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Sample records for slc final focus

  1. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  2. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient supperconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  3. Mask locations in the SLC final focus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cence, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The location of four sets of masks needed to shield against background in the final focus region of the SLC is shown. The main point of this note is to update the results of Miller and Sens taking into account the recent changes that have been made in the optics of the SLC beams. For the latest beam design we use the TRANSPORT output dated 5-13-83. This design assumes that the final bends will form an S about the interaction point and that the final quadrupoles will be superconducting and will be placed about 8 feet from the interaction point

  4. Beam dynamics in the SLC final focus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.S.

    1987-06-01

    The SLC luminosity is reached by colliding beams focused to about 2 μm transverse sizes. The Final Focus System (FFS) must enable, beyond its basic optical design, the detection and correction of errors accumulated in the system. In this paper, after summarizing the design, we review the sensitivity to such errors and the ability to correct them. The overall tuning strategy involves three phases: single beam spot minimization, steering the beams in collision and luminosity optimization with beam-beam effects

  5. Beam based alignment of the SLC final focus sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.; Irwin, J.; Phinney, N.; Raimondi, P.; Toge, N.; Walker, N.J.; Ziemann, V.

    1993-05-01

    The strong demagnification inherent in final focus systems requires local cancellation of the resulting chromaticty. Strong sextupole pair separated by a -I transform are positioned π/2 in the betatron phase away from the Interaction Point (IP) in order to cancel chromatic aberrations primarily due to the final quadrupoles. Sextupole alignment is critical in order to provide orthogonal tuning of the chromaticty and, in the case of the SLC, to limit the third and higher order optical aberrations generated from misaligned and 'nested' horizontal and vertical sextupole pairs. Reported here is a novel technique for aligning the beam centroid to the sextupole centers, which uses measurements of the criticality dependent parameter - the beam size at the IP. Results for the SLC final focus sextupoles are presented, where a resolution of <50 μm is achieved

  6. The completed design of the SLC Final Focus System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.; Brown, K.L.; Fieguth, T.

    1987-02-01

    The design of the SLC Final Focus System has evolved from its initial conceptual design into its final form. This final design is described including a review of the critical decisions influencing the adoption of particular features. The creation of a feasible design has required that these decisions be tempered by practical considerations such as site constraints, correction of optical errors caused by imperfections, and accommodations requested by engineers and particle detector physicists. As this is the first such system to be built, it is hoped that the experience gained will be useful for the design of future systems

  7. Global tuning knobs for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, N.J.; Irwin, J.; Woodley, M.

    1993-04-01

    The beam phase space at the exit of a given transport line generally depends on the incoming beam conditions, and thus in order to adjust the beam parameters at the exit of the line requires a prior knowledge of the initial beam parameters. The same is generally true for final focus systems. A tuning algorithm for β matching the SLC final focus is reported here in which no prior knowledge of the exact incoming phase space is required. Only a single beam size diagnostic located at either the interaction point (IP) or an image of the IP is required, together with a knowledge of the linear lattice from the quadrupoles to the tuning point. The algorithm is presented within the Lie Algebra framework. Although the algorithm is presented here is specific to linear collider final focus systems, the technique is generally applicable to any beamline

  8. Measuring micron size beams in the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, D.; Ross, M.; DeBarger, S.

    1994-10-01

    A pair of high resolution wire scanners have been built and installed in the SLC final focus. The final focus optics uses a set of de-magnifying telescopes, and an ideal location for a beam size monitor is at one of the magnified image points of the interaction point. The image point chosen for these scanners is in the middle of a large bend magnet. The design beam spots here are about 2 microns in the vertical and 20 microns in the horizontal plane. The scanners presented a number of design challenges. In this paper we discuss the mechanical design of the scanner, and fabrication techniques of its ceramic wire support card which holds many 4 and 7 um carbon wires. Accurate motion of the wire during a scan is critical. In this paper we describe tests of stepper motors, gear combinations, and radiation hardened encoders needed to produce the required motion with a step resolution of 80 nanometers. Also presented here are the results of scattered radiation detector placement studies carried out to optimize the signal from the 4 micron wires. Finally, we present measurements from the scanner

  9. Systematic investigation of SLC final focus tolerances to errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoly, O.

    1996-10-01

    In this paper we review the tolerances of the SLC final focus system. To calculate these tolerances we used the error analysis routine of the program FFADA which has been written to aid the design and the analysis of final focus systems for the future linear colliders. This routine, complete by S. Fartoukh, systematically reviews the errors generated by the geometric 6-d Euclidean displacements of each magnet as well as by the field errors (normal and skew) up to the sextipolar order. It calculates their effects on the orbit and the transfer matrix at the second order in the errors, thus including cross-talk between errors originating from two different magnets. It also translates these effects in terms of tolerance derived from spot size growth and luminosity loss. We have run the routine for the following set of beam IP parameters: σ * x = 2.1 μm; σ * x' = 300 μrd; σ * x = 1 mm; σ * y = 0.55 μm; σ * y' = 200 μrd; σ * b = 2 x 10 -3 . The resulting errors and tolerances are displayed in a series of histograms which are reproduced in this paper. (author)

  10. Optical tuning of arcs and final focus section of the Standard Linear Collider (SLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.

    1989-03-01

    In this thesis, we present the experimental tuning procedures developed for the Arcs and for the Final Focus Section of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Such tuning is necessary to maximize the luminosity, by minimizing the beam size at the interaction point, and to reduce backgrounds in the experiment. In the final Focus Section, the correction strategy must result from the principles of the optical design, which is based on cancellations between second order aberrations, and on the ability to measure micron-size beams typical of the SLC. In the Arcs, the corrections were designed after the initial commissioning, to make the system more error-tolerant, through a modification in the optical design, and to enable adjustements of the beam phase-space at the injection to the Final Focus System, through a harmonic perturbation technique inspired from circular accelerators. Although the overall optimization of the SLC is not entirely finished, an almost optimal set-up has been achieved for the optics of the Arcs and of the Final Focus Section. Beams with transverse sizes close to the nominal ones, of a few microns, have been obtained at the interaction point. We present and discuss our results and the optical limits to the present performance [fr

  11. Operational experience with optical matching in the SLC Final Focus System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.; Burchat, P.; Burke, D.

    1989-01-01

    In the SLC Final Focus System, all components of transverse phase-space and the couplings between them must be controlled to minimize the beam size at the interaction point. After summarizing the experimental algorithm and the on-line tuning programs, we present a consistent set of measurements and describe our present understanding of the various contributions to this beam size. 17 refs., 9 figs

  12. Bunch-length and beam-timing monitors in the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Yocky, G.; Whittum, D.H.; Seidel, M.; Ng, C.K.; McCormick, D.; Bane, K.L.F.

    1998-07-01

    During the 1997/98 luminosity run of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), two novel RF-based detectors were brought into operation, in order to monitor the interaction-point (IP) bunch lengths and fluctuations in the relative arrival time of the two colliding beams. Both bunch length and timing can strongly affect the SLC luminosity and had not been monitored in previous years. The two new detectors utilize a broad-band microwave signal, which is excited by the beam through a ceramic gap in the final-focus beam pipe and transported outside of the beam line vault by a 160-ft long X-Band waveguide. The authors describe the estimated luminosity reduction due to bunch-length drift and IP timing fluctuation, the monitor layout, the expected responses and signal levels, calibration measurements, and beam observations

  13. Analysis of higher order optical aberrations in the SLC final focus using Lie Algebra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, N.J.; Irwin, J.; Woodley, M.

    1993-04-01

    The SLC final focus system is designed to have an overall demagnification of 30:1, with a β at the interaction point (β*) of 5 mm, and an energy band pass of ∼0.4%. Strong sextupole pairs are used to cancel the large chromaticity which accrues primarily from the final triplet. Third-order aberrations limit the performance of the system, the dominating terms being U 1266 and U 3466 terms (in the notation of K. Brown). Using Lie Algebra techniques, it is possible to analytically calculate the soave of these terms in addition to understanding their origin. Analytical calculations (using Lie Algebra packages developed in the Mathematica language) are presented of the bandwidth and minimum spot size as a function of divergence at the interaction point (IP). Comparisons of the analytical results from the Lie Algebra maps and results from particle tracking (TURTLE) are also presented

  14. SLC Final Performance and Lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, Nan

    2000-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) was the first prototype of a new type of accelerator, the electron-positron linear collider. Many years of dedicated effort were required to understand the physics of this new technology and to develop the techniques for maximizing performance. Key issues were emittance dilution, stability, final beam optimization and background control. Precision, non-invasive diagnostics were required to measure and monitor the beams throughout the machine. Beam-based feedback systems were needed to stabilize energy, trajectory, intensity and the final beam size at the interaction point. variety of new tuning techniques were developed to correct for residual optical or alignment errors. The final focus system underwent a series of refinements in order to deliver sub-micron size beams. It also took many iterations to understand the sources of backgrounds and develop the methods to control them. The benefit from this accumulated experience was seen in the performance of the SLC during its final run in 1997-98. The luminosity increased by a factor of three to 3*10 30 and the 350,000 Z data sample delivered was nearly double that from all previous runs combined

  15. The relation of electrode voltages to charge position in SLC arc and final focus beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, C.

    1989-01-01

    The position of a charged particle beam can be measured with a Beam Position Monitor (BPM) by converting the voltages induced on its array of electrodes into a position offset from the array's center. Most of the BPMs in the Arcs and Final Focus of the SLC use four stripline electrodes arranged symmetrically around the beam; normalized voltage differences are calculated as the difference divided by the sum of voltages on opposite electrode pairs. The resulting number is multiplied by a conversion factor, denoted in this paper as S b , to give the offset (in millimeters) of the charge from the center of the BPM. Prior to installation in the beam line, the BPMs were calibrated with a charge pulse on a rod. Owing to geometric effects which will be discussed later, a different conversion factor had to be used for calibration. It will be denoted here by S r . This paper gives the results of calculations and measurements of S r and S b for Arc and Final Focus BPMs. This paper also describes the relevant physical properties of the several types of BPMs and calculations of the expected scale factors, the measurement methods used, and gives the results of measurements, which are compared with the theoretical expectations. 2 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  17. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  18. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs

  19. The final focus test beam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, D.

    1991-05-01

    An overview is given of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) that is being constructed as a prototype final focus system for a future electron-positron linear collider. This beam line will use as input the 50 GeV electron beam from the SLC linac, and is designed to reduce the transverse dimensions of the beam spot at the focal point to 1 μm. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  1. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwin, J.

    1992-08-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We will outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We will discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread, bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, will be described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC will be given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC)

  2. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwing, J.

    1992-01-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread , bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, are described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC are given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). (Author) 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J

    2004-01-01

    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  4. Final Technical Report_Clean Energy Program_SLC-SELF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Glenn; Coward, Doug

    2014-01-22

    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Award No. DE-EE0003813, submitted by St. Lucie County, FL (prime recipient) and the Solar and Energy Loan Fund (SELF), the program's third-party administrator. SELF is a 501(c)(3) and a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). SELF is a community-based lending organization that operates the Clean Energy Loan Program, which focuses on improving the overall quality of life of underserved populations in Florida with an emphasis on home energy improvements and cost-effective renewable energy alternatives. SELF was launched in 2010 through the creation of the non-profit organization and with a $2.9 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block (EECBG) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SELF has its main office and headquarters in St. Lucie County, in the region known as the Treasure Coast in East-Central Florida. St. Lucie County received funding to create SELF as an independent non-profit institution, outside the control of local government. This was important for SELF to create its identity as an integral part of the business community and to help in its quest to become a Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). This goal was accomplished in 2013, allowing SELF to focus on its mission to increase energy savings while serving markets that have struggled to find affordable financial assistance. These homeowners are most impacted by high energy costs. Energy costs are a disproportionate percentage of household expenses for low to moderate income (LMI) households. Electricity costs have been steadily rising in Florida by nearly 5% per year. Housing in LMI neighborhoods often includes older inefficient structures that further exacerbate the problem. Despite the many available clean energy solutions, most LMI property owners do not have the disposable income or equity in their homes necessary to afford the high upfront cost

  5. Final focus system for TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal β function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  6. SLC-2000: A luminosity upgrade for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breidenbach, M.; Decker, F.-J.; Helm, R.; Napoly, O.; Phinney, N.; Raimondi, P.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Siemann, R.; Zimmermann, F.; Hertzbach, S.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss a possible upgrade to the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), whose objective is to increase the SLC luminosity by at least a factor 7, to an average Z production rate of more than 35,000 per week. The centerpiece of the upgrade is the installation of a new superconducting final doublet with a field gradient of 240 T/m, which will be placed at a distance of only 70 cm from the interaction point. In addition, several bending magnets in each final focus will be lengthened and two octupole correctors are added. A complementary upgrade of damping rings and bunch compressors will allow optimum use of the modified final focus and can deliver, or exceed, the targeted luminosity. The proposed upgrade will place the SLC physics program in a very competitive position, and will also enable it to pursue its pioneering role as the first and only linear collider. (author)

  7. Optical tuning in the arcs and final focus sections of the Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.S.

    1989-03-01

    In this thesis, we present the experimental tuning procedures developed for the Arcs and for the Final Focus Section of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Such tuning is necessary to maximize the luminosity, by minimizing the beam size at the interaction point, and to reduce backgrounds in the experiment. In the final Focus Section, the correction strategy must result from the principles of the optical design, which is based on cancellations between second order aberrations, and on the ability to measure micron-size beams typical of the SLC. In the Arcs, the corrections were designed after the initial commissioning, to make the system more error-tolerant, through a modification in the optical design, and to enable adjustments of the beam phase-space a the injection to the Final Focus System, through a harmonic perturbation technique inspired from circular accelerators. Although the overall optimization of the SLC is not entirely finished, an almost optimal set-up has been achieved for the optics of the Arcs and of the Final Focus Section. Beams with transverse sizes close to the nominal ones, of a few microns, have been obtained at the interaction point. We present and discuss our results and the optical limits to the present performance. 24 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Optical tuning in the arcs and final focus sections of the Stanford Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambade, P.S.

    1989-03-01

    In this thesis, we present the experimental tuning procedures developed for the Arcs and for the Final Focus Section of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Such tuning is necessary to maximize the luminosity, by minimizing the beam size at the interaction point, and to reduce backgrounds in the experiment. In the final Focus Section, the correction strategy must result from the principles of the optical design, which is based on cancellations between second order aberrations, and on the ability to measure micron-size beams typical of the SLC. In the Arcs, the corrections were designed after the initial commissioning, to make the system more error-tolerant, through a modification in the optical design, and to enable adjustments of the beam phase-space a the injection to the Final Focus System, through a harmonic perturbation technique inspired from circular accelerators. Although the overall optimization of the SLC is not entirely finished, an almost optimal set-up has been achieved for the optics of the Arcs and of the Final Focus Section. Beams with transverse sizes close to the nominal ones, of a few microns, have been obtained at the interaction point. We present and discuss our results and the optical limits to the present performance. 24 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Lessons learned from the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinney, N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    1998-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is the first example of an entirely new type of lepton collider. Many years of effort were required to develop the understanding and techniques needed to approach design luminosity. This paper discusses some of the key issues and problems encountered in producing a working linear collider. These include the polarized source, techniques for emittance preservation, extensive feedback systems, and refinements in beam optimization in the final focus. The SLC experience has been invaluable for testing concepts and developing designs for a future linear collider.

  10. Lessons learned from the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, N.

    1998-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is the first example of an entirely new type of lepton collider. Many years of effort were required to develop the understanding and techniques needed to approach design luminosity. This paper discusses some of the key issues and problems encountered in producing a working linear collider. These include the polarized source, techniques for emittance preservation, extensive feedback systems, and refinements in beam optimization in the final focus. The SLC experience has been invaluable for testing concepts and developing designs for a future linear collider

  11. Final focus test beam alignment: A draft proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.; Ruland, R.E.

    1989-03-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam is a transport line designed to transmit 50 GeV electron beams of SLC emittance (3 x 10 -10 radian-meters) straight through the central arm of the Beam Switchyard (BSY C line) with a final focus point out in the Research Yard but relatively near the end of the switchyard tunnel. The hardware, methods and procedures outlined in this proposal are dedicated to measuring the placement of mechanical objects with respect to certain defined geometric axes. We wish to emphasize that the very difficult problems of locating the effective magnetic axes of focusing elements, the effective electrical center of beam position monitors and even the effective axis of the incident beam relative to mechanical reference surfaces is outside the scope of this work. Further, this proposal is restricted to the act of measurement and does not consider the vital task of on-line mechanical repositioning of elements that will, in likelihood, be called upon during operation of the system. 16 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Status of the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    The status and research possibilities of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) are reviewed. The physics program concentrates on production of Z 0 's and their decay. The SLC systems include a new injector and booster, two damping rings to provide the small beam emittance, a new positron source, the existing LINAC structure upgraded for higher energy and better beam control, beam transport arcs, a final focus section, and experimental halls are detectors. Energy spectrometers with an accuracy of ± 50 MeV/c 2 for pulse-to-pulse center of mass energy measurement are to be installed. Longitudinal polarized electrons are expected, and will allow more precise tests of the standard model

  13. Adding PCs to SLC Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahey, T.; Levitt, S.; MacKenzie, R.; Spencer, N.; Underwood, K.

    1993-05-01

    The SLAC Controls Department has interfaced IBM-Compatible PCs to the SLC Control System, for use by the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) experimenters, who are building new accelerator equipment and developing and testing it at their home institutions. They will bring the equipment to SLAC and integrate it into the control system using a new software package. The machine physicists and operators will use the existing SLC control system applications and database device types to control and monitor the equipment. The PCs support a limited control environment: they run DOS and exchange messages with the existing control system via TCP/IP over ethernet, using the new SLC Area Message Service. This mechanism will also allow SLC to implement other commercial device controllers that can communicate over ethernet and run the same software interface code

  14. Final Focus Systems in Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, Tor

    1998-01-01

    In colliding beam facilities, the ''final focus system'' must demagnify the beams to attain the very small spot sizes required at the interaction points. The first final focus system with local chromatic correction was developed for the Stanford Linear Collider where very large demagnifications were desired. This same conceptual design has been adopted by all the future linear collider designs as well as the SuperConducting Supercollider, the Stanford and KEK B-Factories, and the proposed Muon Collider. In this paper, the over-all layout, physics constraints, and optimization techniques relevant to the design of final focus systems for high-energy electron-positron linear colliders are reviewed. Finally, advanced concepts to avoid some of the limitations of these systems are discussed

  15. The stabilisation of final focus system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The StaFF (stabilisation of final focus) system will use interferometers to monitor the relative ... quadrupole magnets will be the most demanding application, where mutual and beam- ... interferometers to measure lines of a geodetic network to record relative motion between two beam ... coupled interferometer design.

  16. Results of Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, Dieter R

    2003-06-13

    The beam experiments of Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) started in September 1993 at SLAC, and have produced a 1.7 {micro}m x 75 nm spot of 46 GeV electron beam. A number of new techniques involving two nanometer spot-size monitors have been developed. Several beam diagnostic/tuning schemes are applied to achieve and maintain the small spot. This experiment opens the way toward the nanometer world for future linear colliders.

  17. The SLC control system - status and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, N.; Shoaee, H.

    1987-03-01

    The SLC control system is installed and operational in the full SLC through the Linac, Damping Rings, Positron Source, Arcs and Final Focus. The system now includes a host VAX 11/785, a development VAX 11/780, 4 VAX workstations, a distributed network of 70 microprocessors, and about 270 Camac crates with more than 4000 modules. The micros are used for control and monitoring of the hardware, for pulse-to-pulse feedback, and for consoles (COWs). High level model-driven host software provides a variety of tools for beam setup, optimization, diagnosis, and stabilization. This paper will summarize the current status and projects under development

  18. Linear collider IR and final focus introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.; Burke, D.

    1991-09-01

    The Linear Collider subgroup of the Accelerator Physics working group concerned itself with all aspects of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) design from the end of the accelerating structure to and through the interaction region. Within this region are: (1) a collimation section, (2) muon protection (of the detector from the collimator), (3) final focus system, (4) interaction point physics, and (5) detector masking from synchrotron radiation and beam-beam pair production. These areas of study are indicated schematically in Fig. 1. The parameters for the Next Linear Collider are still in motion, but attention has settled on a handful of parameter sets. Energies under consideration vary from 0.5 to 1.5 TeV in the center of mass, and luminosities vary from 10 33 to 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . To be concrete we chose as a guide for our studies the parameter sets labeled F and G, Table 1 from Palmer. These cover large and small crossing angle cases and 0.4 m to 1.8 m of free length at the interaction point

  19. Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenenbaum, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research

  20. Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenenbaum, Peter Gregory [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research.

  1. Kicker thyratron experience from SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.R.; Cassel, R.L.; Mattison, T.S.; Reginato, L.L.

    1991-05-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has five fast kickers for the damping ring injectors, extractors, and the electron extractor for the positron target that use multi-gap Deuterium-filled thyratrons. The thyratrons operate with 30 to 70 kV anode voltages and 1 to 5 kA currents, to deliver pulses to kicker magnets with ∼ 30 ns rise times, up to ∼ 150 ns pulse widths, at 120 Hz. Operating and lifetime experience with several types of thyratrons and support electronics are discussed. Floating driver and power supply electronics were replaced by a ferrite choke isolator to allow grounding of the cathode support electronics with a commensurate increase in operating reliability. The construction of a 100 ns Blumlein enabled detailed measurements of the switching times for all SLC thyratrons under similar conditions. In the final focus area, the kickers dump the SLC beams after the e + e - collisions. These thyratrons function with 15 kV anode voltages and up to 2 kA currents to produce 1/2 sine pulses with ∼ 300 ns rise times, ∼ 550 ns FWHM, at 120 Hz. Operating experience with these thyratrons will also be presented. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  2. General method for final focus system design for circular colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo de Maria

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Colliders use final focus systems to reduce the transverse beam sizes at the interaction point in order to increase collision event rates. The maximum focal strength (gradient of the quadrupoles, and the maximum beam size in them, together limit the beam size reduction that is possible. The goal of a final focus system design is to find the best compromise between quadrupole aperture and quadrupole gradient, for the magnet technology that is used. This paper develops a design method that identifies the intrinsic limitations of a final focus system, validates the results of the method against realistic designs, and reports its application to the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider final focus.

  3. Recent luminosity improvements at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondi, P.; Usher, T.; Akre, R.

    1998-07-01

    The luminosity of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) has been increased by more than a factor of three during the 1997--98 run. Improved alignment and emittance tuning techniques throughout the accelerator resulted in minimal emittance growth from the damping rings to the final focus. In particular, a revised strategy for wakefield cancellation using precision beam size measurements at the entrance of the final focus proved effective for optimizing emittance. The final focus lattice was modified to provide stronger demagnification near the interaction point and to remove residual higher-order aberrations. Beam sizes as small as 1.5 by 0.65 microns were achieved at full beam intensity of 4 10 10 particles per pulse. With these parameters, the mutual focusing of the beams in collision becomes significant, resulting in a further increase in the luminosity. Recorded SLD event rates confirmed the theoretical calculations of the disruption enhancement which was typically 50 to 100%

  4. A final focus system for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Brown, K.; Emma, P.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Tenenbaum, P.; Wilson, P.

    1995-06-01

    The final focus of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) demagnifies electron and positron beams of 250--750 GeV energy down to a transverse size of about 2.5 x 350 nm 2 at the interaction point (IP). The basic layout, momentum bandwidth, vibration tolerances, wakefield effects, and the tunability of the proposed final focus design are discussed. Also a perspective is given on the crab cavity and on effects of the solenoid field in the interaction region

  5. A Novel Final Focus Design for Future Linear Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryi, Andrei

    2000-05-30

    The length, complexity and cost of the present Final Focus designs for linear colliders grows very quickly with the beam energy. In this letter, a novel final focus system is presented and compared with the one proposed for NLC. This new design is simpler, shorter and cheaper, with comparable bandwidth, tolerances and tunability. Moreover, the length scales slower than linearly with energy allowing for a more flexible design which is applicable over a much larger energy range.

  6. Review of SLC performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, N.

    1992-08-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) has begun a new era of operation with the SLD detector. During 1991 there was a first engineering run for the SLD in parallel with machine improvements to increase luminosity and reliability. For the 1992 run, a polarized electron source was added and more than 10,000 Zs with an average of 23% polarization have been logged by the SLD. This paper will discuss the performance of the SLC in 1991 and 1992 and the technical advances that have produced higher luminosity. Emphasis will be placed on issues relevant to future linear colliders such as producing and maintaining high-current, low-emittance beams and focusing the beams to the micron scale for collisions

  7. FOCUS: a fire management planning system -- final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Bratten; James B. Davis; George T. Flatman; Jerold W. Keith; Stanley R. Rapp; Theodore G. Storey

    1981-01-01

    FOCUS (Fire Operational Characteristics Using Simulation) is a computer simulation model for evaluating alternative fire management plans. This final report provides a broad overview of the FOCUS system, describes two major modules-fire suppression and cost, explains the role in the system of gaming large fires, and outlines the support programs and ways of...

  8. Recent SLC developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1993-04-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is the forerunner of a new generation of high energy accelerators. As such, it incorporates many novel features that must be fully exploited to achieve optimum performance. In this paper we present an overview of the frontiers of collider performance at SLC. Recent developments have centered on polarization, intensity and emittance preservation issues. A polarized source and spin transport system were successfully commissioned in 1992 and operated with high reliability. Practical intensity limits associated with rapid growth ( S ) bunch length instabilities have been observed in the damping rings. Ring RF voltage manipulations are used to suppress the instabilities. Emittance preservation technique development has focused on controlling system-wide instabilities and improving feedback and tuning procedures. Control of instabilities of all time scales, pulse to pulse, fast and slow, is one of the most challenging aspects of the collider. The challenge is met with (1) very high level of control and automation required for general tuning and optimization, (2) real-time transport line optical correction and monitoring, (3) coupled, high level, trajectory and energy feedback, (4) high order multipole optical correction and monitoring, (5) feedback-based linac beam emittance preservation, and (6) interaction region luminosity optimization. The common thread beneath all of these is the SLC control system which must provide a level of control, diagnosis and feedback not required for simpler machines

  9. SLC energy spectrum monitor using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.; Brunk, W.; Early, R.; Ross, M.; Tillmann, E.; Walz, D.

    1986-01-01

    The SLAC linac is being upgraded for the use in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The improved linac must accelerate electron and positron bunches from 1.2 GeV to 50 GeV while producing output energy spectra of about 0.2%. The energy spectra must be maintained during operation to provide for good beam transmission and to minimize chromatic effects in the SLC ARCs and Final Focus. The energy spectra of these beams are determined by the bunch length and intensity, the RF phase and waveform and the intra-bunch longitudinal wakefields. A non-destructive energy spectrum monitor has been designed using a vertical wiggler magnet located downstream of the horizontal beam splitter at the end of the SLC linac. It produces synchrotron radiation which is viewed in an off-axis x-ray position sensitive detector. The expected resolution is 0.08 %. The design considerations of this monitor are presented. A pair of these monitors is under construction with an installation data set for late summer 1986

  10. SLC energy spectrum monitor using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.; Brunk, W.; Early, R.; Ross, M.; Tillmann, E.; Walz, D.

    1986-04-01

    The SLAC Linac is being upgraded for the use in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The improved Linac must accelerate electron and positron bunches from 1.2 GeV to 50 GeV while producing output energy spectra of about 0.2%. The energy spectra must be maintained during operation to provide for good beam transmission and to minimize chromatic effects in the SLC ARCs and Final Focus. the energy spectra of these beams are determined by the bunch length and intensity, the RF phase and waveform and the intra-bunch longitudinal wakefields. A non-destructive energy spectrum monitor has been designed using a vertical wiggler magnet located downstream of the horizontal beam splitter at the end of the SLC Linac. It produces synchrotron radiation which is viewed in an off-axis x-ray position sensitive detector. The expected resolution is 0.08%. The design considerations of this monitor are presented in this paper. A pair of these monitors is under construction with an installation date set for late summer 1986. 5 refs., 6 figs

  11. A RECIPE FOR LINEAR COLLIDER FINAL FOCUS SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The design of Final Focus systems for linear colliders is challenging because of the large demagnifications needed to produce nanometer-sized beams at the interaction point. Simple first- and second-order matrix matching have proven insufficient for this task, and minimization of third- and higher-order aberrations is essential. An appropriate strategy is required for the latter to be successful. A recipe for Final Focus design, and a set of computational tools used to implement this approach, are described herein. An example of the use of this procedure is given

  12. Superstrong Adjustable Permanent Magnet for a Linear Collider Final Focus

    CERN Document Server

    Iwashita, Y

    2004-01-01

    Super-strong permanent magnets are being considered as one of the candidates for the final focus quadrupole magnets in a linear collider. A short prototype with temperature compensation included and variable strength capability has been designed and fabricated. Fabrication details and some magnetic measurement results will be presented.

  13. Review of tolerances at the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Roy, G.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-01-01

    The authors review the tolerances associated with the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). The authors have computed the acceptability window of the input beam for orbit jitter, emittance beta functions mismatch, incoming dispersion and coupling; tolerances on magnet alignment, strength and multipole content; and the initial tuneability capture of the line

  14. Review of tolerances at the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Roy, G.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-05-01

    We review the tolerances associated with the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). We have computed the acceptability window of the input beam for orbit jitter, emittance beta functions mismatch, incoming dispersion and coupling; tolerances on magnet alignment, strength and multipole content; and the initial tuneability capture of the line. 2 refs., 1 fig

  15. The optics of the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.; Brown, K.; Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Roy, G.; Ruth, R.; Yamamoto, N.; Oide, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB), currently under construction at the end of the SLAC Linac, is being built by an international collaboration as a test bed for ideas and methods required in the design and construction of final focus systems for next generation e + e - linear colliders. The FFTB lattice is based on the previously developed principle of using sextupole pairs in a dispersive region to compensate chromaticity. The linear lattice was optimized for length, and implementation of diagnostic procedures. The transformations between sextupole pairs (CCX and CCY) are exactly -I, the matrix for the intermediate transformer (BX) is exactly diagonal, and the dispersion function has zero slope at the sextupoles and is thus zero at the minimum of the β x function in the intermediate transformer. The introduction of sextupoles in final focus systems leads to the presence of additional optical aberrations, and synchrotron radiation in the dipoles also enlarges the final spot size. The important fourth-order optical aberrations which determine the main features of the design have been identified. Additional lower order aberrations arise in the implementation of these designs, since the real system is not the ideal design. We concentrate on these aberrations and describe strategies for their diagnosis and correction

  16. Development of nanometer resolution C-Band radio frequency beam position monitors in the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaton, T.; Mazaheri, G.

    1998-08-01

    Using a 47 GeV electron beam, the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) produces vertical spot sizes around 70 nm. These small beam sizes introduce an excellent opportunity to develop and test high resolution Radio Frequency Beam Position Monitors (RF-BPMs). These BPMs are designed to measure pulse to pulse beam motion (jitter) at a theoretical resolution of approximately 1 nm. The beam induces a TM 110 mode with an amplitude linearly proportional to its charge and displacement from the BPM's (cylindrical cavity) axis. The C-band (5,712 MHz) TM 110 signal is processed and converted into beam position for use by the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system. Presented are the experimental procedures, acquisition, and analysis of data demonstrating resolution of jitter near 25 nm. With the design of future e + e - linear colliders requiring spot sizes close to 3 nm, understanding and developing RF-BPMs will be essential in resolving and controlling jitter

  17. Accelerator physics highlights in the 1997/98 SLC run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, R.W.; Bane, K.L.F.; Barkow, T.

    1998-03-01

    The authors report various accelerator physics studies and improvements from the 1997/98 run at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). In particular, the authors discuss damping-ring lattice diagnostics, changes to the linac set up, fast control for linac rf phase stability, new emittance tuning strategies, wakefield reduction, modifications of the final-focus optics, longitudinal bunch shaping, and a novel spot-size control at the interaction point (IP)

  18. Probing LINEAR Collider Final Focus Systems in SuperKEKB

    CERN Document Server

    Thrane, Paul Conrad Vaagen

    2017-01-01

    A challenge for future linear collider final focus systems is the large chromaticity produced by the final quadrupoles. SuperKEKB will be correcting high levels of chromaticity using the traditional scheme which has been also proposed for the CLIC FFS. We present early simulation results indicating that lowering β*у in the SuperKEKB Low Energy Ring might be possible given on-axis injection and low bunch current, opening the possibility of testing chromaticity correction beyond FFTB level, similar to ILC and approaching that of CLIC. CLIC – Note – 1077

  19. The optics of the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.; Brown, K.; Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Roy, G.; Ruth, R.; Yamamoto, N.; Oide, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB), currently under construction at the end of the SLAC Linac, is being built by an international collaboration as a test bed for ideas and methods required in the design and construction of final focus systems for next generation e + e - linear colliders. The FFTB lattice shown is based on the previously developed principle of using sextupole pairs in a dispersive region to compensate chromaticity. The linear lattice was optimized for length, and implementation of diagnostic procedures. The transformations between sextupole pairs (CCX and CCY) are exactly -I, the matrix for the intermediate transformer (BX) is exactly diagonal, and the dispersion function has zero slope at the sextupoles and is thus zero at the minimum of the β x function in the intermediate transformer

  20. A conceptual design of Final Focus Systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.

    1987-06-01

    Linear colliders are a relatively recent development in the evolution of particle accelerators. This report discusses some of the approaches that have been considered for the design of Final Focus Systems to demagnify the beam exiting from a linac to the small size suitable for collisions at the interaction point. The system receiving the most attention is the one adopted for the SLAC Linear Collider. However, the theory and optical techniques discussed should be applicable to the design efforts for future machines

  1. Plasma lenses for SLAC Final Focus Test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, D.; Cline, D.; Joshi, C.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rosenzweig, J.; Su, J.J.; Williams, R.; Chen, P.; Gundersen, M.; Katsouleas, T.; Norem, J.

    1991-01-01

    A collaborative group of accelerator and plasma physicists and engineers has formed with an interest in exploring the use of plasma lenses to meet the needs of future colliders. Analytic and computational models of plasma lenses are briefly reviewed and several design examples for the SLAC Final Focus Test Beam are presented. The examples include discrete, thick, and adiabatic lenses. A potential plasma source with desirable lens characteristics is presented

  2. Drift Compression and Final Focus Options for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Qin; Davidson, Ronald C.; Barnard, John J.; Lee, Edward P.

    2005-01-01

    A drift compression and final focus lattice for heavy ion beams should focus the entire beam pulse onto the same focal spot on the target. We show that this requirement implies that the drift compression design needs to satisfy a self-similar symmetry condition. For un-neutralized beams, the Lie symmetry group analysis is applied to the warm-fluid model to systematically derive the self-similar drift compression solutions. For neutralized beams, the 1-D Vlasov equation is solved explicitly, and families of self-similar drift compression solutions are constructed. To compensate for the deviation from the self-similar symmetry condition due to the transverse emittance, four time-dependent magnets are introduced in the upstream of the drift compression such that the entire beam pulse can be focused onto the same focal spot

  3. The Final Focus Test Beam laser referene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressler, V.E.; Ruland, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    The original design for the SLAC linac included an alignment reference system with 270 diffraction gratings situated along the 3000 meter linac. These gratings have provided SLAC with a global reference line repeatable to within 200 micro meters. For the Final Focus Test Beam, this laser system has been extended and 13 new diffraction gratings have been installed. Improvements targets and the availability of new instruments allows us to evaluate the performance of the laser reference system at the 510 micro meter level. An explanation of the system and the results of our evaluation are presented

  4. A Dynamic Alignment System for the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.; Bressler, V.E.; Fischer, G.; Plouffe, D.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) was conceived as a technological stepping stone on the way to the next linear collider. Nowhere is this more evident than with the alignment subsystems. Alignment tolerances for components prior to beam turn are almost an order of magnitude smaller than for previous projects at SLAC. Position monitoring systems which operate independent of the beam are employed to monitor motions of the components locally and globally with unprecedented precision. An overview of the FFTB alignment system is presented herein

  5. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krämer, J.M., E-mail: jmkr@danfysik.dk [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Budde, M.; Bødker, F. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Irman, A.; Jochmann, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kristensen, J.P. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Lehnert, U.; Michel, P. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-09-11

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and divergences of about 10 mrad using the FFS.

  6. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; .Jochmann A.; Kristensen, J.P.; Lehnert U., HZDR; Michel, P.; Schrammb, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  7. Electron Beam Final Focus System For Thomson Scattering At Elbe

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødkera, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensena, J.P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  8. A superconducting magnet upgrade of the ATF2 final focus

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, B; Escallier, J; He, P; Jain, P; Marone, A; Wanderer, P; Wu, KC; Hauviller, C; Marin, E; Tomas, R; Zimmermann, F; Bolzon, B; Jeremie, A; Kimura, N; Kubo, K; Kume, T; Kuroda, S; Okugi, T; Tauchi, T; Terunuma, N; Tomaru, T; Tsuchiya, K; Urakawa, J; Yamamoto, A; Bambade, P; Coe, P; Urner, D; Seryi, A; Spencer, C; White, G

    2010-01-01

    The ATF2 facility at KEK is a proving ground for linear collider technology with a well instrumented extracted beam line and Final Focus (FF). The primary ATF2 goal is to demonstrate the extreme beam demagnification and spot stability needed for a linear collider FF [1]. But the ATF2 FF uses water cooled magnets and the ILC baseline has a superconducting (SC) FF [2]. We plan to upgrade ATF2 and replace some of the warm FF magnets with SC FF magnets. The ATF2 SC magnets, like the ILC FF, will made via direct wind construction [3]. ATF2 coil winding is in progress at BNL and warm magnetic measurements indicate we have achieved good field quality. Studies indicate that having ATF2 FF magnets with larger aperture and better field quality should allow reducing the ATF2 FF beta function for study of focusing regimes relevant to CLIC [4]. The ATF2 magnet cryostat will have laser view ports for directly monitoring cold mass movement. We plan to make stability measurements at BNL and KEK to relate ATF2 FF magnet perfo...

  9. Deletion of Slc26a1 and Slc26a7 Delays Enamel Mineralization in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaifeng Yin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenesis features two major developmental stages—secretory and maturation. During maturation stage, hydroxyapatite deposition and matrix turnover require delicate pH regulatory mechanisms mediated by multiple ion transporters. Several members of the Slc26 gene family (Slc26a1, Slc26a3, Slc26a4, Slc26a6, and Slc26a7, which exhibit bicarbonate transport activities, have been suggested by previous studies to be involved in maturation-stage amelogenesis, especially the key process of pH regulation. However, details regarding the functional role of these genes in enamel formation are yet to be clarified, as none of the separate mutant animal lines demonstrates any discernible enamel defects. Continuing with our previous investigation of Slc26a1−/− and Slc26a7−/− animal models, we generated a double-mutant animal line with the absence of both Slc26a1 and Slc26a7. We showed in the present study that the double-mutant enamel density was significantly lower in the regions that represent late maturation-, maturation- and secretory-stage enamel development in wild-type mandibular incisors. However, the “maturation” and “secretory” enamel microstructures in double-mutant animals resembled those observed in wild-type secretory and/or pre-secretory stages. Elemental composition analysis revealed a lack of mineral deposition and an accumulation of carbon and chloride in double-mutant enamel. Deletion of Slc26a1 and Slc26a7 did not affect the stage-specific morphology of the enamel organ. Finally, compensatory expression of pH regulator genes and ion transporters was detected in maturation-stage enamel organs of double-mutant animals when compared to wild-type. Combined with the findings from our previous study, these data indicate the involvement of SLC26A1and SLC26A7 as key ion transporters in the pH regulatory network during enamel maturation.

  10. Final focus system tuning studies towards Compact Linear Collider feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, E.; Latina, A.; Tomás, R.; Schulte, D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present the latest results regarding the tuning study of the baseline design of the final focus system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC-FFS). CLIC aims to provide collisions to the experiments at a luminosity above 1034 c m-2 s-1 . In order to deliver such luminosity in a single pass machine, the vertical beam size at the interaction point (IP) is reduced to about 1 nm, which imposes unprecedented tuning difficulties to the system. In previous studies, 90% of the machines reached 90% of the nominal luminosity at the expense of 18 000 luminosity measurements, when considering beam position monitor errors and transverse misalignments of magnets for a single beam case. In the present study, additional static imperfections as, roll misalignments, strength v2.epss are included. Moreover both e- and e+ beamlines are properly simulated. A new tuning procedure based on linear and nonlinear knobs is implemented to effectively cure the most relevant beam size aberrations at the IP. The obtained results for single and double beam studies under solely static imperfections are presented.

  11. Limitations of interaction-point spot-size tuning at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.; Hendrickson, L.J.; Zimmermann, F.; Raimondi, P.

    1997-05-01

    At the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), the interaction-point spot size is minimized by repeatedly correcting, for both beams, various low-order optical aberrations, such as dispersion, waist position or coupling. These corrections are performed about every 8 hours, by minimizing the IP spot size while exciting different orthogonal combinations of final-focus magnets. The spot size itself is determined by measuring the beam deflection angle as a function of the beam-beam separation. Additional information is derived from the energy loss due to beamstrahlung and from luminosity-related signals. In the 1996 SLC run, the typical corrections were so large as to imply a 20-40% average luminosity loss due to residual uncompensated or fluctuating tunable aberrations. In this paper, the authors explore the origin of these large tuning corrections and study possible mitigations for the next SLC run

  12. Status of the SLC: Developments in Linear Collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejcik, P.

    1994-11-01

    This paper reviews the performance of the SLAC Linear Collider, both from the perspective of a machine delivering high luminosity polarized beams for physics, and as a test for future linear colliders. The development of the SLC taken place over a number of years and the steady improvements have been documented in previous review papers. As a review paper, the list references also serves as a bibliography, pointing to the work of the many people contributing to the upgrades and commissioning of the various SLC systems. The major upgrades for this present run have been an improved final focus optics, new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings and improved polarization from the electron source. The performance of the SLC is driven to some extent by its unique 3-beam operation in which the linac accelerates both the electron and positron bunches for collision, as well as the electron bunch to produce the positrons. The special attention required to maintain stable operation in the face of the interactions caused by beam loading from the bunches will (fortunately exclamation point) not be an issue in future linear colliders. They will deal instead with the problems associated with handling long bunch trains

  13. Development of nanometer resolution C-Band radio frequency beam position monitors in the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaton, T.; Mazaheri, G. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Shintake, T. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Using a 47 GeV electron beam, the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) produces vertical spot sizes around 70 nm. These small beam sizes introduce an excellent opportunity to develop and test high resolution Radio Frequency Beam Position Monitors (RF-BPMs). These BPMs are designed to measure pulse to pulse beam motion (jitter) at a theoretical resolution of approximately 1 nm. The beam induces a TM{sub 110} mode with an amplitude linearly proportional to its charge and displacement from the BPM's (cylindrical cavity) axis. The C-band (5,712 MHz) TM{sub 110} signal is processed and converted into beam position for use by the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system. Presented are the experimental procedures, acquisition, and analysis of data demonstrating resolution of jitter near 25 nm. With the design of future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders requiring spot sizes close to 3 nm, understanding and developing RF-BPMs will be essential in resolving and controlling jitter.

  14. Some experiences from the commissioning program of the SLC arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.; Brown, K.L.; Bulos, F.; Fieguth, T.; Hutton, A.; Murray, J.J.; Toge, N.; Weng, W.T.; Wiedemann, H.

    1987-01-01

    The SLC Arc System is designed to transport beams of electrons and positrons from the end of the SLAC Linac to the beginning of the Final Focus System where they are made to collide head on. To minimize phase space dilution caused by quantum processes in the synchrotron radiation energy loss mechanism, the bending radii are large (279 m) and very high gradient (n = 32824) AG cells are arranged in trains of low dispersion, terrain following achromats. First experiences in operating a system of over 900 magnets, each with beam position monitors and corrector magnet movers, spanning 9000 feet, are described

  15. Association of SLC11A1 gene polymorphism with caprine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-01-16

    Jan 16, 2017 ... RESEARCH ARTICLE. Evaluation of the ..... Nramp2 (Slc11a2) expressed at the plasma membrane. Blood, 102 ... Received 21 November 2016, in final revised form 11 January 2017; accepted 12 January 2017. Unedited ...

  16. Final 6D Muon Ionization Colling using Strong Focusing Quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    Abstract Low emittance muon beam lines and muon colliders are potentially a rich source of BSM physics for future exper- imenters. A muon beam normalized emittance of ax,y,z = (280, 280, 1570)µm has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to achieve a normalized transverse emittance of 100 µm and complete 6D cooling. The low beta regions, as low as 5 mm, produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam transversely. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the transverse betatron function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 µm at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Cooling challenges include chromaticity correction, ssband overlap, quadrupole acceptance, and staying in phase with RF.

  17. SLC kicker magnet limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Mattison, T.; Bowden, G.; Weaver, J.; Bulos, F.; Fiander, D.

    1991-01-01

    The SLC Damping Ring kicker magnets requires a fast magnetic field rise time of 58 nsec, a peak field of 800 gauss, a pulse amplitude stability of 0.01%, and a reasonable operational lifetime. The original kicker magnets designed by SLAC and at Fermi were not able to fulfill the SLC kicker requirements. Extensive studies were conducted to determine the limitation in the magnets, response of the ferrite in kicker magnet, and the modifications needed to improve the kicker magnet performance. The paper details the SLAC and Fermi kicker magnets limitation of performance

  18. Focus group testing for the vehicle scrappage program : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Canada's national vehicle scrappage program was designed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-forming emissions by removing personal vehicles with model years of 1995 and older from Canadian road systems. The program will also promote sustainable transportation alternatives and recycling programs to prevent the release of other toxic substances into the environment. Incentives designed to encourage Canadians to scrap older vehicles may include cash incentives and rebates towards the purchase of a new vehicle, free transit passes, and other options designed to support sustainable transportation. This paper discussed a research program conducted to assess target audience responses to the programs and its proposed incentives. The survey was conducted with a series of 20 focus groups located in major cities across Canada. Sessions were comprised of between 6 to 10 participants from lower-income and higher-income households. All groups responded negatively to both the overall policy as well as to specific program elements. The study showed that most participants were not aware that older vehicles emit significantly higher levels of harmful emissions. The research audience did not understand distinctions between smog-producing emissions and GHG emissions. Participants also believed that personal vehicles had a minor negative impact on the environment compared to trucks, industry, and vehicle fleets. Participants felt a sense of pride in the ways in which they had maintained their older vehicles, and also perceived them as safer than newer vehicles. It was concluded that many participants were resistant to facts presented to them about older vehicles, and felt that the incentives were insufficient to trigger action. The effectiveness of advertising materials designed to promote the program was also assessed. 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. SLC ir conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    Work on a one interaction-region, push-pull conceptual design for the SLC is described. The concept which has received the most attention is described. It is a below-ground hall - a 15 m deep rectangular pit covered by a surface building which houses counting rooms, power supplies, cryogenics and other auxiliary equipment

  20. Online monitoring of dispersion functions and transfer matrices at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.; Fieguth, T.H.; Lohse, T.; Burchat, P.R.; Panvini, R.S.

    1989-03-01

    The symmetries of the chromatic correction sections in the SLC Final Focus System allow a high-resolution determination of the pulse-to-pulse energy fluctuations by exploiting the information from beam position monitors (BPMs) in regions of large dispersion. By correlating this signal with other BPMs, one can infer the dispersion function as well as spatial components of transfer matrices anywhere in the arcs and the Final Focus System without interrupting normal machine operation. We present results from data recorded during either periods of stable operation or periods when the linac energy was intentionally varied. 6 refs., 7 figs

  1. Lessons from the SLC for future LC control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, R.

    1991-12-01

    The SLC control system is the dynamic result of a number of forces. The most obvious force is the functional requirements of the SLC itself, but other forces are history, budget, people, available technology, etc. The plan of this paper is to describe the critical functional requirements of the SLC which caused significant development of the control system. I have tried to focus on functional requirements as a driver, and I will describe some solutions which we have implemented to satisfy those requirements. The important functional requirements drivers for the control system discussed in this paper are: Repetition rate; Sensitivity to orbit distortion; Stability/Automation; and Accelerator Development

  2. Lessons from the SLC for future LC control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, R.

    1992-01-01

    The SLC control system is the dynamic result of a number of forces. The most obvious force is the functional requirements of the SLC itself, but other forces are history, budget, people, available technology, etc. The plan of this paper is to describe the critical functional requirements of the SLC which caused significant development of the control system. I have tried to focus on functional requirements as a driver, and I will describe some solutions which we have implemented to satisfy those requirements. The important functional requirements drivers for the control system discussed in this paper are: (1) Repetition rate, (2) Sensitivity to orbit distortion, (3) Stability/Automation, (4) Accelerator Development. (author)

  3. Wakefield effects in the SLC beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoly, O.

    1996-06-01

    Wakefield effects occurring in the SLC after the LI28 emittance measurement station could be responsible for part of all of the observed discrepancy between the expected vertical spot sizes at the IP and the measured ones. The strongest wakefields are generated by the parts of the beam chamber which are the closest to the beam, like collimators. In this note we review the effect of the following wakefield sources: geometric wakefields from final focus fixed and movable collimators, geometric and resistive wakefields from linac collimators jaws, resistive wakefields from the beam pipe at the sextupole and final transformer locations. We mostly concentrate on the transverse dipole and quadrupole wakefield effects, although the longitudinal wakefields are briefly studied at the end. We limit ourselves to the vertical beam dynamics and to the lowest (mainly linear) order of the wakefield expansion with respect to the beam offset, which excludes the near wall effect on the beam. (author)

  4. Reduced Slc6a15 in Nucleus Accumbens D2-Neurons Underlies Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Francis, T Chase; Nam, Hyungwoo; Riggs, Lace M; Engeln, Michel; Rudzinskas, Sarah; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Russo, Scott J; Turecki, Gustavo; Iniguez, Sergio D; Lobo, Mary Kay

    2017-07-05

    Previous research demonstrates that Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, is associated with depression susceptibility. However, no study examined Slc6a15 in the ventral striatum [nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in depression. Given our previous characterization of Slc6a15 as a striatal dopamine receptor 2 (D2)-neuron-enriched gene, we examined the role of Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons in mediating susceptibility to stress in male mice. First, we showed that Slc6a15 mRNA was reduced in NAc of mice susceptible to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a paradigm that produces behavioral and molecular adaptations that resemble clinical depression. Consistent with our preclinical data, we observed Slc6a15 mRNA reduction in NAc of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). The Slc6a15 reduction in NAc occurred selectively in D2-neurons. Next, we used Cre-inducible viruses combined with D2-Cre mice to reduce or overexpress Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons. Slc6a15 reduction in D2-neurons caused enhanced susceptibility to a subthreshold social defeat stress (SSDS) as observed by reduced social interaction, while a reduction in social interaction following CSDS was not observed when Slc6a15 expression in D2-neurons was restored. Finally, since both D2-medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and D2-expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) interneurons express Slc6a15, we examined Slc6a15 protein in these interneurons after CSDS. Slc6a15 protein was unaltered in ChAT interneurons. Consistent with this, reducing Slc5a15 selectively in NAc D2-MSNs, using A2A-Cre mice that express Cre selectively in D2-MSNs, caused enhanced susceptibility to SSDS. Collectively, our data demonstrate that reduced Slc6a15 in NAc occurs in MDD individuals and that Slc6a15 reduction in NAc D2-neurons underlies stress susceptibility. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our study demonstrates a role for reduced Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in depression and stress susceptibility. The

  5. Beam-based alignment and tuning procedures for e+e- collider final focus systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Odian, A.; Roy, G.; Ruth, R.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-05-01

    For future linear colliders, with very small emittances and beam sizes and demanding tolerances on final focus system alignment and magnet errors, it becomes increasingly important to use the beam as a diagnostic tool. We report here procedures we have identified and will be implemented in the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC incorporating (1) quadrupole strength changes, (2) central orbit modifications, (3) spot size measurements, and (4) beam stability monitoring. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Vibration Stabilization of a Mechanical Model of a X-Band Linear Collider Final Focus Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, J; Decker, V; Hendrickson, L; Markiewicz, T W; Partridge, R; Seryi, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    The small beam sizes at the interaction point of a X-band linear collider require mechanical stabilization of the final focus magnets at the nanometer level. While passive systems provide adequate performance at many potential sites, active mechanical stabilization is useful if the natural or cultural ground vibration is higher than expected. A mechanical model of a room temperature linear collider final focus magnet has been constructed and actively stabilized with an accelerometer based system.

  7. Beam-based alignment and tuning procedures for e+e- collider final focus systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Odian, A.; Roy, G.; Ruth, R.; Yamamoto

    1991-01-01

    For future linear colliders, with very small emittances and beam sizes and demanding tolerances on final focus system alignment and magnet errors, it becomes increasingly important to use the beam as a diagnostic tool. The authors report here procedures they have identified and will be implemented in the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC incorporating (1) quadrupole strength changes, (2) central orbit modifications, (3) spot size measurements, and (4) beam stability monitoring

  8. Vibration Stabilization of a Mechanical Model of a X-Band Linear Collider Final Focus Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, Josef; Chang, Allison; Decker, Valentin; Doyle, Eric; Eriksson, Leif; Hendrickson, Linda; Himel, Thomas; Markiewicz, Thomas; Partridge, Richard; Seryi, Andrei; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    The small beam sizes at the interaction point of a X-band linear collider require mechanical stabilization of the final focus magnets at the nanometer level. While passive systems provide adequate performance at many potential sites, active mechanical stabilization is useful if the natural or cultural ground vibration is higher than expected. A mechanical model of a room temperature linear collider final focus magnet has been constructed and actively stabilized with an accelerometer based system

  9. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  10. Dicty_cDB: SLC495 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC495 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U03919-1 SLC495E (Link to Original site) SLC4...95F 337 SLC495Z 295 SLC495P 632 SLC495E 337 Show SLC495 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4...nal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC495Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC4...95E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC495 (SLC495Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC4...ficant alignments: (bits) Value SLC495 (SLC495Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC495Q.Seq.d/ 446 e-124 VSF494 (VSF494Q) /C

  11. Investigation of focusing of relativistic electron and positron bunches moving in cold plasma. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, A.Ts.; Elbakian, S.S.; Khachatryan, A.G.; Sekhpossian, E.V.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the final report on a project to study focusing effects of relativistic beams of electrons and positrons interacting with a cold plasma. The authors consider three different models for the overdense cold plasma - electron bunch interaction. They look at coulomb effects, wakefield effects, bunch parameters, and the effects of trains of pulses on focusing properties

  12. Dicty_cDB: SLC442 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC442 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16430-1 SLC442Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC442Z 467 - - - - Show SLC442 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC442 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC442Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC44...2Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC442 (SLC442Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC442Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX... 4.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for SLC4

  13. Dicty_cDB: SLC456 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC456 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16272-1 SLC456Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC456Z 483 - - - - Show SLC456 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC456 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC456Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC45...6Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC456 (SLC456Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC456Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for SLC456 is nuc 5' end seq. ID -

  14. Importance of high order momentum terms in SLC optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozanecki, W.

    1985-01-01

    The evaluation of background levels at the SLC relies, in several cases, on the proper representation of how low momentum electrons propagate through the Arcs and the Final Focus System (FFS). For example, beam - gas bremsstrahlung in the arcs causes electrons of up to 6% energy loss to be transported through to the IP; secondary showers on edges of masks and collimators yield debris with a very wide momentum spectrum. This note is a naive attempt at checking the validity of TRANSPORT and TURTLE calculations, by evaluating the contributions of the momentum terms to increasingly higher order, and checking the mutual consistency of the results produced by the two methods on a beam of wide momentum spread. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Dicty_cDB: SLC443 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC443 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16518-1 SLC443P (Link to Original site) SLC4...43F 466 SLC443Z 304 SLC443P 770 - - Show SLC443 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC443Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC4...43P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC443 (SLC443Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC4...Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC443 (SLC443Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC4

  16. Dicty_cDB: SLC429 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC429 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U09691-1 SLC429Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC429Z 419 - - - - Show SLC429 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC429 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC429Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC42...9Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC429 (SLC429Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC429Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX... significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC429 (SLC429Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC429Q.Seq.d/ 708 0.0 SLC392 (SLC392Q

  17. Dicty_cDB: SLC441 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC441 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U00414-1 SLC441P (Link to Original site) SLC4...41F 207 SLC441Z 473 SLC441P 680 - - Show SLC441 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC441Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC4...41P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC441 (SLC441Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC4...Q) /CSM/SL/SLI1-C/SLI162Q.Seq.d/ 896 0.0 SLC441 (SLC441Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC441Q.Seq.d/ 896 0.0 AFK293 (AFK2

  18. Dicty_cDB: SLC403 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC403 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16252-1 SLC403Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC403Z 492 - - - - Show SLC403 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC403 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC403Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC40...3Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC403 (SLC403Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC403Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...-B/SLE731Q.Seq.d/ 902 0.0 SLC403 (SLC403Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC403Q.Seq.d/ 902 0.0 SLC241 (SLC241Q) /CSM/SL/SL

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLC428 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC428 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10963-1 SLC428P (Link to Original site) SLC4...28F 573 SLC428Z 307 SLC428P 880 - - Show SLC428 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC428Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC4...28P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC428 (SLC428Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC4...nces producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC428 (SLC428Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC428Q.Seq.d/ 1526 0.0

  20. Dicty_cDB: SLC481 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC481 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16358-1 SLC481Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC481Z 393 - - - - Show SLC481 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC481 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC481Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC48...1Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC481 (SLC481Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC481Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...SL/SLG8-A/SLG820Q.Seq.d/ 708 0.0 SLC481 (SLC481Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC481Q.Seq.d/ 708 0.0 SLC178 (SLC178Q) /CS

  1. Dicty_cDB: SLC489 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC489 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16255-1 SLC489P (Link to Original site) SLC4...89F 628 SLC489Z 172 SLC489P 800 - - Show SLC489 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC489Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC4...89P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC489 (SLC489Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC4...SSD212Q.Seq.d/ 1001 0.0 SLE207 (SLE207Q) /CSM/SL/SLE2-A/SLE207Q.Seq.d/ 1001 0.0 SLC489 (SLC489Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC4

  2. Exploring the triplet parameters space to optimise the final focus of the FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2141109; Abelleira, Jose; Seryi, Andrei; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    One of the main challenges when designing final focus systems of particle accelerators is maximising the beam stay clear in the strong quadrupole magnets of the inner triplet. Moreover it is desirable to keep the quadrupoles in the triplet as short as possible for space and costs reasons but also to reduce chromaticity and simplify corrections schemes. An algorithm that explores the triplet parameter space to optimise both these aspects was written. It uses thin lenses as a first approximation and MADX for more precise calculations. In cooperation with radiation studies, this algorithm was then applied to design an alternative triplet for the final focus of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh).

  3. Summary of the working group on high current transport and final focus lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garren, A.A.

    1978-09-01

    The group reviewed recent work, and then addressed itself to relating the current understanding of relevant beam transport effects to the four reference concepts. In addition there was discussion on plans for future experimental and theoretical work. Discussions covered the following topics: (1) Transverse instabilities on intense beams through periodic focusing systems, (2) evaluation and correction of chromatic aberrations in the final beam transport lines, (3) evaluation and correction of geometric aberrations due to quadrupole fringe fields, and (4) ion focusing by electrons

  4. Dicty_cDB: SLC436 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC436 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16460-1 SLC436Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC436Z 344 - - - - Show SLC436 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC436 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC436Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC43...6Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC436 (SLC436Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC436Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX.../CSM/SL/SLE2-C/SLE258Q.Seq.d/ 470 e-132 SLC773 (SLC773Q) /CSM/SL/SLC7-D/SLC773Q.Seq.d/ 470 e-132 SLC4

  5. Dicty_cDB: SLC413 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC413 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15735-1 SLC413P (Link to Original site) SLC4...13F 686 SLC413Z 466 SLC413P 1152 - - Show SLC413 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC413Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC4...13P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC413 (SLC413Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC4...iknkikkknikqkkkk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC413 (SLC413Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4

  6. Dicty_cDB: SLC402 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC402 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16327-1 SLC402E (Link to Original site) SLC4...02F 661 SLC402Z 395 SLC402P 1056 SLC402E 674 Show SLC402 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4...inal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC402Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC4...02E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC402 (SLC402Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC4...lignments: (bits) Value SSC554 (SSC554Q) /CSM/SS/SSC5-C/SSC554Q.Seq.d/ 1128 0.0 SLC402 (SLC4

  7. Stanford: SLC back in action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-05-15

    During January, Stanford's SLC Linear Collider began producing Z particles again after the major disruptions in October due to the Loma Prieta earthquake. What's more, the pulse repetition rate climbed smoothly from 60 to 120 Hz as part of the ongoing collider improvement programme. Although the SLC luminosity has not quite returned to its best pre-quake levels, the collider managed to produce enough Z particles to permit Mark II physicists to test their newly installed Vertex Detection System (VDS)

  8. Radiation damage and waste management options for the sombrero final focus system and neutron dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Meier, W.R.; Reyes, S.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the SOMBRERO inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design did not completely address the issues associated with the final focus system. While past work calculated neutron fluences for a grazing incidence metal mirror (GIMM) and a final focus mirror, scattering off of the final optical component was not included, and thus, fluences in the final focus mirror were significantly underestimated. In addition, past work did not consider neutron-induced gamma-rays. Finally, power plant lifetime waste volumes may have been underestimated as neutron activation of the neutron dumps and building structure were not addressed. In the present work, a modified version of the SOMBRERO target building is presented where a significantly larger open solid-angle fraction (5%) is used to enhance beam smoothing of a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). The GIMMs are replaced with transmissive fused silica wedges and have been included in three-dimensional neutron and photon transport calculations. This work shows that a power plant with a large open solid-angle fraction, needed for beam smoothing with a DPSSL, is acceptable from tritium breeding, and neutron activation points-of-view. (authors)

  9. Non-linear optics for the final focus of the single-pass-collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Spencer, J.E.

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of the final focus system (FFS) is to demagnify the beam envelope in the Collider arc lattice to a size suitable for beam collisions at the interaction region. The final spot size is determined by the beam emittance, the beta function β* at the IR, the momentum spread in the beam, and the quality of the FFS optics. In particular, if the focusing system is not chromatically corrected, the momentum dispersion in the beam can lead to a substantial degradation in the quality of the final focus. The objective is to design a FFS for 50 GeV/c within approx. 100 meters having an IR spot size sigma/sub xy/ of approximately 2 μm for a beam emittance of epsilon = 3 x 10 -10 m-rad and a momentum spread of delta = +-0.5%. This requires a β/sub x,y/ equal to or less than 1 cm. This report considers the problems encountered in the design of a final focus system that will reliably provide the desired beam size for collisions

  10. Experimental and Theoretical Progress of Linear Collider Final Focus Design and ATF2 Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei; Zimmermann, Frank; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    In this brief overview we will reflect on the process of the design of the linear collider (LC) final focus (FF) optics, and will also describe the theoretical and experimental efforts on design and practical realisation of a prototype of the LC FF optics implemented in the ATF2 facility at KEK, Japan, presently being commissioned and operated.

  11. Dicty_cDB: SLC485 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC485 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16358-1 SLC485Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC485Z 452 - - - - Show SLC485 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC485 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC485Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC48...5Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC485 (SLC485Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC485Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX... 825 0.0 SLG820 (SLG820Q) /CSM/SL/SLG8-A/SLG820Q.Seq.d/ 825 0.0 SLC485 (SLC485Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC4

  12. Dicty_cDB: SLC483 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC483 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16486-1 SLC483F (Link to Original site) SLC4...83F 718 - - - - - - Show SLC483 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC483 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC483Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC48...3F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC483 (SLC483Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC483Q.Seq.d/ AAAAA...roducing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC483 (SLC483Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC483Q.Seq.d/ 1423 0.0 SLE651

  13. Dicty_cDB: SLC458 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC458 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16279-1 SLC458Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC458Z 508 - - - - Show SLC458 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC458 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC458Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC45...8Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC458 (SLC458Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC458Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...icant alignments: (bits) Value SLC458 (SLC458Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC458Q.Seq.d/ 743

  14. Dicty_cDB: SLC404 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC404 (Link to dictyBase) - G22406 DDB0190371 Contig-U03918-1 SLC4...04E (Link to Original site) - - - - - - SLC404E 229 Show SLC404 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4...riginal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC404Q.Seq.d/ ...Representative seq. ID SLC404E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC404 (SLC404Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC4...y vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC404 (SLC404Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC4

  15. Dicty_cDB: SLC451 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC451 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 SLC451Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC451Z 389 - - - - Show SLC451 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC451 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC451Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC45...1Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC451 (SLC451Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC451Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX... producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC451 (SLC451Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC4

  16. Dicty_cDB: SLC486 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC486 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16480-1 SLC486E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SLC486E 451 Show SLC486 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC486 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC486Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC48...6E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC486 (SLC486Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC486Q.Seq.d/ GTCAT...7Q.Seq.d/ 868 0.0 SLD427 (SLD427Q) /CSM/SL/SLD4-B/SLD427Q.Seq.d/ 868 0.0 SLC486 (SLC486Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC4

  17. Dicty_cDB: SLC434 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC434 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15434-1 SLC434Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC434Z 438 - - - - Show SLC434 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC434 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC434Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC43...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC434 (SLC434Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC434Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...logy vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC434 (SLC434Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC4

  18. Dicty_cDB: SLC450 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC450 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 SLC450Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC450Z 416 - - - - Show SLC450 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC450 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC450Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC45...0Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC450 (SLC450Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC450Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...cant alignments: (bits) Value SLC450 (SLC450Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC450Q.Seq.d/ 678 0.0 VFO858 (VFO858Q) /CSM/V

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLC474 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC474 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U01121-1 SLC474Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC474Z 431 - - - - Show SLC474 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC474 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC474Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC47...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC474 (SLC474Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC474Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX... Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC474 (SLC474Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC474Q.Se

  20. Dicty_cDB: SLC470 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC470 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15735-1 SLC470Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC470Z 386 - - - - Show SLC470 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC470 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC470Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC47...0Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC470 (SLC470Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC470Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...Seq.d/ 533 e-151 SLF229 (SLF229Q) /CSM/SL/SLF2-B/SLF229Q.Seq.d/ 533 e-151 SLC470 (SLC470Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC4

  1. Dicty_cDB: SLC425 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC425 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16276-1 SLC425Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC425Z 515 - - - - Show SLC425 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC425 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC425Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC42...5Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC425 (SLC425Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC425Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC425 (SLC425Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC4

  2. Dicty_cDB: SLC487 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC487 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12865-1 SLC487Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC487Z 404 - - - - Show SLC487 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC487 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC487Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC48...7Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC487 (SLC487Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC487Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...1 0.0 SSF377 (SSF377Q) /CSM/SS/SSF3-D/SSF377Q.Seq.d/ 801 0.0 SLC492 (SLC492Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC4

  3. Dicty_cDB: SLC469 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC469 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16584-1 SLC469P (Link to Original site) SLC4...69F 676 SLC469Z 397 SLC469P 1073 - - Show SLC469 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC469Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC4...69P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC469 (SLC469Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC4...sfflc sklvvik*ncynyp Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC469 (SLC4

  4. Dicty_cDB: SLC435 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC435 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 SLC435E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SLC435E 373 Show SLC435 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC435 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC435Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC43...5E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC435 (SLC435Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC435Q.Seq.d/ GGAGA...I815Q) /CSM/SL/SLI8-A/SLI815Q.Seq.d/ 694 0.0 SLC435 (SLC435Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC4

  5. Dicty_cDB: SLC452 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC452 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U08358-1 SLC452E (Link to Original site) SLC4...52F 537 SLC452Z 347 SLC452P 884 SLC452E 537 Show SLC452 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4...nal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC452Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC4...52E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC452 (SLC452Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC4...slvtpplffq*skk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC4

  6. New final focus concepts at 5 TeV and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1998-07-01

    At multi-TeV energies, the length of conventional beam-delivery systems becomes excessive, raising doubts about the value of a compact, high-gradient accelerator to future high-energy physics. In this paper, the reasons for the unfavorable length scaling are discussed, and alternative design concepts are described, for which final focus and collimation systems are orders of magnitude shorter and which produce higher luminosity at lower beam power than conventional approaches. These concepts include a sextupole-free final focus, linac energy-spread compensation, bunch combination and laser collimation. They are compatible with novel acceleration techniques, such as an active matrix linac. A consistent parameter set for a 5 TeV collider is presented

  7. Analytical approach to chromatic correction in the final focus system of circular colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Cai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A conventional final focus system in particle accelerators is systematically analyzed. We find simple relations between the parameters of two focus modules in the final telescope. Using the relations, we derive the chromatic Courant-Snyder parameters for the telescope. The parameters are scaled approximately according to (L^{*}/β_{y}^{*}δ, where L^{*} is the distance from the interaction point to the first quadrupole, β_{y}^{*} the vertical beta function at the interaction point, and δ the relative momentum deviation. Most importantly, we show how to compensate its chromaticity order by order in δ by a traditional correction module flanked by an asymmetric pair of harmonic multipoles. The method enables a circular Higgs collider with 2% momentum aperture and illuminates a path forward to 4% in the future.

  8. Conceptual design of bend, compression, and final focus components of ILSE [Induction Linac System Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Fong, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Thur, W.

    1989-03-01

    The Induction Linac System Experiment (ILSE) includes a 180/degree/ bend system, drift compression line and a final focus, which test the analogous features of a heavy ion driver for inertial fusion. These components are novel in their transport of a space-charge-dominated ion beam with large head-to-tail velocity tilt. Their conceptual design is presented, including calculations of the beam envelope, momentum dispersion, and engineering design of magnets, vacuum system, diagnostics, alignment, and support. 3 refs., 5 figs

  9. Feedback systems in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Jobe, R.K.; Johnson, R.; Phinney, N.

    1987-02-01

    Two classes of computer-controlled feedback have been implemented to stabilize parameters in subsystems of the SLC: (1) ''slow'' (time scales ∼ minutes) feedback, and (2) ''fast'', i.e., pulse-to-pulse, feedback. The slow loops run in a single FEEDBACK process in the SLC host VAX, which acquires signals and sets control parameters via communication with the database and the network of normal SLC microprocessors. Slow loops exist to stabilize beam energy and energy spread, beam position and angle, and timing of kicker magnets, and to compensate for changes in the phase length of the rf drive line. The fast loops run in dedicated microprocessors, and may sample and/or feedback on particular parameters as often as every pulse of the SLC beam. The first implementations of fast feedback are to control transverse beam blow-up and to stabilize the energy and energy spread of bunches going into the SLC arcs. The overall architecture of the feedback software and the operator interface for controlling loops are discussed

  10. Dicty_cDB: SLC407 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC407 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16560-1 SLC407Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC407Z 365 - - - - Show SLC407 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC407 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC407Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC40...7Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC407 (SLC407Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC407Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...vvtkf*cqt e** Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC407 (SLC407Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4

  11. Dicty_cDB: SLC473 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC473 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16054-1 SLC473F (Link to Original site) SLC4...73F 698 - - - - - - Show SLC473 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC473 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC473Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC47...3F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC473 (SLC473Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC473Q.Seq.d/ AGAAA... CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC473 (SLC473Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4

  12. Stanford: SLC back in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    During January, Stanford's SLC Linear Collider began producing Z particles again after the major disruptions in October due to the Loma Prieta earthquake. What's more, the pulse repetition rate climbed smoothly from 60 to 120 Hz as part of the ongoing collider improvement programme. Although the SLC luminosity has not quite returned to its best pre-quake levels, the collider managed to produce enough Z particles to permit Mark II physicists to test their newly installed Vertex Detection System (VDS)

  13. Design optimization of the International Linear Collider Final Focus System with a long L*

    CERN Document Server

    Plassard, Fabien

    This Master's Thesis work has been done in the Aerospace Engineering master's programme framework and carried out at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It was conducted under the 500 GeV e-e+ International Linear Collider (ILC) study and focused on the design and performance optimization of the Final Focus System (FFS). The purpose of the final focus system of the future linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) is to demagnify the beam to the required transverse size at the interaction point (IP). The FFS is designed for a flat-beam in a compact way based on a local chromaticity correction which corrects both horizontal and vertical chromaticities simultaneously. An alternative FFS configuration based on the traditional scheme with two dedicated chromatic correction sections for horizontal and vertical chromaticities and a long L * option has been developed. A longer free space between the last quadrupole and the IP allows to place the last quadrupole on a stable ground, with fewer engineering ...

  14. Inertial confinement fusion driver enhancements: Final focusing systems and compact heavy-ion driver designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Required elements of an inertial confinement fusion power plant are modeled and discussed. A detailed analysis of two critical elements of candidate drivers is done, and new component designs are proposed to increase the credibility and feasibility of each driver system. An analysis of neutron damage to the final elements of a laser focusing system is presented, and multilayer -- dielectric mirrors are shown to have damage lifetimes which axe too short to be useful in a commercial power plant. A new final-focusing system using grazing incidence metal mirrors to protect sensitive laser optics is designed and shown to be effective in extending the lifetime of the final focusing system. The reflectivities and damage limits of grazing incidence metal mirrors are examined in detail, and the required mirror sizes are shown to be compatible with the beam sizes and illumination geometries currently envisioned for laser drivers. A detailed design and analysis is also done for compact arrays of superconducting magnetic quadrupoles, which are needed in a multi-beam heavy-ion driver. The new array model is developed in more detail than some previous conceptual designs and models arrays which are more compact than arrays scaled from existing single -- quadrupole designs. The improved integrated model for compact arrays is used to compare the effects of various quadrupole array design choices on the size and cost of a heavy-ion driver. Array design choices which significantly affect the cost of a heavy-ion driver include the choice of superconducting material and the thickness of the collar used to support the winding stresses. The effect of these array design choices on driver size and cost is examined and the array model is used to estimate driver cost savings and performance improvements attainable with aggressive quadrupole array designs with high-performance superconductors

  15. FCC-hh final-focus for flat-beams: parameters and energy deposition studies

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081283; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Seryi, Andrei; Van Riesen-Haupt, Leon; Besana, Maria Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    The international Future Circular Collider (FCC) study comprises the study of a new scientific structure in a tunnel of 100 km. This will allow the installation of two accelerators, a 45.6–175 GeV lepton collider and a 100-TeV hadron collider. An optimized design of a final-focus system for the hadron collider is presented here. The new design is more compact and enables unequal ${\\beta}$$^{∗}$ in both planes, whose choice is justified here. This is followed by energy deposition studies, where the total dose in the magnets as a consequence of the collision debris is evaluated.

  16. The proposed alignment system for the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.; Fischer, G.E.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the current state of work in progress with respect to the geometry, alignment requirements, scenarios, and hardware for meeting the tolerances of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. The methods and systems proposed acknowledge that component motion at the micron level, from whatever cause (ground motion, thermal effects, etc.) must be measured on-line and compensated for on relatively short time scales. To provide an integrated alignment/positioning package, some unique designs for reference systems, calibration of effect electric and magnetic centers, and component movers are introduced. 24 refs., 28 figs

  17. Longitudinal compression of heavy-ion beams with minimum requirements on final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Bangerter, R.O.; Mark, J.W.K.; Brandon, S.T.; Lee, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed to compress a heavy-ion beam longitudinally in such a way that the compressed pulse has a constant line-charge density profile and uniform longitudinal momentum. These conditions may be important from the standpoint of final focusing. By realizing the similarity of the equations that describe the 1-D charged-particle motion to the equations that describe 1-D ideal gas flow, the evolution of lambda and the velocity tilt can be calculated using the method of characteristics developed for unsteady supersonic gasdynamics. Particle simulations confirm the theory. Various schemes for pulse shaping have been investigated

  18. Radiation Load Optimization in the Final Focus System of FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Roman; Cerutti, Francesco; Tomás, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    With a center-of-mass energy of up to 100 TeV, FCC-hh will produce highly energetic collision debris at the Interaction Point (IP). Protecting the final focus quadrupoles from this radiation is challenging, since the required amount of shielding placed inside the magnets will reduce the free aperture, thereby limiting the β^{*} reach and luminosity. Hence, radiation mitigation strategies that make best use of the available aperture are required. In this paper, we study the possibility to split the first quadrupole Q1 into two quadrupoles with individual apertures, in order to distribute the radiation load more evenly and reduce the peak dose.

  19. Mechanical design of a pre-isolator for the CLIC final focusing magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A; Ramos, F; Siegrist, N

    2012-01-01

    Due to the very small vertical beam sizes, the final focusing elements at the future CLIC linear collider need to be stable against vibrations to below 0.15 nanometres at frequencies above about 4 Hz. One of the key elements in the strategy to achieve such a stable environment is a passive, heavy pre-isolator. In this report, the results from the dynamic finite element analyses of the proposed design for such a passive preisolator are summarized. Furthermore, the results from a low frequency, heavy mass passive vibration isolation test set-up used to validate the calculations are shown.

  20. Dicty_cDB: SLC420 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC420 (Link to dictyBase) - G01085 DDB0205634 Contig-U01169-1 | Contig-U15736-1 SLC4...20P (Link to Original site) SLC420F 333 SLC420Z 423 SLC420P 756 - - Show SLC420 Libra...ry SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC420 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G01085 dictyBase ID DDB020563...cdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC420Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC420P (Link to Original site) R...epresentative DNA sequence >SLC420 (SLC420Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC420Q.Seq.d/ GCTAGCACACACATAAATAATACATACACACAT

  1. Dicty_cDB: SLC455 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC455 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16584-1 SLC455Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC455Z 379 - - - - Show SLC455 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC455 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC455Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC45...5Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC455 (SLC455Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC455Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...57 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLC469. 468 e-177 3 ( AU034549 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLC4

  2. Dicty_cDB: SLC431 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC431 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15865-1 SLC431Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC431Z 405 - - - - Show SLC431 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC431 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC431Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC43...1Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC431 (SLC431Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC431Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...omology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC431 (SLC4

  3. Dicty_cDB: SLC465 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC465 (Link to dictyBase) - G01923 DDB0190872 Contig-U14177-1 SLC4...65P (Link to Original site) SLC465F 725 SLC465Z 393 SLC465P 1118 - - Show SLC465 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4...Contig-U14177-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC4...65Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC465P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC465 (SLC465Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4...-C/SLC465Q.Seq.d/ CGTTAACAGATTTTAATATTACTAATATTGTAGAAAATGATTTTAAATAAAGTAGCAAAA TGTTATG

  4. Dicty_cDB: SLC438 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC438 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10771-1 SLC438Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC438Z 549 - - - - Show SLC438 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC438 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC438Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC43...8Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC438 (SLC438Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC438Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...es producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SSM825 (SSM825Q) /CSM/SS/SSM8-B/SSM825Q.Seq.d/ 948 0.0 SLC438 (SLC4

  5. Dicty_cDB: SLC405 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC405 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11279-1 | Contig-U16243-1 SLC4...05P (Link to Original site) SLC405F 536 SLC405Z 439 SLC405P 975 - - Show SLC405 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4...79-1 | Contig-U16243-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC4...05Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC405P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC405 (SLC4...05Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC405Q.Seq.d/ ATAACTAATAAAATGTCATTCAATTCAAGAATTGAAACTATTTCTCGCCACTTAAGCACT

  6. Dicty_cDB: SLC440 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC440 (Link to dictyBase) - G22407 DDB0231506 Contig-U13322-1 | Contig-U16512-1 SLC4...40P (Link to Original site) SLC440F 491 SLC440Z 449 SLC440P 940 - - Show SLC440 Libra...ry SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC440 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G22407 dictyBase ID DDB023150...cdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC440Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC440P (Link to Original site) R...epresentative DNA sequence >SLC440 (SLC440Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC440Q.Seq.d/ GGAGATTTCACCACCACCAACAGAACAACACCA

  7. Dicty_cDB: SLC415 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC415 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16521-1 SLC415E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SLC415E 210 Show SLC415 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC415 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC415Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC41...5E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC415 (SLC415Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC415Q.Seq.d/ CCAAC...lkprdpskfqakkllpsk *iilfsl*k Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC415 (SLC4

  8. Dicty_cDB: SLC419 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC419 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U03801-1 SLC419Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC419Z 335 - - - - Show SLC419 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC419 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC419Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC41...9Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC419 (SLC419Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC419Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...I6-A/SSI602Q.Seq.d/ 490 e-138 SSD173 (SSD173Q) /CSM/SS/SSD1-D/SSD173Q.Seq.d/ 490 e-138 SLC419 (SLC4

  9. Dicty_cDB: SLC426 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC426 (Link to dictyBase) - G01922 DDB0233225 Contig-U14991-1 SLC4...26E (Link to Original site) SLC426F 335 SLC426Z 320 SLC426P 655 SLC426E 335 Show SLC426 Library SL (Lin...Contig Contig-U14991-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC4...26Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC426E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC426 (SLC4...26Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC426Q.Seq.d/ AAATAATAAATAGTAAATAATAAATAATAATAAATAATAATAATAATATTTNAAAATGGG

  10. Dicty_cDB: SLC480 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC480 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13538-1 SLC480Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC480Z 455 - - - - Show SLC480 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC480 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC480Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC48...0Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC480 (SLC480Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC480Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...ial 8.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for SLC480 is nuc 5' end seq. ID - 5' end seq. - Length of 5' end seq. - 3' end seq. ID SLC4

  11. Dicty_cDB: SLC409 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC409 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14931-1 SLC409Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC409Z 483 - - - - Show SLC409 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC409 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC409Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC40...9Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC409 (SLC409Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC409Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX... SLH501 (SLH501Q) /CSM/SL/SLH5-A/SLH501Q.Seq.d/ 858 0.0 SLF191 (SLF191Q) /CSM/SL/SLF1-D/SLF191Q.Seq.d/ 858 0.0 SLC409 (SLC4

  12. Dicty_cDB: SLC464 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC464 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U00917-1 SLC464Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC464Z 406 - - - - Show SLC464 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC464 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC464Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC46...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC464 (SLC464Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC464Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX... Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC464 (SLC4

  13. Dicty_cDB: SLC477 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC477 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 SLC477Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC477Z 326 - - - - Show SLC477 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC477 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC477Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC47...7Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC477 (SLC477Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC477Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...hfefsnivikskkkkkkkkkkkkkk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLC477 (SLC4

  14. Dicty_cDB: SLC492 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC492 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10734-1 | Contig-U12865-1 SLC4...92P (Link to Original site) SLC492F 645 SLC492Z 550 SLC492P 1195 - - Show SLC492 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4...734-1 | Contig-U12865-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC4...92Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC492P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC492 (SLC4...92Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC492Q.Seq.d/ AAAAAAAAAATATACAAATAATGAATAAATTTTTAGCTTTGTTATTTGTTTTAGCTTTGT

  15. Dicty_cDB: SLC432 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC432 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U09715-1 | Contig-U16382-1 SLC4...32P (Link to Original site) SLC432F 633 SLC432Z 188 SLC432P 821 - - Show SLC432 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4...15-1 | Contig-U16382-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC4...32Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC432P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC432 (SLC4...32Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC432Q.Seq.d/ ATTAAATTAAATAAAAAATAAAAATGGATGGTGAAGATGTTCAAGCTTTAGTTATTGATA

  16. Dicty_cDB: SLC424 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC424 (Link to dictyBase) - G01086 DDB0231665 Contig-U08784-1 SLC4...24P (Link to Original site) SLC424F 169 SLC424Z 538 SLC424P 707 - - Show SLC424 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC4...ontig-U08784-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC4...24Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC424P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC424 (SLC424Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4...-A/SLC424Q.Seq.d/ GGATATTATAATTTCAAATTAAGTTTTATAAATTTGAAATAATATTGAAAAAAAAAAAAA ATAAAAAA

  17. Flat beams in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.; Barklow, T.; Burke, D.; Decker, F.J.; Emma, P.; Hildreth, M.; Himel, T.; Krejcik, P.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider was designed to operate with round beams; horizontal and vertical emittance made equal in the damping rings. The main motivation was to facilitate the optical matching through beam lines with strong coupling elements like the solenoid spin rotator magnets and the SLC arcs. Tests in 1992 showed that open-quote flat close-quote beams with a vertical to horizontal emittance ratio of around 1/10 can be successfully delivered to the end of the linac. Techniques developed to measure and control the coupling of the SLC arcs allow These beams to be transported to the Interaction Point (IP). Before flat beams could be used for collisions with polarized electrons, a new method of rotating the electron spin orientation with vertical arc orbit bumps had to be developed. Early in the 1993 run, the SLC was switched to open-quote flat close-quote beam operation. Within a short time the peak luminosity of the previous running cycle was reached and then surpassed. The average daily luminosity is now a factor of about two higher than the best achieved last year. In the following the authors present an overview of the problems encountered and their solutions for different parts of the SLC

  18. The SLC polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1990-10-01

    A polarized electron source consisting of a 3-electrode photocathode gun and a flashlamp-pumped dye laser has been designed and built for the SLC and is currently undergoing commissioning. The source is described, and the operating configuration is discussed. The present status of the source and future plans are briefly indicated. 7 refs., 4 figs

  19. Adjustable, short focal length permanent-magnet quadrupole based electron beam final focus system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Lim

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced high-brightness beam applications such as inverse-Compton scattering (ICS depend on achieving of ultrasmall spot sizes in high current beams. Modern injectors and compressors enable the production of high-brightness beams having needed short bunch lengths and small emittances. Along with these beam properties comes the need to produce tighter foci, using stronger, shorter focal length optics. An approach to creating such strong focusing systems using high-field, small-bore permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQs is reported here. A final-focus system employing three PMQs, each composed of 16 neodymium iron boride sectors in a Halbach geometry has been installed in the PLEIADES ICS experiment. The field gradient in these PMQs is 560   T/m, the highest ever reported in a magnetic optics system. As the magnets are of a fixed field strength, the focusing system is tuned by adjusting the position of the three magnets along the beam line axis, in analogy to familiar camera optics. This paper discusses the details of the focusing system, simulation, design, fabrication, and experimental procedure in creating ultrasmall beams at PLEIADES.

  20. Dicty_cDB: SLC466 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC466 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16381-1 SLC466Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC466Z 427 - - - - Show SLC466 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC466 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC466Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC46...6Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC466 (SLC466Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC466Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX... AU034556 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLC466. 176 2e-77 2 ( AU033496 ) Dictyostelium discoid

  1. Dicty_cDB: SLC461 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC461 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 SLC461Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC461Z 386 - - - - Show SLC461 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC461 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC461Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC46...1Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC461 (SLC461Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC461Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...e-155 2 ( AU034553 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLC461. 531 e-155 2 ( AU052473 ) Dictyosteliu

  2. Dicty_cDB: SLC478 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC478 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16419-1 SLC478Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC478Z 400 - - - - Show SLC478 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC478 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC478Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC47...8Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC478 (SLC478Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC478Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX... %: cytoplasmic 28.0 %: nuclear 24.0 %: mitochondrial 12.0 %: cytoskeletal >> prediction for SLC4

  3. Dicty_cDB: SLC437 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC437 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16397-1 SLC437Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC437Z 622 - - - - Show SLC437 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC437 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC437Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC43...7Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC437 (SLC437Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC437Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...scoideum slug cDNA, clone SLC437. 1158 0.0 1 ( AU033994 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLB708.

  4. Dicty_cDB: SLC494 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC494 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 SLC494Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC494Z 451 - - - - Show SLC494 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC494 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC494Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC49...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC494 (SLC494Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC494Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...a: 0.00 m3b: 0.00 m_ : 1.00 52.0 %: cytoplasmic 36.0 %: nuclear 8.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: mitochondrial >> prediction for SLC4

  5. Dicty_cDB: SLC411 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC411 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16272-1 SLC411Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC411Z 486 - - - - Show SLC411 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC411 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC411Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC41...1Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC411 (SLC411Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC411Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...vacuolar 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for SLC411 is nuc 5' end seq. ID - 5' e

  6. Dicty_cDB: SLC418 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC418 (Link to dictyBase) - G01921 DDB0191271 Contig-U15820-1 SLC4...18E (Link to Original site) SLC418F 604 SLC418Z 554 SLC418P 1158 SLC418E 1076 Show SLC418 Library SL (L...ink to library) Clone ID SLC418 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G01921 dictyBase ID DDB0191271 Link t...o Contig Contig-U15820-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-A/SLC4...18Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC418E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC418 (SLC4

  7. Dicty_cDB: SLC444 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC444 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16368-1 SLC444Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC444Z 462 - - - - Show SLC444 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC444 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC444Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC44...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC444 (SLC444Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC444Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...tochondrial 8.0 %: nuclear 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for SLC444 is mit 5' end seq

  8. Dicty_cDB: SLC490 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC490 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16444-1 SLC490Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC490Z 427 - - - - Show SLC490 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC490 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC490Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC49...0Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC490 (SLC490Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC490Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...itochondrial 24.0 %: cytoplasmic 24.0 %: nuclear 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: plasma membrane 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for SLC4

  9. Dicty_cDB: SLC448 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC448 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15118-1 SLC448E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SLC448E 245 Show SLC448 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC448 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC448Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC44...8E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC448 (SLC448Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC448Q.Seq.d/ GGTAA... %: nuclear 12.0 %: mitochondrial 8.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for SLC4

  10. Dicty_cDB: SLC484 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC484 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15497-1 SLC484Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC484Z 462 - - - - Show SLC484 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC484 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC484Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC48...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC484 (SLC484Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC484Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...mic 32.0 %: mitochondrial 16.0 %: nuclear 4.0 %: peroxisomal 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for SLC4

  11. Dicty_cDB: SLC433 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC433 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16397-1 SLC433Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC433Z 613 - - - - Show SLC433 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC433 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC433Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC43...3Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC433 (SLC433Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC433Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...tyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLH872. 1134 0.0 1 ( AU034279 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLC4

  12. Beam dynamics in the final focus section of the future linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)739431; TOMAS, Rogelio

    The exploration of new physics in the ``Tera electron-Volt''~(TeV) scale with precision measurements requires lepton colliders providing high luminosities to obtain enough statistics for the particle interaction analysis. In order to achieve design luminosity values, linear colliders feature nanometer beam spot sizes at the Interaction~Point~(IP).\\par In addition to several effects affecting the luminosity, three main issues to achieve the beam size demagnification in the Final Focus Section (FFS) of the accelerator are the chromaticity correction, the synchrotron radiation effects and the correction of the lattice errors.\\par This thesis considers two important aspects for linear colliders: push the limits of linear colliders design, in particular the chromaticity correction and the radiation effects at 3~TeV, and the instrumentation and experimental work on beam stabilization in a test facility.\\par The current linear collider projects, CLIC~\\cite{CLICdes} and ILC~\\cite{ILCdes}, have lattices designed using...

  13. A Superstrong Adjustable Permanent Magnet for the Final Focus Quadrupole in a Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.

    2004-01-01

    A super strong permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) was fabricated and tested. It has an integrated strength of 28.5T with overall length of 10 cm and a 7mm bore radius. The final focus quadrupole of a linear collider needs a variable focal length. This can be obtained by slicing the magnet into pieces along the beamline direction and rotating these slices. But this technique may lead to movement of the magnetic center and introduction of a skew quadrupole component when the strength is varied. A ''double ring structure'' can ease these effects. A second prototype PMQ, containing thermal compensation materials and with a double ring structure, has been fabricated. Worm gear is selected as the mechanical rotating scheme because the double ring structure needs a large torque to rotate magnets. The structure of the second prototype PMQ is shown

  14. Status report on active stabilisation of a linear collider final focus quadrupole mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lottin, J.; Brunetti, L.; Formosa, F.; Adloff, C.; Bastian, Y.; Bolzon, B.; Cadoux, F.; Geffroy, N.; Girard, C.; Jeremie, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Peltier, F.

    2006-01-01

    The measurements done with the sensors available in our laboratories used for ground motion analysis are presented. The first sensors studied are seismic sensors measuring ground velocity, other sensors are accelerometers available for measuring ground acceleration. The first step has been to characterize the sensors, the second step has been to model and simulate the acceleration in order to identify Eigen frequencies and to display mode shapes. The third step has been to assess the performances of a new algorithm for disturbance rejection. In order to facilitate the analysis, a reduced-size mock-up has been used. The goal was to eliminate or at least to reduce as much as possible the main frequencies of the disturbance. A new mock-up is currently being developed that will have a geometry closer to a final focus quadrupole. Measurements will be done to validate the whole system in view of active stabilization for a future linear collider

  15. Status report on active stabilisation of a linear collider final focus quadrupole mock-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottin, J.; Brunetti, L.; Formosa, F. [Universite de Savoie, ESIA, 74 - Annecy (France); Adloff, C.; Bastian, Y.; Bolzon, B.; Cadoux, F.; Geffroy, N.; Girard, C.; Jeremie, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Peltier, F. [LAPP-IN2P3-CNRS, 74 - Annecy-le-Vieux (France)

    2006-07-01

    The measurements done with the sensors available in our laboratories used for ground motion analysis are presented. The first sensors studied are seismic sensors measuring ground velocity, other sensors are accelerometers available for measuring ground acceleration. The first step has been to characterize the sensors, the second step has been to model and simulate the acceleration in order to identify Eigen frequencies and to display mode shapes. The third step has been to assess the performances of a new algorithm for disturbance rejection. In order to facilitate the analysis, a reduced-size mock-up has been used. The goal was to eliminate or at least to reduce as much as possible the main frequencies of the disturbance. A new mock-up is currently being developed that will have a geometry closer to a final focus quadrupole. Measurements will be done to validate the whole system in view of active stabilization for a future linear collider.

  16. Implementation and validation of the linear collider final focus prototype: ATF2 at KEK (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renier, Y.

    2010-06-01

    The two linear collider projects (ILC and CLIC) require beam delivery systems with the same local chromaticity correction scheme in the final focus. ATF2 at KEK (Japan), an implementation of this scheme scaled down in energy, uses the beam extracted from ATF, which is one of the most successful damping rings in the world. The ATF2 goals are to prove the feasibility and the stability of the linear collider final focus system and to define and test the experimental correction procedures. The nominal beam sizes at the interaction point are 3 μm horizontally and 37 nm vertically. The work in this thesis was started before the commissioning and covered its first year at KEK. At the beginning, we observed that the stripline BPMs were not working properly so we investigated their behavior in detail. The problem was characterized and later solved in 2010 by upgrading the electronics. We then developed an efficient procedure to check the modeling of the beam line, comparing measurements of transfer matrices to model predictions calculated on line. After obtaining a good agreement, we were able to successfully test the trajectory correction algorithm which had been developed, reducing the difference between BPM measurements and the target values down to 0.5 mm horizontally and 0.2 mm vertically. We also successfully developed an algorithm to reconstruct pulse to pulse beam trajectory fluctuations with sub-micron precision. This reconstruction also gave a precise determination of the energy fluctuation, allowing a global fit of the dispersion function along the beam line with a precision of a few mm. A simple and robust IP beam size tuning method using sextupoles displacements was also studied in simulation, whose performance indicates that, given some assumptions on the error level of the beam, convergence within 20% of the nominal beam size should be possible in 8 hours with a 80% probability. (author)

  17. International workshop on final focus and interaction regions of next generation linear colliders: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The first day of the workshop was devoted to four plenary ''issues'' talks, one for each working group: Beam-Beam Interaction, Detector, Hardware, and Optical Design. The last day was devoted to plenary talks summarizing the activities of the working groups. Each of the three remaining days there,was a short morning plenary devoted to a brief summary of the preceding day and an announcement of planned working group discussions for that day. The transparencies for the ''issues'' and ''summary'' talks are included in this volume, along with some remarks from the working group chairpersons. Very briefly, the beam-beam group continued to address the quantitative study of QED induced backgrounds, and attempted to better understand the nature and prevalence of QCD millijets. The detector group attempted to identify the impact on masking and detector design of the beam-beam backgrounds, the synchrotron radiation induced backgrounds from beam halos and muon backgrounds produced primarily in collimators. Nanosecond timing elements needed in conjunction with multi-bunch operation were discussed. The hardware group addressed the problem of magnet design and support, especially the final doublet magnets suspended within the detector environment, and instrumentation issues, such as high resolution beam position monitors. The optics group discussed new final focus system ideas, collimator design, and improvement of beamline tolerances. If you were not here to participate, we hope that this volume will help you in your orientation to these problems

  18. Orbit monitoring in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Chopitea, L.; Emma, P.; Van Olst, D.

    1991-05-01

    Beam orbits in the SLC are monitored in real time and the data is stored for future trend and correlation analysis. A background process acquires Beam Position Monitor (BPM) and Toroid data on a periodic basis and saves the general quantities such as orbit RMS and beam intensity in addition to the individual readings. Some of this data is archived by the SLC History Buffer facility and the rest is saved in files for later analysis. This has permitted the tracing of interaction point instabilities to specific devices as far away as the damping rings. In addition, the data is displayed for the operators both in summary and in full form. The different displays can be configured from the control consoles. 2 refs., 5 figs

  19. Drift compression and final focus systems for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Hoon, Michiel Jan Laurens [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Longitudinal compression of space-charge dominated beams can be achieved by imposing a head-to-tail velocity tilt on the beam. This tilt has to be carefully tailored, such that it is removed by the longitudinal space-charge repulsion by the time the beam reaches the end of the drift compression section. The transverse focusing lattice should be designed such that all parts of the beam stay approximately matched, while the beam smoothly expands transversely to the larger beam radius needed in the final focus system following drift compression. In this thesis, several drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression. The occurrence of mismatches due to a rapidly increasing current was analyzed. In addition, the sensitivity of drift compression to errors in the initial velocity tilt and current profile was studied. These calculations were done using a new computer code that accurately calculates the longitudinal electric field in the space-charge dominated regime.

  20. Trajectory measurements and correlations in the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renier, Y.; Bambade, P.; Tauchi, T.; White, G. R.; Boogert, S.

    2013-06-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) commissioning group aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the beam delivery system of the next linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) as well as to define and to test the tuning methods. As the design vertical beam sizes of the linear colliders are about few nanometers, the stability of the trajectory as well as the control of the aberrations are very critical. ATF2 commissioning started in December 2008, and thanks to submicron resolution beam position monitors (BPMs), it has been possible to measure the beam position fluctuation along the final focus of ATF2 during the 2009 runs. The optics was not the nominal one yet, with a lower focusing to make the tuning easier. In this paper, a method to measure the noise of each BPM every pulse, in a model-independent way, will be presented. A method to reconstruct the trajectory’s fluctuations is developed which uses the previously determined BPM resolution. As this reconstruction provides a measurement of the beam energy fluctuations, it was also possible to measure the horizontal and vertical dispersion function at each BPMs parasitically. The spatial and angular dispersions can be fitted from these measurements with uncertainties comparable with usual measurements.

  1. Trajectory measurements and correlations in the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Renier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2 commissioning group aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the beam delivery system of the next linear colliders (ILC and CLIC as well as to define and to test the tuning methods. As the design vertical beam sizes of the linear colliders are about few nanometers, the stability of the trajectory as well as the control of the aberrations are very critical. ATF2 commissioning started in December 2008, and thanks to submicron resolution beam position monitors (BPMs, it has been possible to measure the beam position fluctuation along the final focus of ATF2 during the 2009 runs. The optics was not the nominal one yet, with a lower focusing to make the tuning easier. In this paper, a method to measure the noise of each BPM every pulse, in a model-independent way, will be presented. A method to reconstruct the trajectory’s fluctuations is developed which uses the previously determined BPM resolution. As this reconstruction provides a measurement of the beam energy fluctuations, it was also possible to measure the horizontal and vertical dispersion function at each BPMs parasitically. The spatial and angular dispersions can be fitted from these measurements with uncertainties comparable with usual measurements.

  2. Configuring the SLC linac for injection into PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.

    1989-01-01

    From time to time the normal SLC physics program is to be interrupted so that beam can be delivered to PEP. In order that the switch to PEP injection (and the switch back again) can be accomplished quickly and easily, the gun, the damping rings, the linac phase ramp, the energy profile of the linac klystrons for the scavenger bunch, and the entire positron production system are to be kept the same as in the SLC configuration. What mainly remains to be changed is the linac klystron profile for the leading two bunches - those going to PEP. The new klystron profile must be such that it leaves these two beams (1) with final energies that match that of the storage ring and (2) with final energy spectra that fit within the energy aperture of the PEP transfer line. The conditions that need to be met in order to achieve these two goals are discussed in this note. 1 ref., 2 figs

  3. Dicty_cDB: SLC460 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC460 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - SLC460Z (Link to Original site) - - SLC4...60Z 333 - - - - Show SLC460 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC460 (Link to dictyBase) At...las ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC4...60Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC460Z (Link to Original site) R...epresentative DNA sequence >SLC460 (SLC460Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC460Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXAATTATTATTGTGTAATTCCTGT

  4. Dicty_cDB: SLC496 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC496 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - SLC496E (Link to Original site) - - - - - - SLC4...96E 443 Show SLC496 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC496 (Link to dictyBase) At...las ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC4...96Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC496E (Link to Original site) R...epresentative DNA sequence >SLC496 (SLC496Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-D/SLC496Q.Seq.d/ AAGAAATTTGAATCACTCCAAATCATTATCCCA

  5. Dicty_cDB: SLC449 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC449 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - SLC449Z (Link to Original site) - - SLC4...49Z 384 - - - - Show SLC449 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC449 (Link to dictyBase) At...las ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC4...49Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC449Z (Link to Original site) R...epresentative DNA sequence >SLC449 (SLC449Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-C/SLC449Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXGTAAAAAGGAACACCAAGCCACT

  6. Simulations of the magnet misalignments, field errors and orbit correction for the SLC north arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheifets, S.; Chao, A.; Jaeger, J.; Shoaee, H.

    1983-11-01

    Given the intensity of linac bunches and their repetition rate the desired luminosity of SLC 1.0 x 10 30 cm -2 sec -1 requires focusing the interaction bunches to a spot size in the micrometer (μm) range. The lattice that achieves this goal is obtained by careful design of both the arcs and the final focus systems. For the micrometer range of the beam spot size both the second order geometric and chromatic aberrations may be completely destructive. The concept of second order achromat proved to be extremely important in this respect and the arcs are built essentially as a sequence of such achromats. Between the end of the linac and the interaction point (IP) there are three special sections in addition to the regular structure: matching section (MS) designed for matching the phase space from the linac to the arcs, reverse bend section (RB) which provides the matching when the sign of the curvature is reversed in the arc and the final focus system (FFS). The second order calculations are done by the program TURTLE. Using the TURTLE histogram in the x-y plane and assuming identical histogram for the south arc, corresponding 'luminosity' L is found. The simulation of the misalignments and error effects have to be done simultaneously with the design and simulation of the orbit correction scheme. Even after the orbit is corrected and the beam can be transmitted through the vacuum chamber, the focusing of the beam to the desired size at the IP remains a serious potential problem. It is found, as will be elaborated later, that even for the best achieved orbit correction, additional corrections of the dispersion function and possibly transfer matrix are needed. This report describes a few of the presently conceived correction schemes and summarizes some results of computer simulations done for the SLC north arc. 8 references, 12 figures, 6 tables

  7. Physical characteristics that predict final basal insulin dose in type 2 diabetes mellitus, with a special focus on BMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, A. C. R.; Bolli, G. B.; Dain, M.-P.; Wang, E.; Holleman, F.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to predict final insulin dose based on patient's characteristics would allow for efficient titration for patients with higher dose needs. The primary aim of this post-hoc analysis of the L2T3 study was to determine predictors for final dose. Specifically, we focused on the

  8. Characterization of SLC transporters in human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Alriquet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most identified drug transporters belong to the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC and Solute Carrier (SLC families. Recent research indicates that some of these transporters play an important role in the absorption, distribution and excretion of drugs, and are involved in clinically relevant drug-drug interactions for systemic drugs. However, very little is known about the role of drug transporters in human skin in the disposition of topically applied drugs and their involvement in drug-drug interactions. The aim of this work was to compare the expression in human skin (vs human hepatocytes and kidney of SLC transporters included in the EMA guidance as the most likely clinical sources of drug interactions. The expression of SLC transporters in human tissues was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Modulation of SLC47A1 and SLC47A2 (MATE1 and MATE2 expression was analyzed after treatment of human skin in organ-culture with rifampicin and UV irradiation. The expression of SLCO2B1 (OATPB, SLCO3A1 (OATPD, SLCO4A1 (OATPE, SLC47A1 and SLC47A2 (MATE1 and MATE2 was detected in human skin, OATPE and MATE1 being the most expressed. OATPE is about 70 times more expressed in human skin than in human hepatocytes. Moreover, the expression of SLC47A1 and SLC47A2 was down-regulated after treatment with rifampicin or after exposure to UV light. The present findings demonstrate that SLCO4A1 (OATPE and SLC47A1 (MATE1 are highly expressed in human skin and suggest the involvement of SLC transporters in the disposition of topically applied drugs.

  9. Operational Experiences Tuning the ATF2 Final Focus Optics Towards Obtaining a 37nm Electron Beam IP Spot Size

    CERN Document Server

    White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Bai, Sha; Bambade, Philip; Renier, Yves; Bolzon, Benoit; Kamiya, Yoshio; Komamiya, Sachio; Oroku, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Marin, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of the ATF2 research accelerator is to test a scaled version of the final focus optics planned for use in next-generation linear lepton colliders. ATF2 consists of a 1.3 GeV linac, damping ring providing lowemittance electron beams (<12pm in the vertical plane), extraction line and final focus optics. The design details of the final focus optics and implementation at ATF2 are presented elsewhere. The ATF2 accelerator is currently being commissioned, with a staged approach to achieving the design IP spot size. It is expected that as we implement more demanding optics and reduce the vertical beta function at the IP, the tuning becomes more difficult and takes longer. We present here a description of the implementation of the tuning procedures and describe operational experiences and performances

  10. Present Status And First Results of the Final Focus Beam Line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  11. Present status and first results of the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Bambade, P; Amann, J; Angal-Kalinin, D; Apsimon, R; Araki, S; Aryshev, A; Bai, S; Bellomo, P; Bett, D; Blair, G; Bolzon, B; Boogert, S; Boorman, G; Burrows, P N; Christian, G; Coe, P; Constance, B; Delahaye, J P; Deacon, L; Elsen, E; Faus-Golfe, A; Fukuda, M; Gao, J; Geffroy, N; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Guler, H; Hayano, H; Heo, A Y; Honda, Y; Huang, J Y; Hwang, W H; Iwashita, Y; Jeremie, A; Jones, J; Kamiya, Y; Karataev, P; Kim, E S; Kim, H S; Kim, S H; Komamiya, S; Kubo, K; Kume, T; Kuroda, S; Lam, B; Lyapin, A; Masuzawa, M; McCormick, D; Molloy, S; Naito, T; Nakamura, T; Nelson, J; Okamoto, D; Okugi, T; Oroku, M; Park, Y J; Parker, B; Paterson, E; Perry, C; Pivi, M; Raubenheimer, T; Renier, Y; Resta-Lopez, J; Rimbault, C; Ross, M; Sanuki, T; Scarfe, A; Schulte, D; Seryi, A; Spencer, C; Suehara, T; Sugahara, R; Swinson, C; Takahashi, T; Tauchi, T; Terunuma, N; Tomas, R; Urakawa, J; Urner, D; Verderi, M; Wang, M H; Warden, M; Wendt, M; White, G; Wittmer, W; Wolski, A; Woodley, M; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamanaka, T; Yan, Y; Yoda, H; Yokoya, K; Zhou, F; Zimmermann, F; 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.13.042801

    2010-01-01

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  12. Summary of the working group on high current transport and final focus lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garren, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Transverse instabilities of intense beams in periodic transport lines are reviewed. Chromatic aberrations in the final beam transport lines and geometric aberrations due to quadrupole fringe fields are discussed and corrections to reduce them are evaluated. The implications for four reference designs are evaluated by comparing the tune depression, momentum spread, and emittance

  13. An electrodynamical model for the ion behaviour in the final plasma focus stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambreanu, V.; Doloc, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma focus devices (PFDs) are strong sources of fusion neutrons but the problem of which interactions are responsible for the fusion reactions is still open since neither of the proposed theoretical models has been confirmed experimentally. A model for the trajectories of the deuteron ions in a configuration of selfconsistent electromagnetic fields is proposed starting from an empirical plasma model which describes the plasma focus collapse and column phases. The proposed model is only electrodynamical under the assumption of a uniform current density and an infinite length of the plasma column, not taking into account the fluid characteristics of the plasma. (author)

  14. Making electron beams for the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S.D.; James, M.B.; Miller, R.H.; Sheppard, J.C.; Sodja, J.; Truher, J.B.; Minten, A.

    1984-01-01

    A source of high-intensity, single-bunch electron beams has been developed at SLAC for the SLC. The properties of these beams have been studied extensively utilizing the first 100-m of the SLAC linac and the computer-based control system being developed for the SLC. The source is described and the properties of the beams are summarized. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  15. The polarized electron gun for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.C.; Clendenin, J.; Frisch, J.; Hoyt, E.; Klaisner, L.; Woods, M.; Wright, D.; Zolotorev, M.

    1992-03-01

    A new polarized electron gun for use on the SLC at SLAC has been built and tested. It is a diode gun with a laser driven GaAs photocathode. It is designed to provide short (2ns) pulses of 10 A at 160 kV at 120 Hz. The design features of the gun and results from a testing program on a new and dedicated beam line are presented. Early results from operation on the SLC will also be shown

  16. Survey of beam instrumentation used in SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecklund, S.D.

    1991-03-01

    A survey of beam instruments used at SLAC in the SLC machine is presented. The basic utility and operation of each device is briefly described. The various beam instruments used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), can be classified by the function they perform. Beam intensity, position and size are typical of the parameters of beam which are measured. Each type of parameter is important for adjusting or tuning the machine in order to achieve optimum performance. 39 refs

  17. Physics at the SLC [SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) was constructed in the years 1983--1987 for two principal reasons: to develop the accelerator physics and technology that are necessary for the construction of future linear electron-positron colliders; and to produce electron-positron collisions at the Z 0 pole and to study the physics of the weak neutral current. To date, the SLC program has been quite successful at achieving the first goal. The machine has produced and collided high energy electron and positron beams of three-micron transverse size. The problems of operating an open geometry detector in an environment that is more akin to those found in fixed-target experiments than in storage rings have largely been solved. As a physics producing venture, the SLC has been less successful than was originally hoped but more successful than is commonly believed. Some of the results that have been produced by the Mark II experiment with a very modest data sample are competitive with those that have been produced with much larger samples by the four LEP collaborations. At the current, time, SLAC is engaged in an ambitious program to upgrade the SLC luminosity and to exploit one of its unique features, a spin polarized electron beam. These lectures are therefore organized into three sections: a brief description of the SLC; a review of the physics results that have been achieved with the Mark II detector; a description of the SLC's future: the realization and use of a polarized electron beam

  18. Drift Compression and Final Focus for Intense Heavy Ion Beams with Non-periodic, Time-dependent Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Qin; Davidson, Ronald C.; Barnard, John J.; Lee, Edward P.

    2005-01-01

    In the currently envisioned configurations for heavy ion fusion, it is necessary to longitudinally compress the beam bunches by a large factor after the acceleration phase. Because the space-charge force increases as the beam is compressed, the beam size in the transverse direction will increase in a periodic quadrupole lattice. If an active control of the beam size is desired, a larger focusing force is needed to confine the beam in the transverse direction, and a non-periodic quadrupole lattice along the beam path is necessary. In this paper, we describe the design of such a focusing lattice using the transverse envelope equations. A drift compression and final focus lattice should focus the entire beam pulse onto the same focal spot on the target. This is difficult with a fixed lattice, because different slices of the beam may have different perveance and emittance. Four time-dependent magnets are introduced in the upstream of drift compression to focus the entire pulse onto the sam e focal spot. Drift compression and final focusing schemes are developed for a typical heavy ion fusion driver and for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) being designed by the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory

  19. Study of neutron focusing at the Texas Cold Neutron Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehring, B.W.; Uenlue, K.

    1995-01-01

    Funds were received for the first year of a three year DOE Nuclear Engineering Research Grant, ''Study of Neutron Focusing at the Texas Cold Neutron Source'' (FGO2-92ER75711). The purpose of this three year study was to develop a neutron focusing system to be used with the Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) to produce an intense beam of neutrons. A prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility was also to be designed, setup, and tested under the three year project. During the first year of the DOE grant, a new procedure was developed and used to design a focusing converging guide consisting of truncated rectangular cone sections. Detailed calculations were performed using a 3-D Monte Carlo code which we wrote to trace neutrons through the curved guide of the TCNS into the proposed converging guide. Using realistic reflectivities for Ni-Ti supermirrors, we obtained gains of 3 to 5 for the neutron flux averaged over an area of 1 x 1 cm

  20. SLC polarized beam source electron optics design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.R.; Lavine, T.L.; Early, R.A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Miller, R.H.; Schultz, D.C.; Spencer, C.M.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the beam-line from the polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10 -11 -Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photocathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. The quality of the optics for the 160-kV beam is crucial since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line consists of a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Focusing is provided by a pair of Helmholtz coils and by several iron-encased solenoidal lenses. Our optics design is based on beam transport simulations using 2 1/2-D particle-in-cell codes to model the gun and to solve the fully-relativistic time-dependent equations of motion in three dimensions for electrons in the presence of azimuthally symmetric electromagnetic fields. 6 refs., 6 figs

  1. Na(+) dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henriette L; Nguyen, An T; Pedersen, Fredrik D

    2013-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells....... Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular p...

  2. Present status and first results of the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  3. Chromatic correction in the SLC bunch length compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.E.; Emma, P.J.; Fieguth, T.H.; Spence, W.L.

    1991-06-01

    The SLC Ring to Linac (RTL) transport lines employ intense bending and strong transverse focusing to produce the momentum compaction needed for bunch length compression prior to S-band acceleration. In the presence of the large rf induced energy spread needed for compression the consequent chromatic effects -- viz. the variation with energy of residual output dispersion and of the RTL transfer matrix, threaten to destroy the small emittances produced by the damping rings. We report on the tuning methods that have been developed and used to implement the sextupole based chromatic correction scheme. 6 refs., 4 figs

  4. Technical program plan for the transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The end of the Cold War and the decision to reduce the size of the nuclear weapons production complex have created a need for DOE to deactivate, decontaminate, and decommission (D ampersand D) a large number of aging, surplus facilities. The nature and magnitude of the facility D ampersand D problems require EM to facilitate the development and application of technologies that will address these problems quickly and cost-effectively. The needed technologies can best be provided by integrating the strengths of DOE's national laboratories with those of industry, universities, and other government agencies. To help focus and direct these activities toward achieving DOE's goals, the EM Office of Technology Development (OTD) devised the strategic concept of an Integrated Demonstration (ID), which involves selecting, demonstrating, testing, and evaluating an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific EM problems, such as those posed by D ampersand D. The ID approach allows optimal use of DOE's resources by avoiding duplication of effort and ensuring rapid demonstration of applicable technologies. Many technologies, including both the commercially mature and the innovative, are combined and evaluated for a cradle-to-grave solution to specific EM problems in areas such as D ampersand D. The process will involve transforming an existing problem condition to a desired end state, recycling waste materials generated, wherever feasible, and minimizing requirements for waste disposal. The D ampersand D ID Strategic Plan has been prepared by a Technical Support Group (TSG) assembled from various sites within the DOE Complex and intended to identify cross-cutting problem areas amenable to applications of the D ampersand D ID concept and to develop specific ID proposals for these problem areas

  5. Focused transport of intense charged particle beams. Final technical report FY/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Many recent developments in accelerator technology have increased the need for a better understanding of the physics of intense-beam transport. Of particular interest to the work described here is the appearance, as beam intensities are increased, of a class of nonlinear phenomena which involve the collective interaction of the beam particles. Beam intensity, used as a measure of the importance of space-charge collective behavior, depends on the ratio of current to emittance. The nonlinear beam dynamics, and any resulting emittance growth, which are characteristic of the intense-beam regime, can therefore occur even at low currents in any accelerator system with sufficiently high intensity, especially in the low beta section. Furthermore, since emittance of a beam is difficult to reduce, the ultimate achievement of necessary beam luminosities requires the consideration of possible causes of longitudinal and transverse emittance growth at every stage of the beam lifetime. The research program described here has addressed the fundamental physics which comes into play during the transport, acceleration and focusing of intense beams. Because of the long term and ongoing nature of the research program discussed here, this report is divided into two sections. The first section constitutes a long term revue of the accomplishments which have resulted from the research effort reported, especially in pioneering the use of particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulation techniques for simulation of the dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams in particle accelerators. The following section emphasizes, in more detail, the accomplishments of the FY 92/93 period immediately prior to the termination of this particular avenue of support. 41 refs

  6. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Jackson, J A; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy s (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that

  7. Polymorphism Study on SLC30A8 and Its Association with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vignesh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the threatening disorders in the world. It affects people of all ages. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the glucose level in the blood is elevated due to improper function of the secretion of insulin from beta cells of the pancreas. It is a multifactorial disease because it is caused by both environmental and hereditary factors. One of the genes which play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus is SLC30A8 which encodes for zinc transporter ZnT8. The common polymorphic site for SLC30A8 is rs13266634. This single-nucleotide polymorphism leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus by replacing the arginine residue with tryptophan residue. This review mainly focuses on the polymorphic studies in the gene SLC30A8 and its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Impact of focused training on communication skills of final-year medical students in a medical school in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nayyar; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Basheer, Aneesh; Kandasamy, Ravichandran

    2015-01-01

    Although communication skills are important for a good physician-patient relationship, Indian medical curricula give very little emphasis on training medical students in this aspect. To determine the change in communication skills of final-year medical students following focused training. This was an educational interventional study done at Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India, to assess communication skills among final-year MBBS students. Fifty-two students (24 males and 28 females) participated in the study. A pre-test was conducted in the form of an objectively structured clinical examination (OSCE), followed by focused training for four hours. The same OSCE was administered as post-test. A comparison between the pre-test and post-test scores was done using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. Ninety-six per cent of participants (50 out of 52) showed improvement in their performance after the focused training. The mean marks of the pre-test and post-test were 10.77± 3 and 18.04±2, respectively, out of a maximum mark of 20 (pcommunication skills of medical students. Hence, it may be included in the curriculum of undergraduate medical teaching programmes in India.

  9. Polarized source performance in 1992 for SLC--SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.; Alley, R.; Clendenin, J.; Frisch, J.; Garden, C.; Hoyt, E.; Klaisner, L.; Kulikov, A.; Prescott, C.; Saez, P.; Tang, H.; Turner, J.; Wicks, M.; Woods, M.; Yeremian, D.; Zolotorev, M.

    1993-02-01

    In its initial operation, the SLC Polarized Electron Source successfully met the SLC goals for 1992 for intensity and efficiency. However, the stability of the beam at the source was marginal, and the polarization was only ∼28%. The SLC goal to provide > 10,000 Z events for the SLD from polarized electrons was met

  10. Generalized fast feedback system in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; Rouse, F.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.

    1992-01-01

    A generalized fast feedback system has been developed to stabilize beams at various locations in the SLC. The system is designed to perform measurements and change actuator settings to control beam states such as position, angle and energy on a pulse to pulse basis. The software design is based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. The system is database-driven, facilitating the addition of new loops without requiring additional software. A communications system, KISNet, provides fast communications links between microprocessors for feedback loops which involve multiple micros. Feedback loops have been installed in seventeen locations throughout the SLC and have proven to be invaluable in stabilizing the machine. (author)

  11. Generalized fast feedback system in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; Rouse, F.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.

    1991-11-01

    A generalized fast feedback system has been developed to stabilize beams at various locations in the SLC. The system is designed to perform measurements and change actuator settings to control beam states such as position, angle and energy on a pulse to pulse basis. The software design is based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. The system is database-driven, facilitating the addition of new loops without requiring additional software. A communications system, KISNet, provides fast communications links between microprocessors for feedback loops which involve multiple micros. Feedback loops have been installed in seventeen locations throughout the SLC and have proven to be invaluable in stabilizing the machine

  12. SLAC-Linac-Collider (SLC) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-02-01

    The proposed SLAC Linear Collider Project (SLC) and its features are described in this paper. In times of ever increasing costs for energy the electron storage ring principle is about to reach its practical limit. A new class of colliding beam beam facilities, the Linear Colliders, are getting more and more attractive and affordable at very high center-of-mass energies. The SLC is designed to be a poineer of this new class of colliding beam facilities and at the same time will serve as a valuable tool to explore the high energy physics at the level of 100 GeV in the center-of-mass system

  13. Effect of focusing field error during final beam bunching in heavy-ion-beam driven inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Kawata, S.; Kawata, S.; Nakajima, M.; Horioka, K.

    2006-01-01

    Emittance growth due to the transverse focusing field error is investigated during the final beam bunching in the energy driver system of heavy ion inertial fusion. The beam bunch is longitudinally compressed during the transport with the field error in the continuous focusing (CF) or the alternating gradient (AG) field lattices. Numerical calculation results show the only 2% difference of the emittance growth between the cases with and without field error in the CF lattice. In the case of the AG lattice model with the field error of 10%, the emittance growth of 2.4 times is estimated, and the major difference between the CF and AG models is indicated from the numerical simulations. (author)

  14. Dicty_cDB: SLC832 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC832 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13922-1 SLC832Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC832Z 638 - - - - Show SLC832 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC832 (Link to dic..._1( EU565733 |pid:none) Uncultured soil bacterium clone gl... 35 2.4 CP000010_276....1 AP009385_2728( AP009385 |pid:none) Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 1... 33 5.3 A... 20.0 %: nuclear 16.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 12.0 %: mitochondrial 8.0 %: Golgi 8.0 %: endoplasmic reticul

  15. RF phase distribution systems at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, R.K.; Schwarz, H.D.

    1989-04-01

    Modern large linear accelerators require RF distribution systems with minimal phase drifts and errors. Through the use of existing RF coaxial waveguides, and additional installation of phase reference cables and monitoring equipment, stable RF distribution for the SLC has been achieved. This paper discusses the design and performance of SLAC systems, and some design considerations for future colliders. 6 refs., 4 figs

  16. Kicker for the SLC electron damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelson, L.; Crawford, C.; Dinkel, J.; Kerns, Q.; Howell, J.; Snowdon, S.; Walton, J.

    1987-01-01

    The SLC electron damping ring requires two kickers each providing a 5 mr kick at 1.2 GEV to pairs of electron bunches spaced 61.63 nsec apart. The exact shape of the kick is unimportant, but the specification applies to the field the bunches see

  17. Klystron control software in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, R.K.; Thompson, K.; Phinney, N.

    1985-05-01

    Triggering, control, and monitoring of 240 high-power klystrons will be supported by the SLC control system this summer. The control software is distributed among a VAX host computer, a local microprocessor cluster, and a dedicated intelligent CAMAC module. The functions performed by these three components and the algorithms used are discussed

  18. Report on the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, N.

    1985-05-01

    The SLC control system is based on a VAX 11/780 Host computer with approximately 50 microprocessor clusters which provide distributed intelligence and control of all CAMAC interface modules. This paper will present an overview of the system including current status and a description of the software architecture and communication protocols. 8 refs

  19. STANFORD: Highly polarized SLC electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Using specialized photocathodes made with 'strained' gallium arsenide, physicists at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) have generated electron beams with polarizations in excess of 60 percent a year ahead of schedule. Together with recent luminosity increases, this breakthrough will have a major impact on the physics output of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Beam polarization was almost tripled using photocathodes in which a gallium arsenide layer was grown epitaxially over a substrate of gallium arsenide phosphide. The mismatch between these two layers deforms the crystal structure and removes a degeneracy in the valence band structure, permitting selective optical pumping of one unique spin state. Whereas conventional gallium arsenide photocathodes are limited to 50 percent polarization because of this degeneracy (and realistic cathodes fall substantially below this theoretical limit), such strained crystal lattices have the potential to yield polarizations close to 100 percent. Polarization enhancement with strained lattices was first demonstrated in 1991 by a SLAC/Wisconsin/ Berkeley group (May 1991, page 6) with a 71 percent polarization in a laboratory experiment. More recently this group has achieved polarization in excess of 90 percent, reported last November at the Nagoya Spin Symposium. (In a complementary development, a Japanese KEK/ Nagoya/KEK obtains polarized beams using a 'superlattice' - May 1991, page 4.) The 1993 SLC run, the strained gallium arsenide photocathode technique's debut in an operating particle accelerator, has proved to be a resounding, unqualified success - as have physics experiments on the Z particles produced by the highly polarized beam. A conservative approach was called for, due to concerns about possible charge saturation effects. A relatively thick (0.3 micron) gallium arsenide layer was used for the photocathode in the SLC polarized electron source. With a titanium

  20. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  1. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-05-01

    Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 microm tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10 7 particles/microm 2 (3C/m 2 ). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures

  2. SLC Energy Upgrade Program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Allen, M.A.; Cassel, R.L.; Dean, N.R.; Konrad, G.T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lebacqz, J.V.

    1985-03-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) must reach a nominal center-of-mass energy of 100 GeV to fulfill its high energy physics goals. This paper describes the energy upgrade program that is being implemented on the SLAC linear accelerator to meet these goals. It includes a discussion of the design requirements and available technical options, the rationale for the adopted solution, and the technical problems involved in the engineering and production of klystrons and modulators

  3. SLC energy upgrade program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Allen, M.A.; Cassel, R.L.; Dean, N.R.; Konrad, G.T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lebacqz, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) must reach a nominal center-of-mass energy of 100 GeV to fulfill its high energy physics goals. This paper describes the energy upgrade program that is being implemented on the SLAC linear accelerator to meet these goals. It includes a discussion of the design requirements and available technical options, the rationale for the adopted solution, and the technical problems involved in the engineering and production of klystrons and modulators

  4. The SLC energy upgrade program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Allen, M.A.; Cassel, R.L.; Dean, N.R.; Konrad, G.T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lebaaqz, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) must reach a nominal center-of-mass energy of 100 GeV to fulfill its high energy physics goals. This paper describes the energy upgrade program that is being implemented on the SLAC linear accelerator to meet these goals. It includes a discussion of the design requirements and available technical options, the rationale for the adopted solution, and the technical problems involved in the engineering and production of klystrons and modulators

  5. Verification of the SLC wake potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Weiland, T.

    1983-01-01

    The accurate knowledge of the monopole, dipole, and quadrupole wake potentials is essential for SLC. These wake potentials were previously computed by the modal method. The time domain code TBCI allows independent verification of these results. This comparison shows that the two methods agree to within 10% for bunch lengths down to 1 mm. TBCI results also indicate that rounding the irises gives at least a 10% reduction in the wake potentials

  6. The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.

    1987-02-01

    There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU is a part of the system that controls the output of Klystrons in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed

  7. The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU at is as part of the system that controls the output of Klystorns in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed

  8. SLC and SLD: Experimental experience with a linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breidenbach, M.

    1993-08-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is the prototype e + e - linear collider. This talk will consist of an introduction to SLC, a description of the strategy for luminosity, a description of the systems for the transport and measurement of the polarized electrons, and a description of the present performance of the SLC and planned upgrades. The detector, SLD, and the status of the polarization asymmetry measurement A LR will be described

  9. Optimizing the average longitudinal phase of the beam in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.

    1989-09-01

    The relation of the beam's average linac phase, φ 0 , to the final energy spectrum in the SLC linac has been studied by many people over the years, with much of the work left unpublished. In this note we perform a somewhat thorough in vestigation of the problem. First we describe the calculation method, and discuss some common features of the energy spectrum. Then we calculate the value of φ 0 that minimizes δ rms for the conceivable range of bunch population and bunch lengths of the SLC linac. This is followed by luminosity calculations, including the sensitivity of luminosity to variations in φ 0 . Finally we suggest a practical method of implementing the proper phase setting on the real machine

  10. Performance of the SLC polarized electron source with high polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Alley, R.K.; Aoyagi, H.

    1993-04-01

    For the 1992 operating cycle of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC), the polarized electron source (PES) during its maiden run successfully met the pulse intensity and overall efficiency requirements of the SLC. However, the polarization of the bulk GaAs cathode was low (∼27%) and the pulse-to-pulse stability was marginal. We have shown that adequate charge for the SLC can be extracted from a strained layer cathode having P e ∼80% even though the quantum efficiency (QE) is - beam stability. The performance of the PES during the 1993 SLC operating cycle with these and other improvements is discussed

  11. Comparative Study of the Tuning Performances of the Nominal and Long L* CLIC Final Focus System at √s = 380 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Plassard, F; Marin, E; Tomás, R

    2017-01-01

    Mitigation of static imperfections for emittance preservation is one of the most important and challenging tasks faced by the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) beam delivery system. A simulation campaign has been performed to recover the nominal luminosity by means of different alignment procedures. The state of the art of the tuning studies is drawn up. Comparative studies of the tuning performances and a tuning-based final focus system design optimization for two L options are presented. The effectiveness of the tuning techniques applied to these different lattices will be decisive for the final layout of the CLIC final focus system at √s = 380 GeV.

  12. SLC2A9 and ZNF518B polymorphisms correlate with gout-related metabolic indices in Chinese Tibetan populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Geng, T T; Liu, L J; Yuan, D Y; Feng, T; Kang, L L; Jin, T B; Chen, C

    2015-08-19

    Current evidence suggests that heredity and metabolic syndrome contribute to gout progression. SLC2A9 and ZNF518B may play a role in gout progression in different populations, but no studies have focused on the Tibetan Chinese population. In this study, we determined whether variations in these 2 genes were correlated with gout-related indices in Chinese-Tibetan gout patients. We detected 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in SLC2A9 and ZNF518B in 319 Chinese Tibetan gout patients. One-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the polymorphisms' effects on gout based on mean serum levels of metabolism indicators. Polymorphisms in SLC2A9 and ZNF518B affected multiple risk factors related to gout development. Significant differences in serum triglyceride levels and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level were detected between different genotypic groups with SLC2A9 polymorphisms rs13129697 (P = 0.022), rs4447863 (P = 0.018), and rs1014290 (P = 0.045). Similarly in ZNF518B, rs3217 (P = 0.016) and rs10016022 (P = 0.046) were associated with high creatinine and glucose levels, respectively. This study is the first to investigate and identify positive correlations between SLC2A9 and ZNF518B gene polymorphisms and metabolic indices in Tibetan gout patients. We found significant evidence indicating that genetic polymorphisms affect gout-related factors in Chinese Tibetan populations.

  13. Drift chamber vertex detectors for SLC/LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, K G

    1988-03-01

    Factors influencing the design of drift chamber vertex detectors for SLC and LEP are discussed including global strategy, chamber gas, cell design, and signal processing. The designs of the vertex chambers for the L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP and the Mark II experiment at the SLC are described.

  14. Reliability and lifetime predictions of SLC klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Lee, T.G.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    The energy upgrade of SLAC, with the first of the new 67 MW SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) klystrons, began over four years ago. Today there are over 200 of these klystrons in operation. As a result, there is a wealth of klystron performance and failure information that enables reasonable predictions to be made on life expectancy and reliability. Data from initial tests, follow-up tests and daily operation monitoring on the accelerator is stored for analysis. Presented here are life expectancy predictions with particular emphasis on cathode life. Also, based on this data, the authors will discuss some of the principal modes of failure. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. A status report on the SLC program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1985-09-01

    The SLC program is an accelerator experiment and a physics experiment. The progress in the accelerator experiment has been rapid, with injector and damping ring components working, conventional construction on schedule, and technical components in production. Accelerator studies will investigate beam-linac and beam-beam interactions, with application to the design of future linear colliders. The physics experiments start in 1987 to study Z 0 properties and to look for new physics effects. Detectors to fully exploit the potential physics are under construction

  16. Reliability and lifetime predictions of SLC klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Lee, T.G.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1989-03-01

    The energy upgrade of SLAC, with the first of the new 67 MW SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) klystrons, began over four years ago. Today there are over 200 of these klystrons in operation. As a result, there is a wealth klystron performance and failure information that enables reasonable predictions to be made on life expectancy and reliability. Data from initial tests, follow-up tests and daily operation monitoring on the accelerator is stores for analysis. Presented here are life expectancy predictions with particular emphasis on cathode life. Also, based on this data, we will discuss some of the principal modes of failure. 3 refs., 2 figs

  17. Recent commissioning experience on the SLC arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toge, N.; Bambade, P.; Barklow, T.; Brown, K.L.; Bulos, F.; Burke, D.L.; Fieguth, T.; Haiessinski, J.; Hutton, A.; Jung, C.; Kheifets, S.A.; Komamiya, S.; Mattison, T.; Murray, J.J.; Phinney, N.; Placidi, M.; Ritson, D.M.; Sands, M.; Sheppard, J.C.; Weinstein, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Arc transport line, which brings high-energy, high-intensity electron and positron bunches from the SLAC linac to the Stanford Linear Collider final focus section, has been in operation for the past few years. In this paper, the authors will review the techniques developed for the optical tune-up and diagnostics, recent performance, and on-going improvement programs. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. LED tests TTO 2010-2011. Focus on energy. Final report; LED Proeven TTO 2010-2011. Focus op energie. Eindverslag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peekstok, T.; Duyvesteijn, R.; Persoon, S.; Sanders, J.; De Jong, A. [Tuinbouw Techniek Ontwikkeling TTO, Honselersdijk (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    An overview is given of research results of the application of LED in the horticulture, focusing on high-growing vegetable crops. In this report LED illuminance research for tomatoes is outlined. The project has been carried out from October 2010 to May 2011 in the demonstration nursery Westland. Also, briefly attention is paid to LED lighting tests, performed by TTO (Horticulture Technology Development) in 2008 and 2009 [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de onderzoeksresultaten in de toepassing van LED belichting in de glastuinbouw, met nadruk op hoogopgaande groentegewassen. In dit verslag wordt het onderzoek met LED belichting in tomaat van telersvereniging 'Tuinbouw Techniek Ontwikkeling' (TTO) uiteengezet. Dit project heeft plaatsgevonden vanaf oktober 2010 tot mei 2011 in de Demokwekerij Westland. Hiernaast worden de proeven met LED belichting, welke uitgevoerd zijn door TTO in 2008 en 2009, kort samengevat.

  19. Production and decay of Z bosons at the SLC [SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.J.

    1989-12-01

    My lectures at Cargese covered the very first physics results from the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). At the time of this writing (December 1989), it seems most sensible to present a review of the results that were presented at the school in an updated form. The organization of this report will be to give a brief introduction to linear colliders and the SLC, then to describe the MARK II detector, and finally to review the current status of the three major physics topics discussed at Cargese: the Z line shape, from which we deduce the Z mass and width, and the number of neutrino species, the partonic structure of hadronic decays and a measurement of α s , and searches for new quarks and leptons. 39 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Determination of electroweak parameters at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrence, E.

    1996-09-01

    We present an improved measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A LR ) for Z 0 boson production by e + e - collisions. The measurement was performed at a center-of-mass energy of 91.28 GeV with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) during the 1994-95 running period. The luminosity-weighted average polarization of the SLC electron beam during this run was measured to be (77.23 ± 0.52)%. Using a sample of 93,644 hadronic Z 0 decays, we measure the pole asymmetry A LR 0 to be 0.1512 ± 0.0042(stat.) ± 0.0011(syst.) which is equivalent to an effective weak mixing angle of sin 2 θ W eff = 0.23100 ± 0.00054(stat.) ± 0.00014(syst.). We also present a preliminary direct measurement of the Z 0 -lepton coupling asymmetries A e , A μ , and A τ extracted from the differential cross section observed in leptonic Z 0 decays. We combine these results with our previous A LR measurement to obtain a combined determination of the weak mixing angle sin 2 θ W eff = 0.23061 ± 0.00047

  1. Machine protection schemes for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The beamline components of a linear collider must be protected from high power beams in a way that is both reliable and has a minimum impact on integrated luminosity. When an upstream accelerator component fault occurs, the machine protection system suppresses the appropriate beam pulses and restores them when the fault clears or is compensated for. If an unacceptable localized beam loss is detected, without an accompanying component fault that is a likely cause of the loss, the system must provide identical, lower rate (lower average power), beam pulses to be used for diagnosis. This must not be done at the expense of any upstream beam stabilization system since fault diagnosis and recovery may take some time. Since the SLC beam pulse sequence is a regenerative one, i.e. correct function on a given pulse requires that several preceding pulses have been successfully completed, beam pulse repetition rate limiting is not trivial. Smooth, rapid, recovery from this type of fault is very important and can have a significant impact on luminosity. This paper provides an overview of the beam suppression and repetition rate limiting schemes used at the SLC

  2. SL(C) 5 migration at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Silva, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Most LCG sites are currently running on SL(C)4. However, this operating system is already rather old, and it is becoming difficult to get the required hardware drivers, to get the best out of recent hardware. A possible way out is the migration to SL(C)5 based systems where possible, in combination with virtualization methods. The former is typically possible for nodes where the software to run the services is available and tested, while the latter offers a possibility to make use of the new hardware platforms whilst maintaining operating system compatibility. Since autumn 2008, CERN has offered public interactive and batch worker nodes for evaluation to the experiments. For the Grid environment, access is granted by a dedicated CEs. The status of the evaluation, feedback received from the experiments and the status of the migration will be reviewed, and the status of virtualization of services at CERN will be reported. Beyond this, the migration to a new operating system also offers an excellent opportunity to upgrade the fabric infrastructure used to manage the servers.

  3. Luminosity Optimization Feedback in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The luminosity optimization at the SLC has been limited by the precision with which one can measure the micron size beams at the Interaction Point. Ten independent tuning parameters must be adjusted. An automated application has been used to scan each parameter over a significant range and set the minimum beam size as measured with a beam-beam deflection scan. Measurement errors limited the accuracy of this procedure and degraded the resulting luminosity. A new luminosity optimization feedback system has been developed using novel dithering techniques to maximize the luminosity with respect to the 10 parameters, which are adjusted one at a time. Control devices are perturbed around nominal setpoints, while the averaged readout of a digitized luminosity monitor measurement is accumulated for each setting. Results are averaged over many pulses to achieve high precision and then fitted to determine the optimal setting. The dithering itself causes a small loss in luminosity, but the improved optimization is expected to significantly enhance the performance of the SLC. Commissioning results are reported

  4. The effects and mechanisms of SLC34A2 on maintaining stem cell-like phenotypes in CD147+ breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yonggang; Wang, Ting; Fan, Jing; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Juliang; Xu, Cheng; Li, Yongping; Zhao, Ge; He, Chenyang; Meng, Huimin; Yang, Hua; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Jiayun; Chen, Jianghao; Wang, Ling

    2017-04-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has gained significant recognition in describing tumorigenesis. Identification of the factors critical to development of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) may provide insight into the improvement of effective therapies against breast cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the biological function of SLC34A2 in affecting the stem cell-like phenotypes in BCSCs and its underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that CD147 + cells from breast cancer tissue samples and cell lines possessed BCSC-like features, including the ability of self-renewal in vitro, differentiation, and tumorigenic potential in vivo. Flow cytometry analysis showed the presence of a variable fraction of CD147 + cells in 9 of 10 tumor samples. Significantly, SLC34A2 expression in CD147 + BCSCs was enhanced compared with that in differentiated adherent progeny of CD147 + BCSCs and adherently cultured cell line cells. In breast cancer patient cohorts, SLC34A2 expression was found increased in 9 of 10 tumor samples. By using lentiviral-based approach, si-SLC34A2-transduced CD147 + BCSCs showed decreased ability of sphere formation, cell viability in vitro, and tumorigenicity in vivo, which suggested the essential role of SLC34A2 in CD147 + BCSCs. Furthermore, PI3K/AKT pathway and SOX2 were found necessary to maintain the stemness of CD147 + BCSCs by using LY294002 or lentiviral-si-SOX2. Finally, we indicated that SLC34A2 could regulate SOX2 to maintain the stem cell-like features in CD147 + BCSCs through PI3K/AKT pathway. Therefore, our report identifies a novel role of SLC34A2 in BCSCs' state regulation and establishes a rationale for targeting the SLC34A2/PI3K/AKT/SOX2 signaling pathway for breast cancer therapy.

  5. Measurement of electron beam polarization at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1988-01-01

    One of the unique features of the SLC is its capability to accelerate longitudinally polarized electrons. The SLC polarization group has been performed to implement the polarization program at the SLC. Technically the polarization project consists of three main parts: (1) a polarized source, (2) spin-rotating superconducting solenoid magnets to be used to manipulate the direction of the electron spin, and (3) the polarimeters needed to monitor and measure the electron beam polarization. It is this last topic that will concern us here. Two types of polarimeters will be used - Compton and Moeller. (orig./HSI)

  6. SLC status and SLAC future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1990-01-01

    In this presentation, I shall discuss the linear collider program at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center as it is now, and as we hope to see it evolve over the next few years. Of greatest interest to the high-energy accelerator physics community gathered here is the development of the linear collider concept, and so I shall concentrate most of this paper on a discussion of the present status and future evolution of the SLC. I will also briefly discuss the research and development program that we are carrying out aimed at the realization of the next generation of higher-energy linear colliders. SLAC has a major colliding-beam storage-ring program as well, including present rings and design studies on future high luminosity projects, but time constraints preclude a discussion of them. (author) 8 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Experience with the SLC permanent magnet multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, G.; Spencer, J.

    1994-06-01

    Permanent magnets have been used in the SLC Damping Rings and their injection and extraction lines since 1985. Recent upgrades of the DR vacuum chambers provided an opportunity to check DR magnets prior to higher beam current operation. Several PM sextupoles downstream of the injection kickers in the electron ring had exceeded their thermal stabilization values of 80 degrees C and some showed serious mechanical deformations and radiation >1 R at contact. We discuss our observations, measurements and a few inexpensive modifications that should improve these magnets under such conditions. A new, block matching algorithm allowed us to use magnet blocks that had been considered unusable because of very different remament field strengths and easy axis errors

  8. Decreased miR-106a inhibits glioma cell glucose uptake and proliferation by targeting SLC2A3 in GBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Dong-Wei; Lu, Qiong; Wang, Lai-Xing; Zhao, Wen-Yuan; Cao, Yi-Qun; Li, Ya-Nan; Han, Guo-Sheng; Liu, Jian-Min; Yue, Zhi-Jian

    2013-10-14

    MiR-106a is frequently down-regulated in various types of human cancer. However the underlying mechanism of miR-106a involved in glioma remains elusive. The association of miR-106a with glioma grade and patient survival was analyzed. The biological function and target of miR-106a were determined by bioinformatic analysis and cell experiments (Western blot, luciferase reporter, cell cycle, ntracellular ATP production and glucose uptake assay). Finally, rescue expression of its target SLC2A3 was used to test the role of SLC2A3 in miR-106a-mediated cell glycolysis and proliferation. Here we showed that miR-106a was a tumor suppressor miRNA was involved in GBM cell glucose uptake and proliferation. Decreased miR-106a in GBM tissues and conferred a poor survival of GBM patients. SLC2A3 was identified as a core target of miR-106a in GBM cells. Inhibition of SLC2A3 by miR-106a attenuated cell proliferation and inhibited glucose uptake. In addition, for each biological process we identified ontology-associated transcripts that significantly correlated with SLC2A3 expression. Finally, the expression of SLC2A3 largely abrogated miR-106a-mediated cell proliferation and glucose uptake in GBM cells. Taken together, miR-106a and SLC2A3 could be potential therapeutic approaches for GBM.

  9. Differential SLC1A2 Promoter Methylation in Bipolar Disorder With or Without Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Fang Jia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While downregulation of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2, the main transporter removing glutamate from the synapse, has been recognized in bipolar disorder (BD, the underlying mechanisms of downregulation have not been elucidated. BD is influenced by environmental factors, which may, via epigenetic modulation of gene expression, differentially affect illness presentation. This study thus focused on epigenetic DNA methylation regulation of SLC1A2, encoding for EAAT2, in BD with variable environmental influences of addiction. High resolution melting PCR (HRM-PCR and thymine–adenine (TA cloning with sequence analysis were conducted to examine methylation of the promoter region of the SLC1A2. DNA was isolated from blood samples drawn from BD patients (N = 150 with or without addiction to alcohol, nicotine, or food, defined as binge eating, and matched controls (N = 32. In comparison to controls, the SLC1A2 promoter region was hypermethylated in BD without addiction but was hypomethylated in BD with addiction. After adjusting for age and sex, the association of methylation levels with nicotine addiction (p = 0.0009 and binge eating (p = 0.0002 remained significant. Consistent with HRM-PCR, direct sequencing revealed increased methylation in CpG site 6 in BD, but decreased methylation in three CpG sites (6, 48, 156 in BD with alcohol and nicotine addictions. These results suggest that individual point methylation within the SLC1A2 promoter region may be modified by exogenous addiction and may have a potential for developing clinically valuable epigenetic biomarkers for BD diagnosis and monitoring.

  10. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  11. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiping Chen

    2006-01-01

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Group at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; (c) Development of elliptic beam theory; and (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX)

  12. Dispersive effects of transverse displacements of SLC Arc magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.; Fieguth, T.; Kheifets, S.

    1986-01-01

    The SLC Arc magnets are subject to random displacements and field errors resulting in unpredictable transverse displacement of the central trajectory from that of the design. The chosen method of correcting this perturbed trajectory in the SLC Arcs utilizes mechanical movement of the combined function magnets which compose the Arc transport lines. Here we present the results of a recent investigation substantiating the earlier results which led to the adoption of this method

  13. An Integrated Enterprise Accelerator Database for the SLC Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception in the early 1980's, the SLC Control System has been driven by a highly structured memory-resident real-time database. While efficient, its rigid structure and file-based sources makes it difficult to maintain and extract relevant information. The goal of transforming the sources for this database into a relational form is to enable it to be part of a Control System Enterprise Database that is an integrated central repository for SLC accelerator device and Control System data with links to other associated databases. We have taken the concepts developed for the NLC Enterprise Database and used them to create and load a relational model of the online SLC Control System database. This database contains data and structure to allow querying and reporting on beamline devices, their associations and parameters. In the future this will be extended to allow generation of EPICS and SLC database files, setup of applications and links to other databases such as accelerator maintenance, archive data, financial and personnel records, cabling information, documentation etc. The database is implemented using Oracle 8i. In the short term it will be updated daily in batch from the online SLC database. In the longer term, it will serve as the primary source for Control System static data, an R and D platform for the NLC, and contribute to SLC Control System operations

  14. SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are phosphate-linked, glucose-6-phosphate antiporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jiunn Pan

    Full Text Available Blood glucose homeostasis between meals depends upon production of glucose within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of the liver and kidney by hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P into glucose and phosphate (P(i. This reaction depends on coupling the G6P transporter (G6PT with glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α. Only one G6PT, also known as SLC37A4, has been characterized, and it acts as a P(i-linked G6P antiporter. The other three SLC37 family members, predicted to be sugar-phosphate:P(i exchangers, have not been characterized functionally. Using reconstituted proteoliposomes, we examine the antiporter activity of the other SLC37 members along with their ability to couple with G6Pase-α. G6PT- and mock-proteoliposomes are used as positive and negative controls, respectively. We show that SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are ER-associated, P(i-linked antiporters, that can transport G6P. Unlike G6PT, neither is sensitive to chlorogenic acid, a competitive inhibitor of physiological ER G6P transport, and neither couples to G6Pase-α. We conclude that three of the four SLC37 family members are functional sugar-phosphate antiporters. However, only G6PT/SLC37A4 matches the characteristics of the physiological ER G6P transporter, suggesting the other SLC37 proteins have roles independent of blood glucose homeostasis.

  15. Precision electroweak heavy flavor results from LEP and SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.

    1993-11-01

    The traditional Electroweak measurements made at Z factories using undifferentiated hadronic and leptonic Z decays will soon be reaching their asymptotic limits in precision. Consequently, much attention has recently been focused on extracting electroweak parameters from hadronic decays differentiated through heavy flavor tagging. This paper gives an overview of the various techniques used at LEP and SLC to tag heavy flavors. The measurements of the forward backward asymmetries and the partial widths for Z→b anti b and Z→c anti c decays are briefly described. The most recent results for these are presented, and are interpreted within the framework of the Standard Model. The precision of the electroweak parameters extracted from these measurements is shown to be comparable to that from other techniques. Assembling all the LEP electroweak data, constraints on the top and Higgs masses are found. The heavy flavor results, and in particular the new, very accurate Z→b anti b partial width measurements, are shown to play a key role in these limits. (orig.)

  16. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area - Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Mark Lee

    2002-04-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB. It has the needed binding rate and capacity, but some of the chemical species that might be present in the containers could interfere with its ability to remove hydrogen. This project is focused upon developing a protective polymeric membrane coating for the DEB getter material, which comes in the form of small, irregularly shaped particles. This report summarizes the experimental results of the second phase of the development of the materials.

  17. Essay: Bob Siemann-SLC Days at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, Tor O.

    2008-01-01

    Bob Siemann was a great experimentalist and an excellent teacher.We will greatly miss him. Bob came to SLAC in early 1991 to work on the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC was a challenging accelerator which began operating in the late 1980's but still had numerous obstacles to be overcome years into operation. One of the compounding difficulties was making reproducible measurements, since the stability of the collider was poor and the diagnostics were insufficient. Bob dove into this challenge and helped design experiments and diagnostics that provided further clarity. I first got to know Bob while I was still a graduate student, trying to finish my thesis and performing some experimental studies on the SLC, which, at the time, was proving to be very difficult. Most of my expertise had been in beam theory and simulation. Dealing with the real issues of the accelerator was challenging. Bob helped me understand the difference between systematic and statistical errors, and separate operational issues from the fundamental physics. His way of teaching was not to provide an explanation but to ask enough questions so that I could find the answer on my own - this was the best way to learn. I later asked Bob to be a reader on my thesis. As in all things, he took this role extremely seriously. He read through the draft and marked every page to the point where I was regretting my decision. However, his questions again helped me understand my own work better and greatly improved my thesis. Bob was also the de facto leader of an effort focused on the damping rings and the bunch compressors. He was great to work with. He made people think for themselves and refused to simply provide answers. He also worked hard himself, expressing real interest and curiosity. After the studies of the SLC damping rings identified a sawtooth instability due to the vacuum chamber impedance as a source of many downstream fluctuations, Bob took charge of upgrading the rings. As part of this

  18. Heavy quark production at SLC and LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearty, C.

    1990-06-01

    Experiments at SLC and LEP have made preliminary measurements of the relative partial widths of the c and b quarks. Using D* tagging, DELPHI has found R c bar c triple-bond/Γ c bar c/Γ hadr. = 0.162 ± 0.032 ± 0.031, in good agreement with the Standard Model value of 0.171. ALEPH has used semileptonic decays of charm to obtain 0.148 ± 0.044 -0.038 +0.045 . Three experiments have used semileptonic Β decays to measurement R b bar b: R b bar b = 0.23 ± 0.10 (Mark II), 0.218 ± 0.010 ± 0.021 (L3), and 0.220 ± 0.016 ± 0.024 (ALEPH). All agree well with the expected value of 0.217. The uncertainty in branching ratios of c and b hadrons is the largest systematic error in all of the results. Future LEP measurements of the branching ratios may reduce the errors. R b bar b will also be measured with different, and possibly lower, systematic errors by Mark II using impact parameter tagging

  19. Situational analysis of the Canadian renewable energy sector with a focus on human resource issues : 2007 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Several factors are steering world energy supplies away from traditional fossil fuel sources and toward renewable energy technologies. As a result, renewable energy markets are experiencing significant growth, and experts predict this trend will continue. As of 2004, 2 per cent of Canada's total electricity generation capacity was provided from emerging renewable technologies, excluding large scale hydro which represents 56 per cent of Canada's electricity generation capacity. The development of renewable energy sources in Canada is expected to contribute to Canada's economic prosperity by providing diversified energy supply to industrial buyers, generating direct economic advantages and employment to local communities, as well as direct benefits such as improved air quality and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Human Resources and Social Development Canada contracted the Delphi Group to provide information on the labour market for the renewable energy sector in Canada in order to identify the steps needed to help the sector in developing a human resource strategy. This report provided an overview of key characteristics defining the renewable energy subsectors in Canada along with anticipated changes in the near term. The study focused on the following technologies: wind turbines; photovoltaics; active solar thermal; geoexchange/earth energy; small scale hydropower; bioenergy; and, ocean energy. A reliable estimate of the labour demands in the subsectors over the next 5 to 10 year was presented along with a review of the human resource issues affecting the sector. This project was guided by an advisory committee of members from 4 sector councils; 3 government agencies including Environment Canada, Industry Canada and Natural Resources Canada; 4 industry associations representing bioenergy, geothermal energy, solar energy and wind energy; and other organizations including the Association of Canadian Community Colleges, the Canadian Council of Technicians and

  20. Measurements of longitudinal phase space in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Adolphsen, C.; Lavine, T.L.; Ross, M.; Seeman, J.; Thompson, K.

    1990-05-01

    In the Stanford Linear Collider the beam leaves a damping ring and then enters the Ring-to-Linac (RTL) transfer line. In the RTL it is compressed in length by a factor of 10 by means of an rf section, with which a longitudinally correlated energy variation is induced in the beam, and a following beam line which has non-zero momentum compaction. The compressed beam then enters the linac proper. In this paper we describe three measurements of longitudinal properties of the beam in the SLC linac. We present measurements of single bunch beam loading, of the energy spectrum at the end of the linac, and of the linac bunch length. Since the results of all three measurements depend on the beam's longitudinal charge distribution in the linac they, in turn, also depend on the bunch lengthening that occurs in the damping rings, as well as on the behavior of the compressor. The results of the first two measurements, in addition, depend critically on the strength of the longitudinal wakefields in the linac. The results of these three measurements are compared with simulations. For these calculations, at any given current, the potential well distortion in the damping ring is first computed. The compression process is then simulated to obtain the longitudinal charge distribution in the linac. For the first two measurements this distribution is then convolved with the calculated longitudinal wake function of the SLAC linac in order to obtain the induced voltage. Finally, the induced voltage is combined with the effect of the linac rf wave to give the final energy spectrum. 8 refs., 5 figs

  1. Generation and acceleration of high intensity beams in the SLC injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.C.; Browne, M.J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Jobe, R.K.; Seeman, J.T.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stiening, R.F.

    1985-04-01

    A new gun pulser and substantially increased focusing have been added to the first 100 m of the SLAC linac in order to provide a pair of intense electron bunches to the SLC damping ring. Each bunch from this injector must have 5 x 10 10 electrons, an invariant emittance γepsilon less than or equal to 1.8 x 10 -3 m-rad and the pair must have an energy spread of less than 2%. Wakefield instabilities present in earlier versions of this injector have been controlled by reducing the transverse beam dimension by a factor of 3

  2. Secondary vertex detection at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The vertex topology of a high energy e + e - interaction contains a wealth of information. These interactions copiously produce the tau lepton and hadrons containing the c and b quarks; all these particles decay within a millimeter or so of the primary interaction point, giving these interactions a rich secondary vertex structure. With suitable detectors, one can hope to reconstruct these vertices and so tag events with tau's, c's and b's; measure lifetimes and mixing angles; and perhaps directly measure the flavor of c and b jets. The spatial resolution and track-pair resolution required of such detectors demand detector development, but several techniques, including solid state microstrip and CCD detectors, pressurized drift chambers, and holographic bubbble chambers look promising. Vertex detection in the colliding beam environment has already yielded a measurement of the tau lifetime. The SLC, with its micron-sized beam and one-centimeter sized beam pipe is uniquely suited for these studies. Compared to conventional storage rings, it offers a well-defined and minute primary interaction point, the possibility of locating a detector within a centimeter of the interaction (an order of magnitude improvement over LEP), negligibly thin beam pipes, and a repetition rate low enough to permit novel detectors and readout schemes. This report discusses the physics accessible with vertex detectors, depicts the physics environment at 100 GeV - particle multiplicities, momenta, angular correlations, and topologies of charm decays, sketches the elements of a vertex detector, and, through some model studies evaluates the spatial resolution and track-pair resolution requirements, and summarizes the detector technologies which seem most promising for vertex detection

  3. Bunch length measurements in the SLC damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.; Ross, M.

    1993-05-01

    The synchrotron light of the SLC damping ring was used to measure the bunch length with a streak camera at different times in the damping cycle. There are bunch length oscillations after injection, different equilibrium length during the cycle due to rf manipulations to avoid microwave instability oscillations, and just before extraction there is a longitudinal phase space rotation (bunch muncher) to shorten the bunch length. Measurements under these different conditions are presented and compared with BPM pulse height signals. Calibration and adjustment issues and the connection of the streak camera to the SLC control system are also discussed

  4. SLC9B1 methylation predicts fetal intolerance of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Anna K; Conneely, Karen N; Kilaru, Varun; Cobb, Dawayland; Payne, Jennifer L; Meilman, Samantha; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Kaminsky, Zachary A; Dunlop, Anne L; Smith, Alicia K

    2018-01-01

    Fetal intolerance of labor is a common indication for delivery by Caesarean section. Diagnosis is based on the presence of category III fetal heart rate tracing, which is an abnormal heart tracing associated with increased likelihood of fetal hypoxia and metabolic acidemia. This study analyzed data from 177 unique women who, during their prenatal visits (7-15 weeks and/or 24-32 weeks) to Atlanta area prenatal care clinics, consented to provide blood samples for DNA methylation (HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) and gene expression (Human HT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip) analyses. We focused on 57 women aged 18-36 (mean 25.4), who had DNA methylation data available from their second prenatal visit. DNA methylation patterns at CpG sites across the genome were interrogated for associations with fetal intolerance of labor. Four CpG sites (P value intolerance of labor. DNA methylation and gene expression were negatively associated when examined longitudinally during pregnancy using a linear mixed-effects model. Positive predictive values of methylation of these four sites ranged from 0.80 to 0.89, while negative predictive values ranged from 0.91 to 0.92. The four CpG sites were also associated with fetal intolerance of labor in an independent cohort (the Johns Hopkins Prospective PPD cohort). Therefore, fetal intolerance of labor could be accurately predicted from maternal blood samples obtained between 24-32 weeks gestation. Fetal intolerance of labor may be accurately predicted from maternal blood samples obtained between 24-32 weeks gestation by assessing DNA methylation patterns of SLC9B1. The identification of pregnant women at elevated risk for fetal intolerance of labor may allow for the development of targeted treatments or management plans.

  5. Action Potential Shortening and Impairment of Cardiac Function by Ablation of Slc26a6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirish, Padmini; Ledford, Hannah A; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Thai, Phung N; Ren, Lu; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong Han; Dai, Gu; Moshref, Maryam; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Chen, Wei Chun; Timofeyeva, Maria Valeryevna; Jian, Zhong; Shimkunas, Rafael; Izu, Leighton T; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Chen-Izu, Ye; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-10-01

    Intracellular pH (pH i ) is critical to cardiac excitation and contraction; uncompensated changes in pH i impair cardiac function and trigger arrhythmia. Several ion transporters participate in cardiac pH i regulation. Our previous studies identified several isoforms of a solute carrier Slc26a6 to be highly expressed in cardiomyocytes. We show that Slc26a6 mediates electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities in cardiomyocytes, suggesting the potential role of Slc26a6 in regulation of not only pH i , but also cardiac excitability. To test the mechanistic role of Slc26a6 in the heart, we took advantage of Slc26a6 knockout ( Slc26a6 -/ - ) mice using both in vivo and in vitro analyses. Consistent with our prediction of its electrogenic activities, ablation of Slc26a6 results in action potential shortening. There are reduced Ca 2+ transient and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ load, together with decreased sarcomere shortening in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes. These abnormalities translate into reduced fractional shortening and cardiac contractility at the in vivo level. Additionally, pH i is elevated in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes with slower recovery kinetics from intracellular alkalization, consistent with the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities of Slc26a6. Moreover, Slc26a6 -/ - mice show evidence of sinus bradycardia and fragmented QRS complex, supporting the critical role of Slc26a6 in cardiac conduction system. Our study provides mechanistic insights into Slc26a6, a unique cardiac electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - transporter in ventricular myocytes, linking the critical roles of Slc26a6 in regulation of pH i , excitability, and contractility. pH i is a critical regulator of other membrane and contractile proteins. Future studies are needed to investigate possible changes in these proteins in Slc26a6 -/ - mice. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Inhibitors of GLUT/SLC2A Enhance the Action of BCNU and Temozolomide against High-Grade Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Azzalin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucose transport across glioblastoma membranes plays a crucial role in maintaining the enhanced glycolysis typical of high-grade gliomas and glioblastoma. We tested the ability of two inhibitors of the glucose transporters GLUT/SLC2A superfamily, indinavir (IDV and ritonavir (RTV, and of one inhibitor of the Na/glucose antiporter type 2 (SGLT2/SLC5A2 superfamily, phlorizin (PHZ, in decreasing glucose consumption and cell proliferation of human and murine glioblastoma cells. We found in vitro that RTV, active on at least three different GLUT/SLC2A transporters, was more effective than IDV, a specific inhibitor of GLUT4/SLC2A4, both in decreasing glucose consumption and lactate production and in inhibiting growth of U87MG and Hu197 human glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures of human glioblastoma. PHZ was inactive on the same cells. Similar results were obtained when cells were grown in adherence or as 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. RTV treatment but not IDV treatment induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα phosphorylation that paralleled the decrease in glycolytic activity and cell growth. IDV, but not RTV, induced an increase in GLUT1/SLC2A1 whose activity could compensate for the inhibition of GLUT4/SLC2A4 by IDV. RTV and IDV pass poorly the blood brain barrier and are unlikely to reach sufficient liquoral concentrations in vivo to inhibit glioblastoma growth as single agents. Isobologram analysis of the association of RTV or IDV and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU or 4-methyl-5-oxo-2,3,4,6,8-pentazabicyclo[4.3.0]nona-2,7,9-triene-9-carboxamide (TMZ indicated synergy only with RTV on inhibition of glioblastoma cells. Finally, we tested in vivo the combination of RTV and BCNU on established GL261 tumors. This drug combination increased the overall survival and allowed a five-fold reduction in the dose of BCNU.

  7. Nomenclature of SLC Arc beamline components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.; Weng, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This note defines I and C formal names for beamline components in the Arc as specified in the TRANSPORT decks ARCN FINAL and ARCS FINAL of June 5, 1985. The formal name consists of three fields: the primary name, the zone and the unit number. The general principles and guidelines are explained in Reference 1. The rationale and the final resolutions of the naming conventions for the Arc are explained

  8. History Data Facility in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.G.; White, G.R.

    1991-10-01

    Two major enhancements to the SLC History Data Facility are described separately. First the internal design and procedures used for saving and using long term history data. Second the user interface, facilities and application of the History Data Comparisons sub-system, which is used for analyzing and correlating two or more accelerator device histories

  9. Review of lattice measurement techniques at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.; Emma, P.; Krejcik, P.; Walker, N.

    1991-11-01

    A technique is described for reconstructing the first order transport matrix (R) for a given beam line. Emphasis is placed on the rigorous error analysis of the data, and the use of powerful statistical techniques to estimate unknown systematic errors. The application of the technique to the measurement and subsequent correction of the SLC Arcs is briefly described. 5 refs., 4 figs

  10. An adiabatic focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Oide, K.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical analysis is made of an intense relativistic electron beam, such as would be available from a linear collider, moving through a plasma of increasing density, but density always less than that of the beam (underdense). In this situation, the plasma electrons are expelled from the beam channel and the electrons are subject to an ever-increasing focusing force provided by the channel ions. Analysis is made on the beam radiation energy loss in the classical, the transition, and the quantum regimes. It is shown that the focuser is insensitive to the beam energy spread behaviors in the nonclassical regimes, the radiation limit on lenses (the Oide limit) can be exceeded. The sensitivity of the system to the topic mismatch and the nonlinearity is also analyzed. Examples are given with SLC-type and TLC-type parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab

  11. Finding beam focus errors automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    An automated method for finding beam focus errors using an optimization program called COMFORT-PLUS. The steps involved in finding the correction factors using COMFORT-PLUS has been used to find the beam focus errors for two damping rings at the SLAC Linear Collider. The program is to be used as an off-line program to analyze actual measured data for any SLC system. A limitation on the application of this procedure is found to be that it depends on the magnitude of the machine errors. Another is that the program is not totally automated since the user must decide a priori where to look for errors

  12. Implementation and validation of the linear collider final focus prototype: ATF2 at KEK (Japan); Implementation et validation de la focalisation finale du collisionneur lineaire: ATF2 at KEK (Japan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renier, Y.

    2010-06-15

    The two linear collider projects (ILC and CLIC) require beam delivery systems with the same local chromaticity correction scheme in the final focus. ATF2 at KEK (Japan), an implementation of this scheme scaled down in energy, uses the beam extracted from ATF, which is one of the most successful damping rings in the world. The ATF2 goals are to prove the feasibility and the stability of the linear collider final focus system and to define and test the experimental correction procedures. The nominal beam sizes at the interaction point are 3 {mu}m horizontally and 37 nm vertically. The work in this thesis was started before the commissioning and covered its first year at KEK. At the beginning, we observed that the stripline BPMs were not working properly so we investigated their behavior in detail. The problem was characterized and later solved in 2010 by upgrading the electronics. We then developed an efficient procedure to check the modeling of the beam line, comparing measurements of transfer matrices to model predictions calculated on line. After obtaining a good agreement, we were able to successfully test the trajectory correction algorithm which had been developed, reducing the difference between BPM measurements and the target values down to 0.5 mm horizontally and 0.2 mm vertically. We also successfully developed an algorithm to reconstruct pulse to pulse beam trajectory fluctuations with sub-micron precision. This reconstruction also gave a precise determination of the energy fluctuation, allowing a global fit of the dispersion function along the beam line with a precision of a few mm. A simple and robust IP beam size tuning method using sextupoles displacements was also studied in simulation, whose performance indicates that, given some assumptions on the error level of the beam, convergence within 20% of the nominal beam size should be possible in 8 hours with a 80% probability. (author)

  13. The Human SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 Genes of Solute Carrier Family 25 Encode Two Mitochondrial Pyrimidine Nucleotide Transporters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Todisco, Simona; Cirigliano, Angela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Agrimi, Gennaro; Iacobazzi, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport inorganic anions, amino acids, carboxylates, nucleotides, and coenzymes across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. Here two members of this family, SLC25A33 and SLC25A36, have been thoroughly characterized biochemically. These proteins were overexpressed in bacteria and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Their transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A33 transports uracil, thymine, and cytosine (deoxy)nucleoside di- and triphosphates by an antiport mechanism and SLC25A36 cytosine and uracil (deoxy)nucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates by uniport and antiport. Both carriers also transported guanine but not adenine (deoxy)nucleotides. Transport catalyzed by both carriers was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. In confirmation of their identity (i) SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 were found to be targeted to mitochondria and (ii) the phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking RIM2, the gene encoding the well characterized yeast mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier, were overcome by expressing SLC25A33 or SLC25A36 in these cells. The main physiological role of SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 is to import/export pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria, i.e. to accomplish transport steps essential for mitochondrial DNA and RNA synthesis and breakdown. PMID:25320081

  14. The human SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 genes of solute carrier family 25 encode two mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Todisco, Simona; Cirigliano, Angela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Agrimi, Gennaro; Iacobazzi, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-11-28

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport inorganic anions, amino acids, carboxylates, nucleotides, and coenzymes across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. Here two members of this family, SLC25A33 and SLC25A36, have been thoroughly characterized biochemically. These proteins were overexpressed in bacteria and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Their transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A33 transports uracil, thymine, and cytosine (deoxy)nucleoside di- and triphosphates by an antiport mechanism and SLC25A36 cytosine and uracil (deoxy)nucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates by uniport and antiport. Both carriers also transported guanine but not adenine (deoxy)nucleotides. Transport catalyzed by both carriers was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. In confirmation of their identity (i) SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 were found to be targeted to mitochondria and (ii) the phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking RIM2, the gene encoding the well characterized yeast mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier, were overcome by expressing SLC25A33 or SLC25A36 in these cells. The main physiological role of SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 is to import/export pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria, i.e. to accomplish transport steps essential for mitochondrial DNA and RNA synthesis and breakdown. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Truncating SLC5A7 mutations underlie a spectrum of dominant hereditary motor neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Claire G; Beijer, Danique; Hardy, Holly; Barwick, Katy E S; Bower, Matthew; Mademan, Ines; De Jonghe, Peter; Deconinck, Tine; Russell, Mark A; McEntagart, Meriel M; Chioza, Barry A; Blakely, Randy D; Chilton, John K; De Bleecker, Jan; Baets, Jonathan; Baple, Emma L; Walk, David; Crosby, Andrew H

    2018-04-01

    To identify the genetic cause of disease in 2 previously unreported families with forms of distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs). The first family comprises individuals affected by dHMN type V, which lacks the cardinal clinical feature of vocal cord paralysis characteristic of dHMN-VII observed in the second family. Next-generation sequencing was performed on the proband of each family. Variants were annotated and filtered, initially focusing on genes associated with neuropathy. Candidate variants were further investigated and confirmed by dideoxy sequence analysis and cosegregation studies. Thorough patient phenotyping was completed, comprising clinical history, examination, and neurologic investigation. dHMNs are a heterogeneous group of peripheral motor neuron disorders characterized by length-dependent neuropathy and progressive distal limb muscle weakness and wasting. We previously reported a dominant-negative frameshift mutation located in the concluding exon of the SLC5A7 gene encoding the choline transporter (CHT), leading to protein truncation, as the likely cause of dominantly-inherited dHMN-VII in an extended UK family. In this study, our genetic studies identified distinct heterozygous frameshift mutations located in the last coding exon of SLC5A7 , predicted to result in the truncation of the CHT C-terminus, as the likely cause of the condition in each family. This study corroborates C-terminal CHT truncation as a cause of autosomal dominant dHMN, confirming upper limb predominating over lower limb involvement, and broadening the clinical spectrum arising from CHT malfunction.

  16. Drosophila SLC5A11 Mediates Hunger by Regulating K(+) Channel Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Yong; Dus, Monica; Kim, Seonil; Abu, Farhan; Kanai, Makoto I; Rudy, Bernardo; Suh, Greg S B

    2016-08-08

    Hunger is a powerful drive that stimulates food intake. Yet, the mechanism that determines how the energy deficits that result in hunger are represented in the brain and promote feeding is not well understood. We previously described SLC5A11-a sodium/solute co-transporter-like-(or cupcake) in Drosophila melanogaster, which is required for the fly to select a nutritive sugar over a sweeter nonnutritive sugar after periods of food deprivation. SLC5A11 acts on approximately 12 pairs of ellipsoid body (EB) R4 neurons to trigger the selection of nutritive sugars, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here, we report that the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing EB R4 neurons increases dramatically during starvation and that this increase is abolished in the SLC5A11 mutation. Artificial activation of SLC5A11-expresssing neurons is sufficient to promote feeding and hunger-driven behaviors; silencing these neurons has the opposite effect. Notably, SLC5A11 transcript levels in the brain increase significantly when flies are starved and decrease shortly after starved flies are refed. Furthermore, expression of SLC5A11 is sufficient for promoting hunger-driven behaviors and enhancing the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons. SLC5A11 inhibits the function of the Drosophila KCNQ potassium channel in a heterologous expression system. Accordingly, a knockdown of dKCNQ expression in SLC5A11-expressing neurons produces hunger-driven behaviors even in fed flies, mimicking the overexpression of SLC5A11. We propose that starvation increases SLC5A11 expression, which enhances the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons by suppressing dKCNQ channels, thereby conferring the hunger state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SLC1 and SLC4 encode partially redundant acyl-coenzyme A 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases of budding yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benghezal, Mohammed; Roubaty, Carole; Veepuri, Vijayanath

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid is the intermediate, from which all glycerophospholipids are synthesized. In yeast, it is generated from lysophosphatidic acid, which is acylated by Slc1p, an sn-2-specific, acyl-coenzyme A-dependent 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. Deletion of SLC1 is not lethal...

  18. Energy spread in SLC linac with Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of using Landau damping to reduce the growth of the beam size due to transverse wake fields has been known for some time. Recently K. Bane has calculated the effects of Landau damping for the SLC. The energy spread is then slowly removed so that at the end of the linac it has returned to the SLC specification of less than +0.5%. The purpose of the energy spread is to reduce the resonant driving of the tail of the bunch by the head. In this note the expected energy spreads within the beam are tabulated at various positions along the linac for use by those people designing momentum dependent equipment and for those interested in Landau damping

  19. Spin motion of electrons in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1990-01-01

    It is generally expected that the depolarizing effects of the linear accelerator RF fields will be small. Recently Bill Atwood raised the question whether this conclusion is still correct in view of the fact that the particles in the SLC spend a larger fraction of their time at phase angles ''off crest'' due to BNS damping; since radial fields are in quadrature with the accelerating field this might imply that depolarizing effects are larger. On the other hand, because of the smaller emittance of the SLC relative to the earlier linac radial excursions would be smaller. The anticipation is therefore that the depolarizing effect will again be negligible but it might be worthwhile to update the early calculations of SLAC TN-63-97 revised in this paper

  20. Correlation plot facility in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Phinney, N.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.

    1991-05-01

    The Correlation Plot facility is a powerful interactive tool for data acquisition and analysis throughout the SLC. A generalized interface allows the user to perform a wide variety of machine physics experiments without the need for specialized software. It has been used extensively during SLC commissioning and operation. The user may step one or two independent parameters such as magnet or feedback setpoints while measuring or calculating up to 160 others. Measured variables include all analog signals available to the control system as well as a variety of derived parameters such as beam size or emittance. Various fitting algorithms and display options are provided for data analysis. A software-callable interface is also provided. Applications based on this facility are used to phase klystrons, measure emittance and dispersion, minimize beam size at the interaction point and maintain beam collisions. 4 refs., 3 figs

  1. Three bunch energy stabilization for the SLC injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, J.C.; Almog, I.; Bambade, P.S.; Clendenin, J.E.; Jobe, R.K.; Phinney, N.; Shoaee, H.; Stiening, R.F.; Thompson, K.A.

    1986-09-01

    Slow feedback has been developed to control the energy and energy spread of the beams which are injected into the SLC damping rings. Within a single RF pulse, two bunches of electrons and one bunch of positrons are accelerated to an energy of 1.21 GeV in the injector of the SLC. The two electron bunches are deflected into the north damping ring while the positrons are targeted into the south ring. In order to fit into the acceptance of the rings, the composite energy deviation and energy spread of the beams must be less than 2% full width. Control of the beam energy characteristics is accomplished with a set of computer controlled feedback loops which monitor the parameters of the three bunches and make adjustments to the available RF energy, RF phasing, and RF timing. This paper presents an overview of the feedback algorithms and of the special hardware developments, and reports on the operational status of the processes

  2. SLC6 Neurotransmitter Transporters: Structure, Function, and Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders S; Andersen, Jacob; Jørgensen, Trine N

    2011-01-01

    The neurotransmitter transporters (NTTs) belonging to the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family (also referred to as the neurotransmitter-sodium-symporter family or Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters) comprise a group of nine sodium- and chloride-dependent plasma membrane transporters...... for the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), dopamine, and norepinephrine, and the amino acid neurotransmitters GABA and glycine. The SLC6 NTTs are widely expressed in the mammalian brain and play an essential role in regulating neurotransmitter signaling and homeostasis by mediating uptake...... of released neurotransmitters from the extracellular space into neurons and glial cells. The transporters are targets for a wide range of therapeutic drugs used in treatment of psychiatric diseases, including major depression, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy...

  3. First results from SLD with polarized electron beam at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fero, M.J.

    1992-12-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) has been modified to collide a longitudinally polarized electron beam with the unpolarized positron beam. We review the beginning of polarized beam running at the SLC, and report on the measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A LR ) made with a sample of 10,224 Z decays collected over the course of the 1992 run. The average beam polarization for this set of Z decays was 22.4 ± 0.6%(syst.). A LR was measured to be 0.100 ± 0.044(stat.) ± 0.004(syst.). From this measurement, the weak mixing angle defined at the Z boson pole is determined to be sin 2 θ eff W = 0.2378 ± 0.0056 ± 0.0005

  4. Differential expression of the Slc4 bicarbonate transporter family in murine corneal endothelium and cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, William; Liu, Jun; Htoon, Hla M; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga N

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the relative expression levels of all the solute carrier 4 (Slc4) transporter family members (Slc4a1-Slc4a11) in murine corneal endothelium using real-time quantitative (qPCR), to identify further important members besides Slc4a11 and Slc4a4, and to explore how close to the baseline levels the gene expressions remain after cells have been subjected to expansion and culture. Descemet's membrane-endothelial layers of 8-10-week-old C57BL6 mice were stripped from corneas and used for both primary cell culture and direct RNA extraction. Total RNA (from uncultured cells as well as cultured cells at passages 2 and 7) was reverse transcribed, and the cDNA was used for real time qPCR using specific primers for all the Slc4 family members. The geNorm method was applied to determine the most stable housekeeping genes and normalization factor, which was calculated from multiple housekeeping genes for more accurate and robust quantification. qPCR analyses revealed that all Slc4 bicarbonate transporter family members were expressed in mouse corneal endothelium. Slc4a11 showed the highest expression, which was approximately three times higher than that of Slc4a4 (3.4±0.3; p=0.004). All Slc4 genes were also expressed in cultured cells, and interestingly, the expression of Slc4a11 in cultured cells was significantly reduced by approximately 20-fold (0.05±0.001; p=0.000001) in early passage and by approximately sevenfold (0.14±0.002; p=0.000002) in late passage cells. Given the known involvement of SLC4A4 and SLC4A11 in corneal dystrophies, we speculate that the other two highly expressed genes in the uncultured corneal endothelium, SLC4A2 and SLC4A7, are worthy of being considered as potential candidate genes for corneal endothelial diseases. Moreover, as cell culture can affect expression levels of Slc4 genes, caution and careful design of experiments are necessary when undertaking studies of Slc4-mediated ion transport in cultured cells.

  5. Impedance calculations for the improved SLC damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Ng, C.K.

    1993-04-01

    A longitudinal, single bunch instability is observed in the damping rings of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Beyond a threshold bunch population of 3 x 10 10 particles the bunch energy spread increases and a ''saw-tooth'' variation in bunch length and synchronous phase as functions of time is observed. Although the relative amplitude of the saw-tooth variation is small-only on the order of 10% -- the resulting unpredictability of the beam properties in the rest of the SLC accelerator makes it difficult, if not impossible, to operate the machine above the threshold current. An additional problem at higher currents is that the bunch length is greatly increased. When the bunch is very long in the ring it becomes difficult or impossible to properly compress it after extraction. We want to solve both of these problems so that the SLC can run at higher currents to increase the luminosity. In order to solve these problems the vacuum chambers of both damping rings are being rebuilt with the aim of reducing their impedance. According to previous calculations the impedance the SLC damping rings is dominated by the many small discontinuities that are located in the so-called QD and QF vacuum chamber segments -- elements such as transitions, masks, bellows-that are inductive to the beam, Since these earlier calculations were performed the bellows of the QD segments have been sleeved, yielding a factor of 2 increase in the instability threshold. In this paper we begin by discussing the gains that might be achieved if we can reduce the impedance of the rings even further. Then we estimate the effect on the total impedance of the actual design changes that are being proposed. Three important elements -- the bend-to-quad transitions, the distributed ion pump slots, and the beam position monitor (BPM) electrodes are fully 3-dimensional and will be studied using T3 of the MAFIA computer programs

  6. Bunch lengthening calculations for the SLC [Stanford Linear Collider] damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Ruth, R.D.

    1989-03-01

    The problem of bunch lengthening in electron storage rings has been treated by many people, and there have been many experiments. In the typical experiment, the theory is used to determine the impedance of the ring. What has been lacking thus far, however, is a calculation of bunch lengthening that uses a carefully calculated ring impedance (or wakefield). In this paper we begin by finding the potential well distortion due to some very simple impedance models, in order to illustrate different types of bunch lengthening behavior. We then give a prescription for extending potential well calculations into the turbulent regime once the threshold is known. Then finally, using the wakefield calculated for the SLC damping rings, combined with the measured value of the threshold, we calculate bunch lengthening for the damping rings, and compare the results with the measurements. 9 refs., 6 figs

  7. Precise system stabilization at SLC using dither techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.C.; Hendrickson, L.; Himel, T.; Miller, E.

    1993-01-01

    A data acquisition method has been developed at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) that provides accurate beam parameter information using sub-tolerance excitation and synchronized detection. This is being applied to several SLC sub-systems to provide high speed feedback on beam parameters such as linac output energy spread. The method has significantly improved control of the linac energy spread. The linac average phase offset (θ), used to compensate the effects of longitudinal wakefields, is adjusted ±l control bit (about 0.18 degree S-band or 20% of tolerance), in a continuous fashion. Properly coordinated beam energy measurements provide a measure of the derivative of the accelerating voltage (dE/dθ). The position of the beam on the RF wave can thus be determined to ± 0.3 degree in about 5 seconds. The dithering does not contribute significantly to the energy jitter of the SLC and therefore does not adversely affect routine operation. Future applications include control of the interaction region beam size and orientation

  8. Disruption of Slc52a3 gene causes neonatal lethality with riboflavin deficiency in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Yamanishi, Kaori; Yao, Yoshiaki; Sugano, Kumiko; Nakagawa, Shunsaku; Imai, Satoshi; Omura, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Yano, Ikuko; Masuda, Satohiro; Inui, Ken-ichi; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Homeostasis of riboflavin should be maintained by transporters. Previous in vitro studies have elucidated basic information about riboflavin transporter RFVT3 encoded by SLC52A3 gene. However, the contribution of RFVT3 to the maintenance of riboflavin homeostasis and the significance in vivo remain unclear. Here, we investigated the physiological role of RFVT3 using Slc52a3 knockout (Slc52a3−/−) mice. Most Slc52a3−/− mice died with hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia within 48 hr after birth. The...

  9. A laser-based beam profile monitor for the SLC/SLD interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, R.; Arnett, D.; Bong, E.; Colocho, W.; Frisch, J.; Horton-Smith, S.; Inman, W.; Jobe, K.; Kotseroglou, T.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Scheeff, M.; Wagner, S.; Ross, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Beam size estimates made using beam-beam deflections are used for optimization of the Stanford linear collider (SLC) electron-positron beam sizes. Typical beam sizes and intensities expected for 1996 operations are 2.1 x 0.6 μm (x, y) at 4.0.10 10 particles per pulse. Conventional profile monitors, such as scanning wires, fail at charge densities well below this. The laser-based profile monitor uses a finely-focused 350-nm wavelength tripled YLF laser pulse that traverses the particle beam path about 29 cm away from the e + /e - IP. Compton scattered photons and degraded e + /e - are detected as the beam is steered across the laser pulse. The laser pulse has a transverse size of 380 nm and a Rayleigh range of about 5 μm. (orig.)

  10. Development of a compact HTS lead unit for the SC correction coils of the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zhanguo, E-mail: zhanguo.zong@kek.jp; Ohuchi, Norihito; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Arimoto, Yasushi

    2016-09-11

    Forty-three superconducting (SC) correction coils with maximum currents of about 60 A are installed in the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system. Current leads to energize the SC correction coils should have an affordable heat load and fit the spatial constraints in the service cryostat where the current leads are installed. To address the requirements, design optimization of individual lead was performed with vapor cooled current lead made of a brass material, and a compact unit was designed to accommodate eight current leads together in order to be installed with one port in the service cryostat. The 2nd generation high temperature SC (HTS) tape was adopted and soldered at the cold end of the brass current lead to form a hybrid HTS lead structure. A prototype of the compact lead unit with HTS tape was constructed and tested with liquid helium (LHe) environment. This paper presents a cryogenic measurement system to simulate the real operation conditions in the service cryostat, and analysis of the experimental results. The measured results showed excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. In total, 11 sets of the compact HTS lead units were constructed for the 43 SC correction coils at KEK. One set from the mass production was tested in cryogenic conditions, and exhibited the same performance as the prototype. The compact HTS lead unit can feed currents to four SC correction coils simultaneously with the simple requirement of controlling and monitoring helium vapor flow, and has a heat load of about 0.762 L/h in terms of LHe consumption. - Highlights: • The requirements of the SC correction coils on current leads are introduced. • The optimum design of the brass vapor cooled current lead is described. • The compact structure of eight leads with HTS tape is presented. • The theoretical, numerical, and experimental results are compared. • The current lead heat load is evaluated for cryogenic system.

  11. Sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium in the GABA transporter-1 gene (SLC6A1 in five populations: implications for pharmacogenetic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sughondhabirom Atapol

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1; genetic locus SLC6A1 is emerging as a novel target for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. To understand how population differences might influence strategies for pharmacogenetic studies, we identified patterns of genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD in SLC6A1 in five populations representing three continental groups. Results We resequenced 12.4 kb of SLC6A1, including the promoters, exons and flanking intronic regions in African-American, Thai, Hmong, Finnish, and European-American subjects (total n = 40. LD in SLC6A1 was examined by genotyping 16 SNPs in larger samples. Sixty-three variants were identified through resequencing. Common population-specific variants were found in African-Americans, including a novel 21-bp promoter region variable number tandem repeat (VNTR, but no such variants were found in any of the other populations studied. Low levels of LD and the absence of major LD blocks were characteristic of all five populations. African-Americans had the highest genetic diversity. European-Americans and Finns did not differ in genetic diversity or LD patterns. Although the Hmong had the highest level of LD, our results suggest that a strategy based on the use of tag SNPs would not translate to a major improvement in genotyping efficiency. Conclusion Owing to the low level of LD and presence of recombination hotspots, SLC6A1 may be an example of a problematic gene for association and haplotype tagging-based genetic studies. The 21-bp promoter region VNTR polymorphism is a putatively functional candidate allele for studies focusing on variation in GAT-1 function in the African-American population.

  12. The Physiopathological Role of the Exchangers Belonging to the SLC37 Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Anna Rita; Curcio, Rosita; Lappano, Rosamaria; Maggiolini, Marcello; Dolce, Vincenza

    2018-04-01

    The human SLC37 gene family includes four proteins SLC37A1-4, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. They have been grouped into the SLC37 family due to their sequence homology to the bacterial organophosphate/phosphate (Pi) antiporter. SLC37A1-3 are the less characterized isoforms. SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are Pi-linked glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) antiporters, catalyzing both homologous (Pi/Pi) and heterologous (G6P/Pi) exchanges, whereas SLC37A3 transport properties remain to be clarified. Furthermore, SLC37A1 is highly homologous to the bacterial glycerol 3-phosphate permeases, so it is supposed to transport also glycerol-3-phosphate. The physiological role of SLC37A1-3 is yet to be further investigated. SLC37A1 seems to be required for lipid biosynthesis in cancer cell lines, SLC37A2 has been proposed as a vitamin D and a phospho-progesterone receptor target gene, while mutations in the SLC37A3 gene appear to be associated with congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy. SLC37A4, also known as glucose-6-phosphate translocase (G6PT), transports G6P from the cytoplasm into the ER lumen, working in complex with either glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α) or G6Pase-β to hydrolyze intraluminal G6P to Pi and glucose. G6PT and G6Pase-β are ubiquitously expressed, whereas G6Pase-α is specifically expressed in the liver, kidney and intestine. G6PT/G6Pase-α complex activity regulates fasting blood glucose levels, whereas G6PT/G6Pase-β is required for neutrophil functions. G6PT deficiency is responsible for glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib), an autosomal recessive disorder associated with both defective metabolic and myeloid phenotypes. Several kinds of mutations have been identified in the SLC37A4 gene, affecting G6PT function. An increased autoimmunity risk for GSD-Ib patients has also been reported, moreover, SLC37A4 seems to be involved in autophagy.

  13. The Physiopathological Role of the Exchangers Belonging to the SLC37 Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Cappello

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The human SLC37 gene family includes four proteins SLC37A1-4, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane. They have been grouped into the SLC37 family due to their sequence homology to the bacterial organophosphate/phosphate (Pi antiporter. SLC37A1-3 are the less characterized isoforms. SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are Pi-linked glucose-6-phosphate (G6P antiporters, catalyzing both homologous (Pi/Pi and heterologous (G6P/Pi exchanges, whereas SLC37A3 transport properties remain to be clarified. Furthermore, SLC37A1 is highly homologous to the bacterial glycerol 3-phosphate permeases, so it is supposed to transport also glycerol-3-phosphate. The physiological role of SLC37A1-3 is yet to be further investigated. SLC37A1 seems to be required for lipid biosynthesis in cancer cell lines, SLC37A2 has been proposed as a vitamin D and a phospho-progesterone receptor target gene, while mutations in the SLC37A3 gene appear to be associated with congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy. SLC37A4, also known as glucose-6-phosphate translocase (G6PT, transports G6P from the cytoplasm into the ER lumen, working in complex with either glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6Pase-β to hydrolyze intraluminal G6P to Pi and glucose. G6PT and G6Pase-β are ubiquitously expressed, whereas G6Pase-α is specifically expressed in the liver, kidney and intestine. G6PT/G6Pase-α complex activity regulates fasting blood glucose levels, whereas G6PT/G6Pase-β is required for neutrophil functions. G6PT deficiency is responsible for glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with both defective metabolic and myeloid phenotypes. Several kinds of mutations have been identified in the SLC37A4 gene, affecting G6PT function. An increased autoimmunity risk for GSD-Ib patients has also been reported, moreover, SLC37A4 seems to be involved in autophagy.

  14. The role of SLC2A1 in early onset and childhood absence epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhle, Hiltrud; Helbig, Ingo; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg

    2013-01-01

    Early Onset Absence Epilepsy constitutes an Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy with absences starting before the age of four years. Mutations in SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter, account for approximately 10% of EOAE cases. The role of SLC2A1 mutations in absence epilepsies with a later onset...

  15. A calorimeter software trigger for the Mark II detector at SLC [Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, D.; Glanzman, T.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Tinsman, J.; Holmgren, S.; Schaad, M.W.

    1989-04-01

    A new FASTBUS-based calorimeter software trigger for the upgraded Mark II at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is presented. The trigger requirements for SLC and a short description of the hardware used for this purpose are given, followed by a detailed description of the software. Some preliminary results are presented. 9 refs., 4 figs

  16. Variants in SLC18A3, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, cause congenital myasthenic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Grady, Gina L.; Verschuuren, Corien; Yuen, Michaela; Webster, Richard; Menezes, Manoj; Fock, Johanna M.; Pride, Natalie; Best, Heather A.; Damm, Tatiana Benavides; Turner, Christian; Lek, Monkol; Engel, Andrew G.; North, Kathryn N.; Clarke, Nigel F.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Cooper, Sandra T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome secondary to biallelic variants in SLC18A3. Methods: Individuals from 2 families were identified with biallelic variants in SLC18A3, the gene encoding the vesicular acetylcholine transporter

  17. Developmental expression of SLC26A4 (Pendrin) during amelogenesis in developing rodent teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronckers, Antonius LJJ; Guo, Jing; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Bervoets, Theodore J; Lyaruu, Donacian M.; Li, Xiangming; Wangemann, Philine; DenBesten, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Ameloblasts need to regulate pH during formation of enamel crystals, a process that generates protons. Solute carrier family 26A member 4 (SLC26A4, or pendrin) is an anion exchanger for chloride, bicarbonate, iodine and formate. It is expressed in apical membranes of ion-transporting epithelia in kidney, inner ear and thyroid where it regulates luminal pH and fluid transport. We hypothesized that maturation ameloblasts express SLC26A4 to neutralize acidification of enamel fluid in forming enamel. In rodents, secretory and maturation ameloblasts were immunopositive for SLC26A4. Staining was particularly strong in apical membranes of maturation ameloblasts facing forming enamel. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of mRNA transcripts for Slc26a4 in enamel organs. SLC26A4 immunostaining was also found in mineralizing connective tissues including odontoblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, bone lining cells, cellular cementoblasts and cementocytes. However, Slc26a4-null mutant mice had no overt dental phenotype. The presence of SLC26A4 in apical plasma membranes of maturation ameloblasts is consistent with a potential function as pH regulator. SLC26A4 does not appear critical for ameloblast functioning and is likely compensated by other pH regulators. PMID:22243245

  18. Mutations in the GABA Transporter SLC6A1 Cause Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvill, Gemma L; McMahon, Jacinta M; Schneider, Amy

    2015-01-01

    GAT-1, encoded by SLC6A1, is one of the major gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters in the brain and is responsible for re-uptake of GABA from the synapse. In this study, targeted resequencing of 644 individuals with epileptic encephalopathies led to the identification of six SLC6A1 mutatio...

  19. Measurement of electron beam polarization at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.

    1987-03-01

    The polarimeters needed to monitor and measure electron beam polarization at the Stanford Linear Collider are discussed. Two types of polarimeters, are to be used. The first is based on the spin dependent elastic scattering of photons from high energy electrons. The second utilizes the spin dependence of elastic electron-electron scattering. The plans of the SLC polarization group to measure and monitor electron beam polarization are discussed. A brief discussion of the physics and the demands it imposes on beam polarization measurements is presented. The Compton polarimeter and the essential characteristics of two Moeller polarimeters are presented

  20. Review of weak mixing angle results at SLC and LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.

    1995-10-01

    In this paper, the authors review recent precise measurements of the weak mixing angle by the SLD experiment at SLC and by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, and OPAL experiments at LEP. If they assume that the Minimal Standard Model provides a complete description of the quark and lepton couplings to the Z boson, they find sin 2 θ W eff = 0.23143 ± 0.00028. If this assumption is relaxed to apply to lepton couplings only, they find sin 2 θ W eff = 0.23106 ± 0.00035. They compare these results with other precision electroweak tests

  1. Timing jitter measurements at the SLC electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodja, J.; Browne, M.J.; Clendenin, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The SLC thermionic gun and electron source produce a beam of up to 15 /times/ 10 10 /sub e//minus/ in a single S-band bunch. A 170 keV, 2 ns FWHM pulse out of the gun is compressed by means of two subharmonic buncher cavities followed by an S-band buncher and a standard SLAC accelerating section. Ceramic gaps in the beam pipe at the output of the gun allow a measure of the beam intensity and timing. A measurement at these gaps of the timing jitter, with a resolution of <10 ps, is described. 3 refs., 5 figs

  2. Recent improvements in the SLC positron system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejcik, P.; Corbett, J.; Ecklund, S.; Emma, P.; Fieguth, T.; Helm, R.; Kulikov, A.; Limberg, T.; Moshammer, H.; Ross, M.; Siemann, R.; Spence, W.; Woodley, M.

    1992-03-01

    The positron system is very specific to the SLC in that the positrons are accelerated in the same linac as the electrons that produce them and the electrons with which they collide. Some of the difficulties in tuning this system to peak performance are thus unlikely to be encountered in future linear colliders, but many of the lessons learned in beam matching are useful for future machines. The design and commissioning of this system has been previously reported so we only briefly describe the major subsystems before detailing the tuning and diagnostics involved in optimizing the performance of the overall system

  3. Multi-channel pulser for the SLC thermionic electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, M.J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Corredoura, P.L.; Jobe, R.K.; Koontz, R.F.; Sodja, J.

    1985-01-01

    A new pulser developed for the SLC thermionic gun has been operational since September 1984. It consists of two planar triode amplifiers with a common output triode driving the gun cathode to produce two independent pulses of up to 9A with a 3 nsec FWHM pulse width. Three long-pulse amplifiers are also connected to the cathode to produce pulses with widths controllable between 100 nsec and 1.6 μsec. Each amplifier has independent timing and amplitude control through a fiber optic link to the high voltage plane of the gun cathode-grid structure. The pulser and its operating characteristics are described. 15 refs., 3 figs

  4. Beam position monitor readout and control in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogart, J.; Phinney, N.; Ross, M.; Yaffe, D.

    1985-04-01

    A beam position monitoring system has been implemented in the first third of the SLC linac which provides a complete scan of the trajectory on a single beam pulse. The data is collected from the local micro-computers and viewed with an updating display at a console or passed on to application programs. The system must operate with interlaced beams so the scans are also interlaced, providing each user with the ability to select the beam, the update rate, and the attenuation level in the digitizing hardware. In addition each user calibrates the hardware for his beam. A description of the system architecture will be presented. 6 refs., 4 figs

  5. SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 mutations in autosomal recessive or dominant canine cystinuria: a new classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brons, A-K; Henthorn, P S; Raj, K; Fitzgerald, C A; Liu, J; Sewell, A C; Giger, U

    2013-01-01

    Cystinuria, one of the first recognized inborn errors of metabolism, has been reported in many dog breeds. To determine urinary cystine concentrations, inheritance, and mutations in the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes associated with cystinuria in 3 breeds. Mixed and purebred Labrador Retrievers (n = 6), Australian Cattle Dogs (6), Miniature Pinschers (4), and 1 mixed breed dog with cystine urolithiasis, relatives and control dogs. Urinary cystinuria and aminoaciduria was assessed and exons of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA. In each breed, male and female dogs, independent of neuter status, were found to form calculi. A frameshift mutation in SLC3A1 (c.350delG) resulting in a premature stop codon was identified in autosomal-recessive (AR) cystinuria in Labrador Retrievers and mixed breed dogs. A 6 bp deletion (c.1095_1100del) removing 2 threonines in SLC3A1 was found in autosomal-dominant (AD) cystinuria with a more severe phenotype in homozygous than in heterozygous Australian Cattle Dogs. A missense mutation in SLC7A9 (c.964G>A) was discovered in AD cystinuria in Miniature Pinschers with only heterozygous affected dogs observed to date. Breed-specific DNA tests were developed, but the prevalence of each mutation remains unknown. These studies describe the first AD inheritance and the first putative SLC7A9 mutation to cause cystinuria in dogs and expand our understanding of this phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous disease, leading to a new classification system for canine cystinuria and better therapeutic management and genetic control in these breeds. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Additive composite ABCG2, SLC2A9 and SLC22A12 scores of high-risk alleles with alcohol use modulate gout risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hung-Pin; Chung, Chia-Min; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Lee, Su-Shin; Lai, Han-Ming; Lee, Chien-Hung; Huang, Chung-Ming; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of urate transporter genes and alcohol use to the risk of gout/tophi. Eight variants of ABCG2, SLC2A9, SLC22A12, SLC22A11 and SLC17A3 were genotyped in male individuals in a case-control study with 157 gout (33% tophi), 106 asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and 295 control subjects from Taiwan. The multilocus profiles of the genetic risk scores for urate gene variants were used to evaluate the risk of asymptomatic hyperuricaemia, gout and tophi. ABCG2 Q141K (T), SLC2A9 rs1014290 (A) and SLC22A12 rs475688 (C) under an additive model and alcohol use independently predicted the risk of gout (respective odds ratio for each factor=2.48, 2.03, 1.95 and 2.48). The additive composite Q141K, rs1014290 and rs475688 scores of high-risk alleles were associated with gout risk (Pgout and tophi risk (P for interaction=0.0452, 0.0033). The synergistic effect of genetic urate score 5-6 and alcohol use indicates that these combined factors correlate with gout and tophi occurrence.

  7. SLC status and NLC design and R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper, the authors will first review the status of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). In particular, they discuss the luminosity and performance issues and the accelerator studies that relate to future linear colliders. Next, they describe the present state of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) design and the ongoing R and D effort which is, in addition to the work at the SLC, supporting the design. This includes extensive ground motion measurements to verify the required stability, measurements of the dipole wakefields to verify the performance of the Damped-Detuned accelerator Structures (DDS), and tests of the rf structure BPMs that are needed to align the structure to the beam trajectory. It also includes the development and fabrication of the X-band structures, klystrons, and rf pulse compressors that are needed to accelerate the beams with gradients in excess of 50 MV/m. It should be noted that much of the material reported here is described in greater detail in other papers submitted to this conference and thus the appropriate references are included throughout. In addition, because of space limitations, they only briefly describe the design of the NLC and, instead, concentrate on the R and D that is supporting the design

  8. Subsidence of the pit slab at SLC experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, J.; Himeno, Yoichi; Katsura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Detectors installed at particle accelerator facilities are quite heavy, weighing thousands of tons. On the other hand, ground subsidence caused by the installation of a detector adversely affects the beam line alignment of the collider. It becomes, therefore, very important to figure out the expected amount of ground settlement by means of adequate evaluation methods in advance. At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), a 1700 mT (metric tons) Mark II detector was replaced with a 4000 mT SLD detector in Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The exchange started in December 1990 and lasted until March 1991, and the amount of ground settlement was measured by SLAC during that period. We performed simulation studies to evaluate the subsidence of the pit slab using several analysis methods. Parameters used for the analyses were decided based on the information of the SLC structure and the ground conditions at the SLAC area. The objective of this study is to verify the applicability of several simulation methods by comparing the analytical results with the actual subsidence data obtained by SLAC

  9. SLC4A11 Prevents Osmotic Imbalance Leading to Corneal Endothelial Dystrophy, Deafness, and Polyuria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Nicole; Fröhlich, Henning; Maier, Hannes; Olbrich, Andrea; Kostin, Sawa; Braun, Thomas; Boettger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of ion concentration gradients is essential for the function of many organs, including the kidney, the cornea, and the inner ear. Ion concentrations and fluid content in the cornea are regulated by endothelial cells that separate the collagenous avascular corneal stroma from the anterior eye chamber. Failure to maintain correct ion concentrations leads to swelling and destruction of the cornea. In the inner ear, the stria vascularis is responsible for generating proper ion concentrations in the endolymph, which is essential for hearing. Mutations of SLC4A11 in humans lead to syndromes associated with corneal dystrophy and perceptive deafness. The molecular mechanisms underlying these symptoms are poorly understood, impeding therapeutic interventions. The ion transporter SLC4A11 mediates sodium-dependent transport of borate as well as flux of sodium and hydroxyl ions in vitro. Here, we show that SLC4A11 is expressed in the endothelial cells of the cornea where it prevents severe morphological changes of the cornea caused by increased sodium chloride concentrations in the stroma. In the inner ear, SLC4A11 is located in fibrocytes underlying the stria vascularis. Loss of SLC4A11 leads to morphological changes in the fibrocytes and deafness. We demonstrate that SLC4A11 is essential for the generation of the endocochlear potential but not for regulation of potassium concentrations in the endolymph. In the kidney, SLC4A11 is expressed in the thin descending limb of Henle loop. SLC4A11 is essential for urinary concentration, suggesting that SLC4A11 participates in the countercurrent multiplication that concentrates urine in the kidney medulla. PMID:20185830

  10. Evaporation dynamics of a sessile droplet on glass surfaces with fluoropolymer coatings: focusing on the final stage of thin droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatapova, Elizaveta Ya; Shonina, Anna M; Safonov, Alexey I; Sulyaeva, Veronica S; Kabov, Oleg A

    2018-03-07

    The evaporation dynamics of a water droplet with an initial volume of 2 μl from glass surfaces with fluoropolymer coatings are investigated using the shadow technique and an optical microscope. The droplet profile for a contact angle of less than 5° is constructed using an image-analyzing interference technique, and evaporation dynamics are investigated at the final stage. We coated the glass slides with a thin film of a fluoropolymer by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition method at different deposition modes depending on the deposition pressure and the temperature of the activating wire. The resulting surfaces have different structures affecting the wetting properties. Droplet evaporation from a constant contact radius mode in the early stage of evaporation was found followed by the mode where both contact angle and contact radius simultaneously vary in time (final stage) regardless of wettability of the coated surfaces. We found that depinning occurs at small contact angles of 2.2-4.7° for all samples, which are smaller than the measured receding contact angles. This is explained by imbibition of the liquid into the developed surface of the "soft" coating that leads to formation of thin droplets completely wetting the surface. The final stage, which is little discussed in the literature, is also recorded. We have singled out a substage where the contact line velocity is abruptly increasing for all coated and uncoated surfaces. The critical droplet height corresponding to the transition to this substage is about 2 μm with R/h = 107. The duration of this substage is the same for all coated and uncoated surfaces. Droplets observed at this substage for all the tested surfaces are axisymmetric. The specific evaporation rate clearly demonstrates an abrupt increase at the final substage of the droplet evaporation. The classical R 2 law is justified for the complete wetting situation where the droplet is disappearing in an axisymmetric manner.

  11. Line-focus solar central power system, Phase I. Final report, 29 September 1978 to 30 April 1980. Volume II. Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    The conceptual design, parametric analysis, cost and performance analysis, and a commercial assessment of a 100-MWe high-temperature line-focus central power system are presented. Parametric analyses and conceptual design of the heliostat subsystem, receiver subsystem, heat transport subsystem, energy storage subsystem, electrical power generating subsystem, and master control subsystem are included. A market analysis and development plan are given. (WHK)

  12. A report on developing a checklist to assess company plans focused on improving safety awareness, safe behaviour and safety culture: final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijger, N.; Starren, H.; Keus, M.; Gort, J.; Vervoort, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the process of developing a checklist to asses company plans focused on improving safety awareness, safe behaviour and safety culture. These plans are part of a programme initiated by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment aiming at improving the safety performance of

  13. Beam-based alignment technique for the SLC [Stanford Linear Collider] linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.E.; Lavine, T.L.; Atwood, W.B.

    1989-03-01

    Misalignment of quadrupole magnets and beam position monitors (BPMs) in the linac of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) cause the electron and positron beams to be steered off-center in the disk-loaded waveguide accelerator structures. Off-center beams produce wakefields which limit the SLC performance at high beam intensities by causing emittance growth. Here, we present a general method for simultaneously determining quadrupole magnet and BPM offsets using beam trajectory measurements. Results from the application of the method to the SLC linac are described. The alignment precision achieved is approximately 100 μm, which is significantly better than that obtained using optical surveying techniques. 2 refs., 4 figs

  14. Associação entre polimorfismo SLC6A3 3’UTR VNTR e a resposta ao tratamento da dependência de nicotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Rubino de Azevedo Focchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre a resposta ao tratamento da dependência de nicotina com bupropiona e a presença do polimorfismo SLC6A3 3’UTR VNTR, localizado no gene que codifica o transportador dopaminérgico. Método: Foram acompanhados no Ambulatório de Tabagismo do Instituto de Psiquiatria da Faculdade de Medicina da USP 100 pacientes do sexo masculino com diagnóstico de dependência de nicotina, sem outras patologias. Todos receberam bupropiona até 300 mg ao dia por 12 semanas, associada à terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo. A Escala de Fagerström foi aplicada no início e no final do tratamento, e avaliou-se a parada do uso de cigarros na última semana de tratamento e um mês após. Os pacientes tiveram 10 ml de sangue colhidos e genotipados para a existência do polimorfismo SLC6A3 3’UTR VNTR. Resultados: Não foi encontrada associação entre cessação do uso de cigarro e presença do polimorfismo. Conclusão: São necessários mais estudos para avaliar se a presença do polimorfismo SLC6A3 3’UTR VNTR estaria relacionada à melhor resposta ao tratamento da dependência de nicotina.

  15. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  16. Focus on focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  17. Isochronous 180 degree turns for the SLC positron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S.D.; Kulikov, A.V.; Pitthan, R.

    1991-05-01

    The design of the compact, achromatic, second order isochronous 180 degrees turn for the SLC positron transport system will be described. Design criteria require an energy range of 200±20 MeV, energy acceptance of ±5%, transverse admittance of 25π mm-mr, and minimal lengthening of the 3 to 4 mm (rms) positron bunch. The devices had to fit within a maximum height or width of about 10 ft. Optics specifications and theoretical performance are presented and compared to experimental results based on streak camera measurements of bunch length immediately after the first isochronous turn (200 MeV) and positron beam energy spread after S-band acceleration to 1.15 GeV. 5 refs., 7 figs

  18. CATER: An onlne problem tracking facility for SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sass, R.C.; Shoaee, H.

    1993-05-01

    An online facility has been developed for SLC to organize and simplify the management of all problems encountered in the operation of the accelerator. CATER (Computer Aided Trouble Entry and Reporting) may be used to make the initial entry of a problem, to enter one or more solutions to a problem, to modify or closeout a problem, to generate a variety of pre-defined reports giving status and statistical summaries, and to allow anyone to browse the database. All phases of CATER can take place on the operator console, workstations, or on any ANSI compatible terminal. The user interface is designed around a menu driven windowed environment with a large amount of context sensitive help information to alleviate the need for consulting user documentation. Currently, the CATER database contains information on more than 30,000 problems entered since it went online in January of 1988. The features of the software and some implementation details will be presented

  19. CATER: An online problem tracking facility for SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sass, R.C.; Shoaee, H.

    1993-01-01

    An online facility has been developed for SLC to organize and simplify the management of all problems encountered in the operation of the accelerator. CATER (Computer Aided Trouble Entry and Reporting) may be used to make the initial entry of a problem, to enter one or more solutions to a problem, to modify or closeout a problem, to generate a variety of pre-defined reports giving status and statistical summaries, and to allow anyone to browse the database. All phases of CATER can take place on the operator console, workstations, or on any ANSI compatible terminal. The user interface is designed around a menu driven windowed environment with a large amount of context sensitive help information to alleviate the need for consulting user documentation. Currently, the CATER database contains information on more than 30,000 problems entered since it went online in January of 1988. The features of the software and some implementation details will be presented

  20. SLC status and SLAC [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1989-08-01

    In this presentation, I shall discuss the linear collider program at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center as it is now, and as we hope to see it evolve over the next few years. Of greatest interest to the high energy accelerator physics community gathered here is the development of the linear collider concept, and so I shall concentrate most of this paper on a discussion of the present status and future evolution of the SLC. I will also briefly discuss the research and development program that we are carrying out aimed at the realization of the next generation of high-energy linear colliders. SLAC had a major colliding-beam storage-ring program as well, including present rings and design studies on future high-luminosity projects, but time constraints preclude a discussion of them. 8 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Application of online modeling to the operation of SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, M.D.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.; Shoaee, H.

    1987-01-01

    Online computer models of first order beam optics have been developed for the commissioning, control and operation of the entire SLC including Damping Rings, Linac, Positron Return Line and Collider Arcs. A generalized online environment utilizing these models provides the capability for interactive selection of a desire optics configuration and for the study of its properties. Automated procedures have been developed which calculate and load beamline component set-points and which can scale magnet strengths to achieve desired beam properties for any Linac energy profile. Graphic displays facilitate comparison of design, desired and actual optical characteristics of the beamlines. Measured beam properties, such as beam emittance and dispersion, can be incorporated interactively into the models and used for beam matching and optimization of injection and extraction efficiencies and beam transmissions. The online optics modeling facility also serves as the foundation for many model-driven applications such as autosteering, calculation of beam launch parameters, emittance measurement and dispersion correction

  2. The energy stabilization for the SLC scavenger beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, I.; Browne, M.; Himel, T.; Humphrey, R.; Jobe, K.; Ross, M.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Seeman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The energy of the SLC scavenger beam which is used to produce positrons must be carefully maintained so that the beam can be transported through the collimators in the dispersive region of the extraction line which leads from the Linac to the positron target. A feedforward control loop has been developed to compensate the energy fluctuations due to the beam intensity fluctuations. The loop detects the beam intensities in the damping rings and then calculates how much energy needs to be compensated due to beam loading effects. The energy is corrected by adjusting the acceleration phases of two sets of klystrons right before the extraction. Because there is feedback loop using the same controls, their interaction needs to be carefully treated. This paper presents an overview of the feedforward algorithms

  3. The energy stabilization for the SLC scavenger beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Ian; Browne, M.; Himel, T.; Humphrey, R.; Jobe, K.; Ross, M.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Seeman, J.

    1990-08-01

    The energy of the SLC scavenger beam which is used to produce positrons must be carefully maintained so that the beam can be transported through the collimators in the dispersive region of the extraction line which leads from the Linac to the positron target. A feedforward control loop has been developed to compensate the energy fluctuations due to the beam intensity fluctuations. The loop detects the beam intensities in the damping rings and then calculates how much energy needs to be compensated due to beam loading effects. The energy is corrected by adjusting the acceleration phases of two sets of klystrons right before the extraction. Because there is feedback loop using the same controls, their interaction needs to be carefully treated. This paper presents an overview of the feedforward algorithms. 3 figs

  4. SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Early, R.A.; Ross, M.C.; Turner, J.L.; Wang, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional ray-trace code with a two-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model

  5. High voltage processing of the SLC polarized electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, P.; Clendenin, J.; Garden, C.; Hoyt, E.; Klaisner, L.; Prescott, C.; Schultz, D.; Tang, H.

    1993-04-01

    The SLC polarized electron gun operates at 120 kV with very low dark current to maintain the ultra high vacuum (UHV). This strict requirement protects the extremely sensitive photocathode from contaminants caused by high voltage (HV) activity. Thorough HV processing is thus required x-ray sensitive photographic film, a nanoammeter in series with gun power supply, a radiation meter, a sensitive residual gas analyzer and surface x-ray spectrometry were used to study areas in the gun where HV activity occurred. By reducing the electric field gradients, carefully preparing the HV surfaces and adhering to very strict clean assembly procedures, we found it possible to process the gun so as to reduce both the dark current at operating voltage and the probability of HV discharge. These HV preparation and processing techniques are described

  6. SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Early, R.A.; Ross, M.C.; Turner, J.L.; Wang, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model. (Author) 5 figs., 7 refs

  7. Application of online modeling to the operation of SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, M.D.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.; Shoaee, H.

    1987-02-01

    Online computer models of first order beam optics have been developed for the commissioning, control and operation of the entire SLC including Damping Rings, Linac, Positron Return Line and Collider Arcs. A generalized online environment utilizing these models provides the capability for interactive selection of a desired optics configuration and for the study of its properties. Automated procedures have been developed which calculate and load beamline component set-points and which can scale magnet strengths to achieve desired beam properties for any Linac energy profile. Graphic displays facilitate comparison of design, desired and actual optical characteristics of the beamlines. Measured beam properties, such as beam emittance and dispersion, can be incorporated interactively into the models and used for beamline matching and optimization of injection and extraction efficiencies and beam transmission. The online optics modeling facility also serves as the foundation for many model-driven applications such as autosteering, calculation of beam launch parameters, emittance measurement and dispersion correction

  8. Correlation Plot facility in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Phinney, N.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.; Clark, S.

    1991-11-01

    The Correlation Plot facility is a powerful interactive tool for data acquisition and analysis throughout the SLC. This generalized interface allows the user to perform a range of operations or machine physics experiments without the need for any specialized analysis software. The user may step one or more independent parameters, such as magnet or feedback setpoints, while measuring or calculating up to 160 other parameters. Measured variables include all analog signals available to the control system, as well as calculated parameters such as beam size, luminosity, or emittance. Various fitting algorithms and display options are provided. A software-callable interface has been provided so that a host of applications can call this package for analysis and display. Such applications regularly phase klystrons, measure emittance and dispersion, minimize beam size, and maintain beam collisions at the interaction point. 4 refs., 5 figs

  9. Correlation Plot facility in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Phinney, N.; Sachez-Chopitea, L.; Clark, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Correlation Plot facility is a powerful interactive tool for data acquisition and analysis throughout the SLC. This generalized interface allows the user to perform a range of operations or machine physics experiments without the need for any specialized analysis software. The user may step one or more independent parameters, such as magnet or feedback set points, while measuring or calculating up to 160 other parameters. Measured variables include all analog signals available to the control system, as well as calculated parameters such as beam size, luminosity, or emittance. Various fitting algorithms and display options are provided. A software-callable interface has been provided so that a host of applications can call this package for analysis and display. Such applications regularly phase klystrons, measure emittance and dispersion, minimize beam size, and maintain beam collisions at the interaction point. (author)

  10. SLAC modulator operation and reliability in the SLC Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.R.; Ashton, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    A discussion of the operation and reliability of the 244 modulators in the SLAC linac with an emphasis on the past three years of operation. The linac modulators were designed and built in the 60's, upgraded for the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) in the mid 80s, and despite their age are still reliable accelerator components. The 60s modulator operated at 65 MW peak and 83 kW average power. The upgrade resulted in 150 MW peak output at an average power of 87 kW, a modest increase since the repetition rate was dropped from 360 to 120 Hz. In the present accelerator configuration, the Linac operates as a source of electrons and positrons to a single pass coillider. The classic collider is a storage ring filled with oppositely charged, counter-rotating particles which are allowed to collide until an accelerator fault occurs and the stored beams are aborted. A reasonable storage ring can store and collide particles for as long as eight hours with a 10 or 20 minute filling time. A single pass collider, + on the other hand, can only produce e - and e + collisions at whatever rate the source operates. To be effective the SLC must operate at 120 Hz with a very high degree of reliability and on a continuous basis. Fortunately, the linac has a modest excess of modulator/klystron systems which allows some measure of redundancy and hence some freedom from the constraint that all 244 modulator/klystrons operate simultaneously. Nonetheless, high importance is placed on modulator MTBF and MTRR or, in the parlance of reliability experts and accelerator physicists, availability. This is especially true of the modulators associated with the fundamental requirements of a collider such as injection, compression and positron production

  11. Development of miniaturized proximity focused streak tubes for visible light and x-ray applications. Final report and progress, April-September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuny, J.J.; Knight, A.J.

    1978-02-01

    Research performed to develop miniaturized proximity focused streak camera tubes (PFST) for application in the visible and the x-ray modes of operation is described. The objective of this research was to provide an engineering design and to fabricate a visible and an x-ray prototype tube to be provided to LASL for test and evaluation. Materials selection and fabrication procedures, particularly the joining of beryllium to a suitable support ring for use as the x-ray window, are described in detail. The visible and x-ray PFST's were successfully fabricated

  12. Synthesis/literature review for determining structural layer coefficients (SLC) of bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    FDOTs current method of determining a base material structural layer coefficient (SLC) is detailed in the : Materials Manual, Chapter 2.1, Structural Layer Coefficients for Flexible Pavement Base Materials. : Currently, any new base material not a...

  13. SLC2A9 is a high-capacity urate transporter in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Caulfield

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Serum uric acid levels in humans are influenced by diet, cellular breakdown, and renal elimination, and correlate with blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, gout, and cardiovascular disease. Recent genome-wide association scans have found common genetic variants of SLC2A9 to be associated with increased serum urate level and gout. The SLC2A9 gene encodes a facilitative glucose transporter, and it has two splice variants that are highly expressed in the proximal nephron, a key site for urate handling in the kidney. We investigated whether SLC2A9 is a functional urate transporter that contributes to the longstanding association between urate and blood pressure in man.We expressed both SLC2A9 splice variants in Xenopus laevis oocytes and found both isoforms mediate rapid urate fluxes at concentration ranges similar to physiological serum levels (200-500 microM. Because SLC2A9 is a known facilitative glucose transporter, we also tested whether glucose or fructose influenced urate transport. We found that urate is transported by SLC2A9 at rates 45- to 60-fold faster than glucose, and demonstrated that SLC2A9-mediated urate transport is facilitated by glucose and, to a lesser extent, fructose. In addition, transport is inhibited by the uricosuric benzbromarone in a dose-dependent manner (Ki = 27 microM. Furthermore, we found urate uptake was at least 2-fold greater in human embryonic kidney (HEK cells overexpressing SLC2A9 splice variants than nontransfected kidney cells. To confirm that our findings were due to SLC2A9, and not another urate transporter, we showed that urate transport was diminished by SLC2A9-targeted siRNA in a second mammalian cell line. In a cohort of men we showed that genetic variants of SLC2A9 are associated with reduced urinary urate clearance, which fits with common variation at SLC2A9 leading to increased serum urate. We found no evidence of association with hypertension (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI

  14. Exonal deletion of SLC24A4 causes hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymen, F; Lee, K-E; Tran Le, C G; Yildirim, M; Gencay, K; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

    2014-04-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions affecting enamel formation. Recently, mutations in solute carrier family 24 member 4 (SLC24A4) have been identified to cause autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We recruited a consanguineous family with hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta with generalized brown discoloration. Sequencing of the candidate genes identified a 10-kb deletion, including exons 15, 16, and most of the last exon of the SLC24A4 gene. Interestingly, this deletion was caused by homologous recombination between two 354-bp-long homologous sequences located in intron 14 and the 3' UTR. This is the first report of exonal deletion in SLC24A4 providing confirmatory evidence that the function of SLC24A4 in calcium transport has a crucial role in the maturation stage of amelogenesis.

  15. Beam determination of quadrupole misalignments and beam position monitor biases in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Seeman, J.T.; Atwood, W.B.; Himel, T.M.; Petersen, A.; Adolphsen, C.E.

    1988-09-01

    Misalignments of magnetic quadrupoles and biases in beam position monitors (BPMs) in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) linac can lead to a situation in which the beam is off-center in the disk-loaded waveguide accelerator structure. The off-center beam produces wakefields which can limit SLC performance by causing unacceptably large emittance growth. We present a general method for determining quadrupole misalignments and BPM biases in the SLC linac by using beam trajectory measurements. The method utilizes both electron and positron beams on opposite rf cycles in the same linac lattice to determine simultaneously magnetic quadrupole misalignments and BPM biases. The two-beam trajectory data may be acquired without interrupting SLC colliding beam operations. 2 refs., 5 figs

  16. S113R mutation in SLC33A1 leads to neurodegeneration and augmented BMP signaling in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingting Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The S113R mutation (c.339T>G (MIM #603690.0001 in SLC33A1 (MIM #603690, an ER membrane acetyl-CoA transporter, has been previously identified in individuals with hereditary spastic paraplegia type 42 (SPG42; MIM #612539. SLC33A1 has also been shown to inhibit the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathway in zebrafish. To better understand the function of SLC33A1, we generated and characterized Slc33a1S113R knock-in mice. Homozygous Slc33a1S113R mutant mice were embryonic lethal, whereas heterozygous Slc33a1 mutant mice (Slc33a1wt/mut exhibited behavioral abnormalities and central neurodegeneration, which is consistent with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP phenotypes. Importantly, we found an upregulation of BMP signaling in the nervous system and mouse embryonic fibroblasts of Slc33a1wt/mut mice. Using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in vivo and dorsal root ganglion (DRG culture in vitro we showed that injury-induced axonal regeneration in Slc33a1wt/mut mice was accelerated and mediated by upregulated BMP signaling. Exogenous addition of BMP signaling antagonist, noggin, could efficiently alleviate the accelerated injury-induced axonal regrowth. These results indicate that SLC33A1 can negatively regulate BMP signaling in mice, further supporting the notion that upregulation of BMP signaling is a common mechanism of a subset of hereditary spastic paraplegias.

  17. Epigenetic adaptation of the placental serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 to gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Blazevic

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM alters the DNA methylation pattern of the fetal serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, and examined the functional relevance of DNA methylation for regulation of the SLC6A4 expression in the human placenta. The study included 50 mother-infant pairs. Eighteen mothers were diagnosed with GDM and 32 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT. All neonates were of normal birth weight and born at term by planned Cesarean section. DNA and RNA were isolated from samples of tissue collected from the fetal side of the placenta immediately after delivery. DNA methylation was quantified at 7 CpG sites within the SLC6A4 distal promoter region using PCR amplification of bisulfite treated DNA and subsequent DNA sequencing. SLC6A4 mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Functional SLC6A4 polymorphisms (5HTTLPR, STin2, rs25531 were genotyped using standard PCR-based procedures. Average DNA methylation across the 7 analyzed loci was decreased in the GDM as compared to the NGT group (by 27.1%, p = 0.037 and negatively correlated, before and after adjustment for potential confounder/s, with maternal plasma glucose levels at the 24th to 28th week of gestation (p0.05. The results suggest that DNA methylation of the fetal SLC6A4 gene is sensitive to the maternal metabolic state in pregnancy. They also indicate a predominant role of epigenetic over genetic mechanisms in the regulation of SLC6A4 expression in the human placenta. Longitudinal studies in larger cohorts are needed to verify these results and determine to which degree placental SLC6A4 changes may contribute to long-term outcomes of infants exposed to GDM.

  18. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens. Final subcontract report, 31 January 1991--6 May 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  19. Plasma Membrane Na+-Coupled Citrate Transporter (SLC13A5 and Neonatal Epileptic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom D. Bhutia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available SLC13A5 is a Na+-coupled transporter for citrate that is expressed in the plasma membrane of specific cell types in the liver, testis, and brain. It is an electrogenic transporter with a Na+:citrate3− stoichiometry of 4:1. In humans, the Michaelis constant for SLC13A5 to transport citrate is ~600 μM, which is physiologically relevant given that the normal concentration of citrate in plasma is in the range of 150–200 μM. Li+ stimulates the transport function of human SLC13A5 at concentrations that are in the therapeutic range in patients on lithium therapy. Human SLC13A5 differs from rodent Slc13a5 in two important aspects: the affinity of the human transporter for citrate is ~30-fold less than that of the rodent transporter, thus making human SLC13A5 a low-affinity/high-capacity transporter and the rodent Slc13a5 a high-affinity/low-capacity transporter. In the liver, SLC13A5 is expressed exclusively in the sinusoidal membrane of the hepatocytes, where it plays a role in the uptake of circulating citrate from the sinusoidal blood for metabolic use. In the testis, the transporter is expressed only in spermatozoa, which is also only in the mid piece where mitochondria are located; the likely function of the transporter in spermatozoa is to mediate the uptake of citrate present at high levels in the seminal fluid for subsequent metabolism in the sperm mitochondria to generate biological energy, thereby supporting sperm motility. In the brain, the transporter is expressed mostly in neurons. As astrocytes secrete citrate into extracellular medium, the potential function of SLC13A5 in neurons is to mediate the uptake of circulating citrate and astrocyte-released citrate for subsequent metabolism. Slc13a5-knockout mice have been generated; these mice do not have any overt phenotype but are resistant to experimentally induced metabolic syndrome. Recently however, loss-of-function mutations in human SLC13A5 have been found to cause severe epilepsy

  20. Error-finding and error-correcting methods for the start-up of the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.; Selig, L.J.

    1987-02-01

    During the commissioning of an accelerator, storage ring, or beam transfer line, one of the important tasks of an accelertor physicist is to check the first-order optics of the beam line and to look for errors in the system. Conceptually, it is important to distinguish between techniques for finding the machine errors that are the cause of the problem and techniques for correcting the beam errors that are the result of the machine errors. In this paper we will limit our presentation to certain applications of these two methods for finding or correcting beam-focus errors and beam-kick errors that affect the profile and trajectory of the beam respectively. Many of these methods have been used successfully in the commissioning of SLC systems. In order not to waste expensive beam time we have developed and used a beam-line simulator to test the ideas that have not been tested experimentally. To save valuable physicist's time we have further automated the beam-kick error-finding procedures by adopting methods from the field of artificial intelligence to develop a prototype expert system. Our experience with this prototype has demonstrated the usefulness of expert systems in solving accelerator control problems. The expert system is able to find the same solutions as an expert physicist but in a more systematic fashion. The methods used in these procedures and some of the recent applications will be described in this paper

  1. Adaptive cascaded beam-based feedback at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himel, T.; Allison, S.; Grossberg, P.; Hendrickson, L.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.

    1993-05-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider now has a total of twenty-four beam-steering feedback loops used to keep the electron and positron beams on their desired trajectories. Seven of these loops measure and control the same beam as it proceeds down the linac through the arcs to the final focus. Ideally each loop should correct only for disturbances that occur between it and the immediate upstream loop. In fact, in the original system each loop corrected for all upstream disturbances. This resulted in undesirable over-correction and ringing. We added MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) adaptive noise cancellers to separate the signal we wish to correct from disturbances further up-stream. This adaptive control improved performance in the 1992 run

  2. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shasha; Han, Dongyi; Yuan, Yongyi; Wang, Guojian; Kang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xin; Yan, Xiaofei; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Min; Dai, Pu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter) or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity). The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged ...

  3. Riboflavin uptake transporter Slc52a2 (RFVT2) is upregulated in the mouse mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alex Man Lai; Dedina, Liana; Dalvi, Pooja; Yang, Mingdong; Leon-Cheon, John; Earl, Brian; Harper, Patricia A; Ito, Shinya

    2016-04-01

    While it is well recognized that riboflavin accumulates in breast milk as an essential vitamin for neonates, transport mechanisms for its milk excretion are not well characterized. The multidrug efflux transporter ABCG2 in the apical membrane of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells (MECs) is involved with riboflavin excretion. However, it is not clear whether MECs possess other riboflavin transport systems, which may facilitate its basolateral uptake into MECs. We report here that transcripts encoding the second (SLC52A2) and third (SLC52A3) member of the recently discovered family of SLC52A riboflavin uptake transporters are expressed in milk fat globules from human breast milk. Furthermore, Slc52a2 and Slc52a3 mRNA are upregulated in the mouse mammary gland during lactation. Importantly, the induction ofSlc52a2, which was the major Slc52a riboflavin transporter in the lactating mammary gland, was also observed at the protein level. Subcellular localization studies showed that green fluorescent protein-tagged mouse SLC52A2 mainly localized to the cell membrane, with no preferential distribution to the apical or basolateral membrane in polarized kidney MDCK cells. These results strongly implicate a potential role for SLC52A2 in riboflavin uptake by milk-producing MECs, a critical step in the transfer of riboflavin into breast milk. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. SLC polarized beam source ultra-high-vacuum design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Clendenin, J.E.; Garwin, E.L.; Hoyt, E.W.; Hoyt, M.W.; Miller, R.H.; Nuttall, J.A.; Schultz, D.C.; Wright, D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the ultra-high vacuum system for the beam-line from the 160-kV polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10 -11 -Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photo-cathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. Photo-cathode maintenance and improvements require occasional substitution of guns with rapid restoration of UHV conditions. Differential pumping is crucial since the pressure in the injector is more than 10 times greater than the photocathode can tolerate, and since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line contains a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Exchange of guns requires venting only this isolated region which can be restored to UHV rapidly by baking. The differential pumping is performed by non-evaporable getters (NEGs) and an ion pump. 3 refs., 3 figs

  5. Bunch lengthening in the SLC [Stanford Linear Collider] damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.

    1990-02-01

    A high level of current dependent bunch lengthening has been observed on the North damping ring of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). At currents of 3 x 10 10 this behavior does not appear to degrade the machine's performance significantly. However, at the higher currents that are envisioned for the future one fears that its performance could be greatly degraded due to the phenomenon of bunch lengthening. This was the motivation for the work described in this paper. In this paper we calculate the longitudinal impedance of the damping ring vacuum chamber. More specifically, in this paper we find the response function of the ring to a short Gaussian bunch, which we call the Green function wake. In addition, we try to estimate the relative importance of the different vacuum chamber objects, in order to see how we might reduce the ring impedance. This paper also describes bunch length measurements performed on the North damping ring. We use the Green function wake, discussed above, to compute the bunch lengthening. Then we compare these results with those obtained from the measurements. In addition, we calculate the current dependence of the tune distribution

  6. Cystinuria Associated with Different SLC7A9 Gene Variants in the Cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijiro Mizukami

    Full Text Available Cystinuria is a classical inborn error of metabolism characterized by a selective proximal renal tubular defect affecting cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (COLA reabsorption, which can lead to uroliths and urinary obstruction. In humans, dogs and mice, cystinuria is caused by variants in one of two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, which encode the rBAT and bo,+AT subunits of the bo,+ basic amino acid transporter system, respectively. In this study, exons and flanking regions of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA of cats (Felis catus with COLAuria and cystine calculi. Relative to the Felis catus-6.2 reference genome sequence, DNA sequences from these affected cats revealed 3 unique homozygous SLC7A9 missense variants: one in exon 5 (p.Asp236Asn from a non-purpose-bred medium-haired cat, one in exon 7 (p.Val294Glu in a Maine Coon and a Sphinx cat, and one in exon 10 (p.Thr392Met from a non-purpose-bred long-haired cat. A genotyping assay subsequently identified another cystinuric domestic medium-haired cat that was homozygous for the variant originally identified in the purebred cats. These missense variants result in deleterious amino acid substitutions of highly conserved residues in the bo,+AT protein. A limited population survey supported that the variants found were likely causative. The remaining 2 sequenced domestic short-haired cats had a heterozygous variant at a splice donor site in intron 10 and a homozygous single nucleotide variant at a branchpoint in intron 11 of SLC7A9, respectively. This study identifies the first SLC7A9 variants causing feline cystinuria and reveals that, as in humans and dogs, this disease is genetically heterogeneous in cats.

  7. Upregulation of the Creatine Transporter Slc6A8 by Klotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Almilaji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The transmembrane Klotho protein contributes to inhibition of 1,25(OH2D3 formation. The extracellular domain of Klotho protein could function as an enzyme with e.g. β-glucuronidase activity, be cleaved off and be released into blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Klotho regulates several cellular transporters. Klotho protein deficiency accelerates the appearance of age related disorders including neurodegeneration and muscle wasting and eventually leads to premature death. The main site of Klotho protein expression is the kidney. Klotho protein is also appreciably expressed in other tissues including chorioid plexus. The present study explored the effect of Klotho protein on the creatine transporter CreaT (Slc6A8, which participates in the maintenance of neuronal function and survival. Methods: To this end cRNA encoding Slc6A8 was injected into Xenopus oocytes with and without additional injection of cRNA encoding Klotho protein. Creatine transporter CreaT (Slc6A8 activity was estimated from creatine induced current determined by two-electrode voltage-clamp. Results: Coexpression of Klotho protein significantly increased creatine-induced current in Slc6A8 expressing Xenopus oocytes. Coexpression of Klotho protein delayed the decline of creatine induced current following inhibition of carrier insertion into the cell membrane by brefeldin A (5 µM. The increase of creatine induced current by coexpression of Klotho protein in Slc6A8 expressing Xenopus oocytes was reversed by β-glucuronidase inhibitor (DSAL. Similarly, treatment of Slc6A8 expressing Xenopus oocytes with recombinant human alpha Klotho protein significantly increased creatine induced current. Conclusion: Klotho protein up-regulates the activity of creatine transporter CreaT (Slc6A8 by stabilizing the carrier protein in the cell membrane, an effect requiring β-glucuronidase activity of Klotho protein.

  8. Impact of genetic polymorphisms of SLC2A2, SLC2A5, and KHK on metabolic phenotypes in hypertensive individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MyPhuong T Le

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, consumption of added sugars has increased dramatically. Studies have linked high sugar intake with increased risk for a number of diseases. Importantly, fructose, a component of sugar, has been linked with the development of features of metabolic syndrome. This study determined if single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in fructose transport (solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter, member 2 (SLC2A2 and solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose/fructose transporter, member 5 (SLC2A5 and metabolism (ketohexokinase (KHK affect inter-individual variability in metabolic phenotypes, such as increased serum uric acid levels.The influence of SLC2A2, SLC2A5, and KHK SNPs on metabolic phenotypes was tested in 237 European Americans and 167 African Americans from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation and Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR study. Using baseline untreated fasting data, associations were considered significant if p≤0.005. These SNPs were then evaluated for potential replication (p≤0.05 using data from the Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensives (GERA studies.SLC2A5 rs5438 was associated with an increase in serum uric acid in European American males. However, we were unable to replicate the association in GERA. The minor allele of SLC2A2 rs8192675 showed an association with lower high-density lipoproteins in European Americans (A/A: 51.0 mg/dL, A/G: 47.0 mg/dL, G/G: 41.5 mg/dL, p = 0.0034 in PEAR. The association between rs8192675 and lower high-density lipoproteins was replicated in the combined European American GERA study samples (A/A: 47.6 mg/dL, A/G: 48.6 mg/dL, G/G: 41.9 mg/dL, p = 0.0315.The association between SLC2A2 rs8192675 and high-density lipoproteins suggests the polymorphism may play a role in influencing high-density lipoproteins and thus metabolic risk of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Deletions at SLC18A1 increased the risk of CRC and lower SLC18A1 expression associated with poor CRC outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Li, Zhenli; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhou, Dan; Tang, Shunli; Yin, Xiaoyang; Xu, Fangying; Li, Hui; Zhou, Yuan; Zhu, Tao; Deng, Hong; Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Qiong; Wang, Jing; Yin, Wei; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2017-10-26

    Copy number variations (CNVs) contribute to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a two-stage association study to identify CNV risk loci for CRC. We performed a gene-based rare CNV study on 694 sporadic CRC and 1641 controls using Illumina Human-OmniExpress-12v1.0 BeadChips, and further replicated in 934 CRC cases and 2680 controls for risk CNVs by using TaqMan Copy Number Assay. Tumor buddings, cancer cells in the center of primary tumor and normal intestinal epithelial cells were captured using laser capture microdissection (LCM) and were assayed using AffymetrixGeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. In addition, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus data were assessed for the effects of risk CNVs. We found that germline deletions affecting the last six exons of SLC18A1 significantly associated with CRC with a combined P value of 6.4 × 10-5 by a two-stage analysis. Both in TCGA CRC RNA seq dataset and GDS4382, SLC18A1 was significantly down regulated in CRC tissues than in paired normal tissues (N = 32 and 17 pairs, P = 0.004 and 0.009, respectively). In LCM samples, similar observations were obtained that the expression levels of SLC18A1 in the tumor buddings, cancer cells in the center of primary tumor, and stroma of both tumor budding and cancer cells were lower than normal intestinal epithelial and stromal cells (fold change = 0.17-0.62, 0.12-0.57 and 0.37-0.68, respectively). In summary, the germline deletions at SLC18A1 contributed to the development of CRC. The role of SLC18A1 required further exploration. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Medicare Program; Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) and Alternative Payment Model (APM) Incentive Under the Physician Fee Schedule, and Criteria for Physician-Focused Payment Models. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) repeals the Medicare sustainable growth rate (SGR) methodology for updates to the physician fee schedule (PFS) and replaces it with a new approach to payment called the Quality Payment Program that rewards the delivery of high-quality patient care through two avenues: Advanced Alternative Payment Models (Advanced APMs) and the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) for eligible clinicians or groups under the PFS. This final rule with comment period establishes incentives for participation in certain alternative payment models (APMs) and includes the criteria for use by the Physician-Focused Payment Model Technical Advisory Committee (PTAC) in making comments and recommendations on physician-focused payment models (PFPMs). Alternative Payment Models are payment approaches, developed in partnership with the clinician community, that provide added incentives to deliver high-quality and cost-efficient care. APMs can apply to a specific clinical condition, a care episode, or a population. This final rule with comment period also establishes the MIPS, a new program for certain Medicare-enrolled practitioners. MIPS will consolidate components of three existing programs, the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the Physician Value-based Payment Modifier (VM), and the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for Eligible Professionals (EPs), and will continue the focus on quality, cost, and use of certified EHR technology (CEHRT) in a cohesive program that avoids redundancies. In this final rule with comment period we have rebranded key terminology based on feedback from stakeholders, with the goal of selecting terms that will be more easily identified and understood by our stakeholders.

  11. SLC30A9 mutation affecting intracellular zinc homeostasis causes a novel cerebro-renal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Yonatan; Shorer, Zamir; Liani-Leibson, Keren; Chabosseau, Pauline; Kadir, Rotem; Volodarsky, Michael; Halperin, Daniel; Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Shalev, Hanna; Schreiber, Ruth; Gradstein, Libe; Gurevich, Evgenia; Zarivach, Raz; Rutter, Guy A; Landau, Daniel; Birk, Ohad S

    2017-04-01

    A novel autosomal recessive cerebro-renal syndrome was identified in consanguineous Bedouin kindred: neurological deterioration was evident as of early age, progressing into severe intellectual disability, profound ataxia, camptocormia and oculomotor apraxia. Brain MRI was normal. Four of the six affected individuals also had early-onset nephropathy with features of tubulo-interstitial nephritis, hypertension and tendency for hyperkalemia, though none had rapid deterioration of renal function. Genome wide linkage analysis identified an ∼18 Mb disease-associated locus on chromosome 4 (maximal logarithm of odds score 4.4 at D4S2971; θ = 0). Whole exome sequencing identified a single mutation in SLC30A9 within this locus, segregating as expected within the kindred and not found in a homozygous state in 300 Bedouin controls. We showed that SLC30A9 (solute carrier family 30 member 9; also known as ZnT-9) is ubiquitously expressed with high levels in cerebellum, skeletal muscle, thymus and kidney. Confocal analysis of SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing SLC30A9 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein demonstrated vesicular cytosolic localization associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, not co-localizing with endosomal or Golgi markers. SLC30A9 encodes a putative zinc transporter (by similarity) previously associated with Wnt signalling. However, using dual-luciferase reporter assay in SH-SY5Y cells we showed that Wnt signalling was not affected by the mutation. Based on protein modelling, the identified mutation is expected to affect SLC30A9's highly conserved cation efflux domain, putatively disrupting its transmembrane helix structure. Cytosolic Zn2+ measurements in HEK293 cells overexpressing wild-type and mutant SLC30A9 showed lower zinc concentration within mutant rather than wild-type SLC30A9 cells. This suggests that SLC30A9 has zinc transport properties affecting intracellular zinc homeostasis, and that the molecular mechanism of the disease is through

  12. Recessive mutations in SLC38A8 cause foveal hypoplasia and optic nerve misrouting without albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, James A; Al-Araimi, Musallam; Conte, Ivan; van Genderen, Maria M; Sheridan, Eamonn; Carr, Ian M; Parry, David A; Shires, Mike; Carrella, Sabrina; Bradbury, John; Khan, Kamron; Lakeman, Phillis; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I; Webster, Andrew R; Moore, Anthony T; Pal, Bishwanath; Mohamed, Moin D; Venkataramana, Anandula; Ramprasad, Vedam; Shetty, Rohit; Saktivel, Murugan; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; Tan, Alex; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Banfi, Sandro; Ali, Manir; Inglehearn, Chris F; Toomes, Carmel

    2013-12-05

    Foveal hypoplasia and optic nerve misrouting are developmental defects of the visual pathway and only co-occur in connection with albinism; to date, they have only been associated with defects in the melanin-biosynthesis pathway. Here, we report that these defects can occur independently of albinism in people with recessive mutations in the putative glutamine transporter gene SLC38A8. Nine different mutations were identified in seven Asian and European families. Using morpholino-mediated ablation of Slc38a8 in medaka fish, we confirmed that pigmentation is unaffected by loss of SLC38A8. Furthermore, by undertaking an association study with SNPs at the SLC38A8 locus, we showed that common variants within this gene modestly affect foveal thickness in the general population. This study reveals a melanin-independent component underpinning the development of the visual pathway that requires a functional role for SLC38A8. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sandy Chan; Sears, Renee L.; Lemos, Roberta R.; Quintáns, Beatriz; Huang, Alden; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Nevarez, Lisette; Mamah, Catherine; Zatz, Mayana; Pierce, Kerrie D.; Fullerton, Janice M.; Adair, John C.; Berner, Jon E.; Bower, Matthew; Brodaty, Henry; Carmona, Olga; Dobricić, Valerija; Fogel, Brent L.; García-Estevez, Daniel; Goldman, Jill; Goudreau, John L.; Hopfer, Suellen; Janković, Milena; Jaumà, Serge; Jen, Joanna C.; Kirdlarp, Suppachok; Klepper, Joerg; Kostić, Vladimir; Lang, Anthony E.; Linglart, Agnès; Maisenbacher, Melissa K.; Manyam, Bala V.; Mazzoni, Pietro; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia; Mitarnun, Witoon; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mueller, Jennifer; Novaković, Ivana; Paucar, Martin; Paulson, Henry; Simpson, Sheila A.; Svenningsson, Per; Tuite, Paul; Vitek, Jerrold; Wetchaphanphesat, Suppachok; Williams, Charles; Yang, Michele; Schofield, Peter R.; de Oliveira, João R. M.; Sobrido, María-Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or Fahr’s disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, which is associated with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Familial IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. We performed a mutational analysis of SLC20A2, the first gene found to cause IBGC, to assess its genetic contribution to familial IBGC. We recruited 218 subjects from 29 IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry and collected medical history, neurological exam, and head CT scans to characterize each patient’s disease status. We screened our patient cohort for mutations in SLC20A2. Twelve novel (nonsense, deletions, missense, and splice site) potentially pathogenic variants, one synonymous variant, and one previously reported mutation were identified in 13 families. Variants predicted to be deleterious cosegregated with disease in five families. Three families showed nonsegregation with clinical disease of such variants, but retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging data strongly suggested previous misclassification. Overall, mutations in SLC20A2 account for as many as 41 % of our familial IBGC cases. Our screen in a large series expands the catalog of SLC20A2 mutations identified to date and demonstrates that mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial IBGC. Non-perfect segregation patterns of predicted deleterious variants highlight the challenges of phenotypic assessment in this condition with highly variable clinical presentation. PMID:23334463

  14. Inhibition of SLC1A5 sensitizes colorectal cancer to cetuximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huanrong; Wu, Zhenzhen; Peng, Jianjun; Li, Yang; Huang, Hongxiang; Liao, Yi; Zhou, Minyu; Sun, Li; Huang, Na; Shi, Min; Bin, Jianping; Liao, Yulin; Rao, Jinjun; Wang, Lin; Liao, Wangjun

    2018-06-15

    Cetuximab resistance is a key barrier in treating metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Targeting of metabolic resources import could resensitize drug-resistant cancer cells to anticancer treatments. Here we showed that the expression of the glutamine transporter solute carrier 1 family member 5 (SLC1A5) in clinical CRC samples of patients resisted to cetuximab was significantly higher than in those of patients responded to cetuximab. Inhibition of SLC1A5 by shRNA-mediated gene silencing or pharmacological inhibitor significantly suppressed the growth of CRC. Moreover, inhibition of SLC1A5 significantly enhanced the inhibitory efficacy of cetuximab on CRC proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, SLC1A5 inhibition facilitated EGFR degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and decreased the expression of nuclear EGFR, both of which might have contribution to the improved response to cetuximab. This study provides the metabolic molecule SLC1A5 as a potential therapeutic target to increase the efficacy of cetuximab on CRC. © 2018 UICC.

  15. SLC26A4 mutations are associated with a specific inner ear malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitoz, Suat; Sennaroğlu, Levent; Incesulu, Armağan; Cengiz, Filiz Başak; Koç, Yasemin; Tekin, Mustafa

    2007-03-01

    Inner ear anomalies have been reported in approximately 30% of children with early onset deafness. Identification of causative genetic factors in a large proportion of these patients was not successful. Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene have been detected in individuals with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) or Mondini dysplasia. We aimed to characterize the inner ear anomalies associated with SLC26A4 mutations. The SLC26A4 gene has been screened for mutations in 16 subjects from 14 unrelated Turkish families with a variety of inner ear anomalies ranging from Michel aplasia to incomplete partition-II and EVA. None of the patients was diagnosed to have a recognizable genetic syndrome. Additional four patients with Pendred syndrome from three families were included. Only one patient with EVA was found to have a heterozygous mutation (c.1586delT) in SLC26A4. All patients with Pendred syndrome had homozygous mutations and were noted to have either EVA or EVA associated with incomplete partition-II on the computed tomography of the temporal bone. SLC26A4 mutations are not associated with a large spectrum of inner ear anomalies. They, instead, result in a specific morphological appearance consistent with EVA or incomplete partition-II.

  16. The renal urate transporter SLC17A1 locus: confirmation of association with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis-Moffatt, Jade E; Phipps-Green, Amanda J; Chapman, Brett; Jones, Gregory T; van Rij, Andre; Gow, Peter J; Harrison, Andrew A; Highton, John; Jones, Peter B; Montgomery, Grant W; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Tony R

    2012-04-27

    Two major gout-causing genes have been identified, the urate transport genes SLC2A9 and ABCG2. Variation within the SLC17A1 locus, which encodes sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 1, a renal transporter of uric acid, has also been associated with serum urate concentration. However, evidence for association with gout is equivocal. We investigated the association of the SLC17A1 locus with gout in New Zealand sample sets. Five variants (rs1165196, rs1183201, rs9358890, rs3799344, rs12664474) were genotyped across a New Zealand sample set totaling 971 cases and 1,742 controls. Cases were ascertained according to American Rheumatism Association criteria. Two population groups were studied: Caucasian and Polynesian. At rs1183201 (SLC17A1), evidence for association with gout was observed in both the Caucasian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67, P = 3.0 × 10-6) and Polynesian (OR = 0.74, P = 3.0 × 10-3) groups. Meta-analysis confirmed association of rs1183201 with gout at a genome-wide level of significance (OR = 0.70, P = 3.0 × 10-8). Haplotype analysis suggested the presence of a common protective haplotype. We confirm the SLC17A1 locus as the third associated with gout at a genome-wide level of significance.

  17. Final focus designs for crab waist colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bogomyagkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab waist collision scheme promises significant luminosity gain. The successful upgrade of the DAΦNE collider proved the principle of crab waist collision and increased luminosity 3 times. Therefore, several new projects try to implement the scheme. The paper reviews interaction region designs with the crab waist collision scheme for already existent collider DAΦNE and SuperKEKB, presently undergoing commissioning, for the projects of SuperB in Italy, CTau in Novosibirsk and FCC-ee at CERN.

  18. Analyses of SLC13A5-epilepsy patients reveal perturbations of TCA cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Matthew N; Cooney, Erin; Miller, Marcus; Kennedy, Adam D; Wulff, Jacob E; Donti, Taraka; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Gibbs, Richard A; Elsea, Sarah H; Porter, Brenda E; Graham, Brett H

    2017-08-01

    To interrogate the metabolic profile of five subjects from three families with rare, nonsense and missense mutations in SLC13A5 and Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathies (EIEE) characterized by severe, neonatal onset seizures, psychomotor retardation and global developmental delay. Mass spectrometry of plasma, CSF and urine was used to identify consistently dysregulated analytes in our subjects. Distinctive elevations of citrate and dysregulation of citric acid cycle intermediates, supporting the hypothesis that loss of SLC13A5 function alters tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) metabolism and may disrupt metabolic compartmentation in the brain. Our results indicate that analysis of plasma citrate and other TCA analytes in SLC13A5 deficient patients define a diagnostic metabolic signature that can aid in diagnosing children with this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Positive selection in the SLC11A1 gene in the family Equidae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayerova, Zuzana; Janova, Eva; Matiasovic, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Immunity-related genes are a suitable model for studying effects of selection at the genomic level. Some of them are highly conserved due to functional constraints and purifying selection, while others are variable and change quickly to cope with the variation of pathogens. The SLC11A1 gene encodes...... a transporter protein mediating antimicrobial activity of macrophages. Little is known about the patterns of selection shaping this gene during evolution. Although it is a typical evolutionarily conserved gene, functionally important polymorphisms associated with various diseases were identified in humans...... and other species. We analyzed the genomic organization, genetic variation, and evolution of the SLC11A1 gene in the family Equidae to identify patterns of selection within this important gene. Nucleotide SLC11A1 sequences were shown to be highly conserved in ten equid species, with more than 97 % sequence...

  20. Hypothesis: SLC12A3 Polymorphism modifies thiazide hypersensitivity of antenatal Bartter syndrome to thiazide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Cherry; Rupps, Rosemarie; Trnka, Peter; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2012-02-01

    We report a 5-year-old boy with thiazide-resistant Bartter syndrome. This is highly unusual since thiazide hypersensitivity is a common diagnostic finding in Bartter syndrome patients. Subsequent molecular testing identified compound heterozygosity for two novel mutations in KCNJ1, (c.556A > G and c.683G > A) which is associated with Bartter syndrome, and a paternally inherited polymorphism in SLC12A3 (c.791G > C). Mutations in SLC12A3 cause the thiazide-resistant tubulopathy Gitelman syndrome. Based on published studies of this polymorphism in SLC12A3 and the features of the proband's father, we postulate that this polymorphism modifies the phenotype of Bartter syndrome in the proband to thiazide resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Filling Landsat ETM+ SLC-off gaps using a segmentation model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a methodology for filling Landsat Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off gaps with same-scene spectral data guided by a segmentation model. Failure of the SLC on the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument resulted in a loss of approximately 25 percent of the spectral data. The missing data span across most of the image with scan gaps varying in size from two pixels near the center of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges. Even with the scan gaps, the radiometric and geometric qualities of the remaining portions of the image still meet design specifications and therefore contain useful information (see http:// landsat7.usgs.gov for additional information). The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center (EDC) is evaluating several techniques to fill the gaps in SLC-off data to enhance the usability of the imagery (Howard and Lacasse 2004) (PE&RS, August 2004). The method presented here uses a segmentation model approach that allows for same-scene spectral data to be used to fill the gaps. The segment model is generated from a complete satellite image with no missing spectral data (e.g., Landsat 5, Landsat 7 SLCon, SPOT). The model is overlaid on the Landsat SLC-off image, and the missing data within the gaps are then estimated using SLC-off spectral data that intersect the segment boundary. A major advantage of this approach is that the gaps are filled using spectral data derived from the same SLC-off satellite image.

  2. Missense mutation in exon 2 of SLC36A1 responsible for champagne dilution in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cook

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Champagne coat color in horses is controlled by a single, autosomal-dominant gene (CH. The phenotype produced by this gene is valued by many horse breeders, but can be difficult to distinguish from the effect produced by the Cream coat color dilution gene (CR. Three sires and their families segregating for CH were tested by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. The CH gene was mapped within a 6 cM region on horse chromosome 14 (LOD = 11.74 for theta = 0.00. Four candidate genes were identified within the region, namely SPARC [Secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin], SLC36A1 (Solute Carrier 36 family A1, SLC36A2 (Solute Carrier 36 family A2, and SLC36A3 (Solute Carrier 36 family A3. SLC36A3 was not expressed in skin tissue and therefore not considered further. The other three genes were sequenced in homozygotes for CH and homozygotes for the absence of the dilution allele (ch. SLC36A1 had a nucleotide substitution in exon 2 for horses with the champagne phenotype, which resulted in a transition from a threonine amino acid to an arginine amino acid (T63R. The association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP with the champagne dilution phenotype was complete, as determined by the presence of the nucleotide variant among all 85 horses with the champagne dilution phenotype and its absence among all 97 horses without the champagne phenotype. This is the first description of a phenotype associated with the SLC36A1 gene.

  3. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shasha; Han, Dongyi; Yuan, Yongyi; Wang, Guojian; Kang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xin; Yan, Xiaofei; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Min; Dai, Pu

    2011-09-30

    Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter) or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity). The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (isolated Mondini deformity) in a Chinese population. In total, 144 patients with sensorineural hearing loss were included and subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT. Among them, 28 patients with isolated Mondini dysplasia (MD group), 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct with Mondini dysplasia (EVA with MD group), 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct without Mondini dysplasia (EVA group), and 16 patients with other types of inner ear malformations (IEM group) were identified. The coding exons of SLC26A4 were analyzed in all subjects. DNA sequence analysis of SLC26A4 was performed in all 144 patients. In the different groups, the detection rate of the SLC26A4 mutation differed. In the isolated MD group, only one single allelic mutation in SLC26A4 was found in one patient (1/28, 3.6%). In the EVA with MD group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0%) and three patients (3/50, 6.0%), respectively. Also, in the EVA group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0%) and three patients (3/50, 6.0%), respectively. These percentages were identical to those in the EVA plus MD group. Only two patients carried monoallelic mutations of the SLC26A4 gene in the IEM group (2/16, 12.5%). There were significant differences in the frequency of SLC26A4 mutation among the groups (P0.5). Although mutations in the SLC26A4 gene were frequently found in Chinese EVA patients with and

  4. Organic solute carrier 22 (SLC22 family: Potential for interactions with food, herbal/dietary supplements, endogenous compounds, and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Lai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many drugs, hormones, components of herbal medicines, environmental pesticides and toxins are Solute Carrier family 22 (SLC22 substrates. The last twenty years has seen great progress in determining SLC22 tissue expression profiles, membrane localization, energetics, substrate profiles and biopharmaceutical significance. However, much still remains to be answered in terms of SLC22 family member's roles in ‘normal’ physiology as compared to pathophysiological states, as well as in drug interactions that impact pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity. This review begins with a brief synopsis of SLC22 family discovery, function and tissue expression. Subsequent sections provide examples establishing a role for SLC22 transporters in food-drug, herbal supplement-drug, endogenous substrate-drug and drug–drug interactions. Keywords: Hepatic transport, Nephrotoxicity, Organic anion transporter, Organic cation transporter, Renal transport

  5. Development of operator requested control system applications: Experience with the SLC control system at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanek, M.

    1995-01-01

    The SLC Control system at SLAC has evolved into a powerful tool for operation of the accelerator and for troubleshooting the unique problems encountered in extracting maximum performance from the SLC. The evolution has included the development of many custom applications and user interface features generated from accelerator operator and accelerator physicist requests. These applications are written and maintained primarily by the Controls Software Engineering group, and not by the users themselves. The process of developing and supporting user requested control systems applications at SLAC is described, including the effects of organizational structure, formal and informal procedures, and control system architecture

  6. SLC6A1 Mutation and Ketogenic Diet in Epilepsy With Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Samantha; Towne, Meghan C; Pearl, Phillip L; Pelletier, Renee C; Genetti, Casie A; Shi, Jiahai; Beggs, Alan H; Agrawal, Pankaj B; Brownstein, Catherine A

    2016-11-01

    Epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, also known as myoclonic-astatic epilepsy or Doose syndrome, has been recently linked to variants in the SLC6A1 gene. Epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures is often refractory to antiepileptic drugs, and the ketogenic diet is known for treating medically intractable seizures, although the mechanism of action is largely unknown. We report a novel SLC6A1 variant in a patient with epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, analyze its effects, and suggest a mechanism of action for the ketogenic diet. We describe a ten-year-old girl with epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures and a de novo SLC6A1 mutation who responded well to the ketogenic diet. She carried a c.491G>A mutation predicted to cause p.Cys164Tyr amino acid change, which was identified using whole exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. High-resolution structural modeling was used to analyze the likely effects of the mutation. The SLC6A1 gene encodes a transporter that removes gamma-aminobutyric acid from the synaptic cleft. Mutations in SLC6A1 are known to disrupt the gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter protein 1, affecting gamma-aminobutyric acid levels and causing seizures. The p.Cys164Tyr variant found in our study has not been previously reported, expanding on the variants linked to epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures. A 10-year-old girl with a novel SLC6A1 mutation and epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures had an excellent clinical response to the ketogenic diet. An effect of the diet on gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter protein 1 is suggested. A personalized approach to epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures patients carrying SLC6A1 mutation and a relationship between epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures due to SLC6A1 mutations, GABAergic drugs, and the ketogenic diet warrants further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of intractable epilepsy in a female with SLC6A8 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, S.; Connolly, M.B.; Poskitt, K.J.; Horvath, G.A.; Lowry, N.; Salomons, G.S.; Casey, B.; Sinclair, G.; Davis, C.; Jakobs, C.; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S.

    2010-01-01

    A female heterozygous for a novel, disease causing, missense mutation in the X-linked cerebral creatine transporter (SLC6A8) gene (c.1067G > T, p.Gly356Val) presented with intractable epilepsy, mild intellectual disability and moderately reduced cerebral creatine levels. Treatment with creatine

  8. Investigation of SLC6A4 gene expression in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Funda Şener

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is defined as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder. Genetics plays a major role in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The role of the serotonin in the development of autism has been widely investigated. SLC6A4 gene (SERT or 5-HT has an important role reuptaking of serotonin. Because of this, our study examined the expression level of SLC6A4 gene in autism patients. Methods: Thirty-four patients (26 male, 8 female who diagnosed as autism firstly according to DSM-V criteria in the Department of child psychiatry, Erciyes University Medical Faculty and healthy 23 controls (16 male, 7 female were enrolled in this study. Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples using TRIzol. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was performed to detect SLC6A4 gene expression. Results: SLC6A4 gene expression was found statistically significant and low in autism group compared with controls (p=0,027. Conclusion: The low gene expression in the patient group implied that there is an abnormality of serotonin reuptake. According to our results, we suggest that much more studies may be planned with the expression and methylation profile of this gene combined with gene polymorphisms especially affecting the expression in larger sample sizes. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 165-169

  9. SLC39A8 Deficiency: A Disorder of Manganese Transport and Glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julien H; Hogrebe, Max; Grüneberg, Marianne; DuChesne, Ingrid; von der Heiden, Ava L; Reunert, Janine; Schlingmann, Karl P; Boycott, Kym M; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Mhanni, Aziz A; Innes, A Micheil; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Biskup, Saskia; Gleixner, Eva M; Kurlemann, Gerhard; Fiedler, Barbara; Omran, Heymut; Rutsch, Frank; Wada, Yoshinao; Tsiakas, Konstantinos; Santer, René; Nebert, Daniel W; Rust, Stephan; Marquardt, Thorsten

    2015-12-03

    SLC39A8 is a membrane transporter responsible for manganese uptake into the cell. Via whole-exome sequencing, we studied a child that presented with cranial asymmetry, severe infantile spasms with hypsarrhythmia, and dysproportionate dwarfism. Analysis of transferrin glycosylation revealed severe dysglycosylation corresponding to a type II congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) and the blood manganese levels were below the detection limit. The variants c.112G>C (p.Gly38Arg) and c.1019T>A (p.Ile340Asn) were identified in SLC39A8. A second individual with the variants c.97G>A (p.Val33Met) and c.1004G>C (p.Ser335Thr) on the paternal allele and c.610G>T (p.Gly204Cys) on the maternal allele was identified among a group of unresolved case subjects with CDG. These data demonstrate that variants in SLC39A8 impair the function of manganese-dependent enzymes, most notably β-1,4-galactosyltransferase, a Golgi enzyme essential for biosynthesis of the carbohydrate part of glycoproteins. Impaired galactosylation leads to a severe disorder with deformed skull, severe seizures, short limbs, profound psychomotor retardation, and hearing loss. Oral galactose supplementation is a treatment option and results in complete normalization of glycosylation. SLC39A8 deficiency links a trace element deficiency with inherited glycosylation disorders. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurotransmitter Transporter-Like: a male germline-specific SLC6 transporter required for Drosophila spermiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The SLC6 class of membrane transporters, known primarily as neurotransmitter transporters, is increasingly appreciated for its roles in nutritional uptake of amino acids and other developmentally specific functions. A Drosophila SLC6 gene, Neurotransmitter transporter-like (Ntl, is expressed only in the male germline. Mobilization of a transposon inserted near the 3' end of the Ntl coding region yields male-sterile mutants defining a single complementation group. Germline transformation with Ntl cDNAs under control of male germline-specific control elements restores Ntl/Ntl homozygotes to normal fertility, indicating that Ntl is required only in the germ cells. In mutant males, sperm morphogenesis appears normal, with elongated, individualized and coiled spermiogenic cysts accumulating at the base of the testes. However, no sperm are transferred to the seminal vesicle. The level of polyglycylation of Ntl mutant sperm tubulin appears to be significantly lower than that of wild type controls. Glycine transporters are the most closely related SLC6 transporters to Ntl, suggesting that Ntl functions as a glycine transporter in developing sperm, where augmentation of the cytosolic pool of glycine may be required for the polyglycylation of the massive amounts of tubulin in the fly's giant sperm. The male-sterile phenotype of Ntl mutants may provide a powerful genetic system for studying the function of an SLC6 transporter family in a model organism.

  11. SLC beam line error analysis using a model-based expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Kleban, S.

    1988-02-01

    Commissioning particle beam line is usually a very time-consuming and labor-intensive task for accelerator physicists. To aid in commissioning, we developed a model-based expert system that identifies error-free regions, as well as localizing beam line errors. This paper will give examples of the use of our system for the SLC commissioning. 8 refs., 5 figs

  12. An Effective Gap Filtering Method for Landsat ETM+ SLC-Off Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seulki Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ scan line corrector (SLC failed on 31 May 2003, causing the SLC to turn off. Many gap-filled products were developed and deployed to combat this situation. The majority of these products used a primary image taken by the SLC when functioning properly in an attempt to correct SLC-off images. However, temporal atmospheric elements could not be reliably reflected using a primary image, and therefore the corrected image was not viable for use by monitoring systems. To bypass this limitation, this study has developed the Gap Interpolation and Filtering (GIF method that relies on one-dimensional interpolation filtering to conveniently recover pixels within a single image at a high level of accuracy without borrowing from images acquired at a different time or by another sensor. The GIF method was compared to two other methods—Global Linear Histogram Match (GLHM, and the Local Linear Histogram Match (LLHM—both developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA and United States Geological Survey (USGS to determine its accuracy. The GIF method accuracy was found superior in land, sea, and cloud imaging. In particular, its sea and cloud images returned Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values close to or less than 1. We expect the GIF method developed in this research to be of invaluable aid to monitoring systems that depend heavily on Landsat imagery.

  13. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 protect against type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannick, Jason; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Beer, Nicola L; Jacobs, Suzanne B R; Grarup, Niels; Burtt, Noël P; Mahajan, Anubha; Fuchsberger, Christian; Atzmon, Gil; Benediktsson, Rafn; Blangero, John; Bowden, Don W; Brandslund, Ivan; Brosnan, Julia; Burslem, Frank; Chambers, John; Cho, Yoon Shin; Christensen, Cramer; Douglas, Desirée A; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dymek, Zachary; Farjoun, Yossi; Fennell, Timothy; Fontanillas, Pierre; Forsén, Tom; Gabriel, Stacey; Glaser, Benjamin; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Hanis, Craig; Hansen, Torben; Hreidarsson, Astradur B; Hveem, Kristian; Ingelsson, Erik; Isomaa, Bo; Johansson, Stefan; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kong, Augustine; Kooner, Jaspal; Kravic, Jasmina; Laakso, Markku; Lee, Jong-Young; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Linneberg, Allan; Masson, Gisli; Meitinger, Thomas; Mohlke, Karen L; Molven, Anders; Morris, Andrew P; Potluri, Shobha; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richard, Ann-Marie; Rolph, Tim; Salomaa, Veikko; Segrè, Ayellet V; Skärstrand, Hanna; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M; Sulem, Patrick; Tai, E Shyong; Teo, Yik Ying; Teslovich, Tanya; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Trimmer, Jeff K; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Voight, Benjamin F; Wilson, James G; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I; Njølstad, Pål R; Pedersen, Oluf; Groop, Leif; Cox, David R; Stefansson, Kari; Altshuler, David

    2014-04-01

    Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of ~150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) and harbors a common variant (p.Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 × 10(-6)), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p.Lys34Serfs*50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (-0.17 s.d., P = 4.6 × 10(-4)). The two most common protein-truncating variants (p.Arg138* and p.Lys34Serfs*50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk, and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.

  14. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  15. SLC26A4 gene copy number variations in Chinese patients with non-syndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jiandong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA have either only one allelic mutant of the SLC26A4 gene or lack any detectable mutation. In this study, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was used to screen for copy number variations (CNVs of SLC26A4 and to reveal the pathogenic mechanisms of non-syndromic EVA (NSEVA. Methods Between January 2003 and March 2010, 923 Chinese patients (481 males, 442 females with NSEVA were recruited. Among these, 68 patients (7.4% were found to carry only one mutant allele of SLC26A4 and 39 patients (4.2% lacked any detectable mutation in SLC26A4; these 107 patients without double mutant alleles were assigned to the patient group. Possible copy number variations in SLC26A4 were detected by SALSA MLPA. Results Using GeneMapper, no significant difference was observed between the groups, as compared with the standard probe provided in the assay. The results of the capillary electrophoresis showed no significant difference between the patients and controls. Conclusion Our results suggest that CNVs and the exon deletion in SLC26A4 are not important factors in NSEVA. However, it would be premature to conclude that CNVs have no role in EVA. Genome-wide studies to explore CNVs within non-coding regions of the SLC26A4 gene and neighboring regions are warranted, to elucidate their roles in NSEVA etiology.

  16. SLC25 Family Member Genetic Interactions Identify a Role for HEM25 in Yeast Electron Transport Chain Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufay, J Noelia; Fernández-Murray, J Pedro; McMaster, Christopher R

    2017-06-07

    The SLC25 family member SLC25A38 (Hem25 in yeast) was recently identified as a mitochondrial glycine transporter that provides substrate to initiate heme/hemoglobin synthesis. Mutations in the human SLC25A38 gene cause congenital sideroblastic anemia. The full extent to which SLC25 family members coregulate heme synthesis with other mitochondrial functions is not clear. In this study, we surveyed 29 nonessential SLC25 family members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for their ability to support growth in the presence and absence of HEM25 Six SLC25 family members were identified that were required for growth or for heme synthesis in cells lacking Hem25 function. Importantly, we determined that loss of function of the SLC25 family member Flx1, which imports FAD into mitochondria, together with loss of function of Hem25, resulted in inability to grow on media that required yeast cells to supply energy using mitochondrial respiration. We report that specific components of complexes of the electron transport chain are decreased in the absence of Flx1 and Hem25 function. In addition, we show that mitochondria from flx1 Δ hem25 Δ cells contain uncharacterized Cox2-containing high molecular weight aggregates. The functions of Flx1 and Hem25 provide a facile explanation for the decrease in heme level, and in specific electron transport chain complex components. Copyright © 2017 Dufay et al.

  17. The histidine transporter SLC15A4 coordinates mTOR-dependent inflammatory responses and pathogenic antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshihiko; Shimabukuro-Demoto, Shiho; Yoshida-Sugitani, Reiko; Furuyama-Tanaka, Kaori; Karyu, Hitomi; Sugiura, Yuki; Shimizu, Yukiko; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Goto, Motohito; Kato, Norihiro; Okamura, Tadashi; Suematsu, Makoto; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Toyama-Sorimachi, Noriko

    2014-09-18

    SLC15A4 is a lysosome-resident, proton-coupled amino-acid transporter that moves histidine and oligopeptides from inside the lysosome to the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. SLC15A4 is required for Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)- and TLR9-mediated type I interferon (IFN-I) productions in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and is involved in the pathogenesis of certain diseases including lupus-like autoimmunity. How SLC15A4 contributes to diseases is largely unknown. Here we have shown that B cell SLC15A4 was crucial for TLR7-triggered IFN-I and autoantibody productions in a mouse lupus model. SLC15A4 loss disturbed the endolysosomal pH regulation and probably the v-ATPase integrity, and these changes were associated with disruption of the mTOR pathway, leading to failure of the IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-IFN-I regulatory circuit. Importantly, SLC15A4's transporter activity was necessary for the TLR-triggered cytokine production. Our findings revealed that SLC15A4-mediated optimization of the endolysosomal state is integral to a TLR7-triggered, mTOR-dependent IRF7-IFN-I circuit that leads to autoantibody production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SLC25 Family Member Genetic Interactions Identify a Role for HEM25 in Yeast Electron Transport Chain Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noelia Dufay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The SLC25 family member SLC25A38 (Hem25 in yeast was recently identified as a mitochondrial glycine transporter that provides substrate to initiate heme/hemoglobin synthesis. Mutations in the human SLC25A38 gene cause congenital sideroblastic anemia. The full extent to which SLC25 family members coregulate heme synthesis with other mitochondrial functions is not clear. In this study, we surveyed 29 nonessential SLC25 family members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for their ability to support growth in the presence and absence of HEM25. Six SLC25 family members were identified that were required for growth or for heme synthesis in cells lacking Hem25 function. Importantly, we determined that loss of function of the SLC25 family member Flx1, which imports FAD into mitochondria, together with loss of function of Hem25, resulted in inability to grow on media that required yeast cells to supply energy using mitochondrial respiration. We report that specific components of complexes of the electron transport chain are decreased in the absence of Flx1 and Hem25 function. In addition, we show that mitochondria from flx1Δ hem25Δ cells contain uncharacterized Cox2-containing high molecular weight aggregates. The functions of Flx1 and Hem25 provide a facile explanation for the decrease in heme level, and in specific electron transport chain complex components.

  19. ASCT2 (SLC1A5-Deficient Mice Have Normal B-Cell Development, Proliferation, and Antibody Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Masle-Farquhar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available SLC1A5 (solute carrier family 1, member 5 is a small neutral amino acid exchanger that is upregulated in rapidly proliferating lymphocytes but also in many primary human cancers. Furthermore, cancer cell lines have been shown to require SLC1A5 for their survival in vitro. One of SLC1A5’s primary substrates is the immunomodulatory amino acid glutamine, which plays an important role in multiple key processes, such as energy supply, macromolecular synthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, redox homeostasis, and resistance against oxidative stress. These processes are also essential to immune cells, including neutrophils, macrophages, B and T lymphocytes. We show here that mice with a stop codon in Slc1a5 have reduced glutamine uptake in activated lymphocytes and primary fibroblasts. B and T cell populations and maturation in resting mice were not affected by absence of SLC1A5. Antibody production in resting and immunized mice and the germinal center response to immunization were also found to be normal. SLC1A5 has been recently described as a novel target for the treatment of a variety of cancers, and our results indicate that inhibition of SLC1A5 in cancer therapy may be tolerated well by the immune system of cancer patients.

  20. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  1. Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Kenneth B; Delpire, Eric

    2013-04-15

    Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes.

  2. SLC52A2 [p.P141T] and SLC52A3 [p.N21S] causing Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome in an Indian patient: First genetically proven case with mutations in two riboflavin transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhayabanu, Tamilarasan; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Teafatiller, Trevor; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Raghavan, Varun S; Varalakshmi, Perumal; Said, Hamid M; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem

    2016-11-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome (BVVLS), a rare neurological disorder characterized by bulbar palsies and sensorineural deafness, is mainly associated with defective riboflavin transporters encoded by the SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 genes. Here we present a 16-year-old BVVLS patient belonging to a five generation consanguineous family from Indian ethnicity with two homozygous missense mutations viz., c.421C>A [p.P141T] in SLC52A2 and c.62A>G [p.N21S] in SLC52A3. Functional characterization based on 3 H-riboflavin uptake assay and live-cell confocal imaging revealed that the effect of mutation c.421C>A [p.P141T] identified in SLC52A2 had a slight reduction in riboflavin uptake; on the other hand, the c.62A>G [p.N21S] identified in SLC52A3 showed a drastic reduction in riboflavin uptake, which appeared to be due to impaired trafficking and membrane targeting of the hRFVT-3 protein. This is the first report presenting mutations in both riboflavin transporters hRFVT-2 and hRFVT-3 in the same BVVLS patient. Also, c.62A>G [p.N21S] in SLC52A3 appears to contribute more to the disease phenotype in this patient than c.421C>A [p.P141T] in SLC52A2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcript levels of members of the SLC2 and SLC5 families of glucose transport proteins in eel swimbladder tissue: the influence of silvering and the influence of a nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebauer, Gabriel; Mauracher, David; Fiechtner, Birgit; Pelster, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    The rate of glucose metabolism has been shown to be correlated to glucose uptake in swimbladder gas gland cells. Therefore, it is assumed that in the European eel silvering, i.e., the preparation of the eel for the spawning migration to the Sargasso Sea, coincides with an enhanced capacity for glucose uptake. To test this hypothesis expression of all known glucose transport proteins has been assessed at the transcript level in yellow and in silver eels, and we also included Anguillicola crassus infected swimbladders. Glucose uptake by rete mirabile endothelial cells could be crucial for the countercurrent exchange capacity of the rete. Therefore, this tissue was also included in our analysis. The results revealed expression of ten different members of the slc2 family of glucose transporters, of four slc5 family members, and of kiaa1919 in gas gland tissue. Glucose transporters of the slc2 family were expressed at very high level, and slc2a1b made up about 80% of all slc2 family members, irrespective of the developmental state or the infection status of the eel. Overall, the slc5 family contributed to only about 8% of all detected glucose transport transcripts in gas gland tissue, and the slc2 family to more than 85%. In rete capillaries, the contribution of sodium-dependent glucose transporters was significantly higher, leaving only 66% for the slc2 family of glucose transporters. Neither silvering nor the infection status had a significant effect on the expression of glucose transporters in swimbladder gas gland tissue, suggesting that glucose metabolism of eel gas gland cells may not be related to transcriptional changes of glucose transport proteins.

  4. Risk and protective genetic variants in suicidal behaviour: association with SLC1A2, SLC1A3, 5-HTR1B &NTRK2 polymorphisms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Therese M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicidal behaviour is known to aggregate in families. Patients with psychiatric disorders are at higher risk for suicide attempts (SA), however protective and risk genetic variants for suicide appear to be independent of underlying psychiatric disorders. Here we investigate genetic variants in genes important for neurobiological pathways linked to suicidal behaviour and\\/or associated endophenotypes, for association with SA among patients with co-existing psychiatric illness. Selected gene-gene and gene-environment interactions were also tested. METHODS: DNA was obtained from bloods of 159 patients (76 suicide attempters and 83 non-attempters), who were profiled for DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 18 candidate genes (COMT, 5-HT2A, 5-HT1A, 5-HTR1B, TPH1, MAO-A, TPH2, DBH, CNR1, BDNF, ABCG1, GABRA5, GABRG2, GABRB2, SLC1A2, SLC1A3, NTRK2, CRHR1) were genotyped. Genotyping was performed by KBioscience. Tests of association between genetic variants and SA were conducted using Chi squared and Armitage Trend tests. Binary logistical regression analyses were performed to evaluate the contribution of individual genetic variants to the prediction of SA, and to examine SNPs for potential gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. RESULTS: Our analysis identified 4 SNPs (rs4755404, rs2269272, rs6296 and rs1659400), which showed evidence of association with SA compared to a non-attempter control group. We provide evidence of a 3-locus gene-gene interaction, and a putative gene-environment interaction, whereby genetic variation at the NTRK2 locus may moderate the risk associated with history of childhood abuse. CONCLUSION: Preliminary findings suggest that allelic variability in SLC1A2\\/3, 5-HTR1B and NTRK2 may be relevant to the underlying diathesis for suicidal acts.

  5. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Keisuke, E-mail: nya@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamasaki, Daisuke [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ishimoto, Kenji [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Laboratory for System Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Doi, Takefumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-11-20

    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial {beta}-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of {beta}-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPAR{alpha} and found that PPAR{alpha} induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPAR{alpha} regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  6. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Ishimoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Doi, Takefumi

    2009-01-01

    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial β-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of β-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPARα and found that PPARα induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPARα regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  7. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaofei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity. The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (isolated Mondini deformity in a Chinese population. Methods In total, 144 patients with sensorineural hearing loss were included and subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT. Among them, 28 patients with isolated Mondini dysplasia (MD group, 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct with Mondini dysplasia (EVA with MD group, 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct without Mondini dysplasia (EVA group, and 16 patients with other types of inner ear malformations (IEM group were identified. The coding exons of SLC26A4 were analyzed in all subjects. Results DNA sequence analysis of SLC26A4 was performed in all 144 patients. In the different groups, the detection rate of the SLC26A4 mutation differed. In the isolated MD group, only one single allelic mutation in SLC26A4 was found in one patient (1/28, 3.6%. In the EVA with MD group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0% and three patients (3/50, 6.0%, respectively. Also, in the EVA group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0% and three patients (3/50, 6.0%, respectively. These percentages were identical to those in the EVA plus MD group. Only two patients carried monoallelic mutations of the SLC26A4 gene in the IEM group (2/16, 12.5%. There were significant differences in the frequency of SLC26A4 mutation among the groups (P SLC26A4 mutation in the isolated MD group was

  8. Common Genetic Variation and Haplotypes of the Anion Exchanger SLC4A2 in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Brian D.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Larson, Joseph J.; Schlicht, Erik M.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Deficiencies of the anion exchanger SLC4A2 are thought to play a pathogenic role in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), evidenced by decreased expression and activity in PBC patients and development of disease features in SLC4A2 knockout mice. We hypothesized that genetic variation in SLC4A2 might influence this pathogenic contribution. Thus, we aimed to perform a comprehensive assessment of SLC4A2 genetic variation in PBC using a linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based haplotype-tagging approach. Methods Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across SLC4A2 were genotyped in 409 PBC patients and 300 controls and evaluated for association with disease, as well as with prior orthotopic liver transplant and antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) status among the PBC patients, both individually and as inferred haplotypes, using logistic regression. Results All SNPs were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. No associations with disease or liver transplantation were detected, but two variants, rs2303929 and rs3793336, were associated with negativity for antimitochondrial antibodies among the PBC patients. Conclusions The common genetic variation of SLC4A2 does not directly affect the risk of PBC or its clinical outcome. Whether the deficiency of SLC4A2 expression and activity observed earlier in PBC patients is an acquired epiphenomenon of underlying disease or is because of heritable factors in unappreciated regulatory regions remains uncertain. Of note, two SLC4A2 variants appear to influence AMA status among PBC patients. The mechanisms behind this finding are unclear. PMID:19491853

  9. Expression and Its Clinical Significance of SLC22A18 in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Ming LEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that multidrug resistance (MDR is the main cause of chemotherapy failure in lung cancer. Research on emergence mechanisms of MDR has great clinical significance in improving the curative efficiency of lung cancer chemotherapy. Proteins encoded by the SLC22A18 gene, which is similar to the transmembrane transporter, may influence the sensitivity of chemotherapeutics as well as the metabolism and growth of cells. In addition, these proteins probably have some effect on the development of lung cancer MDR. The aim of the present study is to investigate the expression of SLC22A18 protein in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC as well as in corresponding normal lung tissue. Furthermore, the relationship between SLC22A18 expression and pathological grade and TNM stage is analyzed. Methods The expression of SLC22A18 was detected by EnVinsion in 96 cases with NSCLC and in corresponding normal lung tissue. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results SLC22A18 was mainly located in cell membrane and cytoplasm. The expression level of SLC22A18 in NSCLC was significantly higher than that in normal tissue (P<0.01. The positive rates in squamous cell lung cancer and lung adenocarcinoma were 68% and 78.2%, respectively (P<0.05. Moreover, the higher expression of SLC22A18 was associated with lower histological grade and later TNM stage (P<0.05. Conclusion SLC22A18 protein is overexpressed in NSCLC, and its expression is correlated with pathological grade and TNM stage. These findings provide the experimental basis for investigating the role of tumor and chemoresistance.

  10. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  11. The Human Gene SLC25A29, of Solute Carrier Family 25, Encodes a Mitochondrial Transporter of Basic Amino Acids*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Vito; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Longo, Antonella; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport carboxylates, amino acids, nucleotides, and cofactors across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. In this work, a member of this family, SLC25A29, previously reported to be a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine- or ornithine-like carrier, has been thoroughly characterized biochemically. The SLC25A29 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was purified and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Its transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A29 transports arginine, lysine, homoarginine, methylarginine and, to a much lesser extent, ornithine and histidine. Carnitine and acylcarnitines were not transported by SLC25A29. This carrier catalyzed substantial uniport besides a counter-exchange transport, exhibited a high transport affinity for arginine and lysine, and was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. The main physiological role of SLC25A29 is to import basic amino acids into mitochondria for mitochondrial protein synthesis and amino acid degradation. PMID:24652292

  12. The human gene SLC25A29, of solute carrier family 25, encodes a mitochondrial transporter of basic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Vito; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Longo, Antonella; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-05-09

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport carboxylates, amino acids, nucleotides, and cofactors across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. In this work, a member of this family, SLC25A29, previously reported to be a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine- or ornithine-like carrier, has been thoroughly characterized biochemically. The SLC25A29 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was purified and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Its transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A29 transports arginine, lysine, homoarginine, methylarginine and, to a much lesser extent, ornithine and histidine. Carnitine and acylcarnitines were not transported by SLC25A29. This carrier catalyzed substantial uniport besides a counter-exchange transport, exhibited a high transport affinity for arginine and lysine, and was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. The main physiological role of SLC25A29 is to import basic amino acids into mitochondria for mitochondrial protein synthesis and amino acid degradation.

  13. Lack of Association between SLC30A8 Variants and Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SLC30A8 encodes zinc transporter 8 which is involved in packaging and release of insulin. Evidence for the association of SLC30A8 variants with type 2 diabetes (T2D is inconclusive. We interrogated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs around SLC30A8 for association with T2D in high-risk, pedigreed individuals from extended Mexican American families. This study of 118 SNPs within 50 kb of the SLC30A8 locus tested the association with eight T2D-related traits at four levels: (i each SNP using measured genotype approach (MGA; (ii interaction of SNPs with age and sex; (iii combinations of SNPs using Bayesian Quantitative Trait Nucleotide (BQTN analyses; and (iv entire gene locus using the gene burden test. Only one SNP (rs7817754 was significantly associated with incident T2D but a summary statistic based on all T2D-related traits identified 11 novel SNPs. Three SNPs and one SNP were weakly but interactively associated with age and sex, respectively. BQTN analyses could not demonstrate any informative combination of SNPs over MGA. Lastly, gene burden test results showed that at best the SLC30A8 locus could account for only 1-2% of the variability in T2D-related traits. Our results indicate a lack of association of the SLC30A8 SNPs with T2D in Mexican American families.

  14. The mammalian phosphate carrier SLC25A3 is a mitochondrial copper transporter required for cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Aren; Vest, Katherine E; Maynard, Margaret K; Gammon, Micah G; Russell, Antoinette C; Mathews, Alexander T; Cole, Shelbie E; Zhu, Xinyu; Phillips, Casey B; Kwong, Jennifer Q; Dodani, Sheel C; Leary, Scot C; Cobine, Paul A

    2018-02-09

    Copper is required for the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal electron-accepting complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The likely source of copper used for COX biogenesis is a labile pool found in the mitochondrial matrix. In mammals, the proteins that transport copper across the inner mitochondrial membrane remain unknown. We previously reported that the mitochondrial carrier family protein Pic2 in budding yeast is a copper importer. The closest Pic2 ortholog in mammalian cells is the mitochondrial phosphate carrier SLC25A3. Here, to investigate whether SLC25A3 also transports copper, we manipulated its expression in several murine and human cell lines. SLC25A3 knockdown or deletion consistently resulted in an isolated COX deficiency in these cells, and copper addition to the culture medium suppressed these biochemical defects. Consistent with a conserved role for SLC25A3 in copper transport, its heterologous expression in yeast complemented copper-specific defects observed upon deletion of PIC2 Additionally, assays in Lactococcus lactis and in reconstituted liposomes directly demonstrated that SLC25A3 functions as a copper transporter. Taken together, these data indicate that SLC25A3 can transport copper both in vitro and in vivo . © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Slc3a2 Mediates Branched-Chain Amino-Acid-Dependent Maintenance of Regulatory T Cells

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    Kayo Ikeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg cells, which suppress immune responses, are highly proliferative in vivo. However, it remains unclear how the active replication of Treg cells is maintained in vivo. Here, we show that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, including isoleucine, are required for maintenance of the proliferative state of Treg cells via the amino acid transporter Slc3a2-dependent metabolic reprogramming. Mice fed BCAA-reduced diets showed decreased numbers of Foxp3+ Treg cells with defective in vivo proliferative capacity. Mice lacking Slc3a2 specifically in Foxp3+ Treg cells showed impaired in vivo replication and decreased numbers of Treg cells. Slc3a2-deficient Treg cells showed impaired isoleucine-induced activation of the mTORC1 pathway and an altered metabolic state. Slc3a2 mutant mice did not show an isoleucine-induced increase of Treg cells in vivo and exhibited multi-organ inflammation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that BCAA controls Treg cell maintenance via Slc3a2-dependent metabolic regulation. : Treg cells regulate excess immune responses and are highly proliferative in vivo. Ikeda et al. find that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs are essentially required to maintain expansion and the suppressive capacity of Treg cells via Slc3a2 and mTORC1. Keywords: Treg cells, amino acids, immunometabolism, immune regulation, transporter

  16. Impaired riboflavin transport due to missense mutations in SLC52A2 causes Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Tobias B; Makowski, Christine; Yao, Yoshiaki; Graf, Elisabeth; Hempel, Maja; Wieland, Thomas; Tauer, Ulrike; Ahting, Uwe; Mayr, Johannes A; Freisinger, Peter; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Inui, Ken; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Prokisch, Holger

    2012-11-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVLS [MIM 211530]) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by infancy onset sensorineural deafness and ponto-bulbar palsy. Mutations in SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54), coding for riboflavin transporter 2 (hRFT2), have been identified as the molecular genetic correlate in several individuals with BVVLS. Exome sequencing of just one single case revealed that compound heterozygosity for two pathogenic mutations in the SLC52A2 gene coding for riboflavin transporter 3 (hRFT3), another member of the riboflavin transporter family, is also associated with BVVLS. Overexpression studies confirmed that the gene products of both mutant alleles have reduced riboflavin transport activities. While mutations in SLC52A3 cause decreased plasma riboflavin levels, concordant with a role of SLC52A3 in riboflavin uptake from food, the SLC52A2-mutant individual had normal plasma riboflavin concentrations, a finding in line with a postulated function of SLC52A2 in riboflavin uptake from blood into target cells. Our results contribute to the understanding of human riboflavin metabolism and underscore its role in the pathogenesis of BVVLS, thereby providing a rational basis for a high-dose riboflavin treatment.

  17. Functional assessment of allelic variants in the SLC26A4 gene involved in Pendred syndrome and nonsyndromic EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Alejandra; Dossena, Silvia; Rodighiero, Simona; Gandía, Marta; Bottà, Guido; Meyer, Giuliano; Moreno, Felipe; Nofziger, Charity; Hernández-Chico, Concepción; Paulmichl, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, with malformations of the inner ear, ranging from enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) to Mondini malformation, and deficient iodide organification in the thyroid gland. Nonsyndromic EVA (ns-EVA) is a separate type of sensorineural hearing loss showing normal thyroid function. Both Pendred syndrome and ns-EVA seem to be linked to the malfunction of pendrin (SLC26A4), a membrane transporter able to exchange anions between the cytosol and extracellular fluid. In the past, the pathogenicity of SLC26A4 missense mutations were assumed if the mutations fulfilled two criteria: low incidence of the mutation in the control population and substitution of evolutionary conserved amino acids. Here we show that these criteria are insufficient to make meaningful predictions about the effect of these SLC26A4 variants on the pendrin-induced ion transport. Furthermore, we functionally characterized 10 missense mutations within the SLC26A4 ORF, and consistently found that on the protein level, an addition or omission of a proline or a charged amino acid in the SLC26A4 sequence is detrimental to its function. These types of changes may be adequate for predicting SLC26A4 functionality in the absence of direct functional tests. PMID:19017801

  18. Association between norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphisms and suicide in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Hwang, Jung-A; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Ko, Young-Hoon; Lee, Bun-Hee; Jung, Han-Yong; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Na, Kyoung-Sae

    2014-04-01

    Although several studies have investigated possible associations between norepinephrine neurotransmitter transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphisms and depression, few studies have examined associations between SLC6A2 polymorphisms and suicide. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2242446, rs28386840, and rs5569) were measured in 550 patients: 201 with major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide attempt/s, 160 with MDD without suicide attempts, and 189 healthy controls. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotype was conducted for the three groups. Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age and gender was conducted to identify independent influences of each SNP. A possible association between suicide lethality and SLC6A2 polymorphisms was also investigated. In the genotype and allele frequency analysis, there were significant differences in rs28386840 between suicidal MDD patients and healthy controls. In the haplotype analysis, TAA (rs2242446-rs28386840-rs5569, from left to right) was associated with suicide attempts in MDD, although the significance (p=0.043) disappeared after Bonferroni correction. There were no relationships between lethality scores and SLC6A2 polymorphisms in suicidal MDD. Modest sample size and a single type of neurotransmitter analyzed (norepinephrine) are the primary limitations. Our results suggest that SLC6A2 polymorphisms were associated with suicide risk in patients with MDD. Future studies are warranted to elucidate possible mechanisms by which SLC6A2 polymorphisms influence suicide risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multivariate analysis methods to tag b quark events at LEP/SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, B.; Falvard, A.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Proriol, J.

    1992-01-01

    Multivariate analyses are applied to tag Z → bb-bar events at LEP/SLC. They are based on the specific b-event shape caused by the large b-quark mass. Discriminant analyses, classification trees and neural networks are presented and their performances are compared. It is shown that the neural network approach, due to its non-linearity, copes best with the complexity of the problem. As an example for an application of the developed methods the measurement of Γ(Z → bb-bar) is discussed. The usefulness of methods based on the global event shape is limited by the uncertainties introduced by the necessity of event simulation. As solution a double tag method is presented which can be applied to many tasks of LEP/SLC heavy flavour physics. (author) 29 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Beam-based analysis of day-night performance variations at the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Akre, R.; Assmann, R.; Bane, K.L.F.; Minty, M.G.; Phinney, N.; Spence, W.L.

    1998-07-01

    Diurnal temperature variations in the linac gallery of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) can affect the amplitude and phase of the rf used to accelerate the beam. The SLC employs many techniques for stabilization and compensation of these effects, but residual uncorrected changes still affect the quality of the delivered beam. This paper presents methods developed to monitor and investigate these errors through the beam response. Variations resulting from errors in the rf amplitude or phase can be distinguished by studying six different beam observables: betatron phase advance, oscillation amplitude growth, rms jitter along the linac, measurements of the beam phase with respect to the rf, changes in the required injection phase, and the global energy correction factor. By quantifying the beam response, an uncorrected variation of 14 degree (S-band) during 28 F temperature swings was found in the main rf drive line system between the front and end of the linac

  1. The calculated longitudinal impedance of the SLC [Stanford Linear Collider] damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.

    1988-05-01

    A high level of current dependent bunch lengthening has been observed in the north damping ring of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), indicating that the ring's impedance is very inductive. This level of bunch lengthening will limit the performance of the SLC. In order to study the problem of bunch lengthening in the damping ring and the possibility of reducing their inductance we compute, in this report, the longitudinal impedance of the damping ring vacuum chamber. More specifically we find the response function of the ring to a short gaussian bunch. This function will later be used as a driving term in the longitudinal equation of motion. We also identify the important inductive elements of the vacuum chamber and estimate their contribution to the total ring inductance. This information will be useful in assessing the effect of vacuum chamber modifications. 7 refs. , 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Solid state high power amplifier for driving the SLC injector klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judkins, J.G.; Clendenin, J.E.; Schwarz, H.D.

    1985-03-01

    The SLC injector klystron rf drive is now provided by a recently developed solid-state amplifier. The high gain of the amplifier permits the use of a fast low-power electronic phase shifter. Thus the SLC computer control system can be used to shift the phase of the high-power rf rapidly during the fill time of the injector accelerator section. These rapid phase shifts are used to introduce a phase-energy relationship in the accelerated electron pulse in conjunction with the operation of the injector bunch compressor. The amplifier, the method of controlling the rf phase, and the operational characteristics of the system are described. 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. Proceedings of the SLC workshop on experimental use of the SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    In March 1981, the SLAC management, together with the SLAC users organization, invited interested physicists to a three day meeting to discuss the laboratory's plans and progress on the new colliding e + e - machine - the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Those attending were encouraged to join together to study the challenges and opportunities presented by the SLC. The study of the parameters for experiments on 100 GeV e + e - collisions, and the reviews of the state-of-the-art in the four areas of detector technology - Tracking, Calorimetry, Particle Identification and Electronics and Computing - were undertaken from a general standpoint, and not from the particular perspective of a specific experimental proposal. Nine sections were prepared separately for the data base

  4. Mutations in the GABA Transporter SLC6A1 Cause Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvill, Gemma L.; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Schneider, Amy; Zemel, Matthew; Myers, Candace T.; Saykally, Julia; Nguyen, John; Robbiano, Angela; Zara, Federico; Specchio, Nicola; Mecarelli, Oriano; Smith, Robert L.; Leventer, Richard J.; Møller, Rikke S.; Nikanorova, Marina; Dimova, Petia; Jordanova, Albena; Petrou, Steven; Helbig, Ingo; Striano, Pasquale; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Mefford, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    GAT-1, encoded by SLC6A1, is one of the major gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters in the brain and is responsible for re-uptake of GABA from the synapse. In this study, targeted resequencing of 644 individuals with epileptic encephalopathies led to the identification of six SLC6A1 mutations in seven individuals, all of whom have epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures (MAE). We describe two truncations and four missense alterations, all of which most likely lead to loss of function of GAT-1 and thus reduced GABA re-uptake from the synapse. These individuals share many of the electrophysiological properties of Gat1-deficient mice, including spontaneous spike-wave discharges. Overall, pathogenic mutations occurred in 6/160 individuals with MAE, accounting for ∼4% of unsolved MAE cases. PMID:25865495

  5. Mutations in SLC12A5 in epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stödberg, Tommy; McTague, Amy; Ruiz, Arnaud J.; Hirata, Hiromi; Zhen, Juan; Long, Philip; Farabella, Irene; Meyer, Esther; Kawahara, Atsuo; Vassallo, Grace; Stivaros, Stavros M.; Bjursell, Magnus K.; Stranneheim, Henrik; Tigerschiöld, Stephanie; Persson, Bengt; Bangash, Iftikhar; Das, Krishna; Hughes, Deborah; Lesko, Nicole; Lundeberg, Joakim; Scott, Rod C.; Poduri, Annapurna; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Smith, Holly; Gissen, Paul; Schorge, Stephanie; Reith, Maarten E. A.; Topf, Maya; Kullmann, Dimitri M.; Harvey, Robert J.; Wedell, Anna; Kurian, Manju A.

    2015-01-01

    The potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2, encoded by SLC12A5, plays a fundamental role in fast synaptic inhibition by maintaining a hyperpolarizing gradient for chloride ions. KCC2 dysfunction has been implicated in human epilepsy, but to date, no monogenic KCC2-related epilepsy disorders have been described. Here we show recessive loss-of-function SLC12A5 mutations in patients with a severe infantile-onset pharmacoresistant epilepsy syndrome, epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS). Decreased KCC2 surface expression, reduced protein glycosylation and impaired chloride extrusion contribute to loss of KCC2 activity, thereby impairing normal synaptic inhibition and promoting neuronal excitability in this early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:26333769

  6. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  7. Neurosteroid Transport in the Brain: Role of ABC and SLC Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Grube

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, comprising pregnane, androstane, and sulfated steroids can alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other receptors and have therefore a therapeutic potential in several brain disorders. They can be formed in brain cells or are synthesized by an endocrine gland and reach the brain by penetrating the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Especially sulfated steroids such as pregnenolone sulfate (PregS and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS depend on transporter proteins to cross membranes. In this review, we discuss the involvement of ATP-binding cassette (ABC- and solute carrier (SLC-type membrane proteins in the transport of these compounds at the BBB and in the choroid plexus (CP, but also in the secretion from neurons and glial cells. Among the ABC transporters, especially BCRP (ABCG2 and several MRP/ABCC subfamily members (MRP1, MRP4, MRP8 are expressed in the brain and known to efflux conjugated steroids. Furthermore, several SLC transporters have been shown to mediate cellular uptake of steroid sulfates. These include members of the OATP/SLCO subfamily, namely OATP1A2 and OATP2B1, as well as OAT3 (SLC22A3, which have been reported to be expressed at the BBB, in the CP and in part in neurons. Furthermore, a role of the organic solute transporter OSTα-OSTβ (SLC51A/B in brain DHEAS/PregS homeostasis has been proposed. This transporter was reported to be localized especially in steroidogenic cells of the cerebellum and hippocampus. To date, the impact of transporters on neurosteroid homeostasis is still poorly understood. Further insights are desirable also with regard to the therapeutic potential of these compounds.

  8. Rollfix---An adiabatic roll transition for the SLC [Stanford Linear Collider] Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.; Brown, K.; Fieguth, T.; Hutton, A.; Ritson, D.; Sands, M.; Toge, N.

    1989-02-01

    The SLC Arcs were rolled at achromat boundaries to follow the terrain of the SLAC site. This makes the linear optics sensitive to systematic gradient errors, from which severe cross-plane coupling effects may arise. As a partial correction, a smoother roll transition was introduced which relieves much of this sensitivity. We present an evaluation of this scheme and report on the observed improvements. 18 refs., 10 figs

  9. Beam-beam deflections as an interaction point diagnostic for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.; Erickson, R.

    1986-05-01

    A technique is described for non-destructive measurement and monitoring of the steering offset of the electron and positron beams at the interaction point of the SLC, based on using stripline beam-position monitors to measure the centroid of one beam as it is deflected by the opposing beam. This technique is also expected to provide diagnostic information related to the spot size of the micron-size beams

  10. Association study of serotonin transporter SLC6A4 gene with Chinese Han irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common clinical gastrointestinal dysfunction disorders. 5-sertonon (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT is a very important neurotransmitter, which is involved in gastrointestinal motion and sensation. Solute carrier family 6 member 4 (SLC6A4 gene encode serotonin transporter (SERT which function is to rapidly reuptake the most of 5-HT. Therefore, it is needed to explore the association between SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms and IBS. METHODS: 119 patients and 238 healthy controls were administrated to detect the SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms including 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs and three selected tag Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs rs1042173, rs3794808, rs2020936 by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and TaqMan® SNP Genotyping. RESULTS: There were significant difference for 5-HTTLPR between IBS and control groups (X2 = 106.168, P<0.0001. In control group, genotypes were mainly L/L (58.4%, however, the genotypes in IBS were S/S (37.8%. The significant difference was shown in D-IBS subjects when compared to the controls (X(2 = 50.850, P<0.0001 for 5-HTTLPR. For STin2 VNTR, rs1042173, rs3794808, and rs2020936 polymorphisms, there were no any significant differences between IBS and control groups. There were no statistical significantly haplotypes for 5-HTTLPR, VNTRs and the three SNPs between IBS and controls. CONCLUSION: The S allele in 5-HTTLPR was a susceptible allele with Chinese Han IBS, but other associations of VNTRs, three selected Tag SNPs and positive haplotype with IBS were not found. It is indicated that much research are needed to study the relationship between other polymorphisms in SLC6A4 gene and IBS.

  11. e+e- collisions at the SLC--the left-right asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-09-01

    Recent progress with the SLC as a prototype linear collider for high energy e + e - collisions is reviewed. Recent advances in the production of high intensity beams of polarized e -s are also discussed. The SLD Collaboration has embarked on a precision measurement of the left-right polarization asymmetry A LR at the Z pole with polarized electrons. Results and future plans are presented

  12. A partial gene deletion of SLC45A2 causes oculocutaneous albinism in Doberman pinscher dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige A Winkler

    Full Text Available The first white Doberman pinscher (WDP dog was registered by the American Kennel Club in 1976. The novelty of the white coat color resulted in extensive line breeding of this dog and her offspring. The WDP phenotype closely resembles human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA and clinicians noticed a seemingly high prevalence of pigmented masses on these dogs. This study had three specific aims: (1 produce a detailed description of the ocular phenotype of WDPs, (2 objectively determine if an increased prevalence of ocular and cutaneous melanocytic tumors was present in WDPs, and (3 determine if a genetic mutation in any of the genes known to cause human OCA is causal for the WDP phenotype. WDPs have a consistent ocular phenotype of photophobia, hypopigmented adnexal structures, blue irides with a tan periphery and hypopigmented retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. WDPs have a higher prevalence of cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms compared with control standard color Doberman pinschers (SDPs; cutaneous tumors were noted in 12/20 WDP (5 years of age: 8/8 and 1/20 SDPs (p<0.00001. Using exclusion analysis, four OCA causative genes were investigated for their association with WDP phenotype; TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2. SLC45A2 was found to be linked to the phenotype and gene sequencing revealed a 4,081 base pair deletion resulting in loss of the terminus of exon seven of SLC45A2 (chr4∶77,062,968-77,067,051. This mutation is highly likely to be the cause of the WDP phenotype and is supported by a lack of detectable SLC45A2 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase PCR. The WDP provides a valuable model for studying OCA4 visual disturbances and melanocytic neoplasms in a large animal model.

  13. Diabetes Enhances Dental Caries and Apical Periodontitis in Caries-Susceptible WBN/KobSlc Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and a...

  14. Effects of exotic composite bosons in the TRISTAN, SLC and LEP region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Keiichi; Hattori, Takashi; Yasue, Masaki.

    1989-11-01

    Starting with typical dynamical composite models for exotic bosons as well as weak bosons, we derive their effective interactions, examine the restrictions from the presently known experimental results, and estimate possible effects on e + e - scattering. Some of the neutral exotics in the composite model, which decouple from neutrinos at low energies, can be as light as the order of the weak boson masses and offer the possibility of detecting sizable effects in the TRISTAN, SLC and LEP energy region. (author)

  15. Observations of accelerated high current low emittance beams in the SLC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.; Ross, M.C.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stiening, R.F.

    1985-05-01

    The Linac of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is required to accelerate several intense single electron and positron bunches to high energy while not enlarging their small transverse emittances. The improvements needed by the SLAC Linac to meet these goals have very stringent design criteria. As partial systems have become available, beam tests have been performed to confirm the designs. The results of those beam tests are discussed. Future plans of the improvement program are described. 13 refs., 9 figs

  16. Correction of the first order beam transport of the SLC Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, N.; Barklow, T.; Emma, P.; Krejcik, P.

    1991-05-01

    Correction of the first order transport of the SLC Arcs has been made possible by a technique which allows the full 4x4 transport matrix across any section of Arc to be experimentally determined. By the introduction of small closed bumps into each achromat, it is possible to substantially correct first order optical errors, and notably the cross plane coupling at the exit of the Arcs. 4 refs., 3 figs

  17. Joint linkage and association analysis with exome sequence data implicates SLC25A40 in hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Ranchalis, Jane; Crosslin, David R; Burt, Amber; Brunzell, John D; Motulsky, Arno G; Nickerson, Deborah A; Wijsman, Ellen M; Jarvik, Gail P

    2013-12-05

    Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Investigating the genetics of HTG may identify new drug targets. There are ~35 known single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) that explain only ~10% of variation in triglyceride (TG) level. Because of the genetic heterogeneity of HTG, a family study design is optimal for identification of rare genetic variants with large effect size because the same mutation can be observed in many relatives and cosegregation with TG can be tested. We considered HTG in a five-generation family of European American descent (n = 121), ascertained for familial combined hyperlipidemia. By using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo joint oligogenic linkage and association analysis, we detected linkage to chromosomes 7 and 17. Whole-exome sequence data revealed shared, highly conserved, private missense SNVs in both SLC25A40 on chr7 and PLD2 on chr17. Jointly, these SNVs explained 49% of the genetic variance in TG; however, only the SLC25A40 SNV was significantly associated with TG (p = 0.0001). This SNV, c.374A>G, causes a highly disruptive p.Tyr125Cys substitution just outside the second helical transmembrane region of the SLC25A40 inner mitochondrial membrane transport protein. Whole-gene testing in subjects from the Exome Sequencing Project confirmed the association between TG and SLC25A40 rare, highly conserved, coding variants (p = 0.03). These results suggest a previously undescribed pathway for HTG and illustrate the power of large pedigrees in the search for rare, causal variants. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SLC26A4 Variations Among Graves’ Hyper-Functioning Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Hadj-Kacem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS, an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA, and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL. However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21 of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junctions among patients affected with Graves' disease (GD hyperthyroidism. Ten mono-allelic variants were identified, seven of which are intronic and previously unreported. Two, c.898A>C (p.I300L and c.1061T>C (p.F354S, of the three exonic variants are non synonymous. The p.F354S variant is already described to be involved in PS or NSHL inheritances. The exploration by PCR-RFLP of p.I300L and p.F354S variants among 132 GD patients, 105 Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT, 206 Healthy subjects and 102 families with NSHL have shown the presence of both variants. The p.F354S variation was identified both among patients (1~HT and 3 GD and healthy subjects (n=5. Whereas, the p.I300L variant was identified only in GD patients (n=3. Our studies provide evidence of the importance of systematic analysis of SLC26A4 gene sequences on models other than deafness. This approach allows the identification of new variants and the review of the pathogenic effects of certain mono-allelic variants reported responsible for PS and NSHL development.

  19. No Association of BDNF, COMT, MAOA, SLC6A3, and SLC6A4 Genes and Depressive Symptoms in a Sample of Healthy Colombian Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; Camargo, Andrés; López-León, Sandra; Forero, Diego A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second cause of years lived with disability around the world. A large number of studies have been carried out to identify genetic risk factors for MDD and related endophenotypes, mainly in populations of European and Asian descent, with conflicting results. The main aim of the current study was to analyze the possible association of five candidate genes and depressive symptoms in a Colombian sample of healthy subjects. Methods and Materials. The Spanish adaptation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to one hundred eighty-eight healthy Colombian subjects. Five functional polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-based assays: BDNF-Val66Met (rs6265), COMT-Val158Met (rs4680), SLC6A4-HTTLPR (rs4795541), MAOA-uVNTR, and SLC6A3-VNTR (rs28363170). Result. We did not find significant associations with scores of depressive symptoms, derived from the HADS, for any of the five candidate genes (nominal p values >0.05). In addition, we did not find evidence of significant gene-gene interactions. Conclusion. This work is one of the first studies of candidate genes for depressive symptoms in a Latin American sample. Study of additional genetic and epigenetic variants, taking into account other pathophysiological theories, will help to identify novel candidates for MDD in populations around the world.

  20. The emerging physiological roles of the SLC14A family of urea transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, urea is the main nitrogenous breakdown product of protein catabolism and is produced in the liver. In certain tissues, the movement of urea across cell membranes is specifically mediated by a group of proteins known as the SLC14A family of facilitative urea transporters. These proteins are derived from two distinct genes, UT-A (SLC14A2) and UT-B (SLC14A1). Facilitative urea transporters play an important role in two major physiological processes – urinary concentration and urea nitrogen salvaging. Although UT-A and UT-B transporters both have a similar basic structure and mediate the transport of urea in a facilitative manner, there are a number of significant differences between them. UT-A transporters are mainly found in the kidney, are highly specific for urea, have relatively lower transport rates and are highly regulated at both gene expression and cellular localization levels. In contrast, UT-B transporters are more widespread in their tissue location, transport both urea and water, have a relatively high transport rate, are inhibited by mercurial compounds and currently appear to be less acutely regulated. This review details the fundamental research that has so far been performed to investigate the function and physiological significance of these two types of urea transporters. PMID:21449978

  1. Vps35-deficiency impairs SLC4A11 trafficking and promotes corneal dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Vps35 (vacuolar protein sorting 35 is a major component of retromer that selectively promotes endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of transmembrane proteins. Dysfunction of retromer is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, Vps35/retromer's function in the eye or the contribution of Vps35-deficiency to eye degenerative disorders remains to be explored. Here we provide evidence for a critical role of Vps35 in mouse corneal dystrophy. Vps35 is expressed in mouse and human cornea. Mouse cornea from Vps35 heterozygotes (Vps35+/- show features of dystrophy, such as loss of both endothelial and epithelial cell densities, disorganizations of endothelial, stroma, and epithelial cells, excrescences in the Descemet membrane, and corneal edema. Additionally, corneal epithelial cell proliferation was reduced in Vps35-deficient mice. Intriguingly, cell surface targeting of SLC4A11, a membrane transport protein (OH- /H+ /NH3 /H2O of corneal endothelium, whose mutations have been identified in patients with corneal dystrophy, was impaired in Vps35-deficient cells and cornea. Taken together, these results suggest that SLC4A11 appears to be a Vps35/retromer cargo, and Vps35-regulation of SLC4A11 trafficking may underlie Vps35/retromer regulation of corneal dystrophy.

  2. Structure of Bor1 supports an elevator transport mechanism for SLC4 anion exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurtle-Schmidt, Bryan H; Stroud, Robert M

    2016-09-20

    Boron is essential for plant growth because of its incorporation into plant cell walls; however, in excess it is toxic to plants. Boron transport and homeostasis in plants is regulated in part by the borate efflux transporter Bor1, a member of the solute carrier (SLC) 4 transporter family with homology to the human bicarbonate transporter Band 3. Here, we present the 4.1-Å resolution crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana Bor1. The structure displays a dimeric architecture in which dimerization is mediated by centralized Gate domains. Comparisons with a structure of Band 3 in an outward-open state reveal that the Core domains of Bor1 have rotated inwards to achieve an occluded state. Further structural comparisons with UapA, a xanthine transporter from the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter family, show that the downward pivoting of the Core domains relative to the Gate domains may access an inward-open state. These results suggest that the SLC4, SLC26, and nucleobase-ascorbate transporter families all share an elevator transport mechanism in which alternating access is provided by Core domains that carry substrates across a membrane.

  3. Precision electroweak physics with the SLD/SLC: The left-right polarization asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowson, P.C.

    1994-12-01

    Following a brief review of a commonly used general framework for the analysis of radiative corrections and possible new physics, the recent precision results from the SLD/SLC are discussed and used to test the standard electroweak model. In the 1993 SLD/SLC run, the SLD recorded 50,000 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. The luminosity-weighted average polarization of the SLC electron beam was (63.0 ± 1.1)%. We measure the left-right cross-section asymmetry in Z boson production, A LR , to be 0.1628 ± 0.0071 (stat) ± 0.0028 (syst) which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2292 ± 0.0009 (stat) ± 0.0004 (syst). When averaged with our 1992 result, we obtain sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2294 ± 0. 0010. This result differs from analogous LEP results at the level of about 2.5 σ. The world averages of electroweak data are comfortably in agreement with the standard model

  4. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  5. Positive selection in the SLC11A1 gene in the family Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerova, Zuzana; Janova, Eva; Matiasovic, Jan; Orlando, Ludovic; Horin, Petr

    2016-05-01

    Immunity-related genes are a suitable model for studying effects of selection at the genomic level. Some of them are highly conserved due to functional constraints and purifying selection, while others are variable and change quickly to cope with the variation of pathogens. The SLC11A1 gene encodes a transporter protein mediating antimicrobial activity of macrophages. Little is known about the patterns of selection shaping this gene during evolution. Although it is a typical evolutionarily conserved gene, functionally important polymorphisms associated with various diseases were identified in humans and other species. We analyzed the genomic organization, genetic variation, and evolution of the SLC11A1 gene in the family Equidae to identify patterns of selection within this important gene. Nucleotide SLC11A1 sequences were shown to be highly conserved in ten equid species, with more than 97 % sequence identity across the family. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the coding and noncoding regions of the gene. Seven codon sites were identified to be under strong purifying selection. Codons located in three regions, including the glycosylated extracellular loop, were shown to be under diversifying selection. A 3-bp indel resulting in a deletion of the amino acid 321 in the predicted protein was observed in all horses, while it has been maintained in all other equid species. This codon comprised in an N-glycosylation site was found to be under positive selection. Interspecific variation in the presence of predicted N-glycosylation sites was observed.

  6. Changes in oil content of transgenic soybeans expressing the yeast SLC1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suryadevara S; Hildebrand, David

    2009-10-01

    The wild type (Wt) and mutant form of yeast (sphingolipid compensation) genes, SLC1 and SLC1-1, have been shown to have lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) activities (Nageic et al. in J Biol Chem 269:22156-22163, 1993). Expression of these LPAT genes was reported to increase oil content in transgenic Arabidopsis and Brassica napus. It is of interest to determine if the TAG content increase would also be seen in soybeans. Therefore, the wild type SLC1 was expressed in soybean somatic embryos under the control of seed specific phaseolin promoter. Some transgenic somatic embryos and in both T2 and T3 transgenic seeds showed higher oil contents. Compared to controls, the average increase in triglyceride values went up by 1.5% in transgenic somatic embryos. A maximum of 3.2% increase in seed oil content was observed in a T3 line. Expression of the yeast Wt LPAT gene did not alter the fatty acid composition of the seed oil.

  7. Molecular Etiology of Hearing Impairment in Inner Mongolia: mutations in SLC26A4 gene and relevant phenotype analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bailin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular etiology of hearing impairment in Chinese has not been thoroughly investigated. Study of GJB2 gene revealed that 30.4% of the patients with hearing loss in Inner Mongolia carried GJB2 mutations. The SLC26A4 gene mutations and relevant phenotype are analyzed in this study. Methods One hundred and thirty-five deaf patients were included. The coding exons of SLC26A4 gene were sequence analyzed in 111 patients, not including 22 patients carrying bi-allelic GJB2 mutations or one patient carrying a known GJB2 dominant mutation as well as one patient with mtDNA 1555A>G mutation. All patients with SLC26A4 mutations or variants were subjected to high resolution temporal bone CT scan and those with confirmed enlarged vestibular aqueduct and/or other inner ear malformation were then given further ultrasound scan of thyroid and thyroid hormone assays. Results Twenty-six patients (19.26%, 26/135 were found carrying SLC26A4 mutation. Among them, 17 patients with bi-allelic SLC26A4 mutations were all confirmed to have EVA or other inner ear malformation by CT scan. Nine patients were heterozygous for one SLC26A4 mutation, including 3 confirmed to be EVA or EVA and Mondini dysplasia by CT scan. The most common mutation, IVS7-2A>G, accounted for 58.14% (25/43 of all SLC26A4 mutant alleles. The shape and function of thyroid were confirmed to be normal by thyroid ultrasound scan and thyroid hormone assays in 19 of the 20 patients with EVA or other inner ear malformation except one who had cystoid change in the right side of thyroid. No Pendred syndrome was diagnosed. Conclusion In Inner Mongolia, China, mutations in SLC26A4 gene account for about 12.6% (17/135 of the patients with hearing loss. Together with GJB2 (23/135, SLC26A4 are the two most commonly mutated genes causing deafness in this region. Pendred syndrome is not detected in this deaf population. We established a new strategy that detects SLC26A4 mutations prior to the

  8. Molecular Etiology of Hearing Impairment in Inner Mongolia: mutations in SLC26A4 gene and relevant phenotype analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pu; Yuan, Yongyi; Huang, Deliang; Zhu, Xiuhui; Yu, Fei; Kang, Dongyang; Yuan, Huijun; Wu, Bailin; Han, Dongyi; Wong, Lee-Jun C

    2008-01-01

    Background The molecular etiology of hearing impairment in Chinese has not been thoroughly investigated. Study of GJB2 gene revealed that 30.4% of the patients with hearing loss in Inner Mongolia carried GJB2 mutations. The SLC26A4 gene mutations and relevant phenotype are analyzed in this study. Methods One hundred and thirty-five deaf patients were included. The coding exons of SLC26A4 gene were sequence analyzed in 111 patients, not including 22 patients carrying bi-allelic GJB2 mutations or one patient carrying a known GJB2 dominant mutation as well as one patient with mtDNA 1555A>G mutation. All patients with SLC26A4 mutations or variants were subjected to high resolution temporal bone CT scan and those with confirmed enlarged vestibular aqueduct and/or other inner ear malformation were then given further ultrasound scan of thyroid and thyroid hormone assays. Results Twenty-six patients (19.26%, 26/135) were found carrying SLC26A4 mutation. Among them, 17 patients with bi-allelic SLC26A4 mutations were all confirmed to have EVA or other inner ear malformation by CT scan. Nine patients were heterozygous for one SLC26A4 mutation, including 3 confirmed to be EVA or EVA and Mondini dysplasia by CT scan. The most common mutation, IVS7-2A>G, accounted for 58.14% (25/43) of all SLC26A4 mutant alleles. The shape and function of thyroid were confirmed to be normal by thyroid ultrasound scan and thyroid hormone assays in 19 of the 20 patients with EVA or other inner ear malformation except one who had cystoid change in the right side of thyroid. No Pendred syndrome was diagnosed. Conclusion In Inner Mongolia, China, mutations in SLC26A4 gene account for about 12.6% (17/135) of the patients with hearing loss. Together with GJB2 (23/135), SLC26A4 are the two most commonly mutated genes causing deafness in this region. Pendred syndrome is not detected in this deaf population. We established a new strategy that detects SLC26A4 mutations prior to the temporal bone CT scan to

  9. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  10. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  11. Fructose Synthesis and Transport at the Uterine-Placental Interface of Pigs: Cell-Specific Localization of SLC2A5, SLC2A8, and Components of the Polyol Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Chelsie B; Landers, McKinsey; Myatt, Louise; Burghardt, Robert C; Vallet, Jeffrey L; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Greg A

    2016-11-01

    The fetal fluids and uterine flushings of pigs contain higher concentrations of fructose than glucose, but fructose is not detected in maternal blood. Fructose can be synthesized from glucose via enzymes of the polyol pathway, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD), transported across cell membranes by solute carriers SLC2A5 and SLC2A8, and converted to fructose-1-phosphate by ketohexokinase (KHK). SLC2A8, SLC2A5, AKR1B1, SORD, and KHK mRNAs and proteins were analyzed using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization in endometria and placentae of cyclic and pregnant gilts, cyclic gilts injected with estrogen, and ovariectomized gilts injected with progesterone. Progesterone up-regulated SLC2A8 protein in uterine luminal (LE) and glandular epithelia during the peri-implantation period, and expression became exclusively placental, chorion and blood vessels, after Day 30. P4 up-regulated SLC2A5 mRNA in uterine LE and glandular epithelia after implantation, and the chorion expressed SLC2A5 between Days 30 and 85. AKR1B1 and SORD proteins localized to uterine LE during the peri-implantation period, but expression switched to chorion by Day 20 and was maintained through Day 85. Uterine expression of AKR1B1 mRNA was down-regulated by estrogen. KHK protein localized to trophectoderm/chorion throughout gestation. These results provide evidence that components for the conversion of glucose to fructose and for fructose transport are present at the uterine-placental interface of pigs. The shift in expression from LE to chorion during pregnancy suggests free-floating conceptuses are supported by fructose synthesized by the uterus, but after implantation, the chorion becomes self-sufficient for fructose synthesis and transport. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  12. Complex analysis of urate transporters SLC2A9, SLC22A12 and functional characterization of non-synonymous allelic variants of GLUT9 in the Czech population: no evidence of effect on hyperuricemia and gout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Hurba

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Using European descent Czech populations, we performed a study of SLC2A9 and SLC22A12 genes previously identified as being associated with serum uric acid concentrations and gout. This is the first study of the impact of non-synonymous allelic variants on the function of GLUT9 except for patients suffering from renal hypouricemia type 2. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 250 individuals (150 controls, 54 nonspecific hyperuricemics and 46 primary gout and/or hyperuricemia subjects. We analyzed 13 exons of SLC2A9 (GLUT9 variant 1 and GLUT9 variant 2 and 10 exons of SLC22A12 by PCR amplification and sequenced directly. Allelic variants were prepared and their urate uptake and subcellular localization were studied by Xenopus oocytes expression system. The functional studies were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon and Kruskall-Wallis tests; the association study used the Fisher exact test and linear regression approach. RESULTS: We identified a total of 52 sequence variants (12 unpublished. Eight non-synonymous allelic variants were found only in SLC2A9: rs6820230, rs2276961, rs144196049, rs112404957, rs73225891, rs16890979, rs3733591 and rs2280205. None of these variants showed any significant difference in the expression of GLUT9 and in urate transport. In the association study, eight variants showed a possible association with hyperuricemia. However, seven of these were in introns and the one exon located variant, rs7932775, did not show a statistically significant association with serum uric acid concentration. CONCLUSION: Our results did not confirm any effect of SLC22A12 and SLC2A9 variants on serum uric acid concentration. Our complex approach using association analysis together with functional and immunohistochemical characterization of non-synonymous allelic variants did not show any influence on expression, subcellular localization and urate uptake of GLUT9.

  13. Complex analysis of urate transporters SLC2A9, SLC22A12 and functional characterization of non-synonymous allelic variants of GLUT9 in the Czech population: no evidence of effect on hyperuricemia and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurba, Olha; Mancikova, Andrea; Krylov, Vladimir; Pavlikova, Marketa; Pavelka, Karel; Stibůrková, Blanka

    2014-01-01

    Using European descent Czech populations, we performed a study of SLC2A9 and SLC22A12 genes previously identified as being associated with serum uric acid concentrations and gout. This is the first study of the impact of non-synonymous allelic variants on the function of GLUT9 except for patients suffering from renal hypouricemia type 2. The cohort consisted of 250 individuals (150 controls, 54 nonspecific hyperuricemics and 46 primary gout and/or hyperuricemia subjects). We analyzed 13 exons of SLC2A9 (GLUT9 variant 1 and GLUT9 variant 2) and 10 exons of SLC22A12 by PCR amplification and sequenced directly. Allelic variants were prepared and their urate uptake and subcellular localization were studied by Xenopus oocytes expression system. The functional studies were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon and Kruskall-Wallis tests; the association study used the Fisher exact test and linear regression approach. We identified a total of 52 sequence variants (12 unpublished). Eight non-synonymous allelic variants were found only in SLC2A9: rs6820230, rs2276961, rs144196049, rs112404957, rs73225891, rs16890979, rs3733591 and rs2280205. None of these variants showed any significant difference in the expression of GLUT9 and in urate transport. In the association study, eight variants showed a possible association with hyperuricemia. However, seven of these were in introns and the one exon located variant, rs7932775, did not show a statistically significant association with serum uric acid concentration. Our results did not confirm any effect of SLC22A12 and SLC2A9 variants on serum uric acid concentration. Our complex approach using association analysis together with functional and immunohistochemical characterization of non-synonymous allelic variants did not show any influence on expression, subcellular localization and urate uptake of GLUT9.

  14. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  15. OCD candidate gene SLC1A1/EAAT3 impacts basal ganglia-mediated activity and stereotypic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zike, Isaac D; Chohan, Muhammad O; Kopelman, Jared M; Krasnow, Emily N; Flicker, Daniel; Nautiyal, Katherine M; Bubser, Michael; Kellendonk, Christoph; Jones, Carrie K; Stanwood, Gregg; Tanaka, Kenji Fransis; Moore, Holly; Ahmari, Susanne E; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-05-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition with inadequate treatment options that leave most patients with substantial residual symptoms. Structural, neurochemical, and behavioral findings point to a significant role for basal ganglia circuits and for the glutamate system in OCD. Genetic linkage and association studies in OCD point to SLC1A1 , which encodes the neuronal glutamate/aspartate/cysteine transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)/excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAC1). However, no previous studies have investigated EAAT3 in basal ganglia circuits or in relation to OCD-related behavior. Here, we report a model of Slc1a1 loss based on an excisable STOP cassette that yields successful ablation of EAAT3 expression and function. Using amphetamine as a probe, we found that EAAT3 loss prevents expected increases in ( i ) locomotor activity, ( ii ) stereotypy, and ( iii ) immediate early gene induction in the dorsal striatum following amphetamine administration. Further, Slc1a1 -STOP mice showed diminished grooming in an SKF-38393 challenge experiment, a pharmacologic model of OCD-like grooming behavior. This reduced grooming is accompanied by reduced dopamine D 1 receptor binding in the dorsal striatum of Slc1a1 -STOP mice. Slc1a1 -STOP mice also exhibit reduced extracellular dopamine concentrations in the dorsal striatum both at baseline and following amphetamine challenge. Viral-mediated restoration of Slc1a1 /EAAT3 expression in the midbrain but not in the striatum results in partial rescue of amphetamine-induced locomotion and stereotypy in Slc1a1 -STOP mice, consistent with an impact of EAAT3 loss on presynaptic dopaminergic function. Collectively, these findings indicate that the most consistently associated OCD candidate gene impacts basal ganglia-dependent repetitive behaviors.

  16. Hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct and zero or one mutant allele of SLC26A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jane; Muskett, Julie A; King, Kelly A; Zalewski, Christopher K; Chattaraj, Parna; Butman, John A; Kenna, Margaret A; Chien, Wade W; Brewer, Carmen C; Griffith, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the severity and natural history of hearing loss, and the prevalence of having a cochlear implant in a maturing cohort of individuals with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) and zero or one mutant allele of SLC26A4. Prospective cohort study of subjects ascertained between 1998 and 2015 at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Study subjects were 127 individuals (median age, 8 years; range, 0-59 years) with EVA in at least one ear. Ears with EVA and zero or one mutant allele of SLC26A4 had mean 0.5/1/2/4-kHz pure-tone averages of 62.6 and 52.9 dB HL, respectively, in contrast to EVA ears with two mutant alleles of SLC26A4 (88.1 dB HL; P zero, one, and two mutant alleles, respectively (P = .00833). This association was not independent (P = .534) but reflected underlying correlations with age at time of first audiogram (P = .003) or severity of hearing loss (P = .000). Ears with EVA and zero or one mutant allele of SLC26A4 have less severe hearing loss, no difference in prevalence of fluctuation, and a lower prevalence of cochlear implantation in comparison to ears with two mutant alleles of SLC26A4. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E238-E243, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Distribution and expression of SLC45A2 in the skin of sheep with different coat colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haidong; Xue, Linli; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Bingling; Chen, Tianzhi; Liu, Ying; Chang, Lucheng; Wang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether the membrane-associated transporter protein SLC45A2 is differentially expressed in the skin of sheep with different coat colors and to determine its correlation with coat color establishment in sheep. The expression of SLC45A2 in sheep skin samples with different coat colors was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by PCR amplification, RT-PCR, immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. A 193-bp SLC45A2 CDS sequence was successfully amplified from sheep skin samples with diverse coat colors. RT-PCR analysis revealed that SLC45A2 mRNA was expressed in all sheep skin samples tested, with relative expression levels of 512.74 ± 121.51 in black skin, 143.38 ± 119.31 and 1.36 ± 0.09 in black dots and white dots of piebald skin, respectively, and 1.02 ± 0.23 in white skin (p coat colors. These patterns were quantified by optical density (OD) analysis, which yielded relative expression levels of 0.23 ± 0.11 in black skin, 0.19 ± 0.09 and 0.10 ± 0.03 in black dots and white dots of piebald skin, respectively, and 0.08 ± 0.01 in white skin (p coat colors, though at significantly different levels. SLC45A2 may participate in the establishment of coat color by regulating the synthesis and trafficking of melanin.

  18. Homozygous SLC6A17 Mutations Cause Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability with Progressive Tremor, Speech Impairment, and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Willemsen, Marjolein H.; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Musante, Luciana; Benevento, Marco; Hu, Hao; Venselaar, Hanka; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn M.; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.; Marouillat, Sylviane; Wienker, Thomas F.; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kahrizi, Kimia; Nadif Kasri, Nael; Najmabadi, Hossein; Laumonnier, Frédéric; Kleefstra, Tjitske; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2015-01-01

    We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping revealed homozygous mutations c.484G>A (p.Gly162Arg) and c.1898C>G (p.Pro633Arg) in SLC6A17. SLC6A17 is predominantly expressed in the brain, encodes a synaptic vesicular transporter of neutral amino acids and glutamate, and plays an important role in the regulation of glutamatergic synapses. Prediction programs and 3D modeling suggest that the identified mutations are deleterious to protein function. To directly test the functional consequences, we investigated the neuronal subcellular localization of overexpressed wild-type and mutant variants in mouse primary hippocampal neuronal cells. Wild-type protein was present in soma, axons, dendrites, and dendritic spines. p.Pro633Arg altered SLC6A17 was found in soma and proximal dendrites but did not reach spines. p.Gly162Arg altered SLC6A17 showed a normal subcellular distribution but was associated with an abnormal neuronal morphology mainly characterized by the loss of dendritic spines. In summary, our genetic findings implicate homozygous SLC6A17 mutations in autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, and their pathogenic role is strengthened by genetic evidence and in silico and in vitro functional analyses. PMID:25704603

  19. ρ0 Cells Feature De-Ubiquitination of SLC Transporters and Increased Levels and Fluxes of Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bordinassi Medina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Solute carrier (SLC transporters are a diverse group of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the cellular flux and distribution of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Post-translational modifications (PTMs, such as ubiquitination, have recently emerged as one of the major regulatory mechanisms in protein function and localization. Previously, we showed that SLC amino acid transporters were on average 6-fold de-ubiquitinated and increased amino acid levels were detected in ρ0 cells (lacking mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA compared to parental cells. Here, we elucidated the altered functionality of SLC transporters and their dynamic ubiquitination status by measuring the uptake of several isotopically labeled amino acids in both human osteosarcoma 143B.TK- and ρ0 cells. Our pulse chase analysis indicated that de-ubiquitinated amino acid transporters in ρ0 cells were accompanied by an increased transport rate, which leads to higher levels of amino acids in the cell. Finding SLC transport enhancers is an aim of the pharmaceutical industry in order to compensate for loss of function mutations in these genes. Thus, the ubiquitination status of SLC transporters could be an indicator for their functionality, but evidence for a direct connection between de-ubiquitination and transporter activity has to be further elucidated.

  20. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Bryan; Erickson, Jeffrey D

    2004-02-01

    The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNAT) of the SLC38 gene family resemble the classically-described System A and System N transport activities in terms of their functional properties and patterns of regulation. Transport of small, aliphatic amino acids by System A subtypes (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4) is rheogenic and pH sensitive. The System N subtypes SNAT3 and SNAT5 also countertransport H(+), which may be key to their operation in reverse, and have narrower substrate profiles than do the System A subtypes. Glutamine emerges as a favored substrate throughout the family, except for SNAT4. The SLC38 transporters undoubtedly play many physiological roles including the transfer of glutamine from astrocyte to neuron in the CNS, ammonia detoxification and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and the renal response to acidosis. Probing their regulation has revealed additional roles, and recent work has considered SLC38 transporters as therapeutic targets in neoplasia.

  1. NBCe1 (SLC4A4) a potential pH regulator in enamel organ cells during enamel development in the mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalali, R.; Guo, J.; Zandieh-Doulabi, B.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Paine, M.L.; Boron, W.F.; Parker, M.D.; Bijvelds, M.J.C.; Medina, J.F.; DenBesten, P.K.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    During the formation of dental enamel, maturation-stage ameloblasts express ion-transporting transmembrane proteins. The SLC4 family of ion-transporters regulates intra- and extracellular pH in eukaryotic cells by cotransporting HCO3 − with Na+. Mutation in SLC4A4 (coding for the sodium-bicarbonate

  2. Developmental expression of solute carrier family 26A member 4 (SLC26A4/pendrin) during amelogenesis in developing rodent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronckers, Antonius L J J; Guo, Jing; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Bervoets, Theodore J; Lyaruu, Donacian M; Li, Xiangming; Wangemann, Philine; DenBesten, Pamela

    2011-12-01

    Ameloblasts need to regulate pH during the formation of enamel crystals, a process that generates protons. Solute carrier family 26A member 4 (SLC26A4, or pendrin) is an anion exchanger for chloride, bicarbonate, iodine, and formate. It is expressed in apical membranes of ion-transporting epithelia in kidney, inner ear, and thyroid where it regulates luminal pH and fluid transport. We hypothesized that maturation ameloblasts express SLC26A4 to neutralize acidification of enamel fluid in forming enamel. In rodents, secretory and maturation ameloblasts were immunopositive for SLC26A4. Staining was particularly strong in apical membranes of maturation ameloblasts facing forming enamel. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of mRNA transcripts for Slc26a4 in enamel organs. SLC26A4 immunostaining was also found in mineralizing connective tissues, including odontoblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, bone lining cells, cellular cementoblasts, and cementocytes. However, Slc26a4-null mutant mice had no overt dental phenotype. The presence of SLC26A4 in apical plasma membranes of maturation ameloblasts is consistent with a potential function as a pH regulator. SLC26A4 does not appear to be critical for ameloblast function and is probably compensated by other pH regulators. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  3. The role of SLC2A1 mutations in myoclonic astatic epilepsy and absence epilepsy, and the estimated frequency of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan; Johannesen, Katrine Marie; Ek, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    The first mutations identified in SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) protein of the blood-brain barrier, were associated with severe epileptic encephalopathy. Recently, dominant SLC2A1 mutations were found in rare autosomal dominant families with various forms of epilepsy inc...

  4. A precision master trigger system for SLC based on the accelerator RF drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Leger, G.; Paffrath, L.; Wilmunder, A.

    1984-01-01

    A new trigger system consisting of a single 476 MHz rf doublet pulse superimposed on the main 476 MHz rf Drive Line signal that transits the 3 km accelerator has been implemented and is working well. This paper describes the general concept of this system, outlines the operation of the main master trigger generator, the fiducial (476 MHz doublet) generator, and the fiducial pickoff system. A companion paper by Paffrath et al describes the counter electronics that produces precision timed triggers for all SLC operations along the accelerator. (orig.)

  5. An active feedback system to control synchrotron oscillations in the SLC Damping Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corredoura, P.L.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Schwarz, H.D.; Sheppard, J.C.

    1989-03-01

    Initially the SLC Damping Rings accomplished Robinson instability damping by operating the RF accelerating cavities slightly detuned. In order to be able to run the cavities tuned and achieve damping for Robinson instability and synchrotron oscillations at injection an active feedback system has been developed. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the feedback system and the development of the hardware. Extensive measurements of the loop response including stored beam were performed. Overall performance of the system is also reported. 3 refs., 6 figs

  6. Improving the phase stability of the SLAC rf driveline network for SLC operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.N.; Hogg, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    Successful operation of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) will require greater phase stability from the two-mile long rf drive network than previous linac operation did. This paper discusses four proposed modifications of the present system that should help achieve the general objective to reduce all long term temperature and atmospheric pressure induced phase variations to less than 20 0 at 2856 MHz, so that the phase/amplitude detector subsystems, which will control the network output phases relative to a beam reference, will operate within their most accurate ranges

  7. An in-situ photocathode loading system for the SLC Polarized Electron Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, R.E.; Collet, G.J.; Skarpaas, K.

    1992-12-01

    An ultra-high vacuum loadlock system capable of operating at high voltage has been added to the SLC Polarized Electron Gun. The unit incorporates facilities for heat cleaning, activating and measuring the quantum efficiency of photocathodes. A tray of up to four photocathodes can be exchanged without bringing the activation unit or gun up to atmosphere. Low voltage quantum efficiencies of 20% have been obtained for bulk GaAs at 633 nm and 6% for a 0.3 micron GaAs layer at 755 nm. Results for other cathodes as well as operational characteristics are discussed

  8. 3D numerical thermal stress analysis of the high power target for the SLC Positron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, E.M.; Hodgson, J.A.

    1991-05-01

    The volumetrically nonuniform power deposition of the incident 33 GeV electron beam in the SLC Positron Source Target is hypothesized to be the most likely cause target failure. The resultant pulsed temperature distributions are known to generate complicated stress fields with no known closed-form analytical solution. 3D finite element analyses of these temperature distributions and associated thermal stress fields in the new High Power Target are described here. Operational guidelines based on the results of these analyses combined with assumptions made about the fatigue characteristics of the exotic target material are proposed. 6 refs., 4 figs

  9. Future frontiers for e+e- collisions: physics of SLC and LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfan, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    A brief historical review is given of the contribution to particle physics of e + e - interactions, followed by a discussion of the LEP and SLC machines and the reasons for developing linear colliders. A brief overview of the Standard Model and some essential formalism for the process e + e - → f anti f are presented, followed by a discussion of detectors. Tests of the Standard Model and physics beyond the Standard Model that can be made running at the Z 0 are considered. LEP physics at energies above the Z 0 is discussed

  10. Operating experience with high beam currents and transient beam loading in the SLC damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Akre, R.; Krejcik, P.; Siemann, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    During the 1994 SLC run the nominal operating intensity in the damping rings was raised from 3.5 x 10 10 to greater than 4 x 10 10 particles per bunch (ppb). Stricter regulation of rf system parameters was required to maintain stability of the rf system and particle beam. Improvements were made in the feedback loops which control the cavity amplitude and loading angles. Compensation for beam loading was also required to prevent klystron saturation during repetition rate changes. To minimize the effects of transient loading on the rf system, the gain of the direct rf feedback loop and the loading angles were optimized

  11. Partial deletion of the sulfate transporter SLC13A1 is associated with an osteochondrodysplasia in the Miniature Poodle breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Neff

    Full Text Available A crippling dwarfism was first described in the Miniature Poodle in Great Britain in 1956. Here, we resolve the genetic basis of this recessively inherited disorder. A case-control analysis (8:8 of genotype data from 173 k SNPs revealed a single associated locus on CFA14 (P(raw <10(-8. All affected dogs were homozygous for an ancestral haplotype consistent with a founder effect and an identical-by-descent mutation. Systematic failure of nine, nearly contiguous SNPs, was observed solely in affected dogs, suggesting a deletion was the causal mutation. A 130-kb deletion was confirmed both by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and by cloning the physical breakpoints. The mutation was perfectly associated in all cases and obligate heterozygotes. The deletion ablated all but the first exon of SLC13A1, a sodium/sulfate symporter responsible for regulating serum levels of inorganic sulfate. Our results corroborate earlier findings from an Slc13a1 mouse knockout, which resulted in hyposulfatemia and syndromic defects. Interestingly, the metabolic disorder in Miniature Poodles appears to share more clinical signs with a spectrum of human disorders caused by SLC26A2 than with the mouse Slc13a1 model. SLC26A2 is the primary sodium-independent sulfate transporter in cartilage and bone and is important for the sulfation of proteoglycans such as aggregan. We propose that disruption of SLC13A1 in the dog similarly causes undersulfation of proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix (ECM, which impacts the conversion of cartilage to bone. A co-dominant DNA test of the deletion was developed to enable breeders to avoid producing affected dogs and to selectively eliminate the mutation from the gene pool.

  12. Downregulation of SLC7A7 Triggers an Inflammatory Phenotype in Human Macrophages and Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Maria Rotoli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI is a recessively inherited aminoaciduria caused by mutations of SLC7A7, the gene encoding y+LAT1 light chain of system y+L for cationic amino acid transport. The pathogenesis of LPI is still unknown. In this study, we have utilized a gene silencing approach in macrophages and airway epithelial cells to investigate whether complications affecting lung and immune system are directly ascribable to the lack of SLC7A7 or, rather, mediated by an abnormal accumulation of arginine in mutated cells. When SLC7A7/y+LAT1 was silenced in human THP-1 macrophages and A549 airway epithelial cells by means of short interference RNA (siRNA, a significant induction of the expression and release of the inflammatory mediators IL1β and TNFα was observed, no matter the intracellular arginine availability. This effect was mainly regulated at transcriptional level through the activation of NFκB signaling pathway. Moreover, since respiratory epithelial cells are the important sources of chemokines in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli, the effect of IL1β has been addressed on SLC7A7 silenced A549 cells. Results obtained indicated that the downregulation of SLC7A7/y+LAT1 markedly strengthened the stimulatory effect of the cytokine on CCL5/RANTES expression and release without affecting the levels of CXCL8/IL8. Consistently, also the conditioned medium of silenced THP-1 macrophages activated airway epithelial cells in terms of CCL5/RANTES expression due to the presence of elevated amount of proinflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, our results point to a novel thus far unknown function of SLC7A7/y+LAT1, that, under physiological conditions, besides transporting arginine, may act as a brake to restrain inflammation.

  13. Significance of downregulation of renal organic cation transporter (SLC47A1 in cisplatin-induced proximal tubular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1–3 Waichi Sato,2,3 Kazuhiro Ishikawa,4 Yuki Terao,1 Kazuo Takahashi,2 Yukihiro Noda,5 Yukio Yuzawa,2 Tadashi Nagamatsu1 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Meijo University Faculty of Pharmacy, Nagoya, 2Department of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, 3Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, 4Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 5Division of Clinical Sciences and Neuropsychopharmacology, Meijo University Faculty of Pharmacy, Nagoya, Japan Background/aim: To elucidate the mechanism responsible for developing acute kidney injury in patients with diabetes mellitus, we also evaluated the issue of whether advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs influence the expressions of multi antimicrobial extrusion protein (MATE1/SLC47A1 in tubular cells. Materials and methods: To detect changing expression of MATE1/SLC47A1 in dose- and time-dependent manners, human proximal tubular epithelial cells were incubated with AGE-aggregated-human serum albumin. As a function assay for MATE1/SLC47A1, human proximal tubular epithelial cells were incubated with cisplatin or carboplatin. Results: On incubation with AGEs, the expressions of MATE1/SLC47A1 were decreased in tubular cells. In addition, the toxicities of cisplatin were increased in tubular cells that had been pretreated with AGEs. However, the toxicities of carboplatin were smaller than that of cisplatin in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Conclusion: The expression of the MATE1/SLC47A1 is decreased by AGEs, which increases the risk for proximal tubular injury. Keywords: advanced glycation endproducts, cisplatin, SLC47A1, diabetes mellitus, acute kidney injury

  14. DiffSLC: A graph centrality method to detect essential proteins of a protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Divya; Wise, Roger P; Dickerson, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    Identification of central genes and proteins in biomolecular networks provides credible candidates for pathway analysis, functional analysis, and essentiality prediction. The DiffSLC centrality measure predicts central and essential genes and proteins using a protein-protein interaction network. Network centrality measures prioritize nodes and edges based on their importance to the network topology. These measures helped identify critical genes and proteins in biomolecular networks. The proposed centrality measure, DiffSLC, combines the number of interactions of a protein and the gene coexpression values of genes from which those proteins were translated, as a weighting factor to bias the identification of essential proteins in a protein interaction network. Potentially essential proteins with low node degree are promoted through eigenvector centrality. Thus, the gene coexpression values are used in conjunction with the eigenvector of the network's adjacency matrix and edge clustering coefficient to improve essentiality prediction. The outcome of this prediction is shown using three variations: (1) inclusion or exclusion of gene co-expression data, (2) impact of different coexpression measures, and (3) impact of different gene expression data sets. For a total of seven networks, DiffSLC is compared to other centrality measures using Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein interaction networks and gene expression data. Comparisons are also performed for the top ranked proteins against the known essential genes from the Saccharomyces Gene Deletion Project, which show that DiffSLC detects more essential proteins and has a higher area under the ROC curve than other compared methods. This makes DiffSLC a stronger alternative to other centrality methods for detecting essential genes using a protein-protein interaction network that obeys centrality-lethality principle. DiffSLC is implemented using the igraph package in R, and networkx package in Python. The python package can be

  15. Elevated SLC26A4 gene promoter methylation is associated with the risk of presbycusis in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zheng, Jiachen; Shen, Wanjing; Ma, Lili; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Xubo; Tang, Jiyuan; Yan, Jihong; Wu, Zhenhua; Zou, Zuquan; Bu, Shizhong; Xi, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Presbycusis affects approximately one-third of people over the age of 65 and is a worldwide health problem. In the current study, whether the methylation level of solute carrier family 26 member 4 (SLC26A4) predicted an increased risk of presbycusis was investigated. Peripheral blood samples from 102 patients with presbycusis and 104 controls were collected, and the methylation of the CpG sites of SLC26A4 was measured by applying pyrosequencing technology combined with sodium bisulfate DNA conversion chemistry. Within the SLC26A4 promoter region, one CpG site (CpG3) exhibited a significantly (Ppresbycusis (26.5±5.56%) compared with the controls (23.8±3.85%). Significantly different CpG3 methylation levels were observed between the patients with presbycusis and the controls among the male participants (P=0.0004). In addition, a significant decrease in the transcriptional level of SLC26A4 in peripheral blood was observed in the patients with presbycusis compared with the controls. Furthermore, analyses of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated that CpG3 methylation at the SLC26A4 promoter predicted the risk of presbycusis in the male participants (AUC=0.684, 95% CI=0.584‑0.784, P=0.001). The results demonstrated the significance of the CpG site methylation level of SLC26A4, and thus provides a potential marker for the diagnosis of presbycusis.

  16. De Novo Mutations in SLC25A24 Cause a Craniosynostosis Syndrome with Hypertrichosis, Progeroid Appearance, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmke, Nadja; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Smorag, Lukasz; Koenig, Rainer; Segebrecht, Lara; Magoulas, Pilar; Scaglia, Fernando; Kilic, Esra; Hennig, Anna F; Adolphs, Nicolai; Saha, Namrata; Fauler, Beatrix; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Hennig, Friederike; Altmüller, Janine; Netzer, Christian; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Yigit, Gökhan; Jäger, Marten; Hecht, Jochen; Krüger, Ulrike; Mielke, Thorsten; Krawitz, Peter M; Horn, Denise; Schuelke, Markus; Mundlos, Stefan; Bacino, Carlos A; Bonnen, Penelope E; Wollnik, Bernd; Fischer-Zirnsak, Björn; Kornak, Uwe

    2017-11-02

    Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome (GCMS) is a dysmorphic syndrome characterized by coronal craniosynostosis and severe midface hypoplasia, body and facial hypertrichosis, microphthalmia, short stature, and short distal phalanges. Variable lipoatrophy and cutis laxa are the basis for a progeroid appearance. Using exome and genome sequencing, we identified the recurrent de novo mutations c.650G>A (p.Arg217His) and c.649C>T (p.Arg217Cys) in SLC25A24 in five unrelated girls diagnosed with GCMS. Two of the girls had pronounced neonatal progeroid features and were initially diagnosed with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome. SLC25A24 encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane ATP-Mg/P i carrier. In fibroblasts from affected individuals, the mutated SLC25A24 showed normal stability. In contrast to control cells, the probands' cells showed mitochondrial swelling, which was exacerbated upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The same effect was observed after overexpression of the mutant cDNA. Under normal culture conditions, the mitochondrial membrane potential of the probands' fibroblasts was intact, whereas ATP content in the mitochondrial matrix was lower than that in control cells. However, upon H 2 O 2 exposure, the membrane potential was significantly elevated in cells harboring the mutated SLC25A24. No reduction of mitochondrial DNA copy number was observed. These findings demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress is due to the SLC25A24 mutations. Our results suggest that the SLC25A24 mutations induce a gain of pathological function and link mitochondrial ATP-Mg/P i transport to the development of skeletal and connective tissue. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction between the SLC19A1 gene and maternal first trimester fever on offspring neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lijun; Zhu, Huiping; Ye, Rongwei; Wu, Jilei; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have indicated that the reduced folate carrier gene (SLC19A1) is associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the interaction between the SLC19A1 gene variant and maternal fever exposure and NTD risk remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the risk for NTDs was influenced by the interactions between the SLC19A1 (rs1051266) variant and maternal first trimester fever. We investigated the potential interaction between maternal first trimester fever and maternal or offspring SLC19A1 polymorphism through a population-based case-control study. One hundred and four nuclear families with NTDs and 100 control families with nonmal newborns were included in the study. SLC19A1 polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism. Mothers who had the GG/GA genotype and first trimester fever had an elevated risk of NTDs (adjusted odds ratio, 11.73; 95% confidence interval, 3.02-45.58) as compared to absence of maternal first trimester fever and AA genotype after adjusting for maternal education, paternal education, and age, and had a significant interactive coefficient (γ = 3.17) between maternal GG/GA genotype and first trimester fever. However, there was no interaction between offspring's GG/GA genotype and maternal first trimester fever (the interactive coefficient γ = 0.97) after adjusting for confounding factors. Our findings suggested that the risk of NTDs was potentially influenced by a gene-environment interaction between maternal SLC19A1 rs1051266 GG/GA genotype and first trimester fever. Maternal GG/GA genotype may strengthen the effect of maternal fever exposure on NTD risk in this Chinese population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The mitochondrial citrate carrier, SLC25A1, drives stemness and therapy resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Harvey R; Gadre, Shreyas M; Tan, Mingjun; Graham, Garrett T; Mosaoa, Rami; Ongkeko, Martin S; Kim, Kyu Ah; Riggins, Rebecca B; Parasido, Erika; Petrini, Iacopo; Pacini, Simone; Cheema, Amrita; Varghese, Rency; Ressom, Habtom W; Zhang, Yuwen; Albanese, Christopher; Üren, Aykut; Paige, Mikell; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura

    2018-04-12

    Therapy resistance represents a clinical challenge for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which still remains an incurable disease. There is growing evidence that cancer-initiating or cancer stem cells (CSCs) provide a reservoir of slow-growing dormant populations of cells with tumor-initiating and unlimited self-renewal ability that are left behind by conventional therapies reigniting post-therapy relapse and metastatic dissemination. The metabolic pathways required for the expansion of CSCs are incompletely defined, but their understanding will likely open new therapeutic opportunities. We show here that lung CSCs rely upon oxidative phosphorylation for energy production and survival through the activity of the mitochondrial citrate transporter, SLC25A1. We demonstrate that SLC25A1 plays a key role in maintaining the mitochondrial pool of citrate and redox balance in CSCs, whereas its inhibition leads to reactive oxygen species build-up thereby inhibiting the self-renewal capability of CSCs. Moreover, in different patient-derived tumors, resistance to cisplatin or to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor treatment is acquired through SLC25A1-mediated implementation of mitochondrial activity and induction of a stemness phenotype. Hence, a newly identified specific SLC25A1 inhibitor is synthetic lethal with cisplatin or with EGFR inhibitor co-treatment and restores antitumor responses to these agents in vitro and in animal models. These data have potential clinical implications in that they unravel a metabolic vulnerability of drug-resistant lung CSCs, identify a novel SLC25A1 inhibitor and, lastly, provide the first line of evidence that drugs, which block SLC25A1 activity, when employed in combination with selected conventional antitumor agents, lead to a therapeutic benefit.

  19. Response to crizotinib in a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring a novel SLC34A2-ROS1 fusion variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Song, Zhangjun; Wang, Xuwei; Sun, Haifeng; Yang, Xiaomin; Yuan, Yong; Yu, Pan

    2017-01-01

    ROS1 fusion is a common genetic alteration in non-small-cell lung cancer. Crizotinib, an anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, shows efficacy in the treatment of lung cancer cases with ROS1 translocation. We report the response to crizotinib of a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring a novel SLC34A2-ROS1 fusion variant, which was different from the two common SLC34A2-ROS1 fusion types reported in the literature. After crizotinib administration, overall recovery was good in this patient; the primary lesion was successfully treated, the lymph node metastases had disappeared, and the metabolism was normal. PMID:28860822

  20. Impaired riboflavin transport due to missense mutations in SLC52A2 causes Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Haack, Tobias B.; Makowski, Christine; Yao, Yoshiaki; Graf, Elisabeth; Hempel, Maja; Wieland, Thomas; Tauer, Ulrike; Ahting, Uwe; Mayr, Johannes A.; Freisinger, Peter; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Inui, Ken; Strom, Tim M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Yonezawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVLS [MIM 211530]) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by infancy onset sensorineural deafness and ponto-bulbar palsy. Mutations in SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54), coding for riboflavin transporter 2 (hRFT2), have been identified as the molecular genetic correlate in several individuals with BVVLS. Exome sequencing of just one single case revealed that compound heterozygosity for two pathogenic mutations in the SLC52A2 gene coding for riboflavin tran...

  1. The dopamine transporter protein gene (SLC6A3): Primary linage mapping and linkage studies in Tourette syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelernter, J.; Kruger, S.D.; Pakstis, A.J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)]|[West Haven Veterans Affairs Medical Center, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-10

    The dopamine transporter, the molecule responsible for presynaptic reuptake of dopamine and a major site of action of psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine, is encoded by locus SLC6A3 (alias DAT1). The protein`s actions and DAT`s specific localization to dopaminergic neurons make it a candidate gene for several psychiatric illnesses. SLC6A3 has been mapped to distal chromosome 5p, using physical methods. Genetic linkage methods were used to place SLC6A3 in the genetic linkage map. Four extended pedigrees (one of which overlaps with CEPH) were typed. Linkage with Tourette syndrome (TS) was also examined. SLC6A3 showed close linkage with several markers previously mapped to distal chromosome 5p, including D5S11 (Z{sub max} = 16.0, {theta}{sub M} = {theta}{sub F} = 0.03, results from four families) and D5S678 (Z{sub max} = 7.84, {theta}{sub M} = {theta}{sub F} = 0, results from two families). Observed crossovers established that SLC6A3 is a distal marker close to D5S10 and D5S678, but these three distal markers could not be ordered. Linkage between TS and SLC6A3 could be excluded independently in two branches of a large kindred segregating TS; the lod score in a third family was also negative, but not significant. Cumulative results show a lod score of -6.2 at {theta} = 0 and of -3.9 at {theta} = 0.05 (dominant model, narrow disease definition). SLC6A3 thus maps to distal chromosome 5p by linkage analysis, in agreement with previous physical mapping data. A mutation at SLC6A3 is not causative for TS in the two large families that generated significant negative lod scores (if the parameters of our analyses were correct) and is unlikely to be causative in the family that generated a negative lod score that did not reach significance. These results do not exclude a role for the dopamine transporter in influencing risk for TS in combination with other loci. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Homozygous SLC6A17 Mutations Cause Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability with Progressive Tremor, Speech Impairment, and Behavioral Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Zafar; Willemsen, Marjolein H.; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Musante, Luciana; Benevento, Marco; Hu, Hao; Venselaar, Hanka; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn M.; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.; Marouillat, Sylviane; Wienker, Thomas F.; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kahrizi, Kimia

    2015-01-01

    We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping revealed homozygous mutations c.484G>A (p.Gly162Arg) and c.1898C>G (p.Pro633Arg) in SLC6A17. SLC6A17 is predominantly expressed in the brain, encodes a synaptic vesicular transporter of neu...

  3. Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia: a novel SLC19A2 compound heterozygous mutation in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzillo, Enza; Melis, Daniela; Falco, Mariateresa; Fattorusso, Valentina; Taurisano, Roberta; Flanagan, Sarah E; Ellard, Sian; Franzese, Adriana

    2013-08-01

    Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by loss of function mutations in the SLC19A2 gene. TRMA is characterized by anemia, deafness, and diabetes. In some cases, optic atrophy or more rarely retinitis pigmentosa is noted. We now report two sisters, the eldest of which presented to a different hospital during childhood with sensorineural deafness, which was treated with a hearing prosthesis, insulin requiring diabetes, retinitis pigmentosa, optic atrophy, and macrocytic anemia. These features initially suggested a clinical diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome (WS). Therapy with thiamine was initiated which resulted in the resolution of the anemia. The younger sister, who was affected with sensorineural deafness, was referred to our hospital for non-autoimmune diabetes. She was found to have macrocytosis and ocular abnormalities. Because a diagnosis of TRMA was suspected, therapy with insulin and thiamine was started. Sequencing analysis of the SLC19A2 gene identified a compound heterozygous mutation p.Y81X/p.L457X (c.242insA/c.1370delT) in both sisters. Non-autoimmune diabetes associated with deafness and macrocytosis, without anemia, suggests a diagnosis of TRMA. Patients clinically diagnosed with WS with anemia and/or macrocytosis should be reevaluated for TRMA. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Drug Clearance from Cerebrospinal Fluid Mediated by Organic Anion Transporters 1 (Slc22a6) and 3 (Slc22a8) at Arachnoid Membrane of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyu; Tachikawa, Masanori; Uchida, Yasuo; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2018-03-05

    Although arachnoid mater epithelial cells form the blood-arachnoid barrier (BAB), acting as a blood-CSF interface, it has been generally considered that the BAB is impermeable to water-soluble substances and plays a largely passive role. Here, we aimed to clarify the function of transporters at the BAB in regulating CSF clearance of water-soluble organic anion drugs based on quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) and in vivo analyses. Protein expression levels of 61 molecules, including 19 ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters and 32 solute-carrier (SLC) transporters, were measured in plasma membrane fraction of rat leptomeninges using QTAP. Thirty-three proteins were detected; others were under the quantification limits. Expression levels of multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mdr1a/P-gp/Abcb1a) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2) were 16.6 and 3.27 fmol/μg protein (51.9- and 9.82-fold greater than in choroid plexus, respectively). Among those organic anion transporters detected only at leptomeninges, not choroid plexus, organic anion transporter 1 (oat1/Slc22a6) showed the greatest expression (2.73 fmol/μg protein). On the other hand, the protein expression level of oat3 at leptomeninges was 6.65 fmol/μg protein, and the difference from choroid plexus was within two-fold. To investigate oat1's role, we injected para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) with or without oat1 inhibitors into cisterna magna (to minimize the contribution of choroid plexus function) of rats. A bulk flow marker, FITC-inulin, was not taken up from CSF up to 15 min, whereas uptake clearance of PAH was 26.5 μL/min. PAH uptake was completely blocked by 3 mM cephalothin (inhibits both oat1 and oat3), while 17% of PAH uptake was inhibited by 0.2 mM cephalothin (selectively inhibits oat3). These results indicate that oat1 and oat3 at the BAB provide a distinct clearance pathway of organic anion drugs from CSF independently of choroid plexus.

  5. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  6. Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment: Falcon I Launch Vehicle Program from SLC-4W Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-06

    affected surface water, 3) adversely affected groundwater quantity or quality, or 4) caused a need that exceeded the existing potable supply or...goby is from Tillas Slough (mouth of the Smith River) in Del Norte County, south to Colonel Louis D. Van Mullem, Jr. (1-8-96-F/C-29) 5 Agua Hedionda

  7. Genetic variations in the MCT1 (SLC16A1) gene in the Chinese population of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Choo Bee; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2009-01-01

    MCT1(SLC16A1) is the first member of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) and its family is involved in the transportation of metabolically important monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, acetate and ketone bodies. This study identifies genetic variations in SLC16A1 in the ethnic Chinese group of the Singaporean population (n=95). The promoter, coding region and exon-intron junctions of the SLC16A1 gene encoding the MCT1 transporter were screened for genetic variation in the study population by DNA sequencing. Seven genetic variations of SLC16A1, including 4 novel ones, were found: 2 in the promoter region, 2 in the coding exons (both nonsynonymous variations), 2 in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) and 1 in the intron. Of the two mutations detected in the promoter region, the -363-855T>C is a novel mutation. The 1282G>A (Val(428)Ile) is a novel SNP and was found as heterozygotic in 4 subjects. The 1470T>A (Asp(490)Glu) was found to be a common polymorphism in this study. Lastly, IVS3-17A>C in intron 3 and 2258 (755)A>G in 3'UTR are novel mutations found to be common polymorphisms in the local Chinese population. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a comprehensive analysis on the MCT1 gene in any population.

  8. Mutation analysis of SLC26A4 for Pendred syndrome and nonsyndromic hearing loss by high-resolution melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Neng; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl

    2011-01-01

    Pendred syndrome and DFNB4 (autosomal recessive nonsyndromic congenital deafness, locus 4) are associated with autosomal recessive congenital sensorineural hearing loss and mutations in the SLC26A4 gene. Extensive allelic heterogeneity, however, necessitates analysis of all exons and splice sites...

  9. A single base deletion in the SLC45A2 gene in a Bullmastiff with oculocutaneous albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caduff, M; Bauer, A; Jagannathan, V; Leeb, T

    2017-10-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4) in humans and similar phenotypes in many animal species are caused by variants in the SLC45A2 gene, encoding a putative sugar transporter. In dog, two independent SLC45A2 variants are known that cause oculocutaneous albinism in Doberman Pinschers and several small dog breeds respectively. For the present study, we investigated a Bullmastiff with oculocutaneous albinism. The affected dog was highly inbred and resulted from the mating of a sire to its own grandmother. We obtained whole genome sequence data from the affected dog and searched specifically for variants in candidate genes known to cause albinism. We detected a single base deletion in exon 6 of the SLC45A2 gene (NM_001037947.1:c.1287delC) that has not been reported thus far. This deletion is predicted to result in an early premature stop codon. It was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and perfectly co-segregated with the phenotype in the available family members. We genotyped 174 unrelated dogs from diverse breeds, all of which were homozygous wildtype. We therefore suggest that SLC45A2:c.1287delC causes the observed oculocutaneous albinism in the affected Bullmastiff. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Linking chronic infection and autoimmune diseases: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, SLC11A1 polymorphisms and type-1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Paccagnini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is still unknown; numerous studies are performed to unravel the environmental factors involved in triggering the disease. SLC11A1 is a membrane transporter that is expressed in late endosomes of antigen presenting cells involved in the immunopathogenic events leading to T1DM. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP has been reported to be a possible trigger in the development of T1DM.Fifty nine T1DM patients and 79 healthy controls were genotyped for 9 polymorphisms of SLC11A1 gene, and screened for the presence of MAP by PCR. Differences in genotype frequency were evaluated for both T1DM patients and controls. We found a polymorphism in the SLC11A1 gene (274C/T associated to type 1 diabetic patients and not to controls. The presence of MAP DNA was also significantly associated with T1DM patients and not with controls.The 274C/T SCL11A1 polymorphism was found to be associated with T1DM as well as the presence of MAP DNA in blood. Since MAP persists within macrophages and it is also processed by dendritic cells, further studies are necessary to evaluate if mutant forms of SLC11A1 alter the processing or presentation of MAP antigens triggering thereby an autoimmune response in T1DM patients.

  11. Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) in CSF is a biomarker for SLC20A2-associated idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Isao; Kurita, Hisaka; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Furuta, Nobuyuki; Inden, Masatoshi; Sekine, Shin-Ichiro; Yamada, Megumi; Hayashi, Yuichi; Kimura, Akio; Inuzuka, Takashi; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2018-05-15

    Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), also called Fahr's disease or recently primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), is characterized by abnormal deposits of minerals including calcium mainly and phosphate in the brain. Mutations in SLC20A2 (IBGC1 (merged with former IBGC2 and IBGC3)), which encodes PiT-2, a phosphate transporter, is the major cause of IBGC. Recently, Slc20a2-KO mice have been showed to have elevated levels of inorganic phosphorus (Pi) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); however, CSF Pi levels in patients with IBGC have not been fully examined. We investigated the cases of 29 patients with IBGC including six patients with SLC20A2 mutation and three patients with PDGFB mutation, and 13 controls. The levels of sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), and Pi in sera and CSF were determined by potentiometry and colorimetry. Moreover, clinical manifestations were investigated in the IBGC patients with high Pi levels in CSF. The study revealed that the average level of Pi in the CSF of the total group of patients with IBGC is significantly higher than that of the control group, and the levels of Pi in CSF of the IBGC patients with SLC20A2 mutations are significantly higher than those of the IBGC patients with PDGFB mutations, the other IBGC patients and controls. Results of this study suggest that the levels of CSF Pi will be a good biomarker for IBGC1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: The Viva La Familia Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it...

  13. Punctate white matter lesions in full-term infants with neonatal seizures associated with SLC13A5 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeke, Lauren C.; Brilstra, Eva; Braun, Kees P.; Zonneveld-Huijssoon, Evelien; Salomons, Gajja S.; Koeleman, Bobby P; van Gassen, Koen L. I.; van Straaten, Henrica L.; Craiu, Dana; de Vries, Linda S.

    Introduction: Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by biallelic SLC13A5 mutations is characterized by seizure onset in the first days of life, refractory epilepsy and develop mental delay. Little detailed information about the brain MRI features is available in these patients. Methods:

  14. Punctate white matter lesions in full-term infants with neonatal seizures associated with SLC13A5 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeke, Lauren C; Brilstra, Eva; Braun, Kees P; Zonneveld-Huijssoon, Evelien; Salomons, Gajja S; Koeleman, BPC; van Gassen, Koen L; van Straaten, Henrica L; Craiu, Dana; de Vries, Linda S

    INTRODUCTION: Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by biallelic SLC13A5 mutations is characterized by seizure onset in the first days of life, refractory epilepsy and developmental delay. Little detailed information about the brain MRI features is available in these patients. METHODS:

  15. A common SLC26A4-linked haplotype underlying non-syndromic hearing loss with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chattaraj, Parna; Munjal, Tina; Honda, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is the most common radiological abnormality in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Mutations in coding regions and splice sites of the SLC26A4 gene are often detected in Caucasians with EVA. Approximately one-fourth of patients with E...

  16. MBL, P2X7, and SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms in patients with oropharyngeal tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somuk, Battal Tahsin; Koc, Sema; Ates, Omer; Göktas, Göksel; Soyalic, Harun; Uysal, Ismail Onder; Gurbuzler, Levent; Sapmaz, Emrah; Sezer, Saime; Eyibilen, Ahmet

    2016-11-01

    A significant association was found of oropharyngeal tularemia with SLC11A1 allele polymorphism (INT4 G/C) and MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q). These results indicate C allele and Q allele might be a risk factor for the development of oropharyngeal tularemia. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of SLC11A1, MBL, and P2X 7 gene polymorphism with oropharyngeal tularemia. The study included totally 120 patients who were diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia. Frequencies of polymorphisms in the following genes were analyzed both in the patient and control groups in the study: SLC11A1 (5'(GT) n Allele 2/3, Int4 G/C, 3' UTR, D543N G/A), MBL (MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q), and P2X 7 (-762 C/T and 1513 A/C). Among all polymorphisms that were investigated in this study, SLC11A1 gene showed a significance in the distriburtion of polymorphism allelle frequency at the INT4 region. Frequency of C allele was 54 (28%) in patients with oropharyngeal tularemia, and 31 (13%) in the control group (p = 0.006 and OR = 1.96 (1.21-3.20)). An association was detected between MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q) gene polymorphism and oropharyngeal tularemia (p tularemia in this study (p > 0.05).

  17. Identification of a large intronic transposal insertion in SLC17A5 causing sialic acid storage disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarailo-Graovac, M. (Maja); Drögemöller, B.I. (Britt I.); Wasserman, W.W. (Wyeth W.); C.J. Ross; A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); N. Darin (Niklas); Kollberg, G. (Gittan); Van Karnebeek, C.D.M. (Clara D. M.); Blomqvist, M. (Maria)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sialic acid storage diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of sialic acid in the lysosome. These disorders are caused by mutations in SLC17A5, the gene encoding sialin, a sialic acid transporter located in the lysosomal membrane. The most

  18. Novel SLC19A3 Promoter Deletion and Allelic Silencing in Biotin-Thiamine-Responsive Basal Ganglia Encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Flønes

    Full Text Available Biotin-thiamine responsive basal ganglia disease is a severe, but potentially treatable disorder caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. Although the disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, patients with typical phenotypes carrying single heterozygous mutations have been reported. This makes the diagnosis uncertain and may delay treatment.In two siblings with early-onset encephalopathy dystonia and epilepsy, whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel single heterozygous SLC19A3 mutation (c.337T>C. Although Sanger-sequencing and copy-number analysis revealed no other aberrations, RNA-sequencing in brain tissue suggested the second allele was silenced. Whole-genome sequencing resolved the genetic defect by revealing a novel 45,049 bp deletion in the 5'-UTR region of the gene abolishing the promoter. High dose thiamine and biotin therapy was started in the surviving sibling who remains stable. In another patient two novel compound heterozygous SLC19A3 mutations were found. He improved substantially on thiamine and biotin therapy.We show that large genomic deletions occur in the regulatory region of SLC19A3 and should be considered in genetic testing. Moreover, our study highlights the power of whole-genome sequencing as a diagnostic tool for rare genetic disorders across a wide spectrum of mutations including non-coding large genomic rearrangements.

  19. Effect of SLC34A2 gene mutation on extracellular phosphorus transport in PAM alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tiangang; Qu, Danhua; Yan, Bingdi; Zhang, Qinghua; Ren, Jin; Hu, Yanbing

    2018-01-01

    A mutation in the IIb sodium phosphate transporter SLC34A2 gene has recently been described in pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) patients. Experiments in this study were aimed at confirming the role of the gene product in PAM by comparing phosphorylated products in extracellular fluid of alveolar epithelial cells overexpressing the SLC34A2 gene or its mutated version. Eukaryotic expression vectors were constructed and transfected into A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. There were three groups of cells including those transfected with empty vector plasmid pcDNA3.1(+) (plasmid control group), those transfected with normal SLC34A2 gene expressed from pcDNA3.1 (normal control group), and those transfected with a version of the PAM SLC34A2 gene linked to the pcDNA3.1(+) (PAM group). Transfection efficiencies were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). At 48 h after transfection, the concentration of inorganic phosphorus in the culture medium was detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. Our results showed the concentration of inorganic phosphorus in the supernatant of the normal control group was significantly lower than that in the plasmid control and PAM groups (PPAM group was significantly lower than that in the plasmid control group (PPAM patients, given that the function of the phosphate transporter seems to be affected and it is conceivable that it would lead to extracellular fluid alterations in vivo .

  20. A novel variant in the SLC12A1 gene in two families with antenatal Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinbjerg, Anders; Siggaard Rittig, Charlotte; Gregersen, Niels; Rittig, Søren; Hvarregaard Christensen, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Bartter syndrome is an autosomal-recessive inherited disease in which patients present with hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis. We present two apparently nonrelated cases with antenatal Bartter syndrome type I, due to a novel variant in the SLC12A1 gene encoding the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-(potassium)-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Blood samples were received from the two cases and 19 of their relatives, and deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted. The coding regions of the SLC12A1 gene were amplified using polymerase chain reaction, followed by bidirectional direct deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing. Each affected child in the two families was homozygous for a novel inherited variant in the SLC12A1gene, c.1614T>A. The variant predicts a change from a tyrosine codon to a stop codon (p.Tyr538Ter). The two cases presented antenatally and at six months of age, respectively. The two cases were homozygous for the same variant in the SLC12A1 gene, but presented clinically at different ages. This could eventually be explained by the presence of other gene variants or environmental factors modifying the phenotypes. The phenotypes of the patients were similar to other patients with antenatal Bartter syndrome. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Defective enamel and bone development in sodium-dependent citrate transporter (NaCT Slc13a5 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando R Irizarry

    Full Text Available There has been growing recognition of the essential roles of citrate in biomechanical properties of mineralized tissues, including teeth and bone. However, the sources of citrate in these tissues have not been well defined, and the contribution of citrate to the regulation of odontogenesis and osteogenesis has not been examined. Here, tooth and bone phenotypes were examined in sodium-dependent citrate transporter (NaCT Slc13a5 deficient C57BL/6 mice at 13 and 32 weeks of age. Slc13a5 deficiency led to defective tooth development, characterized by absence of mature enamel, formation of aberrant enamel matrix, and dysplasia and hyperplasia of the enamel organ epithelium that progressed with age. These abnormalities were associated with fragile teeth with a possible predisposition to tooth abscesses. The lack of mature enamel was consistent with amelogenesis imperfecta. Furthermore, Slc13a5 deficiency led to decreased bone mineral density and impaired bone formation in 13-week-old mice but not in older mice. The findings revealed the potentially important role of citrate and Slc13a5 in the development and function of teeth and bone.

  2. Solute Carrier Family 26 Member a2 (slc26a2 Regulates Otic Development and Hair Cell Survival in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent human birth defects. Genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of deafness. It is estimated that one-third of deafness genes have already been identified. The current work is an attempt to find novel genes relevant to hearing loss using guilt-by-profiling and guilt-by-association bioinformatics analyses of approximately 80 known non-syndromic hereditary hearing loss (NSHL genes. Among the 300 newly identified candidate deafness genes, slc26a2 were selected for functional studies in zebrafish. The slc26a2 gene was knocked down using an antisense morpholino (MO, and significant defects were observed in otolith patterns, semicircular canal morphology, and lateral neuromast distributions in morphants. Loss-of-function defects are caused primarily by apoptosis, and morphants are insensitive to sound stimulation and imbalanced swimming behaviours. Morphant defects were found to be partially rescued by co-injection of human SLC26A2 mRNA. All the results suggest that bioinformatics is capable of predicting new deafness genes and this showed slc26a2 is to be a critical otic gene whose dysfunction may induce hearing impairment.

  3. Identification of seven novel mutations including the first two genomic rearrangements in SLC26A3 mutated in congenital chloride diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, P; Sormaala, M; Haila, S; Socha, J; Rajaram, U; Scheurlen, W; Sinaasappel, M; de Jonge, H; Holmberg, C; Yoshikawa, H; Kere, J

    2001-09-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defective intestinal electrolyte absorption, resulting in voluminous osmotic diarrhea with high chloride content. A variety of mutations in the solute carrier family 26, member 3 gene (SLC26A3, previously known as CLD or DRA) are responsible for the disease. Since the identification of the SLC26A3 gene and the determination of its genomic structure, altogether three founder and 17 private mutations have been characterized within miscellaneous ethnic groups. We screened for mutations in seven unrelated families with CLD. The diagnoses were confirmed by fecal chloride measurements. The combined PCR-SSCP and sequencing analyses revealed altogether seven novel mutations including two missense mutations (S206P, D468V), two splicing defects (IVS12-1G>C, IVS13-2delA), one nonsense mutation (Q436X), one insertion/deletion mutation (2104-2105delGGins29-bp), and an intragenic deletion of SLC26A3 exons 7 and 8. Two previously identified mutations were also found. This is the first report of rearrangement mutations in SLC26A3. Molecular features predisposing SLC26A3 for the two rearrangements may include repetitive elements and palindromic-like sequences. The increasingly wide diversity of SLC26A3 mutations suggests that mutations in the SLC26A3 gene may not be rare events. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The zinc transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 is required for connective tissue development; its involvement in BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Fukada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP and TGF-beta signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-beta signaling and connective tissue dysfunction.

  5. Functional Testing of SLC26A4 Variants—Clinical and Molecular Analysis of a Cohort with Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct from Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardinelli, Emanuele; Nofziger, Charity; Patsch, Wolfgang; Rasp, Gerd; Paulmichl, Markus; Dossena, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence and spectrum of sequence alterations in the SLC26A4 gene, which codes for the anion exchanger pendrin, are population-specific and account for at least 50% of cases of non-syndromic hearing loss associated with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct. A cohort of nineteen patients from Austria with hearing loss and a radiological alteration of the vestibular aqueduct underwent Sanger sequencing of SLC26A4 and GJB2, coding for connexin 26. The pathogenicity of sequence alterations detected was assessed by determining ion transport and molecular features of the corresponding SLC26A4 protein variants. In this group, four uncharacterized sequence alterations within the SLC26A4 coding region were found. Three of these lead to protein variants with abnormal functional and molecular features, while one should be considered with no pathogenic potential. Pathogenic SLC26A4 sequence alterations were only found in 12% of patients. SLC26A4 sequence alterations commonly found in other Caucasian populations were not detected. This survey represents the first study on the prevalence and spectrum of SLC26A4 sequence alterations in an Austrian cohort and further suggests that genetic testing should always be integrated with functional characterization and determination of the molecular features of protein variants in order to unequivocally identify or exclude a causal link between genotype and phenotype. PMID:29320412

  6. mTORC1 Activator SLC38A9 Is Required to Efflux Essential Amino Acids from Lysosomes and Use Protein as a Nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Gregory A; Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Wolfson, Rachel L; Chen, Walter W; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Danai, Laura V; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Sabatini, David M

    2017-10-19

    The mTORC1 kinase is a master growth regulator that senses many environmental cues, including amino acids. Activation of mTORC1 by arginine requires SLC38A9, a poorly understood lysosomal membrane protein with homology to amino acid transporters. Here, we validate that SLC38A9 is an arginine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway, and we uncover an unexpectedly central role for SLC38A9 in amino acid homeostasis. SLC38A9 mediates the transport, in an arginine-regulated fashion, of many essential amino acids out of lysosomes, including leucine, which mTORC1 senses through the cytosolic Sestrin proteins. SLC38A9 is necessary for leucine generated via lysosomal proteolysis to exit lysosomes and activate mTORC1. Pancreatic cancer cells, which use macropinocytosed protein as a nutrient source, require SLC38A9 to form tumors. Thus, through SLC38A9, arginine serves as a lysosomal messenger that couples mTORC1 activation to the release from lysosomes of the essential amino acids needed to drive cell growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  8. Gassmaks. Study of requirement for national focus on research for increased value-added industrial process of natural gas. Final report; Gassmaks. Utredning av behov for nasjonal satsing paa forskning for oekt verdiskaping fra naturgass gjennom industriell foredling. Endelig rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-15

    Final report concludes the importance of establishing the Research and Development program called 'Gassmaks'. The target of this program is increased value added to the natural gas loop. Strengthened know-how, industrial development and international competition force shall contribute to higher value added to community through industrial refining of natural gas. Gassmaks will by research based foundation exploit Norwegian natural gas resources environmental friendly. Highly prioritised are converting and use of natural gas to plastic raw materials, synthesis gas, synthetical fuel, energy processes, carbon materials, metallurgical processes and nutrients as proteins and fat. (AG). 28 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Morphological study on dental caries induced in WBN/KobSlc rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed a standard laboratory diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzato, Yoko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Kodama, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Akihito; Okamura, Sumie; Suido, Hirohisa; Torii, Kayo; Makino, Taketoshi; Narama, Isao

    2009-10-01

    In our previous studies, WBN/KobSlc was characterized as a rat strain in which only males began to develop pancreatitis, and then presented with diabetic symptoms. In the course of studying their pancreatic inflammation, we detected molar caries in prediabetic males feeding on a standard diet (CRF-1) widely used for experimental animals. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the WBN/KobSlc strain is caries-susceptible to the diet reported to be non-cariogenic, and to examine the effect of a prediabetic condition on their dental caries. For a morphological study, 25 male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 3.2-7.8 months and 24 females of the same strain aged 3.3-6.6 months were used, along with 10 males and 10 females of 8.2-month-old F344 rats. Marked dental caries were detected in the mandibular molars of male and female WBN/KobSlc rats regardless of pancreatitis, although no similar changes were observed in any teeth of the F344 strain fed the same diet. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the caries began in the crown and progressed horizontally and vertically, and that a severe radiolucent lesion extensively expanded to the entire crown, corresponding to a macroscopically deleted molar. The caries had gradually developed mainly in the second mandibular molar from more than 3.5 months of age, while none were seen in any rats before that time. The WBN/KobSlc rats were caries-susceptible even to the standard laboratory diet, and pancreatitis was not directly associated with the onset of dental caries in this strain.

  10. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: the Viva La Familia Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it is not known whether the association of serum uric acid with SLC2A9 polymorphisms manifests in children. Objective: The aim was to investigate whether variation in serum uric acid is under genetic influence and whether the association with SLC2A9 polymorphisms generalizes to Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. Design: We conducted a genomewide association study with 1.1 million genetic markers in 815 children. Results: We found serum uric acid to be significantly heritable [h2 ± SD = 0.45 ± 0.08, P = 5.8 × 10−11] and associated with SLC2A9 variants (P values between 10−16 and 10−7). Several of the significantly associated polymorphisms were previously identified in studies in adults. We also found positive genetic correlations between serum uric acid and BMI z score (ρG = 0.45, P = 0.002), percentage of body fat (ρG = 0.28, P = 0.04), fat mass (ρG = 0.34, P = 0.02), waist circumference (ρG = 0.42, P = 0.003), and waist-to-height ratio (ρG = 0.46, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results show that variation in serum uric acid in Hispanic children is under considerable genetic influence and is associated with obesity-related phenotypes. As in adults, genetic variation in SLC2A9 is associated with serum uric acid concentrations, an important biomarker of renal and cardiovascular disease risk, in Hispanic children. PMID:25833971

  11. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: the Viva La Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2015-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it is not known whether the association of serum uric acid with SLC2A9 polymorphisms manifests in children. The aim was to investigate whether variation in serum uric acid is under genetic influence and whether the association with SLC2A9 polymorphisms generalizes to Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. We conducted a genomewide association study with 1.1 million genetic markers in 815 children. We found serum uric acid to be significantly heritable [h(2) ± SD = 0.45 ± 0.08, P = 5.8 × 10(-11)] and associated with SLC2A9 variants (P values between 10(-16) and 10(-7)). Several of the significantly associated polymorphisms were previously identified in studies in adults. We also found positive genetic correlations between serum uric acid and BMI z score (ρG = 0.45, P = 0.002), percentage of body fat (ρG = 0.28, P = 0.04), fat mass (ρG = 0.34, P = 0.02), waist circumference (ρG = 0.42, P = 0.003), and waist-to-height ratio (ρG = 0.46, P = 0.001). Our results show that variation in serum uric acid in Hispanic children is under considerable genetic influence and is associated with obesity-related phenotypes. As in adults, genetic variation in SLC2A9 is associated with serum uric acid concentrations, an important biomarker of renal and cardiovascular disease risk, in Hispanic children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Study of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4 and BDNF genes in French patients with non syndromic mental deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mignon Laurence

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental deficiency has been linked to abnormalities in cortical neuronal network connectivity and plasticity. These mechanisms are in part under the control of two interacting signalling pathways, the serotonergic and the brain-derived neurotrophic (BDNF pathways. The aim of the current paper is to determine whether particular alleles or genotypes of two crucial genes of these systems, the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF, are associated with mental deficiency (MD. Methods We analyzed four functional polymorphisms (rs25531, 5-HTTLPR, VNTR, rs3813034 of the SLC6A4 gene and one functional polymorphism (Val66 Met of the BDNF gene in 98 patients with non-syndromic mental deficiency (NS-MD and in an ethnically matched control population of 251 individuals. Results We found no significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies in the five polymorphisms studied in the SLC6A4 and BDNF genes of NS-MD patients versus control patients. While the comparison of the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (D' in the control and NS-MD populations revealed a degree of variability it did not, however, reach significance. No significant differences in frequencies of haplotypes and genotypes for VNTR/rs3813034 and rs25531/5-HTTLPR were observed. Conclusion Altogether, results from the present study do not support a role for any of the five functional polymorphisms of SLC6A4 and BDNF genes in the aetiology of NS-RM. Moreover, they suggest no epistatic interaction in NS-MD between polymorphisms in BDNF and SLC6A4. However, we suggest that further studies on these two pathways in NS-MD remain necessary.

  13. Homozygous SLC6A17 mutations cause autosomal-recessive intellectual disability with progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Musante, Luciana; Benevento, Marco; Hu, Hao; Venselaar, Hanka; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn M; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Marouillat, Sylviane; Wienker, Thomas F; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kahrizi, Kimia; Nadif Kasri, Nael; Najmabadi, Hossein; Laumonnier, Frédéric; Kleefstra, Tjitske; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2015-03-05

    We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping revealed homozygous mutations c.484G>A (p.Gly162Arg) and c.1898C>G (p.Pro633Arg) in SLC6A17. SLC6A17 is predominantly expressed in the brain, encodes a synaptic vesicular transporter of neutral amino acids and glutamate, and plays an important role in the regulation of glutamatergic synapses. Prediction programs and 3D modeling suggest that the identified mutations are deleterious to protein function. To directly test the functional consequences, we investigated the neuronal subcellular localization of overexpressed wild-type and mutant variants in mouse primary hippocampal neuronal cells. Wild-type protein was present in soma, axons, dendrites, and dendritic spines. p.Pro633Arg altered SLC6A17 was found in soma and proximal dendrites but did not reach spines. p.Gly162Arg altered SLC6A17 showed a normal subcellular distribution but was associated with an abnormal neuronal morphology mainly characterized by the loss of dendritic spines. In summary, our genetic findings implicate homozygous SLC6A17 mutations in autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, and their pathogenic role is strengthened by genetic evidence and in silico and in vitro functional analyses. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multicenter cohort association study of SLC2A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Dominique C.; Ho, Lintje; Tanck, Michael W.T.; Fritsche, Lars G.; Merriam, Joanna E.; van het Slot, Ruben; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Gorgels, Theo G.M.F.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Hofman, Albert; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Dean, Michael; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Allikmets, Rando; Hageman, Gregory S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in older adults and has a genetically complex background. This study examines the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucose transporter 1 (SLC2A1) gene and AMD. SLC2A1 regulates the bioavailability of glucose in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which might influence oxidative stress–mediated AMD pathology. Methods Twenty-two SNPs spanning the SLC2A1 gene were genotyped in 375 cases and 199 controls from an initial discovery cohort (the Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Netherlands study). Replication testing was performed in The Rotterdam Study (the Netherlands) and study populations from Würzburg (Germany), the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS; United States), Columbia University (United States), and Iowa University (United States). Subsequently, a meta-analysis of SNP association was performed. Results In the discovery cohort, significant genotypic association between three SNPs (rs3754219, rs4660687, and rs841853) and AMD was found. Replication in five large independent (Caucasian) cohorts (4,860 cases and 4,004 controls) did not yield consistent association results. The genotype frequencies for these SNPs were significantly different for the controls and/or cases among the six individual populations. Meta-analysis revealed significant heterogeneity of effect between the studies. Conclusions No overall association between SLC2A1 SNPs and AMD was demonstrated. Since the genotype frequencies for the three SLC2A1 SNPs were significantly different for the controls and/or cases between the six cohorts, this study corroborates previous evidence that population dependent genetic risk heterogeneity in AMD exists. PMID:22509097

  15. Contribution of SLC30A8 variants to the risk of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Sameer D; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Ismail, Ikram S; Al-Hamodi, Zaid; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown the association of solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter) member 8 (SLC30A8) rs13266634 with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the association of alternative variants and haplotypes of SLC30A8 with T2D have not been studied in different populations. The aim of this study is to assess the association of the alternative SLC30A8 variants, rs7002176 and rs1995222 as well as the most common variant, rs13266634 and haplotypes with glutamic acid decarboxylase...

  16. Expression of solute carrier 7A4 (SLC7A4) in the plasma membrane is not sufficient to mediate amino acid transport activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Sabine; Janzen, Annette; Vékony, Nicole; Martiné, Ursula; Strand, Dennis; Closs, Ellen I

    2002-01-01

    Member 4 of human solute carrier family 7 (SLC7A4) exhibits significant sequence homology with the SLC7 subfamily of human cationic amino acid transporters (hCATs) [Sperandeo, Borsani, Incerti, Zollo, Rossi, Zuffardi, Castaldo, Taglialatela, Andria and Sebastio (1998) Genomics 49, 230-236]. It is therefore often referred to as hCAT-4 even though no convincing transport activity has been shown for this protein. We expressed SLC7A4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes, but could not detect any transport a...

  17. Pathogenic substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in SLC26A4 in patients of Okinawa Islands with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome or Pendred syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaha, Akira; Kaname, Tadashi; Yanagi, Kumiko; Naritomi, Kenji; Tono, Tetsuya; Usami, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Mikio

    2013-05-24

    Pendred syndrome (PS) and nonsyndromic hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) are caused by SLC26A4 mutations. The Okinawa Islands are the southwestern-most islands of the Japanese archipelago. And ancestral differences have been reported between people from Okinawa Island and those from the main islands of Japan. To confirm the ethnic variation of the spectrum of SLC26A4 mutations, we investigated the frequencies of SLC26A4 mutations and clinical manifestations of patients with EVA or PS living in the Okinawa Islands. We examined 22 patients with EVA or PS from 21 unrelated families in Okinawa Islands. The patient's clinical history, findings of physical and otoscopic examinations, hearing test, and computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bones were recorded. To detect mutations, all 21 exons and the exon-intron junctions of SLC26A4 were sequenced for all subjects. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for SLC26A4 and calculations using the comparative CT (2(-ΔΔCT)) method were used to determine the pathogenicity associated with gene substitutions. SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 21 of the 22 patients. We found a compound heterozygous mutation for IVS15 + 5G > A/H723R in nine patients (41%), a homozygous substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in six patients (27%), and homozygous mutation for H723R in five patients (23%). The most prevalent types of SLC26A4 alleles were IVS15 + 5G > A and H723R, which both accounted for 15/22 (68%) of the patients. There were no significant correlations between the types of SLC26A4 mutation and clinical manifestations. Based on qRT-PCR results, expression of SLC26A4 was not identified in patients with the homozygous substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A. The substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in SLC26A4 was the most common mutation in uniquely found in patients with PS and EVA in Okinawa Islands. This suggested that the spectrum of SLC26A4 mutation differed

  18. Use of digital control theory state space formalism for feedback at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himel, T.; Hendrickson, L.; Rouse, F.; Shoaee, H.

    1991-05-01

    The algorithms used in the database-driven SLC fast-feedback system are based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. These are implemented as a set of matrix equations which use a Kalman filter to estimate a vector of states from a vector of measurements, and then apply a gain matrix to determine the actuator settings from the state vector. The matrices used in the calculation are derived offline using Linear Quadratic Gaussian minimization. For a given noise spectrum, this procedure minimizes the rms of the states (e.g., the position or energy of the beam). The offline program also allows simulation of the loop's response to arbitrary inputs, and calculates its frequency response. 3 refs., 3 figs

  19. Simulations of Bunch Precompression at High Currents in the SLC Damping Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Minty, M.G.; Chao, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) each beam, after leaving a damping ring, is compressed in the Ring-to-Linac (RTL) transfer line before entering the linear accelerator. At a bunch population of 4.0 x 10 10 particles, due to the limited energy acceptance of the RTL, approximately 15% of the beam has normally been lost. During the 1996 run, however, to eliminate this loss the bunch was partially precompressed in the damping ring, just before extraction; the beam loss in the RTL was reduced to almost zero. The operation and performance of precompression are presented by Minty et al. (1999). Also given is an analysis which, however, does not include the effects of the longitudinal wakefield on the beam dynamics. In this report we extend that analysis to include these effects.

  20. Operation and performance of bunch pre-compression for increased transmission at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Akre, R.; Decker, F.J.; Turner, J.

    1997-11-01

    As the beam currents at the SLC are increased, transverse aperture restrictions in the ring-to-linac transport line (RTL) become increasingly important. The RTL contains a bunch compressor which introduces a large energy variation across the bunch and hence a larger transverse beam size. Since 1994 the compressor amplitude has been operating at higher than design voltage. While advantageous for shaping the bunch distribution, this increased the bunch energy spread and therefore resulted in more beam loss. Moreover, due to current-dependent bunch lengthening in the damping ring, the higher the beam current, the more the current loss. To avoid such losses, the bunch length may be precompressed in the damping ring. Until recently, bunch precompression with high beam currents was not stable. In this paper the authors identify the reasons for the difficulties, describe the changes made to accommodate bunch precompression, and discuss performance aspects after implementation. The estimated increase in current at the interaction point is 15%