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Sample records for slaucamo govju asins

  1. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Bakteri Asam Laktat Indigenous dari Sawi Asin

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    NiMade IndriHapsari Arihantana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available “Sawi asin” (fermented vegetable is a fermented product of vegetables which occur naturally (indigenous. Sawi asin has a longer shelf life then fresh or raw vegetables; due to a certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB presence in sawi asin which produces bacteriocin which destroy bacteria that causes food to spoil. The research was carried out to isolate and identify LAB species in sawi asin (sawi asin produced by MS, Malang; sawi asin produced by Niki Echo Surabaya and sawi asin produced by Wahana Boga Malang, East Java. The LAB characteristics such as cell morphology, Gram staining, motility, catalase, and gas production from glucose were observed.  Identification of LAB species was carried out by using kit equipment (sets API 50 CH and API 50 CHL medium version 5.1 continued by data analysis using APIWEB software. Result of research obtained were 21 LAB isolates (indigenous. The kit set used suceeded in identifying one LAB species, Lactobacillus fermentum 1 with five strains: L. fermentum I SAA1, L. fermentum I SAA2, L. fermentum I SAA4, L. fermentum I SAB1, and L. fermentum I SAC1.

  2. Diversity and distribution of culturable lactic acid bacterial species in Indonesian Sayur Asin

    OpenAIRE

    Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo; Abinawanto,; Salamah, Andi; Sukara, Endang; Sulistiani,; Dinoto, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play important roles in processing of Sayur Asin (spontaneously fermented mustard). Unfortunately, information about LAB in Indonesian Sayur Asin, prepared by traditional manufactures which is important as baseline data for maintenance of food quality and safety, is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the diversity and distribution of culturable lactic acid bacteria in Sayur Asin of Indonesia.Materials and Methods: Four Sayur As...

  3. KANDUNGAN NATRIUM (Na DAN GARAM (NaCl DALAM IKAN ASIN KERING MENTAH DAN GORENG DI PASAR ANYAR BOGOR

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    Heru Yuniati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui kandungan natrium (Na dan garam (NaCl dalam 10 jenis ikan asin kering yang beredar di Pasar Anyar Bogor. Analisis natrium dilakukan terhadap ikan asin mentah, setelah dicuci, dan setelah digoreng dengan menggunakan flamefometer. Analisis garam dilakukan dengan titrasi argentometri terhadap ikan asin mentah. Hasil analisis menunjukkan, kandungan Na dan garam dalam ikan asin sangat beragam besarnya berturut-turut berkisar antara 0,3-8,1% dan 5,7-21,2%. Ikan asin yang mempunyai kadar Na dan garam tinggi adalah ikan sepat, peda putih dan gabus. Jumlah air dalam ikan asin juga bervariasi, berkisar antara 10,3-46,8%. pencucian dan penggorengan dapat menurunkan kadar garam ataupun natrium sebesar 37,4%.

  4. Diversity and distribution of culturable lactic acid bacterial species in Indonesian Sayur Asin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo; Abinawanto; Salamah, Andi; Sukara, Endang; Sulistiani; Dinoto, Achmad

    2016-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play important roles in processing of Sayur Asin (spontaneously fermented mustard). Unfortunately, information about LAB in Indonesian Sayur Asin, prepared by traditional manufactures which is important as baseline data for maintenance of food quality and safety, is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the diversity and distribution of culturable lactic acid bacteria in Sayur Asin of Indonesia. Four Sayur Asin samples (fermentation liquor and fermented mustard) were collected at harvesting times (3-7 days after fermentation) from two traditional manufactures in Tulung Agung (TA) and Kediri (KDR), East Java provinces, Indonesia. LAB strains were isolated by using MRS agar method supplemented with 1% CaCO 3 and characterized morphologically. Identification of the strains was performed basedon 16S rDNA analysis and the phylogenetic tree was drawn to understand the phylogenetic relationship of the collected strains. Different profiles were detected in total count of the plates, salinity and pH of fermenting liquor of Sayur Asin in TA and KDR provinces. A total of 172 LAB isolates were successfully isolated and identified based on their 16S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of 27 representative LAB strains from Sayur Asin showed that these strains belonged to 5 distinct species namely Lactobacilus farciminis (N=32), L. fermentum (N=4), L. namurensis (N=15), L. plantarum (N=118) and L. parafarraginis (N=1). Strains D5-S-2013 and B4-S-2013 showed a close phylogenetic relationship with L. composti and L. paralimentarius, respectively where as the sequence had slightly lower similarity of lower than 99%, suggesting that they may be classified into novel species and need further investigation due to exhibition of significant differences in their nucleotide sequences. Lactobacillus plantarum was found being dominant in all sayur asin samples. Lactobacilli were recognized as the major group of lactic acid bacteria in Sayur Asin

  5. PEMANFAATAN TEKNIK GEOLISTRIK UNTUK MENDETEKSI PERSEBARAN AIRTANAH ASIN PADA AKUIFER BEBAS DI KOTA SURABAYA

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    Setyawan Purnama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui persebaran airtanah asin di Kota Surabaya, menganalisis faktor penyebabnya dan mencari kemungkinan ditemukannya airtanah tawar pada akuifer tertekan. Untuk rnencapai tujuan tersebut dilakukan pendugaan geolistrik pada tujuh penampang dengan masingmasing penampang terdiri atas dua hingga tiga titik pendugaan. Untuk menganalisis hash pendugaan, data tahanan jenis hash pendugaan lapangan diinterpretasi dengan Program Schlumberger 0 Weil. Hasil interpretasi dapat ditentukan kedalaman dan ketebalan lapisan airtanah beserta sifat-sifatnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di Kota Surabaya telah terdeteksi adanya airtanah asin dan airtanah payau, dengan jarak dari garis pantai dan ketebalan lapisan yang beniariasi. Faktor penyebab adanya airtanah asin dan airtanah payau tersebut adalah air fosil (connate water Hasil lain dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa hingga kedalaman 150 meter dari permukaan tanah, tidak ditemukan akuifer tertekan yang mengandung airtanah tawar.

  6. Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Air Daun Jambu Biji Sebagai Antioksidan Alami Pada Pengolahan Patin Asin

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    Farida Ariyani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pemanfaatan ekstrak air daun jambu biji (Psidium guajava sebagai antioksidan alami pada pengolahan patin asin telah dilakukan. Aplikasi ekstrak air daun jambu dilakukan dengan merendam ikan dalam campuran larutan garam dan ekstrak daun jambu. Konsentrasi larutan garam yang digunakan adalah 30%, sedangkan variasi konsentrasi ekstrak daun jambu yang digunakan adalah 0, 6, dan 12% (w/v. Perendaman dalam larutan garam dilakukan selama 48 jam dengan perbandingan antara ikan dan larutan yang digunakan untuk merendam 1:2 (b/v. Selesai penggaraman, ikan dibelah menjadi bentuk butterfly kemudian dikeringkan di bawah sinar matahari sampai kering (4–5 hari. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap sifat sensori, kadar air, angka Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA, produk berfluoresen dan proporsi asam lemak tidak jenuh patin asin. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan ekstrak air daun jambu pada larutan garam jenuh dengan konsentrasi 6 dan 12% selama penggaraman mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak patin asin yang tercermin dari penghambatan peningkatan kadar TBA, produk berfluoresen dan penghambatan kerusakan asam lemak tidak jenuh selama penyimpanan 2 bulan. Hasil uji sensori memperlihatkan bahwa patin asin yang diberi perlakuan memberikan bau yang tidak tengik, walaupun warna patin menjadi lebih coklat. Berdasarkan pertimbangan hasil secara kimiawi maupun sensori, perlakuan ekstrak daun jambu pada konsentrasi 6% merupakan perlakuan terpilih

  7. Penggunaan Ekstrak Bahan Alami Untuk Menghambat Infestasi Lalat Selama Penjemuran Ikan Jambal Asin

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    Farida Ariyani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available lkan jambal asin adalah ikan asin kering yang dibuat dengan cara memfermentasikan ikan dalam garam sebelum penjemuran. Untuk mengurangi infestasi lalat selama penjemuran pada pengolahan ikan jambal asin, penelitian penggunaan ekstrak bahan alami sebagai insektisida telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini dilakukan 2 tahap, yaitu penelitian pendahuluan dan penelitian utama. Pada penelitian pendahuluan, bahan baku yang digunakan adalah ikan manyung (Arius thalassinus dan bahan alami yang diuji adalah ekstrak daun mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss dan daun picung (Pangium edule Reinw masing‑masing dengan konsentrasi 2,5; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5 % (b/v, serta ekstrak bawang putih (Allium sativum dengan konsentrasi 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0; 7,5 % (b/v. lkan yang telah difermentasi dalam garam direndam dalarn ekstrak bahan alami selama 30 detik, kemudian dilakukan penjemuran sehingga menjadi ikan jambal asin. Selama penjemuran dan penyimpanan dilakukan pengamatan tingkat infestasi lalat, larva dan pupa. Hasil penelitian pendahuluan menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak bawang putih merupakan bahan yang paling efektif untuk menghambat infestasi lalat sehingga dipilih untuk digunakan pada penelitian utama. Pada penelitian utama, bahan baku yang digunakan adalah ikan patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus. lkan patin yang telah difermentasi direndam dalam ekstrak bawang putih dengan konsentrasi 3, 6 dan 9% (b/v dengan waktu perendaman 0, 5, 10, dan 15 menit. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap tingkat infestasi lalat dan karakteristik organoleptik produk ikan jambal asin. Hasil penelitian utama menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan terbaik yang memberikan tingkat infestasi lalat terkecil dan dapat diterima panelis adalah perendaman dalarn ekstrak bawang putih 9% selama 10 menit.

  8. TINGKAT EFISIENSI PRODUKSI DAN PENDAPATAN PADA USAHA PENGOLAHAN IKAN ASIN SKALA KECIL

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    Himawan Arif Sutanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to measure the level of production efficiency and calculate the return and cost salted fish processing small scale in Pekalongan municipality. There are 20 business owners of small scale processing of salted fish were sampled with snowball sampling. Stochastic Frontier Analysis is used to measure the level of efficiency and descriptive statistics are used to calculate the ratio of return and cost. The results indicate that the level of efficiency of production of salted fish processing small scale in Pekalongan yet efficient so it is still possible to be improved. Factors that influence the production of salted fish in Pekalongan is availability of fish, labor, equipment or facilities, auxiliary materials and extensive effort. Salted fish processing businesses in Pekalongan small scale is still quite favorable, as indicated by the R/C value of 1.37 which indicates that the amount of revenue entrepreneurs of small-scale fish processing is still greater than the costs to be incurred in running the business.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur tingkat efisiensi produksi dan menghitung rasio biaya dan pendapatan usaha pengolahan ikan asin skala kecil di kota pekalongan. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalaah 20 pemilik usaha ikan asin dengan metode snowball sampling. Analisis frontier stokastik digunakan untuk mengukur tingkat efisiensi dan metode deskriptif statistik digunakan untuk menghitung rasio biaya dan pendapatan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa usaha ikan asin skala kecil di kota pekalongan telah cukup efisien sehingga masih memungkinkan untuk ditingkatkan.  Faktor yang mempengaruhi efisiensi usaha ikan asin di kota pekalongan adalah ketersediaan bahan baku ikan, tenaga kerja, peralatan usaha, bahan penolong, dan luas usaha. Usaha pengolahan ikan asin di pekalongan masih menguntungkan, hal ini dapat terlihat dari nilau R/C sebesar 1,37 yang mengindikasikan keuntungan usaha masih lebih tinggi dibandingkan

  9. Ekstrak Air Daun Sirih (Piper betle Linn sebagai Antioksidan Alami pada Pengolahan Ikan Patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus Asin Kering

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    Farida Ariyani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kajian peran ekstrak air daun sirih sebagai antioksidan alami pada proses pengolahan ikan patin asin kering telah dilakukan. Penambahan ekstrak air daun sirih pada berbagai konsentrasi (0, 4, 5, 6, 7% b/v dilakukan pada saat perendaman patin segar dalam larutan garam jenuh selama 48 jam. Selanjutnya patin asin hasil penggaraman dikeringkan di bawah sinar matahari selama 4–5 hari. Pengamatan aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak air daun sirih dilakukan dengan metode 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH yang dibandingkan dengan Buthylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT sebagai kontrol positif, sedangkan pengamatan efektivitas ekstrak air daun sirih sebagai antioksidan patin asin dilakukan melalui analisis parameter oksidasi yakni angka TBA, angka anisidin dan produk berfluoresen serta karakteristik  sensori (warna, bau, dan rasa. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak air daun sirih memiliki aktivitas antioksidan lebih tinggi dibandingkan BHT. Penambahan ekstrak air daun sirih dengan konsentrasi 4–7% (b/v selama penggaraman dalam proses pengolahan patin asin mampu menghambat proses oksidasi lemak patin asin dan patin asin kering yang tercermin dari rendahnya angka TBA, angka anisidin dan produk berfluoresen dibanding kontrol. Perlakuan terpilih dari penelitian ini adalah kelompok perlakuan penambahan ekstrak daun sirih 4% yang menghasilkan patin asin kering dengan angka TBA 6,42 mMol MDA/kg (kontrol 15,10 mMol MDA/kg, angka anisidin 3,41 mMol/g minyak (kontrol 6,87 mMol/g minyak, dan produk berfluoresen 0,091 mg/g ikan (kontrol 0,219 mg/g ikan. Karakteristik sensori patin asin dengan perlakuan terpilih berwarna coklat muda, berbau tidak tengik, dan berasa sedikit getir.

  10. ANALISA PERBANDINGAN ANOMALI GRAVITASI DENGAN PERSEBARAN INTRUSI AIR ASIN (STUDI KASUS JAKARTA 2006-2007

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    Litanya Octonovrilna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aplikasi pada bidang geofisika, berupa pengukuran gravitasi dilakukan di lapangan dalam jangka waktu tertentu, dengan tujuan untuk mendeteksi perubahan kondisi bawah permukaan bumi. Dalam hal ini dilakukan pengukuran gravitasi di wilayah Jakarta untuk mendeteksi perubahan kondisi hidrologi Jakarta dalam kaitannya dengan fenomena intrusi air asin. Secara geografis daerah penelitian berada pada -6.35158 s.d -6.08655 LS dan 106.689 s.d. 106.955 BT. Pengolahan data gravitasi wilayah Jakarta dilakukan dalam 2 periode, yaitu periode I (September 2006 dan periode II (November–Desember 2007. Anomali gravitasi  tertinggi terdapat pada bagian pusat dan barat Jakarta ini mengindikasikan terjadinya fenomena subsidensi dan kekosongan massa akibat eksploitasi air tanah serta tekanan dari sejumlah gedung tinggi yang berpusat pada daerah tersebut. Anomali gravitasi terendah terdapat di bagian barat laut Jakarta yang bersesuaian konsentrasi nilai kepayauan tertinggi, mengindikasikan adanya intrusi air asin yang diakibatkan oleh adanya fenomena Conate Water yang menyusup  pada aquifer air tanah akibat eksplotasi air tanah berlebih. Hubungan pola aliran sungai dengan nilai kepayauan air, membuktikan adanya pengaruh sungai aquifer air tanah, namun dampaknya tidak terlalu berpengaruh terlebih pada aquifer dalam.   Gravity measurements are conducted in the field within a certain period in order to detect changes in the earth's surface conditions. We conducted gravity measurements in Jakarta to detect changes in hydrologic conditions in connection to salt water intrusion phenomena. The data processing performed in the two periods, the first period is September 2006 and the second one is November-December 2007. The highest gravity anomalies are in central and western parts of Jakarta. This implies the occurrence of mass subsidence and void due to the exploitation of ground water and the pressure from a number of high buildings based on the area. The lowest gravity

  11. Electrical and structural characteristics of metamorphic In0.38Al0.62As/In0.37Ga0.63As/In0.38Al0.62As HEMT nanoheterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Klochkov, A. N.; Maltsev, P. P.; Pushkarev, S. S.; Zhigalina, O. M.; Imamov, R. M.; Kuskova, A. N.; Khmelenin, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the metamorphic buffer design and epitaxial growth conditions on the electrical and structural characteristics of metamorphic In 0.38 Al 0.62 As/In 0.37 Ga 0.63 As/In 0.38 Al 0.62 As high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) nanoheterostructures has been investigated. The samples were grown on GaAs(100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The active regions of the nanoheterostructures are identical, while the metamorphic buffer In x Al 1−x As is formed with a linear or stepwise (by Δ x = 0.05) increase in the indium content over depth. It is found that MHEMT nanoheterostructures with a step metamorphic buffer have fewer defects and possess higher values of two-dimensional electron gas mobility at T = 77 K. The structures of the active region and metamorphic buffer have been thoroughly studied by transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that the relaxation of metamorphic buffer in the heterostructures under consideration is accompanied by the formation of structural defects of the following types: dislocations, microtwins, stacking faults, and wurtzite phase inclusions several nanometers in size

  12. INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN MUSI BANYU ASIN AND OGAN KOMERING ULU REGENCIES, SOUTH SUMATRA

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    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada bulan Mei 1973 diadakan survey tinja dan darah di lima desa di Sumatra Selatan untuk mengetahui aspek-aspek penyakit parasit pada penduduk asli dan para transmigran yang datang antara tahun 1935 dan 1955. Desa-desa Tanjung Kerang, Simpang Langkap dan Biuku di Kabupaten Musi Banyu Asin yang terletak di sebelah barat laut kota Palembang merupakan daerah hutan-ladang-huma dan perkebunan karet rakyat dikelilingi oleh rawa-rawa, yang di diami oleh penduduk asli. Desa-desa Sidomulyo dan Tanjung Raya di Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu, terletak di sebelah tenggara' kota Palembang, adalah tempat transmigrasi yang merupakan daerah persawahan." Dari 358 orang yang diperiksa tinjanya yang terdiri dari 193 laki-laki dan 165 wanita, di keiemukan 97 per cent terinfeksi oleh sedikitnya satu macam parasit, 87 per cent oleh 2 macam parasit atau lebih dan 55 per cent oleh 3 macam parasit atau lebih. Telur-telur cacing yang di temukan antara lain ialah: Trichuris trichiura. (83 per cent, Ascaris lumbricoides (78 per cent dan cacing tambang (59 per cent. Enterobius vermicularis (1 per cent dan Strongyloides stercoralis (0,3 per cent jarang di jumpai. Entamoeba coli (29 per cent merupakan parasit protozoa yang biasa di temukan. Jumlah rata-rata protozoa yang ada dalam usus ialah: Entamoeba histofytica (4 per cent, Entamoeba hartmanni (1 per cent, Endolimax nona (5 per cent, Iodamoeba butschlii (5 per cent, Giardia lamblia (3 per cent dan Chilomastbc mesnili (4 per cent. Distribusi dari parasit usus hampir sama di antara golongan laki-laki dan wanita; meskipun tanah memegang peranan yang sama dalam pemindahan cacing-cacing, tetapi A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura lebih banyak di jumpai pada wanita, sedangkan cacing tambang lebih banyak pada laki-laki. Prevalensi parasit usus menurut golongan umur adalah sebagai berikut: A. lumbricoides lebih banyak pada golongan muda, T. trichiura merata pada semua golongan umur, tetapi yang terbanyak pada golongan umur antara 30

  13. Forming-free performance of a-SiN x :H-based resistive switching memory obtained by oxygen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jian; Yang, Huafeng; Sun, Yang; Tan, Dinwen; Li, Wei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kuiji; Feng, Duan

    2018-06-01

    An a-SiN x -based resistive random access memory (RRAM) device with a forming-free characteristic has significant potentials for the industrialization of the next-generation memories. We demonstrate that a forming-free a-SiN x O y RRAM device can be achieved by an oxygen plasma treatment of ultra-thin a-SiN x :H films. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy reveals that Si dangling bonds with a high density (1019 cm‑3) are distributed in the initial state, which exist in the forms of Si2N≡Si·, SiO2≡Si·, O3≡Si·, and N3≡Si·. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-dependent current analyses reveal that the silicon dangling bonds induced by the oxygen plasma treatment and external electric field contribute to the low resistance state (LRS). For the high resistance state (HRS), the rupture of the silicon dangling bond pathway is attributed to the partial passivation of Si dangling bonds by H+ and O2‑. Both LRS and HRS transmissions obey the hopping conduction model. The proposed oxygen plasma treatment, introduced to generate a high density of Si dangling bonds in the SiN x O y :H films, provides a new approach to forming-free RRAM devices.

  14. Influence of the growth conditions on the optical and structural properties of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots for low As/In ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Samet; Suyolcu, Y. Eren [Advanced Technologies Research Unit: Nanotechnology, Graduate School of Sciences, Anadolu University, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey); Turan, Servet [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Anadolu University, Iki Eylul Campus, 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey); Aslan, Bulent, E-mail: bulentaslan@anadolu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Effects of systematically changed growth conditions on InAs/GaAs QDs were studied. • Growths were optimized for low As/In flux ratio to obtain well-resolved PL spectra. • XRD rocking curve signal fitting was used to analyze the samples. • XRD analysis reflects the overall tendency of the QD density and WL behavior. - Abstract: We report on the growth and characterization of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The influence of the systematically changed growth conditions on the opto-electronic and structural properties of the QDs were investigated. Combination of the amount of the deposited InAs, growth temperature and growth rate were optimized for low As/In flux ratio to obtain well-resolved ground and excited states in the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra. SEM and TEM techniques were also used for the characterization of QDs. The results were evaluated simply through the conservation of mass approximation and the x-ray diffraction measurements with fitted curves. The extracted InAs and wetting layer thicknesses were brought out that the XRD analysis reflects the overall tendency of the QD density change and WL behaviors in response to the changes in growth conditions.

  15. Weak localization/antilocalization in a nearly symmetric In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faniel, S.; Matsuura, T.; Koga, T.; Mineshige, S.; Sekine, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We report weak antilocalization (WAL) measurements in a nearly symmetric In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As quantum well. In this system, an enhancement of the spin-orbit scattering time, equivalently the weakening of the WAL effect, is expected at carrier densities N s where equal magnitudes between the Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters (α = ±β) are realized. Our magnetotransport measurements indeed exhibited a weakening of the WAL effect as a function of N s , though the weakening took place at only one carrier density. Our interpretation is that the value of β is so small that the two carrier densities corresponding to α = β and α = -β are very close to each other. It turned out that the deduced values for the bulk Dresselhaus parameter γ in In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As quantum wells is considerably smaller than the k·p value of 27 eVA 3 .

  16. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of In0.52Al0.48As/In0.53Ga0.47As metamorphic high electron mobility transistor employing growth interruption and in situ rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihn, Soo-Ghang; Jo, Seong June; Song, Jong-In

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of high temperature (∼700 deg. C) in situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) carried out during growth interruption between spacer and δ-doping layers of an In 0.52 Al 0.48 As/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) grown on a compositionally graded InGaAlAs buffer layer. The in situ RTA improved optical and structural properties of the MHEMT without degradation of transport property, while postgrowth RTA improved the structural property of the MHEMT but significantly degraded mobility due to the defect-assisted Si diffusion. The results indicate the potential of the in situ RTA for use in the growth of high-quality metamorphic epitaxial layers for optoelectronic applications requiring improved optical and electrical properties

  17. EFEK PENGGUNAAN ABU GOSOK DAN SERBUK BATA MERAH PADA PEMBUATAN TELUR ASIN TERHADAP KANDUNGAN MIKROBA DALAM TELUR (THE EFFECT OF USING THE ASH AND THE RED BRICK POWDER IN MAKING OF THE SALTED EGGS TO THE MICROBIAL CONTENT OF THE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Salting is a way of preserving eggs with the dough / salt solution to boiling and boil for some time. As mixing the dough salt to soak the eggs, rub ash is commonly used in comparison with red brick powder. Purpose: determine the ability of red brick powder media in inhibiting bacteria than rub ash. Material and Method: Ten salted egg is made using a mixture of ash, salt and water in the ratio 4:2:2 ml, While ten more salted egg is made using a mixture of red brick powder, salt, and water in the ratio 4:2:2. Once the dough is well blended, each egg wrapped in dough evenly with a thickness of ± 2 mm. Then the eggs are stored in a plastic bucket in the open space. Microbial testing performed on total bacteria, and yeasts, as well as testing done to contain coliform, E. coli and Salmonella / Shigella on days 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20. Results: The total bacteria and yeasts in the two salted egg products decreased during salting, except on days -20, where an increase in total bacteria on salted egg with rub ash medium, but not on salted eggs with red brick powder medium. At the end of salting, the total number of bacteria of salted eggs for 4 x 102 and 0.9 x 102 colonies / gram, and total yeast and 0.45 x 102 8.7 x 102 colonies / gram. Conclusion: Salted eggs are made ​​using rub ash and red brick powder did not contain coliform bacteria, E. coli and Salmonella / Shigella, while the total number of bacteria and yeasts in the egg there is a difference. Keywords: Egg sauce, rub ash, red brick dust, microbes     ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Pengasinan adalah cara mengawetkan telur dengan adonan garam dan merebusnya sampai mendidih selama beberapa waktu. Sebagai pencampur dalam adonan garam digunakan abu gosok dibandingkan dengan serbuk bata merah. Tujuan: mengetahui kemampuan media serbuk bata merah dalam menghambat bakteri dibandingkan dengan abu gosok. Bahan dan Cara: Sepuluh butir telur asin dibuat menggunakan campuran abu gosok

  18. The dependence of the interface and shape on the constrained growth of nc-Si in a-SiN sub x /a-Si:H/a-SiN sub x structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Li; Wang Li; Li Wei; Xu Jun; Huang Xin Fan; Chen Kun Ji

    2002-01-01

    Size-controlled nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) has been prepared from a-SiN sub x /a-Si:H/a-SiN sub x ('a' standing for amorphous) structures by thermal annealing. Transmission electron microscope analyses show that the lateral size of the nc-Si is controlled by the annealing conditions and the a-Si sublayer thickness. The deviation of the nc-Si grain size distribution decreases with the a-Si sublayer thickness, so thinner a-Si sublayers are favourable for obtaining uniform nc-Si grains. In the a-Si:H (10 nm) sample annealed at 1000 deg. C for 30 min, an obvious bi-modal size distribution of nc-Si grains appears, but no obvious bi-modal size distribution is found in other samples with thinner a-Si:H sublayers. On the basis of the experimental results, we discuss the process of transition from the sphere-like shape to the disc-like shape in the growth model of the nc-Si crystallization. The critical thickness of the a-Si sublayer for the constrained crystallization can be determined by the present model. More...

  19. Thirty-five-nm T-Gate In0.52Al0.48As/In0.53Ga0.47As metamorphic HEMTs with an ultrahigh fmax of 610 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Do-Young; Kim, Sung-Ho; Choi, Gil-Bok; Jung, Sung-Woo; Jeong, Yoon-Ha

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-five-nanometer T-gate GaAs-based In 0.52 Al 0.48 As/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (mHEMTs) are successfully fabricated using a zigzag-shaped T-gate. We obtain a maximum extrinsic transconductance (g m ) of 1060 mS/mm and a maximum oscillation frequency (f max ) of 610 GHz. These superior results are obtained by reducing the T-gate's length to 35 nm without the assistance of a supporting layer and by fabricating a wide-recessed-gate structure. The stand-alone 35-nm T-gate effectively improves the device performance because it doesn't cause additional parasitic capacitances. The wide-recessed-gate structure alleviates impact ionization in the channel, which suppresses the kink effect in the output characteristic and reduces the output conductance (g ds ). In addition, the wide-recessed-gate structure reduces the gate-to-drain capacitance (C gd ); consequently realizing a state-of-the-art f max . The f max of 610 GHz, to our knowledge, is the highest value reported to date for GaAs-based HEMTs.

  20. Ni/Au-gate In0.45Al0.55As/In0.53Ga0.47As/InAlGaAs/GaAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Sung; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Su, Ke-Hua; Huang, Jun-Chin; Huang, Dong-Hai; Chen, Yeong-Jia

    2006-01-01

    A δ-doped In 0.45 Al 0.55 As/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As/InAlGaAs/GaAs metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) using a Ni/Au-gate electrode has been successfully fabricated and demonstrated. Compared to conventional Au-gate devices with identical structures, the proposed device improves the kink-effect-related output conductance, the gate-voltage swing, the current drive capability, the breakdown characteristics, and the device power performance. Experimentally, a high extrinsic transconductance of 309 mS/mm, a high drain-source saturation current density of 573 mA/mm, an improved gate-voltage swing of 1.05 V with a corresponding saturation current density of 314 mA/mm, a high saturated output power of 11.3 dBm, and a high power gain of 23.8 dB with a power-added efficiency of 39.2 % are obtained for a 0.65 x 200 μm 2 gate at 300 K. In addition, the measured f T and f max are 49.1 and 61.7 GHz, respectively.

  1. Par govju vārdiem latviešu valodā

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daina Zemzare

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ÜBER DIE NAMEN VON KÜHEN IN LETTISCHER SPRACHEZusammenfassungIn der lettischen Sprache haben sich ungewöhnlich viele Namen von Kühen erhalten. Für die ältesten Namen, die seit dem XVIII und XIX Jahrhundert bekannt sind, ist der Auslaut -ala oder -aļa charakteristisch, der noch heute im ganzen Lettland vorkommt. Mit diesem Aus­laut werden Namen gebildet, die eine Eigenart des Tieres kennzeichnet, besonders nach der Fär­bung des Felles (brũnaļa, raībaļa. Früher waren auch Namen verbreitet, die den Tieren nach ih­ren Geburtstagen gegeben wurden. Davon zeigt die große Anzahl von Varianten (uotraļa „am Dienstag geborene Kuh“: uotrala, uotruža, uotaļa, uotuļa, uotava, uortaļa, uorta, uota, uoča usw.. Namen dieser Art sind auch anderen Nachbarsvölkern der Letten bekannt, z. B.: den Liven (teinele „am Dienstag geborenes Tier“, Esten (teisik, Russen (вторёxa, Polen (wtorocha und anderen, außer der Litauer. Zur Bildung der Namen von Kühen wurden auch andere Suffixe verwendet. In der Grenzzone Estlands haben die Letten den estnischen Suffix -ik entlehnt (mel̃lika „schwarze Kuh“, sestika „Name einer am Sonnabend geborenen Kuh“, während die Liven ihrerseits die lettischen Suffix wie -al-, -el- in einigen Namen von Kühen verwendet haben (raìbil',pivàl', lettisch raibaļa, raibele, svētaļa. Im Süden Lettlands stoßt man auf littauische Lehnwörter (puik-aļa, lit. puikùs „schön“.Die Namen der Kühe neuerer Zeit haben wenig Ableitungen. Jetzt gibt man den Kühen gewöhnlich Namen von Flüssen, Orten, Frauen und überhaupt Namen, die mit den Tieren selbst keinen konkreten Zusammenhang haben; die älteren eigenartigen Namen dagegen verfallen allmählich der Vergessenheit.

  2. Comparative influence study of gate-formation structuring on Al0.22Ga0.78As/In0.16Ga0.84As/Al0.22Ga0.78As double heterojunction high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, M K; Chiu, S Y; Wu, C H; Lour, W S; Guo, D F

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomorphic Al 0.22 Ga 0.78 As/In 0.16 Ga 0.84 As/Al 0.22 Ga 0.78 As double heterojunction high electron mobility transistors (DH-HEMTs) fabricated with different gate-formation structures of a single-recess gate (SRG), a double-recess gate (DRG) and a field-plate gate (FPG) were comparatively investigated. FPG devices show the best breakdown characteristics among these devices due to great reduction in the peak electric field between the drain and gate electrodes. The measured gate–drain breakdown voltages defined at a 1 mA mm −1 reverse gate–drain current density were −15.3, −19.1 and −26.0 V for SRG, DRG and FPG devices, respectively. No significant differences in their room-temperature common-source current–voltage characteristics were observed. However, FPG devices exhibit threshold voltages being the least sensitive to temperature. Threshold voltages as a function of temperature indicate a threshold-voltage variation as low as −0.97 mV K −1 for FPG devices. According to the 2.4 GHz load–pull power measurement at V DS = 3.0 V and V GS = −0.5 V, the saturated output power (P OUT ), power gain (G P ) and maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) were 10.3 dBm/13.2 dB/36.6%, 11.2 dBm/13.1 dB/39.7% and 13.06 dBm/12.8 dB/47.3%, respectively, for SRG, DRG and FPG devices with a pi-gate in class AB operation. When the FPG device is biased at a V DS of 10 V, the saturated power density is more than 600 mW mm −1

  3. Comparative influence study of gate-formation structuring on Al0.22Ga0.78As/In0.16Ga0.84As/Al0.22Ga0.78As double heterojunction high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M. K.; Chiu, S. Y.; Wu, C. H.; Guo, D. F.; Lour, W. S.

    2008-12-01

    Pseudomorphic Al0.22Ga0.78As/In0.16Ga0.84As/Al0.22Ga0.78As double heterojunction high electron mobility transistors (DH-HEMTs) fabricated with different gate-formation structures of a single-recess gate (SRG), a double-recess gate (DRG) and a field-plate gate (FPG) were comparatively investigated. FPG devices show the best breakdown characteristics among these devices due to great reduction in the peak electric field between the drain and gate electrodes. The measured gate-drain breakdown voltages defined at a 1 mA mm-1 reverse gate-drain current density were -15.3, -19.1 and -26.0 V for SRG, DRG and FPG devices, respectively. No significant differences in their room-temperature common-source current-voltage characteristics were observed. However, FPG devices exhibit threshold voltages being the least sensitive to temperature. Threshold voltages as a function of temperature indicate a threshold-voltage variation as low as -0.97 mV K-1 for FPG devices. According to the 2.4 GHz load-pull power measurement at VDS = 3.0 V and VGS = -0.5 V, the saturated output power (POUT), power gain (GP) and maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) were 10.3 dBm/13.2 dB/36.6%, 11.2 dBm/13.1 dB/39.7% and 13.06 dBm/12.8 dB/47.3%, respectively, for SRG, DRG and FPG devices with a pi-gate in class AB operation. When the FPG device is biased at a VDS of 10 V, the saturated power density is more than 600 mW mm-1.

  4. RECOVERY GARAM LITHIUM DARI AIR ASIN (BRINE DENGAN METODA PRESIPITASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarno Sumarno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium demand increases as it is widely used as raw material for rechargeable battery, alloy for airplane, andfuel for fusion nuclear reactor. Lithium is an extremely reactive element, that it is never found as free element innature. Lithium compounds are found in earth crust, with very small concentration (20 – 70 ppm and totalcontent of more than 20 million tons. The biggest lithium reserve is in seawater (0,14 – 0,25 ppm andgeothermal water (7 ppm with total amount of 230 billion tons. There is no industry applies the technology torecover lithium from seawater. Having a vast sea area and abundant geothermal sources, Indonesia needs todevelop a technology to recover lithium from both sources. This research is aimed to recover lithium fromgeothermal water. The experiment was conducted using synthetic and geothermal water with lithiumconcentration range of 220 – 400 ppm, temperature range of 20 – 40°C, and mixing time range of 1 – 4 hours.The experiment was designed with 2 level factorial design. The results show that the most influencing variable ismixing time, while significant interaction amongst variables is not observed. Further experiment usinggeothermal water from Bledug Kuwu with initial lithium concentration of 400 ppm and temperature 30°Cresulted in optimum mixing time, i.e. 3 hours with 92,5% of the lithium could be recovered

  5. Analisis Laba Kotor Sebagai Salah Satu Alat Dalam Menetapkan Harga Jual Pada Perusahaan Telur Asin Eni Jayabrebes

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanto, Medi Tri

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is: to know the methods of determining the selling price set by the company and setting the selling price set by the company. The method used is the case study company Eni Jaya regency, while the data collection methods used are surveys, interviews, questionnaires and research library. In analyzing the data using techniques seleisih gross profit, sales margin, the difference in cost of sales and net volume difference. From the analysis it can be concluded: (1) the...

  6. Penerapan Pengering Surya-Tungku Termodifikasi Dalam Peningkatan Produktivitas dan Higienitas Produksi Ikan Asin Tanpa Formalin Nelayan Pantai Congot, Kulonprogo, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Yuni Susanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Salted fish is a fish product with simple preservation method as a solution to increase value added, extend shelf life and expand the distribution chain, and provide convenience and distinctive taste to be consumed. The groups of small industries and marketer “POKLAHSAR SRIKANDI” and “BOGOWONTO” have produced 10-50 kg salted fish per day. The fish is taken from Congot coastal areas, to increase its value added when it was in low price because it was abundant and to maintain the stability of Pohlaksar’s income when it was scarcity. Both the POKLAHSAR have commitment to produce healthy salted fish (without formaldehyde but they had problem, especially in the rainy season, in drying process that took a long time and attrack the flies so it can be harmfull. Program of Science and Technology for community has applied dryer as innovation product to improve  productivity, hygiene and quality of salted fish. The dryer which was made of affordable material, has affordable operation manner and maintenance, so it can be adopted by fishermen. The design of dryer combine solar heating systems and air heating units using modified furnaces. This dryer is capable to dry 25 kg of fresh fish by reducing their water content from 72.2% to 12.3% within 9 hours. The salted fish processed within this dryer was more white, crunchy and not fishy than the salted fish dried by convensional drying. In addition, the programs also consist of packaging advisory, marketing and business coach to trigger the motivation of both POKLAHSAR for their development and sustainability.

  7. Investigation of In0.7Ga0.3As/In0.7Al0.3As metamorphic HEMT- heterostructures by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Saint-Petersburg Electrotechnical University LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" >Romanovskiy, D S; LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Saint-Petersburg Electrotechnical University LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" >Tarasov, S A; Galiev, G B; Pushkarev, S S

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence and photoreflectance have been studied in several metamorphic HEMT- (MHEMT-) heterostructures with the same active regions and different buffer layer designs grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The indium mole fraction in InAlAs/InGaAs/InAlAs single quantum well (QW) is 0.7. It was found that structures with step-graded metamorphic buffer have better quality. Also it was shown that mismatched superlattices in metamorphic buffer can influence on the half-width of photoluminescence spectra. The possible attribution of photoluminescence and photoreflectance spectral lines and their thermal behaviour are critically discussed

  8. We Are Going to Have to Imagine Our Way Out of This One...

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Cock, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Book reviews of: New York 2140. Kim Stanley Robinson. London: Orbit, 2017. 624 pp. £20 (hbk). ISBN 9780356508757 Science in the Capital trilogy: Forty Signs of Rain (2004 – ASIN: B01KTJYB5G), Fifty Degrees Below (2005 – ASIN: B00BS06T88), Sixty Days & Counting (2007 – ASIN: B00BS06T8I) – Kim...

  9. Analisis Nilai Gizi Telur Itik Asin Yang Dibuat Dengan Media Kulit Buah Manggis Selama Masa Pemeraman (NUTRIENT ANALYSIS OF DUCK SALTED EGGS MADE BY MANGOSTEEN RIND MEDIA DURING SALTING PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Karang Agustina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to determine the level of nutrient in duck salted eggs made by using mangosteen rind media observed by water content, ash, fat, protein and carbohydrate during salting periods. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD, with twofactors. First were media;   mangosteen rind media and brick media. Second were salting periods;7, 14 and 21 days. The level of nutrient contain in duck salted eggs measured according to  Association of Official Analytical Chemist (1984 methods. These data analyzed by T tests tocompare the level of nutrient contain in duck salted eggs produced between medias during saltingperiods. The results show that during the curing process by using the mangosteen rind media wasobserved at days 7, 14 and 21 decreased water and fat content of salted eggs. While the ash, proteinand carbohydrates content increased successively. When compared with the bricks media, all levelof nutritional parameters did not show a significant difference. So it can be concluded that themangosteen rind can be used as a media for making salted eggs.

  10. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN GULA MERAH DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KADAR GIZI DAN RASA TELUR ITIK ASIN [The Effect of Palm Sugar and Storage on Nutrient Content and Taste of Salted Ducks Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Yusriani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This research used 150 duck eggs age one as subject day. There were two factors analyzed here. The first was the amount of palm sugar which consisted of 25 grams, 50 grams, and 75 grams. The second factor were the storage duration which consisted of 3, 4, and 5 weeks. The nutrient content parameters measured were rates protein, fat and ash content. Sensory quality parameters measured were color and taste. The analysis showed that in processing/making salted duck egg, palm sugar addition influenced protein content significantly (Fc = 7,0 > Ftab = 4,5 fat content ( Fc 67,3 > Ftab= 8,7 and ash content (Fc = 64,6 > F tab = 8,7 very significantly. However, organoleptic test showed that palm sugar addition did not influenced color and taste of salted duck egg significantly. Storage duration influenced protein content significantly (Fc= 6,9 F tab = 8,7 but did not significantly influenced ash content (Fc = 3,5 < Ftab = 4,46. Storage duration also influenced taste of salted duck egg, but did not for its color. The interaction of treatment between palm sugar addition and storage duration just influenced fat content of salted duck egg significantly. The salted duck egg made by addition 75 grams palm sugar and stored 5 weeks (A3B3 the highest content of fat. The salted ducks eeg made by addition of 25 grams palm sugar and stored duration produced the salted ducks egg with high content of fat and ash. Organoleptic test indicated that the panelis preferred the salted taste duck egg made by addition of palm sugar 25 grams and storaged for 3 weeks having reddish yellow color.

  11. High-Performance, 0.6-eV, GA0.32In0.68As/In0.32P0.68 Thermophotovoltaic Converters and Monolithically Interconnected Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, A.; Murray, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of high-performance, 0.6-eV Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters and monolithically interconnected modules (MIMs) is described. The converter structure design is based on using a lattice-matched InAs0.32P0.68/Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 double-heterostructure (DH) device, which is grown lattice-mismatched on an InP substrate, with an intervening compositionally step-graded region of InAsyP1-y. The Ga0.32In0.68As alloy has a room-temperature band gap of 0.6 eV and contains a p/n junction. The InAs0.32P0.68 layers have a room-temperature band gap of 0.96 eV and serve as passivation/confinement layers for the Ga0.32In0.68As p/n junction. InAsyP1-y step grades have yielded DH converters with superior electronic quality and performance characteristics. Details of the microstructure of the converters are presented. Converters prepared for this work were grown by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (APMOVPE) and were processed using a combination of photolithography, wet-chemical etching, and conventional metal and insulator deposition techniques. Excellent performance characteristics have been demonstrated for the 0.6-eV TPV converters. Additionally, the implementation of MIM technology in these converters has been highly successful

  12. Interband Stark effects in InxGa1-xAs/InyAl1-yAs coupled step quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, T.W.; Yoo, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of an electric field on the interband transitions in In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As coupled step quantum wells have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. A In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As coupled step quantum well sample consisted of the two sets of a 50 Aa In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As shallow quantum well and a 50 Aa In 0.65 Ga 0.35 As deep step quantum well bounded by two thick In 0.52 Al 0.48 As barriers separated by a 30 Aa In 0.52 Al 0.48 As embedded potential barrier. The Stark shift of the interband transition energy in the In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As coupled step quantum well is larger than that of the single quantum well, and the oscillator strength in the In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As coupled step quantum well is larger than that in a coupled rectangular quantum well. These results indicate that In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As coupled step quantum wells hold promise for potential applications in optoelectron devices, such as tunable lasers

  13. Erratum:Quality of life in long-term premenopausal early-stage breast cancer survivors from Spain. Effects of surgery and time since surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraras, J I; Illarramendi, J J; de la Cruz, S; Asin, G; Manterola, A; Ibanez, B; Salgado, E; Cambra, K; Zarandona, U; Dominguez, M A; Vera, R

    2016-01-01

    In this article published in Volume 21, issue 5, the authors' names were incorrectly stated in the Pubmed abstract as: "Ignacio Arraras J(1), Juan Illarramendi J, de la Cruz S, Asin G, Manterola A, Ibanez B, Salgado E, Cambra K, Zarandona U, Angel Dominguez M, Vera R.". The correct authors' names are: "Arraras JI(1), Illarramendi JJ, de la Cruz S, Asin G, Manterola A, Ibanez B, Salgado E, Cambra K, Zarandona U, Dominguez MA, Vera R.". This error appeared only in the PubMed database and not in the print form of the Journal.

  14. Identification and Development of Biological Markers of Human Exposure to the Insecticide Permethrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    used. A variety of techniques have been reviewed by Maynard and Georgiou.70 The ability to engineer antibodies for therapeutic uses, such as......in agriculture, forestry, homes, horticulture , and public health around the world (1-5). Per- methrin is very nontoxic to mammals, whereas it is highly

  15. Length–weight and length–length relationships of 139 Indo-Pacific fish species (Teleostei) from the Davao Gulf, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumanao, G.S.; Saceda-Cardoz, M.M.; Mueller, B.; Bos, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Length–weight relationships (LWRs) of 139 coral reef andpelagic fish species (representing 34 fish families) were calculatedbased on 3806 individuals measured at local fish marketsnear the Davao Gulf in the southern Philippines duringweekly visits between March 2009 and July 2011, as well asin June

  16. Hubungan Pola Konsumsi dengan Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 pada Pasien Rawat Jalan di RSUD Dr. Fauziah Bireuen Provinsi Aceh

    OpenAIRE

    nur, abidah; Fitria, Eka; Zulhaida, Andi; Hanum, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Kebiasaan masyarakat Aceh adalah mengonsumsi makanan manis, asin, dan berlemak. Konsumsikarbohidrat, gula, dan makanan serta minuman manis yang tinggi dalam masyarakat Aceh berisikoterkena diabetes melitus. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan pola konsumsi masyarakatAceh dengan penyakit diabetes melitus. Penelitian bersifat deskriptif analitik dengan desain kasuskontroldi RSUD dr. Fauziah Bireuen Provinsi Aceh tahun 2014. Populasi penelitian adalah pasien yangrawat jalan yang berku...

  17. Early Whole Blood for Patients Requiring Massive Transfusion after Major Trauma. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    and 3 obese . Of these, six patients (17.6%) are sarcopenic, despite no patient being underweight. Analysis of adiposity is more complicated as...in the interstitial space. We’re looking at data now that further support that effect, which is not seen in canine studies. So my question is, did

  18. Palaeobiology of Mesoproterozoic Salkhan Limestone, Semri Group ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dominated by entophysalidacean members and short trichomes and can be termed as 'typical Meso- proterozoic ... OF. VINDHY. AN BASIN. Figu re. 1. R egion al geological m ap of th e. V in d h y a n b asin ..... mat dwellers rather than actually having con- tributed to ...... Knoll A H, Sweet K and Burkhandt E 1989 Palaeoen-.

  19. The Spatial Coherence of Electron Wavefunctions and the Transition from Miniband to Stark-Ladder Electric Field Regimes in InGaAs/InAlAs-on-InP Superlattices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bradshaw, John

    1998-01-01

    Five In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As-on-InP superlattices of various well-to-barrier ratios and miniband widths have been studied by low-temperature photoluminescence, photocurrent, and differential photocurrent spectroscopies...

  20. Mencegah Pembentukan Kalsium Sulfat pada Desalinasi Air Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Resin penukar-anion, Relite MG 1/P, dapat digunakan untuk memisahkan sulfat dalam air laut guna mencegah pembentukan kerak kalsium sulfat pada heat exchanger. Resin tersebut menunjukkan selektivitas sulfat yang tinggi dalam air laut sintetis. Resin yang telah dipakai dapat diregenerasi menggunakan air asin yang dipekatkan dengan asam hingga mencapai pH 4. Untuk waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi yang sama, faktor konsentrasi desalinasi (misalnya 2 hingga 4 menaikkan konsentrasi klorida dalam air asin yang diblowdown. Dengan faktor konsentrasi yang tetap, kenaikan laju alir (pengurangan waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi memperendah efisiensi regenerasi dan menaikkan pemisahan sulfat. Akibat kelarutan kalsium sulfat yang bersifat terbalik tersebut, temperatur air asin yang tinggi memerlukan pemisahan sulfat yang lebih banyak, yang dapat dicapai dengan mengurangi laju alir air laut. Pengurangan laju alir tersebut membutuhkan peralatan yang lebih besar dan resin yang lebih banyak, sehingga biaya modal bertambah. Untuk pabrik desalinasi dengan kapasitas produksi 1 juta gallon per hari dan faktor konsentrasi sebesar 2, biaya pemisahan sulfat meliputi biaya resin dan biaya peralatan. Biaya tersebut bervariasi dari $0.246 hingga $0.356/kgalon (per ribu galon air yang diproduksi karena temperatur maksimum air asin berubah dari 140°C menjadi 180°C. Keywords: desalinasi air laut, ion exchange, kalsium sulfat, kerak; mechanical vapor compression (MVC, pemisahan sulfat, resin penukar-anion basa lemah

  1. Playing Harry Potter: Essays and interviews on fandom and performance, edited by Lisa S. Brenner [book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail De Kosnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Lisa S. Brenner, editor. Playing Harry Potter: Essays and interviews on fandom and performance. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015, paperback, $29.95 (238p ISBN 978-0-7864-9657-0, e-book $14.43 (5374 KB ISBN 978-1-4766-2136-4, ASIN B012E9G0R6.

  2. Playing Harry Potter: Essays and interviews on fandom and performance, edited by Lisa S. Brenner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail De Kosnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lisa S. Brenner, editor. Playing Harry Potter: Essays and interviews on fandom and performance. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015, paperback, $29.95 (238p ISBN 978-0-7864-9657-0; e-book $14.43 (5374 KB ISBN 978-1-4766-2136-4, ASIN B012E9G0R6.

  3. Caging the Dragon: The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    question has always been a bugaboo for DNA; you’ve got all these variations on the core measurements, but everyone wants to treat the material as...in new cables and do it right." Or you can try to save your investment , which is what we did. Carothers: You obviously wanted to reuse the tunnels

  4. GEJALA INTRUSI AIR LAUT DI DAERAH PESISIR PADELEGAN, PADEMAWU DAN SEKITARNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Arya Gemilang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sebagian wilayah pesisir Pademawu dan sekitarnya, Pamekasan, dijumpai adanya air tanah payau hingga asin dengan pelamparan yang cukup luas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memetakan sebaran air tanah asin hingga payau tersebut, baik pada akuifer dangkal maupun akuifer dalam dan juga untuk mengetahui penyebab keasinan air tanah tersebut. Sebaran air tanah asin dipetakan berdasarkan nilai daya hantar listrik (DHL dengan kriteria tingkat keasinan sebagaimana ditetapkan oleh Panitia Ad Hoc Intrusi Air Asin Jakarta. Sedangkan penyebab keasinan air tanah dianalisa berdasarkan fasies hidrokimia dengan diagram Trilinier Piper. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada akuifer dangkal air tanah agak payau hingga asin dengan nilai DHL > 15.000 µS/cm – 50.000 µS/cm dijumpai pada bagian Selatan Pademawu sepanjang pesisir pantai meliputi Padelegan, Jumiang, Tanjung, Manjungan dan Pademawu Timur. Sedangkan untuk air tanah dalam seluruhnya dalam kondisi tawar dengan nilai DHL < 1500 µS/cm, berada pada bagian Utara dari daerah penelitian meliputi kecamatan Tlanakan, Galis, Pamekasan dan  Larangan. Berdasarkan nilai DHL bahwa daerah bagian Utara penelitian tidak terdeteksi adanya proses penyusupan air laut pada air tanah.INDICATION OF SEA WATER INTRUSION IN COASTAL PADELEGAN, PADEMAWU AREAIn the part of Pademawu coastal areas, Pamekasan, was found brackish groundwater that spreading progressively. The purpose of this study was to map the distribution of salt to brackish groundwater, both in the shallow aquifer and the deep aquifer and also to find out the cause of the salinity of the ground water. Salt groundwater distribution was mapped based on the electrical conductivity (EC with a salinity level criteria as established by Panitia Ad Hoc Intrusi Air Asin Jakarta. While the causes of groundwater salinity were analyzed based on hydrochemical facies with Trilinier Piper diagram. The results showed that the shallow groundwater aquifers slightly brackish to

  5. The Great Detective, by Zach Dundas; Gender and the modern Sherlock Holmes, edited by Nadine Farghaly; and Sherlock Holmes, edited by Alex Werner [book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Knaus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Zach Dundas. The Great Detective: The amazing rise and immortal life of Sherlock Holmes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2015, hardcover, $26 (336p, ISBN 978-0-544-21404-0, e-book $15.95 (2378 KB, ISBN 978-0-544-22020-1, ASIN B00LZ7GP6U. Nadine Farghaly, ed. Gender and the modern Sherlock Holmes: Essays on film and television adaptations since 2009. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015, paperback, $35 (260p, ISBN 978-0-786-49459-0, e-book $9.99 (3353 KB, ISBN 978-1-4766-2281-1, ASIN B019WQQEY8. Alex Werner, ed. Sherlock Holmes: The man who never lived and will never die. London: Ebury Press, 2014, hardcover, £25 (256p, ISBN 978-0-09-195872-5, e-book £12.99, ISBN 978-1-47-350264-2.

  6. A Survey of Nonlinear Dynamics (Chaos Theory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    example of an n = 1 Hamiltonian system does have separatrices. This is the 1D pendulum (Fig. 4.2): 9=p, p=-asin9;H(9,p) =p2 /2- acosO . (4-5) Phase space...method. There is no substitute for the actual labor of applying the nonlinear operator to a sum of normal modes, producing a general Galerkin vector

  7. Development of a Spectropolarimetric Remote Sensing Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    either. To test this assumption, a FLIR imaging camera was used to measure the relative intensities measured for four different orientations of the...light source is also important to get the correct angle of incidence. To test if it is in the correct location, small rotations of the target will...nn = @(lambda) interp1(L,ALn,lambda); kk = @(lambda) interp1(L,ALk,lambda); % Fresnels equations thp = @(ni,nt,th) asin( real(ni./nt) .* sin

  8. Initiative in Concurrent Engineering (DICE). Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-09

    was instrumental in accelerating the room renovations; the College of Arts and Sciences provided the necessary funds for five air - conditioners ; The...Figure 4.4. The sawyer motors are actually planar stepping motors that can move quickly and precisely along the ceiling of the workcell on air bearings. As...in fact is a very simple, rugged, brushless D.C. motor which emulates a stepper. The motor uses windings in the field to provide resolver like

  9. An Analysis of the Seismic Source Characteristics of Explosions in Low-Coupling Dry Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    Semipalatinsk Test Site (Shagan, Degelen and Konystan Testing Areas) and in Salt at the Former Soviet Azgir Test Site ...to be applicable to all underground nuclear explosions conducted in various hard rock media at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site , as well as...in Hard Rock at the Former Soviet Semipalatinsk Test Site (Shagan, Degelen and Konystan Testing Areas) and in Salt at the Former Soviet Azgir Test

  10. Saatnya Untuk Berinvestasi Di Instrumen Saham Dan Obligasi Sebagai Komoditas Perdagangan Internasional

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzi, Teddy Hikmat

    2010-01-01

    The currency of volatility can be influence to financial investment instrument asin global, regional or national economic system. Currency fluctuation can used forfinancial investment recommendation in money market capital market or anotherinvestment for commodity market or real sector.Investment changed moment can give a new expectation for strengthening IDRin our country for fund investation bond and stock trading sector that why nationaleconomic positive signal extend so that in a same tim...

  11. Yakitori

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Gebby Gibanina

    2016-01-01

    132203036 Masakan Jepang telah dikenal di seluruh dunia karena rasa dan penampilannya yang berbeda dengan masakan dari negara lain. Masakan Jepang yang terkenal, seperti: yakitori, okonomiyaki, mie ramen, teriyaki, takoyaki, dorayaki, onigiri, sushi, mochi, dango, sashimi, dan lain-lain.Yakitori adalah Masakan dari daging sate ayam yang ditusuk dengan tusuk sate, kemudian dinikmati dengan bumbu dasar kecap asin dengan tambahan saus manis pedas, atau dengan bumbu garam sederhana saja, bagia...

  12. Increasing Realism in Virtual Marksmanship Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Since Edward Thorndike published his seminal work on educational research over 90 years ago, there has been debate about whether a certain type of...media used in training or education is qualitatively superior to other methods ( Thorndike , 1912). A virtual environment trainer can be viewed as...in educational games. Toronto, Canada: ACM. Thorndike , E. L. Education. New York: MacMillan, 1912. 44 Torre, J. P., Maxey, J. L., & Piper, A

  13. Dependence of the interband transitions on the in mole fraction and the applied electric field in In xGa1-xAs/In0.52Al0.48As multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Woo, J.T.; Lee, I.; Kim, T.W.; Yoo, K.H.; Kim, M.D.; Ram-Mohan, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photocurrent (PC) measurements were carried out to investigate the microstructural properties and excitonic transitions in In x Ga 1-x As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As multiple quantum wells (MQWs) for x = 0.54, 0.57 and 0.60. TEM images showed that high-quality 11-period In x Ga 1-x As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As MQWs had high-quality heterointerfaces. The results for the PC spectra at 300 K showed that the peaks corresponding to the excitonic transitions from the ground state electronic sub-band to the ground state heavy-hole band (E 1 -HH 1 ) and the ground state electronic sub-band to the ground state light-hole band (E 1 -LH 1 ) became closer to each other with decreasing In mole fraction and that E 1 -HH 1 and E 1 -LH 1 excitonic peaks shifted to longer wavelength with increasing applied electric field. The calculated values of the E 1 -HH 1 interband transition energies were in qualitative agreement with those obtained form the PC measurements with and without applied electric field. These results can be helpful in understanding potential applications of In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As MQWs dependent on In mole fraction and applied electric field in long-wavelength optoelectronic devices

  14. EFEKTIVITAS DAUN CINCAU HIJAU (Cyclea barbata Miers SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN ALAMI PADA PRODUK JAMBAL PATIN (Pangasius hypopthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Ariyani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Produk perikanan yang berlemak tinggi seperti jambal patin sangat rentan mengalami kemunduran mutu karena oksidasi. Daun cincau hijau dikenal mengandung senyawa antioksidan alami. Untuk menghambat kemunduran mutu ikan karena oksidasi, serangkaian percobaan menggunakan ekstrak daun cincau hijau dilakukan dengan merendam patin asin dalam ekstrak daun cincau hijau pada konsentrasi 0%; 0,5%; 1,0%; dan 1,5% selama 30 menit sebelum pengeringan. Sebagai kontrol positif digunakan perendaman dalam Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT pada konsentrasi 0,1%, sedangkan untuk kontrol negatif digunakan patin asin tanpa penambahan ekstrak daun cincau hijau. Pengukuran bilangan Thiobarbituric acid (FBA, produk berfluoresen (fluorescent products, dan penilaian organoleptik dilakukan selama penyimpanan pada suhu kamar, sedangkan pengukuran profil asam lemak tidak jenuh dilakukan pada jambal patin sebelum penyimpanan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan paling efektif dalam memperlambat proses oksidasi dan dapat diterima panelis adalah perendaman patin asin dalam ekstrak cincau hijau pada konsentrasi 0,5% selama 30 menit dengan nilai TBA 2,0-2,9 µmol/kg ikan, produk berfluoresen 0,21-0,24 µg/g ikan, dan asam lemak tidak jenuh 5,6%.

  15. Summer Research Program (1992). Summer Faculty Research Program (SFRP) Reports. Volume 5B. Wright Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    2] "Proposal for Space Integrated Control Exýeriment (SPICE)", Prepared by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc. (in col- laboration with...components are given as Xt(k) = AcosO + na(k) (3a) Xo(k) = AsinO + nQ(k). (3b) Since the amplitude, frequency and the phase of the received signal are...N( AcosO ,a 2 ) (12a) XQ(k) = N( AcosO ,a 2). (12b) In this case, the joint probability density function (PDF) is given by 12X,2e -J.w[((r - Acos0)2

  16. Modeling of Waves, Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport for Protection of Wetlands at Braddock Bay, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    contributing environmental forcings. 3.3 Metocean forcings The Lake Ontario IGLD85 Low Water Datum ( LWD ) is 243.3 ft (74.15 m). This datum is used as...in this study was the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD85). The Lake Ontario chart datum is 243.3 ft (74.15 m), which is the LWD . The...ft (65 m), and 230 ft (70 m). The breakwater crest elevation was 6 ft (1.83 m), LWD . Alternative S-2 was a dual-breakwater system, and it was

  17. Union Lake Bourbeuse River, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    otni Snc i s ,trL ’ rrc ir,. i i e f iii, i t ii ( e sport catc: of til- > tramec asin, t since U 1 1 .1 olp r i s t c l.rgest part o1 tie catch in soM...Contributor Area Respondents. Adults per household: 1, 13%; 2, 69%; 3+, 18% Age of Respondents: 18-44, 42%; 45+, 58% Children per household: 0, 52%; 1-2, 32%; 3...Porath. 1969. Forest S’oifs and Came Nutrition . Proc. 23rd Annual Conference of S.F. Association Game~ and Fish Comm.. Murphv, Dean A. and H. S

  18. Solid Oxide Cell and Stack Testing, Safety and Quality Assurance (SOCTESQA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auer, C.; Lang, M.; Couturier, K.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU-funded project “SOCTESQA” partners from Europe and Singapore are working together to develop uniform and industry wide test procedures and protocols for solid oxide cells and stacks SOC cell/stack assembly. New application fields which are based on the operation of the SOC cell/stack as......In the EU-funded project “SOCTESQA” partners from Europe and Singapore are working together to develop uniform and industry wide test procedures and protocols for solid oxide cells and stacks SOC cell/stack assembly. New application fields which are based on the operation of the SOC cell...

  19. Operation STRANGLE (Italy, Spring 1944): A Case Study of Tactical Air Interdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-02-01

    units. General Eaker reported to the new theater coi11Tlander, General Sir Henry Maitland ("Jumbo") Wilson, who had replaced General Eisenhower as...in Italy. The idea of using airpower on a massive scale to smash the German resistance on the I tal ian front was not new. It had been urged by...Brigadier W.G.F. Jackson, then on General Alexander’s staff, re- counts: "Moreover, he [General Alexander] was just as keen as Maitland Wilson [SACMED] to

  20. Development of A 5,000 BBL, Rubberized Fabric Fuel Storage Tank, Collapsible,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Note l/ after soil burial. 6/ Reference fuel D is ASTM D-471, 60% iso-octane and 40% toluene. 7/ Retained after 56 days -25- i IGOODYEAR AEROSPACE 0 0...331.7) Pure. 9.I - 9.6 920 0() 09/O 0A) 2.7 ". paum Mese IEststa"t r.e ASIN 11-70 W1 I (ma) 7.3A -n-i I GAC 19-1337 Rev 2 USLE is (continmed) () The...the greater requirement. 5/ Method 5762 except that the specimens were prepared by Note 1/ after soil burial and the number of specimens was reduced

  1. Initial Stages of Recrystallization in Aluminum of Commercial Purity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Bay, Bent

    1979-01-01

    In commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct, the formation and growth of recrystallization nuclei were studied by techniques such asin-situ annealing in a high voltage electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (370...... by the FeAl3 particles present in the commercial aluminum as impurities. The nucleation temperatures determined by high voltage electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy decrease markedly when the initial grain size is decreased both after 50 and 90 pct cold rolling; a less pronounced...

  2. Simulation of InGaAs subchannel DG-HEMTs for analogue/RF applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana Kumar, R.; Mohanbabu, A.; Mohankumar, N.; Godwin Raj, D.

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports on the influence of a barrier thickness and gate length on the various device parameters of double gate high electron mobility transistors (DG-HEMTs). The DC and RF performance of the device have been studied by varying the barrier thickness from 1 to 5 nm and gate length from 10 to 150 nm, respectively. As the gate length is reduced below 50 nm regime, the barrier thickness plays an important role in device performance. Scaling the gate length leads to higher transconductance and high frequency operations with the expense of poor short channel effects. The authors claim that the 30-nm gate length, mole fractions tuned In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.7Ga0.3As/In0.53Ga0.47As subchannel DG-HEMT with optimised device structure of 2 nm In0.48Al0.52As barrier layer show a peak gm of 3.09 mS/µm, VT of 0.29 V, ION/IOFF ratio of 2.24 × 105, subthreshold slope 73 mV/decade and drain induced barrier lowering 68 mV/V with fT and fmax of 776 and 905 GHz at Vds = 0.5 V is achieved. These superior performances are achieved by using double-gate architecture with reduced gate to channel distance.

  3. Studi Kelayakan Pengolahan Air Laut Menjadi Air Bersih di Kawasan Wisata dan Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara (PPN Pantai Prigi, Trenggalek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agista Ayuningtyas Puspita Dwijayani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ketersediaan air bersih diperlukan pula dalam bidang kepariwisataan. Salah satunya ialah kawasan wisata alam Pantai Prigi, Trenggalek. Namun kondisi air saat ini masih memiliki kandungan TDS (Total Dissolved Solid dan salinitas yang cukup tinggi sehingga dibutuhkan suatu teknologi untuk mengolah air asin menjadi air tawar agar memenuhi standar baku mutu air bersih. Salah satu teknologi yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengolah air asin atau payau menjadi air tawar adalah dengan sistem Reverse Osmosis (RO. Penentuan kapasitas SWRO ditentukan dengan memproyeksikan jumlah pengunjung kawasan wisata Pantai Prigi dan kebutuhan air kolam apung hingga tahun 2023. Hasil proyeksi diperoleh kebutuhan air sebesar 729,40 m3/hari pada penggunaan maksimum. Dengan desain SWRO yaitu menggunakan pretreatment rapid sand filter dan filter karbon aktif untuk meremoval kandungan TDS, kesadahan total, khlorida, sulfat, dan bilangan KMnO4 (zat organik. Biaya yang dibutuhkan untuk membuat sistem pengolahan air laut dengan SWRO sebesar Rp 5.077.307.500,00.Perencanaan sistem pengolahan air laut menjadi layak jika air reject dari SWRO sebesar 1463,28 m3/hari dimanfaatkan menjadi wisata kolam apung, garam, dan air nigari dengan investasi total sebesar Rp 7.326.095.500,00. Dengan analisa kelayakan secara ekonomi  menggunakan prinsip ekonomi teknik, pada alternatif ini diperoleh nilai NPV sebesar Rp 25.024.360.250,24 ; IRR sebesar 23,7% ; dan Payback periode pada tahun ke-3 dengan keuntungan yang diperoleh Rp 3.915.665.044,80 per tahun.

  4. A SURVEY AMONG NUTRITIONAL ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT WOMEN IN A RURAL DISTRICT OF WESTERN-JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekartijah Martoatmodjo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyelidikan ini dilakukan didaerah pegunungan di Jawa Timur pada masyarakat dengan penghasilannya rendah, untuk mengetahui sampai berapa jauh anemia terdapat pada ibu hamil maupun pada wanita dewasa normal. Ternyata 60 - 85 per cent dari seluruh wanita yang hamil maupun tidak hamil menderita nutritional anemia ringan maupun sedang. Sedangkan bagimereka yang mempunyai nilai haemoglobin rendah tidak harus selalu diikuti dengan rendahnya kadar protein serum, Packed Cell Volume, maupun serum iron. Hal ini mungkin dapat diterangkan karena adanya beberapa makanan yang dipantang sewaktu hamil dan juga oleh karena 80 percent dari total calori yang didapat adalah berasal dari beras dan 6-7 percent calori lainnya berasal dari ikan asin. Satu-satunya sumber protein mereka adalah juga dari ikan asin. Dari hasil penyelidikan Tjiat dan Soedarmo di Rumah Sakit Umum Jakarta didapat juga hasil bahwa 50 per cent dari ibu-ibu hamil menderita anemia ringan, 40.0 percent anemia sedang, dan 9.0 percent anemia berat yang kesemuanya itu disebabkan oleh karena nilai gizi makanan mereka yang kurang.

  5. Effect of the Ionosphere on Space and Terrestrial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    coordinates: with degree of precision 2m-1. If we let 25 x1 , 7r..xn be the zeros of g(x), i.e., Pa(a)=f ° pao( acosO ,asine)ad (10) g)’ (X-X-)( ..x2...abscissas x and y (11) weights Wk are obtained. It is stated hat there is no guarantee that the zeros of g(x) -ap( acosO ,aain6),8ɘɚv,o<a<-. will be...of the ionospheric conditions along the path. shown schematically in Figure 1. The energetic par- ticle data were obtained by the Space Sciences Labor

  6. Surveilens Penyakit Jantung dan Pembuluh Darah di Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Mitra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia sedang mengalami transisi epidemiologi dibuktikan dengan terjadinya peningkatan angka kematian akibat penyakit non infeksi. Salah satu penyakit non infeksi yang saat ini cenderung menunjukkan peningkatan angka kesakitan yang cukup tinggi adalah Penyakit Jantung dan Pembuluh Darah (PJPD. Langkah awal untuk pengendalian dan pencegahan adalah melaksanakan Program Surveilens PJPD melalui deteksi dini. Surveilens aktif di lakukan di Kabupaten Kampar. Hasil Surveilans PPJPD dari faktor risiko adalah obesitas umum 11,2%, obesitas sentral 41,4%, hiperkolesterol 65,4%, Diabetes Melitus 5,6%, dan kelainan jantung 46,2%. Prevalensi faktor risiko dan gaya hidup adalah kebiasaan merokok 24,3%, kebiasaan mengkonsumsi alkohol 11,9%, kebiasaan mengkonsumsi asin 41,2%, kebiasaan mengkonsumsi lemak tinggi 72,5%, kurang mengkonsumsi sayur dan buah 53,3%, kurang aktivitas 59,3%, dan stress tinggi 35%. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan survei deteksi dini secara berkala dan berkesinambungan, mengintensifkan penyuluhan kesehatan dan melibatkan peran serta aktif masyarakat.

  7. An In0.52Al0.48As/n+-In0.53Ga0.47As MISFET with a modulation-doped channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DelAlamo, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    A heterostructure metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MISFET) with a modulation-doped channel is proposed. In this device, a very thin undoped subchannel is located between the undoped wide-bandgap insulator and a thin heavily doped channel. In the depletion mode of operation, electron transport takes place along the heavily doped channel. When the device enters the accumulation mode of operation, electrons pile up against the heterointerface in the high-mobility undoped subchannel. This should result in markedly improved transport characteristics at the onset of accumulation. The concept is demonstrated in the In 0.52 Al 0.48 As/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As system on InP

  8. Managerial Decision Making in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is defined as a selection of a certain actionamong several alternatives. It is the essence of planning, asin the managerial sense there is no plan until a decision of engagementof resources, reputation and direction of activities ismade. Decision-making is, in fact, only a step in planning, evenwhen it is performed quickly and without special consideration.It is what we all experience every day. It is one of the most fascinatingbiological activities and the subject of frightening implicationsfor the whole human race. Since various techniques improvethe system and the quality of managerial decision-making,they are classified into three assumptions: risk analysis, decision-making trees, and the theory of revealed preference. Allof these are based on the interaction of a certain number of importantvariables out of which many contain the elements ofuncertainty, but maybe also high level of probability.

  9. Microstructures of group III-nitrides after implantation with gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, P.J.

    2001-05-01

    High doses of gallium have been implanted into layers of aluminium nitride (AIN), indium nitride (InN) and amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiN x ) in an attempt to bond gallium with nitrogen and form binary or ternary alloys. The microstructure of the resultant layers have been characterised using, principally, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The implantation of a high dose of Ga ions into AIN was successful in synthesising a GaN/GaAlN compound. The resultant layers were largely uniform but contained aluminium precipitates near the surface. These precipitates were pure Al and were most common in the region associated with the maximum Ga concentration. Deconvolution of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peaks indicated that Ga existed in a number of chemical states, including the nitride. Electron diffraction patterns from the implanted layers were closely indexed to both AIN and GaN. A further N implant was used to reduce the concentration of the aluminium precipitates and increase the concentration of GaN bonds. The yield of Ga-N bonds dramatically increased and a reduction in the concentration of Al precipitates was observed. Laser and thermal annealing was performed on the implanted AIN substrates. The near surface regions of the implanted specimens appeared to free of precipitates and bubbles. Laser annealing did have a noticeable effect on the electrical and optical properties of the layers. After laser annealing the conductivity of the Ga implanted layer was lower, indicating that the quality of the material had improved. PL measurements showed that a new PL peak at 2.6 eV appeared after laser annealing. It has been found that implanting InN with gallium can yield Ga-N bonds. However, Ga implants into InN were not as successful at synthesising GaN compounds as those by implanting Ga into AIN, due to the low thermal stability of InN. The implanted InN layers were very irregular and contained large indium precipitates and

  10. Characterization of modulation doped pseudomorphic AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs HEMT structures by electron beam electroreflectance and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.A.; Ward, I.D.; Kopf, R.F.; Pearton, S.J.; Jones, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have investigated the optical transitions present in MBE-grown modulation doped pseudomorphic Al x Ga 1-x As/In y Ga 1-y As/GaAs HEMT structures of 120 Angstrom InGaAs thickness, y values 0 to 0.28, and x values 0.20 to 0.30. From both 300K electron beam electroreflectance (EBER) and 4K photoluminescence (PL) measurements the authors observe transitions from the InGaAs strained quantum well layer. The intensity and lineshape of the InGaAs transition in both optical spectra are affected by processing temperatures, and provides an indication of the quality of the HEMT

  11. Abelisauroidea e Carcharodontosauridae (Theropoda,Dinosauria na América do Sul durante do Cretáceo. Implicações Paleogeográficas e Geocronológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Guillermo Martinelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution an up-to-date list of abelisauroid ceratosaurians and carcharodontosauridallosaurians recognized in South America is presented. Abelisauroids and carcharodontosauridsin South America show rich species diversity and a wide range of temporal and geographicaldistribution. At least eight formally described species of Abelisauroidea are recognized in Argen-tina and only one in Brazil; in contrast, only one species of Carcharodontosauridae is known forall South America. The fossil record of abelisauroids and carcharodontosaurids in South Americashows a dominance of abelisauroids in the upper late Cretaceous, while the dominance ofcarcharodontosaurids as large predators was during the Cenomanian-Turonian. Although knowl-edge of the evolution of Abelisauroidea and Carcharodontasauridae in South America, as well asin the rest of Gondwana is still far for being complete, intensive explorations in recent years haveprovided greater insight into the composition of theropod faunas in the Cretaceous of Gondwana.

  12. Comparative studies of MOS-gate/oxide-passivated AlGaAs/InGaAs pHEMTs by using ozone water oxidation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Sung; Hung, Chun-Tse; Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Liu, Han-Yin; Ho, Chiu-Sheng; Lai, Ying-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Al 0.22 Ga 0.78 As/In 0.24 Ga 0.76 As pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistors (pHEMTs) with metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-gate structure or oxide passivation by using ozone water oxidation treatment have been comprehensively investigated. Annihilated surface states, enhanced gate insulating property and improved device gain have been achieved by the devised MOS-gate structure and oxide passivation. The present MOS-gated or oxide-passivated pHEMTs have demonstrated superior device performances, including superior breakdown, device gain, noise figure, high-frequency characteristics and power performance. Temperature-dependent device characteristics of the present designs at 300–450 K are also studied. (paper)

  13. Metamorphic distributed Bragg reflectors for the 1440–1600 nm spectral range: Epitaxy, formation, and regrowth of mesa structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A. Yu.; Karachinsky, L. Ya.; Novikov, I. I.; Babichev, A. V.; Berezovskaya, T. N.; Nevedomskiy, V. N.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that metamorphic In 0.3 Ga 0.7 As/In 0.3 Al 0.7 As distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with a reflection band at 1440–1600 nm and a reflectance of no less than 0.999 can be fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a GaAs substrate. It is demonstrated that mesa structures formed from metamorphic DBRs on a GaAs substrate can be regrown by MBE and microcavities can be locally formed in two separate epitaxial processes. The results obtained can find wide application in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a buried tunnel junction

  14. Electron mobility and drift velocity in selectively doped InAlAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil’evskii, I. S.; Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Požela, K.; Požela, J.; Jucienė, V.; Sužiedėlis, A.; Žurauskienė, N.; Keršulis, S.; Stankevič, V.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in the electron mobility and drift velocity in high electric fields in quantum wells of selectively doped InAlAs/InGaAs/InAsAs heterostructures is obtained experimentally via controlling the composition of semiconductors forming the interface. The electron mobility at the interface in the In 0.8 Ga 0.2 As/In 0.7 Al 0.3 As metamorphic structure with a high molar fraction of In (0.7–0.8) is as high as 12.3 × 10 3 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at room temperature. An increase in the electron mobility by a factor of 1.1–1.4 is attained upon the introduction of thin (1–3 nm) InAs layers into a quantum well of selectively doped In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As heterostructures. A maximal drift velocity attains 2.5 × 10 7 cm/s in electric fields of 2–5 kV/cm. The threshold field F th for the intervalley Γ-L electron transfer (the Gunn effect) in the InGaAs quantum well is higher than in the bulk material by a factor of 2.5–3. The effect of two- to threefold decrease in the threshold field F th in the InGaAs quantum well is established upon increasing the molar fraction of In in the InAlAs barrier, as well as upon the introduction of thin InAs inserts into the InGaAs quantum well.

  15. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH CAIR GARAM BAHAN BAKU 30˚ Be UNTUK PENGASINAN IKAN GABUS RENDAH NACl DAN MENGANDUNG Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilawati Nilawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pengasinan merupakan metode pengawetan yang sudah lama dengan menggunakan garam krosok namun pengasinan dengan  limbah cair garam 30˚ Be belum banyak dilakukan. Keuntungan dengan metode ini akan menghasilkan produk ikan asin yang rendah NaCl dan tinggi kandungan Mg. Penelitian ini menggunakan 1 variabel yaitu konsentrasi limbah cair garam 30˚ Be  yaitu B0 (0 persen- kontrol, B10 (10 persen. B20 (20 persen, B30 (30 persen,  B40(40 persen, B50 (50 persen  dan kontrol  B100 (100 persen  serta kontrol pembanding penggaraman kering dengan garam bahan baku G100 (100 persen atau dikenal garam krosok. Hasil penelitian diperoleh kandungan NaCl murni pada pemakaian larutan 30˚ Be sebanyak 10 persen  sebesar 6,952 persen. Dan pada konsentrasi limbah cair garam 30˚ Be dengan konsentrasi   50 persen diperoleh kndungan NaCl murni sebesar 15,478 persen, namun untuk kontrol yang menggunakan garam krosok maka NaCl nya paling tinggi, sedangkan kontrol dengan 100 persen larutan 30˚ Be kandungan NaCl murninya sampai 25,134 persen, yang menggunakan garam bahan baku  kandungan NaCl sebesar 43,864 persen.  Perlakuan yang terbaik diperoleh pada pemakaian larutan garam 30˚ Be pada konsentrasi 40 persen. Kandungan Magnesium pada     penelitian ini berkisar antara 0,387 Sampai  3,444  persen.  Perlakuan mulai konsentrasi 30 persen keatas   penampakan ikan asin putih kecoklatan , empuk, bersih, namun kalau dibawah 30 persen penampakannya kecoklatan muda, daging liat agak keras namun NaCl nya rendah

  16. Conditioning of Si-interfaces by wet-chemical oxidation: Electronic interface properties study by surface photovoltage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angermann, Heike

    2014-01-01

    concentrated solutions. Therefore, special attention was put on the development of more environmentally acceptable processes, utilizing e.g. hot pure water with low contents of oxygen or hydrochloric acid, and of ozone, working at ambient temperatures. According to our results, these methods could be a high quality and low cost alternative to current approaches with liquid chemicals for the preparation of hydrophobic Si substrate surfaces and ultra-thin passivating oxide layers. As demonstrated for selected examples, the effect of optimized wet-chemical pre-treatments can be preserved during subsequent soft plasma enhanced chemical vapor depositions of Si oxides (SiO x ), or amorphous materials such as Si (a-Si:H), Si nitride (a-SiN x :H), AlO x /a-SiN x and Si carbide (a-SiC:H) and enhance the energy conversion efficiency of heterojunction silicon solar cells

  17. REVIEW: A STEP AWAY FROM PARADISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Konchok Gelek (Dkon mchog dge legs དཀོན་མཆོག་དགེ་ལེགས། (Gengqiu Gelai 更求格来

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas K. Shor. 2012. A Step Away from Paradise: A Tibetan Lama's Extraordinary Journey to a Land of Immortality. [Kindle version]. ASIN B006TR0Y7W (7.03USD; ISBN 0999291890 (paperback 19.95USD. The author was fascinated by the account of Tulshuk Lingpa's disciple, Dorje Wangmo, a Bhutanese nun and a disciple who abandoned her worldly possessions to pursue the land of dreams and imagined paradise. The author dug deeper by interviewing Kungsang, Tulshuk Lingpa's son, and other key disciples who were participants in the search of the same hidden realm on the slope of a glacier. Elements of this tale resemble magical realism with its narration detailing participants' experiences of magic, a parallel world, and a portal to the hidden land. The story centers on a continuing search for locating this paradise with each step holding the possibility of drawing nearer to the destination. This holds readers' curiosity to the end. In 1962, Tulshuk Lingpa led 300 followers from Sikkim and Bhutan to an adjacent area along the Nepal-Sikkim border. He then took a few close disciples to Kangchenjunga, a remote area located on the border between Sikkim and Nepal, and attempted to pass through a gate that he believed led to a heavenly place, paralleling our own existence. At that moment, an avalanche enveloped them, killing Tulshuk and injuring the two others with him. ...

  18. KAJIAN PERBAIKAN MUTU PADA AGROINDUSTRI SKALA MIKRO DAN KECIL GAMBIR INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Gumbira Said

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality is an absolute requirement used by product to compete in the global market. Therefore, as the competition is getting more tight , high-quality gambier products become an absolute demands that must be met. One of the steps that must be taken is continuous technological improvement. In this study, quality analysis of various raw gambier samples of Lima Puluh Kota regency and the Padang City in West Sumatera, and Musi Banyu Asin regency in South Sumatra was done. The results of dimensional measurement and weighing samples of Bootch Gambier, Lumpang Gambier, Wafer Block and Stick Gambier showed that the quality of raw gambier were very various. The variation occured because the drying process and storage of gambier were not good enough. The proximate analysis data showed, in terms of ash content, only two types of Gambier samples (Bootch CVR Gambier and Wafer Block CVR Gambier that met quality requirements, whereas the Coin Gambier and Bootch CVA Gambier had a very high ash content (38.93 percent and 75.64 percent

  19. Aplikasi Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper Betle Linn dalam Menghambat Oksidasi Lemak Jambal Patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Ariyani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian aplikasi ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn untuk menghambat proses oksidasi jambal patin telah dilakukan. Percobaan dilakukan dengan penambahan ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn dalam larutan garam yang digunakan untuk penggaraman ikan. Perbandingan ekstrak daun sirih dan larutan garam yang digunakan adalah 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 (v/v, sedangkan larutan garam tanpa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih digunakan sebagai kontrol. Selesai perendaman dalam campuran larutan garam dan ekstrak sirih (48 jam, patin asin dikeringkan di bawah sinar matahari selama 4–5 hari, selanjutnya disimpan pada suhu ruang (25-32oC selama 8 minggu. Perubahan mutu jambal patin dimonitor secara organoleptik dan kimiawi (angka Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/TBARS, angka anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen, sebelum jambal patin kering disimpan dan setiap 2 minggu selama penyimpanan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan ekstrak daun sirih pada larutan garam selama penggaraman mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin selama penyimpanan 8 minggu tercermin dari rendahnya angka TBARS, anisidin, dan produk berfluoresen jambal patin yang diperlakukan dengan daun sirih dibanding dengan kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil uji sensori, jambal patin yang diberi ekstrak air daun sirih tidak berbau tengik, walaupun warna dan rasa jambal patin sedikit berubah. Perlakuan ekstrak sirih yang mampu menghambat oksidasi lemak jambal patin dengan nilai sensori terbaik adalah kelompok perlakuan ekstrak daun sirih dengan perbandingan 1:5 (v/v.

  20. ELEFUNT, Testing of Elementary Function Subroutines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cody, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ELEFUNT is a FORTRAN test package for the elementary functions. Each program is an aggressive test of one or more of the elementary function subroutines generally supplied with the support library accompanying a FORTRAN compiler. Functions tested are ALOG/ALOG10, ASIN/ACOS, ATAN, EXP, POWER, SIN/ COS, SINH/COSH, SQRT, TAN/COTAN, and TANH. 2 - Method of solution: The programs check the accuracy of the functions by using purified random arguments from appropriate intervals in carefully selected identities. They also check special properties of each function, test for the handling of special arguments, and exercise the error returns. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The package contains one subroutine (MACHAR) for dynamic determination of parameters describing the floating-point arithmetic system of the host machine, the test programs must be modified to insert the necessary machine- dependent parameters in DATA statements, or otherwise make them available. This computing environment inquiry routine is known to malfunction when the arithmetic registers are wider than the storage registers

  1. Pengaruh Bionematisida Berbahan Aktif Jamur Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 251 terhadap Serangan Pratylenchus coffeae pada Kopi Robusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiment on the effect of P. lilacinus on the infestation of P. coffeae on robusta coffee was conducted in Sumber Asin Experimental Garden, Malang. The treatments were dosages of bionematicide i.e. : 0 (control, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 g; carbofuran (3 % active ingredient 50 g/plant and organic soil treatment (OST at 100 g/plant. Each treatment was replicated four times, and each replication consists of five coffee trees. The results in second year observation revealed that the population of P. coffeae in the roots on PL 251 treatments was not significantly different compared to the control, whereas in soil samples the population of both P. coffeae and Rotylenchulus reniformis inclined to be lower than the control, although they were not statistically significant. The lowest infestation was observed on PL 251 treatment at a dosage level of 4.00 g/tree. On nematode infestation, no significant difference on treatments of carbofuran and OST compared to the control. The yield of green coffee (market coffee was the highest on the treatment of PL 251 at a dosage of 4.00 g/tree and significantly higher than the control and carbofuran treatments, with increasing levels of 225.3 and 198.9%, respectively. Keywords: bionematicide Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 (PL 251, Pratylenchus coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis

  2. Impact of bounded noise on the formation and instability of spiral wave in a 2D Lattice of neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuangen; Deng, Haiyou; Yi, Ming; Ma, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Spiral waves in the neocortex may provide a spatial framework to organize cortical oscillations, thus help signal communication. However, noise influences spiral wave. Many previous theoretical studies about noise mainly focus on unbounded Gaussian noise, which contradicts that a real physical quantity is always bounded. Furthermore, non-Gaussian noise is also important for dynamical behaviors of excitable media. Nevertheless, there are no results concerning the effect of bounded noise on spiral wave till now. Based on Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model subjected to bounded noise with the form of Asin[ωt + σW(t)], the influences of bounded noise on the formation and instability of spiral wave in a two-dimensional (2D) square lattice of neurons are investigated in detail by separately adjusting the intensity σ, amplitude A, and frequency f of bounded noise. It is found that the increased intensity σ can facilitate the formation of spiral wave while the increased amplitude A tends to destroy spiral wave. Furthermore, frequency of bounded noise has the effect of facilitation or inhibition on pattern synchronization. Interestingly, for the appropriate intensity, amplitude and frequency can separately induce resonance-like phenomenon.

  3. CEMARAN JAMUR DAN INFESTASI LALAT PADA MAKANAN OLAHAN SIAP SAJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunik St Aminah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional market and modem market (Supermarket sells many ready made food such as: ayam bumbu kuning, telur asin, pepes ikan, udang bumbu tepung, sosis sapi and bakso daging. Fast food should be sold fast otherwise it will be contaminated with fungi and bacteria, then the appearance of food will not be interesting and the quality of food became bad. The fungi will produce toxin, called mycotoxin. Mycotoxin will remain in the food although the fungi died. But some fungi can still alive at high temperature. Fungi which produce mycotoxin among others: A.jlavus. A.fongigatu.s, A.ochrachius, Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., and Geotricum sp. This preliminary study was able to examine the fungi grown in fast food, the input of spices used in ready made food. Flies investation was also observed. The results of the study showed that the spices can preserve the food since the spices can prevent the growth of the fungi which contaminated the food. Most of the fungi that contaminated the food is air borne fungi dan the atsiri oil of same spices can be used as repellent.   Keywords: fast food, fungi contamination, flies investation

  4. Self-Catalyzed Growth and Characterization of In(As)P Nanowires on InP(111)B Using Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeung Hun; Pozuelo, Marta; Setiawan, Bunga P D; Chung, Choong-Heui

    2016-12-01

    We report the growth of vertical -oriented InAs x P1-x (0.11 ≤ x ≤ 0.27) nanowires via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition in the presence of indium droplets as catalysts on InP(111)B substrates at 375 °C. Trimethylindium, tertiarybutylphosphine, and tertiarybutylarsine are used as the precursors, corresponding to P/In and As/In molar ratios of 29 and 0.01, respectively. The as-grown nanowire growth morphologies, crystallinity, composition, and optical characteristics are determined using a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopies, electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopies. We find that the InAs x P1-x nanowires are tapered with narrow tops, wider bases, and In-rich In-As alloy tips, characteristic of vapor-liquid-solid process. The wires exhibit a mixture of zinc blende and wurtzite crystal structures and a high density of structural defects such as stacking faults and twins. Our results suggest that the incorporation of As into InP wires decreases with increasing substrate temperature. The Raman spectra obtained from the In(As)P nanowires reveal a red-shift and lower intensity of longitudinal optical mode relative to both InP nanowires and InP(111)B bulk, due to the incorporation of As into the InP matrix.

  5. IKAN GABUS (Channa striata MANFAAT PENGEMBANGAN DAN ALTERNATIF TEKNIK BUDIDAYANYA

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    Nurbakti Listyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ikan gabus (Channa striata merupakan jenis ikan yang bernilai ekonomis. Di Indonesia penyebarannya antara lain di Sumatera, Jawa, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, dan Papua. Spesies ini memiliki rasa yang khas, tekstur daging tebal dan putih sehingga harganya pun cukup mahal baik dalam bentuk segar maupun kering (ikan asin. Selain itu, memiliki kandungan albumin yang diperlukan tubuh manusia dalam mengatasi berbagai penyakit terutama yang disebabkan berkurangnya jumlah protein darah. Ikan ini termasuk salah satu jenis ikan karnivora air tawar dikarenakan sifatnya yang gemar memangsa ikan-ikan kecil sebagai pakannya. Walaupun memiliki potensi strategis, serta kegunaan yang luas dalam industri pangan maupun farmasi, namun di Indonesia masih belum banyak dibudidayakan karena belum dikuasai teknik budidayanya. Pemeliharaan bersama ikan mujair di kolam, penggunaan campuran pakan buatan kaya nutrisi, serta pemanfaatan tanaman air dalam proses pemijahan merupakan alternatif budidaya yang perlu dikembangkan.

  6. Phosphorus improves arsenic phytoremediation by Anadenanthera peregrina by alleviating induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M P; Carvalho, M; Carvalho, G S; Marques, T C L L S M; Garcia, Q S; Guilherme, L R G; Soares, A M

    2013-01-01

    Due to similarities in their chemical behaviors, studies examining interactions between arsenic (As)--in special arsenate--and phosphorus (P) are important for better understanding arsenate uptake, toxicity, and accumulation in plants. We evaluated the effects of phosphate addition on plant biomass and on arsenate and phosphate uptake by Anadenanthera peregrina, an important Brazilian savanna legume. Plants were grown for 35 days in substrates that received combinations of 0, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) arsenate and 0, 200, and 400 mg kg(-1) phosphate. The addition of P increased the arsenic-phytoremediation capacity of A. peregrina by increasing As accumulation, while also alleviating As-induced oxidative stress. Arsenate phytotoxicity in A. peregrina is due to lipid peroxidation, but not hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Added P also increased the activity of important reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) that help prevent lipid peroxidation in leaves. Our findings suggest that applying P represents a feasible strategy for more efficient As phytoremediation using A. peregrina.

  7. InAlAs/InGaAs Pseudomorphic High Eelectron Mobility Transistors Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on the InP Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jie; Guo Tian-Yi; Zhang Hai-Ying; Xu Jing-Bo; Fu Xiao-Jun; Yang Hao; Niu Jie-Bin

    2010-01-01

    A novel PMMA/PMGI/ZEP520 trilayer resist electron beam lithograph (EBL) technology is successfully developed and used to fabricate the 150 nm gate-length In 0.7 Ga 0.3 As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As Pseudomorphic HEMT on an InP substrate, of which the material structure is successfully designed and optimized. A perfect profile of T-gate is successfully obtained. These fabricated devices demonstrate excellent dc and rf characteristics: the transconductance G m , maximum saturation drain-to-source current I DSS , threshold voltage V T , maximum current gain frequency f T derived from h 21 , maximum frequency of oscillation derived from maximum available power gain/maximum stable gain and from unilateral power-gain of metamorphic InGaAs/InAlAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are 470 mS/mm, 560 mA/mm, −1.0 V, 76 GHz, 135 GHz and 436 GHz, respectively. The excellent high frequency performances promise the possibility of metamorphic HEMTs for millimeter-wave applications. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  8. Pendugaan Kedalaman Paisan dan Resistivitas Batuan dengan Metode Geolistrik di Daerah Temon Kabupaten Kulonprogo Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Hartono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Intrusi air laut ke daratan (air tanah sering dijumpai di daerah-daerah pantai. Dengan terjadinya intrusi maka kualitas air tanah menjadi berubah dan mungkin tidak dapat lagi digunakan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air rumah tanga. Penelitian ini dilakukan di daerah Temon Kabupaten Kulonprogo DIY, yang merupakan daerah pantai, dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui resistivitas (tahanan jenis dan kedalaman lapisan-lapisan batuannya. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode geolistrik Schlumberger dengan interprestasi datanya secara manual. Berdasarkan interprestasi data penelitian maka dapat diperkirakan bahwa lapisan batuan di daerah penelitian terdiri dari: (1 batuan lembab mengandung air tanah dangkal dengan kedalaman 1,5 meter dengan resistivitas 6,8 ohm/m; (2 lapisan batuan kedap air pada kedalaman 20 meter dengan resistivitas 22,0 ohm/m; (3 batuan/akifer mengandung air tanah dalam pada kedalaman 100 meter dengan resistivitas 6,8 ohm/m; dan (4 batuan/akifer mengandung air asin pada kedalaman 200 meter dengan resistivitas 2,5 ohm/m.

  9. Microstructure and initial growth characteristics of the low temperature microcrystalline silicon films on silicon nitride surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young-Bae; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2001-01-01

    Microstructure and initial growth characteristics of the hydrogenated microcrystalline Si (μc-Si:H) films grown on hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiN x :H) surface at low temperature were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscope and micro-Raman spectroscopy. With increasing the Si and Si - H contents in the SiN x :H surfaces, μc-Si crystallites, a few nanometers in size, were directly grown on amorphous nitride surfaces. It is believed that the crystallites were grown through the nucleation and phase transition from amorphous to crystal in a hydrogen-rich ambient of gas phase and growing surface. The crystallite growth characteristics on the dielectric surface were dependent on the stoichiometric (x=N/Si) ratio corresponding hydrogen bond configuration of the SiN x :H surface. Surface facetting and anisotropic growth of the Si crystallites resulted from the different growth rate on the different lattice planes of Si. No twins and stacking faults were observed in the (111) lattice planes of the Si crystallites surrounding the a-Si matrix. This atomic-scale structure was considered to be the characteristic of the low temperature crystallization of the μc-Si:H by the strain relaxation of crystallites in the a-Si:H matrix. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  10. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN PERTANIAN DAN KONSERVASI LAHAN DI KAWASAN SEGARA ANAKAN, JAWA TENGAH (Agriculture and Land Conservation Development Strategy in Segara Anakan Region, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suratman Suratman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Segara Anakan merupakan suatu kesatuan kawasan laguna yang mempunyai keunikan, tidak sebagaimana umumnya lahan pantai pasang surut di Indonesia. Beberapa keadaan dan proses yang khas terjadi di kawasan ini, antara lain adanya pasang surut yang bergantian secara musiman antara air asin dan tawar, sedimentasi sungai sangat cepat sehingga terbentuk “tanah timbul”, penyempitan kawasan perairan, pembentukan dan perubahan alur sungai, serta penciutan hutan mangrove. Keadaan ini menyebabkan perubahan yang drastis terhadap mata pencaharian penduduk yang tadinya nelayan menjadi petambak dan petani. Untuk itu diperlukan masukan strategi pengembangan pertanian yang sesuai dengan karakteristik lahan yang khas tersebut. Sesuai dengan karakteristik lahannya, daerah ini dapat dikelompokkan menjadi zona pengembangan tambak, pengembangan lahan basah, lahan kering, tanaman tahunan, dan areal konservasi. Dari segi konservasi diperlukan tindakan pengendalian sedimen dan mempertahankan keberadaan areal sempadan pantai dan hutan mangrove.   ABSTRACT Segara Anakan is a lagoon which has unique characteristics different from other swamp lands in Indonesia. Its characteristics include seasonal fluctuation of fresh water river and sea water, rapid river sedimentation, narrowing water area, forming and changing river channels, and decreasing forest area. These phenomena have drastically changed people occupation. They, who were previously fishermen, have changed to be farmers. These conditions require an agriculture development strategy suitable for that area. Based on its characteristics, the area can be categorized into development zones for fishpond, wetland, dry land, annual crop, and conservation. This area requires actions to control the sedimentation process for maintaining its coastal belt and mangrove forest.

  11. Strain induced effects on the transport properties of metamorphic InAlAs/InGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capotondi, F.; Biasiol, G.; Ercolani, D.; Grillo, V.; Carlino, E.; Romanato, F.; Sorba, L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between structural and low-temperature transport properties is explored for In x Al 1 - x As/In x Ga 1 - x As metamorphic quantum wells with x > 0.7 grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Different step-graded buffer layers are used to gradually adapt the in-plane lattice parameter from the GaAs towards the InGaAs value. We show that using buffer layers with a suitable maximum In content the residual compressive strain in the quantum well region can be strongly reduced. Samples with virtually no residual strain in the quantum well region show a low-temperature electron mobility up to 29 m 2 /V s while for samples with higher residual compressive strain the low-temperature mobility is reduced. Furthermore, for samples with buffers inducing a tensile strain in the quantum well region, deep grooves are observed on the surface, and in correspondence we notice a strong deterioration of the low-temperature transport properties

  12. PENGEMBANGAN PROFESIONALITAS BERKELANJUTAN GURU BERSERTIFIKAT PENDIDIK DI SMK RUMPUN TEKNOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujianto Sujianto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous development of certified teachers in vocational high school tech­no­logy clump. The purpose of this study is to describe the continuing professionality deve­lop­ment of teachers certifiedcertified teachers through investments investing in self-development educators, scientific publications, and innovative work wetherboth independently, in groups, or insti­tutionalizedinsti­tutionally. This research uses a descriptive quantitative study design study, with and  a the research subjects are who is certified vocational teachers educators asin Malang Raya. The Research research instruments used in this study are questionnaires and interview guides. The results of this study indi­cate that continuing professionality development of certified teachers certified in vocational educators high school clumps technology clump is still relatively low, most teachers only are categorized in the categories category of sometimes doing self-development investments, scientific publications, and innovative works. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan pengembangan profesionalitas berkelanjutan guru bersertifikat pendidik melalui investasi pengembangan diri, publi­kasi ilmiah, dan karya inovatif baik secara mandiri, berkelompok, atau melembaga. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif, dengan subjek penelitian guru kejuruan bersertifikat pendidik se-Malang Raya. Instrumen penelitian menggunakan angket dan pedoman wawancara. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pengembangan profesionalitas berkelanjutan guru berser­tifikat pendidik di SMK rumpun teknologi se-Malang Raya masih tergolong rendah, sebagian besar guru hanya kadang-kadang me­lakukan investasi pengembangan diri, publikasi ilmiah, dan membuat karya inovatif.

  13. PREFERENSI DAN FREKUENSI KONSUMSI MAKANAN JAJANAN PADA ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR DI KECAMATAN CIJERUK,KABUPATEN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Amalia

    2013-10-01

    preferensi dan frekuensi makanan jajanan pada anak SD di Kecamatan Cijeruk, Kabupaten Bogor. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode survey, di tiga Sekolah Dasar di Kecamatan Cijeruk, Kabupaten Bogor, yaitu SDN 01 Palasari, SDN 02 Palasari, dan SDN 01 Cipicung. Pengambilan data dilakukan pada bulan April hingga Juni 2012. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas 4 dan kelas 5 SD, berjumlah 80 siswa, terdiri dari 40 siswa laki-laki dan 40 siswa perempuan. Penarikan subjek dilakukan secara purposive proposional dari populasi siswa di ketiga SD terpilih. Data dikumpulkan dengan cara pengamatan dan wawancara kepada siswa, terdiri dari karakteristik keluarga, karakteristik individu, pengetahuan gizi, preferensi dan alasannya, serta frekuensi konsumsi makanan jajanan. Besar keluarga subjek sebagian besar (65.5% tergolong sedang (4—6 orang. Pendidikan ayah dan ibu subjek sebagian besar tamatan SD (42.5% dan tidak tamat SD (31.3% dan 23.8%. Pendapatan keluarga per kapita subjek umumnya tergolong miskin (51.3% dan 40.0% termasuk kategori hampir miskin. Rata-rata pendapatan keluarga per kapita adalah Rp 183 063, lebih rendah dari garis kemiskinan Jawa Barat pedesaan (Rp 210 000. Rata-rata uang jajan subjek adalah Rp 2 293.7. Pengetahuan gizi subjek umumnya (47.5% berada pada kategori sedang. Urutan makanan jajanan yang paling disukai hingga agak disukai adalah buah, minuman, makanan gorengan, kue, keringan asin, dan jajanan sepinggan. Alasan utama subjek dalam menyukai semua kelompok makanan jajanan adalah rasa (minimal 60%. Urutan kelompok jajanan dengan frekuensi konsumsi dalam seminggu dari tertinggi hingga terendah adalah makanan digoreng (7.0 kali, minuman (6.7 kali, kue (6.3 kali, jajanan sepinggan (6.2 kali, keringan asin (5.3 kali, dan buah (5.0 kali.Kata kunci: alasan suka, frekuensi konsumsi, makanan jajanan, preferensi

  14. GAYA HIDUP, KONSUMSI PANGAN, DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN TEKANAN DARAH PADA LANSIA ANGGOTA POSBINDU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ayu Wulandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of life style and food consumption to blood pressure among elderly in Posbindu Al-Wusto in Bogor District. The study design was cross-sectional study. Subjects were consisted of eight men and 31 women from Posbindu Al-Wusto in Bogor District. The result showed most subject had hypertension (64.1%. There was no significant relationship between life style (smoking, coffee consumption, and exercise with blood pressure (p>0.05. There was significantly negative relationship between hypertension preventive food (broccoli and sunflower seeds and hypertension triggering food (crackers and salted fish with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05. There was significantly positive food high blood pressure induce (boiled fish with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05.Keywords: blood pressure, elderly, food consumption, life styleABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan gaya hidup dan konsumsi pangan dengan tekanan darah pada lansia di Posbindu Al-Wusto Kabupaten Bogor. Desain penelitian ini adalah cross-sectional. Subjek terdiri atas delapan orang laki-laki dan 31 orang perempuan dari Posbindu Al-Wusto Kabupaten Bogor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar subjek (64,1% mempunyai hipertensi. Tidak terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara gaya hidup (merokok, konsumsi kopi, dan olahraga dengan tekanan darah (p>0,05. Terdapat hubungan signifikan negatif antara pangan pencegah (brokoli dan biji bunga matahari dan pangan pemicu (crackers dan ikan asin dengan tekanan darah sistolik (p<0,05. Terdapat hubungan signifikan positif antara pangan pemicu (ikan pindang dengan tekanan darah sistolik (p<0,05.Kata kunci: gaya hidup, konsumsi pangan, lansia, tekanan darah

  15. Faktor Risiko Non Viral Pada Karsinoma Nasofaring

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    Sukri Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak           Latar belakang: Karsinoma nasofaring adalah tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang sampai saat ini penyebabnya belum diketahui, infeksi virus Epstein Barr dilaporkan sebagai faktor dominan terjadinya karsinoma nasofaring tetapi faktor non viral juga berperan untuk timbulnya keganasan nasofaring. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui faktor non viral  yang dapat meningkatkan kejadian karsinoma nasofaring sehingga dapat mencegah dan menghindari faktor-faktor non viral tersebut. Tinjauan Pustaka: Karsinoma nasofaring merupakan tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang penyebabnya berhubungan dengan faktor viral dan non viral diantaranya asap rokok, ikan asin, formaldehid, genetik, asap kayu bakar , debu kayu, infeksi kronik telinga hidung tenggorok, alkohol dan obat tradisional. Kesimpulan: Pembuktian secara klinis dan ilmiah terhadap faktor non viral sebagai penyebab timbulnya karsinoma nasofaring masih belum dapat dijelaskan secara pasti. Faktor non viral merupakan salah satu faktor risiko yang dapat meningkatkan angka kejadian timbulnya keganasan nasofaring Kata kunci: karsinoma nasofaring, faktor risiko, non viral AbstractBackground: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant epithelial nasopharyngeal tumor that until now the cause still unknown, Epstein barr virus infection had reported as predominant occurance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma but non viral factors may also contribute to the onset of the incidence of nasopharyngeal malignancy. Purpose: To find non viral factors that may increase the incidence of nasopharyngel carcinoma in order to prevent and avoid non-viral factors Literature: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor that causes nasopharyngeal epithelium associated with viral and non-viral factors such as cigarette smoke, salt fish, formaldehyde, genetic, wood smoke ,wood dust, ear nose throat chronic infections, alcohol, and traditional medicine. Conclusion: Clinically and scientifically proving the non-viral factors as

  16. Position sensitive photon detectors using epitaxial InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganbold, T.; Antonelli, M.; Cautero, G.; Jark, H.; Eichert, D.M.; Cucini, R.; Menk, R.H.; Biasiol, G.

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the investigation of novel position-sensitive devices based on InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells, which could be applied to several applications of either synchrotron or conventional light sources. Such devices may be used as fast and efficient detectors due to the direct, low-energy band gap and high electron mobility at room temperature. Metamorphic In 0.75 Ga 0.25 As/In 0.75 Al 0.25 As quantum wells containing a two-dimensional electron gas were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Two devices with size of 5 × 5 mm 2 were prepared by using optical lithography. In the first, the active layers were segmented into four electrically insulated quadrants. Indium ohmic contacts were realized on the corner of each quadrant (for readout) and on the back surface (for bias). In the second, the quantum well was left unsegmented and covered by 400 nm of Al providing a single bias electrode, while four readout electrodes were fabricated on the back side by depositing and segmenting a Ni/Ge/Au layer. Photo-generated carriers can be collected at the readout electrodes by biasing from either the QW side or the back side of the devices during beam exposure. Individual currents obtained from each electrode allow monitoring of both the position and the intensity of the impinging beam for photon energies ranging from visible to hard X-ray. Such detector prototypes were tested with synchrotron radiation. Moreover, the position of the beam can be estimated with a precision of 800 nm in the segmented QW. A lower precision of 10 μm was recorded in the unsegmented QW due to the charge diffusion through the 500-μm-thick wafer, with however a lower electronic noise due to the better uniformity of the contacts

  17. High performance 5.6μm quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, M.; Go, R.; Figueiredo, P.; Todi, A.; Shu, Hong; Lyakh, A.

    2017-02-01

    5.6 μm quantum cascade lasers based on Al 0.78 In 0.22 As/In 0.69 Ga 0.31 As active region composition with measured pulsed room temperature wall plug efficiency of 28.3% are reported. Injection efficiency for the upper laser level of 75% was measured for the new design by testing devices with variable cavity length. Threshold current density of 1.7kA/cm2 and slope efficiency of 4.9W/A were measured for uncoated 3.15mm × 9μm lasers. Threshold current density and slope efficiency dependence on temperature in the range from 288K to 348K for the new structure can be described by characteristic temperatures T0 140K and T1 710K, respectively. Experimental data for inverse slope efficiency dependence on cavity length for 15-stage quantum cascade lasers with the same design are also presented. When combined with the 40-stage device data, the new data allowed for separate evaluation of the losses originating from the active region and from the cladding layers of the laser structure. Specifically, the active region losses for the studied design were found to be 0.77 cm-1, while cladding region losses - 0.33 cm-1. The data demonstrate that active region losses in mid wave infrared quantum cascade lasers largely define total waveguide losses and that their reduction should be one of the main priorities in the quantum cascade laser design.

  18. A versatile digitally-graded buffer structure for metamorphic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingjie; Zhang, Yonggang; Chen, Xingyou; Gu, Yi; Shi, Yanhui; Ji, Wanyan; Du, Ben

    2018-04-01

    Exploring more effective buffer schemes for mitigating dislocation deficiencies is the key technology towards higher performance metamorphic devices. Here we demonstrate a versatile metamorphic grading structure consisting of 38-period alternated multilayers of In0.52Al0.48As and In0.82Al0.18As on InP substrate, thicknesses of which in each period were gradually varied in opposite directions from 48.7 and 1.3 nm to 1.3 and 48.7 nm, respectively, akin to a digital alloy. Both preferentially dislocation nucleation and blocking of threading dislocation transmission are observed near the In0.82Al0.18As/In0.52Al0.48As interfaces, which help relax the strain and lower the residual defect density. A 2.6 μm In0.83Ga0.17As pin photodetector is fabricated on this pseudo-substrate, attaining a low dark current density of 2.9  ×  10‑6 A cm‑2 and a high detectivity of 1.8  ×  1010 cmHz1/2W‑1 at room temperature, comparable with the states of the art that on linearly-graded buffer layers. These results indicate such digitally-graded buffer structures are promising for enhancing performances of metamorphic devices, and can be easily generalized to other lattice-mismatched material systems.

  19. Mortality and morbidity patterns among HIV patients with prognostic markers in a tertiary care hospital in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOpportunistic infections are an important cause ofmorbidity and mortality in persons infected with HIV. Inrecent years, antiretroviral treatment (ART and prophylaxisagainst various other opportunistic infections havecontributed to a decrease in AIDS-related mortality. Weconducted a study of HIV infected inpatients in our centreto study the various factors contributing to mortality inHIV/AIDS patients and to study the role of antiretroviraldrugs in increasing longevity.MethodWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records ofHIV/AIDS patients who were admitted to a tertiary carehospital from 1 January 2005 to 28 February 2006. Sociodemographic information, CD4 lymphocyte counts(wherever available; diagnoses at discharge, incidence ofopportunistic infections in patients and final outcome of thepatients were collected.ResultsThere was no difference in mean age between the patientswho died and those who are surviving. Body weight wascomparatively lower for the patients who died than thesurvivors. Albumin levels were significantly lower amongthose who died (0.56 + 1.29 versus 2.73 + 1.13. CD4 countsdid not predict a worse prognosis. History of fever (76.7%versus 53.17% and weight loss (56.7% versus 33.33%predictably pointed to a bad prognosis.On the brighter side, administration of specific therapywhich included Lamivudine was associated with a betteroutcome (OR - 0.07, p = 0.004 than any other combinationof ART.ConclusionThe above findings could be a rough guide for evaluatingthe status of HIV/AIDS patients who cannot afford frequentmedical investigations in developing countries. Moreover asin our study, it was found that CD4 count was not a veryreliable marker for the prognosis in such patients. A broaderstudy could be a clue to a more cost-effective and cheaperalternative mode of assessment for HIV/AIDS patients indeveloping countries where medical facilities are not justunaffordable but also scanty.

  20. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  1. Enhancement of the 2DEG density in AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs P-HEMTs structures grown by MBE on (311)A and (111)A GaAs substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekaya, S.; Sfaxi, L.; Bouzaiene, L.; Maaref, H.; Bru-Chevallier, C.

    2008-01-01

    The pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (P-HEMT) structure materials Al 0.33 Ga 0.7 As/In 0.1 Ga 0.9 As/GaAs have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on (311)A and (111)A GaAs substrates. The epitaxy of strain heterostructure on high index GaAs substrate has led to new growth phenomena, material properties and device applications. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the structures have been measured at low temperature. The dominant emission in the PL spectra is due to the recombination from the first electron (e1) subband to the first heavy-hole (hh1) subband (E 11 : e1-hh1). This feature (E 11 ) is a relatively broad peak and has a typical asymmetric line shape. The transformation of the PL spectra in the close vicinity of the Fermi edge (E F ) under different excitation densities gives strong evidence for the Fermi Edge Singularity (FES) existence. The density of the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) determined by PL study (n s PL ), is in sufficient agreement with the values found from Hall measurements n s Hall at 77 K. The results prove an increase of the electron density in sample grown on GaAs (111)A and (311)A rather than in equivalent sample grown on (001) GaAs substrate. This effect is in good agreement with our theoretical prediction, which is based on a self-consistent solution of the coupled Schroedinger and Poisson equations

  2. Membangun Keunggulan Produk Ikonik Untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja Pemasaran UMKM [Establishing Advantages of Iconic Products to Improve Marketing Performance of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hanfan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a new concept of the iconic product advantage as a bridge to solve the research gap on the impact of product development capability on marketing performance. This new concept is studied through relevant theory and tested through empirical research. Data were collected empirically from the owner of Salted Egg (micro, small and medium enterprises MSME in Brebes, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The sample distribution was given to 115 respondents by using sample random sampling technique. The structural equation model (SEM with AMOS 22 software is used to test the model and research hypothesis. Four hypotheses are proposed, and all hypotheses are accepted with the support of existing data, as well as showing primarily the strategic role of iconic product advantage in bridging the capabilities of product development and marketing performance. This study aims to enrich the literature as well as contribute to the science associated with the product development model of excellence. Furthermore, managerial implications and further research are also discussed in this article. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak:  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan konsep baru keunggulan produk ikonik sebagai jembatan untuk memecahkan kesenjangan penelitian mengenai dampak kemampuan pengembangan produk terhadap kinerja pemasaran. Konsep baru ini dipelajari melalui teori yang relevan dan diuji melalui penelitian empiris. Data dikumpulkan secara empiris dari pemilik telur asin UMKM (Usaha Mikro, Kecil dan Menengah di Brebes, Provinsi Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. Distribusi sampel diberikan kepada 115 responden dengan menggunakan teknik sample random sampling. Model persamaan struktural (SEM dengan perangkat lunak AMOS 22 digunakan untuk menguji model dan hipotesis penelitian. Empat hipotesis diajukan, dan semua hipotesis diterima dengan dukungan data yang ada, serta menunjukkan terutama peran strategis keunggulan produk ikonik dalam menjembatani

  3. UM ENGENHEIRO NA EXPOSIÇÃO UNIVERSAL: ANDRÉ REBOUÇAS E OS FANTASMAS DA TÉCNICA AN ENGINEER IN THE UNIVERSAL EXPOSURE: ANDRÉ REBOUÇAS AND THE GHOST OF THE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO CORDIVOLA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio propõe uma leitura do Caderno da primeira viagem à Europa escritopelo engenheiro André Rebouças enquanto visitava a Great Exhibition deLondres em 1862. O manuscrito (não publicado até hoje, e conservado naFundação Joaquim Nabuco, em Recife contém minuciosas observações eprojetos feitos por Rebouças. Como viajante, o engenheiro persegue apenasum fim: ser testemunha das novidades da tecnologia. Aprender, copiar, traduzirsão seus objetivos. Seus escritos, portanto, lidam com visões de modernidadee percepções do porvir, e postulam cruzamentos entre periferias e centros,entre os passados pré-industriais e as promessas de um futuro que Rebouçastentaria concretizar no Brasil do Segundo Império.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Rebouças, viajantes do século XIX,This essay focuses on a travel notebook written by the engineer André Rebouçasin 1862, while he was visiting the Great Exhibition of London. The manuscript,still unpublished and kept at the Fundação Joaquim Nabuco in Recife, containsdetailed observations and projects made by Rebouças. As a traveller, theengineer pursues just one aim: to be a witness of the novelties of technology.To learn, to copy, to translate are his goals. Therefore, his writings deal withvisions of modernity and perceptions of the becoming, and postulate crossesbetween peripheries and centres, between pre-industrial pasts and the promisesof a future that Rebouças would try to make real throughout the Second Empire.

  4. BD -22 5866: A Low-Mass, Quadruple-lined Spectroscopic and Eclipsing Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Liu, Michael C.; Reid, I. Neill; Hebb, Leslie; Cameron, Andrew C.; Torres, Carlos A.; Wilson, David M.

    2008-08-01

    We report our discovery of an extremely rare, low-mass, quadruple-lined spectroscopic binary BD -22 5866 (=NLTT 53279, integrated spectral type = M0 V), found during an ongoing search for the youngest M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. From the cross-correlation function, we are able to measure relative flux levels, estimate the spectral types of the components, and set upper limits on the orbital periods and separations. The resulting system is hierarchical, composed of a K7 + K7 binary and an M1 + M2 binary with semimajor axes of aAsin iA system was unresolved with published adaptive optics imaging, limits the projected physical separation of the two binaries at the time of the observation to dABlesssim 4.1 AU at the photometric distance of 51 pc. The maximum observed radial velocity difference between the A and B binaries limits the orbit to aABsin iAB systems, we speculate that an early dynamical process reduced the size of the system, such as the interaction of the two binaries with a circumquadruple disk. Intensive photometric, spectroscopic, and interferometric monitoring, as well as a parallax measurement of this rare quadruple system, is certainly warranted. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The CFHT is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  5. Nyyd!! : [luuletused] / Karl Martin Sinijärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinijärv, Karl Martin, 1971-

    1998-01-01

    Sisu: Nyyd!! ; Sõnad ; Forever ; Dekadentiline ; No name ; Axioomid ; Salatanze ruumityhi ; "soome-ugri rahvatants..." ; On ; Nirvaana ; Avastus ; Hyvastijätt ; "Valget veini andke mulle, tyybid..." ; "Raev rebib rindasid kyynistel kurjadel..." ; "Miks mitte mõrvata, kui nälgib näitlejanna..." ; "jah tapke tapke tapke kõiki teisi..." ; Cornelia ; docheri rodiny ; "Surm tuleb mõne võõra mehe kujul..." ; "Nõid naerda nutab, syytus syytab sysi..." ; "Veel vähe vargseid väreleb vinjette..." ; "Las leegitseb su pilgu all mu nimi..." ; "Kui templitrepilt otsin juudaseekleid..." ; "harv juhtum on et mõtlen jälle sinust..." ; "Sa näed - päev vaikib ega vasta sulle..." ; "hallaööde hallituse halin..." ; "ma kirjutan teemast mööda..." ; "Pimedusest ja surmast..." ; "Kus on mu päevade ratas..." ; "Öö mask..." ; "kohiseb maailma vaim kõiksuse teedel..." ; "kalkun..." ; "olla kalkun..." ; "kalkun kui parim..." ; "perekond ja kodu..." ; "rebaste reede..." ; "olla või mitte olla..." ; "ja mata kalkun verevasse merre..." ; "paremates peredes..." ; "kahekordne sildnik..." "läheb portselanipoodi..." ; "loobun..." ; "tokolopopulos..." ; "siiski..." ; "elu on igal pool elu..." ; "kes eelistab sotsialismile..." ; "karu tuli koopast..." ; "mo äär..." ; "meri on paksem kui mesi..." ; "veriorel kõriora..." ; "kopsudest kõik koorukesed..." ; abiks algajale isale ; "ma tahan nendest punastest tassidest juua..." ; "Väikese Matthiase Sõbra Laul Nõrkevale Yhiskonnale ; "ma naeran. vabadust ja iseoma armu..." ; "kui diktaator kui asine asjamees alfreedo..." ; "nyyd armu..." ; "Päikeseid..." ; (üdiviidingut üüdes---)

  6. DIAMIKA PEREMPUAN PEDAGANG MAKANAN DI SICINCIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Melia Roza

    2017-01-01

    dialami oleh prempuan pejaja makanan asongan dalam pekerjaan. Metode yang digunakan kualitatif dengan tipe penelitian deskriptif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara observasi, wawancara,  dan studi dokumentasi. Temuan dari artikel ini yaitu alokasi waktu, yaitu pekerjaan diluar rumah sebagai pedagang makanan asongan, dilakukan dari jam 08.00 WIB sampai jam 17.00 WIB. Persaingan, dan konflik. Kiat penguasaan situasi pasar, yaitu memanfaatkan hari libur, pembeli ingin didatangi  memberikan potongan harga bagi pembeli, sudah terbntuknya image telur asin dan pisang jantan rebus. dan kendala-kendala yang dialami perempuan pedagang makanan asongan adalah kendala dalam pekerjaan, yaitu supir dan penumpang Bus tidak bersahabat, dan ketiadaan SPBU..

  7. High performance 40-stage and 15-stage quantum cascade lasers based on two-material active region composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, P.; Suttinger, M.; Go, R.; Todi, A.; Shu, Hong; Tsvid, E.; Patel, C. Kumar N.; Lyakh, A.

    2017-05-01

    5.6μm quantum cascade lasers based on Al0.78In0.22As/In0.69Ga0.31As active region composition with measured pulsed room temperature wall plug efficiency of 28.3% are reported. Injection efficiency for the upper laser level of 75% was measured by testing devices with variable cavity length. Threshold current density of 1.7kA/cm2 and slope efficiency of 4.9W/A were measured for uncoated 3.15mm x 9µm lasers. Threshold current density and slope efficiency dependence on temperature in the range from 288K to 348K can be described by characteristic temperatures T0 140K and T1 710K, respectively. Pulsed slope efficiency, threshold current density, and wallplug efficiency for a 2.1mm x 10.4µm 15-stage device with the same design and a high reflection-coated back facet were measured to be 1.45W/A, 3.1kA/cm2 , and 18%, respectively. Continuous wave values for the same parameters were measured to be 1.42W/A, 3.7kA/cm2 , and 12%. Continuous wave optical power levels exceeding 0.5W per millimeter of cavity length was demonstrated. When combined with the 40-stage device data, the inverse slope efficiency dependence on cavity length for 15-stage data allowed for separate evaluation of the losses originating from the active region and from the cladding layers of the laser structure. Specifically, the active region losses for the studied design were found to be 0.77cm-1, while cladding region losses - 0.33cm-1. The data demonstrate that active region losses in mid wave infrared quantum cascade lasers largely define total waveguide losses and that their reduction should be one of the main priorities in the quantum cascade laser design.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF RATS AND SHREW IN ARGASOKA AND KUTABANJAR VILLAGE BANJARNEGARA SUB DISTRICT BANJARNEGARA DISTRICT 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Anggi Widayani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTikus (Ordo Rodentia merupakan hewan yang mempunyai peranan penting dalam kehidupan manusia baik bersifatmenguntungkan maupun merugikan. Spesies tikus mempunyai habitat masing-masing untuk berkembangbiak. Pemukimanmerupakan habitat tikus untuk memperoleh makanan. Tujuan penelitian untuk menggambarkan keberhasilan penangkapantikus dan mengidentifikasi tikus yang tertangkap di Kelurahan Argasoka dan Kutabanjarnegara. Metode penelitianmenggunakan survei dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Populasi adalah tikus yang berada di Kelurahan Argasoka danKelurahan Kutabanjarnegara. Sampel adalah tikus yang tertangkap menggunakan perangkap sebanyak 100 perangkapyang dipasang di lokasi penelitian selama 2 malam,dengan menggunakan umpan kelapa bakar dan ikan asin. Analisis datasecara deskriptif disajikan dalam bentuk narasi dan tabel distribusi frekuensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan keberhasilanpenangkapan tikus di Kelurahan Argasoka sebesar 10,5% dan di Kelurahan Kutabanjarnegara sebesar 6%. Tikus yangtertangkap 25 ekor Rattus tanezumi (75,76%, 1ekor R. tiomanicus (3,03%, dan 7 ekor Suncus murinus (21,21%. Tikus dancecurut berjenis kelamin jantan lebih banyak ditemukan (54,54 % daripada betina (45,45 %.Kata kunci: tikus, keberhasilan penangkapan, identifikasiABSTRACTRat is an animal that have important role to human being, even its profitable or adverse. This species have their own habitatto each depression. The community settlement is one of rat habitat to get food. The research purpose is to measure the trapsuccess of rat and to identify rat species in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. The research used surveymethod with cross sectional approach. Population were rats those lived in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village. The samplewere rats those caught using single live traps in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. Rat trapping wasconducted for 2 nights using 100 single live traps with the roasted coconut and salted fish. Technical

  9. Developing a statistically powerful measure for quartet tree inference using phylogenetic identities and Markov invariants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jeremy G; Taylor, Amelia; Holland, Barbara R; Jarvis, Peter D

    2017-12-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in phylogenetic inference methods based on phylogenetic invariants, alongside the related Markov invariants. Broadly speaking, both these approaches give rise to polynomial functions of sequence site patterns that, in expectation value, either vanish for particular evolutionary trees (in the case of phylogenetic invariants) or have well understood transformation properties (in the case of Markov invariants). While both approaches have been valued for their intrinsic mathematical interest, it is not clear how they relate to each other, and to what extent they can be used as practical tools for inference of phylogenetic trees. In this paper, by focusing on the special case of binary sequence data and quartets of taxa, we are able to view these two different polynomial-based approaches within a common framework. To motivate the discussion, we present three desirable statistical properties that we argue any invariant-based phylogenetic method should satisfy: (1) sensible behaviour under reordering of input sequences; (2) stability as the taxa evolve independently according to a Markov process; and (3) explicit dependence on the assumption of a continuous-time process. Motivated by these statistical properties, we develop and explore several new phylogenetic inference methods. In particular, we develop a statistically bias-corrected version of the Markov invariants approach which satisfies all three properties. We also extend previous work by showing that the phylogenetic invariants can be implemented in such a way as to satisfy property (3). A simulation study shows that, in comparison to other methods, our new proposed approach based on bias-corrected Markov invariants is extremely powerful for phylogenetic inference. The binary case is of particular theoretical interest as-in this case only-the Markov invariants can be expressed as linear combinations of the phylogenetic invariants. A wider implication of this is that, for

  10. Reliefs the Exposure Stress of Soils Arsenic on Brassica campestris L. Growth and Its Possible Mechanisms by Inoculation of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hong-xiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The over-accumulation of arsenic(Asin agricultural soils affects crop growth. Subsequently, the accumulated As can pose risk to human health via food-chain. It is urgent to develop technologies to relief the As exposure stress on crop growth and lower the As uptake by crop. In this study, Trichoderma asperellum SM -12F1, capable of As resistance and speciation transformation was used as experimental material. Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of inoculation on the growth of Brassica campestris L. in As-contaminated soils. The possible mechanisms of inoculation relieving As exposure stress and lowering As uptake were revealed. The results indicated that the growth of Brassica campestris L. was significantly inhibited in soils spiked with As of 120 mg· kg-1. Inoculation could significantly improve the growth of Brassica campestris L. and significantly decreased the As uptake and bioconcentration factor(BCFof Brassica campestris L. Compared with As-contaminated soils without inoculation, the As contents in the over-and under-ground part of Brassica campestris L. declined by 12.4% and 20.2%, respectively, and the BCF declined by 7.8%. Soil available As contents decreased by 15.7% after inoculation. Methylarsonic acid(MMAand dimethylarsinic acid(DMAwere detected in water extraction of soil and the shoot of Brassica campestris L. tissues, which indicated that inoculation could trigger soil As methylation and decrease soil As availability and toxicity. Furthermore, inoculation could effectively relief the As exposure stress on Brassica campestris L. growth by the response of antioxidant enzymes. The enzymes in Brassica campestris L. such as superoxide dismutase(SODand catalase(CAT, and the contents of glutathione(GSH, ascorbic acid(AsAand malondialdehyde(MDA, capable of reactive oxygen elimination, significantly enhanced during soil As exposure. However, inoculation lessened the activities or contents of SOD, CAT, GSH, and MDA

  11. Effect of iodine status and other nutritional factors on psychomotor and cognitive performance of Filipino schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Ma Sofia V; Bongga, Demetria C; Peñano-Ho, Leticia; Cruz, Federico B; Solis, José S; Barrios, Erniel B

    2007-03-01

    Until 1998, iodine deficiency was a public health problem in the Philippines. A law entitled "An Act Promoting Salt Iodization Nationwide" (ASIN) has been passed and implemented by the government to eliminate iodine deficiency. The contribution of salt iodization, as well as dietary, health, and environmental factors, to improving the intellectual performance of Filipino schoolchildren remains to be determined. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationship between iodine status and levels of psychomotor and cognitive performance in first-grade children aged 6 to 10 years, and to examine the extent to which dietary, biochemical, health, and environmental factors contribute to children's mental performance. Two hundred ninety children in six classroom sections from a public school in Manila were examined by measurement of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and thyroid palpation. The median UIE level for each section was determined. Sixty-five children classified as iodine deficient (UIE 100 microg/L without goiter, n = 31) were given psychomotor and cognitive function tests (Bender-Gestalt and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices). Scores from the two tests were used to determine each child's general ability percentile rank. Other variables examined were dietary intake (% RDA of nutrients ingested based on two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls); deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, and selenium; parasitic infection; coliform contamination of drinking water; household use of iodized salt; illness in the past 2 weeks; and wasting and stunting. Children whose general ability scores were at or above the 50th percentile had higher UIE levels, but the relationship was not significant. Children from sections with higher median UIE levels had higher percentile ranks for general ability (p = .002). Backward logistic regression showed that the variance in deficient and adequate mental performance was explained by dietary intakes that met > or = 80% of the RDA for energy

  12. Time Sequence Spectroscopy of AW UMa. The 518 nm Mg i Triplet Region Analyzed With Broadening Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.

    2015-02-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations of AW UMa, obtained on three consecutive nights with a median time resolution of 2.1 minutes, have been analyzed using the broadening function method in the spectral window of 22.75 nm around the 518 nm Mg i triplet region. Doppler images of the system reveal the presence of vigorous mass motions within the binary system; their presence puts into question the solid-body rotation assumption of the contact binary model. AW UMa appears to be a very tight, semi-detached binary; the mass transfer takes place from the more massive to the less massive component. The primary, a fast-rotating star with Vsin i=181.4+/- 2.5 km s-1, is covered with inhomogeneities: very slowly drifting spots and a dense network of ripples more closely participating in its rotation. The spectral lines of the primary show an additional broadening component (called the “pedestal”) that originates either in the equatorial regions, which rotate faster than the rest of the star by about 50 km s-1, or in an external disk-like structure. The secondary component appears to be smaller than predicted by the contact model. The radial velocity field around the secondary is dominated by accretion of matter transferred from (and possibly partly returned to) the primary component. The parameters of the binary are Asin i=2.73+/- 0.11 {{R}⊙ } and {{M}1}{{sin }3}i=1.29+/- 0.15 {{M}⊙ }, {{M}2}{{sin }3}i=0.128+/- 0.016 {{M}⊙ }. The mass ratio, {{q}sp}={{M}2}/{{M}1}=0.099+/- 0.003, while still the most uncertain among the spectroscopic elements, is substantially different from the previous numerous and mutually consistent photometric investigations which were based on the contact model. It should be studied why photometry and spectroscopy give such discrepant results and whether AW UMa is an unusual object or if only very high-quality spectroscopy can reveal the true nature of W UMa-type binaries. Based on observations obtained at the Canada

  13. Teor e capacidade máxima de adsorção de arsênio em Latossolos brasileiros Content and maximum capacity of arsenic adsorption in Brazilian Oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Lucia Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A alta toxicidade do As aos animais e humanos e a possibilidade de existência de grande número de áreas contaminadas tornam imprescindível o conhecimento do teor semitotal em solos ditos não-contaminados e dos processos de adsorção do As em solos de carga variável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor e a capacidade máxima de adsorção de As (CMADS AS em Latossolos. O teor total foi determinado pelo método USEPA 3051A, e a CMADS As, com auxílio de isotermas de Langmuir com base nos valores de adsorção obtidos em dose de As (0, 90, 190, 380, 760 e 1.150 µmol L-1 (relação solo:solução final = 1:100, a pH 5,5 e força iônica de 15 mmol L-1. Os 17 Latossolos apresentaram teor médio total de As de 5,92 mg kg-1 e CMADS As média de 2.013 mg kg-1. O teor de argila e os óxidos de Fe e Al apresentaram influência positiva na CMADS As.In view of the toxicity of As for man and animals and the possibility of existence of a great number of contaminated areas it is imperative to know the total As content in soils considered uncontaminated and about As sorption processes in soils of variable charge. The objective of this work was to determine the total content and maximum capacity of As adsorption (CMADS As in Oxisols. The total content was determined by the USEPA 3051A method. The cmADS As was determined by the Langmuir Isotherms using six solution concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.76, 1.15 mmol L-1 (1:100 soil: solution ratio, pH values 5.5 and ionic strength 15 mmol L-1. In the 17 Oxisols the average total As content was 5.92 mg kg-1 and mean cmADS As was 2.013 mg kg-1. Clay, and Fe and Al oxides content influenced cmADSs positively.

  14. Profile of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito F. Jayalie

    2017-01-01

    sumberdata rekam medis Departemen Telinga Hidung dan Tenggorokan RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo tahun2010. Dari 167 data, 68.3% pasien adalah laki-laki dan suku terbanyak Sunda dan Jawa. Sebagian besarpasien datang dengan keluhan terdapat massa di leher (58,1% dan hidung tersumbat (49,1%. Faktor risikoterbanyak adalah konsumsi ikan asin (29,9%. Berdasarkan hasil histopatologis, 75.4% kasus digolongkansebagai WHO-3 dan 51% kasus didiagnosis stadium IV. Karakteristik demografi dan gejala klinis pasien KNFmerupakan langkah pertama untuk penyelesaian masalah KNF. Kata kunci: kanker kepala leher, karsinoma nasofaring, epidemiologi. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Growth and characterization of manganese doped III-V heterostructures; Herstellung und Charakterisierung von Mangan dotierten III-V Halbleiterheterostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurstbauer, Ursula

    2008-04-15

    Subject of this thesis is the growth of III-V heterostructures doped with manganese by means of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The characterization was done primarily by magnetotransport measurements in the temperature range from 300 K to 20 mK and fields up to 19 T. Two different kind of Mn doped materials, ferromagnetic GaMnAs layers and Mn modulation doped magnetic two dimensional hole systems were studied. The first part focuses on the enhancement of the electric and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic properties and the integration of GaMnAs layers in more sophisticated heterostructures. Therefore, the crystal quality and the influence of the buffer layer beneath the magnetic layer are crucial. The MBE-growth of ferromagnetic GaMnAs layers on (001), (311)A and (311)A was successfully achieved with present values of the Curie-temperature (TC). Additionally, the growth of ferromagnetic GaMnAs layers on nonpolar (110) substrates and on cleaved [110] edges was established. An application of the latter was the investigation of magnetic bipolar junctions. Magnetic two dimensional hole gases (M2DHG) has been realized by the use of In0.75Al0.25As/In0.75Ga0.25As/InAs quantum well (QW) structures. It is necessary to grow a buffer layer for strain relaxation due to the lattice mismatch by gradually increasing the In mole fraction. Magnetotransport measurements were carried out on Si doped two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) and on Mn doped M2DHGs. From magnetotransport measurements on the M2DHGs we see some interesting features, in particular in the mK region. From the 2DEGs and all non inverted doped M2DEGs weak localization and weak antilocalization effects can be observed in the low field region. Whereas all M2DHGs with an inverted doping layer show strong localization effects and a metal insulator transition dependent on the applied magnetic field perpendicular to the QW. In the high field region Shubnikov-de-Haas oscillations in the longitudinal resistance and

  16. Role of various fishmeal ingredients on sangkuriang catfish Clarias sp. growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was aimed to evaluate the role of fish meal from different raw materials in improving growth performance of sangkuriang catfish Clarias sp. The source of raw materials used were derived from trash fish, salted fish, and head fish eal. Fish reared for 44 days and were given feed test three times per day at 08.00, 12.00, and 16.00. Biomass weight of the experimental fish used were 38.49±1.61 g. The fish reared on the aquarium of 60x50x40 cm3 and by using recirculation system. The results showed that fish meal derived from trash fish provide the best result for feed consumption, daily growth rate, absolute length, biomass, retention of protein, retention of fat, feed efficiency, feed conversion (P>0.05. However, it does not significantly different on the survival of fish (P>0.05. The data showed that the use of trash fish meal resulted on the best growth performance of sangkuriang catfish. It was indicated that the trash-fish meal might be used as the main protein source of sangkuriang catfish feed. Keywords: catfish, growth, at satiation, fish meal  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pakan uji yang menggunakan sumber tepung ikan dari bahan baku berbeda dalam meningkatkan kinerja pertumbuhan lele sangkuriang Clarias sp. Sumber tepung ikan yang digunakan berasal dari ikan rucah, ikan asin, dan kepala ikan, yang memiliki umum digunakan sebagai salah satu bahan baku pakan lokal. Ikan diberi pakan at satiation selama 44 hari dengan frekuensi tiga kali sehari, yaitu pada pukul 08.00, 12.00, dan 16.00. Biomassa rata-rata ikan uji yang digunakan adalah 38,49±1,61 g. Ikan dipelihara dalam akuarium berukuran 60x50x40 cm3 dan dengan menerapkan sistem resirkulasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tepung ikan yang berasal dari ikan rucah mampu memberikan hasil terbaik dalam meningkatkan kinerja pertumbuhan ikan uji. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh nilai kinerja pertumbuhan seperti jumlah konsumsi pakan, laju

  17. Growth and properties of In(Ga)As nanowires on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertenberger, Simon

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis the integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires on silicon (Si) platform by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated. All nanowires are grown without the use of foreign catalysts such as Au to achieve high purity material. First, InAs nanowires are grown in a self-assembled manner on SiO x -masked Si(111) where pinholes in the silicon oxide serve as nucleation spots for the nanowires. This leads to the growth of vertically aligned, (111)-oriented nanowires with hexagonal cross-section. Based on this simple process, the entire growth parameter window is investigated for InAs nanowires, revealing an extremely large growth temperature range from 380 C to 580 C and growth rates as large as 6 μ/h. Complex quantitative in-situ line-of-sight quadrupole mass spectrometry experiments during nanowire growth and post-growth thermal decomposition studies support these findings and indicate a very high thermal stability up to >540 C for InAs nanowires. Furthermore, the influence of the As/In ratio on the nanowire growth is studied revealing two distinct growth regimes, i.e., an In-rich regime for lower As fluxes and an As-rich regime for larger As fluxes, where the latter shows characteristic saturation of the nanowire aspect ratio. For the catalyst-free growth, detailed investigation of the growth mechanism is performed via a combination of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex-situ scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM,TEM). An abrupt onset of nanowire growth is observed in RHEED intensity and in-plane lattice parameter evolution. Furthermore, completely droplet-free nanowires, continuous radial growth, constant vertical growth rate and growth interruption experiments suggest a vapor-solid growth mode for all investigated nanowire samples. Moreover, site-selective (positioned) growth of InAs nanowires on pre-patterned SiO 2 masked Si(111) substrates is demonstrated which is needed for ultimate control of nanowire

  18. Growth and properties of In(Ga)As nanowires on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertenberger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    In this thesis the integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires on silicon (Si) platform by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated. All nanowires are grown without the use of foreign catalysts such as Au to achieve high purity material. First, InAs nanowires are grown in a self-assembled manner on SiO{sub x}-masked Si(111) where pinholes in the silicon oxide serve as nucleation spots for the nanowires. This leads to the growth of vertically aligned, (111)-oriented nanowires with hexagonal cross-section. Based on this simple process, the entire growth parameter window is investigated for InAs nanowires, revealing an extremely large growth temperature range from 380 C to 580 C and growth rates as large as 6 μ/h. Complex quantitative in-situ line-of-sight quadrupole mass spectrometry experiments during nanowire growth and post-growth thermal decomposition studies support these findings and indicate a very high thermal stability up to >540 C for InAs nanowires. Furthermore, the influence of the As/In ratio on the nanowire growth is studied revealing two distinct growth regimes, i.e., an In-rich regime for lower As fluxes and an As-rich regime for larger As fluxes, where the latter shows characteristic saturation of the nanowire aspect ratio. For the catalyst-free growth, detailed investigation of the growth mechanism is performed via a combination of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex-situ scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM,TEM). An abrupt onset of nanowire growth is observed in RHEED intensity and in-plane lattice parameter evolution. Furthermore, completely droplet-free nanowires, continuous radial growth, constant vertical growth rate and growth interruption experiments suggest a vapor-solid growth mode for all investigated nanowire samples. Moreover, site-selective (positioned) growth of InAs nanowires on pre-patterned SiO{sub 2} masked Si(111) substrates is demonstrated which is needed for ultimate control of

  19. Diagnósticos de enfermagem em portadores da Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Diagnósticos de enfermería em portadores del Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida Nursing diagnoses for patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myria Ribeiro da Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar os diagnósticos de enfermagem mais freqüentes segundo a taxonomia II da NANDA em pacientes adultos portadores de HIV/aids e verificar com que freqüência as características definidoras, os fatores relacionados e de risco deram suporte para a elaboração destes. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado pelos pesquisadores nos 60 pacientes internados com HIV/aids e depois feita a verificação se os requisitos propostos pela NANDA para realização dos DE eram adequados. Foram selecionados 13 dos 38 diagnósticos com freqüência igual ou superior a 80%. Os resultados indicaram concordância e adequações para identificação. Porém, novos estudos serão necessários tanto para confirmação dos achados, assim como trazer novos conhecimentos ao assunto e estimular a pesquisa nesta população de pacientes.Los objetivos del estudio fuerón identificar los diagnósticos de enfermería según la taxonomia de Nanda en pacientes adultos portadores de HIV/Sida y observar con que frecuencia las caracteristicas que son definidas por los factores relacionados pelos investigadores en los 60 pacientes internados con VIH/SIDA y despúes hecha la verificación de los requisitos propuestos en Nanda para realización de los diagnósticos de la enfermeria que eran adequados. Fuerón relacionados 13 de los 38 diagnósticos con frecuencia igual al superior de 80%. Los resultados indican concordancia y sentido para identificar. Pues nuevos estudios fuerón necesarios tanto para a confirmación de los hallazgos asin como traer nuevos conhecimentos sobre el asunto y estimular a investigación neste grupo de pacientes.This study aims at identifying the most frequent nursing diagnoses, according to the NANDA's taxonomy II in adult patients of HIV/AIDS and to check how often the defining characteristics, the related factors and the risk factors provided support for their development. Data survey was conducted by

  20. Clinical Impact and Relevance of Antiganglioside Antibodies Test Results / Antigangliozīdu Antivielu Testa Rezultātu Klīniskā Ietekme un Nozīme Pacientam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ķēniņa Viktorija

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visbiežāk atrastās autoantivielas asociācijā ar perifērām neiropātijām ir pret gangliozīdiem GM1, GQ1b, asialo-GM1, GM2, GD1a un GD1b. Atzīta diagnostiska vērtība ir divām no tām - anti-GM1 un anti-GQ1b. Tika veikts retrospektīvs pētījums ar mērķi izvērtēt antigangliozīdu antivielu noteikšanas nozīmi pacientiem ar iespējamu autoimūnu neiropātiju. Pētījumā tika iekļauti 85 pacienti, kuri bija stacionēti Paula Stradiņa Klīniskajā universitātes slimnīcā laika posmā no 2013. gada janvāra līdz 2014. gada decembrim un kuru perifērajās asinīs tika noteiktas antigangliozīdu antivielas. Tika reģistrēti un analizēti arī pacientu demogrāfiskie dati, iepriekšējas un esošas saslimšanas, paraklīnisko izmeklējumu dati, t.sk. cerebrospinālā šķidruma atradne un elektrofizioloģiskās izmeklēšanas rezultāti. Mūsu pētījumā 27 pacienti (32% bija seropozitīvi attiecībā vismaz uz vienu no antigangliozīdu grupas antivielām. Visbiežāk atrastās antivielas bija pret asialo-GM1 (n = 13 un GM1 (n = 10 gangliozīdiem. Astoņu pacientu diagnozes sakrita ar slimībām, kur antigangliozīdu antivielām ir atzīta diagnostiska marķiera vērtība: pieciem pacientiem - Gijēna-Barē sindroms (GBS, vienam pacientam - Millera-Fišera sindroms (MFS, diviem pacientiem - multifokāla motora neiropātija (MMN. Trīs no pieciem pacientiem, kuriem bija diagnosticēts GBS, un viens no diviem pacientiem, kuriem bija diagnosticēta MMN, bija seronegatīvi. Akūta slimības gaita, pozitīvas antigangliozīdu antivielas un citoalbumināra disasociācija cerebrospinālajā šķidrumā bija faktori, kas noteica pacientam nepieciešamu specifisku imūnterapiju. Mūsu pētījuma rezultāti atbilst iepriekš aprakstītām novērotām asociācijam starp antigangliozīdu grupas antivielām un GBS, MFS un MMN.

  1. Facial reconstruction using polypropylene mesh after resection of maxillary ossifying fibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soesanto

    2012-09-01

    eksisi atau reseksi. Perawatan eksisi atau reseksi tulang maksila dapat mengakibatkan deformitas wajah yang tidak dapat direkontruksi dengan bone graft. Tujuan: Laporan kasus ini bertujuan untuk melaporkan penggunaan polipropylene mesh pada rekonstruksi wajah setelah hemimaxillectomy pada pasien dengan diagnose ossifying fibroma pada maksila. Kasus: Penderita wanita berusia 17 tahun datang ke Klinik Bedah Mulut dan Maksilofasial, Rumah Sakit Gigi dan Mulut Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Airlangga, dengan keluhan utama pembengkakan pada pipi kiri atas yang muncul sejak 2 tahun yang lalu tanpa ada riwayat keluhan sakit gigi. Penderita mengeluh gatal, kadang sakit dan keluarnya cairan asin pada daerah benjolan. Hasil FNA dan test sitologi menunjukkan gambaran tumor jinak mesensimal. Pemeriksaan dengan biopsi dan histopatologi mengkonfirmasi diagnosa cementifying fibroma. Tatalaksana kasus: Dilakukan hemimaksilektomy pada sebelah kiri, dan defek pasca pembedahan pada sisi fasial dan bukal segera direkontruksi dengan pemasangan polipropylene mesh 3 lapis. Sebelas bulan setelah operasi kondisi pasien baik dan tidak ada deformitas atau asimetri wajah. Kesimpulan: Polypropylene mesh merupakan bahan yang potensial untuk rekonstruksi wajah karena dapat mengurangi terjadinya deformitas wajah setelah hemimaxillectomy pada pasien dengan tumor maksila.

  2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS INTERPRETATION FOR GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN THE COASTAL AREA, NORTH KELANTAN, MALAYSIA (Interpretasi Karakterisasi Fisika dan Kimia Untuk Penilaian Kualitas Airtanah di Area Pesisir, Kelantan Utara, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Islami

    2015-11-01

    untuk menilai kualitas air tanah dan masalah masalah yang berhubungan dengannya di zona pesisir, Kelantar Utara, Malaysia. Sebanyak tiga puluh tiga sampel airtanah yang terdiri dari enam belas sampee airtanah yang di ambil langsung dari sumur dan bersama dengan tujuh belas data sampel airtanah diperoleh dari agensi pemerintah digunakan pada penelitian ini. Kedalaman air tanah bervariasi dari yang akuifer dangkal (3,5 m sampai ke yang dalam (130 m. Karakter fisika air tanah di ukur secara langsung di lokasi saat setelah air tanah di ambil. Kandungan kimia sampel air tanah dianalisa dengan menggunakan Ion Chromatography (IC and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP. Data-data yang diperoleh di presentasikan dan diinterpretasi menggunakan diagram bivariate dan diagram piper untuk meningkatkan interpretasi dan analisa data secara keseluruhan. Hasil analisa sampel airtanah mengindikasikan bahwa akuifer yang dangkal dapat dikategorikan sebagai air segar. Pada zona pengendapan laut, kadar klorid dan sulfat dalam air tanah cenderung tinggi dalam sampel air. Namun kandungan ini masih dalam kategori aman untuk dikonsumsi oleh manusia. Pada lokasi yang banyak penggunaan pupuk kimia, sampel airtanah memperlihatkan kandungan nitrat relative tinggi, yang melebihi batas aman untuk dikonsumsi oleh manusia (>45 mg/L. Kadar K, Ca, Mg dan Na memiliki hubungan yang positif dengan kandungan klorid pada aquifer yang dalam, ini mengindikasikan bahwa ion-ion dalam air adalah berasal dari sumber air asin yang sama. Hubungan antara rasio Cl/HCO3 dan chloride juga menunjukkan bahwa airtanah yang segar and air laut bercampur di dalam aquifer, dan sampel air dengan rasio yang rendah bisa dikategorikan air segar. Untuk aquifer yang dangkal, kebanyakan ion menunjukkan korelasi yang tidak linier dengan klorid yang mengindikasikan bahwa ion-ion tersebut berasal dari sumber yang berbeda.

  3. FORMULASI BISKUIT PADAT SIAP-SANTAP UNTUK MAKANAN DARURAT (READY-TO-EAT-BISCUIT BARS FORMULATION FOR DISASTER-RELATED EMERGENCY SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-06-01

    bergizi selama keadaan darurat. Untuk makanan bayi telah ada di pasar berupa susu dan bubur susu yang dapat diberikan dalam situasi ini. Sementara makanan siap-santap untuk anak dan orang dewasa belum banyak tersedia di pasar. Beberapa survei pasca-bencana menunjukkan bahwa bantuan makanan dari donatur berupa makanan siap-santap umumnya hanya merupakan sumber enegi. Di samping itu makanan bantuan tersebut umumnya masih membutuhkan pengolahan terlebih dahulu sebelum disantap. Mengembangkan formula makanan siap-santap untuk usia anak sampai orang dewasa yang mengandung  tinggi energi dan dapat diberikan dalam situasi  kedaruratan. Makanan diproduksi dalam bentuk batangan padat, yang dapat diterima baik oleh panelis. Pada tahap awal dikembangkan enam jenis formula makanan, tiga berasa manis dan tiga lainnya berasa asin. Lalu dipilih satu formula yang terbaik, berdasarkan uji fisik dan sensori oleh panelis laboratorium. Makanan terpilih kemudian diuji porsi pada masyarakat di daerah rawan bencana. Formula yang dibuat dari tepung kedelai dan tepung wijen dengan rasa manis mempunyai nilai kesukaan paling baik dibandingkan dengan formula lainnya, dan dengan uji Duncan’s berbeda secara signifikan dari semua formula. Pada atribut rasa dan aroma formula ini tidak berbeda signifikan dibandingkan dengan formula lainnya, tetapi memiliki kerenyahan paling baik. Setiap energi 2.100 kkal biskuit padat tersusun 11,5 persen berasal dari protein, 44,4 persen dari lemak dan sisanya 44 persen dari karbohidrat. [Penel Gizi Makan 2012, 35(1: 42-48]   Kata Kunci: makanan formula, biskuit siap-santap, makanan darurat, bencana alam

  4. Perkiraan Asupan Iodium dan Natrium Menggunakan Urin 24 Jam pada Anak dan Dewasa

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    Djoko Kartono

    2015-01-01

    deficiency area but considerably high intake of sodium based on the analysis of a 24 hour urine collection. Keywords: adult, children, iodine, sodium, 24 hours urine.   ABSTRAK Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007 mendapatkan angka hipertensi yang tinggi (31.7%. Pertanyaannya, masih relevankah program fortifikasi iodium dalam garam karena konsumsi garam berkorelasi dengan hipertensi. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai kadar iodium urin dan natrium urin serta perkiraan asupan natrium dan iodium. Disain studi potong lintang dengan sampel keluarga: bapak, ibu, anak 6-12 tahun. Lokasi di tiga desa di Kecamatan Getasan, Kabupaten Semarang. Sebanyak 99 keluarga menjadi sampel penelitian. Variabel dikumpulkan mencakup berat dan tinggi badan, kadar iodium   garam, volume urin 24 jam, kadar iodium urin dan natrium urin. Perkiraan asupan iodium dan natrium menggunakan nilai iodium dan natrium urin dan volume urin. Jenis garam yang dikonsumsi (97% bentuk bata, rerata kadar iodium 20.4 ppm dan konsumsi garam 8.0 ± 4.7 gram per orang per hari. Median dan rerata volume urin 1500 mL dan 1523 ± 623 mL. Median dan rerata ekskresi iodium urin (EIU 93 dan 105 ± 61 μg/L. Proporsi EIU subyek < 100 μg/L 55.6% dan EIU ≥ 300 μg/L 1%. Median dan rerata ekskresi natrium urin (ENU 2588 mg/L (ppm dan 2732 ± 986 mg/L. Proporsi ENU ≥ 2300 mg/L 62%. Frekuensi konsumsi sumber iodium dan natrium: 47.5% subyek mengonsumsi mi instan dan snack 1-2 kali seminggu, 98% mengonsumsi vetsin/kecap/saus ≥ 1 kali sehari. Frekuensi makan makanan asin: 53.9% subyek mengonsumsi 1-2 kali seminggu dan 26.9% mengonsumsi roti/biskuit/cake 1-2 kali seminggu. Median dan rerata asupan iodium (bapak, ibu, anak 113 μg/L dan 126 ± 73 μg/L. Median dan rerata asupan natrium (bapak, ibu, anak 3131 mg/L dan 3306 ± 1193 mg/L. Ringkasnya, garam merupakan sumber utama asupan iodium dan natrium walaupun kadar iodium dalam garam cukup rendah dibanding standar nasional industri. Lokasi penelitian merupakan daerah kekurangan

  5. Konuşma ve Ses Eğitimi Arasında Konuşmanın Ezgisi Açısından Akrabalık İlişkisi Kindship of Speaking and Voice Education Through Speaking Melody

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    Kıvanç AYCAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Voice education is interdisciplinary individual education, whichconsists of sub-matters like speaking and singing. It is also aneducation in which the individuals acquire the necessary behaviors touse their voices in compatible with the anatomical and physiologicalstructures, while they are speaking and singing. On the other hand,speech training is defined as "diction", "oratory", "rhetoric" which isdoctrines in Turkish language for this purpose. The person who wantsto talk with clear diction and to use his language in a appropriate wayand express himself properly, has to understand and apply voice andbreath control and has to acquire knowledge about phonetic, accent,intonation and enclisis. People who earns money through speaking asin advocators, public speaker, politicians and teachers, should learn tokeep their voices for a healthy voice. To make people to use innatespeaking ability in an accurate and ordered way, speaking educationpossession in school life is crucial. General purpose of speaking lessonsin the educational institution is to gain effective and fitting individualexpression ability through the student’s opinion, observation, ambitionand desires. Starting from these point students should understand themain structure and function of respiratory systems, diaphragm andabdominal muscles, larynx muscles and voice tube. Speakingeducation’s theoretical content is finding practical corresponds in voiceeducation through breath management exercises. The kinship betweenvoice and speaking education is the relationship between the theoreticalcontent of speaking education and practical content of vocal education,which relies on the melody of speaking. This article is a descriptivereview which contains kinship of voice and speaking education. Ses eğitimi; konuşma, şarkı söyleme ve şan gibi alt basamakları içeren disiplinler arası bir özel eğitim alanıdır. Bireylere konuşurken ve şarkı söylerken anatomik ve fizyolojik yap

  6. What has happened in about the last 20 years in the Canyoles watershed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi; Díaz del Olmo, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Union FP7. ENV.2009 243857. Keywords: GIS, land use, degradation, Cànyoles valley, agricultural practices. References Bodí, M.B., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H. 2012. Efectos de los incendios forestales en la vegetación y el suelo en la cuenca mediterránea: revisión bibliográfica. Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles 58, 33-35 Cerdà, A, Giménez - Morera, A. Terol, E., Domínguez, A. Jurgensen, M.F., Doerr, S.H. 1999. Cultivos de cítricos y erosión de suelos en el este de la Península Ibérica. En Control de la Degradación de los suelos y cambio global (Eds: Sánchez Díaz, J., Asins Velis, S.). IV Simposio sobre control de la degradación de los suelos y cambio global. Universitat de València. Valencia. 71 - 72. Cerdà, A. 1994. Arroyada superficial en terrazas de cultivo abandonadas. El caso del País Valenciano. Cuadernos de Geografía 56, 135-154 Cerdá, A. 2007. Soil water erosion on road embankments in Eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environments 378, 151-155. González-Peñaloza, F.A., Cerdà, Zavala, L.M., Jordán, A. 2012. Do conservative agriculture practices increase soil water repellency? A case study in citrus-cropped soils. Soil & Tillage Research 124, 233 - 239. Keenleyside, C., Tucker, G.M. 2010. Farmland Abandonment in the EU: An assessment of Trend and Prospects. Report Prepared for WWF. Institute for European Environmental Policy, London. 93 pp. MacDonald, D., Crabtree, J.R., Wiesinger, G., Dax, T., Stamou, N., Fleury, P., Gutiérrez-Lazpita, J., Gibon, A. 2000. Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: Environmental consequenses and policy reponse. Journal of Environmental Management 59, 47-69. Piqueras, J. 2012. Geografía del Territorio Valenciano. Departament de Geografia, Universitat de València (Valencia, España). 256 pp. Renwick, A., Jansson, T., Verburg, P.H., Revoredo-Giha, C., Britz, W., Gocht, A., McCracken, D. 2013. Policy reforms and agricultural land abandonment in the EU. Land Use

  7. Development and Experimental Study of Phantoms for Mapping Skin Chromophores

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    Silapetere A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mūsdienās multispektrālās attēlošanas iekārtas izmanto ādas parametru un fizioloģisko procesu aprakstīšanai gan pētniecības, gan diagnostikas nolūkiem. Iekārtu darbības uzlabošanai ir nepieciešams labāk saprast gaismas mijiedarbību ar audiem, kā arī veikt šo iekārtu kalibrēšanu ar ādas maketu. Redzamā un tuvā infrasarkanā optiskā diapazona spektroskopijā ir svarīgi ādas maketi, kas simulē audu slāņaino struktūru un ķīmiskās īpašības, kā arī maketi, kas ir bioloģiski līdzvērtīgi. Šajā pētījumā tika izveidots ādas makets no bioloģiskām un ķīmiski sintezētām struktūrām. Ādas maketa izveidei tika izmantota fibrīna matrica ar dermālo un epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu, lai imitētu ādas slāņaino struktūru. Fibrīna matrica tiek veidota no 0,47 ml asins plazmas, 0,4 ml fizioloģiskā šķīduma, 0,8 μl treneksāmskābes un 89,4 μl kalcija glukanāta. Izveidoto matricu ievieto šūnu inkubatorā, lai tā polimerizētos. Nākošais slānis tiek veidots ar dermālo šūnu piejaukumu (180-270 šūnas, un pēdējais fibrīna matriksa slānis tiek veidots ar epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu (270 šūnas un šūnu augšanu veicinošu serumu (FBS. Šūnu kultivēšanai nepieciešamas vismaz divas nedēļas. Šajā slāņainajā struktūrā ir iespējams pievienot ādas hromoforu simulējošus iekļāvumus. Optiskajā diapazonā no 450-900 nm ādas hromoforas, kurām ir visizteiktākais spektrs, ir bilirubīns, melanīns un hemoglobīns. Lai simulētu ādas hromoforu spektrālās īpašības, tika izmantots sintezēts bilirubīns, eritrocītu masa un nigrozīns. Lai izpētītu šī maketa iekārtu kalibrēšanas potenciālu, tika izveidoti 76 paraugi, kur katros 24 paraugos bija pievienots viens no absorbentiem ar dažādām koncentrācijām. Pilna ādas maketa audzēšanai nepieciešamas divas nedēļas, lai ātrāk tiktu iegūti pirmie rezultāti tika veidoti maketi bez dermālo un epiderm

  8. Экологическая стабильность территории многолетних насаждений

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    ТИБИЛОВА Л. М.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the role of ecological stability of land as the most important imperative of land protection. We make a retrospective journey of various practices aimed to determine the ecological stability of land, including the original ones. Original methods are applied by the example of arable lands of a certain village council and administrative districts of Chernivtsi region as a whole. We propose to introduce a correction factor calculated by the authors for landscape in order to define more exactly the value of the ecological stability of perennial plantations. Unlike traditional methods, it is differentiated according to some specific indicators of slope steepness and the erosion degree of perennial plants. The notion of erosion-forming factor is introduced. The chart of the perennial plants structure in Chernivtsi region by the erosion degree is provided. We have conducted a visual and graphical analysis of the variation of the erosion stability factor depending on the performance of erosion-forming factors. The proposed methodology can be applied in practical land management as well asin the learning process. Реферат. В статье рассматривается роль экологической стабильности территории, как важнейшего императива охраны земель, проводится экскурс разных практик определения экологической стабильности территории, в том числе и авторских. Авторские методики проведены на примере пахотных угодий отдельного сельского совета и административных районов Черновицкой области в целом. Для уточнения величины экологической стабильности территории многолетних