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Sample records for skink mabuya nigropunctata

  1. Helminth communities of two sympatric skinks (Mabuya agilis and Mabuya macrorhyncha) from two "restinga" habitats in southeastern Brazil.

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    Vrcibradic, D; Rocha, C F D; Bursey, C R; Vicente, J J

    2002-12-01

    The helminth fauna of two sympatric congeneric skinks (Mabuya agilis and M. macrorhyncha) from two distinct "restinga" habitats (Praia das Neves and Grussaí) in southeastern Brazil were studied, totalling four data sets (sample sizes ranging from 11 to 28). A total of ten helminth species were associated with the skinks: Raillietiella sp., Paradistomum parvissimum, Pulchrosomoides elegans, Oochoristica ameivae, Hexametra boddaertii, Parapharyngodon sceleratus, Physalopteroides venancioi, Physaloptera sp., an unidentified acuariid nematode and an unidentified centrorhynchid acanthocephalan. Except for Hexametra boddaertii (found only in Grussaí) and Pulchrosomoides elegans (found only in Praia das Neves), all helminth species were present at both localities. Half of the helminth species were present only as larvae and, in most cases, appear to represent paratenic parasitism. Overall prevalences of infection were high for both host species in both localities. Mabuya agilis tended to have richer and more diverse infracommunities than M. macrorhyncha. Some parameters of infection by individual helminth species seem to be related to the ecology of each Mabuya species. The parasite faunas were qualitatively very similar among species and/or localities, but quantitative similarities were more varied, due to differential representativeness of individual helminth species among host populations. The helminth communities of both skink species can be classified as non-interactive, being composed of site-specialists and immature stages of non-lizard parasites.

  2. Crescimento alométrico, morfologia e uso do habitat em cinco espécies de Mabuya Fitzinger (Reptilia, Scincidae Allometric growth, morphology and habitat use in five species of Mabuya Fitzinger (Reptilia, Scincidae

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    Gabriel Silva Pinto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas a variação ontogenética da forma do corpo nos lagartos sul-americanos Mabuya agilis, M. bistriata, M. guaporicola, M. macrorhyncha e M. nigropunctata, assim como as diferenças interespecíficas nas proporções do corpo, como resultados de um possível crescimento alométrico. As trajetórias das tendências ontogenéticas foram significativamente diferentes somente entre M. guaporicola e M. nigropunctata; todos os pares de espécies, exceto M. agilis e M. macrorhyncha, M. bistriata e M. nigropunctata, demonstraram diferenças significativas em relação ao intercepto Y. A Análise de Componentes Principais aplicada sobre uma série de caracteres morfométricos demonstrou sinais opostos para as variáveis do corpo e dos membros, corroborando estudos anteriores. Contudo, quando as espécies foram analisadas individualmente, as mãos e dígitos apresentaram alometria negativa, enquanto os demais segmentos apresentaram variação em suas alometrias. Algumas hipóteses levantadas nesse estudo, relacionadas à forma do corpo e ao uso do hábitat nessas espécies, necessitam ser testadas.The ontogenetic variation of body shape in the South American skinks Mabuya agilis Boulenger, 1887, M. bistriata (Spix, 1825, M. guaporicola Dunn, 1936, M. macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946, and M. nigropunctata (Spix, 1825 were analyzed. Interspecific differences in body proportions as a possible result of allometric growth in these species are also examined. Ontogenetic trend lines were significantly different only between M. guaporicola and M. nigropunctata; all other species pairs, except M. agilis and M. macrorhyncha, M. bistriata and M. nigropunctata, showed significantly different Y intercepts. A PCA analysis on a series of morphometric characters showed opposite signals for body and limb variables, corroborating previous studies. However, when the species were analyzed separately, hand and digits were the most likely segments to present negative

  3. Intestinal microsporidiosis in African skink Mabuya perrotetti

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudela, Břetislav; Didier, E. S.; Rogers, L. B.; Modrý, David; Kučerová, Štěpánka

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (1998), s. 150-156 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA508/95/0273; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Grant - others:NIH(US) RR00164; NIH(US) AI39968 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 0.706, year: 1998

  4. Parallel gigantism and complex colonization patterns in the Cape Verde scincid lizards Mabuya and Macroscincus (Reptilia: Scincidae) revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

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    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Mateo, J A; López-Jurado, L F

    2001-08-07

    The scincid lizards of the Cape Verde islands comprise the extinct endemic giant Macroscincus coctei and at least five species of Mabuya, one of which, Mabuya vaillanti, also had populations with large body size. Phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase I and 12S rRNA genes (711, 498 and 378 base pairs (bp), respectively) corroborates morphological evidence that these species constitute a clade and that Macroscincus is unrelated to very large skinks in other areas. The relationships are ((M. vaillanti and Mabuya delalandii) (Mabuya spinalis and Macroscincus coctei (Mabuya fogoensis nicolauensis (Mabuya fogoensis antaoensis and Mabuya stangeri)))). The Cape Verde archipelago was colonized from West Africa, probably in the Late Miocene or Early Pliocene period. The north-eastern islands were probably occupied first, after which the ancestor of M. vaillanti and M. delalandii may have originated on Boavista, the ancestor of the latter species arriving on Santiago or Fogo later. The M. fogoensis--M. stangeri clade colonized the islands of Branco, Razo, Santa Luzia and São Vicente from São Nicolau and reached Santo Antão after this. Colonization of these northeastern islands was slow, perhaps because the recipient islands had not developed earlier or because colonization cut across the path of the Canary Current and the Northeast Trade Winds, the main dispersing agents in the region. Rapid extension of range into the southwestern islands occurred later in M. spinalis and then in M. vaillanti and M. delalandii. The long apparent delay between the origin of these species and their southwestern dispersal may have been because there were earlier colonizations of the southern islands which excluded later ones until the earlier inhabitants were exterminated by volcanic or climatic events. The evolution of large size in Macroscincus occurred in the northwestern islands and was paralleled in the eastern and

  5. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Squamata: Scincidae from a montane atlantic rainforest area in Southeastern Brazil

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    Teixeira, Rogério L.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns aspectos da ecologia (principalmente reprodução e dieta do lagarto scincídeo Mabuya agilis foram estudados com base em amostras mensais realizadas de dezembro de 1997 a abril de 1999 em uma área de floresta tropical serrana no estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil. Dos 197 espécimes coletados, 82 eram machos, 110 eram fêmeas, e o resto não pôde ser corretamente sexado. Lagartos variaram em comprimento rostro-coacal de 30 a 96 mm e foram sexualmente dimórficos em tamanho, com fêmeas atingindo maiores tamanhos que machos. A menor fêmea grávida mediu 54.0 mm. O tamanho da ninhada para 49 fêmeas grávidas variou de 2 a 9 (média = 5.7 e esteve positiva e significativamente relacionado ao tamanho dos lagartos. As presas dominantes na dieta de M. agilis foram baratas, ortópteros e aranhas. A população de M. agilis aqui estudada diferiu de outras populações conspecíficas previamente estudadas em hábitats de «restinga» nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, sendo que os indivíduos crescem a tamanhos maiores e a fecundidade é mais alta, possivelmente devido a uma maior disponibilidade de alimento no hábitat de floresta tropical serrana Some aspects of the ecology (mainly reproduction and diet of the skink Mabuya agilis were studied based on monthly samples taken from December 1997 to April 1999 at a montane rainforest area in Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Of 197 collected specimens, 82 were males, 110 were females, and the rest could not be properly sexed. Lizards varied in snout-vent length (SVL from 30 to 96 mm and were sexually dimorphic in size, with females growing larger than males. The smallest gravid female measured 54.0 mm in SVL. Litter size of 49 gravid females varied from 2 to 9 (mean= 5.7 and was positively and significantly related to lizard SVL. The dominant prey items in the diet of M. agilis were cockroaches, orthopterans and spiders. The population of M. agilis here studied

  6. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Raddi (Lacertilia, Scincidae at the restinga of Grumari, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

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    Davor Vrcibradic

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the ecology of the skink Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 at the restinga habitat of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are studied. Most of the lizards were first sighted on the ground, though a few were using perches (mainly cacti up to 30 cm high. Mean body temperature in activity was 33.1 ± 2.4ºC and was significantly correlated to air temperature. There was sexual dimorphism in size (snout-vent length - SVL, with females growing larger than males. Frequency of broken tails was high overall (83% and did not differ between sexes. Females and males are sexually mature at 49 mm and 47 mm SVL, respectively. Brood size averaged 3.2 ± 1.0 (range 1-5 and was positively and significantly related to female SVL (r = 0.65, p = 0.001. Relative clutch mass (RCM of seven gravid females averaged 0.250 ± 0.042, being relatively low compared to those of other congeners. The diet of M. agilis was composed basically of arthropods, with relatively large and soft-bodied arthropods such as spiders, caterpillars and homopterans being the most important prey. The results of our work confirm and expand the knowledge of ecological tendencies previously observed for M. agilis in other areas.

  7. Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.

    2011-11-01

    This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.

  8. Selective predation by feral cats on a native skink on Guam

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    Lardner, Björn; Reed, Robert N.; Adams, Amy A. Yackel; Mazurek, M.J.; Hinkle, Thomas J.; Levasseur, Patricia M.; Palmer, Meredith S.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Two species of skinks (Fig. 1) occur in a 5-ha plot on Guam where we have been conducting intensive research on Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) population biology for nearly a decade (Rodda et al. 2007). The Pacific Blue-tailed Skink (Emoia caeruleocauda [de Vis 1892]) is native to Guam, whereas the Curious Skink (Carlia ailanpalai Zug 2004) is invasive. On the evening of 27 November 2012, PML and MSP discovered a pile of vomited skinks (Fig. 2) inside the plot (UTM 55P: 269125 m E, 1508930 m N).

  9. Habitat use in south-west European skinks (genus Chalcides

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    Daniel Escoriza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Congeneric species of reptiles frequently exhibit partitioning in terms of their use of habitats or trophic resources in order to reduce competition. In this study, we investigated habitat use by two species of European skinks: Chalcides bedriagai and Chalcides striatus, based on 49 records from southern France, Spain, and Portugal. Methods We measured three levels of niche descriptors: macroscale (climate, topography, and substrate, mesoscale (plant associations, and microscale (vegetation cover and shelters. We assessed the associations between these environmental descriptors and the occurrence of the skinks. Results Our results showed that the two species occupied opposite extremes of the ecological gradient i.e., C. bedriagai in semi-arid environments and C. striatus in temperate-oceanic environments, but there was broad ecological overlap in transitional climates at all of the habitat scales examined. This overlap was demonstrated by the presence of syntopy in geographically distant sites with different environmental characteristics. Discussion The morphological differences between the two species, and possibly their different use of microhabitats, might favor this mesoscale overlap between congeneric species, which is relatively unusual in Mediterranean lizards.

  10. Colonisation of epiphytic ferns by skinks and geckos in the high canopy of a Bornean rainforest

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    Donald, J.; Clegg, J.; Ellwood, M. D. F.

    2017-01-01

    Nest site availability limits the fitness and survival of skinks and geckos, particularly in the canopy of tall tropical rainforests. We document the systematic colonisation and nest use of epiphytic bird’s nest ferns (Asplenium spp) by the gecko Hemiphyllodactylus typus and the skink Lipinia cf. vittigera. As part of a controlled experiment we placed 32 ferns of similar sizes in the high canopy of a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Half of these ferns, sampled after...

  11. A single origin of extreme matrotrophy in African mabuyine skinks

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    Metallinou, Margarita; Karin, Benjamin R.; Conradie, Werner; Wagner, Philipp; Schmitz, Andreas; Jackman, Todd R.; Bauer, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Most mammals and approximately 20% of squamates (lizards and snakes) are viviparous, whereas all crocodilians, birds and turtles are oviparous. Viviparity evolved greater than 100 times in squamates, including multiple times in Mabuyinae (Reptilia: Scincidae), making this group ideal for studying the evolution of nutritional patterns associated with viviparity. Previous studies suggest that extreme matrotrophy, the support of virtually all of embryonic development by maternal nutrients, evolved as many as three times in Mabuyinae: in Neotropical Mabuyinae (63 species), Eumecia (2 species; Africa) and Trachylepis ivensii (Africa). However, no explicit phylogenetic hypotheses exist for understanding the evolution of extreme matrotrophy. Using multilocus DNA data, we inferred a species tree for Mabuyinae that implies that T. ivensii (here assigned to the resurrected genus Lubuya) is sister to Eumecia, suggesting that extreme matrotrophy evolved only once in African mabuyine skinks. PMID:27555650

  12. Is Bocourt’s Terrific Skink Really So Terrific? Trophic Myth and Reality

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    Jowers, Michael J.; Boistel, Renaud; Ineich, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Many scientists argue that our planet is undergoing a mass extinction event that is largely due to human influences. In this context, rediscoveries of species presumed to be extinct are encouraging and of great potential interest. During a 2003 expedition to New Caledonia, Bocourt’s terrific skink, Phoboscincus bocourti, was unexpectedly rediscovered on a small islet by one of us. This skink species had been described from a single specimen collected around 1872 in New Caledonia. Since that time, however, no data on the species’ biology, trophic interactions, or role in the ecosystem have been collected, making it difficult to follow the established conservation plan. In this study, we used a multidisciplinary approach involving natural history, anatomy, morphology, genetics, and stable isotopes to elucidate the ecology of Bocourt’s terrific skink. Over the course of three different expeditions to the islet (total of 55 days across 2005 and 2012), we captured 4 individuals and observed another 4 individuals. The species’ dentition and trophic ecology suggest that it is a top predator in its ecosystem and a major consumer of small terrestrial reptiles. Its high degree of genetic relatedness to another New Caledonian skink, which has a broad distribution, suggests that P. bocourti underwent genetic isolation at a geographical remote location, where dispersal or colonization was highly improbable. Moreover, the lack of genetic variation among the four individuals we captured may imply that a unique lineage, characterized by few inter-island exchanges, exists on the islet. Bocourt’s terrific skink may be the largest terrestrial squamate predator alive in New Caledonia today. As a result, it is likely vulnerable to habitat modifications and especially the invasive rodents found on this islet. Further information is necessary to assess the conservation plans and practices in place as no concrete changes have been made since the species’ rediscovery almost 10

  13. Observações sobre a história natural do lagarto Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge (Scincidae) na Ilha da Queimada Grande, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Vrcibradic, Davor; Rocha, Carlos F. D.

    2005-01-01

    Data are presented on the on diet, thermal biology, microhabitat use, reproduction and helminth infection parameters of a population of Mabuya macrorhyncha hoge, 1946 inhabiting the small island of Queimada Grande, on the southern coast of São Paulo State. The lizards were collected on November 1997 (spring) and on July 1998 (winter). Most lizards were perched above ground, mainly on herbaceous vegetation. Mean lizard body temperatures were significantly higher in spring (32.6 ± 1.9ºC) than i...

  14. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MABUYA BERENGERAE, MABUYA PERGRAVIS (SQUAMATA: SCINCIDAE Y CONIOPHANES ANDRESENSIS (SQUAMATA: COLUBRIDAE Y EVALUACIÓN DE SU ESTADO DE AMENAZA EN LAS ISLAS DE SAN ANDRÉS Y PROVIDENCIA, COLOMBIA

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    JOSÉ RANCES CAICEDO-PORTILLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta nueva información sobre la taxonomía, la distribución y la historia natural de los lagartos Mabuya berengerae y M. pergravis; así como de la serpiente Coniophanes andresensis, tres especies endémicas y poco conocidas de las islas de San Andrés y Providencia, las cuales se creían muy raras e incluso extintas. A pesar del poco tiempo de estudio en las islas, se evidenció que los lagartos no son raros, encontrándose hasta ocho ejemplares cada media hora. La evaluación del estado de conservación según los parámetros de la IUCN para las tres especies, clasifica a M. berengerae y M. pergravis como especies casi amenazadas (NT y a C. andresensis como una especie en peligro crítico de extinción (CR. La pequeña área de distribución geográfica, el impacto antrópico y la introducción de especies exóticas pueden ser las principales causas de la disminución de la población de C. andresensis. Se analizaron algunos caracteres taxonómicos en M. berengerae (hasta ahora conocida de un solo ejemplar, encontrándose ciertas discrepancias que hacen necesaria su redefinición. Se recomienda realizar programas de investigación básica, conservación y educación, así como proteger los hábitats naturales de las islas.

  15. Nematode assemblages of some insular and continental lizard hosts of the genus Mabuya Fitzinger (Reptilia, Scincidae along the eastern Brazilian coast

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    Carlos Frederico D. Rocha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nematode assemblages associated to three species of lizards of the genus Mabuya Fitzinger, 1826 [M. agilis (Raddi, 1823, M. caissara Rebouças-spieker, 1974 and M. macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946] from three mainland sites and three island sites along the eastern Brazilian coast were analyzed. A total of six nematode species were recorded, with total nematode richness varying from one to four and overall nematode prevalences varying from 6.7% to 90.5% among host populations. Number of nematode species per host individual (including all hosts, infected and uninfected varied among host populations from 0.07 to 1.05, but most infected lizards in all six host populations harbored a single nematode species. Both insular and continental populations of Mabuya spp. exhibited generally poor nematode assemblages, and no clear tendency for insular host populations to have more depauperate nematode faunas and/or lower infection rates compared to mainland ones (or vice versa was evident on the basis of the present data.

  16. Population demography of an endangered lizard, the Blue Mountains Water Skink

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Sylvain; Sinsch, Ulrich; Dehling, Maximilian J; Chevalley, Maya; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on the age structure within populations of an endangered species can facilitate effective management. The Blue Mountains Water Skink (Eulamprus leuraensis) is a viviparous scincid lizard that is restricted to < 40 isolated montane swamps in south-eastern Australia. We used skeletochronology of phalanges (corroborated by mark-recapture data) to estimate ages of 222 individuals from 13 populations. RESULTS: These lizards grow rapidly, from neonatal size (30 mm snou...

  17. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil

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    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.

  18. The helminth community of the skink Chalcides sexlineatus from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).

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    Roca, V; Carretero, M A; Jorge, F; Perera, A; Ferrero, A; Rodríguez-Reina, S

    2012-06-01

    A survey of the gastrointestinal helminth communities of a population of Chalcides sexlineatus Steindachner, a small skink endemic to Gran Canaria island (Canary Archipelago, Spain), was conducted to determine the prevalence, abundance and species diversity of intestinal parasites in these reptiles. Only three parasite species were found, one cestode, Oochoristica agamae Baylis, 1919 and two nematodes, Parapharyngodon micipsae (Seurat, 1917) and Pharyngodonidae gen. sp. Helminth infracommunities of C. sexlineatus showed low values of abundance and species richness and diversity, being more similar to the helminth community of Tarentola boettgeri boettgeri (Steindachner) rather than those of Gallotia stehlini (Schenkel), both syntopic with the sampled host.

  19. Four New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Emoia spp. Skinks (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea and the Insular Pacific.

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    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Austin, Christopher C; Fisher, Robert N

    2017-02-01

    Between September and November 1991, 54 adult skinks from 15 species were collected by hand or blowpipe from several localities on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, Ovalau Island, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea (PNG), and their feces were examined for coccidians. Species included 5 seaside skinks (Emoia atrocostata), 1 Pacific blue-tailed skink (Emoia caeroleocauda), 2 Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor), 15 white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), 1 Bulolo River forest skink (Emoia guttata), 6 dark-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia impar), 5 Papua five-striped skinks (Emoia jakati), 2 Papua slender treeskinks (Emoia kordoana), 3 Papua robust treeskinks (Emoia longicauda), 1 brown-backed forest skink (Emoia loveridgei), 3 Papua black-sided skinks (Emoia pallidiceps), 2 Papua white-spotted skinks (Emoia physicae), 2 Papua yellow-head skinks (Emoia popei), 1 Papua brown forest skink (Emoia submetallica), and 5 Fiji barred treeskinks (Emoia trossula) Species of Eimeria (Ei.) were detected from these Emoia (Em.) spp. and are described here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria iovai n. sp. from Em. pallidiceps from PNG were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall (L × W) 26.5 × 18.1 μm, with a length/width ratio (L/W) of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granule was present. This eimerian also was found in Em. atrocostata from PNG. Oocysts of Eimeria kirkpatricki n. sp. from Em. atrocostata from PNG were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, 18.6 × 13.5 μm, L/W 1.4. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a fragmented polar granule was present. This eimerian was also shared by Em. cyanura from the Cook Islands and Fiji, Em. impar from the Cook Islands, Em. loveridgei from PNG, Em. pallidiceps from PNG, Em. popei from PNG, and Em. submetallica from PNG. Oocysts of Eimeria stevejayuptoni n. sp. from Em. longicauda were subspheroidal to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, 18.7 × 16.6 μm, L/W 1.1. A micropyle and oocyst residuum

  20. Effect of Tokay Gecko (Gekko Gecko LINNAEUS, 1758) Saliva on Angiogenesis During Wound Healing Phase of Autotomized Tail in Common Sun Skink (Eutropis Multifasciata KUHL, 1820)

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    Inayah, Nurul; Soesilo, Nyoman Puniawati; Pratiwi, Rarastoeti

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Tokay gecko saliva on morphology and angiogenesis response on the healing process of skink tail wound and also to characterize the protein profile of Gecko saliva. Twelve skinks were autotomized and wound surface of tail smeared by young gecko saliva, adult gecko saliva, and human's saliva twice per day and control. The morphological changes of the wound surface were observed. The angiogenesis response was observed in vitro using Chor...

  1. Dietary competition between the alien Asian Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus) and a re-introduced population of Telfair's Skink (Leiolopisma telfairii).

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    Brown, D S; Burger, R; Cole, N; Vencatasamy, D; Clare, E L; Montazam, A; Symondson, W O C

    2014-08-01

    Re-introduction of rare species to parts of their historical range is becoming increasingly important as a conservation strategy. Telfair's Skinks (Leiolopisma telfairii), once widespread on Mauritius, were until recently found only on Round Island. There it is vulnerable to stochastic events, including the introduction of alien predators that may either prey upon it or compete for food resources. Consequently, skinks have been introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, another small Mauritian island that has been cleared of rats. However, the island has been invaded by Asian Musk Shrews (Suncus murinus), a commensal species spread by man well beyond its natural Asian range. Our aim was to use next-generation sequencing to analyse the diets of the shrews and skinks to look for niche competition. DNA was extracted from skink faeces and from the stomach contents of shrews. Application of shrew- and skink-specific primers revealed no mutual predation. The DNA was then amplified using general invertebrate primers with tags to identify individual predators, and then sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. 119 prey MOTUs (molecular taxonomic units) were isolated, although none could be identified to species. Seeding of cladograms with known sequences allowed higher taxonomic assignments in some cases. Although most MOTUs were not shared by shrews and skinks, Pianka's niche overlap test showed significant prey overlap, suggesting potentially strong competition where food resources are limited. These results suggest that removal of the shrews from the island should remain a priority. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil

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    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de insetos decompositores associados a carcaças de pequeno porte de dois répteis e de um anfíbio, encontrados em áreas de matas de galeria e de cerrado sensu stricto em unidades de conservação do Distrito Federal. Foram encontradas sete espécies de insetos associados a essas carcaças, sendo cinco sarcofagídeos, um califorídeo e uma vespa parasitóide Braconidae. Lucilia eximia e Peckia (Pattonella intermutans foram as espécies mais abundantes, corroborando com outros estudos que sugerem que estas espécies apresentam especializações para a colonização de carcaças menores.

  3. Three new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Skinks, Lipinia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Austin, Christopher C.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September 1991 and March 1993, 25 moth skinks (Lipinia noctua) were collected from various localities on the Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Vanuatu and examined for coccidians. In addition, a single Roux's lipinia skink (Lipinia rouxi) was collected from PNG and examined for coccidia. Sixteen (64%) L. noctua were found to harbor 2 new eimerians, and L. rouxi harbored another new Eimeria sp. Oocysts of Eimeria lipinia n. sp. from 9 (36%) L. noctua from the Cook Islands, Fiji, and PNG were subspherical with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 18.6 × 16.9 μm, with a L/W ratio of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria melanesia n. sp. from 6 (24%) L. noctua from Fiji and Vanuatu and a single L. rouxi from PNG were subspherical to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 19.8 × 17.5 μm, and L/W was 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria lessoni n. sp. from 1 (4%) L. noctua from PNG were cylindroidal with a bilayered wall and measured 28.1 × 15.7 μm, and L/W was 1.8. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single polar granule was present. These represent the third report of Eimeria spp. reported from any host on PNG and the only coccidians, to our knowledge, ever described from L. noctua and L. rouxi and from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu.

  4. Photodermatitis and photokeratoconjunctivitis in a ball python (Python regius) and a blue-tongue skink (Tiliqua spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, David W; Baines, Frances M; Pandher, Karamjeet

    2009-12-01

    A male ball python (Python regius) and a female blue tongue skink (Tiliqua spp.) of unknown age were evaluated for anorexia, lethargy, excessive shedding, corneal opacity (python), and weight loss (skink) of approximately three weeks' duration. These animals represented the worst affected animals from a private herpetarium where many animals exhibited similar signs. At necropsy, the python had bilateral corneal opacity and scattered moderate dysecdysis. The skink had mild dysecdysis, poor body condition, moderate intestinal nematodiasis, and mild liver atrophy. Microscopic evaluation revealed epidermal erosion and ulceration, with severe epidermal basal cell degeneration and necrosis, and superficial dermatitis (python and skink). Severe bilateral ulcerative keratoconjunctivitis with bacterial colonization was noted in the ball python. Microscopic findings within the skin and eyes were suggestive of ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage or of photodermatitis and photokeratoconjunctivitis. Removal of the recently installed new lamps from the terrariums of the surviving reptiles resulted in resolution of clinical signs. Evaluation of a sample lamp of the type associated with these cases revealed an extremely high UV output, including very-short-wavelength UVB, neither found in natural sunlight nor emitted by several other UVB lamps unassociated with photokeratoconjunctivitis. Exposure to high-intensity and/or inappropriate wavelengths of UV radiation may be associated with significant morbidity, and even mortality, in reptiles. Veterinarians who are presented with reptiles with ocular and/or cutaneous disease of unapparent cause should fully evaluate the specifics of the vivarium light sources. Further research is needed to determine the characteristics of appropriate and of toxic UV light for reptiles kept in captivity.

  5. Reproducción y dieta de una población de Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata, Scincidae en Córdoba, Argentina

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    Liliana Aun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron estudiados los aspectos reproductivos y la dieta de Mabuya dorsivittata, una especie de lagarto vivíparo de la localidad de Alto Alegre (Córdoba. La hembra de menor tamaño, con folículos yemados midió de LHC 41 mm. El tamaño de la camada varió entre 5 – 10 embriones por hembra. Los machos de menor tamaño con espermatozoos en los testículos midieron de LHC 31 mm. Hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el peso de las gónadas versus el estadio reproductivo (b= 0,524, R= 0,254, P< 0,001. En los machos hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el volumen testicular y el estadio reproductivo (R2= 0,851, b= 0,929, P< 0,002. El incremento de cuerpos grasos en hembras y machos se relacionó con el periodo de gestación, especialmente en las hembras, decreciendo en las últimas fases, indicando un costo energético alto en los últimos meses del crecimiento embrionario. En cuanto a la dieta, las hembras se alimentaron principalmente de Araneae (suelo como ítem fundamental, y de Scarabeidae, Araneae (otras y Acridiidae como ítem secundario y los machos se alimentaran de Isopoda, Acridiidae y Araneae (otras como ítem fundamental y de Tettigonidae como ítem secundario. Hubo diferencias significativas en la selección trófica entre sexos.

  6. A new skink (Scincidae: Carlia) from the rainforest uplands of Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2014-10-01

    Carlia skinks are widespread in New Guinea, Wallacea, and northern and eastern Australia. Most Australian species occur in dry woodlands and savannas or marginal rainforest habitats associated with these. There are two rainforest species, parapatrically distributed in coastal mid-eastern Queensland (C. rhomboidalis) and the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Queensland (C. rubrigularis). These two sister species share a diagnostic morphological trait in having the interparietal scale fused to the frontoparietal. Here I describe a third species in this group, Carlia wundalthini sp. nov., from rainforest uplands of the Melville Range, a rainforest isolate 170 km north of the Wet Tropics. This species is diagnosable on male breeding colouration, morphometrics and scalation. The description of C. wundalthini sp. nov. brings the number of vertebrate species known to be endemic to the rainforest and boulder-fields of Cape Melville to seven. Carlia wundalthini sp. nov. is distinct among these endemics in being the only one that does not appear to be directly associated with rock, being found in rainforest leaf-litter. 

  7. A new skink (Scincidae: Saproscincus) from rocky rainforest habitat on Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2013-01-01

    Saproscincus skinks are restricted to wet forest habitats of eastern Australia. Eleven species have previously been described, with most having small distributions in disjunct areas of subtropical and tropical rainforest. The localized distributions and specific habitat requirements of Saproscincus have made them a key group for understanding the biogeographic history of Australia's rainforests. Here I describe a new species of Saproscincus from the Melville Range on Cape Melville, north-east Australia. The Melville Range is composed of boulder-fields and areas of rainforest in the uplands, and is highly isolated from other areas of elevated rainforest. All individuals of the new species were found on a moist ridgeline, active on boulders under a rainforest canopy or on boulder-field immediately adjacent to rainforest. Saproscincus saltus sp. nov. is highly distinct in morphology and colour pattern. Of particular interest are its long limbs and digits compared to congeners, which in conjunction with the observed ecology, suggest a long history of association with rock. The discovery of S. saltus sp. nov. extends the distribution of the genus over 100 km north from the nearest congeners in the Wet Tropics region. This species brings the number of vertebrates known to be endemic to the Melville Range to six, which is remarkable for such a small area.

  8. Phylogenetic disassembly of species boundaries in a widespread group of Australian skinks (Scincidae: Ctenotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Hutchinson, Mark N; Donnellan, Stephen C; Talaba, Amanda L; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-08-01

    Scincid lizards in the genus Ctenotus represent one of Australia's most species-rich vertebrate clades, with more than 100 recognized species. Formal diagnoses of many species have relied on qualitative assessments of adult color pattern, but the validity of many such species has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to perform the first phylogenetic analysis of species in the Ctenotus inornatus group, a complex of at least 11 nominal forms that are distributed widely across the Australian continent. Mitochondrial and nuclear gene phylogenies support the presence of multiple species in the group, but these clades largely fail to match species boundaries as currently defined. Multivariate analyses of color pattern indicate that extreme intraspecific morphological variation in this character has created a significant impediment to understanding taxonomic diversity in the group. Our results suggest that nearly all species in the C. inornatus group require substantial taxonomic revision, and several geographically widespread forms ("C. saxatilis" and "C. robustus") appear to be polyphyletic taxa drawn from phenotypically similar but genetically distinct lineages. We describe one new species and provide redescriptions for three additional species. We synonymize names applied to a number of genetically incoherent or otherwise poorly-defined forms. The results of our study highlight an acute need for population genetic studies of species boundaries in Australian skinks, many of which are recognized by morphological traits that vary greatly within and between populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Notes on the hatching phases and the size of the juveniles in the Snake-eyed skink Ablepharus kitaibelii (Bibron & Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1833)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergilov, Vladislav; Natchev, Nikolay

    2018-03-01

    Most of the studies dealing with the Snake-eyed skink (Ablepharus kitaibelii) treat predominantly aspects of the distribution and taxonomy of the species. In the present study we provide information concerning the mechanism of hatching in the Snake-eyed skink and the dimensions of the hatched specimens. We collected data from wild animals, as well as from indoor incubated juveniles. The present study provides the first data concerning the weight of the newly hatched juveniles of the species and discuss on potential misleading data concerning the size of the juveniles in A. kitaibelii.

  10. Matrix matters: differences of grand skink metapopulation parameters in native tussock grasslands and exotic pasture grasslands.

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    Konstanze Gebauer

    Full Text Available Modelling metapopulation dynamics is a potentially very powerful tool for conservation biologists. In recent years, scientists have broadened the range of variables incorporated into metapopulation modelling from using almost exclusively habitat patch size and isolation, to the inclusion of attributes of the matrix and habitat patch quality. We investigated the influence of habitat patch and matrix characteristics on the metapopulation parameters of a highly endangered lizard species, the New Zealand endemic grand skink (Oligosoma grande taking into account incomplete detectability. The predictive ability of the developed zxmetapopulation model was assessed through cross-validation of the data and with an independent data-set. Grand skinks occur on scattered rock-outcrops surrounded by indigenous tussock (bunch and pasture grasslands therefore implying a metapopulation structure. We found that the type of matrix surrounding the habitat patch was equally as important as the size of habitat patch for estimating occupancy, colonisation and extinction probabilities. Additionally, the type of matrix was more important than the physical distance between habitat patches for colonisation probabilities. Detection probability differed between habitat patches in the two matrix types and between habitat patches with different attributes such as habitat patch composition and abundance of vegetation on the outcrop. The developed metapopulation models can now be used for management decisions on area protection, monitoring, and the selection of translocation sites for the grand skink. Our study showed that it is important to incorporate not only habitat patch size and distance between habitat patches, but also those matrix type and habitat patch attributes which are vital in the ecology of the target species.

  11. Testing the role of meander cutoff in promoting gene flow across a riverine barrier in ground skinks (Scincella lateralis.

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    Nathan D Jackson

    Full Text Available Despite considerable attention, the long-term impact of rivers on species diversification remains uncertain. Meander loop cutoff (MLC is one river phenomenon that may compromise a river's diversifying effects by passively transferring organisms from one side of the river to the other. However, the ability of MLC to promote gene flow across rivers has not been demonstrated empirically. Here, we test several predictions of MLC-mediated gene flow in populations of North American ground skinks (Scincella lateralis separated by a well-established riverine barrier, the Mississippi River: 1 individuals collected from within meander cutoffs should be more closely related to individuals across the river than on the same side, 2 individuals within meander cutoffs should contain more immigrants than individuals away from meander cutoffs, 3 immigration rates estimated across the river should be highest in the direction of the cutoff event, and 4 the distribution of alleles native to one side of the river should be better predicted by the historical rather than current path of the river. To test these predictions we sampled 13 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA from ground skinks collected near three ancient meander loops. These predictions were generally supported by genetic data, although support was stronger for mtDNA than for microsatellite data. Partial support for genetic divergence of samples within ancient meander loops also provides evidence for the MLC hypothesis. Although a role for MLC-mediated gene flow was supported here for ground skinks, the transient nature of river channels and morphologies may limit the long-term importance of MLC in stemming population divergence across major rivers.

  12. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks, Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17-20 × 14-16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10-11 × 7-8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28-35 × 18-24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14-16 × 10-12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  13. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17–20 × 14–16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10–11 × 7–8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28–35 × 18–24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14–16 × 10–12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  14. Observations on the natural history of the lizard Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge (Scincidae in Queimada Grande Island, São Paulo, Brazil Observações sobre a história natural do lagarto Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge (Scincidae na Ilha da Queimada Grande, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Davor Vrcibradic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Data are presented on the on diet, thermal biology, microhabitat use, reproduction and helminth infection parameters of a population of Mabuya macrorhyncha hoge, 1946 inhabiting the small island of Queimada Grande, on the southern coast of São Paulo State. The lizards were collected on November 1997 (spring and on July 1998 (winter. Most lizards were perched above ground, mainly on herbaceous vegetation. Mean lizard body temperatures were significantly higher in spring (32.6 ± 1.9ºC than in winter (28.5 ± 2.4ºC, as were air temperatures. Mean litter size of females was 2.7 (range 2-3. The diet was composed of a diverse array of arthropods and some small fruits. Of the 19 lizards examined, 16 (84.2% harboured helminths. Three species of helminth (one acanthocephalan and two nematodes were found infecting the lizards. Compared to other M. macrorhyncha populations previously studied in mainland areas, the Queimada Grande population appears to be less strongly associated to bromeliads, to consume plant matter (fruits more frequently, and to have a poorer helminth fauna.Dados são apresentados referentes à dieta, biologia térmica, uso de microhabitats, reprodução e parâmetros de infecção por helmintos de uma população de Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946 habitando a pequena ilha da Queimada Grande, na costa sul do Estado de São Paulo. Os lagartos foram coletados em novembro de 1997 (primavera e em julho de 1998 (inverno. A maioria dos lagartos foi encontrada empoleirada acima do solo, principalmente sobre vegetação herbácea. As temperaturas corpóreas médias dos lagartos foram significativamente mais altas na primavera (32,6 ± 1,9ºC do que no inverno (28,5 ± 2,4ºC, como ocorreu com as temperaturas do ar. O tamanho médio de ninhada das fêmeas foi de 2.7 (amplitude 2-3. A dieta foi composta por artrópodes variados e por alguns pequenos frutos. Dos 19 lagartos examinados, 16 (84.2% estavam infectados por helmintos. Três esp

  15. Comparative skull anatomy of terrestrial and crevice-dwelling Trachylepis skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) with a survey of resources in scincid cranial osteology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Aaron M.

    2017-01-01

    Skinks account for more than 25% of all lizard species; however, representatives of fewer than a quarter of all species have been characterized osteologically. All but a few of the available cranial descriptions concentrate solely on characters that can be seen externally on the intact skull. Mabuyid skinks of the genus Trachylepis are the dominant, fully limbed skinks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and nearly all species have the same generalized body plan. Although a few rock crevice-dwelling species possess slight body depression, extreme dorsoventral depression is observed only in Trachylepis laevis. We investigated the detailed skull anatomy of three Trachylepis skinks (T. laevis, T. sulcata, and T. gonwouoi, a recently described species allied to T. affinis) using high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography. Our goals were to review the scincid cranial osteology literature in a phylogenetic context, provide a detailed anatomical atlas for the mabuyid lineage, and investigate the morphological adaptations of the highly modified T. laevis. Our results demonstrate that there is significant morphological variation between these three taxa, including the loss and fusion of structures, as well as changes in the shape, scale, and relationship between individual elements. Trachylepis laevis possesses several osteological modifications that have produced a reducton in head depth that are likely functional consequences of extreme rupicolous habits, including a flat skull roof, many strongly recumbent elements, and a depressed neurocranium.We hypothesize these modifications may correspond to descreased bite force and increased capabilities of cranial kinesis. Our study is the first element-by-element description of a skink using computed tomography technology. PMID:28902864

  16. Food habits of the Arabian skink, Scincus hemprichii Wiegmann, 1837, (Sauria: Scincidae), in the Southwest Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paray, Bilal A; Al-Mfarij, Abdul Rahman; Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K

    2018-01-01

    Food and feeding habits of the Arabian skink, Scincus hemprichii were investigated in Jazan province, southwest of Saudi Arabia. S. hemprichii individuals fed during eleven months of the year. The mass of food in the stomachs indicated that a high degree of foraging success occurred during the warm spring while the lowest was during winter with January as an exception to feeding by the lizard. Analysis of the contents of 60 stomachs revealed that the diet of S. hemprichii in the study area consisted of arthropods, with two species of beetles of the family Dermestidae ( Dermestis vulpinus and Dermestis maculates ) and three type of dipteran larvae, accounting for 76% of the total volume of the food items. Specimens collected during January had empty stomachs.

  17. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1991 and June 1992, feces from 4 species of tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. from Papua New Guinea, were collected and examined for coccidia. Two species, P. flavipes and P. prehensicauda were found to harbor eimerians which are described as new. Oocysts of Eimeria krausi sp. nov. from P. flavipes were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a smooth bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 19.2 × 16.9 μm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 6.7 μm, L/W of 1.5. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many small granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, 11.7 × 2.7 μm, in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. Oocysts of Eimeria greeri sp. nov. from P. prehensicauda were ellipsoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, (L × W) 23.0 × 18.3 μm, with a L/W of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 8.4 μm, with a L/W of 1.2. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many large granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. We document here the first report of coccidia from skinks of the genus Prasinohaema.

  18. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Oöcysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 × 14.7 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.4 μm, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus.

  19. Four new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Owen Stanley Skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September and November 1991, 12 Owen Stanley skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Booulenger) were collected from various localities on Papua New Guinea and examined for coccidians. Six (50%) were found to harbour four eimerians that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria burseyi sp. n. were elongate to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (length x width, L x W) 36.0 x 24.0 microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.5. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria goldbergi sp. n. were ellipsoidal, with a bilayered wall, and measured 21.4 x 16.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.3. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria boulengeri sp. n. were spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, with a thin, single-layered wall that readily collapses, and measured 16.0 microm, L/W ratio was 1.0. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but usually one (sometimes two) polar granule(s) were present. Oocysts of Eimeria niuginiensis sp. n. were oblong to tapered with a bilayered wall, and measured 20.0 x 13.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.5. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. To our knowledge, these represent the only coccidians ever described from P. stanleyanus.

  20. Geographical variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism in an Australian lizard, Boulenger's Skink (Morethia boulengeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Damian R; Banks, Sam C; Piggott, Maxine P; Cunningham, Ross B; Crane, Mason; MacGregor, Christopher; McBurney, Lachlan; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Ecogeographical rules help explain spatial and temporal patterns in intraspecific body size. However, many of these rules, when applied to ectothermic organisms such as reptiles, are controversial and require further investigation. To explore factors that influence body size in reptiles, we performed a heuristic study to examine body size variation in an Australian lizard, Boulenger's Skink Morethia boulengeri from agricultural landscapes in southern New South Wales, south-eastern Australia. We collected tissue and morphological data on 337 adult lizards across a broad elevation and climate gradient. We used a model-selection procedure to determine if environmental or ecological variables best explained body size variation. We explored the relationship between morphology and phylogenetic structure before modeling candidate variables from four broad domains: (1) geography (latitude, longitude and elevation), (2) climate (temperature and rainfall), (3) habitat (vegetation type, number of logs and ground cover attributes), and (4) management (land use and grazing history). Broad phylogenetic structure was evident, but on a scale larger than our study area. Lizards were sexually dimorphic, whereby females had longer snout-vent length than males, providing support for the fecundity selection hypothesis. Body size variation in M. boulengeri was correlated with temperature and rainfall, a pattern consistent with larger individuals occupying cooler and more productive parts of the landscape. Climate change forecasts, which predict warmer temperature and increased aridity, may result in reduced lizard biomass and decoupling of trophic interactions with potential implications for community organization and ecosystem function.

  1. Possible control of introduced giant African land snails (Achatina spp. by the reintroduced endemic skink Leiolopisma telfairii, Ile aux Aigrettes, Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A. COPSEY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant African land snail (Achatina fulica is one of the world’s worst invasive species, out‐competing endemic snails, consuming native vegetation and potentially altering nutrient cycles. Attempts to eradicate the snail from islands have only been successful with incipient populations. We present correlative evidence that native island predators may act as an effective control agent for the snail. In 2000 a population of between 37,300 and 45,100 African land snails was estimated on the 26ha nature reserve island of Ile aux Aigrette, Mauritius. Between 2006 and 2007, 260 endemic Telfair’s skink Leiolopisma telfairii were reintroduced to the reserve. Snail population surveys in 2008 and 2009 showed that the introduced snail population had declined to 5,569 (± 3,630 and 6,871 (±5,379, respectively. Previous studies showed that the introduced snails were selective over other invertebrate prey items. We suggest that predation by the endemic skink has been an important causal factor behind the snail population decline.

  2. Placentation in the eastern water skink (Eulamprus quoyii): a placentome-like structure in a lecithotrophic lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Bridget F; Parker, Scott L; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2011-06-01

    The eastern water skink (Eulamprus quoyii) has lecithotrophic embryos and was previously described as having a simple Type I chorioallantoic placenta. Indeed, it was the species upon which the definition of a Type I placenta was thought to be based, although we had cause to question that assumption. Hence we have described the morphology of the uterus of E. quoyii and found it to be more complex than previously supposed. The mesometrial pole of the uterus in E. quoyii displays a vessel-dense elliptical structure (the VDE) with columnar uterine epithelial cells. As pregnancy proceeds, the uterine epithelium near the mesometrial pole becomes folded and glands become hypertrophied, so that the morphology of VDE resembles that of a placentome, characteristic of Type III placentae. Unlike species with a Type III placenta, the apposing chorioallantoic membrane of E. quoyii is lined with squamous cells and interdigitates with the folded uterine epithelium. The remainder of the uterus is thin with a squamous uterine epithelium throughout pregnancy. Immunohistochemical localisation of blood vessels reveals a dense network of small capillaries directly beneath the folded epithelium of the VDE, while blood vessels are larger and sparser at the abembryonic pole of the uterus. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity is present in the uterine epithelium and sub-epithelial blood vessels in newly ovulated females. AP activity disappears from the epithelium between stages 27 and 29 of embryonic development and from the blood vessels after stage 34, but appears in the uterine glands at stage 35, where it remains until the end of pregnancy. Although the VDE is structurally similar to the placentomes found in other viviparous lizards, different distributions of AP activity in the uterus of E. quoyii and Pseudemoia spenceri suggest that the VDE may be functionally different from the placentome of the latter species. Our description of uterine morphology in E. quoyii provides evidence

  3. Conservation of Sex-Linked Markers among Conspecific Populations of a Viviparous Skink, Niveoscincus ocellatus, Exhibiting Genetic and Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Christopher P; Ezaz, Tariq; Wapstra, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Sex determination systems are exceptionally diverse and have undergone multiple and independent evolutionary transitions among species, particularly reptiles. However, the mechanisms underlying these transitions have not been established. Here, we tested for differences in sex-linked markers in the only known reptile that is polymorphic for sex determination system, the spotted snow skink, Niveoscincus ocellatus, to quantify the genomic differences that have accompanied this transition. In a highland population, sex is determined genetically, whereas in a lowland population, offspring sex ratio is influenced by temperature. We found a similar number of sex-linked loci in each population, including shared loci, with genotypes consistent with male heterogamety (XY). However, population-specific linkage disequilibrium suggests greater differentiation of sex chromosomes in the highland population. Our results suggest that transitions between sex determination systems can be facilitated by subtle genetic differences. PMID:29659810

  4. Two new species of diminutive leaf-litter skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Tytthoscincus) from Gunung Penrissen, Sarawak, Malaysia (northern Borneo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Benjamin R; Das, Indraneil; Bauer, Aaron M

    2016-03-22

    We describe two new species of skinks from Gunung Penrissen, Sarawak, Malaysia, in northern Borneo, Tytthoscincus batupanggah sp. nov. and T. leproauricularis sp. nov. Morphological and molecular analyses both corroborate the two new species as unique compared to all other Tytthoscincus and additional Sphenomorphus that are candidates for taxonomic placement in the genus Tytthoscincus. Despite their phenotypic similarity and sympatric distribution, a molecular analysis shows that the new species are not sister taxa and exhibit a deep genetic divergence between each of their respective sister taxa. We discuss how historical climatic and geographic processes may have led to the co-distribution of two relatively distantly related phenotypically similar species. In light of these discoveries, we also emphasize the importance of conserving primary montane tropical rainforest for maintaining species diversity.

  5. Reversing an S-kink effect caused by interface degradation in organic solar cells through gold ion implantation in the PEDOT:PSS layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes-Badilla, D.; Coutinho, D. J.; Amorim, D. R. B.; Faria, R. M.; Salvadori, M. C.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we performed a study on the recovery of the photovoltaic performance of an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Ca/Al solar cell after the hole transport layer (PEDOT:PSS) had been degraded by contact with the environment. A device that was fully built in an inert environment exhibited a fill factor (FF) of 0.64, while the device whose hole transport layer was exposed to air presented a FF equal to 0.2. In addition, the J-V characteristic curve of the degraded device did not follow the photovoltaic pattern exhibiting the degenerate S shape. However, the elimination of the deleterious effect was achieved by bombarding gold ions on the contaminated surface of PEDOT:PSS by means of the Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation technique. Due to the low energy of the ionic beam of gold, the implanted gold atoms were located at few nanometers off the surface, forming nanometric clusters, that is, gold nanoparticles. Most probably, the degradation of the J-V photovoltaic curve, represented by the S-kink effect, was caused by the appearance of a potential barrier at PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM interface, which was demolished by the gold nanoparticles that have work function close to HOMO of P3HT. This S-kink effect was also simulated by using an equivalent circuit model constituted by a two-diode circuit, one of which plays the role of the undesirable potential barrier formed at the PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM interface. Our analysis shows that deposition of gold nanoparticles next to the interface recovers the good hole injection condition from the PEDOT:PSS into the active layer, restoring the fill factor and the device efficiency.

  6. The role of ecological factors in determining phylogeographic and population genetic structure of two sympatric island skinks (Plestiodon kishinouyei and P. stimpsonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Toda, Mamoru

    2017-04-01

    We conducted comparative phylogeographic and population genetic analyses of Plestiodon kishinouyei and P. stimpsonii, two sympatric skinks endemic to islands in the southern Ryukyus, to explore different factors that have influenced population structure. Previous phylogenetic studies using partial mitochondrial DNA indicate similar divergence times from their respective closest relatives, suggesting that differences in population structure are driven by intrinsic attributes of either species rather than the common set of extrinsic factors that both presumably have been exposed to throughout their history. In this study, analysis of mtDNA sequences and microsatellite polymorphism demonstrate contrasting patterns of phylogeography and population structure: P. kishinouyei exhibits a lower genetic variability and lower genetic differentiation among islands than P. stimpsonii, consistent with recent population expansion. However, historical demographic analyses indicate that the relatively high genetic uniformity in P. kishinouyei is not attributable to recent expansion. We detected significant isolation-by-distance patterns among P. kishinouyei populations on the land bridge islands, but not among P. stimpsonii populations occurring on those same islands. Our results suggest that P. kishinouyei populations have maintained gene flows across islands until recently, probably via ephemeral Quaternary land bridges. The lower genetic variability in P. kishinouyei may also indicate smaller effective population sizes on average than that of P. stimpsonii. We interpret these differences as a consequence of ecological divergence between the two species, primarily in trophic level and habitat preference.

  7. Combining dispersal, landscape connectivity and habitat suitability to assess climate-induced changes in the distribution of Cunningham's skink, Egernia cunninghami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Benjamin Y; Stow, Adam J; Baumgartner, John B; Beaumont, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    The ability of species to track their climate niche is dependent on their dispersal potential and the connectivity of the landscape matrix linking current and future suitable habitat. However, studies modeling climate-driven range shifts rarely address the movement of species across landscapes realistically, often assuming "unlimited" or "no" dispersal. Here, we incorporate dispersal rate and landscape connectivity with a species distribution model (Maxent) to assess the extent to which the Cunningham's skink (Egernia cunninghami) may be capable of tracking spatial shifts in suitable habitat as climate changes. Our model was projected onto four contrasting, but equally plausible, scenarios describing futures that are (relative to now) hot/wet, warm/dry, hot/with similar precipitation and warm/wet, at six time horizons with decadal intervals (2020-2070) and at two spatial resolutions: 1 km and 250 m. The size of suitable habitat was projected to decline 23-63% at 1 km and 26-64% at 250 m, by 2070. Combining Maxent output with the dispersal rate of the species and connectivity of the intervening landscape matrix showed that most current populations in regions projected to become unsuitable in the medium to long term, will be unable to shift the distance necessary to reach suitable habitat. In particular, numerous populations currently inhabiting the trailing edge of the species' range are highly unlikely to be able to disperse fast enough to track climate change. Unless these populations are capable of adaptation they are likely to be extirpated. We note, however, that the core of the species distribution remains suitable across the broad spectrum of climate scenarios considered. Our findings highlight challenges faced by philopatric species and the importance of adaptation for the persistence of peripheral populations under climate change.

  8. Combining dispersal, landscape connectivity and habitat suitability to assess climate-induced changes in the distribution of Cunningham's skink, Egernia cunninghami.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Y Ofori

    Full Text Available The ability of species to track their climate niche is dependent on their dispersal potential and the connectivity of the landscape matrix linking current and future suitable habitat. However, studies modeling climate-driven range shifts rarely address the movement of species across landscapes realistically, often assuming "unlimited" or "no" dispersal. Here, we incorporate dispersal rate and landscape connectivity with a species distribution model (Maxent to assess the extent to which the Cunningham's skink (Egernia cunninghami may be capable of tracking spatial shifts in suitable habitat as climate changes. Our model was projected onto four contrasting, but equally plausible, scenarios describing futures that are (relative to now hot/wet, warm/dry, hot/with similar precipitation and warm/wet, at six time horizons with decadal intervals (2020-2070 and at two spatial resolutions: 1 km and 250 m. The size of suitable habitat was projected to decline 23-63% at 1 km and 26-64% at 250 m, by 2070. Combining Maxent output with the dispersal rate of the species and connectivity of the intervening landscape matrix showed that most current populations in regions projected to become unsuitable in the medium to long term, will be unable to shift the distance necessary to reach suitable habitat. In particular, numerous populations currently inhabiting the trailing edge of the species' range are highly unlikely to be able to disperse fast enough to track climate change. Unless these populations are capable of adaptation they are likely to be extirpated. We note, however, that the core of the species distribution remains suitable across the broad spectrum of climate scenarios considered. Our findings highlight challenges faced by philopatric species and the importance of adaptation for the persistence of peripheral populations under climate change.

  9. Combining dispersal, landscape connectivity and habitat suitability to assess climate-induced changes in the distribution of Cunningham’s skink, Egernia cunninghami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Adam J.; Baumgartner, John B.; Beaumont, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of species to track their climate niche is dependent on their dispersal potential and the connectivity of the landscape matrix linking current and future suitable habitat. However, studies modeling climate-driven range shifts rarely address the movement of species across landscapes realistically, often assuming “unlimited” or “no” dispersal. Here, we incorporate dispersal rate and landscape connectivity with a species distribution model (Maxent) to assess the extent to which the Cunningham’s skink (Egernia cunninghami) may be capable of tracking spatial shifts in suitable habitat as climate changes. Our model was projected onto four contrasting, but equally plausible, scenarios describing futures that are (relative to now) hot/wet, warm/dry, hot/with similar precipitation and warm/wet, at six time horizons with decadal intervals (2020–2070) and at two spatial resolutions: 1 km and 250 m. The size of suitable habitat was projected to decline 23–63% at 1 km and 26–64% at 250 m, by 2070. Combining Maxent output with the dispersal rate of the species and connectivity of the intervening landscape matrix showed that most current populations in regions projected to become unsuitable in the medium to long term, will be unable to shift the distance necessary to reach suitable habitat. In particular, numerous populations currently inhabiting the trailing edge of the species’ range are highly unlikely to be able to disperse fast enough to track climate change. Unless these populations are capable of adaptation they are likely to be extirpated. We note, however, that the core of the species distribution remains suitable across the broad spectrum of climate scenarios considered. Our findings highlight challenges faced by philopatric species and the importance of adaptation for the persistence of peripheral populations under climate change. PMID:28873398

  10. Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Duszynski, Donald W.; Bush, Sarah E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) are described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Philippines. Oöcysts of Eimeria nuiailan n. sp. from the only L. smaragdina from PNG are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 23.7 × 19.1 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 11.9 × 7.0 μm, L/W 1.7, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is present as a compact mass of granules. Sporozoites are elongate, 14.6 × 2.6 μm, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. Oöcysts of Eimeria auffenbergi n. sp. from L. smaragdina collected in the Philippines are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 19.9 × 15.8 μm, L/W 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but one to four polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 10.3 × 5.8 μm, L/W 1.8, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is composed of dispersed granules.

  11. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Duszynski, Donald W.; Bush, Sarah E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) are described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Philippines. Oöcysts of Eimeria nuiailan sp. n. from the only L. smaragdina from PNG are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bilayered wall, measure 23.7 × 19.1 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 11.9 × 7.0 μm, L/W 1.7, and the wall is composed of 2 valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is present as a compact mass of granules. Sporozoites are elongate, 14.6 × 2.6 μm, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. Oöcysts of Eimeria auffenbergi sp. n. from both L. smaragdina we collected in the Philippines are ovoidal, with a smooth, colorless, bilayered wall, measure 19.9 × 15.8 μm, L/W 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but 1–4 polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 10.3 × 5.8 μm, L/W 1.8, and the wall is composed of 2 valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is composed of dispersed granules. PMID:24048748

  12. Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Duszynski, Donald W; Bush, Sarah E; Fisher, Robert N; Austin, Christopher C

    2013-10-01

    Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) are described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Philippines. Oöcysts of Eimeria nuiailan n. sp. from the only L. smaragdina from PNG are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 23.7 × 19.1 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 11.9 × 7.0 μm, L/W 1.7, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is present as a compact mass of granules. Sporozoites are elongate, 14.6 × 2.6 μm, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. Oöcysts of Eimeria auffenbergi n. sp. from L. smaragdina collected in the Philippines are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 19.9 × 15.8 μm, L/W 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but one to four polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 10.3 × 5.8 μm, L/W 1.8, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is composed of dispersed granules.

  13. Prevalence of pentastomids in Mabuya striata (Scincidae) from Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    References. BROWN, A.C. & JARMAN, N. 1978. Coastal marine habitats. In: Biogeography and ecology of Southern Africa. (ed.) Werger, M.J.A.. Junk, The Hague. DAHL, E. 1952. Some aspects of the ecology and zonation of the fauna on sandy beaches. Oikos 4: 1-27. DAY, J.H. 1969. A guide to marine life on South African ...

  14. Reptile-associated ticks from Dominica and the Bahamas with notes on hyperparasitic erythraeid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Lance A; Knapp, Charles R; Beati, Lorenza; Dold, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    Ticks were collected or recorded from 522 individual reptiles on Dominica and from 658 reptiles from the Bahamas. Two species of ticks were collected on Dominica: Amblyomma antillorum and Amblyomma rotundatum. Similarly, 2 species were collected in the Bahamas: Amblyomma albopictum and Amblyomma torrei. On Dominica, A. antillorum was recorded from 517 Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima), 2 boa constrictors (Boa nebulosa), 1 Antilles snake (Alsophis sibonius), and 1 Dominican ground lizard (Ameiva fuscata), whereas A. rotundatum was recorded from 1 Lesser Antillean skink (Mabuya mabouya). In the Bahamas, A. albopictum was recorded from 131 Andros iguanas (Cyclura cychlura cychlura), 271 Exuma Island iguanas (Cyclura cychlura figginsi), and 1 Andros curlytail lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus coryi), whereas A. torrei was recorded from 255 Exuma Island iguanas. In the Bahamas, A. albopictum parasitized iguanas on Andros Island and the central Exuma Islands, and A. torrei parasitized iguanas in the southern Exumas. An exception to this trend was that A. torrei was collected from iguanas on Pasture Cay in the central Exumas, an anomaly that is explained by the fact that iguanas (with attached ticks) on Pasture Cay were introduced by humans in the past from islands further south. External hyperparasitic larval erythraeid mites ( Leptus sp.) were recorded from A. torrei in the Bahamas.

  15. Morphology, development, and evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel G; Flemming, Alexander F

    2009-09-15

    Current studies on fetal membranes of reptiles are providing insight into three major historical transformations: evolution of the amniote egg, evolution of viviparity, and evolution of placentotrophy. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are ideal for such studies because their fetal membranes sustain embryos in oviparous species and contribute to placentas in viviparous species. Ultrastructure of the fetal membranes in oviparous corn snakes (Pituophis guttatus) shows that the chorioallantois is specialized for gas exchange and the omphalopleure, for water absorption. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies of viviparous thamnophine snakes (Thamnophis, Storeria) have revealed morphological specializations for gas exchange and absorption in the intra-uterine environment that represent modifications of features found in oviparous species. Thus, fetal membranes in oviparous species show morphological differentiation for distinct functions that have been recruited and enhanced under viviparous conditions. The ultimate in specialization of fetal membranes is found in viviparous skinks of South America (Mabuya) and Africa (Trachylepis, Eumecia), in which placentotrophy accounts for nearly all of the nutrients for development. Ongoing research on these lizards has revealed morphological specializations of the chorioallantoic placenta through which nutrient transfer is accomplished. In addition, African Trachylepis show an invasive form of implantation, in which uterine epithelium is replaced by invading chorionic cells. Ongoing analysis of these lizards shows how integration of multiple lines of evidence can provide insight into the evolution of developmental and reproductive specializations once thought to be confined to eutherian mammals.

  16. Angiogenesis of the uterus and chorioallantois in the eastern water skink Eulamprus quoyii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Bridget F; Parker, Scott L; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2010-10-01

    We have discovered a modification of the uterus that appears to facilitate maternal-fetal communication during pregnancy in the scincid lizard Eulamprus quoyii. A vessel-dense elliptical area (VDE) on the mesometrial side of the uterus expands as the embryo grows, providing a large vascular area for physiological exchange between mother and embryo. The VDE is already developed in females with newly ovulated eggs, and is situated directly adjacent to the chorioallantois of the embryo when it develops. It is likely that signals from the early developing embryo determine the position of the VDE, as the VDE is off-centre in cases where the embryo sits obliquely in the uterus. The VDE is not a modification of the uterus over the entire chorioallantoic placenta, as the VDE is smaller than the chorioallantois after embryonic stage 33, but expansion of the VDE and growth of the chorioallantois during pregnancy are strongly correlated. The expansion of the VDE is also strongly correlated with embryonic growth and increasing embryonic oxygen demand (Vo2). We propose that angiogenic stimuli are exchanged between the VDE and the chorioallantois in E. quoyii, allowing the simultaneous growth of both tissues.

  17. Hammer-toothed ‘marsupial skinks' from the Australian Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Derrick A.; Archer, Michael; Godthelp, Henk; Hand, Suzanne J.; Hocknull, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Extinct species of Malleodectes gen. nov. from Middle to Late Miocene deposits of the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland, Australia are enigmatic, highly specialized, probably snail-eating marsupials. Dentally, they closely resemble a bizarre group of living heterodont, wet forest scincid lizards from Australia (Cyclodomorphus) that may well have outcompeted them as snail-eaters when the closed forests of central Australia began to decline. Although there are scincids known from the same Miocene deposits at Riversleigh, these are relatively plesiomorphic, generalized feeders. This appears to be the most striking example known of dental convergence and possible competition between a mammal and a lizard, which in the long run worked out better for the lizards. PMID:21508033

  18. Niche divergence builds the case for ecological speciation in skinks of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Guinevere O.U.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to different thermal environments has the potential to cause evolutionary changes that are sufficient to drive ecological speciation. Here, we examine whether climate-based niche divergence in lizards of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex is consistent with the outcomes of such a process. Previous work on this group shows that a mechanical sexual barrier has evolved between species that differ mainly in body size and that the barrier may be a by-product of selection for increased body size in lineages that have invaded xeric environments; however, baseline information on niche divergence among members of the group is lacking. We quantified the climatic niche using mechanistic physiological and correlative niche models and then estimated niche differences among species using ordination techniques and tests of niche overlap and equivalency. Our results show that the thermal niches of size-divergent, reproductively isolated morphospecies are significantly differentiated and that precipitation may have been as important as temperature in causing increased shifts in body size in xeric habitats. While these findings alone do not demonstrate thermal adaptation or identify the cause of speciation, their integration with earlier genetic and behavioral studies provides a useful test of phenotype–environment associations that further support the case for ecological speciation in these lizards.

  19. Estudio del placentoma de poblaciones de mabuya con énfasis en el análisis de células invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Halcón Vieira Samper

    2007-01-01

    células invasivas comparten rasgos ultraestructurales con las células del corion, pero con particularidades que les permiten cumplir funciones específicas. Prolongaciones de estas células entran en contacto con capilares uterinos y forman un extenso sistema de membranas dobles muy próximas entre sí, que encapsulan el capilar. Este hallazgo proporciona bases para proponer una nueva clasificación de la placenta de estas lagartijas al evidenciarse una relación muy estrecha entre los tejidos embrionarios y la circulación materna.

  20. Comparative cytogenetics of two species of ground skinks: Scincella assata and S. cherriei (Squamata: Scincidae: Lygosominae from Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Castiglia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard karyotypes of two species of the genus Scincella, S. assata and S. cherriei, both from Chiapas State, Mexico, were described for the first time. The diploid chromosome number was 28 in S. assata, whereas 30 in S. cherriei. The karyotypes of the two species, while differing in the number of microchromosomes, 14-15 in S. assata and 16-17 in S. cherriei, share four pairs of large metacentric, two pairs of medium-sized metacentric, and one particular pair (number 7 of chromosomes. Female S. assata carries chromosome pair 7 composed of two identical medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes. This chromosome pair is heteromorphic in males of both species, i.e., one component of the pair is similar to the homomorphic chromosomes 7 of the S. assata female, while the other is nearly one-half the size of its counterpart and resembles a microchromosome. The homology of such externally different elements is deducted from the presence of an asymmetric bivalent in spermatocytes at diplotene-diakinesis. Female S. cherriei was not available. We suspect that the two Scincella species possess an XY sex determination system, as previously reported for the North American congeneric species, S. lateralis.

  1. Limited overwater dispersal and genetic differentiation of the snake-eyed skink (Cryptoblepharus nigropunctatus) in the Oceanic Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Fumio; Shima, Akina; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Kawakami, Kazuto; Segawa, Ryoko D; Aotsuka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2009-08-01

    The genetic differentiation and speciation of lizards on oceanic islands may be affected by their rate of overwater dispersal. Cryptoblepharus is one of the most geographically widespread scincid lizards throughout the Indo-Pacific and Australian regions. Cryptoblepharus nigropunctatus is the northernmost species of the genus, dwelling on several small Pacific islands. To examine the colonization history of this lizard, mitochondrial 16S rDNA and D-loop sequences were compared among populations of the Ogasawara Islands consisting of four island groups (the Muko-jima, Chichi-jima, Haha-jima, and Kazan groups), and an isolated island, Minamitori-shima (Marcus Island). These four groups and Minamitori-shima have not been connected to each other because each is surrounded by deep sea (>100 m). DNA analyses showed that the lizard populations on individual islands had each representative haplotypes. The ancestors of C. nigropunctatus probably arrived on the islands from the southern Pacific Ocean via wave dispersal and differentiated to produce the present state. They appear to have dispersed from their origin along two independent pathways: one between Kitaiwo-to (Kazan group) and the Muko-jima and Chichi-jima groups, and the other among the Minamitori-shima, Minamiiwo-to (Kazan group), and Haha-jima groups. Limited long-distance overwater dispersal may be responsible for the genetic structure of the C. nigropunctatus populations on these oceanic islands. However, among the small islands within the same island group, D-loop haplotypes were shared and the local genetic diversity was usually high, suggesting frequent gene flow across the same group of islands.

  2. Ephemeriden aus Java, gesammelt von Edw. Jacobson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulmer, Georg

    1913-01-01

    Aus Java waren bisher 8 Arten bekannt, nämlich Palingenia javanica Etn., Palingenia tenera Etn., Rhoënanthus speciosus Etn., Thalerosphyrus determinatus Walk. (alle durch Eaton, Rev. Monogr. Ephemeridae, genannt), Compsoneuria spectabilis Etn., Caenis nigropunctata Klap., Pseudocloëon Kraepelini

  3. Oxidative stress physiology in relation to life history traits of a free-living vertebrate : the spotted snow skink, Niveoscincus ocellatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaksson, Caroline; While, Geoffrey M.; Olsson, Mats; Komdeur, Jan; Wapstra, Erik

    Recent research suggests that oxidative stress, via its links to metabolism and senescence, is a key mechanism linking life history traits such as fecundity and growth with survival; however, this has rarely been put under empirical scrutiny within free-living populations. Using a wild population of

  4. Women doctors have a rougher time – new association born

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    security threats and discrimination. These are ... working for gender equality and improving career and ... business. Dr Nomonde Mabuya, a GP in private practice and veteran of the Businesswomen's ... in order to have a family was a thorny.

  5. Three new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina) from the Marble-throated skink, Marmorosphax tricolor Bavay, 1869 (Reptilia: Scincidae), endemic to New Caledonia with a taxonomic revision of Eimeria spp. from scincid hosts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Jirků, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2006), s. 419-428 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104; GA ČR GA524/00/P015; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Coccdia * Reptilia * Eimeria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2006

  6. Extended molecular phylogenetics and revised systematics of Malagasy scincine lizards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erens, Jesse; Miralles, A.; Glaw, F.; Chatrou, L.W.; Vences, M.

    2017-01-01

    Among the endemic biota of Madagascar, skinks are a diverse radiation of lizards that exhibit a striking ecomorphological variation, and could provide an interesting system to study body-form evolution in squamate reptiles. We provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis for Malagasy skinks of the

  7. Functional morphology of a highly specialised pivot joint in the cranio-cervical complex of the minute lizard Ablepharus kitaibelii in relation to feeding ecology and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natchev, N.; Tzankov, N.; Vergilov, V.; Kummer, S.; Handschuh, S.

    2015-01-01

    The snake-eyed skink Ablepharus kitaibelii is one of the smallest European lizards, but despite its minute size it is able to feed on comparatively large prey. Here we investigate the diet of A. kitaibelii and the mechanisms that allow the skink to overpower relatively large and even noxious prey.

  8. Early social environment influences the behaviour of a family-living lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Julia L; Noble, Daniel W A; Byrne, Richard W; Whiting, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Early social environment can play a significant role in shaping behavioural development. For instance, in many social mammals and birds, isolation rearing results in individuals that are less exploratory, shyer, less social and more aggressive than individuals raised in groups. Moreover, dynamic aspects of social environments, such as the nature of relationships between individuals, can also impact the trajectory of development. We tested if being raised alone or socially affects behavioural development in the family-living tree skink, Egernia striolata . Juveniles were raised in two treatments: alone or in a pair. We assayed exploration, boldness, sociability and aggression repeatedly throughout each juvenile's first year of life, and also assessed social interactions between pairs to determine if juveniles formed dominant-subordinate relationships. We found that male and/or the larger skinks within social pairs were dominant. Developing within this social environment reduced skink growth, and subordinate skinks were more prone to tail loss. Thus, living with a conspecific was costly for E. striolata . The predicted negative effects of isolation failed to materialize. Nevertheless, there were significant differences in behavioural traits depending on the social environment (isolated, dominant or subordinate member of a pair). Isolated skinks were more social than subordinate skinks. Subordinate skinks also became more aggressive over time, whereas isolated and dominant skinks showed invariable aggression. Dominant skinks became bolder over time, whereas isolated and subordinate skinks were relatively stable in their boldness. In summary, our study is evidence that isolation rearing does not consistently affect behaviour across all social taxa. Our study also demonstrates that the social environment plays an important role in behavioural development of a family-living lizard.

  9. Does social environment influence learning ability in a family-living lizard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Julia L; Noble, Daniel W A; Byrne, Richard W; Whiting, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Early developmental environment can have profound effects on individual physiology, behaviour, and learning. In birds and mammals, social isolation during development is known to negatively affect learning ability; yet in other taxa, like reptiles, the effect of social isolation during development on learning ability is unknown. We investigated how social environment affects learning ability in the family-living tree skink (Egernia striolata). We hypothesized that early social environment shapes cognitive development in skinks and predicted that skinks raised in social isolation would have reduced learning ability compared to skinks raised socially. Offspring were separated at birth into two rearing treatments: (1) raised alone or (2) in a pair. After 1 year, we quantified spatial learning ability of skinks in these rearing treatments (N = 14 solitary, 14 social). We found no effect of rearing treatment on learning ability. The number of skinks to successfully learn the task, the number of trials taken to learn the task, the latency to perform the task, and the number of errors in each trial did not differ between isolated and socially reared skinks. Our results were unexpected, yet the facultative nature of this species' social system may result in a reduced effect of social isolation on behaviour when compared to species with obligate sociality. Overall, our findings do not provide evidence that social environment affects development of spatial learning ability in this family-living lizard.

  10. Little dragons prefer flowers to maidens: a lizard that laps nectar and pollinates trees

    OpenAIRE

    Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Cristina; Sazima, Marlies

    2005-01-01

    Lizards rarely visit and pollinate flowers, the few recent records being mostly restricted to island habitats. We report here on the Noronha skink (Euprepis atlanticus) seeking nectar in the flowers of the leguminous mulungu tree (Erythrina velutina) at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, off northeast Brazil. The mulungu tree blooms during the dry season, and each flower secretes copious and diluted nectar throughout the day. The Noronha skink climbs up to the inflorescences and laps the nectar...

  11. Is naïveté forever? Alien predator and aggressor recognition by two endemic island reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, A; Jourdan, H; Cugnière, C; Millon, A; Vidal, E

    2014-11-01

    The disproportionate impacts of invasive predators are often attributed to the naïveté (i.e., inefficient or non-existing anti-predator behavior) of island native species having evolved without such predators. Naïveté has long been regarded as a fixed characteristic, but a few recent studies indicate a capacity for behavioral adaptation in native species in contact with alien predators. Here, we tested whether two reptiles endemic to New Caledonia, a skink, Caledoniscincus austrocaledonicus, and a gecko, Bavayia septuiclavis, recognized and responded to the odor of six introduced species (two rodents, the feral cat, and three species of ants). We used an experimental design in which reptiles had a choice of retreat sites with or without the odor of predators or aggressors. Skinks avoided two or three of the predators, whereas geckos avoided at most one. These results suggest that diurnal skinks are more responsive than nocturnal geckos to the odor of introduced predators. Neither skinks nor geckos avoided the three species of ants. Thus, the odors of alien predators are shown to influence retreat site selection by two native island reptiles. Moreover, the study suggests that this loss of naïveté varies among native species, probably as a consequence of the intensity of the threat and of time since introduction. These findings argue for re-thinking the behavioral flexibility of ectothermic reptiles in terms of their responses to biological invasion.

  12. The structure of the nasal chemosensory system in squamate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study examined the extent and morphology of the main olfactory organ in several Australian squamate reptiles, including three species of gekkotans, two species of skinks and one snake species. The olfactory mucosa of two gekkotan species (Christinus marmoratus and Strophurus intermedius) is spread over a large ...

  13. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ias

    On the Trail of Skinks of the Western Ghats. Aniruddha Datta-Roy ... day suggests that each group's physiology and behaviour may be adapted to ... along the hills and the coast along the eastern margin of peninsu- lar India. Both these ..... My work on Eutropis and Lygosoma suggests that, rather than being related to the ...

  14. Mobile Sensors Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-26

    rhinoceros auklet; red-winged blackbird; red-tailed hawk; great horned owl; and golden eagle have also been spotted. (U.S. Department of the Air Force...Coleoptera ( beetles ). (WILC Supplemental EA, 1999) The main predators on the island include feral cats and rats. Skinks and geckos (introduced

  15. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon species in reptiles from the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D James; Maia, João P M C; Perera, Ana

    2011-02-01

    Hepatozoon parasites were examined for the first time in reptiles from the Seychelles Islands. Although both prevalence and intensity were low, Hepatozoon species were detected in individuals from 2 endemic species, the lizard Mabuya wrightii and the snake Lycognathophis seychellensis. This was confirmed using visual identification and through sequencing part of the 18s rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Hepatozoon on the Seychelles form a monophyletic lineage, although more data are clearly needed to stabilize estimates of relationships based on this marker.

  16. Thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community of the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Cunha-Barros, M; Rocha, C F; Van Sluys, M

    2001-05-01

    We analyzed the thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community from the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The broadest activity was that of Tropidurus torquatus, a sit-and-wait forager, while the active foraging teiid Cnemidophorus littoralis had the shortest activity. The nocturnal gekkonid Hemidactylus mabouia was found active during the day only during early morning and late afternoon, when environmental temperatures are low. Body temperature was highest for Cnemidophorus littoralis and lowest for the two Mabuya species. The patterns found here are discussed and compared to those of congeneric species in other habitats in Brazil.

  17. New host records for Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) from Grussaí restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lúcio André; Winck, Gisele Regina; Almeida-Santos, Marlon; Telles, Felipe Bottona da Silva; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Amblyomma rotundatum Koch is a parthenogenetic tick usually associated with reptiles and amphibians. However, relatively few studies on occurrences of ticks in wild reptile populations in Brazil have been produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of ticks associated with reptile species in the Grussaí restinga, in the municipality of São João da Barra, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between December 2010 and January 2011, 131 individuals belonging to nine species of reptiles of the order Squamata were sampled: the lizards Tropidurus torquatus (n = 51), Hemidactylus mabouia (n = 25), Mabuya agilis (n = 30), Mabuya macrorhyncha (n = 6), Cnemidophorus littoralis (n = 5) and Ameiva ameiva (n = 10); and the snakes Philodryas olfersii (n = 2), Oxyrhopus rhombifer (n = 1) and Micrurus corallinus (n = 1). The only tick species found to be associated with any of the reptiles sampled was A. rotundatum. One adult female was detected on one individual of the lizard A. ameiva, one nymph on one individual of the lizard T. torquatus and four nymphs on one individual of the snake P. olfersii. This study is the first record of parasitism of A. rotundatum involving the reptiles T. torquatus and P. olfersii as hosts. Our results suggest that in the Grussaí restinga habitat, A. rotundatum may use different species of reptiles to complete its life cycle.

  18. Detection and Analysis of Six Lizard Adenoviruses by Consensus Primer PCR Provides Further Evidence of a Reptilian Origin for the Atadenoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Wellehan, James F. X.; Johnson, April J.; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P.; Johnson, Calvin M.; Garner, Michael M.; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R.

    2004-01-01

    A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phyloge...

  19. Stability of detectability over 17 years at a single site and other lizard detection comparisons from Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Dean-Bradley, Kathryn; Campbell, Earl W.; Fritts, Thomas H.; Lardner, Bjorn; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    To obtain quantitative information about population dynamics from counts of animals, the per capita detectabilities of each species must remain constant over the course of monitoring. We characterized lizard detection constancy for four species over 17 yr from a single site in northern Guam, a relatively benign situation because detection was relatively easy and we were able to hold constant the site, habitat type, species, season, and sampling method. We monitored two species of diurnal terrestrial skinks (Carlia ailanpalai [Curious Skink], Emoia caeruleocauda [Pacific Bluetailed Skink]) using glueboards placed on the ground in the shade for 3 h on rainless mornings, yielding 10,286 skink captures. We additionally monitored two species of nocturnal arboreal geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus [Common House Gecko]; Lepidodactylus lugubris [Mourning Gecko]) on the basis of 15,212 sightings. We compared these count samples to a series of complete censuses we conducted from four or more total removal plots (everything removed to mineral soil) totaling 400 m2(about 1% of study site) in each of the years 1995, 1999, and 2012, providing time-stamped quantification of detectability for each species. Unfortunately, the actual population trajectories taken by the four species were masked by unexplained variation in detectability. This observation of debilitating latent variability in lizard detectability under nearly ideal conditions undercuts our trust in population estimation techniques that fail to quantify venue-specific detectability, rely on pooled detection probability estimates, or assume that modulation in predefined environmental covariates suffices for estimating detectability.

  20. The herpetofauna of Timor-Leste: a first report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Hinrich; Carvalho, Venancio Lopes; Ceballos, Jester; Freed, Paul; Heacox, Scott; Lester, Barbara; Richards, Stephen J.; Trainor, Colin R.; Sanchez, Caitlin; O’Shea, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Fieldwork conducted throughout Timor-Leste in September 2004 and July 2009 resulted in a collection or recording of 263 herpetological specimens (100 amphibians, 163 reptiles), comprising at least seven species of frogs and toads, 20 species of lizards, seven species of snakes, two species of turtles, and one species of crocodile. Among the amphibians, the most frequently encountered species were toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), rice paddy frogs (genus Fejervarya), and rhacophorid treefrogs (Polypedates cf. leucomystax). All three variants of rice paddy frogs encountered represent undescribed species similar to Fejervarya verruculosa from neighboring Wetar Island. Records of Fejervarya cancrivora and Fejervarya limnocharis for Timor Island are apparently errors based on misidentification. We obtained voucher specimens for a total of 147 lizards and voucher photographs only for four specimens of Varanus timorensis. Aside from geckos frequently associated with human habitations (e.g., Gehyra mutilata, Gekko gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, Hemidactylus platyurus), we discovered an as yet undescribed species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus, in the Same valley. Our specimens of Hemidactylus platyurus are the first record of this species from Timor-Leste. Commonly encountered skinks included four-fingered skinks (genus Carlia), wedge skinks (genus Sphenomorphus), and night skinks (genus Eremiascincus). Notable among the 15 snakes collected was the frequency of pitvipers (Cryptelytrops insularis), which amounted to over 25% of all snakes. Our specimen of the wolfsnake Lycodon subcinctus is the first record of this species for Timor-Leste. Based on these findings, it appears that the biodiversity of amphibians and reptiles in this remote corner of Wallacea is much greater than previously thought, particularly with respect to scincid lizards. The detail we provide in the species accounts is designed to allow the use of this report as a preliminary field

  1. The herpetofauna of Timor-Leste: a first report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrich Kaiser

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork conducted throughout Timor-Leste in September 2004 and July 2009 resulted in a collection or recording of 263 herpetological specimens (100 amphibians, 163 reptiles, comprising at least seven species of frogs and toads, 20 species of lizards, seven species of snakes, two species of turtles, and one species of crocodile. Among the amphibians, the most frequently encountered species were toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus, rice paddy frogs (genus Fejervarya, and rhacophorid treefrogs (Polypedates cf. leucomystax. All three variants of rice paddy frogs encountered represent undescribed species similar to F. verruculosa from neighboring Wetar Island. Records of F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis for Timor Island are apparently errors based on misidentification. We obtained voucher specimens for a total of 147 lizards and voucher photographs only for four specimens of Varanus timorensis. Aside from geckos frequently associated with human habitations (e.g., Gehyra mutilata, Gekko gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, H. platyurus, we discovered an as yet undescribed species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus, in the Same valley. Our specimens of H. platyurus are the first record of this species from Timor-Leste. Commonly encountered skinks included four-fingered skinks (genus Carlia, wedge skinks (genus Sphenomorphus, and night skinks (genus Eremiascincus. Notable among the 15 snakes collected was the frequency of pitvipers (Cryptelytrops insularis, which amounted to over 25% of all snakes. Our specimen of the wolfsnake Lycodon subcinctus is the first record of this species for Timor-Leste. Based on these findings, it appears that the biodiversity of amphibians and reptiles in this remote corner of Wallacea is much greater than previously thought, particularly with respect to scincid lizards. The detail we provide in the species accounts is designed to allow the use of this report as a preliminary field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of

  2. Phlebotomus Sandflies of the Paloich Area in the Sudan (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-10-01

    Hamster, Cricetus auratus Toad, Bufo regularis (?) Gecko, H. turicus Skink, M. striata Puff adder Snake, CMNH HH-9111’ Snake, CMNH HH-9112’ Hedgehog ...Pharynx unarmed distally or only with few, smail spines ; pigment patch not dark enough to obscure teeth .................. 8 Pharynx heavily...armed distally with numerous, dark spines ; pigment patch very dark, 1964 Quate: Sudanese sandflies 237 often obscuring teeth unless specimen well

  3. Localization of glucagon and insulin cells and its variation with respect to physiological events in Eutropis carinata

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya. R. Chandavar; Prakash. R. Naik

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to localize glucagon and insulin immunoreactive (IR) cells of pancreas during annual seasonal cycle of reproduction and to find out whether they had any effect on the regulation of plasma glucose level in the skink Eutropis carinata. Immunolocalized pancreatic cells revealed significantly different mean numbers in different periods of reproduction. The numbers of glucagon-IR and insulin-IR cells were highest in recrudescent period which was corresponde...

  4. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Carlia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 from rainbow skinks, Carlia ailanpalai Zug and Carlia eothen Zug is described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Oöcysts of Eimeria zugi n. sp. from one of one (100%) C. eothen are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 25.1 × 15.5 μm and have a length/width ratio of 1.6. The micropyle and the oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. The sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal and 10.3 × 7.1 μm in size and do not contain Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies; and the sporocyst residuum is composed of a compact mass of large globules. The sporozoites are elongate, 12.8 × 2.9 μm in size, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. This is the ninth species of coccidium described from skinks from PNG, and the new species described herein is apparently endemic to the skink genus Carlia (Gray).

  5. Prey preferences and prey acceptance in juvenile Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Bjorn; Savidge, Julie A.; Rodda, Gordon H.; Reed, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    On the Pacific island of Guam, control of the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) relies largely on methods that use mice as bait. Juvenile B. irregularis feed primarily on lizards and their eggs, but little is known about their prey preference. We conducted an experiment to investigate preferences for, and acceptance of, dead geckos, skinks, and neonatal mice, in juvenile B. irregularis ranging from 290 mm to ca. 700 mm snout-vent length (SVL). Snakes of all sizes showed a preference for geckos over skinks and neonatal mice. Geckos were the first prey chosen in 87% of 224 initial trials (56 snakes subjected to four trials each; 33% would be expected from a random choice). The smallest snakes had the most pronounced preference. Although many of the snakes accepted neonatal mice and/or skinks, some snakes of all sizes were reluctant to feed on anything but geckos, especially when well fed. We also addressed the hypothesis that repeated encounters with a particular prey type increase a snake's preference for that prey. Our study does not support this hypothesis. Our results suggest that control methods relying solely on rodent bait may be inefficient for targeting snakes < 700 mm SVL and that individual heterogeneity in prey preference may cause a significant part of this juvenile cohort to be completely refractory to capture with rodent bait, even if the bait is dead and small enough to be readily swallowed.

  6. The diversity and evolution of nematodes (Pharyngodonidae) infecting New Zealand lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockett, Sarah; Bell, Trent; Poulin, Robert; Jorge, Fátima

    2017-04-01

    Host-parasite co-evolutionary studies can shed light on diversity and the processes that shape it. Molecular methods have proven to be an indispensable tool in this task, often uncovering unseen diversity. This study used two nuclear markers (18S rRNA and 28S rRNA) and one mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) marker to investigate the diversity of nematodes of the family Pharyngodonidae parasitizing New Zealand (NZ) lizards (lygosomine skinks and diplodactylid geckos) and to explore their co-evolutionary history. A Bayesian approach was used to infer phylogenetic relationships of the parasitic nematodes. Analyses revealed that nematodes parasitizing skinks, currently classified as Skrjabinodon, are more closely related to Spauligodon than to Skrjabinodon infecting NZ geckos. Genetic analyses also uncovered previously undetected diversity within NZ gecko nematodes and provided evidence for several provisionally cryptic species. We also examined the level of host-parasite phylogenetic congruence using a global-fit approach. Significant congruence was detected between gecko-Skrjabinodon phylogenies, but our results indicated that strict co-speciation is not the main co-evolutionary process shaping the associations between NZ skinks and geckos and their parasitic nematodes. However, further sampling is required to fully resolve co-phylogenetic patterns of diversification in this host-parasite system.

  7. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  8. The ability of lizards to identify an artificial Batesian mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneš, Josef; Veselý, Petr

    2017-08-01

    Birds are usually considered the main predators shaping the evolution of aposematic signals and mimicry. Nevertheless, some lizards also represent predominately visually oriented predators, so they may also play an important role in the evolution of aposematism. Despite this fact, experimental evidence regarding the responses of lizards to aposematic prey is very poor compared to such evidence in birds. Lizards possess very similar sensory and cognitive abilities to those of birds and their response to aposematic prey may thus be affected by very similar processes. We investigated the reactions of a lizard, the Gran Canaria skink (Chalcides sexlineatus), to an aposematic prey and its artificial Batesian mimic. Further, we attempted to ascertain whether the lizard's food experience has any effect on its ability to recognise an artificial Batesian mimic, by using two groups of predators differing in their prior experience with the prey from which the mimic was fabricated. The red firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus) was used as an aposematic model, and the Guyana spotted roach (Blaptica dubia) as the palatable prey from which the mimic was fabricated. The appearance of the roach was modified by a paper sticker placed on its back. The skinks showed a strong aversion towards the model firebug. They also avoided attacking the cockroaches with the firebug pattern sticker. This suggests that a visual rather than a chemical signal is responsible for this aversion. The protection provided by the firebug sticker was even effective when the skinks were familiar with unmodified cockroaches (previous food experience). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection and analysis of six lizard adenoviruses by consensus primer PCR provides further evidence of a reptilian origin for the atadenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellehan, James F X; Johnson, April J; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P; Johnson, Calvin M; Garner, Michael M; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2004-12-01

    A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses belong to the genus Atadenovirus, supporting the reptilian origin of atadenoviruses. This PCR method may be useful for obtaining templates for initial sequencing of novel adenoviruses.

  10. An annotated type catalogue of the anguid, dibamid, scincid and varanid lizards in the Department of Herpetology, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia (Reptilia: Sauria: Anguidae, Dibamidae, Scincidae and Varanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabanov, Andrei; Milto, Konstantin

    2017-03-17

    A complete catalogue is provided for the type specimens of anguid, dibamid, scincid and varanid lizards in the herpetological collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia (ZISP), as of January 2017. The collection contains a total of 170 type specimens, representing 50 taxa in the four lizard families under consideration. Thirty-one of these taxa are regarded currently as valid. The types of four taxa (one holotype, one lectotype and two paralectotypes) could not be located in the ZISP collections in January 2017. A majority of the types are skinks (43 taxa, 155 types), many of which were described by the late Ilya Darevsky (1924-2009).

  11. Rediscovery and re-description of the holotype of Lygosoma vittigerum (= Lipinia vittigera Boulenger, 1894

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    Yannick Bucklitsch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report about the rediscovery of the holotype of the Southeast Asian striped skink Lipinia vittigera and provide a detailed redescription together with photographs and drawings. The species was first described by George Albert Boulenger in 1894 as Lygosoma vittigerum based on a specimen collected by Elio Modigliani on the island of Sereinu (= Sipura, west of Sumatra. The original type specimen was considered to be lost for more than a century and was recently rediscovered in the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria” (MSNG in Genova, Italy.

  12. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  13. Burning in Banksia Woodlands: How Does the Fire-Free Period Influence Reptile Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Leonie E.; Reaveley, Alice; Johnson, Brent; Fisher, Rebecca; Wilson, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Fire is an important management tool for both hazard reduction burning and maintenance of biodiversity. The impact of time since last fire on fauna is an important factor to understand as land managers often aim for prescribed burning regimes with specific fire-free intervals. However, our current understanding of the impact of time since last fire on fauna is largely unknown and likely dependent on vegetation type. We examined the responses of reptiles to fire age in banksia woodlands, and the interspersed melaleuca damplands among them, north of Perth, Western Australia, where the current prescribed burning regime is targeting a fire-free period of 8–12 years. The response of reptiles to fire was dependent on vegetation type. Reptiles were generally more abundant (e.g. Lerista elegans and Ctenophorus adelaidensis) and specious in banksia sites. Several species (e.g. Menetia greyii, Cryptoblepharus buchananii) preferred long unburnt melaleuca sites (>16 years since last fire, YSLF) compared to recently burnt sites (16 YSLF). The terrestrial dragon C. adelaidensis and the skink Morethia obscura displayed a strong response to fire in banksia woodlands only. Highest abundances of the dragon were detected in the recently burnt (35 YSLF) banksia woodlands, while the skink was more abundant in older sites. Habitats from a range of fire ages are required to support the reptiles we detected, especially the longer unburnt (>16 YSLF) melaleuca habitat. Current burning prescriptions are reducing the availability of these older habitats. PMID:22496806

  14. Basking behavior predicts the evolution of heat tolerance in Australian rainforest lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Martha M; Langham, Gary M; Brandley, Matthew C; Rosauer, Dan F; Williams, Stephen E; Moritz, Craig

    2016-11-01

    There is pressing urgency to understand how tropical ectotherms can behaviorally and physiologically respond to climate warming. We examine how basking behavior and thermal environment interact to influence evolutionary variation in thermal physiology of multiple species of lygosomine rainforest skinks from the Wet Tropics of northeastern Queensland, Australia (AWT). These tropical lizards are behaviorally specialized to exploit canopy or sun, and are distributed across marked thermal clines in the AWT. Using phylogenetic analyses, we demonstrate that physiological parameters are either associated with changes in local thermal habitat or to basking behavior, but not both. Cold tolerance, the optimal sprint speed, and performance breadth are primarily influenced by local thermal environment. Specifically, montane lizards are more cool tolerant, have broader performance breadths, and higher optimum sprinting temperatures than their lowland counterparts. Heat tolerance, in contrast, is strongly affected by basking behavior: there are two evolutionary optima, with basking species having considerably higher heat tolerance than shade skinks, with no effect of elevation. These distinct responses among traits indicate the multiple selective pressures and constraints that shape the evolution of thermal performance. We discuss how behavior and physiology interact to shape organisms' vulnerability and potential resilience to climate change. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Extended molecular phylogenetics and revised systematics of Malagasy scincine lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erens, Jesse; Miralles, Aurélien; Glaw, Frank; Chatrou, Lars W; Vences, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Among the endemic biota of Madagascar, skinks are a diverse radiation of lizards that exhibit a striking ecomorphological variation, and could provide an interesting system to study body-form evolution in squamate reptiles. We provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis for Malagasy skinks of the subfamily Scincinae based on an extended molecular dataset comprising 8060bp from three mitochondrial and nine nuclear loci. Our analysis also increases taxon sampling of the genus Amphiglossus by including 16 out of 25 nominal species. Additionally, we examined whether the molecular phylogenetic patterns coincide with morphological differentiation in the species currently assigned to this genus. Various methods of inference recover a mostly strongly supported phylogeny with three main clades of Amphiglossus. However, relationships among these three clades and the limb-reduced genera Grandidierina, Voeltzkowia and Pygomeles remain uncertain. Supported by a variety of morphological differences (predominantly related to the degree of body elongation), but considering the remaining phylogenetic uncertainty, we propose a redefinition of Amphiglossus into three different genera (Amphiglossus sensu stricto, Flexiseps new genus, and Brachyseps new genus) to remove the non-monophyly of Amphiglossus sensu lato and to facilitate future studies on this fascinating group of lizards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Burning in banksia woodlands: how does the fire-free period influence reptile communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie E Valentine

    Full Text Available Fire is an important management tool for both hazard reduction burning and maintenance of biodiversity. The impact of time since last fire on fauna is an important factor to understand as land managers often aim for prescribed burning regimes with specific fire-free intervals. However, our current understanding of the impact of time since last fire on fauna is largely unknown and likely dependent on vegetation type. We examined the responses of reptiles to fire age in banksia woodlands, and the interspersed melaleuca damplands among them, north of Perth, Western Australia, where the current prescribed burning regime is targeting a fire-free period of 8-12 years. The response of reptiles to fire was dependent on vegetation type. Reptiles were generally more abundant (e.g. Lerista elegans and Ctenophorus adelaidensis and specious in banksia sites. Several species (e.g. Menetia greyii, Cryptoblepharus buchananii preferred long unburnt melaleuca sites (>16 years since last fire, YSLF compared to recently burnt sites (16 YSLF. The terrestrial dragon C. adelaidensis and the skink Morethia obscura displayed a strong response to fire in banksia woodlands only. Highest abundances of the dragon were detected in the recently burnt (35 YSLF banksia woodlands, while the skink was more abundant in older sites. Habitats from a range of fire ages are required to support the reptiles we detected, especially the longer unburnt (>16 YSLF melaleuca habitat. Current burning prescriptions are reducing the availability of these older habitats.

  17. Ecomorphometric structure of Restinga da Marambaia lizard community, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil Estrutura ecomorfométrica da comunidade de lagartos da Restinga da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil

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    André L. G. de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In restinga areas of Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, we recorded nine species of lizards, grouped in four families. The morphometric analysis suggested an invasion-structured pattern, with two distinct groups of species in the community: the "ground-runners", composed of animals with robust bodies and long limbs, represented by Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820, Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758, Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, Cnemidophorus littoralis Rocha, Araujo, Vrcibradic & Costa, 2000 and Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839; and the "hiders", composed of small-bodied animals with short limbs, represented by Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818, Gymnodactylus darwinii (Gray, 1845, Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 and M. macrorhyncha Hoge, 1947. The morphological relationships within the restinga lizard community reflect the influence of the habitat physical structure: bromeliad availability and other refugia, used by the "hiders", and the distribution of open areas, used by the "ground-runners". Our results also indicate that the restingas hold "ecomorphological spaces" (vacant niches available for occupation by additional lizard species.Em áreas de restinga da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, foram registradas nove espécies de lagartos, pertencentes a quatro famílias. A análise morfométrica sugeriu um padrão de estruturação por invasão, com dois grupos distintos de espécies compondo a comunidade: os "corredores de chão", formado pelos animais de corpo mais robusto e membros mais longos, representados por Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820, Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758, Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938,Cnemidophorus littoralis Rocha, Araujo, Vrcibradic & Costa, 2000 e Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839; e os "escondedores", reunindo lagartos de menor tamanho e membros mais curtos, representados por Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818, Gymnodactylus darwinii (Gray, 1845, Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 e M. macrorhyncha

  18. Herpetofauna of Núcleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

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    AR Martins

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Rain forest, which is considered the second largest pluvial forest in the American continent, has had an estimated 93% of its original area destroyed. Although studies concerning the herpetofaunal diversity in this biome have been intensified in the past years, its diversity is still underestimated. The Nucleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande (NEIG is included in an Environmental Protection Area (APA de Sapeatiba in the Iguaba Grande municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22º 51' S and 42º 10' W. The goal of this study was to conduct an inventory of the reptile and amphibian species that occur in this area between July 2008 and December 2009. We recorded 19 species of amphibians (18 anurans and one caecilian and 15 species of reptiles (three lizards, 11 snakes and one amphisbaenian. Leptodactylus latrans and L. mystacinus had the highest capture rates among amphibians captured, and among reptiles, Ameiva ameiva, Hemidactylus mabouia and Mabuya agilis had the highest capture rates. Rarefaction curves for both amphibians and reptiles did not reach the asymptote, indicating that the species richness in the NEIG is still underestimated.

  19. Patterns of infestation by chigger mites in four diurnal lizard species from a restinga habitat (Jurubatiba of Southeastern Brazil

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    M. Cunha-Barros

    Full Text Available We studied the parasitism by larvae of the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on the lizard community of Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. We investigated the patterns of infestation (prevalence and intensity of chigger mites in four sympatric lizards: Tropidurus torquatus, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha and Cnemidophorus littoralis. All lizards collected were checked for the presence of mites, which were counted under stereomicroscope. We tested the relationship between intensity of infestation and lizard body size for each species using regression analysis. The prevalences and mean intensities (+ one standard deviation of infestation on each host species were, respectively: 100%; 86.4 + 94.6 in T. torquatus (n = 62; 100%; 20.9 + 9.3 in M. agilis (n = 7; 100%; 11.1 + 13.1 in M. macrorhyncha (n = 12; and 95.2%; 19.1 + 16.8 in C. littoralis (n = 21. Only for C. littoralis did body size significantly affect the intensity of infestation (r = 0.27, p = 0.02. For all lizard species, the body parts where chiggers occurred with the highest intensity were those of skin folds and joint regions.

  20. Patterns of infestation by chigger mites in four diurnal lizard species from a Restinga habitat (Jurubatiba) of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Barros, M; Van Sluys, M; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Hatano, F H; Rocha, C F

    2003-08-01

    We studied the parasitism by larvae of the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on the lizard community of Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. We investigated the patterns of infestation (prevalence and intensity) of chigger mites in four sympatric lizards: Tropidurus torquatus, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha and Cnemidophorus littoralis. All lizards collected were checked for the presence of mites, which were counted under stereomicroscope. We tested the relationship between intensity of infestation and lizard body size for each species using regression analysis. The prevalences and mean intensities (+ one standard deviation) of infestation on each host species were, respectively: 100%; 86.4 + 94.6 in T. torquatus (n = 62); 100%; 20.9 + 9.3 in M. agilis (n = 7); 100%; 11.1 + 13.1 in M. macrorhyncha (n = 12); and 95.2%; 19.1 + 16.8 in C. littoralis (n = 21). Only for C. littoralis did body size significantly affect the intensity of infestation (r = 0.27, p = 0.02). For all lizard species, the body parts where chiggers occurred with the highest intensity were those of skin folds and joint regions.

  1. Histological evidence of reproductive activity in lizards from the APM Manso, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.9228

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    Adelina Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of dams causes major impacts on fauna by changing or eliminating irreversibly their habitats. The resulting changes lead to deep potential modifications on reproductive biology and population structure of lizards, snakes and amphisbaenas. The reservoir in the Multiple Use Area of Manso (APM-Manso is located near to Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, in Mato Grosso State. We analyzed comparatively the male gonads of Anolis meridionalis, Colobosaura modesta, Cercosaura ocellata, Cnemidophorus ocellifer, Hoplocercus spinosus, Bachia bresslaui, Mabuya frenata, Micrablepharus atticolus and Tropidurus oreadicus, from APM-Manso, aiming to verify possible changes in the reproductive success according to environmental changes. Before the impoundment  A. meridionalis, Colobosaura modesta, Cercosaura ocellata, M. atticolus and T. oreadicus showed up reproductive. However, during the impoundment period they presented changes in seminiferous tubules, evidenced by the absence of spermatids and spermatozoids. B. bresslaui and M. frenata had no differences in the seminiferous tubules before and after the impoundment, being reproductive in both moments. The damming and the formation of the lake of Manso reservoir may have interfered on the reproduction of some lizards species, especially if the reproductive cycle is regulated by the rainfall of the habitat. 

  2. Effects of shading and ethephon on carbon assimilates distribution partitioning in fruit limb of greenhouse-grown 'Dajiubao' peach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Yun; Wang Shaohui; Yao Yuncong; Ma Chengwei

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of carbon assimilates and the relative sink strength were studied by 14 C labeling in one-year-old fruiting limbs of greenhouse-grown 'Dajiubao' peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), under 60% shading and 600 mg/L Ethephon treatment. After 10d shading treatment prior to pulsing of 14 CO 2 percent of assimilates translocation into fruit decreased significantly from fed shoot during fruit-ripening stage, but this partitioning patterns was not observed during stone-hardening stage, although less carbon allocated to seed within fruit components (mesocarp, endocarp and seed). The relative sink strength of each organ nearly followed the same variation trend as carbon assimilates distribution under shading treatment. Application of Ethephon to the surface of fruits under shading conditions promoted more carbon into fruits during fruit-ripening stage, with increasing their relative skink strength. (authors)

  3. Spatial distribution of overland flow and sediment yield in semi-arid rangelands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarah, P.; Lavee, H.

    2009-01-01

    Feedbacks and mutual links exist among soil, vegetation and water; they enable co-evolution of these features within eco-geomorphic systems, These relations are fragile, especially in semi-arid areas where grazing is the main land use. The simples subdivision of the surface of many semi-arid rangelands is into a two-component mosaic pattern comprising shrub patches interspersed with open spaces, with the former acting s skinks for water and other resources, and the latter as sources. However close observations in areas under grazing in the northern Negev region of Israel suggested that the spatial patterns of surface components is more complicated, and that the open space between shrubs consists of two components: herbaceous areas, separated by trampling routes that support no vegetation. (Author)

  4. Localization of glucagon and insulin cells and its variation with respect to physiological events in Eutropis carinata

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    Vidya. R. Chandavar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to localize glucagon and insulin immunoreactive (IR cells of pancreas during annual seasonal cycle of reproduction and to find out whether they had any effect on the regulation of plasma glucose level in the skink Eutropis carinata. Immunolocalized pancreatic cells revealed significantly different mean numbers in different periods of reproduction. The numbers of glucagon-IR and insulin-IR cells were highest in recrudescent period which was corresponded with low plasma glucose level. Unlike other lizards the arrangement of insulin cells in the central core and glucagon cells at the periphery was absent instead glucagon-IR and insulin-IR cells were paracrine in arrangement. Among the two immunoreactive cells glucagon-IR cells were predominant. Morphological differences between two cell types were observed by electron microscopy after staining with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Plasma glucose showed cyclic change being highest during reproductive period.

  5. Experimental evidence for friction-enhancing integumentary modifications of chameleons and associated functional and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khannoon, Eraqi R.; Endlein, Thomas; Russell, Anthony P.; Autumn, Kellar

    2014-01-01

    The striking morphological convergence of hair-like integumentary derivatives of lizards and arthropods (spiders and insects) demonstrates the importance of such features for enhancing purchase on the locomotor substrate. These pilose structures are responsible for the unique tractive abilities of these groups of animals, enabling them to move with seeming ease on overhanging and inverted surfaces, and to traverse inclined smooth substrates. Three groups of lizards are well known for bearing adhesion-promoting setae on their digits: geckos, anoles and skinks. Similar features are also found on the ventral subdigital and distal caudal skin of chameleons. These have only recently been described in any detail, and structurally and functionally are much less well understood than are the setae of geckos and anoles. The seta-like structures of chameleons are not branched (a characteristic of many geckos), nor do they terminate in spatulate tips (which is characteristic of geckos, anoles and skinks). They are densely packed and have attenuated blunt, globose tips or broad, blade-like shafts that are flattened for much of their length. Using a force transducer, we tested the hypothesis that these structures enhance friction and demonstrate that the pilose skin has a greater frictional coefficient than does the smooth skin of these animals. Our results are consistent with friction being generated as a result of side contact of the integumentary filaments. We discuss the evolutionary and functional implications of these seta-like structures in comparison with those typical of other lizard groups and with the properties of seta-mimicking synthetic structures. PMID:24285195

  6. Interspecific Differences in Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Temperature Sensitivity Create Distinct Thermal Ecological Niches in Lizards (Plestiodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles M; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-01-01

    Three congeneric lizards from the southeastern United States (Plestiodon fasciatus, P. inexpectatus, and P. laticeps) exhibit a unique nested distribution. All three skink species inhabit the US Southeast, but two extend northward to central Ohio (P. fasciatus and P. laticeps) and P. fasciatus extends well into Canada. Distinct interspecific differences in microhabitat selection and behavior are associated with the cooler temperatures of the more Northern ranges. We hypothesized that interspecific differences in metabolic temperature sensitivity locally segregates them across their total range. Resting oxygen consumption was measured at 20°, 25° and 30°C. Plestiodon fasciatus, from the coolest habitats, exhibited greatly elevated oxygen consumption compared to the other species at high ecologically-relevant temperatures (0.10, 0.17 and 0.83 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Yet, P. inexpectatus, from the warmest habitats, exhibited sharply decreased oxygen consumption compared to the other species at lower ecologically-relevant temperatures (0.09, 0.27 and 0.42 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Plestiodon laticeps, from both open and closed microhabitats and intermediate latitudinal range, exhibited oxygen consumptions significantly lower than the other two species (0.057, 0.104 and 0.172 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Overall, Plestiodon showed metabolic temperature sensitivities (Q10s) in the range of 2-3 over the middle of each species' normal temperature range. However, especially P. fasciatus and P. inexpectatus showed highly elevated Q10s (9 to 25) at the extreme ends of their temperature range. While morphologically similar, these skinks are metabolically distinct across the genus' habitat, likely having contributed to their current distribution.

  7. An ecophysiological background for biogeographic patterns of two island lizards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Miguel A.; Lopes, Evandro P.; Vasconcelos, Raquel

    2016-12-01

    Distributions of sedentary ectotherms are dependent on temperature and humidity due to their low homeostatic and dispersal abilities. Lizards are strongly conditioned by temperature, but hydric environment may be also important, at least in arid environments. Biotic interactions may also play a role in range patterns, but they are of minor importance in islands where native species monopolize well-delimited niche spaces. On the arid island of São Vicente (Cabo Verde), two endemic lizards display different spatial patterns. While the gecko Tarentola substituta is widely distributed across the island, the skink Chioninia stangeri is restricted to the NE, which is cooler, more humid, and vegetated. We hypothesized that this is due to differences in the fundamental niche, specifically in ecophysiology. We predict that C. stangeri should select for lower temperatures and lose more water by evaporation than T. substituta. We submitted adults of each species to standard experiments to assess preferred body temperatures (Tp) and evaporative water loss (EWL) rates, and examined the variation between species and through time using repeated-measures AN(C)OVAs. Results only partially supported our expectations. Contrary to the prediction, skinks attained higher Tp than geckos but in the long term showed a trend for higher EWL as predicted. Thus, while ecophysiology certainly contributes to functional interpretation of species distributions, it needs to be combined with other evidence such as habitat use and evolutionary history. These findings will be useful to perform mechanistic models to better understand the impact of climate change and habitat disturbance on these endemic species.

  8. Knocking on Heaven's Door: Are Novel Invaders Necessarily Facing Naïve Native Species on Islands?

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    Agathe Gérard

    Full Text Available The impact of alien predator species on insular native biota has often been attributed to island prey naïveté (i.e. lack of, or inefficient, anti-predator behavior. Only rarely, however, has the concept of island prey naïveté been tested, and then only a posteriori (i.e. hundreds or thousands of years after alien species introduction. The presence of native or anciently introduced predators or competitors may be crucial for the recognition and development of adaptive behavior toward unknown predators or competitors of the same archetype (i.e. a set of species that occupy a similar ecological niche and show similar morphological and behavioral traits when interacting with other species. Here, we tested whether two squamates endemic to New Caledonia, a skink, Caledoniscincus austrocaledonicus, and a gecko, Bavayia septuiclavis, recognized and responded to the odor of two major invaders introduced into the Pacific islands, but not yet into New Caledonia. We chose one predator, the small Indian mongoose Herpestes javanicus and one competitor, the cane toad Rhinella marina, which belong respectively to the same archetype as the following two species already introduced into New Caledonia in the nineteenth century: the feral cat Felis catus and the golden bell frog Litoria aurea. Our experiment reveals that geckos are naïve with respect to the odors of both an unknown predator and an unknown competitor, as well as to the odors of a predator and a competitor they have lived with for centuries. In contrast, skinks seem to have lost some naïveté regarding the odor of a predator they have lived with for centuries and seem "predisposed" to avoid the odor of an unknown potential competitor. These results indicate that insular species living in contact with invasive alien species for centuries may be, although not systematically, predisposed toward developing adaptive behavior with respect to species belonging to the same archetype and introduced into

  9. High Diversity of Hepatozoon spp. in Geckos of the Genus Tarentola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Beatriz; Rato, Catarina; Harris, D James; Perera, Ana

    2016-08-01

    :   Hemogregarines are the most-commonly reported hemoparasites in reptiles. In this work we analyzed samples from 572 individuals of 6 species of the wall gecko genus Tarentola from European and African countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea as well as from the Macaronesian islands. Screening was done using hemogregarine-specific primers for the 18S rRNA gene. Positive amplifications were sequenced so that the diversity of the hemogregarines from these hosts could be assessed within a phylogenetic framework. The results from the phylogenetic analysis showed that within Tarentola, the detected parasites are comprised of at least 4 distinct main lineages of Hepatozoon spp. In clades A and B, the new sequences clustered closely together with the ones previously known from individuals of the genus Tarentola and other species of geckos but also with those from other vertebrate host groups including skinks, snakes, iguanids, and rodents. Clade C included a sample from Tarentola angustimentalis of the Canary Islands. This sequence is the first molecular characterization of these hemogregarines in this archipelago. Until now, this lineage had only been found in lacertids, skinks, and snakes, so this infection extends the host range for this clade. Lastly, in the newly detected clade D, the retrieved parasite sequences form a group currently identified as exclusive of geckos. Our results show that geckos of Tarentola spp. harbor a great diversity of hemogregarines but also that further sampling and other tools, including a multi-locus approach using faster-evolving genetic markers, and identification of definitive hosts are needed to better understand the biology, diversity, and distribution of these parasites.

  10. Répteis squamata de remanescentes florestais do Campus da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN, Brasil

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    De Sales, Raul Fernandes Dantas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Inventários faunísticos são fundamentais para o conhecimento da biodiversidade e, conseqüentemente, para o planejamento e tomada de decisões sobre estratégias de conservação. Para conhecer a diversidade e composição dos répteis Squamata, assim como a distribuição das espécies por microhábitat em três fragmentos florestais na área do Campus da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, efetuaram-se excursões quinzenais diurnas, de março a junho de 2008. As buscas ativas foram realizadas ao longo de transecções percorridas aleatoriamente, efetuando-se os registros das espécies, dos microhábitats e do horário de observação. Um total de 92 espécimes, correspondentes a 10 espécies, foi coletados nas três áreas estudadas. A consulta da Coleção Herpetológica da UFRN possibilitou adicionar outras oito espécies, totalizando 18 espécies para o Campus da UFRN. As espécies mais abundantes foram Mabuya heathi, Hemidactylus mabouia e Tropidurus hispidus. O coeficiente de similaridade faunística binário de Sorensen mostrou 59 % de similaridade com os Squamata do Parque Estadual das Dunas do Natal (PEDN, área de conservação contígua com a área estudada. Apesar do grande adensamento urbano, os fragmentos florestais do Campus Central da UFRN abrigam espécies de formações abertas e de áreas florestadas, com destaque para os primeiros registros de Coleodactylus natalensis e de Amphisbaena heathi nessa vegetação relictual, fatos que justificam a preservação desses fragmentos em prol da manutenção destas espécies endêmicas do Rio Grande do Norte. Fauna inventories are crucial for increasing knowledge of biodiversity as well as for planning and conservation strategies. To assess the taxonomic composition and microhabitat distribution of squamate reptiles in three forest fragments on the campus of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, field collections were carried out quarterly from March

  11. Histological evidence of reproductive activity in lizards from the APM Manso, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil =Evidências histológicas da atividade reprodutiva em lagartos da região da APM Manso, Chapada dos Guimarães, Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Christine Strüssmann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The construction of dams causes major impacts on fauna by changing or eliminating irreversibly their habitats. The resulting changes lead to deep potential modifications on reproductive biology and population structure of lizards, snakes and amphisbaenas. The reservoir in the Multiple Use Area of Manso (APM-Manso is located near to Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, in Mato Grosso State. We analyzed comparatively the male gonads of Anolis meridionalis, Colobosaura modesta, Cercosaura ocellata, Cnemidophorus ocellifer, Hoplocercus spinosus, Bachia bresslaui, Mabuya frenata, Micrablepharus atticolus and Tropidurus oreadicus, from APM-Manso, aiming to verify possible changes in the reproductive success according to environmental changes. Before the impoundment A. meridionalis, Colobosaura modesta, Cercosaura ocellata, M. atticolus and T. oreadicus showed up reproductive. However, during the impoundment period they presented changes in seminiferous tubules, evidenced by the absence of spermatids and spermatozoids. B. bresslaui and M. frenata had no differences in the seminiferous tubules before and after the impoundment, being reproductive in both moments. The damming and the formation of the lake of Manso reservoir may have interfered on the reproduction of some lizards species, especially if the reproductive cycle is regulated by the rainfall of the habitat.A construção de barragens tem ocasionado grandes impactos sobre a fauna ao alterar ou eliminar seus habitats de forma irreversível. Alterações decorrentes exercem profundas modificações potenciais na biologia reprodutiva e na estrutura populacional de lagartos, serpentes e anfisbenas. O reservatório da Área de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso (APM-Manso localiza-se próximo ao Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, em Mato Grosso. Foram analisadas comparativamente as gônadas masculinas de Anolis meridionalis, Colobosaura modesta, Cercosaura ocellata, Cnemidophorus ocellifer

  12. The terrestrial reptile fauna of the Abrolhos Archipelago: species list and ecological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Dutra, G F; Vrcibradic, D; Menezes, V A

    2002-05-01

    We have studied the terrestrial reptile fauna of the Abrolhos Archipelago (a group of five islands located ca. 70 km off the southern coast of the State of Bahia, Brazil) and analyze here some of its ecological aspects such as diet, thermal ecology, activity, and some reproductive parameters. Three lizards comprise the archipelago's terrestrial reptile fauna: Tropidurus torquatus (Tropiduridae), Mabuya agilis (Scincidae), and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae). The first two are diurnal and the latter is crepuscular/nocturnal (initiating activity at ca. 17:30). The activity period of T. torquatus extended from 5:30 to 18:30 h. Mean field body temperatures of active T. torquatus, M. agilis, and H. mabouia were, respectively, 34.0 +/- 3.7 degrees C (range 23.8-38.0 degrees C; N = 75), 34.5 +/- 2.2 degrees C (range 30.8-37.0 degrees C; N = 6), and 26.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C (range 24.8-28.0 degrees C; N = 8). The predominant prey items in the diet of T. torquatus were ants, coleopterans, and hemipterans. In the diet of M. agilis, coleopterans were the most frequent prey items. For H. mabouia, the most important dietary items were orthopterans. Clutch size of T. torquatus averaged 4.1 +/- 1.1 (range 2-6; N = 15) and was significantly related to female size (R2 = 0.618; p = 0.001; N = 15). Clutch size for H. mabouia was fixed (two) and mean litter size of the viviparous M. agilis was 3.3 +/- 0.6 (range 3-4; N = 3). Tropidurus torquatus and H. mabouia deposit their eggs under rocks in the study area, with the former burying them but not the latter; in both species, more than one female often oviposit under the same rock.

  13. Effects of intraguild predators on nest-site selection by prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-San; Pike, David A

    2012-01-01

    Nest-site selection involves tradeoffs between the risk of predation (on females and/or nests) and nest-site quality (microenvironment), and consequently suitable nesting sites are often in limited supply. Interactions with "classical" predators (e.g., those not competing for shared resources) can strongly influence nest-site selection, but whether intraguild predation also influences this behavior is unknown. We tested whether risk of predation from an intraguild predator [the diurnal scincid lizard Eutropis (Mabuya) longicaudata] influences nest-site selection by its prey (the nocturnal gecko Gekko hokouensis) on Orchid Island, Taiwan. These two species putatively compete for shared resources, including invertebrate prey and nesting microhabitat, but the larger E. longicaudata also predates G. hokouensis (but not its hard-shelled eggs). Both species nested within a concrete wall containing a series of drainage holes that have either one ("closed-in") or two openings ("open"). In allopatry, E. longicaudata preferred to nest within holes that were plugged by debris (thereby protecting eggs from water intrusion), whereas G. hokouensis selected holes that were open at both ends (facilitating escape from predators). When we experimentally excluded E. longicaudata from its preferred nesting area, G. hokouensis not only nested in higher abundances, but also modified its nest-site selection, such that communal nesting was more prevalent and both open and closed-in holes were used equally. Egg viability was unaffected by the choice of hole type, but was reduced slightly (by 7%) in the predator exclusion area (presumably due to higher local incubation temperatures). Our field experiment demonstrates that intraguild predators can directly influence the nest density of prey by altering maternal nest-site selection behavior, even when the predator and prey are active at different times of day and the eggs are not at risk of predation.

  14. Evidence for anthropophily in five species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from northern Colombia, revealed by molecular identification of bloodmeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternina, Luís E; Verbel-Vergara, Daniel; Romero-Ricardo, Luís; Pérez-Doria, Alveiro; Paternina-Gómez, Margaret; Martínez, Lily; Bejarano, Eduar E

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the bloodmeal sources of phlebotomine sand flies is fundamental to determining which species are anthropophilic and understanding the transmission of Leishmania parasites in natural epidemiological settings. The objective of this study was to identify sand fly bloodmeals in the mixed leishmaniasis focus of the department of Sucre, northern Colombia. In all 141 engorged female sand flies were analyzed, after being captured in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary habitats with Shannon and CDC traps and by active searching in diurnal resting sites. Bloodmeals were identified by sequencing and analysis of a 358bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b (CYB) and a 330bp fragment of the nuclear gene prepronociceptin (PNOC). Using both genes 105 vertebrate bloodmeals were identified, with an efficiency of 72% for CYB but only 7% for PNOC. Ten species of vertebrates were identified as providing bloodmeal sources for 8 sand fly species: Homo sapiens (Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia micropyga, Lutzomyia shannoni and Lutzomyia atroclavata), Equus caballus (L. evansi, L. panamensis and Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis), Equus asinus (L. evansi and L. panamensis), Bos taurus (L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. c. cayennensis), Tamandua mexicana (L. shannoni and Lutzomyia trinidadensis), Proechimys guyanensis (L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. c. cayennensis), Mabuya sp. (Lutzomyia micropyga), Anolissp. (L. micropyga), Sus scrofa (L. evansi and Lutzomyia gomezi) and Gallus gallus (L. evansi). Cattle, donkeys, humans and pigs were significantly more important than other animals (P=0.0001) as hosts of L. evansi, this being the most abundant sand fly species. The five Lutzomyia species in which blood samples of human origin were detected included L. micropyga and L. atroclavata, constituting the first evidence of anthropophily in both species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid Recovery of an Urban Remnant Reptile Community following Summer Wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert A; Doherty, Tim S

    2015-01-01

    Reptiles in urban remnants are threatened with extinction by increased fire frequency, habitat fragmentation caused by urban development, and competition and predation from exotic species. Understanding how urban reptiles respond to and recover from such disturbances is key to their conservation. We monitored the recovery of an urban reptile community for five years following a summer wildfire at Kings Park in Perth, Western Australia, using pitfall trapping at five burnt and five unburnt sites. The reptile community recovered rapidly following the fire. Unburnt sites initially had higher species richness and total abundance, but burnt sites rapidly converged, recording a similar total abundance to unburnt areas within two years, and a similar richness within three years. The leaf-litter inhabiting skink Hemiergis quadrilineata was strongly associated with longer unburnt sites and may be responding to the loss of leaf litter following the fire. Six rarely-captured species were also strongly associated with unburnt areas and were rarely or never recorded at burnt sites, whereas two other rarely-captured species were associated with burnt sites. We also found that one lizard species, Ctenotus fallens, had a smaller average body length in burnt sites compared to unburnt sites for four out of the five years of monitoring. Our study indicates that fire management that homogenises large areas of habitat through frequent burning may threaten some species due to their preference for longer unburnt habitat. Careful management of fire may be needed to maximise habitat suitability within the urban landscape.

  16. From the Cover: Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko setae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, Kellar; Sitti, Metin; Liang, Yiching A.; Peattie, Anne M.; Hansen, Wendy R.; Sponberg, Simon; Kenny, Thomas W.; Fearing, Ronald; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Full, Robert J.

    2002-09-01

    Geckos have evolved one of the most versatile and effective adhesives known. The mechanism of dry adhesion in the millions of setae on the toes of geckos has been the focus of scientific study for over a century. We provide the first direct experimental evidence for dry adhesion of gecko setae by van der Waals forces, and reject the use of mechanisms relying on high surface polarity, including capillary adhesion. The toes of live Tokay geckos were highly hydrophobic, and adhered equally well to strongly hydrophobic and strongly hydrophilic, polarizable surfaces. Adhesion of a single isolated gecko seta was equally effective on the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of a microelectro-mechanical systems force sensor. A van der Waals mechanism implies that the remarkable adhesive properties of gecko setae are merely a result of the size and shape of the tips, and are not strongly affected by surface chemistry. Theory predicts greater adhesive forces simply from subdividing setae to increase surface density, and suggests a possible design principle underlying the repeated, convergent evolution of dry adhesive microstructures in gecko, anoles, skinks, and insects. Estimates using a standard adhesion model and our measured forces come remarkably close to predicting the tip size of Tokay gecko seta. We verified the dependence on size and not surface type by using physical models of setal tips nanofabricated from two different materials. Both artificial setal tips stuck as predicted and provide a path to manufacturing the first dry, adhesive microstructures.

  17. Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko setae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, Kellar; Sitti, Metin; Liang, Yiching A; Peattie, Anne M; Hansen, Wendy R; Sponberg, Simon; Kenny, Thomas W; Fearing, Ronald; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Full, Robert J

    2002-09-17

    Geckos have evolved one of the most versatile and effective adhesives known. The mechanism of dry adhesion in the millions of setae on the toes of geckos has been the focus of scientific study for over a century. We provide the first direct experimental evidence for dry adhesion of gecko setae by van der Waals forces, and reject the use of mechanisms relying on high surface polarity, including capillary adhesion. The toes of live Tokay geckos were highly hydrophobic, and adhered equally well to strongly hydrophobic and strongly hydrophilic, polarizable surfaces. Adhesion of a single isolated gecko seta was equally effective on the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of a microelectro-mechanical systems force sensor. A van der Waals mechanism implies that the remarkable adhesive properties of gecko setae are merely a result of the size and shape of the tips, and are not strongly affected by surface chemistry. Theory predicts greater adhesive forces simply from subdividing setae to increase surface density, and suggests a possible design principle underlying the repeated, convergent evolution of dry adhesive microstructures in gecko, anoles, skinks, and insects. Estimates using a standard adhesion model and our measured forces come remarkably close to predicting the tip size of Tokay gecko seta. We verified the dependence on size and not surface type by using physical models of setal tips nanofabricated from two different materials. Both artificial setal tips stuck as predicted and provide a path to manufacturing the first dry, adhesive microstructures.

  18. Subdigital setae of narrow-toed geckos, including a Eublepharid (Aeluroscalabotes felinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peattie, Anne M

    2008-07-01

    Subdigital adhesive setae have previously been documented in all legged gecko families except the Eublepharidae. I present evidence that members of Aeluroscalabotes felinus, the only arboreal eublepharids, possess subdigital setae up to 9 mum in length. This discovery suggests that the conditions leading to adhesive setae were probably present in the ancestors of all geckos, rather than arising multiple times within Gekkota. The digits and setae of Aeluroscalabotes resemble those of other climbing, bent-toed geckos. I describe the setal morphology of the following bent-toed species: Cyrtodactylus peguensis, Gonatodes albogularis, and Pristurus rupestris. The presence of subdigital setae is highly correlated with an arboreal lifestyle across geckos and other lizards such as anoles and skinks. Although relatively simple in form, these setae likely confer additional traction that significantly benefits climbing species. Further developmental and biomechanical studies comparing these species with more agile climbers like the Tokay will improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes leading to adhesive setae, and consequently inform engineers attempting to fabricate effective artificial gecko setae. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The interface modification for GNWs/Si Schottky junction with PEI/PEIE interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Liu, Xiangzhi; Luo, Wei; Shen, Jun; Wang, Yuefeng; Wei, Dapeng

    2018-03-01

    Polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) and polyethyl-enimine (PEI), the two kinds of interface buffer layer, are widely used in the organic light-emitting diodes and solar cells for band alignment adjustment. In this report, we carefully studied the influence of the inserting organic layer on the graphene nanowalls(GNWS)/Si junction quality and the photoresponse of the Schottky devices. We found that thinner layers of PEI could decrease the dark current and improve the photo-to-dark ratio to 105 for n-Si devices. The s-kink effect and degradation of open circuit voltage could be observed for thicker thickness and excessive doping. Relatively, PEIE with stable thin layer not only improve the rectifying characteristics of p-Si devices but also the incident photon conversion efficiency. The maximus IPCE could reach 44% and be adjusted to zero by the reverse bias. The tunneling inhibition for electrons can be alleviated by increasing the barrier height. Our results provide an attractive method to improve the efficiency of pristine GNWs/Si junction with interface doping and passivation.

  20. Development of oilfield facilities on a nature reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.J.; Long, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Airlie Island which is a small (26 hectare) sand cay, located 35km north of Onslow in Western Australia. In common with other islands in the region, Airlie is a nesting site for seabirds and turtles, but its two primary conservation resources are the large Wedge-tailed Shearwater rookery which covers 64% of the island and an endemic skink species. Its conservation values have prompted the Western Australian State Government to declare the entire island a nature reserve set apart for the preservation of flora and fauna. In 1987 Western Mining Corporation Pty Ltd. developed the South Pepper and North herald oilfields and part of this development included the siting of an oil terminal on Airlie Island. It may be expected that the conservation resources of the island and the Company's requirements for land would be incompatible. However, a careful study of the local environment and the creation of a detailed plan to manage this environment resulted in an acceptable compromise

  1. Life on the rocks: habitat use drives morphological and performance evolution in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Brett A; Miles, Donald B; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2008-12-01

    As a group, lizards occupy a vast array of habitats worldwide, yet there remain relatively few cases where habitat use (ecology), morphology, and thus, performance, are clearly related. The best known examples include: increased limb length in response to increased arboreal perch diameter in anoles and increased limb length in response to increased habitat openness for some skinks. Rocky habitats impose strong natural selection on specific morphological characteristics, which differs from that imposed on terrestrial species, because moving about on inclined substrates of irregular sizes and shapes constrains locomotor performance in predictable ways. We quantified habitat use, morphology, and performance of 19 species of lizards (family Scincidae, subfamily Lygosominae) from 23 populations in tropical Australia. These species use habitats with considerable variation in rock availability. Comparative phylogenetic analyses revealed that occupation of rock-dominated habitats correlated with the evolution of increased limb length, compared to species from forest habitats that predominantly occupied leaf litter. Moreover, increased limb length directly affected performance, with species from rocky habitats having greater sprinting, climbing, and clinging ability than their relatives from less rocky habitats. Thus, we found that the degree of rock use is correlated with both morphological and performance evolution in this group of tropical lizards.

  2. High food abundance permits the evolution of placentotrophy: evidence from a placental lizard, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, James U; Griffith, Oliver W; Thompson, Michael B

    2014-08-01

    Mechanisms of reproductive allocation are major determinants of fitness because embryos cannot complete development without receiving sufficient nutrition from their parents. The nourishment of offspring via placentas (placentotrophy) has evolved repeatedly in vertebrates, including multiple times in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). Placentotrophy has been suggested to evolve only if food is sufficiently abundant throughout gestation to allow successful embryogenesis. If scarcity of food prevents successful embryogenesis, females should recoup nutrients allocated to embryos via abortion, reabsorption, and/or cannibalism. We tested these hypotheses in the placentotrophic southern grass skink Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii. We fed females one of four diets (high constant, high variable, low constant, and low variable) during gestation and tested the effects of both food amount and schedule of feeding on developmental success, cannibalism rate, placental nutrient transport, offspring size, and maternal growth and body condition. Low food availability reduced developmental success, placental nutrient transport, offspring size, and maternal growth and body condition. Cannibalism of offspring also increased when food was scarce. Schedule of feeding did not affect offspring or mothers. We suggest that high food abundance and ability to abort and cannibalize poor-quality offspring are permissive factors necessary for placentotrophy to be a viable strategy of reproductive allocation.

  3. Genomic characterisation of Almpiwar virus, Harrison Dam virus and Walkabout Creek virus; three novel rhabdoviruses from northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane McAllister

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdoviridae represent a diverse group of viruses with the potential to cause disease in humans, animals and plants. Currently there are nine genera in the family; however a large number of rhabdoviruses remain unassigned. Here we characterise three novel rhabdoviruses genomes. Almpiwar virus (ALMV, isolated from skinks in northern Queensland, is the first completely sequenced rhabdovirus from squamates, with serological studies indicating multiple animal host species. Harrison Dam virus (HARDV and Walkabout Creek virus (WACV were isolated from mosquitoes in the Northern Territory and biting midges in southern Queensland respectively and their vertebrate hosts remain unknown. Serological cross-neutralisation tests with other Australian rhabdoviruses indicate that ALMV, WACV and HARDV are distinct viruses with little antigenic cross-reactivity. Next-generation sequencing revealed that all viruses encode the core proteins common to rhabdoviruses (N, P, M, G and L, plus additional ORFs between the M and G genes. HARDV also contains a small ORF between the G and L genes. Phylogenetic analysis of N and L proteins suggests that HARDV and WACV share a common lineage with the tupaviruses and Sandjimba group, whereas ALMV is a distinct and divergent virus showing no clear relationship to any rhabdovirus except the recently characterised Niahka virus (NIAV.

  4. Surf and turf: predation by egg-eating snakes has led to the evolution of parental care in a terrestrial lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, David A; Clark, Rulon W; Manica, Andrea; Tseng, Hui-Yun; Hsu, Jung-Ya; Huang, Wen-San

    2016-02-26

    Animals display a great diversity of parental care tactics that ultimately enhance offspring survival, but how such behaviors evolve remains unknown for most systems. Here, we studied the evolution of maternal care, in the form of nest guarding, in a single population of long-tailed sun skink (Eutropis longicaudata) living on Orchid Island (Taiwan). This species typically does not provide protection to its offspring. Using a common garden experiment, we show that maternal care is genetically determined in this population. Through field manipulations, we demonstrate that care provides a significant increase in egg survival on Orchid Island by reducing predation from egg-eating snakes (Oligodon formosanus); this predator is not abundant in other populations of the lizard, which do not display parental care. Finally, using extensive field surveys, we show that the seasonal availability of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) nests is the cause for the high abundance of snake predators on Orchid Island, with the snakes consuming lizard eggs when green turtle eggs are not available. Together, these lines of evidence provide the first full demonstration of how predation can trigger the evolution of parental care in a species derived from a non-caring ancestor.

  5. Minimizing the cost of translocation failure with decision-tree models that predict species' behavioral response in translocation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehregan; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Bull, C Michael

    2015-08-01

    The high number of failures is one reason why translocation is often not recommended. Considering how behavior changes during translocations may improve translocation success. To derive decision-tree models for species' translocation, we used data on the short-term responses of an endangered Australian skink in 5 simulated translocations with different release conditions. We used 4 different decision-tree algorithms (decision tree, decision-tree parallel, decision stump, and random forest) with 4 different criteria (gain ratio, information gain, gini index, and accuracy) to investigate how environmental and behavioral parameters may affect the success of a translocation. We assumed behavioral changes that increased dispersal away from a release site would reduce translocation success. The trees became more complex when we included all behavioral parameters as attributes, but these trees yielded more detailed information about why and how dispersal occurred. According to these complex trees, there were positive associations between some behavioral parameters, such as fight and dispersal, that showed there was a higher chance, for example, of dispersal among lizards that fought than among those that did not fight. Decision trees based on parameters related to release conditions were easier to understand and could be used by managers to make translocation decisions under different circumstances. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Variations upon a theme: Australian lizards provide insights into the endocrine control of vertebrate reproductive cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Australian lizards exhibit a broad array of different reproductive strategies and provide an extraordinary diversity and range of models with which to address fundamental problems in reproductive biology. Studies on lizards have frequently led to new insights into hormonal regulatory pathways or mechanisms of control, but we have detailed knowledge of the reproductive cycle in only a small percentage of known species. This review provides an overview and synthesis of current knowledge of the hormonal control of reproductive cycles in Australian lizards. Agamid lizards have provided useful models with which to test hypotheses about the hormonal regulation of the expression of reproductive behaviors, while research on viviparous skinks is providing insights into the evolution of the endocrine control of gestation. However, in order to better understand the potential risks that environmental factors such as climate change and endocrine disrupting chemicals pose to our fauna, better knowledge is required of the fundamental characteristics of the reproductive cycle in a broader range of lizard species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The conservation status of the Saldanha-Langebaan lizard fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Cordes

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The conservation status of relic melanistic lizard species occurring in the Saldanha- Langebaan area has been investigated. A contact zone between one melanistic form and a closely related non-melanistic form has been examined in detail. Apart from melanis- tic populations of the girdled lizards, Cordylus niger and C. polywnus, a melanistic morphotype of the Cape legless skink, Acontias meleagris meleagris also occurs in the area. The taxonomic status of this morphotype needs to be investigated. At Mauritz Bay, north of Saldanha, the ranges of C niger and the non-melanistic C cordylus are in contact over a distance of approximately 240 m, with maximum overlap of 70 m. The melanistic populations of C. polyz.onus and A. m. meleagris have relatively large ranges in the Saldanha-Langebaan area and are not threatened by urban development. The C niger population, however, is fragmented into several subpopulations, and those in the Saldanha area, including the contact zone, will be affected if urban development is allowed to continue in the area. As relic populations of other cool-adapted, melanistic invertebrate and lower vertebrate species may also occur in the area, the key areas demarcated by C. niger should be preserved.

  8. Further miniaturisation of the Thermochron iButton to create a thermal bio-logger weighing 0.3 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virens, Josef; Cree, Alison

    2018-06-05

    Thermochron iButtons are commonly used by thermal biologists to continuously measure body temperature from animals. However, if unmodified, these devices are of a size that limits their use with very small animals. To allow iButtons to be used to study smaller species, methods to miniaturise them by 61% have been previously described. We present a method to reduce iButton mass by a further 71%. The modified devices have a shorter battery life, but the minimum size of vertebrates able to carry the devices is reduced from 28.9 g to 6.6 g, if the arbitrary, yet widely cited, maximum of 5% body mass for attached devices is adhered to. We demonstrate the application of our method by recording surface temperatures of captive and wild skinks and show that captive cockroaches weighing 0.8 g are also able to carry the device. We believe this to be the first time that temperature data have been recorded from an insect in this way. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Rapid Recovery of an Urban Remnant Reptile Community following Summer Wildfire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Davis

    Full Text Available Reptiles in urban remnants are threatened with extinction by increased fire frequency, habitat fragmentation caused by urban development, and competition and predation from exotic species. Understanding how urban reptiles respond to and recover from such disturbances is key to their conservation. We monitored the recovery of an urban reptile community for five years following a summer wildfire at Kings Park in Perth, Western Australia, using pitfall trapping at five burnt and five unburnt sites. The reptile community recovered rapidly following the fire. Unburnt sites initially had higher species richness and total abundance, but burnt sites rapidly converged, recording a similar total abundance to unburnt areas within two years, and a similar richness within three years. The leaf-litter inhabiting skink Hemiergis quadrilineata was strongly associated with longer unburnt sites and may be responding to the loss of leaf litter following the fire. Six rarely-captured species were also strongly associated with unburnt areas and were rarely or never recorded at burnt sites, whereas two other rarely-captured species were associated with burnt sites. We also found that one lizard species, Ctenotus fallens, had a smaller average body length in burnt sites compared to unburnt sites for four out of the five years of monitoring. Our study indicates that fire management that homogenises large areas of habitat through frequent burning may threaten some species due to their preference for longer unburnt habitat. Careful management of fire may be needed to maximise habitat suitability within the urban landscape.

  10. Bermuda as an evolutionary life raft for an ancient lineage of endangered lizards.

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    Matthew C Brandley

    Full Text Available Oceanic islands are well known for harboring diverse species assemblages and are frequently the basis of research on adaptive radiation and neoendemism. However, a commonly overlooked role of some islands is their function in preserving ancient lineages that have become extinct everywhere else (paleoendemism. The island archipelago of Bermuda is home to a single species of extant terrestrial vertebrate, the endemic skink Plestiodon (formerly Eumeces longirostris. The presence of this species is surprising because Bermuda is an isolated, relatively young oceanic island approximately 1000 km from the eastern United States. Here, we apply Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using a relaxed molecular clock to demonstrate that the island of Bermuda, although no older than two million years, is home to the only extant representative of one of the earliest mainland North American Plestiodon lineages, which diverged from its closest living relatives 11.5 to 19.8 million years ago. This implies that, within a short geological time frame, mainland North American ancestors of P. longirostris colonized the recently emergent Bermuda and the entire lineage subsequently vanished from the mainland. Thus, our analyses reveal that Bermuda is an example of a "life raft" preserving millions of years of unique evolutionary history, now at the brink of extinction. Threats such as habitat destruction, littering, and non-native species have severely reduced the population size of this highly endangered lizard.

  11. Emergent multisystemic Enterococcus infection threatens endangered Christmas Island reptile populations.

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    Karrie Rose

    Full Text Available Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus, in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island. The Gram and periodic acid-Schiff positive cocci to diplococci have a propensity to form chains surrounded by a matrix, which ultrastructurally appears to be formed by fibrillar capsular projections. The bacterium was associated with severe and extensive replacement of tissues, but minimal host inflammatory response. Attempts to grow the organism in culture and in embryonated eggs were unsuccessful. Molecular characterisation of the organism placed it as a novel member of the genus Enterococcus. Disease Risk Analyses including this organism should now be factored into conservation management actions and island biosecurity.

  12. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Fred; Campbell, Earl W.; Allison, Allen; Pratt, Thane K.

    1999-01-01

    As an oceanic archipelago isolated from continental source areas, Hawaii lacks native terrestrial reptiles and amphibians, Polynesians apparently introduced seven gecko and skink species after discovering the islands approximately 1500 years ago, and another 15 reptiles and five frogs have been introduced in the last century and a half (McKeown 1996). The Polynesian introductions are probably inadvertent because the species involved are known stowaway dispersers (Gibbons 1985; Dye and Steadman 1990), In contrast, most of the herpetological introductions since European contact with Hawaii have been intentional. Several frog species were released for biocontrol of insects (e.g., Dendrobates auratus, Bufo marinus, Rana rugosa, Bryan 1932; Oliver and Shaw 1953), and most of the remaining species are released or escaped pets (e.g., Phelsuma spp., Chamaeleo jacksonii, Iguana iguana, McKeown 1996), Government-approved releases have not occurred for many years, but the rate of establishment of new species has increased in the past few decades because of the importation and subsequent release of pets.

  13. Comunidades herpetológicas de la reserva de La Quebrada, Río Ceballos, Córdoba (Argentina

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    Gavier, Gregorio

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se desarrolló en un ambiente característico de las sierras Chicas de Córdoba, la Reserva La Quebrada. El objetivo del estudio fue describir la composición y diversidad de la comunidad herpetofaunística, sus cambios estacionales, y estudiar si existen comunidades diferentes asociadas a los ecosistemas de pastizal, bosque y borde de arroyo. También se analizó su relación con las variables ambientales climáticas. Se instalaron de una a tres líneas de muestreo por ambiente, cada una con 15 trampas de caída separadas por una distancia de 10 m, que se revisaron mensualmente entre febrero de 1991 y mayo de 1994. Se capturaron 147 especímenes distribuidos entre 21 especies: 8 anfibios (n= 114, 8 ofidios (n= 9 y 5 saurios (n= 24. Odontophrynus occidentalis e Hyla pulchella cordobae sumaron alrededor del 60% de la abundancia total. H. p. cordobae fue la especie de distribución más amplia. Las especies más abundantes en los diferentes ambientes fueron Odontophrynus americanus y Leptodactylus gracilis en pastizal, O. occidentalis y Mabuya dorsivittata en bosque, O. occidentalis e H. p. cordobae en bordes de arroyo. Los ambientes estudiados no mostraron diferencias en cuanto a la riqueza o abundancia de individuos, pero sí en relación a la composición de las comunidades y los cambios estacionales en abundancias. La diversidad fue mayor en el pastizal (H'=1,93 con respecto al bosque (H'=1,41 y al borde de arroyo (H'=1,19. Abundancia, riqueza y diversidad para la Reserva en su conjunto correlacionaron en forma directa con temperatura y precipitación. Se comprobó la existencia de dos comunidades diferentes, una relacionada al ambiente de pastizal y otra a la unidad formada por el bosque y el borde de arroyo. Las altas tasas de deforestación registradas en el área podrían modificar las relaciones de abundancias entre especies y los patrones de biodiversidad en el área.La presente investigación se desarrolló en

  14. CAMBIO Estacional EN EL USO DE LOS RECURSOS DE LA COMUNIDAD de reptiles en EL COMPLEJO Cenagoso DE ZAPATOSA, DEPARTAMENTO DEL CESAR (COLOMBIA

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    Medina-Rangel Guido Fabián

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar cómo los ciclos estacionales influyen en el uso y la agregación de lasespecies de reptiles en los diferentes hábitats, microhábitats y horas de actividad diaria.Se realizaron cuatro salidas de campo en áreas circundantes al complejo cenagoso deZapatosa, entre noviembre de 2006 y octubre de 2007, abarcando la época de lluvias(noviembre de 2006 y octubre de 2007 y la época seca (enero de 2007 y julio de 2007.En total se invirtieron 640 horas/hombre de muestreo, repartidas en cinco hábitats:bosque casmófito, bosque seco, bosque de ribera, palmar y sabana arbolada. Seencontraron 468 individuos distribuidos en 36 especies en época de lluvias y en épocaseca se hallaron 344 individuos repartidos en 35 especies. En época de lluvias el hábitatmás rico en especies fue el bosque casmófito y el más abundante en individuos fue elbosque seco; en época seca el bosque de ribera fue el que presentó el mayor númerode especies e individuos. El mayor recambio temporal de especies dentro del mismohábitat lo presentó la sabana arbolada. Las especies que dominaron la comunidaden ambos periodos climáticos fueron Gonatodes albogularis, Anolis tropidogastery Anolis auratus. La disimilitud en cuanto a las abundancias y la composición delas especies que se presentó entre épocas climáticas fue del 34% y las especies quemás contribuyeron a esto fueron Ameiva praesignis, Mabuya sp. y Holcosus festivus.Las horas de actividad de un período climático a otro fueron similares. Los lagartosmostraron mayor amplitud y las serpientes más alta superposición en el uso del tiempode actividad en los dos periodos climático. La amplitud en el uso de los recursos nopresentó un patrón generalizado por grupos de reptiles de un periodo a otro, ni resultódiferente estadísticamente entre época climática. La superposición en el uso de losrecursos fue mayor en la época seca frente a la de lluvias.

  15. Temporal variation and size class distribution in a hepertological assemblage from Córdoba, Argentina

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    Martori, Ricardo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de la conservación, conocer la abundancia, la diversidad, y los patrones de actividad de un ensamble herpetológico son medulares para comprender la dinámica de la comunidad y el modo de cómo es utilizado el hábitat. En este proyecto propusimos cuatro hipótesis nulas: 1 La frecuencia de captura de cada una de las especies será similar en los dos años relevados. 2 La frecuencia de capturas de cada especie es similar durante los meses estudiados. 3 La actividad de cada especie es similar a la actividad del resto del ensamble. 4 Las proporciones de cada grupo etario de cada especie se mantienen constantes en el tiempo. Durante este estudio fueron colectadas diecinueve especies, diez especies de Amphibia distribuidas en cuatro familias y nueve especies de Squamata distribuidas en siete familias. En hábitats relativamente complicados que poseen una estructura vegetal compleja y presentan patrones de actividad herpetológica irregular, el uso de trampas de caída resulta uno de los pocos métodos eficientes para la evaluación de la actividad de animales terrestres. El uso de trampas de caída es un método efectivo para realizar inventarios herpetológicos pero los resultados deben ser tratados con precaución porque este método captura algunas especies más fácilmente que otras. Los principales resultados obtenidos por este estudio fueron: La hipótesis 1 fue rechazada, para todas las especies exceptuando a Mabuya dorsivittata, que mostró frecuencias de actividad similares en ambos años, la hipótesis 2 también fue rechazada porque todas las especies mostraron significativas diferencias de actividad temporal. Las especies más variables fueron Odontophrynus americanus y Bufo fernandezae; la más constante Pantodactylus schreibersi. La tercera hipótesis fue rechazada para todas las especies salvo Elachistocleis bicolor que presentó un patrón de actividad similar al ensamble. La hipótesis 4 fue rechazada, los

  16. The terrestrial reptile fauna of the Abrolhos Archipelago: species list and ecological aspects A fauna de répteis terrestres do Arquipélago de Abrolhos: lista de espécies e aspectos ecológicos

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    C. F. D. ROCHA

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the terrestrial reptile fauna of the Abrolhos Archipelago (a group of five islands located ca. 70 km off the southern coast of the State of Bahia, Brazil and analyze here some of its ecological aspects such as diet, thermal ecology, activity, and some reproductive parameters. Three lizards comprise the archipelago's terrestrial reptile fauna: Tropidurus torquatus (Tropiduridae, Mabuya agilis (Scincidae, and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae. The first two are diurnal and the latter is crepuscular/nocturnal (initiating activity at ca. 17:30. The activity period of T. torquatus extended from 5:30 to 18:30 h. Mean field body temperatures of active T. torquatus, M. agilis, and H. mabouia were, respectively, 34.0 ± 3.7ºC (range 23.8-38.0ºC; N = 75, 34.5 ± 2.2ºC (range 30.8-37.0ºC; N = 6, and 26.3 ± 1.1ºC (range 24.8-28.0ºC; N = 8. The predominant prey items in the diet of T. torquatus were ants, coleopterans, and hemipterans. In the diet of M. agilis, coleopterans were the most frequent prey items. For H. mabouia, the most important dietary items were orthopterans. Clutch size of T. torquatus averaged 4.1 ± 1.1 (range 2-6; N = 15 and was significantly related to female size (R² = 0.618; p = 0.001; N = 15. Clutch size for H. mabouia was fixed (two and mean litter size of the viviparous M. agilis was 3.3 ± 0.6 (range 3-4; N = 3. Tropidurus torquatus and H. mabouia deposit their eggs under rocks in the study area, with the former burying them but not the latter; in both species, more than one female often oviposit under the same rock.Estudamos a fauna de répteis terrestre do Arquipélago de Abrolhos (um conjunto de cinco ilhas localizadas a 70 km da costa sul do Estado da Bahia, Brasil e analisamos alguns aspectos da ecologia das espécies, como a dieta, ecologia termal, atividade e alguns parâmetros reprodutivos. A fauna de répteis do arquipélago compreende três lagartos: Tropidurus torquatus (Tropiduridae, Mabuya agilis

  17. From lizard body form to serpentiform morphology: The atlas-axis complex in African cordyliformes and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerňanský, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    The comparative vertebral morphology of the atlas-axis complex in cordyliforms, xantusiid and several skinks is studied here. These lizards are particularly interesting because of their different ecological adaptations and anti-predation strategies, where conformation ranges from the lizard-like body to a snake-like body. This transition to serpentiform morphology shows several evolutionary patterns in the atlas-axis complex: 1) the zygapophyseal articulations are lost in the early stage of the transition. In contrast to mammals, the atlas is more or less locked to the axis in lepidosaurs, but the absence of zygapophyseal articulation releases this locking for rotation. However despite its serpentiform morphology, Chamaesaura is different, in possessing this articulation; 2) the first intercentrum of Chamaesaura and Tetradactylus africanus (serpentiform grass-swimmers) is fully curved anteriorly, underlying the occipital condyle. While this limits ventral skull rotation beyond a certain angle, it locks the skull, which is a crucial adaptation for a sit-and-wait position in grassland habitats that needs to keep the head stabilized; and 3) in Acontias, most of the atlas articular surface with the occipital condyle is formed by the lateral aspect of the articulation area relative to the area located in the dorsal region of the slightly reduced intercentrum. A similar state occurs in amphisbaenians, most likely reflecting a fossorial lifestyle of the limbless lizards. Although Chamaesaura and Tetradactylus live sympatrically in grasslands, Chamaesaura differs in several ways in atlas-axis complex: for example, aforementioned presence of the atlas-axis zygapophyseal articulation, and long posterodorsal processes. Its occipital condyle protrudes further posteriorly, placing the atlas-axis complex further from the endocranium than in Tetradactylus. Hence, adaptation in the same niche, even among sister clades, can lead to different atlas-axis morphology due to different

  18. Diversity and Community Composition of Vertebrates in Desert River Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, C. L.; Baxter, G. S.; Dickman, C. R.; Lisle, A.; Leung, L. K.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal species are seldom distributed evenly at either local or larger spatial scales, and instead tend to aggregate in sites that meet their resource requirements and maximise fitness. This tendency is likely to be especially marked in arid regions where species could be expected to concentrate at resource-rich oases. In this study, we first test the hypothesis that productive riparian sites in arid Australia support higher vertebrate diversity than other desert habitats, and then elucidate the habitats selected by different species. We addressed the first aim by examining the diversity and composition of vertebrate assemblages inhabiting the Field River and adjacent sand dunes in the Simpson Desert, western Queensland, over a period of two and a half years. The second aim was addressed by examining species composition in riparian and sand dune habitats in dry and wet years. Vertebrate species richness was estimated to be highest (54 species) in the riverine habitats and lowest on the surrounding dune habitats (45 species). The riverine habitats had different species pools compared to the dune habitats. Several species, including the agamid Gowidon longirostris and tree frog Litoria rubella, inhabited the riverine habitats exclusively, while others such as the skinks Ctenotus ariadnae and C. dux were captured only in the dune habitats. The results suggest that, on a local scale, diversity is higher along riparian corridors and that riparian woodland is important for tree-dependent species. Further, the distribution of some species, such as Mus musculus, may be governed by environmental variables (e.g. soil moisture) associated with riparian corridors that are not available in the surrounding desert environment. We conclude that inland river systems may be often of high conservation value, and that management should be initiated where possible to alleviate threats to their continued functioning. PMID:26637127

  19. Scented guide ropes as a method to enhance brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) trap capture success on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, L.C.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Yackel Adams, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Current methods for controlling the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam include a modified minnow trap with a live mouse lure. We investigated the effects on capture success of augmenting these traps with scented guide ropes leading to trap entrances. Initial screening of scent preferences was based on time spent in scented and unscented arms of a Y-maze. Preferences of large and small snakes were scored for six different prey scents (live and carrion gecko, skink, and mouse). Large snakes spent more time in the maze arm scented with live gecko and carrion gecko, whereas small snakes spent more time in the arm scented with carrion mouse and carrion gecko. After the laboratory study, a pilot trapping session was conducted in the field using three treatments (live mouse-scented ropes, carrion gecko-scented ropes, and carrion mouse-scented ropes) and two controls (traps with unscented guide ropes and those with no ropes attached). Contrary to laboratory results, live mouse-scented ropes were most effective. We conducted a second trapping session using live mouse-scented ropes as well as the two controls used in the pilot study. For snakes of below-average to average condition, the number of captures for traps with live mouse-scented ropes was higher than for traps with no ropes. However, for snakes of above-average condition, there were no differences in capture rates between trap treatments. Overall, treatment effects were weaker than latent individual heterogeneity and the influence of snake body size, with large snakes trapped more readily. ?? 2011 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  20. Biodiversity assessment at Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) campus, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahir Hussain, K.; Satpathy, K.K.; Prasad, M.V.R.; Ramesh, T.; Selvanayagam, M.

    2008-01-01

    A rapid assessment of biodiversity in the DAE campus, Kalpakkam was carried out. The entire DAE campus of 3000 acres, at Kalpakkam was divided into four representative plots comprising of different landscapes namely (1) undisturbed area with dense vegetation, (2) building area, (3) water bodies with riparian cover and (4) sandy area with meager vegetation for inventorying of charismatic terrestrial/semi-aquatic fauna viz., Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Butterflies. For birds, early morning surveys were made whereas for mammals evening and night surveys were followed. Midday sampling was followed for butterflies and other animals. Each plot was surveyed twice in a week over a period of one year (April 07' to March 08'). Totally 128 species of animals were identified during the survey and it has highlighted the potential of biodiversity in the campus. The diversity of butterflies is remarkable. Twenty-two butterfly species were encountered. Frogs, toads, lizards and snakes are also diverse. Five species of frogs and one species of toad were recorded. Lizards are more diverse than snakes. Nine species of lizards were encountered. Calotus versicolor is abundant followed by common skink. Totally five species of snakes were recorded. Among them Common bronzedback and Green Vine Snake were predominant. Seventy species of birds were recorded during the survey period. Black crowned night heron, Common house crow, Great cormorant, Oriental white ibis, Painted stork, Cattle egret, Common mynah are more common. Sixteen species of mammals were encountered during the survey. Wild cattle, Jackal, Jungle cat, Toddy cat, Crested porcupine and Indian civet are the major wildlife found. Indian civet and Crested porcupine are elusive animals that are diminishing from wild and their presence at this campus is an indication of less human intervention. (author)

  1. Geographical differences in maternal basking behaviour and offspring growth rate in a climatically widespread viviparous reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadby, Chloé D; Jones, Susan M; Wapstra, Erik

    2014-04-01

    In reptiles, the thermal environment during embryonic development affects offspring phenotypic traits and potentially offspring fitness. In viviparous species, mothers can potentially manipulate the embryonic thermal environment through their basking behaviour and, thus, may be able to manipulate offspring phenotype and increase offspring fitness. One way in which mothers can maximise offspring phenotype (and thus potentially affect offspring fitness) is by fine-tuning their basking behaviour to the environment in order to buffer the embryo from deleterious developmental temperatures. In widespread species, it is unclear whether populations that have evolved under different climatic conditions will exhibit different maternal behaviours and/or thermal effects on offspring phenotype. To test this, we provided extended or reduced basking opportunity to gravid spotted skinks (Niveoscincus ocellatus) and their offspring from two populations at the climatic extremes of the species' distribution. Gravid females fine-tuned their basking behaviour to the basking opportunity, which allowed them to buffer their embryos from potentially negative thermal effects. This fine-tuning of female basking behaviour appears to have led to the expression of geographical differences in basking behaviour, with females from the cold alpine regions being more opportunistic in their basking behaviour than females from the warmer regions. However, those differences in maternal behaviour did not preclude the evolution of geographic differences in thermal effects: offspring growth varied between populations, potentially suggesting local adaptation to basking conditions. Our results demonstrate that maternal effects and phenotypic plasticity can play a significant role in allowing species to cope in changing environmental conditions, which is particularly relevant in the context of climate change.

  2. Dealing with trade-offs in destructive sampling designs for occupancy surveys.

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    Stefano Canessa

    Full Text Available Occupancy surveys should be designed to minimise false absences. This is commonly achieved by increasing replication or increasing the efficiency of surveys. In the case of destructive sampling designs, in which searches of individual microhabitats represent the repeat surveys, minimising false absences leads to an inherent trade-off. Surveyors can sample more low quality microhabitats, bearing the resultant financial costs and producing wider-spread impacts, or they can target high quality microhabitats were the focal species is more likely to be found and risk more severe impacts on local habitat quality. We show how this trade-off can be solved with a decision-theoretic approach, using the Millewa Skink Hemiergis millewae from southern Australia as a case study. Hemiergis millewae is an endangered reptile that is best detected using destructive sampling of grass hummocks. Within sites that were known to be occupied by H. millewae, logistic regression modelling revealed that lizards were more frequently detected in large hummocks. If this model is an accurate representation of the detection process, searching large hummocks is more efficient and requires less replication, but this strategy also entails destruction of the best microhabitats for the species. We developed an optimisation tool to calculate the minimum combination of the number and size of hummocks to search to achieve a given cumulative probability of detecting the species at a site, incorporating weights to reflect the sensitivity of the results to a surveyor's priorities. The optimisation showed that placing high weight on minimising volume necessitates impractical replication, whereas placing high weight on minimising replication requires searching very large hummocks which are less common and may be vital for H. millewae. While destructive sampling methods are sometimes necessary, surveyors must be conscious of the ecological impacts of these methods. This study provides a

  3. Morphology, reproduction and diet in Australian and Papuan death adders (Acanthophis, Elapidae.

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    Richard Shine

    Full Text Available Death adders (genus Acanthophis differ from most other elapid snakes, and resemble many viperid snakes, in their thickset morphology and ambush foraging mode. Although these snakes are widely distributed through Australia and Papua New Guinea, their basic biology remains poorly known. We report morphological and ecological data based upon dissection of >750 museum specimens drawn from most of the range of the genus. Female death adders grow larger than conspecific males, to about the same extent in all taxa (20% in mean adult snout-vent length,  =  SVL. Most museum specimens were adult rather than juvenile animals, and adult males outnumbered females in all taxa except A. pyrrhus. Females have shorter tails (relative to SVL than males, and longer narrower heads (relative to head length in some but not all species. The southern A. antarcticus is wider-bodied (relative to SVL than the other Australian species. Fecundity of these viviparous snakes was similar among taxa (mean litter sizes 8 to 14. Death adders encompass a broad range of ecological attributes, taking a wide variety of vertebrate prey, mostly lizards (55%, frogs and mammals (each 21%; based on 217 records. Dietary composition differed among species (e.g. frogs were more common in tropical than temperate-zone species, and shifted with snake body size (endotherms were taken by larger snakes and sex (male death adders took more lizards than did females. Overall, death adders take a broader array of prey types, including active fast-moving taxa such as endotherms and large diurnal skinks, than do most other Australian elapids of similar body sizes. Ambush foraging is the key to capturing such elusive prey.

  4. Morphology, reproduction and diet in Australian and Papuan death adders (Acanthophis, Elapidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Spencer, Carol L; Keogh, J Scott

    2014-01-01

    Death adders (genus Acanthophis) differ from most other elapid snakes, and resemble many viperid snakes, in their thickset morphology and ambush foraging mode. Although these snakes are widely distributed through Australia and Papua New Guinea, their basic biology remains poorly known. We report morphological and ecological data based upon dissection of >750 museum specimens drawn from most of the range of the genus. Female death adders grow larger than conspecific males, to about the same extent in all taxa (20% in mean adult snout-vent length,  =  SVL). Most museum specimens were adult rather than juvenile animals, and adult males outnumbered females in all taxa except A. pyrrhus. Females have shorter tails (relative to SVL) than males, and longer narrower heads (relative to head length) in some but not all species. The southern A. antarcticus is wider-bodied (relative to SVL) than the other Australian species. Fecundity of these viviparous snakes was similar among taxa (mean litter sizes 8 to 14). Death adders encompass a broad range of ecological attributes, taking a wide variety of vertebrate prey, mostly lizards (55%), frogs and mammals (each 21%; based on 217 records). Dietary composition differed among species (e.g. frogs were more common in tropical than temperate-zone species), and shifted with snake body size (endotherms were taken by larger snakes) and sex (male death adders took more lizards than did females). Overall, death adders take a broader array of prey types, including active fast-moving taxa such as endotherms and large diurnal skinks, than do most other Australian elapids of similar body sizes. Ambush foraging is the key to capturing such elusive prey.

  5. Snake and bird predation drive the repeated convergent evolution of correlated life history traits and phenotype in the Izu Island Scincid lizard (Plestiodon latiscutatus.

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    Matthew C Brandley

    Full Text Available Predation may create strong natural selection pressure on the phenotype and life history characteristics of prey species. The Izu scincid lizards (Plestiodon latiscutatus that inhabit the four Japanese Izu Islands with only bird predators are drab brown, mature later, lay small clutches of large eggs, and hatch large neonates. In contrast, skinks on seven islands with both snake and bird predators are conspicuously colored, mature early, lay large clutches of small eggs, and hatch small neonates. We test the hypothesis that these suites of traits have evolved independently on each island via natural selection pressures from one of two predator regimes--birds-only and birds + snakes. Using two mtDNA genes and a nuclear locus, we infer a time-calibrated phylogeny of P. latiscutatus that reveals a basal split between Mikura and all islands south, and Miyake, all islands north, and the Izu Peninsula. Populations inhabiting Miyake, Niijima, Shikine, and Toshima are not monophyletic, suggesting either multiple colonizations or an artifact of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS. We therefore developed novel phylogenetic comparative analyses that assume either a multiple colonization or more restrictive single colonization ILS scenario and found 1 statistically significant support for the of different suites of phenotypic and life history characteristics with the presence of bird-only or bird + snake predator assemblages, and 2 strong phylogenetic support for at least two independent derivations of either the "bird-only" or "snakes + birds" phenotypes regardless of colonization scenario. Finally, our time-calibrated phylogeographic analysis supports the conclusion that the ancestor to modern Izu Island P. latiscutatus dispersed from the mainland to the Izu proto-islands between 3-7.6 million years ago (Ma. These lineages remained present in the area during successive formation of the islands, with one lineage re-colonizing the mainland 0.24-0.7 Ma.

  6. Tick exposure and extreme climate events impact survival and threaten the persistence of a long-lived lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice R; Bull, C Michael; Brook, Barry W; Wells, Konstans; Pollock, Kenneth H; Fordham, Damien A

    2016-03-01

    Assessing the impacts of multiple, often synergistic, stressors on the population dynamics of long-lived species is becoming increasingly important due to recent and future global change. Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) is a long-lived skink (>30 years) that is adapted to survive in semi-arid environments with varying levels of parasite exposure and highly seasonal food availability. We used an exhaustive database of 30 years of capture-mark-recapture records to quantify the impacts of both parasite exposure and environmental conditions on the lizard's survival rates and long-term population dynamics. Lizard abundance was relatively stable throughout the study period; however, there were changing patterns in adult and juvenile apparent survival rates, driven by spatial and temporal variation in levels of tick exposure and temporal variation in environmental conditions. Extreme weather events during the winter and spring seasons were identified as important environmental drivers of survival. Climate models predict a dramatic increase in the frequency of extreme hot and dry winter and spring seasons in our South Australian study region; from a contemporary probability of 0.17 up to 0.47-0.83 in 2080 depending on the emissions scenario. Our stochastic population model projections showed that these future climatic conditions will induce a decline in the abundance of this long-lived reptile of up to 67% within 30 years from 2080, under worst case scenario modelling. The results have broad implications for future work investigating the drivers of population dynamics and persistence. We highlight the importance of long-term data sets and accounting for synergistic impacts between multiple stressors. We show that predicted increases in the frequency of extreme climate events have the potential to considerably and negatively influence a long-lived species, which might previously have been assumed to be resilient to environmental perturbations. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria labbeana-like (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Gmelin, 1789) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2016-07-01

    An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 banana-shaped sporozoites, 12.3 × 3.5 (11.8-13.0 × 3.3-3.6) μm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus was located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S locus, the new isolate shared 98.0% genetic similarity with three Isospora isolates from Japan from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, it grouped separately and shared 92.4% and 92.5% genetic similarity with Isospora anthochaerae (KF766053) from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) from Australia and an Isospora sp. (MS-2003 - AY283845) from a Himalayan grey-headed bullfinch (Pyrrhula erythaca) respectively. At COI locus, this new isolate was in a separate clade and shared 95.6% and 90.0% similarity respectively with Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. from a shingleback skink in Australia and an Eimeria sp. from a common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) from America. Based on the morphological data, this isolate is most similar to Eimeria labbeana. As no molecular data for E. labbeana is available and previous morphological data is incomplete, we refer to the current isolate as E. labbeana-like. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Under the weather?-The direct effects of climate warming on a threatened desert lizard are mediated by their activity phase and burrow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Danae; Stow, Adam; Kearney, Michael Ray

    2018-05-01

    For ectotherms such as lizards, the importance of behavioural thermoregulation in avoiding thermal extremes is well-established and is increasingly acknowledged in modern studies of climate warming and its impacts. Less appreciated and understood are the buffering roles of retreat sites and activity phase, in part because of logistical challenges of studying below-ground activity. Burrowing and nocturnal activity are key behavioural adaptations that have enabled a diverse range of reptiles to survive extreme environmental temperatures within hot desert regions. Yet, the direct impact of recent global warming on activity potential has been hypothesised to have caused extinctions in desert lizards, including the Australian arid zone skink Liopholis kintorei. We test the relevance of this hypothesis through a detailed characterisation of the above- and below-ground thermal and hydric microclimates available to, and used by, L. kintorei. We integrate operative temperatures with observed body temperatures to construct daily activity budgets, including the inference of subterranean behaviour. We then assess the likelihood that contemporary and future local extinctions in this species, and those of similar burrowing habits, could be explained by the direct effects of warming on its activity budget and exposure to thermal extremes. We found that L. kintorei spent only 4% of its time active on the surface, primarily at dusk, and that overall potential surface activity will be increased, not restricted, with climate warming. The burrow system provides an exceptional buffer to current and future maximum extremes of temperature (≈40°C reduction from potential surface temperatures), and desiccation (burrows near 100% humidity). Therefore, any climate warming impacts on this species are likely to be indirect. Our findings reflect the general buffering capacity of underground microclimates, therefore, our conclusions for L. kintorei are more generally applicable to