring during sleep also play an important role. Frontal lobe epilepsy and Panayiotopoulos syndrome should be considered in the first place in such cases. Our 4 cases document these diagnostic difficulties, requiring video/polysomnography examination 2 of them illustrate frontal lobe epilepsy and single ones myoclonic epilepsy graphy in children is a difficult technique and requires special device, local and trained

  13. Dyssomnias, parasomnias, and sleep disorders associated with medical and psychiatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlen, G M; Stacy, C

    1994-03-01

    Sleep disorders can be intrinsic, as are insomnia or narcolepsy, or can be accounted for by external factors, such as noise, altitude, drug or alcohol abuse, or shift work. The arousal disorders, common in children, are usually benign and disappear by puberty. Sleep-wake transition disorders such as sleep starts are benign as well, and may occur at any age. The parasomnias comprise different entities such as nightmares, REM-sleep behavior disorder, sleep enuresis, and bruxism. Diagnosis and treatment often require a multidisciplinary approach. Virtually every psychiatric, neurologic, or medical disease, when of sufficient severity, leaves its specific fingerprint on sleep; some disorders, such as peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux, or epilepsy, tend to be exacerbated during sleep. Fortunately, most sleep disorders are amenable to therapy, which can include counseling, sleep hygiene, withholding of an offending agent, behavioral therapy, light therapy, or cautious drug therapy.

  14. [EEG changes in symptomatic headache caused by bruxism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieselmann, G; Grabmair, W; Logar, C; Permann, R; Moser, F

    1987-02-20

    EEG recordings were carried out on 36 patients with the verified diagnosis of bruxism and unilateral headache. Occlusal splints were applied in the long-term management of these patients. Initial EEG recordings showed pathological changes in 56% of the patients. The EEG recordings were repeated two and six weeks later in these patients and following improvement in the clinical symptomatology pathological EEG patterns were detected in only 22% of all cases. This decrease is of statistical significance.

  15. Clinical Management of Implant Prostheses in Patients with Bruxism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Osamu; Lobbezoo, Frank; De Laat, Antoon; Iida, Takashi; Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kato, Takao; Kawara, Misao

    2012-01-01

    There is general agreement that excessive stress to the bone-implant interface may result in implant overload and failure. Early failure of the implant due to excessive loading occurs shortly after uncovering the implant. Excess load on a final restoration after successful implant integration can result in physical failure of the implant structure. Many clinicians believe that overload of dental implants is a risk factor for vertical peri-implant bone loss and/or may be detrimental for the suprastructure in implant prostheses. It has been documented that occlusal parafunction, such as, bruxism (tooth grinding and clenching) affects the outcome of implant prostheses, but there is no evidence for a causal relation between the failures and overload of dental implants. In spite of this lack of evidence, often metal restorations are preferred instead of porcelain for patients in whom bruxism is presumed on the basis of tooth wear. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of the occlusal scheme used in implant restorations for implant longevity and to suggest a clinical approach and occlusal materials for implant prostheses in order to prevent complications related to bruxism. PMID:22701484

  16. Bruxism and TMD disorders of everyday dental clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Popovska, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Bruxism, as an etiological factor for the development of TMD, includes different disorders of the TMJ and the masticatory muscles, exhibiting pain and disruption of the stomatognathic functions. Our goal was to study patients with bruxism and TMD from everyday dental clinical practice, in terms of diagnosis, identification of etiological factors, classification and treatment of these disorders. We treated 120 patients, divided into 2 groups of 60 patients. The first group had disorders of the TMJ, and the second of the masticatory muscles. The groups were divided into subgroups of 20 patients with dislocation of the articular disk with or without reduction and inflammation of TMJ. The second group was organized from patients with myofascial pain, myositis and muscular trismus. Our conservative treatment consisted of patient education, NSAID, myorelaxants, fabrication of prosthetics, repositioning and stabilization splints. The progress of the patients was followed immediately after the delivery of the prosthetics and the splint, after 1, 6 and 12 months. The results showed that in patients with disorders of the TMJ there were visible signs of recovery after 6 months in 68.3% patients, and in 85% after 12 months. In the second group we achieved faster results with the elimination of symptoms. Patients with afflictions of the muscles in 88.3% of cases noticed relief of symptoms even after 6 months and in 98.3% after 12 months. As therapists we concluded that timely treated complications of bruxism and TMD prevent the destruction of the TMJ, masticatory muscles and the entire stomatognatic system.

  17. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Mura, R.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Methods: Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions

  18. Evaluation of a Multicomponent Intervention for Diurnal Bruxism in a Young Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Emily L.; Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.; Nollet, Megan D.

    2009-01-01

    Bruxism, forceful grinding of one's teeth together, can produce destructive outcomes such as wear on the teeth and damaged gums and bone structures. The current study implemented a multicomponent intervention that consisted of vocal and physical cues to decrease rates of bruxism. A partial component analysis suggested that the vocal cue was only…

  19. Efficacy of botulinum toxins on bruxism: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hu; Liao, Zhengyu; Wang, Yan; Liao, Lina; Lai, Wenli

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of botulinum toxins on bruxism. Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and Science Citation Index), websites (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov) and the literature database of SIGLE (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) were searched from January 1990 to April 2011 for randomised controlled trials or nonrandomised studies assessing the efficacy of botulinum toxins on bruxism. There was no language restriction. Through a predefined search strategy, we retrieved 28 studies from PubMed, 94 from Embase, 60 from the Science Citation Index, two ongoing clinical trials and two from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Of these, only four studies met our inclusion criteria and were finally included. Of the four included studies, two were randomised controlled trials and two were controlled before-and-after studies. These studies showed that botulinum toxin injections can reduce the frequency of bruxism events, decrease bruxism-induced pain levels and satisfy patients' self-assessment with regard to the effectiveness of botulinum toxins on bruxism. In comparison with oral splint, botulinum toxins are equally effective on bruxism. Furthermore, botulinum toxin injections at a dosage of bruxism and are safe to use. Therefore, they can be used clinically for otherwise healthy patients with bruxism. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Summary of: Over-the-counter (OTC) bruxism splints available on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassell, R.W.; Verhees, L.; Lawrence, K.; Davies, S.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some individuals may now be bypassing their dentists for treatment of bruxism. Self-diagnosed, self-adjusted and self-monitored consumers can access over-the-counter (OTC) bruxism splints via the Internet. While some may regard this market as benefiting consumers there are potential

  1. Over-the-counter (OTC) bruxism splints available on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassell, R.W.; Verhees, L.; Lawrence, K.; Davies, S.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some individuals may now be bypassing their dentists for treatment of bruxism. Self-diagnosed, self-adjusted and self-monitored consumers can access over-the-counter (OTC) bruxism splints via the Internet. While some may regard this market as benefiting consumers there are potential

  2. Work, Stress, and Diurnal Bruxism: A Pilot Study among Information Technology Professionals in Bangalore City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the prevalence of diurnal bruxism among information technology (IT professionals and explored plausible predictors associated with the parafunctional habit. A cross-sectional study was designed and IT professionals were invited to participate. The inclusion criteria composed of participants in service for at least one year, having natural dentition, no history of cervical or facial injury and not undergoing orthodontic therapy. The participants (N=147 were interviewed by a trained interviewer to record information. A pre-tested questionnaire that included questions related to work, stress symptoms and diurnal bruxism was completed by each participant. The prevalence of self-reported diurnal bruxism was 59%. Bivariate analyses revealed that work (<0.05 and work experience (<0.05 were significantly associated with self-reported diurnal bruxism. In the binary logistic regression analysis stress (Odds Ratio [OR] =5.9, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.6–13.3 was identified to be a strong predictor of diurnal bruxism. Professionals with 11 or more years of experience were less likely to report diurnal bruxism (OR=0.04, 95% CI 0.00–0.43 than those with 1 to 5 years of work experience. The study revealed that stress and less work experience were associated with diurnal bruxism among IT professionals in Bangalore city.

  3. Impact of Bruxism on Ceramic Defects in Implant-Borne Fixed Dental Prostheses: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeli, Aikaterini; Walter, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic veneer fracture is a frequent complication in implant-borne fixed restorations. The retrospective clinical study assesses the effect of bruxism on this complication. A sample of 507 implant-borne fixed units inserted between 1995 and 2011 in 144 patients were examined. Any detected veneer fractures were assigned to one of four groups according to extent and position. A hypothetical correlation between bruxism and ceramic veneer fractures was examined. Of 34 patients (23.6%) with at least one ceramic veneer fracture, 24 were bruxers (70%) and 10 were nonbruxers (30%) (P = .002). Bruxism may pose a risk for ceramic fractures.

  4. Management of sleep-time masticatory muscle activity using stabilisation splints affects psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Masaki, C; Makino, M; Yoshida, M; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Hosokawa, R

    2013-12-01

    To treat sleep bruxism (SB), symptomatic therapy using stabilisation splints (SS) is frequently used. However, their effects on psychological stress and sleep quality have not yet been examined fully. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of SS use on psychological stress and sleep quality. The subjects (11 men, 12 women) were healthy volunteers. A crossover design was used. Sleep measurements were performed for three consecutive days or longer without (baseline) or with an SS or palatal splint (PS), and data for the final day were evaluated. We measured masseter muscle activity during sleep using portable electromyography to evaluate SB. Furthermore, to compare psychological stress before and after sleep, assessments were made based on STAI-JYZ and the measurement of salivary chromogranin A. To compare each parameter among the three groups (baseline, SS and PS), Friedman's and Dunn's tests were used. From the results of the baseline measurements, eight subjects were identified as high group and 15 as low group. Among the high group, a marked decrease in the number of bruxism events per hour and an increase in the difference in the total STAI Y-1 scores were observed in the SS group compared with those at baseline (P sleep stages. SS use may be effective in reducing the number of SB events, while it may increase psychological stress levels, and SS use did not apparently influence sleep stages. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sleep duration, wake/sleep symptoms, and academic performance in Hong Kong Secondary School Children.

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    Ng, E P; Ng, D K; Chan, C H

    2009-11-01

    Sleep deprivation is common among teenagers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration, wake/sleep symptoms, and academic performance among Hong Kong students. The sleep habit questionnaires were distributed to all Year 11 students at an international school that catered to different ethnic groups in Hong Kong. Analysis of various parameters of academic performance and sleep habits and their relationships were undertaken. Fifty-nine students were recruited. The average sleep duration in this group was 7.23 h. The overall prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of >10) was 25.4%. Eleven subjects had excessive class sleepiness, defined as high likelihood to fall asleep during at least one school session. Mathematics performance was positively correlated with sleep duration. Excessive sleepiness on rising was identified as a significant risk factor for poor performance in English and Mathematics. Sleepiness during the third and fourth lessons was identified as a significant risk factor for poor performance in Mathematics only. Sleep deprivation was common in the studied cohort and it was associated with a decrease in Mathematics performance. Excessive sleepiness on rising and sleepiness during third and fourth lessons were associated with poorer grades in Mathematics and English. Excessive daytime sleepiness was reported in 25% of students. Bruxism and snoring were associated with excessive daytime sleepiness.

  6. Bruxism: overview of current knowledge and suggestions for dental implants planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Bucci, M.B.; Sabattini, V.B.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Bruxism is commonly considered a detrimental motor activity, potentially causing overload of the stomatognathic structures and representing a risk factor for dental implant survival. The available literature does not provide evidence-based guidelines for the management of bruxers undergoing

  7. A relationship between bruxism and orofacial-dystonia? A trigeminal electrophysiological approach in a case report of pineal cavernoma

    OpenAIRE

    Frisardi, Gianni; Iani, Cesare; Sau, Gianfranco; Frisardi, Flavio; Leornadis, Carlo; Lumbau, Aurea; Enrico, Paolo; Sirca, Donatella; Staderini, Enrico Maria; Chessa, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In some clinical cases, bruxism may be correlated to central nervous system hyperexcitability, suggesting that bruxism may represent a subclinical form of dystonia. To examine this hypothesis, we performed an electrophysiological evaluation of the excitability of the trigeminal nervous system in a patient affected by pineal cavernoma with pain symptoms in the orofacial region and pronounced bruxism. Methods: Electrophysiological studies included bilateral electrical transcrania...

  8. Bruxism secondary to brain injury treated with Botulinum toxin-A: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maaytah, Mohammed; Jerjes, Waseem; Upile, Tahwinder; Swinson, Brian; Hopper, Colin; Ayliffe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We report a successful treatment of bruxism in a patient with anoxic brain injury using botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A). On examination the mouth opening was 0 mm, no feeding was possible through the mouth. Botulinum toxin was injected into the masseter and temporalis; great improvement in trismus and bruxism was noted after 3 weeks. One further treatment improved the mouth opening on the following week and the patient was discharged from our care to be reviewed when required. PMID:17123443

  9. Temporomandibular disorders and bruxism in childhood and adolescence: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Miyakoda, Luana Sayuri; Pocztaruk, Rafael de Liz; Rocha, Camila Pinhata; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this article was to review the literature about temporomandibular disorders and bruxism and their relationships in children and adolescents. The literature was searched using Medline, ISI, Cochrane Library, Scielo and the Internet, from March 1970 to the end of June 2007. The inclusion criteria were: they evaluated a possible association between TMD and bruxism, and they dealt with child and/or adolescent samples. Furthermore, interim reports, related Internet sites and chapters in textbooks were considered. From 64 records found, 30 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in children and adolescent varies widely in the literature. Temporomandibular disorders are often defined on the basis of signs and symptoms, of which the most common are: temporomandibular joint sounds, impaired movement of the mandible, limitation in mouth opening, preauricular pain, facial pain, headaches and jaw tenderness on function, having mainly a mild character, fluctuation and progression to severe pain and dysfunction is rare. One of the possible causal factors suggested that temporomandibular disorders in children is a functional mandibular overload variable, mainly bruxism. Bruxism, defined as the habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces, is involuntary, excessive grinding, clenching or rubbing of teeth during nonfunctional movements of the masticatory system. Its etiology is still controversial but the multifactorial cause has been attributed, including pathophysiologic, psychologic and morphologic factors. Moreover, in younger children, bruxism may be a consequence of the masticatory neuromuscular system immaturity. Complications include dental attrition, headaches, temporomandibular disorders and masticatory muscle soreness. Some studies have linked oral parafunctional habits to disturbances and diseases of the temporomandibular joint, mainly bruxism, suggesting its association with temporomandibular

  10. Relationship between bruxism and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of literature from 1998 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2010-06-01

    The present paper aims to systematically review the literature on the temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-bruxism relationship published from 1998 to 2008. A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database was performed to identify all studies on humans assessing the relationship between TMD symptoms and bruxism diagnosed with any different approach. The selected articles were assessed independently by the 2 authors according to a structured reading of articles format (PICO). A total of 46 articles were included for discussion in the review and grouped into questionnaire/self-report (n = 21), clinical assessment (n = 7), experimental (n = 7), tooth wear (n = 5), polysomnographic (n = 4), or electromyographic (n = 2) studies. In several studies, the level of evidence was negatively influenced by a low level of specificity for the assessment of the bruxism-TMD relationship, because of the low prevalence of severe TMD patients in the studied samples and because of the use of self-report diagnosis of bruxism with some potential diagnostic bias. Investigations based on self-report or clinical bruxism diagnosis showed a positive association with TMD pain, but they are characterized by some potential bias and confounders at the diagnostic level (eg, pain as a criterion for bruxism diagnosis). Studies based on more quantitative and specific methods to diagnose bruxism showed much lower association with TMD symptoms. Anterior tooth wear was not found to be a major risk factor for TMD. Experimental sustained jaw clenching may provoke acute muscle tenderness, but it is not analogous to myogenous TMD pain, so such studies may not help clarify the clinical relationship between bruxism and TMD. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of Awake Bruxism with Khat, Coffee, Tobacco, and Stress among Jazan University Students

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    Mir Faeq Ali Quadri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective is to assess the prevalence of bruxism among the university students and to check its association with their khat chewing habit. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study is designed using cluster random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer to assess awake bruxism and the use of variables like khat, coffee, tobacco, and stress. Chi-square test at 5% significance was used for assessing the association. Logistic regression was also performed after adjusting for covariates. Results. A high response rate (95% was obtained as the distribution and collection of questionnaire was within an hour interval. 85% (63%, males; 22%, females experienced an episode of bruxism at least one time in the past six months. Regression analysis revealed an association of stress (P=0.00; OR = 5.902, 95% CI 2.614–13.325 and khat use (P=0.05; OR = 1.629, 95% CI 0.360–7.368 with bruxism. Interestingly, it is observed that the one who chew khat experienced 3.56 times (95% CI; 2.62–11.22 less pain when compared to the nonusers. Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to assess the association of bruxism with khat chewing. High amount of stress and khat use can be considered as important risk indicators for awake bruxism.

  12. Reevaluating Antidepressant Selection in Patients With Bruxism and Temporomandibular Joint Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Royce; Sun, Ye-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) is a broad pain disorder that refers to several conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint of the jaw and the muscles of mastication. As with most pain disorders, a high prevalence of depression and anxiety is associated with TMD. Research has shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the first-line drug therapy for major depressive disorder, may not be suitable for TMD patients because SSRIs can induce teeth-grinding, otherwise known as bruxism. This is problematic because bruxism is believed to further exacerbate TMD. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to better understand the mechanism of SSRI-induced bruxism, as well as discuss alternative antidepressant options for treating depression and anxiety in patients with bruxism and TMD. Alternative classes of antidepressants reviewed include serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, atypical antidepressants, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Findings indicate that dopamine agonists and buspirone are currently the most effective medications to treat the side effects of SSRI-induced bruxism, but results regarding the effectiveness of specific antidepressants that avoid bruxism altogether remain inconclusive.

  13. Bruxism: its multiple causes and its effects on dental implants - an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Van Der Zaag, J; Naeije, M

    2006-04-01

    There is a growing interest in bruxism, as evidenced by the rapidly increasing number of papers about this subject during the past 5 years. The aim of the present review was to provide an update of two previous reviews from our department (one about the aetiology of bruxism and the other about the possible role of this movement disorder in the failure of dental implants) and to describe the details of the literature search strategies used, thus enabling the readers to judge the completeness of the review. Most studies that were published about the etiology during the past 5 years corroborate the previously drawn conclusions. Similarly, the update of the review about the possible causal relationship between bruxism and implant failure reveals no new points of view. Thus, there is no reason to assume otherwise than that bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally, and that there is still insufficient evidence to support or refute a causal relationship between bruxism and implant failure. This illustrates that there is a vast need for well-designed studies to study both the aetiology of bruxism and its purported relationship with implant failure.

  14. [The role of bruxism in the appearance of temporomandibular joint disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, M D; De Boever, J A

    1997-01-01

    Bruxism is a parafunction observed both in young and adult populations. The mean prevalence is about 20% and is decreasing with age. Women appear to clench more frequently than men. Often, bruxism is understood as both clenching with occasional tooth contact or grinding. A correct and validated definition has only recently been suggested. Many symptoms are assigned to this process, although few symptoms scientifically can be used as specific diagnostic criteria. The symptoms most often associated with bruxism like muscle-stiffness and -pain, limitation of mouth opening. TMJ-internal derangements, toothwear, are also found in TMD-patients. Because the bruxism-process is not only a problem for the patient, who suffers from pain, dysfunction and possible toothwear, it concerns also the dentist. It is essential that those who treat the bruxist-patient, have an understanding of the etiology, diagnosis and management of bruxism, of the many described oral parafunctional behaviors (oromotor behavior). This literature-review could not find a causal etiological mechanism between the occurrence of TMD-symptoms and the bruxism although a relationship between those two conditions has been described.

  15. Is there an association between bruxism and intestinal parasitic infestation in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Serrano, Kranya Victoria; da Silva, Carolina Brunelli Alvares; de Albuquerque, Sérgio; Pereira Saraiva, Maria da Conceição; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Multiple factors have been considered in the etiology of bruxism in pediatric patients, among which are infestations by intestinal parasites suggested by some authors. No empirical evidence exists, however, of such association. Therefore, this study's purpose was to investigate the existence of an association between bruxism and intestinal parasitic infestation in children. Fifty-seven 6- to 11-year-olds (30 cases and 27 controls) who had not used anthelminthics 2 months before the baseline examination were enrolled in the study. A diagnosis of bruxism was based on an intraoral clinical examination performed by a single trained examiner and on the parent/guardian's report of any perceived parafunctional habits (questionnaire-based interview). Bruxism cases were defined as those children with a report of currently perceived habits of eccentric or centric bruxism (tooth-grinding and tooth-clenching, respectively) combined with clinical evidence of nonphysiologic wear facets. The volunteers were required to collect 3 fecal samples (1 every 2 to 3 days). Parasitologic analysis was performed using the spontaneous sedimentation method. Data gathered from the intraoral clinical examination, questionnaire, and parasitologic analysis were tabulated and submitted to statistical analysis using the chi-square test and student's t test. Intestinal parasitic infestation was observed in 30% (N=9) of cases and 41% (N=11) of controls, but no statistically significant association was observed (P=.40). This study's findings do not support the existence of an association between intestinal parasitic infestation and bruxism among the evaluated pediatric population.

  16. Bruxism frequency and dental occlusion type in a group of Mexican adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Murrieta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bruxism is a parafunctional habit characterized by the incessant action of grinding and clenching of the teeth improperly. It can occurred when dental occlusion is altered due to premature contacts between the teeth, and excursive occlusal interference. These conditions can alter the frequency, intensity and duration of the bruxism episode adopted. A transversal study was carried out to evaluate the frequency of the habit of bruxism and its relation with the type of dental occlusion in a group of teenagers. Material and method. A total of 278 teenagers were examined, who were signed up in high school. For the epidemiology survey, a questioner was applied and they were given a mouth exam for such end, an examiner was previously standardized (malocclusion kappa=0.89, bruxism kappa=0.93. Results. 51.5% of the teenagers presented bruxism being more frequent in the category of 17 years old with no difference of sex. The 81.4% showed some kind of dental malocclusion, out of which 57.6% were cases of malocclusion Class I, the 21.4% Class II and the 2.4% Class III, with no association noticed between both variables. Conclusion. The frequency of bruxism was high with similar distribution given the age as well as gender with no relation noticed with the type of dental occlusion or with the frequency of dental malocclusion.

  17. Repetitive Arm Movements During Sleep: A Polysomnographic Assessment

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    Mohammad Torabi-Nami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related movement disorders should be differentiated from parasomnias, sleep-associated behavioral disorders, and epilepsy. Polysomnography (PSG is the gold standard in evaluating such disorders. Periodic leg movement disorder during sleep (PLMS, hypnic jerks, bruxism, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and nocturnal leg cramps have broadly been discussed in the literature. However, periodic arm movement disorder in sleep (PAMS is a less-appreciated entity perhaps because arm surface electromyography is not an integral part of the standard polysomnography. Results from our PSG study in a case suspected for PAMS prompted us to herewith discuss this problem.

  18. Activation properties of trigeminal motoneurons in participants with and without bruxism

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Jessica M.; Yavuz, Ş. Utku; Saraçoğlu, Ahmet; Atiş, Elif Sibel; Türker, Kemal S.

    2013-01-01

    In animals, sodium- and calcium-mediated persistent inward currents (PICs), which produce long-lasting periods of depolarization under conditions of low synaptic drive, can be activated in trigeminal motoneurons following the application of the monoamine serotonin. Here we examined if PICs are activated in human trigeminal motoneurons during voluntary contractions and under physiological levels of monoaminergic drive (e.g., serotonin and norepinephrine) using a paired motor unit analysis technique. We also examined if PICs activated during voluntary contractions are larger in participants who demonstrate involuntary chewing during sleep (bruxism), which is accompanied by periods of high monoaminergic drive. In control participants, during a slowly increasing and then decreasing isometric contraction, the firing rate of an earlier-recruited masseter motor unit, which served as a measure of synaptic input to a later-recruited test unit, was consistently lower during derecruitment of the test unit compared with at recruitment (ΔF = 4.6 ± 1.5 imp/s). The ΔF, therefore, is a measure of the reduction in synaptic input needed to counteract the depolarization from the PIC to provide an indirect estimate of PIC amplitude. The range of ΔF values measured in the bruxer participants during similar voluntary contractions was the same as in controls, suggesting that abnormally high levels of monoaminergic drive are not continually present in the absence of involuntary motor activity. We also observed a consistent “onion skin effect” during the moderately sized contractions (motor units discharged at slower rates (by 4–7 imp/s) compared with motor units with relatively lower thresholds. The presence of lower firing rates in the more fatigue-prone, higher threshold trigeminal motoneurons, in addition to the activation of PICs, likely facilitates the activation of the masseter muscle during motor activities such as eating, nonnutritive chewing, clenching, and yawning

  19. Sleep Disorders

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    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  20. Sleep Problems

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    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  1. [Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, Paloma Baiardi; Athanazio, Rodrigo Abensur; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Neves, Flávia Branco Cerqueira Serra; Terse, Regina; Hora, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the symptoms most frequently found in children with a polysomnographic diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). We evaluated 38 children consecutively referred to the sleep laboratory with suspicion of OSAHS between June of 2003 and December of 2004. The patients were submitted to a pre-sleep questionnaire and to polysomnography. The mean age was 7.8 +/- 4 years (range, 2-15 years), and 50% of the children were male. Children without apnea accounted for 7.9% of the sample. The obstructive sleep apnea observed in the remainder was mild in 42.1%, moderate in 28.9% and severe in 22.1%. Severe cases of apnea were most common among children under the age of six (pre-school age). In children with OSAHS, the most common symptoms were snoring and nasal obstruction, which were observed in 74.3 and 72.7% of the children, respectively. Excessive sleepiness and bruxism were seen in 29.4 and 34.3%, respectively, and reflux disease was seen in only 3.1%. Restless legs and difficulty in falling asleep were identified in 65 and 33%, respectively. All of the children diagnosed with severe OSAHS also presented snoring and bruxism. Snoring and nasal obstruction were the most common symptoms found in our sample of children and adolescents with OSAHS. In addition, OSAHS severity was associated with being in the lower age bracket.

  2. Tobacco use and reported bruxism in young adults: A nationwide Finnish Twin Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, J.; Hublin, C.; Lobbezoo, F.; Rose, R. J.; Murtomaa, H.; Kaprio, J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Higher levels of smoking, leading to increased levels of nicotine and dopamine release, may be more strongly related to bruxism, although this relationship has remained unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effect of cumulative tobacco use on bruxism in a large sample of young adults. Methods: The material of the present study derives from the FinnTwin16, which consists of five birth cohorts born in 1975–1979. A total of 3,124 subjects (mean age 24 years, range 23–27 years) provided data in 2000–2002 on frequency of bruxism and tobacco use. Multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the relationships of frequency of bruxism with smoking and smokeless tobacco use while controlling covariates (alcohol intoxication, alcohol problems [Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, RAPI], illicit drug use, psychological distress [General Health Questionnaire], and coffee use). Results: Based on subjective response and multivariate analyses, weekly bruxers were more than two times more likely to report heavy smoking than never bruxers (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95 % CI 1.8–3.4). The significant association between heavy smoking and bruxism held when the effects of other tobacco use and multiple covariates were controlled. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco emerged as an independent risk factor for bruxism. Discussion: Given the observed associations with both heavy smoking and smokeless tobacco and a dose–response relationship, the present results support our hypothesis of a link between nicotine intake and bruxism. PMID:20427458

  3. Is bruxism a risk factor for dental implants? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Poggio, Carlo E; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2014-06-01

    To systematically review the literature on the role of bruxism as a risk factor for the different complications on dental implant-supported rehabilitations. A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's Medline Database was performed to identify all peer-reviewed papers in the English literature assessing the role of bruxism, as diagnosed with any other diagnostic approach (i.e., clinical assessment, questionnaires, interviews, polysomnography, and electromyography), as a risk factor for biological (i.e., implant failure, implant mobility, and marginal bone loss) or mechanical (i.e., complications or failures of either prefabricated components or laboratory-fabricated suprastructures) complications on dental implant-supported rehabilitations. The selected articles were reviewed according to a structured summary of the articles in relation to four main issues, viz., "P" - patients/problem/population, "I" - intervention, "C" - comparison, and "O" - outcome. A total of 21 papers were included in the review and split into those assessing biological complications (n = 14) and those reporting mechanical complications (n = 7). In general, the specificity of the literature for bruxism diagnosis and for the study of the bruxism's effects on dental implants was low. From a biological viewpoint, bruxism was not related with implant failures in six papers, while results from the remaining eight studies did not allow drawing conclusions. As for mechanical complications, four of the seven studies yielded a positive relationship with bruxism. Bruxism is unlikely to be a risk factor for biological complications around dental implants, while there are some suggestions that it may be a risk factor for mechanical complications. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Bruxism and health related quality of life in southern Italy's prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, P; Savarese, G; Carpinelli, L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-assessed bruxism, the level of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and their relationship in a group of male inmates. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN, SETTING: The present study was cross-sectional, its setting was two penal institutions in Italy. A sample of 280 male prisoners (mean age 39.7 years). Due to the very small number of female prisoners, it was not possible to study both genders. Subjects were administered a questionnaire with items investigating demographic data, self-assessed bruxism and HRQoL using EuroQoL EQ-5D instrument. Bruxism was present in 29.7% of inmates. Results for EQ-5D (in brackets are data for the general population age and gender matched) were: EQ-index 1.3 (0.8), EQ-VAS 62 (80). Percentage reporting a problem for each dimension: Mobility (MO): 7.5 (9.6), Self Care (SC): 6.1 (4.3), Usual Activities (UA): 17.9 (10.1), Pain/discomfort (PD): 43.9 (40.8), Anxiety/depression (AD): 54.6 (31.9). There was a strong correlation between bruxism and EQ-index, showing concordance and dependence and, as expected, discordance and dependence between bruxism and EQ-VAS. Bruxism prevalence is higher and HRQoL is worse in the prison population than in the general population; the presence of bruxism is correlated with lower HRQoL levels, and correlation is stronger for subjects at first prison experience and for higher education levels, thus suggesting higher effect of stress on these subjects.

  5. Treatment of chronic pain associated with nocturnal bruxism with botulinum toxin. A prospective and randomized clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wayli, Hessa

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the role of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in the treatment of pain associated with nocturnal bruxism. Material and Methods Fifty subjects reporting nocturnal bruxism were recruited for a randomized clinical trial. Twenty five bruxers were injected with botulinum toxin in both masseters, and twenty five were treated with traditional methods of treating bruxism. Patients were evaluated at 3rd week, 2nd and 6th month and one year after injection and then used to calculate bruxism events. Bruxism symptoms were investigated using questionnaires. Results Mean pain score due to Bruxism events in the masseter muscle decreased significantly in the botulinum toxin injection group A (P =0.000, highly significant). However, in the conventional treatment group, mean pain score does not show improvement with time (p>0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that botulinum toxin injection reduced the mean pain score and number of bruxism events, most likely by decreasing the muscle activity of masseter rather than affecting the central nervous system. Key words:Temporomandibular pain, nocturnal bruxism, botulinum toxin. PMID:28149474

  6. Are mental health problems and depression associated with bruxism in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Andréa Coimbra; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Rodriguez, Juliana Dalla Martha; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Barbieri, Marco Antonio; Bettiol, Heloísa; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Saraiva, Maria da Conceição

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have found an association between bruxism and emotional and behavioral problems in children, but reported data are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bruxism, and of its components clenching and grinding, and its associations with mental problems and depression. Data from two Brazilian birth cohorts were analyzed: one from 869 children in Ribeirão Preto - RP (São Paulo), a more developed city, and the other from 805 children in São Luís - SL (Maranhão). Current bruxism - evaluated by means of a questionnaire applied to the parents/persons responsible for the children - was defined when the habit of tooth clenching during daytime and/or tooth grinding at night still persisted until the time of the assessment. Additionally, the lifetime prevalence of clenching during daytime only and grinding at night only was also evaluated. Mental health problems were investigated using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and depression using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Analyses were carried out for each city: with the SDQ subscales (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems, attention/hyperactivity disorder), with the total score (sum of the subscales), and with the CDI. These analyses were performed considering different response variables: bruxism, clenching only, and grinding only. The risks were estimated using a Poisson regression model. Statistical inferences were based on 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). There was a high prevalence of current bruxism: 28.7% in RP and 30.0% in SL. The prevalence of clenching was 20.3% in RP and 18.8% in SL, and grinding was found in 35.7% of the children in RP and 39.1% in SL. Multivariable analysis showed a significant association of bruxism with emotional symptoms and total SDQ score in both cities. When analyzed separately, teeth clenching was associated with emotional symptoms, peer problems, and total SDQ score; grinding was

  7. Elements of implant-supported rehabilitation planning in patients with bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Dantas, Raquel Venâncio Fernandes; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Faot, Fernanda

    2012-11-01

    The rehabilitation of partial or completely edentulous patients with implant-supported prostheses has been widely used, achieving high success rates. However, many studies consider the presence of bruxism as a contraindication for this treatment modality. The purpose of this study was to revise the literature and identify risk factors in implant-supported rehabilitation planning in subjects with bruxism. Available literature was searched through Medline, with no time limit, including only studies in English. Topics discussed were etiology of bruxism and its implications on dental implants, biomechanical considerations regarding the overload on dental implants, and methods to prevent the occurrence of overloads in implant-supported prostheses. The rehabilitation of bruxers using implant-supported prostheses, using implants with adequate length and diameter, as well as proper positioning seems to be a reliable treatment, with reduced risks of failure. Bruxism control through the use of a nightguard by rigid occlusal stabilization appliance relieved in the region of implants is highly indicated. Although it is clear that implant-supported rehabilitation of patients with bruxism requires adequate planning and follow-up, well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to provide reliable evidence on the long-term success of this treatment modality.

  8. OCCLUSION AND ARTICULATION IN BRUXISM AND BRUXOMANIA INVESTIGATED WITH THE SYSTEM T-SCAN III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To be analyzed common features of occlusal relationships in patients with bruxism and bruxomania at maximum intercuspation (MIP and eccentric jaw movements. Materials and Methods: 30 patients (22 women and 8 men, mean aged of 42,8 ± 13,3 with bruxism and/or bruxomania are examined with the system T-Scan III. Sequence of records is - at maximum intercuspation (MIP; in manual leading to central relation and in eccentric jaw movements. In the same sequence is investigated control group - 30 people (15 women and 15 men aged between 21 and 45 who didn’t have bruxism and/or bruxomania and dentition is preserved. Results: In the control group 85% of cases there is a balance of forces in both halves of the dental arch. In patients with bruxism is established uneven distribution of forces in MIP and articulation blockages (95%. There are three major reasons that impede spontaneous bilateral closing - force outliers (93% of cases; low force outliers (82% and presence of interceptive contacts and sliding occurring in the beginning of occlusion time until MIP (in all patients. Conclusions: In order to achieve a balanced occlusion in patients with bruxism and/or bruxomania required are correct diagnosis, registration and removal of preliminary contacts, articulation blockages and infraocclusion. Occlusal analysis is objective and an indicator of subsequent treatment only when it is a combination of clinical, instrumental and computerized occlusal analysis.

  9. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....

  10. Rhinitis and sleep disorders: The trigeminocardiac reflex link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, Barkha; Singh, Gyaninder Pal; Chowdhury, Tumul; Schaller, Bernhard

    2017-06-01

    Rhinitis, allergic or non-allergic, is an inflammatory condition of the nose. It is associated with a wide range of sleep disorders that are generally attributed to nasal congestion and presence of inflammatory mediators like cytokines and interleukins. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind these sleep disorders remain unclear. On the other hand, the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) has recently been linked to various sleep disorders like obstructive sleep apnea, sleep bruxism and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep apnea. TCR can be incited by stimulation of the trigeminal nerve or the area innervated by its branches including the nasal mucosa. Trigeminal nasal afferents can be activated on exposure to noxious stimuli (mechanical or chemical) like ammonia vapors, carbon-dioxide, nicotine, hypertonic saline, air-puffs and smoke. In rhinitis, there is associated neuronal hyper-responsiveness of sensory nasal afferents due to inflammation (which can be suppressed by steroids). This may further lead to increased occurrence of TCR in rhinitis. Moreover, there is involvement of autonomic nervous system both in rhinitis and TCR. In TCR, parasympathetic over activity and sympathetic inhibition leads to sudden onset bradycardia, hypotension, apnea and gastric motility. Also, the autonomic imbalance reportedly plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of rhinitis. Thus, considering these facts we hypothesize that the TCR could be the link between rhinitis and sleep disorders and we believe that further research in this direction may yield significant development in our understanding of sleep disorders in rhinitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is the population properly informed about sleep disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleida Pereira Camargo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure the prior knowledge about sleep disorders and patient's ability to report their problems adequately to health professionals. METHODS: We analyzed 208 patient's records and extracted the following information: date of birth, gender, medical diagnostic hypotheses, patient's primary complaint in their words, considering the most appropriated semantic approximation to the perceptual phenomena, either by their own or by reasoning information from the partner. We compared the agreement (Kappa's test between patient's complaint and medical diagnosis. The 95% confidence interval was used to analyze proportions. RESULTS: We found strong correlations for bruxism; moderate for snoring, insomnia, nightmares, somniloquy, and restless legs syndrome; fair for excessive movement during sleep (EMDS and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA. CONCLUSIONS: The observed correlations were heterogeneous, but important diseases such as OSA and EMDS in children showed fair and weak correlations. This suggests an unsatisfactory knowledge level among the population about these disorders, despite their high prevalence and impact on patient's overall health.

  12. Rehabilitating a patient with bruxism-associated tooth tissue loss: a literature review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kevin Hak-Kong; Chow, Tak W; Chu, Frederick C S

    2003-01-01

    Tooth tissue loss from bruxism has been demonstrated to be associated with various dental problems such as tooth sensitivity, excessive reduction of clinical crown height, and possible changes of occlusal relationship. A literature search revealed a number of treatment modalities, with an emphasis on prevention and rehabilitation with adhesive techniques. Rehabilitating a patient with bruxism-associated tooth tissue loss to an acceptable standard of oral health is clinically demanding and requires careful diagnosis and proper treatment planning. This article describes the management of excessive tooth tissue loss in a 43-year-old woman with a history of bruxism. The occlusal vertical dimension of the patient was re-established with the use of an acrylic maxillary occlusal splint, followed by resin composite build-up. Full-mouth oral rehabilitation ultimately involved constructing multiple porcelain veneers, adhesive gold onlays, ceramo-metal crowns, and fixed partial dentures.

  13. Sleep Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  14. Psychosocial Aspects of Bruxism: The Most Paramount Factor Influencing Teeth Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Paradowska-Stolarz, Anna; Wieckiewicz, Wlodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    In clinical practice, patients suffering from an occlusal parafunctional activity have increased. It can be observed that a negative influence of environment aggravates patient's health. The aim of this paper is to present the impact of environment and development of human civilization on the prevalence of bruxism and the correlation between them. The authors grasp the most relevant aspects of psychological and anthropological factors changing over time as well as their interactions and describe a relationship between chronic stress and bruxism. Current literature shows how contemporary lifestyle, working environment, diet, and habits influence the patient's psychoemotional situation and the way these factors affect the occluso-muscle condition. PMID:25101282

  15. OCCLUSION AND ARTICULATION IN BRUXISM AND BRUXOMANIA INVESTIGATED WITH THE SYSTEM T-SCAN III.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Dimova

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To be analyzed common features of occlusal relationships in patients with bruxism and bruxomania at maximum intercuspation (MIP) and eccentric jaw movements. Materials and Methods: 30 patients (22 women and 8 men, mean aged of 42,8 ± 13,3) with bruxism and/or bruxomania are examined with the system T-Scan III. Sequence of records is - at maximum intercuspation (MIP); in manual leading to central relation and in eccentric jaw movements. In the same sequence is investigated control ...

  16. Correlation between occlusion and cervical posture in patients with bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Guilherme Manna; Tosato, Juliana de Paiva; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Ap

    2006-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate head and neck posture in the rest position of patients with bruxism and patients without temporomandibular disorder signs or symptoms to further relate them with Angle's class of malocclusion. Fifty-six volunteers participated in this study, ages 18 to 27 years with an average age of 22.5 years. They were divided into 2 groups: Group B--28 subjects with parafunctions (teeth grinding or clenching); and Group C--28 subjects without parafunctional habits (control group). All participants were photographed, and their pictures were analyzed and compared with the software Alcimagem (Instrumental Concept and Movement Analysis Laboratory, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil). The results demonstrated that variation of angular values did not present statistical difference for the studied groups. Regarding Angle's class of malocclusion, class I was predominant in Group C, and classes II and III were predominant in Group B. The mental-sternal angle calculated did not present statistical significance between the groups; however, there was a greater variation between the smaller angle and the higher angle in Group B, contrary to Group C.

  17. [Bruxism, temporo-mandibular dysfunction and botulinum toxin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhani, L; Dichamp, J

    2003-07-01

    Tooth grinding and tooth clenching are unvoluntary mainly nocturnal habits that result in an hypertrophy of masseter and temporalis muscles with an unbalance between opening and closing muscles of the jaw and lead to an alteration of mandibular condyles movements and to hyper pressure in the temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) which can generate severe pain. Intra muscular injections of botulinum toxin permit to restablish the balance between closing and opening muscles, to relieve pain, to treat masseteric hypertrophy with improvement of face outline and to recover a normal cinetic of temporo-mandibular joints. Moreover, botulinum toxin injections permit to quit habits of tooth grinding and clenching and one single session of injections is curative for 2/3 of the patients. There are no side effects apart from slight diffusion to superficial muscles of the face resulting in a "fixed" smile for about 6 to 8 weeks. So injections of botulinum toxin in masseter and temporalis muscles are an efficient treatment of bruxism and TMJ dysfunction, cheap with no lasting side effect.

  18. Sleep patterns and habits in high school students in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moini Rozita

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep patterns and habits in high school students in Iran have not been well studied to date. This paper aims to re-address this balance and analyse sleep patterns and habits in Iranian children of high school age. Methods The subjects were 1,420 high school students randomly selected by stratified cluster sampling. This was a self-report study using a questionnaire which included items about usual sleep/wake behaviours over the previous month, such as sleep schedule, falling asleep in class, difficulty falling asleep, tiredness or sleepiness during the day, difficulty getting up in the morning, nightmares, and taking sleeping pills. Results The mean duration of night sleep was 7.7 h, with no difference between girls, boys, and school year (grade. The mean time of waking in the morning was not different between genders. About 9.9% of the girls and 4.6% of the boys perceived their quality of sleep as being bad, and 58% of them reported sleepiness during the day. About 4.2% of the subjects had used medication to enhance sleep. The time of going to bed was associated with grade level and gender. Sleep latency was not associated with gender and grade leve, l and 1.4% experienced bruxism more than four times a week. Conclusion Our results are in contrast with that of previous studies that concluded sleep duration is shorter in Asia than in Europe, that boys woke-up significantly later than girls, and that the frequency of sleep latency category was associated with gender and grade level. The magnitude of the daytime sleepiness, daytime sleepiness during classes, sleep latency, and incidences of waking up at night represent major public health concerns for Iran.

  19. Functional analysis and treatment of the diurnal bruxism of a 16-year-old girl with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Amy; Knapp, Vicki Madaus; McAdam, David B

    2014-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the clenching and grinding of teeth. This study used a functional analysis to examine whether the bruxism of a 16-year-old girl with autism was maintained by automatic reinforcement or social consequences. A subsequent component analysis of the intervention package described by Barnoy, Najdowski, Tarbox, Wilke, and Nollet (2009) showed that a vocal reprimand (e.g., "stop grinding") effectively reduced the participant's bruxism. Results were maintained across time, and effects extended to novel staff members. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. Relationship between bruxism and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of literature from 1998 to 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The present paper aims to systematically review the literature on the temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-bruxism relationship published from 1998 to 2008. Study design: A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database was performed to identify all studies on

  1. The influence of gender and bruxism on human minimum interdental threshold ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia dos Santos Calderon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of gender and bruxism on the ability to discriminate minimum interdental threshold. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fifteen individuals, representing both genders, bruxers and non-bruxers, with a mean age of 23.64 years, were selected for this study. For group allocation, every individual was subjected to a specific physical examination to detect bruxism (performed by three different examiners. Evaluation of the ability to discriminate minimum interdental threshold was performed using industrialized 0.010 mm-, 0.024 mm-, 0.030 mm-, 0.050 mm-, 0.080 mm- and 0.094 mm-thick aluminum foils that were placed between upper and lower premolars. Data were analyzed statistically by multiple linear regression analysis at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Neither gender nor bruxism influenced the ability to discriminate minimum interdental threshold (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and the presence of bruxism do not play a role in the minimum interdental threshold.

  2. Signs of Bruxism and Temporomandibular Disorders among Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbuz Ozlem

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: There is an abundance of data regarding temporomandibular disorders (TMD and bruxism specific to patients with bipolar disorder (BD. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of TMD signs in subjects with and without BD. Material and Methods: The case group included 242 adult patients (103 men and 139 women with BD and and the control group included 187 subjects without BD (89 men and 98 women. The case and control groups were compared for the presence of bruxism and the signs of TMD including muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ tenderness to palpation, limitation of maximum mouth opening, and TMJ sounds. Results: The frequency of at least one sign of TMD was significantly higher in patients with BD (191 ⁄242, 78.9% than the control group (95 ⁄187, 50.8% (p<0.001. Statistically significant differences were found between the case and control groups in terms of joint pain on palpation (p<0.05, masseter muscle pain on palpation (p<0.01, joint clicks (p<0.001 and limited mouth opening (p<0.001. Bruxism was significantly higher in patients with BD (49.6% than the control group (19.8% (p<0.001. Conclusions: Patients with BD appear to be more prone to having TMD signs and bruxism compared to the control group, but this comorbidity should be better understood by further studies.

  3. Epidemiology of bruxism in adults: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Winocur, E.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Paesani, D.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the prevalence of bruxism in adult populations. METHODS: A systematic search of the medical literature was performed to identify all peer-reviewed English-language papers dealing with the prevalence assessment of either awake or

  4. Treatment of Bruxism in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; White, Pamela J.; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Kang, Soyeon; Aquilar, Jeannie; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed studies involving the treatment of bruxism (i.e., teeth clenching or teeth grinding) in individuals with developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 11 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participants, (b) procedures…

  5. Association Between Self-Reported Bruxism and Malocclusion in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kota; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kawabata, Yuya; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Bruxism can result in temporomandibular disorders, oral pain, and tooth wear. However, it is unclear whether bruxism affects malocclusion. The aim of this study was to examine the association between self-reported bruxism and malocclusion in university students. Students (n = 1503; 896 men and 607 women) aged 18 and 19 years were examined. Malocclusion was defined using a modified version of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The presence of buccal mucosa ridging, tooth wear, dental impression on the tongue, palatal/mandibular torus, and the number of teeth present were recorded, as well as body mass index (BMI). Additional information regarding gender, awareness of bruxism, orthodontic treatment, and oral habits was collected via questionnaire. The proportion of students with malocclusion was 32% (n = 481). The awareness of clenching in males with malocclusion was significantly higher than in those with normal occlusion (chi square test, P < 0.01). According to logistic regression analysis, the probability of malocclusion was significantly associated with awareness of clenching (odds ratio [OR] 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-3.93) and underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)) (OR 1.89; 95% CI, 1.31-2.71) in males but not in females. In subgroup analyses, the probability of crowding was also significantly associated with awareness of clenching and underweight (P < 0.01) in males. Awareness of clenching and underweight were related to malocclusion (crowding) in university male students.

  6. Relationship between malocclusion and bruxism in children and adolescents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderas, A P; Manetas, K J

    1995-01-01

    A review of the literature on the relationship between malocclusion and bruxism is presented. Statistically significant correlations were found between different types of morphologic malocclusion such as Class II and III molar relationship, deep bite, overjet, and dental wear or grinding. The types of functional malocclusion correlated with dental wear or bruxofacets were mediotrusion interferences, anterior-posterior and vertical distance between retruded position and intercuspal position, lateral shift of the mandible together with nonfunctional side interferences. However, all studies that reported significant correlations were cross-sectional, which implies that the relationship between malocclusion and bruxism was investigated at a certain point of time. The results were not confirmed by the two longitudinal studies. Besides, the correlations were found in different age groups. Finally, the reported correlations cannot have biological significance since the biological plausibility of the causal hypothesis cannot be inferred. On the basis of this study, malocclusion does not increase the probability of bruxism, and therefore early treatment of occlusal conditions to prevent bruxism is not scientifically justified.

  7. Development of a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies: reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andreas; Raphael, Karen G; Glaros, Alan; Axelsson, Susanna; Arima, Taro; Ernberg, Malin; Farella, Mauro; Lobbezoo, Frank; Manfredini, Daniele; Michelotti, Ambra; Svensson, Peter; List, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To combine empirical evidence and expert opinion in a formal consensus method in order to develop a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies in systematic reviews. Tool development comprised five steps: (1) preliminary decisions, (2) item generation, (3) face-validity assessment, (4) reliability and discriminitive validity assessment, and (5) instrument refinement. The kappa value and phi-coefficient were calculated to assess inter-observer reliability and discriminative ability, respectively. Following preliminary decisions and a literature review, a list of 52 items to be considered for inclusion in the tool was compiled. Eleven experts were invited to join a Delphi panel and 10 accepted. Four Delphi rounds reduced the preliminary tool-Quality-Assessment Tool for Experimental Bruxism Studies (Qu-ATEBS)- to 8 items: study aim, study sample, control condition or group, study design, experimental bruxism task, statistics, interpretation of results, and conflict of interest statement. Consensus among the Delphi panelists yielded good face validity. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable (k = 0.77). Discriminative validity was excellent (phi coefficient 1.0; P reviews of experimental bruxism studies, exhibits face validity, excellent discriminative validity, and acceptable inter-observer reliability. Development of quality assessment tools for many other topics in the orofacial pain literature is needed and may follow the described procedure.

  8. Development of a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawson, A.; Raphael, K.G.; Glaros, A.; Axelsson, S.; Arima, T.; Ernberg, M.; Farella, M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Manfredini, D.; Michelotti, A.; Svensson, P.; List, T.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To combine empirical evidence and expert opinion in a formal consensus method in order to develop a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies in systematic reviews. METHODS: Tool development comprised five steps: (1) preliminary decisions, (2) item generation, (3) face-validity

  9. Bruxism: overview of current knowledge and suggestions for dental implants planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Bucci, Marco Brady; Sabattini, Vincenzo Bucci; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2011-10-01

    Bruxism is commonly considered a detrimental motor activity, potentially causing overload of the stomatognathic structures and representing a risk factor for dental implant survival. The available literature does not provide evidence-based guidelines for the management of bruxers undergoing implant-retained restorations. The present paper reviewed current concepts on bruxism etiology, diagnosis and management, underlining its effects on dental implants in an attempt to provide clinically useful suggestions based on scientifically sound data. Unfortunately, very little data exists on the subject of a cause-and-effect relationship between bruxism and implant failure, to the point that expert opinions and cautionary approaches are still considered the best available sources for suggesting good practice indicators. By including experimental literature data on the effects of different types of occlusal loading on peri-implant marginal bone loss along with data from studies investigating the intensity of the forces transmitted to the bone itself during tooth-clenching and tooth-grinding activities, the authors were able to compile the suggestions presented here for prosthetic implant rehabilitations in patients with bruxism.

  10. Is bruxism a risk factor for dental implants? A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Poggio, C.E.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the literature on the role of bruxism as a risk factor for the different complications on dental implant-supported rehabilitations. Material and Methods A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's Medline Database was performed to identify all

  11. Study of the relationship of psychosocial disorders to bruxism in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayoun, E; Sima, F; Naser, V; Anahita, D

    2008-01-01

    Bruxism has been defined as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional habit. Etiology of bruxism has remained controversial and some investigators believe that psychological factors may play a major role in promoting and perpetuating this habit. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders in adolescents., Participants were chosen among 114, 12-14 year old students (girls). They were divided into two groups, bruxers and nonbruxers, on the basis of both validated clinical criteria and interview with each patient. A few participants were excluded on the basis of presence of systemic disorders, TMJ disorders, other oral habits, primary teeth, defective restorations and premature contacts. Following matching of two groups in regard to parent's age and education, mother's marital status, child support status, mother's employment status, and socio-economical status, 25 cases and 25 controls were enlisted. A self report validated questionnaire (YSR, 11-18 yr) was then filled out by both groups for the evaluation of 12 psychosocial symptoms. Remarkable differences in certain psychosocial aspects were found between the two groups. Prevalence of psychosocial disorders including Thought Disorders (P bruxism and psychosocial disorders has been provided.

  12. Does Bruxism Contribute to Dental Implant Failure? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Gao, Jinxia; Luo, Le; Wang, Yining

    2016-04-01

    Bruxism was usually considered as a contraindication for oral implanting. The causal relationship between bruxism and dental implant failure was remained controversial in existing literatures. This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between them. This review conducted an electronic systematic literature search in MEDLINE (PubMed) and EmBase in November 2013 without time and language restrictions. Meanwhile, a hand searching for all the relevant references of included studies was also conducted. Study information extraction and methodological quality assessments were accomplished by two reviewers independently. A discussion ensued if any disagreement occurred, and unresolved issues were solved by consulting a third reviewer. Methodological quality was assessed by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale tool. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was pooled to estimate the relative effect of bruxism on dental implant failures. Fixed effects model was used initially; if the heterogeneity was high, random effects model was chosen for meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were carried out by using Review Manager 5.1. In this meta-analysis review, extracted data were classified into two groups based on different units. Units were based on the number of prostheses (group A) and the number of patients (group B). In group A, the total pooled OR of bruxers versus nonbruxers for all subgroups was 4.72 (95% CI: 2.66-8.36, p = .07). In group B, the total pooled OR of bruxers versus nonbruxers for all subgroups was 3.83 (95% CI: 2.12-6.94, p = .22). This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between bruxism and dental implant failure. In contrast to nonbruxers, prostheses in bruxers had a higher failure rate. It suggests that bruxism is a contributing factor of causing the occurrence of dental implant technical/biological complications and plays a role in dental implant failure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Are Pain-Related Temporomandibular Disorders the Product of an Interaction Between Psychological Factors and Self-Reported Bruxism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Selms, Maurits Ka; Muzalev, Konstantin; Visscher, Corine M; Koutris, Michail; Bulut, Melike; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether pain-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the product of an interaction between psychological factors and self-reported bruxism activities. Patients referred to a specialized clinic for complaints of orofacial pain and dysfunction completed a digital questionnaire prior to the first clinical visit. The patient sample was then split into a case group consisting of 268 patients diagnosed with TMD pain according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (85.8% women; mean ± standard deviation [SD] age = 40.1 ± 14.5 years) and a control group consisting of 254 patients without any pain in the orofacial area (50.8% women; 46.9 ± 13.6 years). The possible moderating roles of six psychological factors (depression, somatic symptoms, anxiety, stress, optimism, and prior psychological treatment) on the relationship between self-reported bruxism and the clinical presence of TMD pain were examined. Patients with TMD pain reported significantly more bruxism than patients without any report of orofacial pain. Furthermore, bruxism intensity was associated with a variety of psychological factors; however, there were no significant interactions between any of the psychological factors and bruxism with respect to the clinical presence of TMD pain. These findings do not support the view that the effect of bruxism on TMD pain is stronger in patients who experience higher levels of psychological distress compared to those with lower levels of distress.

  14. Bruxismo na infância: um sinal de alerta para odontopediatras e pediatras Childhood bruxism: a warning sign to pediatric dentists and pediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Baffi Diniz

    2009-09-01

    published on the subject from 1907 to 2007 were selected, from Medline and Brazilian Bibliography on Odontology databases as well as dentistry books. DATA SYNTHESIS: Bruxism is defined as a non-functional habit of the stomatognatic system, characterized by the act of grinding or squeezing the teeth, with occurrences during the day or sleep. The etiology is multifactorial with contribution of several factors (dental, physiological, psychological and neurological variables. The forces produced by bruxism can harm the teeth, their supporting tissues, muscles and temporomandibular articulation. Common clinical signs are: attrition on the incisal faces of the anterior teeth and occlusal faces in the posterior teeth, as well as dental hypermobility and hypersensibility, cusp and restoration fracture and muscle hypertonicity. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge on the etiological factors and the clinical characteristics of childhood bruxism is important to establish early diagnosis and treatment, with a multidisciplinary approach that should include pediatricians, pediatric dentists and psychologists in order to provide adequate infant development focused on health promotion and individual well-being.

  15. Specific diurnal EMG activity pattern observed in occlusal collapse patients: relationship between diurnal bruxism and tooth loss progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehisa Kawakami

    Full Text Available AIM: The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group, six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group, and six young control subjects (YC group were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. RESULTS: Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (p<0.01. ROC curve analysis suggested that the number of diurnal phasic episodes might be used to predict bite collapsing tooth loss. CONCLUSION: Extensive bite loss might be related to diurnal masticatory muscle parafunction but not to parafunction during sleep. CLINICAL RELEVANCE SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE FOR STUDY: Although mandibular parafunction has been implicated in stomatognathic system breakdown, a causal relationship has not been established because scientific modalities to evaluate parafunctional activity have been lacking. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used a newly developed EMG recording system that evaluates masseter muscle activity throughout the day. Our results challenge the stereotypical idea of nocturnal bruxism as a strong destructive force. We found that diurnal phasic masticatory muscle activity was most characteristic in patients with progressive bite collapse. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The incidence of diurnal phasic contractions could be used for

  16. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  19. Sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Although the literature has documented associations between sleep problems and internet addiction, the temporal direction of these relationships has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the bidirectional relationships between sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents longitudinally. A four-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 1253 children and adolescents in grades 3, 5 and 8 from March 2013 to January 2014. The sleep problems of the student participants were measured by parental reports on the Sleep Habit Questionnaire, which catalogues early insomnia, middle insomnia, disturbed circadian rhythm, periodic leg movements, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, nightmares, bruxism, snoring and sleep apnoea. The severity of internet addiction was measured by students' self-reports on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Based on the results of time-lag models, dyssomnias (odds ratio = 1.31), especially early and middle insomnias (odds ratio = 1.74 and 2.24), sequentially predicted internet addiction, and internet addiction sequentially predicted disturbed circadian rhythm (odds ratio = 2.40), regardless of adjustment for gender and age. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal relationship of early and middle insomnia predicting internet addiction, which subsequently predicts disturbed circadian rhythm. These findings imply that treatment strategies for sleep problems and internet addiction should vary according to the order of their occurrence. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  1. A bibliographical survey of bruxism with special emphasis on non-traditional treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissani, M

    2001-06-01

    After proposing a common-sense definition of bruxism, this partial review distills its various symptoms and consequences from the literature. That literature suggests that the splint-the most popular treatment modality-falls short in some respects. The research literature is even less sanguine about the efficacy of such other traditional therapies as sound alarms and stress reduction. Given the limited success of traditional approaches, and given, moreover, the high incidence of bruxism and its harmful consequences, clinicians may occasionally be interested in experimenting with non-intrusive, safe, less widely known, treatment modalities. To meet this need, this review-unlike all other reviews of the subject-focuses on such comparatively unpopular or recent approaches.

  2. Study of the relationship of psychosocial disorders to bruxism in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bruxism has been defined as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional habit. Etiology of bruxism has remained controversial and some investigators believe that psychological factors may play a major role in promoting and perpetuating this habit. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders in adolescents., Participants were chosen among 114, 12-14 year old students (girls. They were divided into two groups, bruxers and nonbruxers, on the basis of both validated clinical criteria and interview with each patient. A few participants were excluded on the basis of presence of systemic disorders, TMJ disorders, other oral habits, primary teeth, defective restorations and premature contacts. Following matching of two groups in regard to parent′s age and education, mother′s marital status, child support status, mother′s employment status, and socio-economical status, 25 cases and 25 controls were enlisted. A self report validated questionnaire (YSR, 11-18 yr was then filled out by both groups for the evaluation of 12 psychosocial symptoms. Results: Remarkable differences in certain psychosocial aspects were found between the two groups. Prevalence of psychosocial disorders including Thought Disorders (P < 0.005, Conduct Disorders (P < 0.05, Antisocial Disorders (P < 0.06 as identified by YSR was significantly higher in bruxers. Significant differences between the two groups also emerged in total YSR scores (P < 0.005. The results of Odds Ratio revealed that a bruxer adolescent has 16 times greater probability for psychosocial disorders than a non-bruxer one. Fischer exact test and T-test were used and Odds Ratio and Confidence Interval was estimated. Conclusion: Support to the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders has been provided.

  3. Dental wear caused by association between bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a rehabilitation report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Aparecida de Godoi Machado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruxism is a pathological activity of the stomatognathic system that involves tooth grinding and clenching during parafunctional jaw movements. Clinical signs of bruxism are mostly related to dental wear and muscular and joint discomforts, but a large number of etiological factors can be listed, as local, systemic, psychological and hereditary factors. The association between bruxism, feeding and smoking habits and digestive disorders may lead to serious consequences to dental and related structures, involving dental alterations (wear, fractures and cracks, periodontal signs (gingival recession and tooth mobility and muscle-joint sensivity, demanding a multidisciplinary treatment plan. This paper presents a case report in which bruxism associated with acid feeding, smoking habit and episodes of gastric reflow caused severe tooth wear and great muscular discomfort with daily headache episodes. From the diagnosis, a multidisciplinary treatment plan was established. The initial treatment approach consisted of medical follow up with counseling on diet and smoking habits and management of the gastric disorders. This was followed by the installation of an interocclusal acrylic device in centric relation of occlusion (CRO for reestablishment of the occlusal stability, vertical dimension of occlusion, anterior guides and return to normal muscle activity (90-day use approximately. After remission of initial symptoms, oral rehabilitation was implemented in CRO by means of full resin composite restorations and new interocclusal device for protection of restorations. Satisfactory esthetics, improved function and occlusal stability were obtained after oral rehabilitation. The patient has attended annual follow-ups for the past 2 years. The multidisciplinary treatment seems to be the key for a successful rehabilitation of severe cases of dental wear involving the association of different health disorders.

  4. Influence of bruxism on the indication and follow-up of rehabilitations with dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Menine, Cynthia Weiss; Martin, Juliana Maria Habith; Berejuk, Halina Massignan; Sartori, Ivete Aparecida de Mattias

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The objective of this study was to report a clinical case highlighting the main recommendations of the literature to minimize forces applied on implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A decision was made to increase the number and size of implants installed. Screwed and cemented prostheses were used, combined with an occlusal bruxism night guard. RESULTS: Four months after the prosthesis installation, no biological or biomechanical complications were encountered. CONCLUSION: There are cases of p...

  5. Dental wear caused by association between bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a rehabilitation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Naila Aparecida de Godoi; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Branco, Carolina Assaf; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra; Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Soares, Carlos José

    2007-08-01

    Bruxism is a pathological activity of the stomatognathic system that involves tooth grinding and clenching during parafunctional jaw movements. Clinical signs of bruxism are mostly related to dental wear and muscular and joint discomforts, but a large number of etiological factors can be listed, as local, systemic, psychological and hereditary factors. The association between bruxism, feeding and smoking habits and digestive disorders may lead to serious consequences to dental and related structures, involving dental alterations (wear, fractures and cracks), periodontal signs (gingival recession and tooth mobility) and muscle-joint sensitivity, demanding a multidisciplinary treatment plan. This paper presents a case report in which bruxism associated with acid feeding, smoking habit and episodes of gastric reflow caused severe tooth wear and great muscular discomfort with daily headache episodes. From the diagnosis, a multidisciplinary treatment plan was established. The initial treatment approach consisted of medical follow up with counseling on diet and smoking habits and management of the gastric disorders. This was followed by the installation of an interocclusal acrylic device in centric relation of occlusion (CRO) for reestablishment of the occlusal stability, vertical dimension of occlusion, anterior guides and return to normal muscle activity (90-day use approximately). After remission of initial symptoms, oral rehabilitation was implemented in CRO by means of full resin composite restorations and new interocclusal device for protection of restorations. Satisfactory esthetics, improved function and occlusal stability were obtained after oral rehabilitation. The patient has attended annual follow-ups for the past 2 years. The multidisciplinary treatment seems to be the key for a successful rehabilitation of severe cases of dental wear involving the association of different health disorders.

  6. Interdisciplinary treatment of bruxism with an occlusal splint and cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Marilene; Orestes-Cardoso, Silvana; de Siqueira, Teresa Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of bruxism is associated with exogenous factors, such as occlusal interference, stress, and anxiety, as well as endogenous factors involving neurotransmitters of the basal ganglia. Due to the multifactorial etiology of bruxism, interdisciplinary treatment involving professionals from different healthcare fields has been proposed. The aim of the present study was to compare 2 groups of patients with bruxism (11 in each group) treated with either an occlusal splint combined with cognitive behavioral therapy or an occlusal splint alone. Surface electromyography of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles at rest was performed before and after treatment. The mean amplitude of activity of all muscles was lower after treatment, except for the right anterior temporal muscle in the group treated with an occlusal splint alone. Mean amplitudes were greater in the anterior temporal muscles than in the masseter muscles. Significantly greater improvement was found in the group exposed to cognitive behavioral therapy (P < 0.05; analysis of variance and Student t tests). Therefore, the combination of occlusal splint and psychological therapy was more effective at achieving muscle relaxation than occlusal splint use alone.

  7. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  8. Sleep disorders - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  9. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  10. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth / For Parents / Obstructive Sleep Apnea What's ... How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Print What Is Sleep Apnea? Brief pauses in breathing during sleep are ...

  11. Clinical Decision Support Model to Predict Occlusal Force in Bruxism Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanathornwong, Bhornsawan; Suebnukarn, Siriwan

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a decision support model for the prediction of occlusal force from the size and color of articulating paper markings in bruxism patients. We used the information from the datasets of 30 bruxism patients in which digital measurements of the size and color of articulating paper markings (12-µm Hanel; Coltene/Whaledent GmbH, Langenau, Germany) on canine protected hard stabilization splints were measured in pixels (P) and in red (R), green (G), and blue (B) values using Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA, USA). The occlusal force (F) was measured using T-Scan III (Tekscan Inc., South Boston, MA, USA). The multiple regression equation was applied to predict F from the P and RGB. Model evaluation was performed using the datasets from 10 new patients. The patient's occlusal force measured by T-Scan III was used as a 'gold standard' to compare with the occlusal force predicted by the multiple regression model. The results demonstrate that the correlation between the occlusal force and the pixels and RGB of the articulating paper markings was positive (F = 1.62×P + 0.07×R -0.08×G + 0.08×B + 4.74; R 2 = 0.34). There was a high degree of agreement between the occlusal force of the patient measured using T-Scan III and the occlusal force predicted by the model (kappa value = 0.82). The results obtained demonstrate that the multiple regression model can predict the occlusal force using the digital values for the size and color of the articulating paper markings in bruxism patients.

  12. Clinical Decision Support Model to Predict Occlusal Force in Bruxism Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanathornwong, Bhornsawan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a decision support model for the prediction of occlusal force from the size and color of articulating paper markings in bruxism patients. Methods We used the information from the datasets of 30 bruxism patients in which digital measurements of the size and color of articulating paper markings (12-µm Hanel; Coltene/Whaledent GmbH, Langenau, Germany) on canine protected hard stabilization splints were measured in pixels (P) and in red (R), green (G), and blue (B) values using Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA, USA). The occlusal force (F) was measured using T-Scan III (Tekscan Inc., South Boston, MA, USA). The multiple regression equation was applied to predict F from the P and RGB. Model evaluation was performed using the datasets from 10 new patients. The patient's occlusal force measured by T-Scan III was used as a ‘gold standard’ to compare with the occlusal force predicted by the multiple regression model. Results The results demonstrate that the correlation between the occlusal force and the pixels and RGB of the articulating paper markings was positive (F = 1.62×P + 0.07×R –0.08×G + 0.08×B + 4.74; R2 = 0.34). There was a high degree of agreement between the occlusal force of the patient measured using T-Scan III and the occlusal force predicted by the model (kappa value = 0.82). Conclusions The results obtained demonstrate that the multiple regression model can predict the occlusal force using the digital values for the size and color of the articulating paper markings in bruxism patients. PMID:29181234

  13. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  14. Healthy Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality sleep, ask yourself Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing during the day? Do you doze off during the day? If you answered yes to these three questions, you should work on ...

  15. Prevalence of Chronic Periodontitis, Bruxism and Temporomandibular Joint Disorders in Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Balcı Yüce

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic periodontitis is a world-wide infectious and inflammatory disease and may have a relationship with other inflammatory diseases such as fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. The aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of periodontitis is increased in individuals with FMS or not. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four patients with FMS and 70 systemically healthy individuals were included in the present study. Fibromyalgia patients did not have any other systemically disease. All subjects had at least 20 functioning teeth and underwent detailed oral and radiographic examination, in addition, bruxism and temporomandibular joint (TMJ examinations were performed. All clinical attachment levels, plaque and gingival indices were recorded. Results: Fibromyalgia patients tend to have higher gingival index scores than healthy individuals. There was a significant difference in the presence of bruxism between the study groups (p0.05. Conclusion: We found that the prevalence of periodontitis was not changed in FMS patients but was increased in healthy subjects above age 45.

  16. Dentists' knowledge of occlusal splint therapy for bruxism and temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candirli, C; Korkmaz, Y T; Celikoglu, M; Altintas, S H; Coskun, U; Memis, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dentist's approaches to the use of splint therapy for myofascial pain, bruxism, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and to assessment of treatment modalities. A 12-item questionnaire was developed to determine dentists' knowledge of TMJ disorders and approaches for occlusal splint treatments. The researchers spoke with each dentist included in the study at his/her clinic or by telephone to assess their immediate knowledge and approach to the TMJ disorders. Chi-squared test was performed to analyze the values. The confidence interval was set as 95%. A total of 370 dentists working in Turkey were participated in this study. The most common splint application reason for occlusal splint treatment was bruxism (77.8%) while TMJ pain was very rare (%1.4). The use of hard splint ratios for 0-5 years of professional experience was 57.0%, 42.4.0%, and 26.8% for the experience of 5-15 years and over 15 years groups, respectively (P < 0.001). While the dentists' with sufficient knowledge soft splint application rates were 11.6%, hard splint application rates were 43.4% for the dentists with sufficient knowledge. Occlusion adjustment rate of dentists who practice in all three groups was under 16.0%. The knowledge of the dentists about TMJ disorders and occlusal splint therapy were found to be insufficient. Their knowledge decreased with increasing experience.

  17. The Association Between Headaches and Temporomandibular Disorders is Confounded by Bruxism and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Hedwig A; Speksnijder, Caroline M; Engelbert, Raoul H H; Lobbezoo, Frank; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Visscher, Corine M

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this observational study was to establish the possible presence of confounders on the association between temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headaches in a patient population from a TMD and Orofacial Pain Clinic. Several subtypes of headaches have been diagnosed: self-reported headache, (probable) migraine, (probable) tension-type headache, and secondary headache attributed to TMD. The presence of TMD was subdivided into 2 subtypes: painful TMD and function-related TMD. The associations between the subtypes of TMD and headaches were evaluated by single regression models. To study the influence of possible confounding factors on this association, the regression models were extended with age, sex, bruxism, stress, depression, and somatic symptoms. Of the included patients (n=203), 67.5% experienced headaches. In the subsample of patients with a painful TMD (n=58), the prevalence of self-reported headaches increased to 82.8%. The associations found between self-reported headache and (1) painful TMD and (2) function-related TMD were confounded by the presence of somatic symptoms. For probable migraine, both somatic symptoms and bruxism confounded the initial association found with painful TMD. The findings of this study imply that there is a central working mechanism overlapping TMD and headache. Health care providers should not regard these disorders separately, but rather look at the bigger picture to appreciate the complex nature of the diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  18. [Bruxism--confirmed and potential risk factors. A systematic review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Andreja; Türp, Jens Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Considering a point prevalence of up to 20% among adults, bruxism is a clinically significant phenomenon. It was the aim of the present work to systematically review the literature published until June 2007 in order to identify contributions on risk factors for bruxism in adults. Prerequisite for consideration were reported measures of risk assessment, such as odds ratios (OR). Seven relevant articles were found. Depending on the value of the OR and the position of the lower limit of the reported confidence interval (CI(LL)), we distinguished four risk groups (A to D). Three variables--severe stress experience; age between 25 and 44 years; age between 45 and 64 years--were grouped into category A (very strong indication for clinically relevant risk factor: OR >2; CI(LL) >2). Five variables fell into category B (strong indication for clinically relevant risk factor: OR >2; 1 1) was composed of 16 variables, while category D (possible indication for risk factor: 1 < OR < or = 2; CI(LL) < or = 1) embraced 11 variables. On the other hand, the presence of occlusal interferences was not a risk factor.

  19. Use of the Grindcare® device in the management of nocturnal bruxism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, R; Davies, S J

    2013-07-01

    Bruxism may be described as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunction, characterised by clenching, bracing, gnashing or grinding of the teeth and jaws. The aim of the management of bruxism should be to control or reduce the level of activity where possible. A variety of treatment strategies have been employed to achieve this including hypnosis, occlusal equilibration, splint therapy, physiotherapy and acupuncture. A more recent approach is the use of biofeedback. Nineteen consecutive patients were recruited from the temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) clinic at Manchester Dental Hospital, all of whom were known bruxists. They were supplied with the Grindcare® device (Medotech) and instructed to wear it every night over the five-week observation period. By monitoring electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity, the device is able to emit low-voltage electrical impulses as it senses a clenching or grinding episode, bringing about muscle relaxation. Eleven of the nineteen patients (58%) reported a major reduction in the occurrence of headaches and discomfort of the masticatory muscles on waking. Female and younger subjects responded more favourably than male and older subjects respectively. The use of biofeedback could reduce the level of parafunctional activity and bring about meaningful symptomatic improvement. No adverse effects occurred throughout the study period.

  20. Masticatory Muscle Sleep Background EMG Activity is Elevated in Myofascial TMD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (pcases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356

  1. Masticatory muscle sleep background electromyographic activity is elevated in myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Wigren, P E; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J

    2013-12-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artefacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non-SB event periods was significantly higher (P cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0-10 numerical scale) on post-sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  3. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falling asleep; Sleep hygiene References American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Insomnia. Updated March 4, 2015. SleepEducation.org. sleepeducation. ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. ...

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least ...

  5. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  6. Sleep in Othello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  7. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...

  8. Sleep in Othello

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep.

  9. Sleep Disturbances in Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Yasova Barbeau, Daphna; Weiss, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environmen...

  10. Sleep Applications to Assess Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietze, Ingo

    2016-12-01

    This article highlights the potential uses that smartphone applications may have for helping those with sleep problems. Applications in smartphones offer the promised possibility of detection of sleep. From the author's own experience, one can also conclude that sleep applications are approximately as good as polysomnography in detection of sleep time, similar to the conventional wearable actimeters. In the future, sleep applications will help to further enhance awareness of sleep health and to distinguish those who actually poorly and only briefly sleep from those who suffer more likely from paradox insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. GABA and glutamate levels in occlusal splint-wearing males with possible bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmadhikari, Shalmali; Romito, Laura M; Dzemidzic, Mario; Dydak, Ulrike; Xu, Jun; Bodkin, Cynthia L; Manchanda, Shalini; Byrd, Kenneth E

    2015-07-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of anxiety behavioural disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder and is also implicated in the manifestation of tooth-grinding and clenching behaviours generally known as bruxism. In order to test whether the stress-related behaviours of tooth-grinding and clenching share similar underlying mechanisms involving GABA and other metabolites as do anxiety-related behavioural disorders, we performed a Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) study for accurate, in vivo metabolite quantification in anxiety-related brain regions. MRS was performed in the right hippocampus and right thalamus involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system, together with a motor planning region (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/pre-supplementary motor area) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Eight occlusal splint-wearing men (OCS) with possible tooth-grinding and clenching behaviours and nine male controls (CON) with no such behaviour were studied. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant Group×Region interaction for GABA+ (p = 0.001) and glutamate (Glu) (p = 0.031). Between-group post hoc ANOVA showed significantly lower levels of GABA+ (p = 0.003) and higher levels of Glu (p = 0.002) in DLPFC of OCS subjects. These GABA+ and Glu group differences remained significant (GABA+, p = 0.049; Glu, p = 0.039) after the inclusion of anxiety as a covariate. Additionally, GABA and Glu levels in the DLPFC of all subjects were negatively related (Pearson's r = -0.75, p = 0.003). These findings indicate that the oral behaviours of tooth-grinding and clenching, generally known as bruxism, may be associated with disturbances in brain GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleepwalking. In: Chokroverty S, Thomas RJ, eds. Atlas of Sleep Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:380- ... of Clinical Neurology, SUNY Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ... NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  13. Direct restorative treatment of dental erosion caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with bruxism: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Cristina de Mattos Pimenta [UNESP; Catelan, Anderson [UNESP; Briso, André Luiz Fraga [UNESP; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a gastrointestinal disorder in which stomach acids are chronically regurgitated into the esophagus and oral cavity. Continual exposure of the teeth to these acids can cause severe tooth wear. Dentists are often the first healthcare professionals to diagnose dental erosion in patients with GERD. This article presents a case report of a 27-year-old male smoker with tooth wear and dentin sensitivity caused by GERD associated with bruxism. After diagnosis...

  14. A relationship between bruxism and orofacial-dystonia? A trigeminal electrophysiological approach in a case report of pineal cavernoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisardi, Gianni; Iani, Cesare; Sau, Gianfranco; Frisardi, Flavio; Leornadis, Carlo; Lumbau, Aurea; Enrico, Paolo; Sirca, Donatella; Staderini, Enrico Maria; Chessa, Giacomo

    2013-10-28

    In some clinical cases, bruxism may be correlated to central nervous system hyperexcitability, suggesting that bruxism may represent a subclinical form of dystonia. To examine this hypothesis, we performed an electrophysiological evaluation of the excitability of the trigeminal nervous system in a patient affected by pineal cavernoma with pain symptoms in the orofacial region and pronounced bruxism. Electrophysiological studies included bilateral electrical transcranial stimulation of the trigeminal roots, analysis of the jaw jerk reflex, recovery cycle of masseter inhibitory reflex, and a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain. The neuromuscular responses of the left- and right-side bilateral trigeminal motor potentials showed a high degree of symmetry in latency (1.92 ms and 1.96 ms, respectively) and amplitude (11 mV and 11.4 mV, respectively), whereas the jaw jerk reflex amplitude of the right and left masseters was 5.1 mV and 8.9 mV, respectively. The test stimulus for the recovery cycle of masseter inhibitory reflex evoked both silent periods at an interstimulus interval of 150 ms. The duration of the second silent period evoked by the test stimulus was 61 ms and 54 ms on the right and left masseters, respectively, which was greater than that evoked by the conditioning stimulus (39 ms and 35 ms, respectively). We found evidence of activation and peripheral sensitization of the nociceptive fibers, the primary and secondary nociceptive neurons in the central nervous system, and the endogenous pain control systems (including both the inhibitory and facilitatory processes), in the tested subject. These data suggest that bruxism and central orofacial pain can coexist, but are two independent symptoms, which may explain why numerous experimental and clinical studies fail to reach unequivocal conclusions.

  15. Changes in the temporomandibular joint disc and temporal and masseter muscles secondary to bruxism in Turkish patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Garip

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the relationships between temporalis and masseter muscle hypertrophy and temporomandibular joint (TMJ disc displacement in patients with severe bruxism using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Methods: This retrospective study included 100 patients with severe bruxism, referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Marmara and Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey, between January 2015 and December 2016. Patients underwent TMJ MRI with a 1.5-T system in open and closed mouth positions. The masseter and temporalis muscles were measured in the axial plane when the patient’s mouth was closed. Results: At its thinnest, the disc averaged was 1.11±0.24 mm. At their thickest, the masseter averaged was 13.65±2.19 mm and temporalis muscles was 12.98±2.4 mm. Of the discs, 24% were positioned normally, 74% were positioned anteriorly, and 2% were positioned posteriorly. The temporalis muscle was significantly thicker in patients with normally positioned discs than in those with anteriorly positioned discs (p=0.035. Conclusions: The temporalis muscle was significantly thicker in patients with normally positioned discs than in those with anteriorly positioned discs (p=0.035. Additional studies should be conducted to evaluate the relationships between all masticatory and surrounding muscles and disc movements in patients with bruxism.

  16. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? Newborns should get 14 to 17 hours of ...

  17. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page What research is being done? ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  18. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  19. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a Sleep Center Use the following fields to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests ...

  20. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy External Beam Radiation Internal Radiation Therapy Side Effects Chemotherapy Immunotherapy ... asleep, sleeping, or waking from sleep, such as walking, talking, or eating. Sleep disorders keep you from ...

  1. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  2. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy

  3. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  4. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDiekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  5. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  6. The effect of hydroxyzine on treating bruxism of 2- to 14-year-old children admitted to the clinic of Bandar Abbas Children Hospital in 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, M; Moayedi, A; Zakery Shahvari, S; Golmirzaei, J; Zahirinea, M; Abbasi, B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bruxism is to press or grind teeth against each other in non-physiologic cases, when an individual does not swallow or chew. If not treated, teeth problems, stress, mental disorders, frequent night waking, and headache is expected. This research aimed to study the effect of hydroxyzine on treating bruxism of 2- to 14-year-old children admitted to the clinic of Bandar Abbas Children Hospital. Methodology. In this clinical trial, 143 children with the ages between 4-12 years were admitted to the Children Hospital and were divided randomly into test and control groups. The test group consisted of 88 hydroxyzine-treated children and the control group consisted of 55 children who used hot towels. Both groups were examined in some stages including the pre-test stages or the stage before starting treatments at two, four, and six weeks and four months after stopping the treatment. The effects of each treatment on reducing bruxism symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using SPSS in descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANOVA. Results. As far as bruxism severity was concerned, the results showed a significant difference between the test group members who received hydroxyzine and the control group members who received no medication. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the test and the control groups in the second post-test (four weeks later) (p. value ≤ 0.05). Mean of the scores of bruxism severity in the test group has changed significantly in the post-test (at two weeks, four weeks, and six weeks later) as compared to the pre-test. Whereas, as far as the response to the treatment, no significant difference was recorded between the control group and the test group 4 weeks after the treatment. Discussion. The results showed that prescribing hydroxyzine for 4 weeks had a considerable effect in diminishing bruxism severity between the test groups.

  7. Are You Sleep Deprived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... even if you think you've had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are ...

  8. The Sleeping Cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology,

  9. The effect of hydroxyzine on treating bruxism of 2- to 14-year-old children admitted to the clinic of Bandar Abbas Children Hospital in 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmati, M; Moayedi, A; Zakery Shahvari, S; Golmirzaei, J; Zahirinea, M; Abbasi, B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bruxism is to press or grind teeth against each other in non-physiologic cases, when an individual does not swallow or chew. If not treated, teeth problems, stress, mental disorders, frequent night waking, and headache is expected. This research aimed to study the effect of hydroxyzine on treating bruxism of 2- to 14-year-old children admitted to the clinic of Bandar Abbas Children Hospital. Methodology. In this clinical trial, 143 children with the ages between 4-12 years were ...

  10. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  11. Sleep and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Maryann C; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Sleep is a complex physiologic state, the importance of which has long been recognized. Lack of sleep is detrimental to humans and animals. Over the past decade, an important link between sleep and cognitive processing has been established. Sleep plays an important role in consolidation of different types of memory and contributes to insightful, inferential thinking. While the mechanism by which memories are processed in sleep remains unknown, several experimental models have been proposed. This article explores the link between sleep and cognition by reviewing (1) the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition, (2) the influence of sleep on consolidation of declarative and non-declarative memory, and (3) some proposed models of how sleep facilitates memory consolidation in sleep. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  13. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  14. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  15. Relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Imai, Mikako; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions. Twelve adult volunteers, including 4 bruxism patients, participated in this study. Portable pH monitoring, electromyography of the temporal muscle, and audio-video recordings were conducted during the night in the subjects' homes. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes were observed most frequently, with single short-burst episodes the second most frequent. The frequencies of RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes were significantly higher during decreased esophageal pH episodes than those during other times. Both the electromyography and the decreased esophageal pH episodes were most frequently observed in the supine position. These results suggest that most jaw muscle activities, ie, RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes, occur in relation to gastroesophageal reflux mainly in the supine position.

  16. Adolescents' sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K

    2009-05-01

    Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. General education classes were randomly selected from a convenience sample of three high schools in the Midwest. Three hundred eighty-four ninth- to twelfth-grade students (57%) completed a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire on sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep. Most respondents (91.9%) obtained inadequate sleep (sleep each week night. The majority indicated that not getting enough sleep had the following effects on them: being more tired during the day (93.7%), having difficulty paying attention (83.6%), lower grades (60.8%), increase in stress (59.0%), and having difficulty getting along with others (57.7%). Some students reported engaging in harmful behaviors to help them sleep: taking sleeping pills (6.0%), smoking a cigarette to relax (5.7%), and drinking alcohol in the evening (2.9%). Students who received fewer hours of sleep were significantly more likely to report being stressed (p = .02) and were more likely to be overweight (p = .04). Inadequate sleep time may be contributing to adolescent health problems such as increased stress and obesity. Findings indicate a need for sleep hygiene education for adolescents and their parents. A long-term solution to chronic sleep deprivation among high school students could include delaying high school start times, such as was done successfully in the Minneapolis Public School District.

  17. Efficacy of botulinum toxin in treating myofascial pain and occlusal force characteristics of masticatory muscles in bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha A Jadhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The present study was conducted in patients with bruxism to evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A (Botox, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA in the treatment of myofascial pain and the occlusal force characteristics of masticatory muscles. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four diagnosed with bruxism were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 and treated by bilateral intramuscular injection of BTX-A and placebo-treated with saline placebo injections and control group where no injections were given. The clinical parameters such as pain at rest and during chewing were assessed and occlusal force analysis system to measure the distribution of occlusal force in bruxism patients. All the three groups were assessed at baseline time and at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months follow-up appointments. Descriptive analysis showed that improvements in parameters such as pain at rest; pain during chewing clinical outcome variables were higher in the botox treated group than in the placebo-treated subjects. Results: The pain at rest and at chewing decreased in the BTX-A group while remaining constant in the placebo group and control group. There was a significant change in maximum occlusal force in the BTX-A group compared with the other two groups (P < 0.05, post hoc Bonferroni test, no exact P value, and there was no significant difference between the placebo and control groups (post hoc Bonferroni test, no exact P value. Conclusion: Results from the present study supported the efficacy of BTX-A to reduce myofascial pain symptoms in bruxers, and effective in reducing the occlusal force.

  18. Management of broken dental implant abutment in a patient with bruxism: A rare case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Al-Almaie

    2017-01-01

    This rare case report describes prosthodontic complications resulting from a dental implant was placed surgically more distally in the area of the missing mandibular first molar with a cantilever effect and a crest width of >12 mm in a 59-year-old patient who had a history of bruxism. Fracture of abutment is a common complication in implant was placed in area with high occlusal forces. Inability to remove the broken abutment may most often end up in discarding the implant. Adding one more den...

  19. The Sleeping Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-05-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders. In this review, we evaluate how sleep and cerebellar processing may influence one another and highlight which scientific routes and technical approaches could be taken to uncover the mechanisms underlying these interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of All?h (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects ...

  1. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  2. Intricate Assessment and Evaluation of Effect of Bruxism on Long-term Survival and Failure of Dental Implants: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kajal; Nagpal, Abhishek; Agarwal, S K; Kochhar, Aarti

    2016-08-01

    Dental implants are one of the common lines of treatment used for the treatment of missing tooth. Various risk factors are responsible for the failure of the dental implants and occurrence of postoperative complications. Bruxism is one such factor responsible for the failure of the dental implants. The actual relation between bruxism and dental implants is a subject of long-term controversy. Hence, we carried out this retrospective analysis to assess the complications occurring in dental implants in patients with and without bruxism. The present study included 1100 patients which were treated for rehabilitation by dental implant procedure at 21 dental offices of Ghaziabad (India) from 2004 to 2014. Analyzing the clinical records of the patients along with assessing the photographs of the patients was done for confirming the diagnosis of bruxism. Clinical re-evaluation of the patients, who came back for follow-up, was done to confirm the diagnosis of bruxism. Systemic questionnaires as used by previous workers were used to evaluate the patients about the self-conscience of the condition. Estimation of the mechanical complications was done only in those cases which occurred on the surfaces of the restoration of the dental implants. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Student's t-test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to evaluate the level of significance. In both bruxer and non-bruxers, maximum number of dental implants was placed in anterior maxillary region. Significant difference was obtained while comparing the two groups for dimensions of the dental implants used. On comparing the total implant failed cases between bruxers and non-bruxers group, statistically significant result was obtained. Statistically significant difference was obtained while comparing the two study groups based on the health parameters, namely hypertension, diabetes, and smoking habit. Success of dental implant is significantly

  3. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  4. The use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of the consequences of bruxism on cervical spine musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finiels, P J; Batifol, D

    2014-03-01

    Hypertonia and hyperactivity of masticatory muscles are involved in pain and contractions of the cervical spine musculature, but their pathophysiology remains nonetheless unknown and its treatment far to be codified. In this study, 8 patients, showing disabling posterior neck muscle contractures linked with bruxism were prospectively treated and followed for an average 15 months period, after having received Injections of botulinum toxin A essentially in masticatory muscles. Injections were made every 3 months, varying from 10 to 100 U Botox* by muscles, without administrating more than 300 U Botox* in the same patient. The angle of cervical lordosis were calculated on lateral sitting radiographs in neutral position, good results being considered to be achieved in the case of a 2 point diminution of VAS score as well as at least a 5° positive gain in the curve. 7 patients out of 8 showed a real improvement in their symptoms after an average of 3 injections, showing a decrease of 4.5 points on the VAS score and an average increment of 15° in cervical lordosis. Although the follow-up period of patients was relatively short and the sample quite small, the general impression, confirmed by the patients' experience, seems to suggest a potential place for the use of botulinum toxin amongst the array of treatments which can be offered in certain selected cases which associate bruxism and posterior cervical contractions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Can palpation-induced muscle pain pattern contribute to the differential diagnosis among temporomandibular disorders, primary headaches phenotypes and possible bruxism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporatti, André-Luís; Calderon, Patrícia-dos-Santos; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo-Rigoldi

    2016-01-01

    Background The evaluation of possible differences in the distribution or characteristics of palpation-induced pain in the masticatory muscles could be valuable in terms of diagnostic assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different combinations of anterior temporalis (AT) and masseter palpation-induced pain in the diagnostic of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), primary headaches and bruxism. Material and Methods A total of 1200 dental records of orofacial pain adult patients were analyzed. The outcomes were dichotomously classified (presence/absence) as following: a) AT and/or masseter palpation-induced pain; b) myogenous TMD; c) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia (arthrogenous TMD); d) migraine; e) tension-type headache (TTH); f) self-reported bruxism. Binomial logistic regression model (α = 5%) was applied to the data considering the palpation-induced muscle pain as the dependent variable. Results Mean age (SD) were 35.7 years (13.4) for 635 included dental records (83% females). Myogenous and arthrogenous TMD, migraine, TTH and bruxism were mainly associated with, respectively, masseter palpation-induced pain (ppain (ppain (ppain (p=0.009 - OR=1.62, 95%CI 1.12-2.33) and bilateral masseter palpation-induced pain (p=0.01 - OR=1.74, 95%CI 1.13-2.69). Conclusions Palpation-induced pain in the masticatory muscles may play a role in the differential diagnosis among painful TMD, primary headaches and bruxism. Key words:Diagnosis, temporomandibular joint disorders, migraine, tension-type headache, bruxism. PMID:26615507

  6. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  7. Teenagers and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OSA causes daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep ... 30 apneas during a seven-hour sleep. In severe cases, periods of not breathing may last for ...

  9. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 103. ... Blaivas, DO, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, VA New Jersey Health Care System, Clinical Assistant ...

  10. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 156. Ibrahim S, Foldvary-Shaefer N. Sleep disorders in pregnancy: implications, evaluation, and treatment. Neurologic ...

  11. Sleep Apnea Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include being overweight and having a large neck. Losing even 10 percent of body weight can help reduce the number of times a person with sleep apnea stops breathing during sleep. African-Americans, Pacific ...

  12. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The National Sleep Foundation estimates that 18 million adults have obstructive sleep apnea and it is likely ... Maxillofacial Surgeon (OMS). An estimated 18-20 million adults in the US suffer from OSA. What Is ...

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SM. Obstructive sleep apnea: clinical features, evaluation, and principles of management. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ...

  16. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleeping During Pregnancy What's in ...

  17. Comparison of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takafumi; Toyota, Risa; Haraki, Shingo; Yano, Hiroyuki; Higashiyama, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshio; Yano, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumihiko; Yatani, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2017-09-27

    Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity can be a normal variant of oromotor activity, which can be exaggerated in patients with sleep bruxism. However, few studies have tested the possibility in naturally sleeping animals to study the neurophysiological mechanisms of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. This study aimed to investigate the similarity of cortical, cardiac and electromyographic manifestations of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep between guinea pigs and human subjects. Polysomnographic recordings were made in 30 freely moving guinea pigs and in eight healthy human subjects. Burst cycle length, duration and activity of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity were compared with those for chewing. The time between R-waves in the electrocardiogram (RR interval) and electroencephalogram power spectrum were calculated to assess time-course changes in cardiac and cortical activities in relation to rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. In animals, in comparison with chewing, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity had a lower burst activity, longer burst duration and longer cycle length (P motor activation in comparison to human subjects. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism.

  19. The Functions of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Z Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a ubiquitous component of animal life including birds and mammals. The exact function of sleep has been one of the mysteries of biology. A considerable number of theories have been put forward to explain the reason(s for the necessity of sleep. To date, while a great deal is known about what happens when animals sleep, there is no definitive comprehensive explanation as to the reason that sleep is an inevitable part of animal functioning. It is well known that sleep is a homeostatically regulated body process, and that prolonged sleep deprivation is fatal in animals. In this paper, we present some of the theories as to the functions of sleep and provide a review of some hypotheses as to the overall physiologic function of sleep. To better understand the purpose for sleeping, we review the effects of sleep deprivation on physical, neurocognitive and psychic function. A better understanding of the purpose for sleeping will be a great advance in our understanding of the nature of the animal kingdom, including our own.

  20. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  1. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment ... Sleep talking is very common. It is reported in 50% of young children. About 5% of adults are reported to talk in their sleep. It ...

  2. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  3. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sunil; Kavuru, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways i...

  4. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  5. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  6. Sleep and psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized. PMID:16416705

  7. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  8. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  9. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  10. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allβh (God and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh, Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  11. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-05-01

    Sleep rebound-the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation-is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the duration and depth of sleep after

  12. Direct restorative treatment of dental erosion caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with bruxism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Cristina de Mattos Pimenta; Catelan, Anderson; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique

    2011-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a gastrointestinal disorder in which stomach acids are chronically regurgitated into the esophagus and oral cavity. Continual exposure of the teeth to these acids can cause severe tooth wear. Dentists are often the first healthcare professionals to diagnose dental erosion in patients with GERD. This article presents a case report of a 27-year-old male smoker with tooth wear and dentin sensitivity caused by GERD associated with bruxism. After diagnosis, a multidisciplinary treatment plan was established. The initial treatment approach consisted of medical follow-up with counseling on dietary and smoking habits, as well as management of the gastric disorders with medication. GERD management and the dental treatment performed for the eroded dentition are described, including diagnosis, treatment planning, and restorative therapy.

  13. Management of broken dental implant abutment in a patient with bruxism: A rare case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Al-Almaie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This rare case report describes prosthodontic complications resulting from a dental implant was placed surgically more distally in the area of the missing mandibular first molar with a cantilever effect and a crest width of >12 mm in a 59-year-old patient who had a history of bruxism. Fracture of abutment is a common complication in implant was placed in area with high occlusal forces. Inability to remove the broken abutment may most often end up in discarding the implant. Adding one more dental implant mesially to the previously placed implant, improvisation of technique to remove the broken abutment without sacrificing the osseointegrated dental implant, fabrication with cemented custom-made abutment to replace the broken abutment for the first implant, and the use of the two implants to replace a single molar restoration proved reliable and logical treatment solutions to avoid these prosthodontic complications.

  14. Management of Broken Dental Implant Abutment in a Patient with Bruxism: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Almaie, Saad

    2017-01-01

    This rare case report describes prosthodontic complications resulting from a dental implant was placed surgically more distally in the area of the missing mandibular first molar with a cantilever effect and a crest width of >12 mm in a 59-year-old patient who had a history of bruxism. Fracture of abutment is a common complication in implant was placed in area with high occlusal forces. Inability to remove the broken abutment may most often end up in discarding the implant. Adding one more dental implant mesially to the previously placed implant, improvisation of technique to remove the broken abutment without sacrificing the osseointegrated dental implant, fabrication with cemented custom-made abutment to replace the broken abutment for the first implant, and the use of the two implants to replace a single molar restoration proved reliable and logical treatment solutions to avoid these prosthodontic complications.

  15. The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by

  16. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  17. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in older adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in older adults involve any disrupted sleep ...

  18. Healthy People 2020: Sleep Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve health, productivity, wellness, quality of life, and safety on roads and in the workplace. Overview Poor sleep health ... adopt strategies that reduce risks to health and safety. Without sleep health education, individuals often prioritize other activities over sleep and ...

  19. [Sleep disorders and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that patients with epilepsy often have insomnia and/or daytime sleepiness; the symptomatologic features differ in seizure types. Not only the administration of anti-epileptics, but also inappropriate sleep hygiene cause daytime sleepiness. In subjective assessment of sleepiness, we need to pay attention if it can correctly assess or not. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy is approximately 10-30%. Sleep apnea deteriorates the seizure control because of worsen sleep condition by sleep apnea, especially in elderly patients. Some researchers report that continuous positive airway pressure was effective for seizure control. Patients with epilepsy occasionally have REM sleep behavior disorder as comorbidity. Examination using polysomnography is required for differential diagnosis.

  20. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.

  1. Sleep Apnea Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep ...

  2. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  3. Sleep Disorders: Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Insomnia is the most common type of sleep disorder in the family medicine population. It is defined as a persistent difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or a report of nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by related daytime impairment. Insomnia is a significant public health problem because of its high prevalence and management challenges. There is increasing evidence of a strong association between insomnia and various medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Diagnosis of insomnia and treatment planning rely on a thorough sleep history to address contributing and precipitating factors as well as maladaptive behaviors resulting in poor sleep. Using a sleep diary or sleep log is more accurate than patient recall to determine sleep patterns. A sleep study is not routinely indicated for evaluation of insomnia. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the mainstay of treatment and is a safe and effective approach. The key challenge of CBT-I is the lack of clinicians to implement it. The newer generation nonbenzodiazepines (eg, zolpidem, zaleplon) are used as first-line pharmacotherapy for chronic insomnia. Newer drugs active on targets other than the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor are now available, but clear treatment guidelines are needed. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  4. Sleep and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Pregnancy Cognitive Development parenting poor sleep Work stress Time change beds School Symptoms mental fatigue Headache mortality pain Apetite Technology Telemedicine Movies Imported Diagnostics ...

  5. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation in bruxism associated with masticatory muscle pain - A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajpurohit Bharat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS and microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation (MENS on masticatory muscles pain bruxism patient. Materials and Methods : A total of 60 subjects with the clinical diagnosis of bruxism were randomly allocated to two study groups. Group A received TENS (50 Hz, pulse width 0.5 mSec, intensity 0-60 mA for 20 minutes for a period of seven days and Group B received MENS (0.5 Hz, intensity 1,000 μA for 20 minutes for a period of seven days. The outcome measures were assessed in term of Visual Analog Scale (VAS and digital pressometer of 2 Kgf. Results : The study showed significant change in intensity of pain as per VAS score ( P ≤ 0.0001 and tenderness as per digital pressometer ( P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusion : MENS could be used as an effective pain-relieving adjunct to TENS in the treatment of masticatory muscle pain due to bruxism.

  6. REGISTRATION OF CENTRIC OCCLUSION IN PATIENTS WITH BRUXISM AND BRUXOMANIA THROUGH ARTICULATING PAPER AND THE SYSTEM T-SCAN - COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study and documentation of occlusal-articulation relationships has a high diagnostic significance in patients with bruxism and bruxomania. The study aims on the basis of registration of occlusal contacts via articulating paper and the T-Scan system to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both methods in occlusal diagnosis of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. Material and Methods: 40 patients with bruxism and / or bruxomania (29 women and 11 men aged between 21 and 77 years from October 2010 to February 2014 was conducted computerized occlusal analysis using the systems T-Scan II (in 12 patients, T-Scan III (in 28 patients and the software T-Scan III. All patients were subjected to registration of occlusal relationships in centric occlusion (CO with articulating paper Bausch PROGRESS 100 µ and Bausch® Arti-Fol® 8 µ. Results and Discussion: In 90.0% of patients it is established unevenly distributed, irregular in size and intensity occlusal contacts. Essential factor for preventing the spontaneous bilateral closure with balanced forces is the presence of interceptive contacts and sliding occurring in the first frame of the occlusion time until the maximum intercuspation - MIP. Conclusion: Registration with articulating paper visualizes cumulative picture of the contacts in CO and interceptive contacts without being able to distinguish them in size and time of onset. Computerized occlusal analysis objectively and quantitatively determines interceptive contacts and distinguishes them from contacts in MIP and gives real meaning to the terms "strong" and "light contacts".

  7. Can palpation-induced muscle pain pattern contribute to the differential diagnosis among temporomandibular disorders, primary headaches phenotypes and possible bruxism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Yuri-Martins; Porporatti, André-Luís; Calderon, Patrícia-dos-Santos; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo-Rigoldi

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of possible differences in the distribution or characteristics of palpation-induced pain in the masticatory muscles could be valuable in terms of diagnostic assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different combinations of anterior temporalis (AT) and masseter palpation-induced pain in the diagnostic of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), primary headaches and bruxism. A total of 1200 dental records of orofacial pain adult patients were analyzed. The outcomes were dichotomously classified (presence/absence) as following: a) AT and/or masseter palpation-induced pain; b) myogenous TMD; c) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia (arthrogenous TMD); d) migraine; e) tension-type headache (TTH); f) self-reported bruxism. Binomial logistic regression model (α = 5%) was applied to the data considering the palpation-induced muscle pain as the dependent variable. Mean age (SD) were 35.7 years (13.4) for 635 included dental records (83% females). Myogenous and arthrogenous TMD, migraine, TTH and bruxism were mainly associated with, respectively, masseter palpation-induced pain (pbruxism.

  8. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  9. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  10. Sleep disorders and work performance: findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Leslie M; Arnedt, J Todd; Rosekind, Mark R; Belenky, Gregory; Balkin, Thomas J; Drake, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is common among workers, and has been associated with negative work outcomes, including absenteeism and occupational accidents. The objective of the present study is to characterize reciprocal relationships between sleep and work. Specifically, we examined how sleep impacts work performance and how work affects sleep in individuals not at-risk for a sleep disorder; assessed work performance outcomes for individuals at-risk for sleep disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and characterized work performance impairments in shift workers (SW) at-risk for shift work sleep disorders relative to SW and day workers. One-thousand Americans who work 30 h per week or more were asked questions about employment, work performance and sleep in the National Sleep Foundation's 2008 Sleep in America telephone poll. Long work hours were associated with shorter sleep times, and shorter sleep times were associated with more work impairments. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were classified as at-risk for any sleep disorder. These individuals had more negative work outcomes as compared with those not at-risk for a sleep disorder. Presenteeism was a significant problem for individuals with insomnia symptoms, OSA and RLS as compared with respondents not at-risk. These results suggest that long work hours may contribute to chronic sleep loss, which may in turn result in work impairment. Risk for sleep disorders substantially increases the likelihood of negative work outcomes, including occupational accidents, absenteeism and presenteeism. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. The Biology of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, John; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep have occurred over the past decade. Much of this progress can be attributed to the development of new neuroscience tools that have enabled high-precision interrogation of brain circuitry linked with REM sleep control, in turn revealing how REM sleep mechanisms themselves impact processes such as sensorimotor function. This review is intended to update the general scientific community about the recent mechanistic, functional and conceptual developments in our current understanding of REM sleep biology and pathobiology. Specifically, this review outlines the historical origins of the discovery of REM sleep, the diversity of REM sleep expression across and within species, the potential functions of REM sleep (e.g., memory consolidation), the neural circuits that control REM sleep, and how dysfunction of REM sleep mechanisms underlie debilitating sleep disorders such as REM sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy. PMID:26766231

  12. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  13. Botulinum Toxin Type A as Preoperative Treatment for Immediately Loaded Dental Implants Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets for Full-Arch Restoration of Patients With Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijiritsky, Eitan; Mortellaro, Carmen; Rudberg, Omri; Fahn, Miri; Basegmez, Cansu; Levin, Liran

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present report was to describe the use of Botulinum toxin type A as preoperative treatment for immediately loaded dental implants placed in fresh extraction sockets for full-arch restoration of patients with bruxism. Patients with bruxism who were scheduled to receive immediately loaded full-arch implant supported fixed restorations were included in this retrospective clinical report. To reduce the occlusal forces applied in patients with bruxism, Botulinum toxin type A was introduced prior to the implant placement procedure. Patients were followed and implant survival as well as peri-implant bone level was assessed in each periodic follow-up visit. Adverse effects were also recorded. A control group with no use of Botulinum toxin was evaluated as well. A total of 26 patients (13 test and 13 control), with bruxism, aged 59.15 ± 11.43 years on average were included in this retrospective report and received immediately loaded dental implants placed in fresh extraction sockets for full-arch restoration. The test group treatment preceded by Botulinum toxin type A injection. Maxillary arches were supported by 8 to 10 implants while the mandibular arch was supported by 6 implants. All surgeries went uneventfully and no adverse effects were observed. The average follow-up time was 32.5 ± 10.4 months (range, 18-51). In the test group, no implant failures were recorded. One patient presented with 1 to 2 mm bone loss around 4 of the implants; the other implants presented with stable bone level. In the control group 1 patient lost 2 implants and another demonstrated 2 mm bone loss around 3 of the implants. The preoperative use of Botulinum toxin in patients with bruxism undergoing full-arch rehabilitation using immediately loaded dental implants placed in fresh extraction sockets seems to be a technique that deserves attention. Further long-term, large-scale randomized clinical trials will help to determine the additional benefit of this suggested

  14. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).

  15. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  16. Sleep regulation and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E.J.W.; Cluydts, R.; Pfaff, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    For years, the subject of sleep failed to generate much interest from either the field of medicine or that of psychology - a curious fact, as a 60-year-old has spent some 20 years out of those 60 sleeping. In fact, up until the age of approximately three years, a child spends more time asleep than

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Download Download the ebook for further information Obstructive sleep ... high blood pressure, heart disease and decreased libido. In addition, OSA causes daytime ...

  18. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes beforehand. Keep consistent playtimes and mealtimes. Avoid stimulants, such as caffeine, near bedtime. Make the bedroom quiet, cozy, and perfect for sleeping. Use the bed only for sleeping — not for playing or watching TV. Limit food and drink before bedtime. Allow your child to ...

  19. Sleep and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.

  20. Sleep and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhao Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising global prevalence and incidence of obesity lead to increased cardiovascular-renal complications and cancers. Epidemiological studies reported a worldwide trend towards suboptimal sleep duration and poor sleep quality in parallel with this obesity epidemic. From rodents and human models, it is highly plausible that abnormalities in sleep, both quantity and quality, impact negatively on energy metabolism. While excess dietary intake and physical inactivity are the known drivers of the obesity epidemic, promotion of healthy sleep habits has emerged as a new target to combat obesity. In this light, present review focuses on the existing literature examining the relationship between sleep physiology and energy homeostasis. Notably, sleep dysregulation perturbs the metabolic milieu via alterations in hormones such as leptin and ghrelin, eating behavior, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, shift work and trans-meridian air travel may exert a negative influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trigger circadian misalignment, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation. Amassing evidence has also suggested that uncoupling of the circadian clock can increase the risk of adverse metabolic health. Given the importance of sleep in maintaining energy homeostasis and that it is potentially modifiable, promoting good sleep hygiene may create new avenues for obesity prevention and treatment.

  1. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  2. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A.; Stegenga, B.; Wijkstra, P. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Meinesz, A. F.; de Bont, L. G. M.

    In clinical practice, oral appliances are used primarily for obstructive sleep apnea patients who do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We hypothesized that an oral appliance is not inferior to CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea effectively. We randomly assigned

  4. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  5. Adenosine and sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A 1 receptors, 3 H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for 3 H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in 3 H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress

  6. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  7. Sleep deprivation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had

  8. Study of Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems Among Medical Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students ...

  9. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Charles L; Samson, David R; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates. These changes likely reflect that our ancestors experienced fitness benefits from being active for a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than other primates, potentially related to advantages arising from learning, socializing and defending against predators and hostile conspecifics. Perspectives from evolutionary medicine have implications for understanding sleep disorders; we consider these perspectives in the context of insomnia, narcolepsy, seasonal affective disorder, circadian rhythm disorders and sleep apnea. We also identify how human sleep today differs from sleep through most of human evolution, and the implications of these changes for global health and health disparities. More generally, our review highlights the importance of phylogenetic comparisons in understanding human health, including well-known links between sleep, cognitive performance and health in humans. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  10. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-van Beek, Z.; Lucassen, P.L.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Smelt, A.F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Bouma, M.

    2015-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills.- The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not

  11. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Krystal, Andrew; Nunn, CL; Samson, DR; Krystal, AD

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalia

  12. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Akinci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The circadian rhythm sleep disorders define the clinical conditions where sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted despite optimum environmental and social conditions. They occur as a result of the changes in endogenous circadian hours or non-compatibility of environmental factors or social life with endogenous circadian rhythm. The sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted continuously or in repeating phases depending on lack of balance between internal and external cycles. This condition leads to functional impairments which cause insomnia, excessive sleepiness or both in people. Application of detailed sleep anamnesis and sleep diary with actigraphy record, if possible, will be sufficient for diagnosis. The treatment aims to align endogenous circadian rhythm with environmental conditions. The purpose of this article is to review pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 178-189

  13. The Function of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Barone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of sleep can be ascertained by noting the effects of its loss, which tends to be chronic and partial, on cognition, mood, alertness, and overall health. Many theories have been put forth to explain the function of sleep in humans, including proposals based on energy conservation, ecological adaptations, neurocognitive function, neural plasticity, nervous system and physical health, and performance. Most account for only a portion of sleep behavior and few are based on strong experimental support. In this review, we present theories proposing why sleep is necessary and supporting data demonstrating the effects of inadequate sleep, with the intention of gleaning further information as to its necessity, which remains one of the most perplexing mysteries in biology.

  14. Increasing trends of sleep complaints in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Taddei, Jose Augusto; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amelia; Pompeia, Celine; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of sleep habits and complaints and to estimate the secular trends through three population-based surveys carried out in 1987, 1995, and 2007 in the general adult population of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Surveys were performed using the same three-stage cluster-sampling technique in three consecutive decades to obtain representative samples of the inhabitants of Sao Paulo with respect to gender, age (20-80 years), and socio-economic status. Sample sizes were 1000 volunteers in 1987 and 1995 surveys and 1101 in a 2007 survey. In each survey, the UNIFESP Sleep Questionnaire was administered face-to-face in each household selected. For 1987, 1995, and 2007, respectively, difficulty initiating sleep (weighted frequency %; 95% CI) [(13.9; 11.9-16.2), (19.15; 16.8-21.6), and (25.0; 22.5-27.8)], difficulty maintaining sleep [(15.8; 13.7-18.2), (27.6; 24.9-30.4), and (36.5; 33.5-39.5)], and early morning awakening [(10.6; 8.8-12.7), (14.2; 12.2-16.5), and (26.7; 24-29.6)] increased in the general population over time, mostly in women. Habitual snoring was the most commonly reported complaint across decades and was more prevalent in men. There was no statistically significant difference in snoring complaints between 1987 (21.5; 19.1-24.2) and 1995 (19.0; 16.7-21.6), but a significant increase was noted in 2007 (41.7; 38.6-44.8). Nightmares, bruxism, leg cramps, and somnambulism complaints were significantly higher in 2007 compared to 1987 and 1995. All were more frequent in women. This is the first study comparing sleep complaints in probabilistic population-based samples from the same metropolitan area, using the same methodology across three consecutive decades. Clear trends of increasing sleep complaints were observed, which increased faster between 1995 and 2007 than from 1987 to 1995. These secular trends should be considered a relevant public health issue and support the need for development of health care and

  15. Diagnostic approaches to respiratory sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Riha, Renata L.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) comprises a number of breathing disturbances occurring during sleep including snoring, the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), central sleep apnoea (CSA) and hypoventilation syndromes. This review focuses on sleep disordered breathing and diagnostic approaches in adults, in particular clinical assessment and overnight assessment during sleep. Although diagnostic approaches to respiratory sleep disorders are reasonably straightforward, they do r...

  16. Association of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea with poor academic performance: A school-based study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Abhishek; Pakhare, Abhijit P; Bhatt, Girish C; Choudhary, Bharat; Patil, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent but often neglected disorder. There is paucity of reports on the prevalence of pediatric OSA from India. This study was done to estimate the prevalence of OSA in school children aged 5-10 years and its association with academic performance. This school-based cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted from July 2015 to November 2015. A questionnaire seeking information on sociodemographic variables, school performance, sleeping pattern, and a validated 22-item pediatrics sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) scale was distributed to 1820 pupils in three primary schools. The prevalence of OSA (defined as SRBD score >33%) was reported as proportion and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We received 1520 questionnaires out of 1820 distributed and of which 1346 were complete and were analyzed. The prevalence of OSA among children in our study was 9.6% (95% CI: 8.1%-11.7%). On multivariate analysis, working mother (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.7), sleep bruxism (adjusted OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.6), and sleep talking (adjusted OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9-4.7) were found to be independently associated with OSA. Students with positive SRBD were more prone to nocturnal enuresis (NE) (OR 3.48; 95% CI 2.27-5.26) and poor academic performance in all subjects. OSA is highly prevalent (9.6%) in Indian children. OSA is associated with NE and poor academic performance in all subjects. This study found association of maternal occupation and OSA which needs to be confirmed in larger studies.

  17. Association of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea with poor academic performance: A school-based study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Goyal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a highly prevalent but often neglected disorder. There is paucity of reports on the prevalence of pediatric OSA from India. This study was done to estimate the prevalence of OSA in school children aged 5–10 years and its association with academic performance. Methodology: This school-based cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted from July 2015 to November 2015. A questionnaire seeking information on sociodemographic variables, school performance, sleeping pattern, and a validated 22-item pediatrics sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD scale was distributed to 1820 pupils in three primary schools. The prevalence of OSA (defined as SRBD score >33% was reported as proportion and its 95% confidence interval (CI. Results: We received 1520 questionnaires out of 1820 distributed and of which 1346 were complete and were analyzed. The prevalence of OSA among children in our study was 9.6% (95% CI: 8.1%–11.7%. On multivariate analysis, working mother (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2–2.7, sleep bruxism (adjusted OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1–2.6, and sleep talking (adjusted OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9–4.7 were found to be independently associated with OSA. Students with positive SRBD were more prone to nocturnal enuresis (NE (OR 3.48; 95% CI 2.27–5.26 and poor academic performance in all subjects. Conclusion: OSA is highly prevalent (9.6% in Indian children. OSA is associated with NE and poor academic performance in all subjects. This study found association of maternal occupation and OSA which needs to be confirmed in larger studies.

  18. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. All about Sleep (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day after sleeping for only 9 hours. Still, sleep is very important to kids' well-being. The link between a ... to kids not getting the sleep they need. Sleep-deprived kids can become hyper or ... still important to have a consistent bedtime, especially on school ...

  20. Are You Getting Enough Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, et al. Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: a joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. Sleep. 2015;38(6):843–844. Features Media ...

  1. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Andy R; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle.

  2. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Insomnia and sleep misperception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, C H; Ceklic, T; St-Hilaire, P; Desmarais, F; Pérusse, A D; Lefrançois, J; Pedneault-Drolet, M

    2014-10-01

    Sleep misperception is often observed in insomnia individuals (INS). The extent of misperception varies between different types of INS. The following paper comprised sections which will be aimed at studying the sleep EEG and compares it to subjective reports of sleep in individuals suffering from either psychophysiological insomnia or paradoxical insomnia and good sleeper controls. The EEG can be studied without any intervention (thus using the raw data) via either PSG or fine quantitative EEG analyses (power spectral analysis [PSA]), identifying EEG patterns as in the case of cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs) or by decorticating the EEG while scoring the different transient or phasic events (K-Complexes or sleep spindles). One can also act on the on-going EEG by delivering stimuli so to study their impact on cortical measures as in the case of event-related potential studies (ERPs). From the paucity of studies available using these different techniques, a general conclusion can be reached: sleep misperception is not an easy phenomenon to quantify and its clinical value is not well recognized. Still, while none of the techniques or EEG measures defined in the paper is available and/or recommended to diagnose insomnia, ERPs might be the most indicated technique to study hyperarousal and sleep quality in different types of INS. More research shall also be dedicated to EEG patterns and transient phasic events as these EEG scoring techniques can offer a unique insight of sleep misperception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep apnea is clinically recognized as a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by recurrent apnea and/or hypopnea. Its prevalence ranges from 4% to 24%. It has been implicated as an independent risk factor for several conditions such as hypertension, stroke, arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction. Recently data has been emerging which suggests an independent association of obstructive sleep apnea with several components of the metabolic syndrome, particularly insulin resistance and abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We hereby review the salient features of the association between sleep and diabetes.

  5. Sleep-inducing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Fabio; Acosta-Peña, Eva; Venebra-Muñoz, Arturo; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Kuniomi Ishimori and Henri Piéron were the first researchers to introduce the concept and experimental evidence for a chemical factor that would presumably accumulate in the brain during waking and eventually induce sleep. This substance was named hypnotoxin. Currently, the variety of substances which have been shown to alter sleep includes peptides, cytokines, neurotransmitters and some substances of lipidic nature, many of which are well known for their involvement in other biological activities. In this chapter, we describe the sleep-inducing properties of the vasoactive intestinal peptide, prolactin, adenosine and anandamide.

  6. Unraveling the Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Using Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, L; Moscato, E H; Kayser, M S

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders in humans are increasingly appreciated to be not only widespread but also detrimental to multiple facets of physical and mental health. Recent work has begun to shed light on the mechanistic basis of sleep disorders like insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, and a host of others, but a more detailed genetic and molecular understanding of how sleep goes awry is lacking. Over the past 15 years, studies in Drosophila have yielded new insights into basic questions regarding sleep function and regulation. More recently, powerful genetic approaches in the fly have been applied toward studying primary human sleep disorders and other disease states associated with dysregulated sleep. In this review, we discuss the contribution of Drosophila to the landscape of sleep biology, examining not only fundamental advances in sleep neurobiology but also how flies have begun to inform pathological sleep states in humans. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems in Healthy Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, C L Srinivasa; Bharti, Bhavneet; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Khadwal, Alka

    2015-07-01

    To describe the sleep patterns and problems in children aged between 12 and 36 mo of age. This cross sectional survey was collected over a span of 1 y in Advanced Pediatric Centre, PGIMER, Chandigarh and crèches of Chandigarh. Children in the age group of 12 to 36 mo were included in study. Children with chronic illness, developmental delay, seizure disorder and lack of consent were excluded. A total of 368 children were enrolled. Main outcome measures were sleep duration over 1 to 3 y of life; sleep behavior at onset, during and waking of sleep and parent reported sleep problems and their predictors. The average duration of sleep was 12.5 h (S.D = 1.9). The mean total sleep duration and mean day time sleep duration decreased, while mean night time sleep increased as the age advanced from 12 to 36 mo. Following were the frequency of sleep habits seen in the index study; bed time routine was seen only in 68(18.5 %), a regular bed time ritual was seen in 281(76.4 %), 329(89.4 %) children frequently required 0-20 min time to fall asleep, 11(3 %) parents used sleep inducing drugs. Night waking (1 to 3 times a night) was seen in 297(80.7 %) and its frequency declined with age. Parent reported sleep problems were seen in 12.8 % (47/368). Lack of co-sleeping and night waking were considered as strongest predictors of parent reported sleep problems. Toddlers' sleep duration, night waking behavior, and day time naps decrease as the age progress while night time sleep duration increases with age. Lack of co-sleeping and night waking are considered as strongest predictors of parent reported sleep problems.

  8. Occlusal splint versus modified nociceptive trigeminal inhibition splint in bruxism therapy: a randomized, controlled trial using surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalewski, B; Chruściel-Nogalska, M; Frączak, B

    2015-12-01

    An occlusal splint and a modified nociceptive trigeminal inhibition splint (AMPS, anterior deprogrammer, Kois deprogrammer, Lucia jig, etc.) are commonly and quite frequently used in the treatment of masticatory muscle disorders, although their sustainable and long-lasting effect on these muscles' function is still not very well known. Results of scant surface electromyography studies in patients with temporomandibular disorders have been contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate both devices in bruxism therapy; EMG activity levels during postural activity and maximum voluntary contraction of the superficial temporal and masseter muscles were compared before and after 30 days of treatment. Surface electromyography of the examined muscles was performed in two groups of bruxers (15 patients each). Patients in the first group used occlusal splints, while those in the second used modified nociceptive trigeminal inhibition splints. The trial was randomized, controlled and semi-blind. Neither device affected the asymmetry index or postural activity/maximum voluntary contraction ratio after 1 month of treatment. Neither the occlusal nor the nociceptive trigeminal inhibition splint showed any significant influence on the examined muscles. Different scientific methods should be considered in clinical applications that require either direct influence on the muscles' bioelectrical activity or a quantitative measurement of the treatment quality. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  9. I sleep, because we sleep: a synthesis on the role of culture in sleep behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Iwelunmor, J I; Ezepue, C J; Williams, N J; Jean-Louis, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the literature on the cultural aspects of sleep and their relevance to behavioral sleep research. A narrative synthesis of the existing literature on sleep was conducted with a focus on its biological, sociological, political, and anthropological aspects. This synthesis was guided by the PEN-3 cultural model, developed by the primary author. The findings highlight the cross-cultural contexts within which people sleep and the role of varied sleeping arrangements in influencing sleep behavior and perspectives. Furthermore, the contexts in which sleep occurs, coupled with the influence of the family, and the positive aspects of sleep helped illustrate why cultural aspects of sleep are vital for a broader understanding of sleep. The authors conclude by highlighting the need to integrate studies on the biological, sociological, and political aspects of sleep. Our examination of the literature strongly suggests that careful assessment of epidemiological and clinical sleep data should consider the cultural aspects of sleep as well as the context in which sleep occurs, the role of the family, and positive aspects of sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. National Sleep Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Macedonian Malay Maltese Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swahili Swedish Thai Turkish ... Relieve Ear Pressure While Traveling for Better Sleep Learn how to keep your ears happy so you ...

  11. What Is Sleep Apnea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cognitive and behavioral disorders. Explore this Health Topic to learn more about sleep apnea, our role in research ... apnea can be caused by a person’s physical structure or medical conditions. These include obesity, large ...

  12. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... terrors or other family members Lead to safety concerns or injury Result in daytime symptoms of excessive sleepiness or problems functioning Continue beyond the teen years or start in adulthood Causes Sleep terrors ...

  13. Getting Enough Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are getting enough sleep: Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing? Do you sometimes fall asleep during class? If you answered yes to these questions, try using the tips above ...

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  15. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regulates appetite and the expenditure of energy. 3 Depression The relationship between sleep and depression is complex. ... Promotion , Division of Population Health Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep ...

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These disruptions impair your ability to reach the desired deep, restful phases of sleep, and you'll ... of memory problems, morning headaches, mood swings or feelings of depression, and a need to urinate frequently ...

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also affects 2% to 3% of children. Yet, people who have OSA may not be aware they ... initiates impulses from the brain to wake the person just enough to restart the breathing process. Sleep ...

  19. Sleep after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Skarbye, M; Wildschiødtz, G

    1996-01-01

    .01). SWS was absent in four of the patients after operation, whereas in six patients it was within the normal range (5-20% of the night). The proportion of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was not significantly changed after operation. There were no changes in arterial oxygen saturation on the postoperative...... compared with the preoperative night. Comparison of our results with previous studies on SWS and REM sleep disturbances after open laparotomy, suggests that the magnitude of surgery or administration of opioids, or both, may be important factors in the development of postoperative sleep disturbances.......The sleep pattern and oxygenation of 10 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied on the night before operation and the first night after operation. Operations were performed during general anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia was achieved without the administration...

  20. Sleep Issues and Sundowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include heart attack, stroke, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, heart disease and decreased libido. In addition, OSA causes daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep Foundation ...

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about by these factors initiates impulses from the brain to wake the person just enough to restart the breathing process. Sleep apnea is generally defined as the presence of ...

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Apnea (OSA) Download Download the ebook for further information Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and ... that can create the necessary air passageway. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  4. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performance and makes him or her a hazardous driver or equipment operator. Untreated obstructive sleep apnea increases ... self-help remedies: • Adopt a healthy and athletic lifestyle to develop good muscle tone and lose weight. • ...

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep Foundation estimates that 18 ... at several points and check for any abnormal flow of air from the nose to lungs. An ...

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep ...

  7. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome was often 10-15 minutes late for work every day due to amount and quality of sleep. The employer provided this employee with a half an hour flexible start time. Depending on when the employee arrived, ...

  8. [Sleep and sleep disorders in the elderly. Part 2: therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitzer, J; Heubaum, S; Frohnhofen, H

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders need to be treated if they affect the quality of life, lead to functional problems in daily life or unfavorably affect self-sufficiency. The large number of sleep disorders is reflected in the number of different and varied available therapeutic procedures. The basic therapeutic procedure for any sleep disorder is the use of sleep hygiene. Sleeplessness (insomnia) is most effectively treated through behavioral therapy, with stimulus control and sleep restriction as the most effective measures, whereas pharmacotherapy is considerably less effective and has side effects. Sleep-disordered breathing is also the most common cause of hypersomnia in the elderly and is most effectively treated by nocturnal positive pressure breathing.

  9. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  10. Functions and Mechanisms of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Zielinski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a complex physiological process that is regulated globally, regionally, and locally by both cellular and molecular mechanisms. It occurs to some extent in all animals, although sleep expression in lower animals may be co-extensive with rest. Sleep regulation plays an intrinsic part in many behavioral and physiological functions. Currently, all researchers agree there is no single physiological role sleep serves. Nevertheless, it is quite evident that sleep is essential for many vital functions including development, energy conservation, brain waste clearance, modulation of immune responses, cognition, performance, vigilance, disease, and psychological state. This review details the physiological processes involved in sleep regulation and the possible functions that sleep may serve. This description of the brain circuitry, cell types, and molecules involved in sleep regulation is intended to further the reader’s understanding of the functions of sleep.

  11. Sleep in trigeminal autonomic cephalagias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barløse, Mads; Lund, Nunu; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2014-01-01

    and eventually to more effective therapeutic regimens. This review aims to evaluate the existing literature on the subject of TACs and sleep. An association between episodic CH and distinct macrostructural sleep phases, especially the relation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, has been described in some older...... studies but could not be confirmed in other, more recent studies. Investigations into the microstructure of sleep in these patients are lacking. Only a few case reports exist on the relation between sleep and other TACs. SUMMARY: Recent studies do not find an association between CH and REM sleep. One...... older study suggests chronic paroxysmal hemicranias may be locked to REM sleep but otherwise the relation is unknown. Reports indicate that CH and obstructive sleep apnoea are associated in some individuals but results are diverging. Single cases show improvement of CH upon treatment of sleep apnoea...

  12. Sleep as an Occupational Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Nicole J; Foss, Joanne Jackson

    In the same way the human body requires food, hydration, and oxygen, it also requires sleep. Even among healthy people, the amount and quality of sleep substantially influence health and quality of life because sleep helps regulate physiological functioning. Given the impact of sleep on participation, the American Occupational Therapy Association reclassified sleep from an activity of daily living to an occupational domain. Poor sleep is a frequent medical complaint, especially among populations with neurological impairment. Occupational therapy practitioners should consider routinely screening for factors affecting their clients' sleep. By addressing such factors, as well as related routines and habits, practitioners can enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation, promote health and well-being, and increase engagement and life quality. Practitioners should acknowledge the importance of sleep in practice, and the study of sleep should be prioritized by researchers in the field to meet client needs and establish evidence for interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. SLEEP APNOEA!!! : SNORING & BEYOND

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SLEEP APNOEA!!! : SNORING & BEYOND · Slide 2 · Snoring · Introduction · Identifiable causes of hypertension · Crucial areas for Snoring & Obstructive Sleep Apnea · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Epidemiology (contd.) Slide 18 · Am I at risk??? Slide 20.

  14. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Staner, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...

  15. Genotyping Sleep Disorders Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kripke, Daniel F.; Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Cronin, John W.; Jamil, Shazia M.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Koziol, James A.; Kline, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The genetic susceptibility factors underlying sleep disorders might help us predict prognoses and responses to treatment. Several candidate polymorphisms for sleep disorders have been proposed, but there has as yet inadequate replication or validation that the candidates may be useful in the clinical setting. Methods To assess the validity of several candidate associations, we obtained saliva deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples and clinical information from 360 consenting research p...

  16. Autism and sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Devnani, Preeti A.; Hegde, Anaita U.

    2015-01-01

    “Autism Spectrum Disorders” (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) slee...

  17. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  18. Sleep for Kids: Games and Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and puzzles can help you learn more about sleep! Learn about sleep with this fun crossword puzzle! Test your memory and learn how to get better sleep! Find the hidden sleep words! Avoid things that ...

  19. Relação entre bruxismo, fatores oclusais e hábitos bucais The relationship between bruxism, occlusal factors and oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Patrícia Versiani Gonçalves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a relação entre bruxismo, fatores oclusais e hábitos bucais em crianças e adolescentes, alunos da rede pública da cidade de Brasília/DF. MÉTODOS: um grupo de 680 escolares, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de 4 a 16 anos, foi aleatoriamente selecionado. Os dados foram coletados através da avaliação clínica e da aplicação de questionários aos responsáveis pelos alunos. Os aspectos morfológicos da oclusão foram avaliados segundo a classificação de Angle e critérios para a dentadura decídua, de Foster e Hamilton (1969. As mordidas cruzadas anterior e posterior, uni ou bilateral, foram avaliadas. O teste qui-quadrado, a Odds Ratio e o software SPSS foram utilizados para análise estatística. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: 592 questionários retornaram de maneira completa. A prevalência de bruxismo foi de 43%, enquanto 57% apresentaram má oclusão. Os hábitos bucais foram observados em 53%. A prevalência de má oclusão aumentou de 42,6% na dentadura decídua para 74,4% na dentadura permanente. A avaliação dos resultados indicou que não houve relação estatisticamente significativa entre o bruxismo e os fatores oclusais estudados (p > 0,05. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os gêneros em ambas as variáveis. A onicofagia foi o hábito mais prevalente (35% com preferência para o gênero feminino. Houve relação estatisticamente significativa entre bruxismo e hábitos bucais. Avaliando os tipos específicos de hábitos, apenas a sucção de chupeta se mostrou relacionada ao bruxismo. Estudos adicionais serão necessários para melhor compreensão dos fatores locais na gênese do bruxismo.OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the relationship between bruxism, occlusal factors and oral habits in children and adolescent subjects, students from public schools in Brasília-Federal District city. METHODS: A group of 680 students, of both genders, average age 4 - 16 years, were randomly selected. Data was collected

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Brass

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual’s risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

  1. Sleep Paralysis and Hallucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Stores

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep paralysis is one of the many conditions of which visual hallucinations can be a part but has received relatively little attention. It can be associated with other dramatic symptoms of a psychotic nature likely to cause diagnostic uncertainty. Methods and results: These points are illustrated by the case of a young man with a severe bipolar affective disorder who independently developed terrifying visual, auditory and somatic hallucinatory episodes at sleep onset, associated with a sense of evil influence and presence. The episodes were not obviously related to his psychiatric disorder. Past diagnoses included nightmares and night terrors. Review provided no convincing evidence of various other sleep disorders nor physical conditions in which hallucinatory experiences can occur. A diagnosis of predormital isolated sleep paralysis was made and appropriate treatment recommended. Conclusions: Sleep paralysis, common in the general population, can be associated with dramatic auxiliary symptoms suggestive of a psychotic state. Less common forms are either part of the narcolepsy syndrome or (rarely they are familial in type. Interestingly, sleep paralysis (especially breathing difficulty features prominently in the folklore of various countries.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Matthew L; Brass, Steven D

    2011-11-29

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual's risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David P; Younes, Magdy K

    2012-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Control of pharyngeal patency is a complex process relating primarily to basic anatomy and the activity of many pharyngeal dilator muscles. The control of these muscles is regulated by a number of processes including respiratory drive, negative pressure reflexes, and state (sleep) effects. In general, patients with OSA have an anatomically small airway the patency of which is maintained during wakefulness by reflex-driven augmented dilator muscle activation. At sleep onset, muscle activity falls, thereby compromising the upper airway. However, recent data suggest that the mechanism of OSA differs substantially among patients, with variable contributions from several physiologic characteristics including, among others: level of upper airway dilator muscle activation required to open the airway, increase in chemical drive required to recruit the pharyngeal muscles, chemical control loop gain, and arousal threshold. Thus, the cause of sleep apnea likely varies substantially between patients. Other physiologic mechanisms likely contributing to OSA pathogenesis include falling lung volume during sleep, shifts in blood volume from peripheral tissues to the neck, and airway edema. Apnea severity may progress over time, likely due to weight gain, muscle/nerve injury, aging effects on airway anatomy/collapsibility, and changes in ventilatory control stability. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  4. Alcohol and the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colrain, Ian M; Nicholas, Christian L; Baker, Fiona C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol acts as a sedative that interacts with several neurotransmitter systems important in the regulation of sleep. Acute administration of large amounts of alcohol prior to sleep leads to decreased sleep-onset latency and changes in sleep architecture early in the night, when blood alcohol levels are high, with subsequent disrupted, poor-quality sleep later in the night. Alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with chronic sleep disturbance, lower slow-wave sleep, and more rapid-eye-movement sleep than normal, that last long into periods of abstinence and may play a role in relapse. This chapter outlines the evidence for acute and chronic alcohol effects on sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalogram, evidence for tolerance with repeated administration, and possible underlying neurochemical mechanisms for alcohol's effects on sleep. Also discussed are sex differences as well as effects of alcohol on sleep homeostasis and circadian regulation. Evidence for the role of sleep disruption as a risk factor for developing alcohol dependence is discussed in the context of research conducted in adolescents. The utility of sleep-evoked potentials in the assessment of the effects of alcoholism on sleep and the brain and in abstinence-mediated recovery is also outlined. The chapter concludes with a series of questions that need to be answered to determine the role of sleep and sleep disturbance in the development and maintenance of problem drinking and the potential beneficial effects of the treatment of sleep disorders for maintenance of abstinence in alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea alters sleep stage transition dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt T Bianchi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced characterization of sleep architecture, compared with routine polysomnographic metrics such as stage percentages and sleep efficiency, may improve the predictive phenotyping of fragmented sleep. One approach involves using stage transition analysis to characterize sleep continuity.We analyzed hypnograms from Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS participants using the following stage designations: wake after sleep onset (WASO, non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, and REM sleep. We show that individual patient hypnograms contain insufficient number of bouts to adequately describe the transition kinetics, necessitating pooling of data. We compared a control group of individuals free of medications, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, medical co-morbidities, or sleepiness (n = 374 with mild (n = 496 or severe OSA (n = 338. WASO, REM sleep, and NREM sleep bout durations exhibited multi-exponential temporal dynamics. The presence of OSA accelerated the "decay" rate of NREM and REM sleep bouts, resulting in instability manifesting as shorter bouts and increased number of stage transitions. For WASO bouts, previously attributed to a power law process, a multi-exponential decay described the data well. Simulations demonstrated that a multi-exponential process can mimic a power law distribution.OSA alters sleep architecture dynamics by decreasing the temporal stability of NREM and REM sleep bouts. Multi-exponential fitting is superior to routine mono-exponential fitting, and may thus provide improved predictive metrics of sleep continuity. However, because a single night of sleep contains insufficient transitions to characterize these dynamics, extended monitoring of sleep, probably at home, would be necessary for individualized clinical application.

  6. Choice of biomaterials—Do soft occlusal splints influence jaw-muscle activity during sleep? A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Taro; Takeuchi, Tamiyo; Tomonaga, Akio; Yachida, Wataru; Ohata, Noboru; Svensson, Peter

    2012-12-01

    AimThe choice of biomaterials for occlusal splints may significantly influence biological outcome. In dentistry, hard acrylic occlusal splints (OS) have been shown to have a temporary and inhibitory effect on jaw-muscle activity, such as tooth clenching and grinding during sleep, i.e., sleep bruxism (SB). Traditionally, this inhibitory effect has been explained by changes in the intraoral condition rather than the specific effects of changes in occlusion. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of another type of occlusal surface, such as a soft-material OS in addition to a hard-type OS in terms of changes in jaw-muscle activity during sleep. Materials and methodsSeven healthy subjects (mean ± SD, six men and one woman: 28.9 ± 2.7 year old), participated in this study. A soft-material OS (ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer) was fabricated for each subject and the subjects used the OS for five continuous nights. The EMG activity during sleep was compared to baseline (no OS). Furthermore, the EMG activity during the use of a hard-type OS (Michigan-type OS, acrylic resin), and hard-type OS combined with contingent electrical stimulation (CES) was compared to baseline values. Each session was separated by at least two weeks (washout). Jaw-muscle activity during sleep was recorded with single-channel ambulatory devices (GrindCare, MedoTech, Herlev, Denmark) in all sessions for five nights. ResultsJaw-muscle activity during sleep was 46.6 ± 29.8 EMG events/hour at baseline and significantly decreased during the hard-type OS (17.4 ± 10.5, P = 0.007) and the hard-type OS + CES (10.8 ± 7.1, P = 0.002), but not soft-material OS (36.3 ± 24.5, P = 0.055). Interestingly, the soft-material OS (coefficient of variance = 98.6 ± 35.3%) was associated with greater night-to-night variations than baseline (39.0 ± 11.8%) and the hard-type OS + CES (53.3 ± 13.7%, P < 0.013). ConclusionThe present pilot study in small sample showed that a soft

  7. Sleep, noise and health: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Zaharna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a physiologic recuperative state that may be negatively affected by factors such as psychosocial and work stress as well as external stimuli like noise. Chronic sleep loss is a common problem in today′s society, and it may have significant health repercussions such as cognitive impairment, and depressed mood, and negative effects on cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune function. This article reviews the definition of disturbed sleep versus sleep deprivation as well as the effects of noise on sleep. We review the various health effects of chronic partial sleep loss with a focus on the neuroendocrine/hormonal, cardiovascular, and mental health repercussions.

  8. Perspective on Sleep and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Monjan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong body of data directly interrelating sleep problems with mood disorders. There is a growing data base directly associating sleep disorders with attention and memory problems. Motor disorders, especially involving the dopaminergic system, may produce sleep problems, including a possible association between disordered sleep and nocturnal falls. Sleep disorders may be causal conditions for metabolic diseases and increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Sleep and health are directly interrelated. To further probe these issues, especially as related to the aging process, investigators need to utilize tools and concepts from genomics and epigenetics, proteomics, metabolomics, any future ...omics, molecular neuroimaging, and cognitive neuroscience.

  9. Why does sleep stop migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigal, Marcelo E; Hargreaves, Richard J

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between sleep and migraine headaches is complex. Changes in sleep patterns can trigger migraine attacks, and sleep disorders may be associated with increased migraine frequency. Furthermore, migraine patients and their doctors very consistently report that sleep relieves already established migraine attacks. Herein we will try to answer the question, "Why does sleep stop migraine?" Since evidence for this relationship is largely based on empirical clinical observation, we will not provide a clinical review of the association. Instead, we will focus on the pathophysiology of migraine attacks and its intersections with sleep biology.

  10. The NTI-tss device for the therapy of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders, and headache – Where do we stand? A qualitative systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelmann, Henrike; Türp, Jens C

    2008-01-01

    Background The NTI-tss device is an anterior bite stop, which, according to the manufacturer, is indicated for the prevention and treatment of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), tension-type headaches, and migraine. The aim of this systematic review was to appraise the currently available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the NTI-tss splint. Methods We performed a systematic search in nine electronic databases and in NTI-tss-associated websites (last update: December 31, 2007). The reference lists of all relevant articles were perused. Five levels of scientific quality were distinguished. Reporting quality of articles about randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was evaluated using the Jadad score. To identify adverse events, we searched in the identified publications and in the MAUDE database. Results Nine of 68 relevant publications reported about the results of five different RCTs. Two RCTs concentrated on electromyographic (EMG) investigations in patients with TMDs and concomitant bruxism (Baad-Hansen et al 2007, Jadad score: 4) or with bruxism alone (Kavaklı 2006, Jadad score: 2); in both studies, compared to an occlusal stabilization splint the NTI-tss device showed significant reduction of EMG activity. Two RCTs focused exclusively on TMD patients; in one trial (Magnusson et al 2004, Jadad score: 3), a stabilization appliance led to greater improvement than an NTI-tss device, while in the other study (Jokstad et al 2005, Jadad score: 5) no difference was found. In one RCT (Shankland 2002, Jadad score: 1), patients with tension-type headache or migraine responded more favorably to the NTI-tss splint than to a bleaching tray. NTI-tss-induced complications related predominantly to single teeth or to the occlusion. Conclusion Evidence from RCTs suggests that the NTI-tss device may be successfully used for the management of bruxism and TMDs. However, to avoid potential unwanted effects, it should be chosen only if certain a patient will be

  11. The NTI-tss device for the therapy of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders, and headache – Where do we stand? A qualitative systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türp Jens C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NTI-tss device is an anterior bite stop, which, according to the manufacturer, is indicated for the prevention and treatment of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders (TMDs, tension-type headaches, and migraine. The aim of this systematic review was to appraise the currently available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the NTI-tss splint. Methods We performed a systematic search in nine electronic databases and in NTI-tss-associated websites (last update: December 31, 2007. The reference lists of all relevant articles were perused. Five levels of scientific quality were distinguished. Reporting quality of articles about randomized controlled trials (RCTs was evaluated using the Jadad score. To identify adverse events, we searched in the identified publications and in the MAUDE database. Results Nine of 68 relevant publications reported about the results of five different RCTs. Two RCTs concentrated on electromyographic (EMG investigations in patients with TMDs and concomitant bruxism (Baad-Hansen et al 2007, Jadad score: 4 or with bruxism alone (Kavaklı 2006, Jadad score: 2; in both studies, compared to an occlusal stabilization splint the NTI-tss device showed significant reduction of EMG activity. Two RCTs focused exclusively on TMD patients; in one trial (Magnusson et al 2004, Jadad score: 3, a stabilization appliance led to greater improvement than an NTI-tss device, while in the other study (Jokstad et al 2005, Jadad score: 5 no difference was found. In one RCT (Shankland 2002, Jadad score: 1, patients with tension-type headache or migraine responded more favorably to the NTI-tss splint than to a bleaching tray. NTI-tss-induced complications related predominantly to single teeth or to the occlusion. Conclusion Evidence from RCTs suggests that the NTI-tss device may be successfully used for the management of bruxism and TMDs. However, to avoid potential unwanted effects, it should be chosen only if certain a

  12. The NTI-tss device for the therapy of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders, and headache - where do we stand? A qualitative systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelmann, Henrike; Türp, Jens C

    2008-07-29

    The NTI-tss device is an anterior bite stop, which, according to the manufacturer, is indicated for the prevention and treatment of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), tension-type headaches, and migraine. The aim of this systematic review was to appraise the currently available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the NTI-tss splint. We performed a systematic search in nine electronic databases and in NTI-tss-associated websites (last update: December 31, 2007). The reference lists of all relevant articles were perused. Five levels of scientific quality were distinguished. Reporting quality of articles about randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was evaluated using the Jadad score. To identify adverse events, we searched in the identified publications and in the MAUDE database. Nine of 68 relevant publications reported about the results of five different RCTs. Two RCTs concentrated on electromyographic (EMG) investigations in patients with TMDs and concomitant bruxism (Baad-Hansen et al 2007, Jadad score: 4) or with bruxism alone (Kavakli 2006, Jadad score: 2); in both studies, compared to an occlusal stabilization splint the NTI-tss device showed significant reduction of EMG activity. Two RCTs focused exclusively on TMD patients; in one trial (Magnusson et al 2004, Jadad score: 3), a stabilization appliance led to greater improvement than an NTI-tss device, while in the other study (Jokstad et al 2005, Jadad score: 5) no difference was found. In one RCT (Shankland 2002, Jadad score: 1), patients with tension-type headache or migraine responded more favorably to the NTI-tss splint than to a bleaching tray. NTI-tss-induced complications related predominantly to single teeth or to the occlusion. Evidence from RCTs suggests that the NTI-tss device may be successfully used for the management of bruxism and TMDs. However, to avoid potential unwanted effects, it should be chosen only if certain a patient will be compliant with follow-up appointments. The

  13. Delayed Sleep and Sleep Loss in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Leon C.

    1986-01-01

    A sample of 211 first-year psychology students completed a questionnaire of sleep habits and difficulities. It was discovered that Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome may be a significant problem in university student populations. (Author/JD)

  14. Sleep in Elite Athletes and Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Halson, Shona L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, chang...

  15. Decrease in monocular sleep after sleep deprivation in the domestic chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, AS; Riedstra, B; Strijkstra, AM

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the trade-off between sleep need and alertness, by challenging chickens to modify their monocular sleep. We sleep deprived domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to increase their sleep need. We found that in response to sleep deprivation the fraction of monocular sleep within sleep

  16. Complex sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Juan Wang,1,* Yan Wang,1,* Jing Feng,1,2 Bao-yuan Chen,1 Jie Cao1 1Respiratory Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *The first two authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS is a distinct form of sleep-disordered breathing characterized as central sleep apnea (CSA, and presents in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients during initial treatment with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP device. The mechanisms of why CompSAS occurs are not well understood, though we have a high loop gain theory that may help to explain it. It is still controversial regarding the prevalence and the clinical significance of CompSAS. Patients with CompSAS have clinical features similar to OSA, but they do exhibit breathing patterns like CSA. In most CompSAS cases, CSA events during initial CPAP titration are transient and they may disappear after continued CPAP use for 4–8 weeks or even longer. However, the poor initial experience of CompSAS patients with CPAP may not be avoided, and nonadherence with continued therapy may often result. Treatment options like adaptive servo-ventilation are available now that may rapidly resolve the disorder and relieve the symptoms of this disease with the potential of increasing early adherence to therapy. But these approaches are associated with more expensive and complicated devices. In this review, the definition, potential plausible mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and treatment approaches of CompSAS will be summarized. Keywords: complex sleep apnea syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, apnea threshold, continuous positive airway pressure, adaptive servo-ventilation

  17. Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep Treatment Response in PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    conducted in PTSD samples, these sleep measurement methods do not allow the identification of neurobio - logical underpinnings of trauma-related...vided valuable insights into the potential neurobio - logical underpinnings of altered REM and NREM sleep mechanisms following stress exposure PTSD...nightmare patients often report improvements In sleep quality, feeling more rested upon awakening and having more davtime energy , and reduction in

  18. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in patients with sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Mazzetti, Michela; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Sleep can improve the off-line memory consolidation of new items of declarative and non-declarative information in healthy subjects, whereas acute sleep loss, as well as sleep restriction and fragmentation, impair consolidation. This suggests that, by modifying the amount and/or architecture of sleep, chronic sleep disorders may also lead to a lower gain in off-line consolidation, which in turn may be responsible for the varying levels of impaired performance at memory tasks usually observed in sleep-disordered patients. The experimental studies conducted to date have shown specific impairments of sleep-dependent consolidation overall for verbal and visual declarative information in patients with primary insomnia, for verbal declarative information in patients with obstructive sleep apnoeas, and for visual procedural skills in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that impaired consolidation is a consequence of the chronically altered organization of sleep. Moreover, they raise several novel questions as to: a) the reversibility of consolidation impairment in the case of effective treatment, b) the possible negative influence of altered prior sleep also on the encoding of new information, and c) the relationships between altered sleep and memory impairment in patients with other (medical, psychiatric or neurological) diseases associated with quantitative and/or qualitative changes of sleep architecture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep in High Stress Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2014-01-01

    High stress occupations are associated with sleep restriction, circadian misalignment and demanding workload. This presentation will provide an overview of sleep duration, circadian misalignment and fatigue countermeasures and performance outcomes during spaceflight and commercial aviation.

  20. Sleep Tips for Sjogren's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sjögren’s Patients.” Dr. Fisher reminds patients that adequate sleep is especially important for those with Sjögren’s syndrome, saying that sleep deprivation exacerbates daytime fatigue and can affect the ...