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Sample records for skin pigmentation clues

  1. Skin Pigment

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    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Impetigo and Ecthyma (News) Don't Get Caught Without ... Professional version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection. The infection leads ...

  2. Dermoscopy Clues in Pigmented Bowen's Disease

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    Daniela Gutiérrez-Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented tumors have similar clinical features that overlap and hamper diagnosis. Dermoscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy of doubtful melanocytic lesions and has been used as a noninvasive tool in the detection of pigmented lesions (PLs like melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and pigmented Bowen's disease (pBD. Our objective was to show the dermoscopic features of 2 cases of pBD and compare with the findings reported in the literature. Two dermoscopic images of biopsy proven pBD were retrospectively analyzed for dermoscopic patterns. Both cases showed brown regular globules, structureless brown and blue pigmentation, glomerular vessels, hypopigmented regression-like areas, and keratosis. These findings were similar to the cases reported previously. The dermoscopic diagnosis of pBD is based on the absence of criteria for a melanocytic lesion in the presence of glomerular vessels, regular brown globules and keratosis. Although pBD is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of PLs, especially melanoma.

  3. Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments.

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    Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

    2005-01-01

    Broiler carcass skin color is important in the United States and Mexico. This study evaluated the use of natural and synthetic pigments in broiler diets at commercial levels. Birds were fed natural or synthetic pigments at low or high levels, simulating US and Mexican commercial practices. Skin color was measured during live production (3 to 7 wk of age) and after slaughter and chilling. The natural pigments had consistently greater skin b* values (yellowness) than the synthetic pigments. The high levels produced greater skin b* values than the low levels, regardless of source. The synthetic pigments had a slower increase in skin b* but reached the same level as the natural low by 7 wk. There was no difference in skin a* values (redness) due to pigment source or level or the age of the bird. By 7 wk, all pigment sources approached plateau levels in the blood, but the synthetic pigment diet produced higher blood levels of yellow and red pigments than the natural pigment diets. Processing intensified skin yellowness and reduced skin redness. These data suggest that although synthetic pigments might have been absorbed better than natural ones, natural pigments were more efficient at increasing skin yellowness and there were only small differences between high and low levels for each pigment source. This finding may allow reduction in pigment use and feed cost to achieve the same skin acceptance by the consumer.

  4. Pigmented skin disorders: Evaluation and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentary disorders are disturbances of human skin color. Minor changes in the cellular physiology of the skin can dramatically affect pigment production in positive or negative manner. In this these, associated diseases, therapeutical options and disease parameters for the pigmentation disorder

  5. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

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    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin.

  6. Skin Pigmentation Kinetics after Exposure to Ultraviolet A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis after 6 and 12 exposures on the back using broadband UVA and UVA1 with equal sub-minimal melanogenic doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured by skin reflectance at 555 and 660 urn. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in dark......Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12......-fold, respectively. The absolute increase in pigmentation was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation; therefore the percentage increase in pigmentation was higher in fair-skinned subjects. The absolute increase in pigmentation was higher and it took 2-3 days longer to reach steady-state after 12 UV exposures...

  7. An Unexpectedly Complex Architecture for Skin Pigmentation in Africans.

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    Martin, Alicia R; Lin, Meng; Granka, Julie M; Myrick, Justin W; Liu, Xiaomin; Sockell, Alexandra; Atkinson, Elizabeth G; Werely, Cedric J; Möller, Marlo; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Kingsley, David M; Hoal, Eileen G; Liu, Xiao; Daly, Mark J; Feldman, Marcus W; Gignoux, Christopher R; Bustamante, Carlos D; Henn, Brenna M

    2017-11-30

    Approximately 15 genes have been directly associated with skin pigmentation variation in humans, leading to its characterization as a relatively simple trait. However, by assembling a global survey of quantitative skin pigmentation phenotypes, we demonstrate that pigmentation is more complex than previously assumed, with genetic architecture varying by latitude. We investigate polygenicity in the KhoeSan populations indigenous to southern Africa who have considerably lighter skin than equatorial Africans. We demonstrate that skin pigmentation is highly heritable, but known pigmentation loci explain only a small fraction of the variance. Rather, baseline skin pigmentation is a complex, polygenic trait in the KhoeSan. Despite this, we identify canonical and non-canonical skin pigmentation loci, including near SLC24A5, TYRP1, SMARCA2/VLDLR, and SNX13, using a genome-wide association approach complemented by targeted resequencing. By considering diverse, under-studied African populations, we show how the architecture of skin pigmentation can vary across humans subject to different local evolutionary pressures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Skin Pigmentation Kinetics after Exposure to Ultraviolet A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12...

  9. 'Batman excision' of ventral skin in hypospadias repair, clue to aesthetic repair (point of technique).

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    Hoebeke, P B; De Kuyper, P; Van Laecke, E

    2002-11-01

    In the hypospadiac penis the ventral skin is poorly developed, while dorsal skin is redundant. The classical Byars' flaps are a way to use the excess dorsal skin to cover the penile shaft. The appearance after Byars' flaps however is not natural. We use a more natural looking skin allocation with superior aesthetic results. The clue in this reconstruction is an inverted triangle shaped excision of ventral skin expanding over the edges of the hooded prepuce (which makes it look like Batman). After excision of the ventral skin it is possible to close the penile skin in the midline, thus mimicking the natural raphe. In case of preputial reconstruction the excised ventral skin makes the prepuce look more natural. The trend of further refining aesthetic appearance of the hypospadiac penis often neglects the penile skin reconstruction. A technique is presented by which the total penile appearances after surgery ameliorates due to better skin reconstruction.

  10. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis for differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions

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    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-invasive diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions by spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIA-scopy using device for dermatoscopy (SIAscope V by Astron Clinica, Ltd was approved in P.A.Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute. The method is based on analysis of light interaction with wavelength of 440–960 nm anf human skin, which is recorded by change of image on scan. The comparative analysis of SIA-scopy and histological data in 327 pigmented skin lesions in 147 patients showed, that SIA had high diagnostic efficiency for cutaneous melanoma: the sensitivity was 96%, specifity – 94%, diagnostic accuracy – 94%. For study of malignant potential of pigmented lesions by SIA-scopy the most informative capacity was obtained for assessment of melanin in papillary dermis, status of blood vessels and collagen fibres (SIA-scans 3, 4, 5.

  11. Coverage error of commercial skin pigments as compared to human facial skin tones.

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    Hungerford, Elizabeth; Beatty, Mark W; Marx, David B; Simetich, Bobby; Wee, Alvin G

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown if present-day pigments used for intrinsic colouration of maxillofacial prostheses are representative of human facial skin tones. This study's purpose was to measure L*a*b* values of pigmented elastomers coloured by eleven skin tone pigments and determine coverage error (CE) when the pigments were compared to human facial lip and nose colour data. 11 skin tone pigments were combined at 0.1%, 1% and 10% by weight with A-2186 elastomer (n=3). L*a*b* values were measured with a spectrophotometer and group means were used to calculate ΔE* colour differences with each L*a*b* value obtained for human nose and lip. Pigmented elastomer CEs were calculated for nose and lip. Results were compared to CEs for proposed shade guide colours obtained from clustering analyses of facial skin colours. L* values of pigmented elastomers generally were higher than those measured for nose and lip, whereas a* values were lower. CEs for pigmented elastomers were higher than those obtained from the proposed shade guide obtained from clustered skin measurements. Overall, the current commercial elastomers appeared to be too white and not red enough to adequately match the skin tones of the subject population. Adjustments must be made to the existing pigmenting system in order to adequately match the skin colours of the study population. The creation of a shade guide and a collection of intrinsic pigments representing the realm of human facial skin colours would greatly decrease the time a patient must sit while the clinician is obtaining an acceptable colour match for the silicone to be used for processing the final prosthesis, thereby increasing both patient satisfaction and clinician productivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Automated segmentation of pigmented skin lesions in multispectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrara, Mauro; Tomatis, Stefano; Bono, Aldo; Bartoli, Cesare; Moglia, Daniele; Lualdi, Manuela; Colombo, Ambrogio; Santinami, Mario; Marchesini, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for the automatic segmentation of multispectral images of pigmented skin lesions. The study involved 1700 patients with 1856 cutaneous pigmented lesions, which were analysed in vivo by a novel spectrophotometric system, before excision. The system is able to acquire a set of 15 different multispectral images at equally spaced wavelengths between 483 and 951 nm. An original segmentation algorithm was developed and applied to the whole set of lesions and was able to automatically contour them all. The obtained lesion boundaries were shown to two expert clinicians, who, independently, rejected 54 of them. The 97.1% contour accuracy indicates that the developed algorithm could be a helpful and effective instrument for the automatic segmentation of skin pigmented lesions. (note)

  13. Zosteriform skin metastases: Clue to an undiagnosed breast cancer

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    Neha C Virmani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastases represent the most devastating aspect of malignancy, since the mortality of cancer patients is mainly related to the metastatic behavior of the primary neoplasm. Skin metastases are usually late events in the course of tumor progression. Excluding melanoma, the most common tumor to metastasize to the skin is breast cancer. Patients who develop cutaneous metastases rarely present with a zosteriform distribution. Herein, we present a 60-year-old female, an undiagnosed case of breast cancer, with zosteriform metastases along her right T2-T3 dermatome.

  14. Technical note: comparing von Luschan skin color tiles and modern spectrophotometry for measuring human skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatoniowski, Anna K; Quillen, Ellen E; Shriver, Mark D; Jablonski, Nina G

    2013-06-01

    Prior to the introduction of reflectance spectrophotometry into anthropological field research during the 1950s, human skin color was most commonly classified by visual skin color matching using the von Luschan tiles, a set of 36 standardized, opaque glass tiles arranged in a chromatic scale. Our goal was to establish a conversion formula between the tile-based color matching method and modern reflectance spectrophotometry to make historical and contemporary data comparable. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the forehead, inner upper arms, and backs of the hands using both the tiles and a spectrophotometer on 246 participants showing a broad range of skin pigmentation. From these data, a second-order polynomial conversion formula was derived by jackknife analysis to estimate melanin index (M-index) based on tile values. This conversion formula provides a means for comparing modern data to von Luschan tile measurements recorded in historical reports. This is particularly important for populations now extinct, extirpated, or admixed for which tile-based measures of skin pigmentation are the only data available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Blue-black rule: a simple dermoscopic clue to recognize pigmented nodular melanoma.

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    Argenziano, G; Longo, C; Cameron, A; Cavicchini, S; Gourhant, J-Y; Lallas, A; McColl, I; Rosendahl, C; Thomas, L; Tiodorovic-Zivkovic, D; Zaballos, P; Zalaudek, I

    2011-12-01

    Dermoscopy improves melanoma recognition, but most criteria were described in the context of superficial spreading melanoma. To test whether pigmented nodular melanoma could be recognized dermoscopically by the presence of a combination of blue and black colour within the lesion. Dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed pigmented nodular tumours with no (or only minimal) flat component were evaluated for the presence of standard melanoma criteria and for the presence of a new feature named blue-black (BB) colour. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated for standard criteria and BB feature in relation to the diagnosis of melanoma and to diagnosis of malignancy. Of 283 lesions, 160 were malignant, including 78 (27·6%) melanomas, and 123 were benign. The BB feature and the standard criteria had 78·2% and 43·6% sensitivity for melanoma, respectively, whereas a combined method based on the presence of either the BB feature or one (or more) of the standard criteria reached 84·6% sensitivity, with 80·5% specificity and 93·2% negative predictive value. Sensitivity values for malignant lesions were only 24·4%, 56·9% and 60% for standard criteria, BB feature and the combined method, respectively. However, the combined method gave 91·9% specificity and 90·6% positive predictive value for malignancy. Using a method based on the BB feature or one of the standard melanoma criteria, only 9·4% of positive pigmented nodular lesions were found to be benign and only 6·8% of negative lesions were found to be melanoma histopathologically. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulating Skin Pigmentation

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    Hideya Ando

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Pigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes is regulated by tyrosinase, the critical rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis by melanocytes. Tyrosinase is degraded endogenously, at least in part, by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS. Several types of inherited hypopigmentary diseases, such as oculocutaneous albinism and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, involve the aberrant processing and/or trafficking of tyrosinase and its subsequent degradation which can occur due to the quality-control machinery. Studies on carbohydrate modifications have revealed that tyrosinase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is proteolyzed via ER-associated protein degradation and that tyrosinase degradation can also occur following its complete maturation in the Golgi. Among intrinsic factors that regulate the UPS, fatty acids have been shown to modulate tyrosinase degradation in contrasting manners through increased or decreased amounts of ubiquitinated tyrosinase that leads to its accelerated or decelerated degradation by proteasomes.

  17. Automated Dermoscopy Image Analysis of Pigmented Skin Lesions

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    Alfonso Baldi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for the in vivo observation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs, allowing a better visualization of surface and subsurface structures (from the epidermis to the papillary dermis. This diagnostic tool permits the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye, thus opening a new dimension in the analysis of the clinical morphologic features of PSLs. In order to reduce the learning-curve of non-expert clinicians and to mitigate problems inherent in the reliability and reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria used in pattern analysis, several indicative methods based on diagnostic algorithms have been introduced in the last few years. Recently, numerous systems designed to provide computer-aided analysis of digital images obtained by dermoscopy have been reported in the literature. The goal of this article is to review these systems, focusing on the most recent approaches based on content-based image retrieval systems (CBIR.

  18. Immunolocalization of lactoferrin in surgically resected pigmented skin lesions

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    G Tuccari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf expression was determined immunohistochemically in 57 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bioptic samples obtained from an equal number of patients treated by surgery to remove pigmented skin lesions (nevi = 23; melanoma = 12; vulgaris and seborrhoeic warts = 12; basal cell carcinoma = 10; in addition, 10 specimens of normal skin were studied as control. On 3 ?m thick sections, depigmentation and antigen retrieval procedures were performed. The Lf immunoreactivity was revealed by a rabbit anti-human Lf. Quantification of Lf immunoreactivity was performed using an intensity-distribution (ID score. Melanocytic cells, regardless of their benign or malignant nature, were consistently stained, with no significant differences in the Lf IDscore between melanomas or nevi. A different intensity of Lf immunoreactivity was encountered in superficial portions of warts, exclusively inside squamous epithelial cells arranged in sheets or whorls of keratin. On the contrary, basal cell carcinomas were always unstained, while a slight Lf positivity was found in focal keratinized areas present in two tumours showing baso-squamous differentiation. The Lf immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and only occasionally in the nucleus. The biological meaning of Lf in these cases of human skin specimens remains unexplained, although it cannot be ruled out that Lf might be involved in the defense system against tumours, or alternatively, may be used by cells requiring iron availability for their turnover. Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression of Lf in melanocytic lesions might be also related to a Lf-melanin interaction. Finally, the involvement of Lf in skin squamous non-neoplastic elements could be related to its role as one of the molecules modulating an unspecific inflammatory or anti-oxidant response.

  19. CHILD syndrome with mild skin lesions: histopathologic clues for the diagnosis.

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    Gantner, Susanne; Rütten, Arno; Requena, Luis; Gassenmaier, Gerhard; Landthaler, Michael; Hafner, Christian

    2014-10-01

    CHILD syndrome is an acronym signifying congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects. A 27-year-old woman presented with chronic verrucous and hyperkeratotic skin lesions involving the left genital area, left hand and left foot since childhood. The histopathologic findings were consistent with verruciform xanthoma. In correlation with the clinical picture of a linear lesion, the diagnosis of CHILD nevus was made. Subsequent genetic analysis identified a germline c.324C>T (p.A105V) NSDHL mutation and confirmed a diagnosis of CHILD syndrome. This syndrome can be associated with only minimal clinical symptoms. The anatomical distribution of the lesions, a static clinical course and the typical histopathologic features of a CHILD nevus can serve as the clue to a diagnosis of CHILD syndrome in such cases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Shining Light on Skin Pigmentation: The Darker and the Brighter Side of Effects of UV Radiation†

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    Maddodi, Nityanand; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2012-01-01

    The term barrier function as applied to human skin often connotes the physical properties of this organ that provide protection from its surrounding environment. This term does not generally include skin pigmentation. However, skin pigmentation, which is the result of melanin produced in melanocytes residing the basal layer of the skin and exported to the keratinocytes in the upper layers, serves equally important protective function. Indeed, changes in skin pigmentation are often the most readily recognized indicators of exposure of skin to damaging agents, especially to natural and artificial radiation in the environment. Several recent studies have shed new light on a) the mechanisms of involved in selective effects of subcomponents of UV radiation on human skin pigmentation and b) the interactive influences between keratinocytes and melanocytes, acting as ‘epidermal melanin unit’, that manifest as changes in skin pigmentation in response to exposure to various forms of radiation. This article provides a concise review of our current understanding of the effects of the non-ionizing solar radiation, at cellular and molecular levels, on human skin pigmentation. PMID:22404235

  1. Skin Pigmentation and Pigmentary Disorders: Focus on Epidermal/Dermal Cross-Talk.

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    Bastonini, Emanuela; Kovacs, Daniela; Picardo, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    Variation in human skin and hair color is the most notable aspect of human variability and several studies in evolution, genetics and developmental biology contributed to explain the mechanisms underlying human skin pigmentation, which is responsible for differences in skin color across the world's populations. Despite skin pigmentation is primarily related to melanocytes functionality, the surrounding keratinocytes and extracellular matrix proteins and fibroblasts in the underlying dermal compartment actively contribute to cutaneous homeostasis. Many autocrine/paracrine secreted factors and cell adhesion mechanisms involving both epidermal and dermal constituents determine constitutive skin pigmentation and, whenever deregulated, the occurrence of pigmentary disorders. In particular, an increased expression of such mediators and their specific receptors frequently lead to hyperpigmentary conditions, such as in melasma and in solar lentigo, whereas a defect in their expression/release is related to hypopigmented disorders, as seen in vitiligo. All these interactions underline the relevant role of pigmentation on human evolution and biology.

  2. Digital dermoscopy to determine skin melanin index as an objective indicator of skin pigmentation

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    Sara Majewski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical assessment of skin photosensitivity is subjectively determined by erythema and tanning responses to sunlight recalled by the subject, alternatively known as Fitzpatrick Skin Phototype (SPT. Responses may be unreliable due to recall bias, subjective bias by clinicians and subjects, and lack of cultural sensitivity of the questions. Analysis of red-green-blue (RGB color spacing of digital images may provide an objective determination of SPT. This paper presents the studies to assess the melanin index (MI, as determined by RGB images obtained by both standard digital camera as well as by videodermoscope, and to correlate the MI with SPT based upon subjects’ verbal responses to standardized questions administered by a dermatologist.A sample of subjects representing all SPTs I–VI was selected. Both the digital camera and videodermoscope were calibrated at standard illumination, light source and white balance. Images of constitutive skin of the upper ventral arm were taken of each subject using both instruments.The studies showed that 58 subjects (20 M, 38 F were enrolled in the study (mean age: 47 years; range: 20–89, stratified to skin phototype I–VI. MI obtained by using both digital camera and videodermoscope increased significantly as the SPT increased p = 0.004 and p < 0.0001, respectively and positively correlated with dermatologist-assessed SPT (Spearman correlation, r = 0.48 and r = 0.84, respectively.Digital imaging can quantify melanin content in order to quantitatively approximate skin pigmentation in all skin phototypes including Type VI skin. This methodology holds promise as a simple, non-invasive, rapid and objective approach to reliably determine skin phototype and, with further investigation, may prove to be both practical and useful in the prediction of skin cancer risk.

  3. Reconstructing in-vivo reflectance spectrum of pigmented skin lesion by Monte Carlo simulation

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    Wang, Shuang; He, Qingli; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-03-01

    In dermatology applications, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively investigated as a promising tool for the noninvasive method to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesion (nevus), which is concentrated with the skin chromophores like melanin and hemoglobin. We carried out a theoretical study to examine melanin distribution in human skin tissue and establish a practical optical model for further pigmented skin investigation. The theoretical simulation was using junctional nevus as an example. A multiple layer skin optical model was developed on established anatomy structures of skin, the published optical parameters of different skin layers, blood and melanin. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the interaction between excitation light and skin tissue and rebuild the diffuse reflectance process from skin tissue. A testified methodology was adopted to determine melanin contents in human skin based on in vivo diffuse reflectance spectra. The rebuild diffuse reflectance spectra were investigated by adding melanin into different layers of the theoretical model. One of in vivo reflectance spectra from Junctional nevi and their surrounding normal skin was studied by compare the ratio between nevus and normal skin tissue in both the experimental and simulated diffuse reflectance spectra. The simulation result showed a good agreement with our clinical measurements, which indicated that our research method, including the spectral ratio method, skin optical model and modifying the melanin content in the model, could be applied in further theoretical simulation of pigmented skin lesions.

  4. A molecular systems approach to modelling human skin pigmentation: identifying underlying pathways and critical components.

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    Raghunath, Arathi; Sambarey, Awanti; Sharma, Neha; Mahadevan, Usha; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2015-04-29

    Ultraviolet radiations (UV) serve as an environmental stress for human skin, and result in melanogenesis, with the pigment melanin having protective effects against UV induced damage. This involves a dynamic and complex regulation of various biological processes that results in the expression of melanin in the outer most layers of the epidermis, where it can exert its protective effect. A comprehensive understanding of the underlying cross talk among different signalling molecules and cell types is only possible through a systems perspective. Increasing incidences of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers necessitate the need to better comprehend UV mediated effects on skin pigmentation at a systems level, so as to ultimately evolve knowledge-based strategies for efficient protection and prevention of skin diseases. A network model for UV-mediated skin pigmentation in the epidermis was constructed and subjected to shortest path analysis. Virtual knock-outs were carried out to identify essential signalling components. We describe a network model for UV-mediated skin pigmentation in the epidermis. The model consists of 265 components (nodes) and 429 directed interactions among them, capturing the manner in which one component influences the other and channels information. Through shortest path analysis, we identify novel signalling pathways relevant to pigmentation. Virtual knock-outs or perturbations of specific nodes in the network have led to the identification of alternate modes of signalling as well as enabled determining essential nodes in the process. The model presented provides a comprehensive picture of UV mediated signalling manifesting in human skin pigmentation. A systems perspective helps provide a holistic purview of interconnections and complexity in the processes leading to pigmentation. The model described here is extensive yet amenable to expansion as new data is gathered. Through this study, we provide a list of important proteins essential

  5. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases...... were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...

  6. A histopathological study of melanocytic and pigmented skin lesions in patients with albinism.

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    van der Westhuizen, Gerhard; Beukes, Catherine A; Green, Brent; Sinclair, Werner; Goedhals, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a group of genetic disorders characterized by diminished pigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes. Individuals with OCA are at increased risk to develop sun-induced skin malignancies. The incidence of malignant melanoma in OCA individuals is, however, very low. The aim of this study was to document pigmented and melanocytic skin lesions occurring in patients with OCA. A prospective study was performed. Sixteen patients with OCA presenting at the Oncology and Dermatology Departments at Universitas Academic Hospital Annex in Bloemfontein, South Africa, were included. Selected clinically pigmented and/or melanocytic lesions were biopsied and studied by light microscopy. Twenty-four punch biopsies were taken. Ten dendritic freckles and 10 melanocytic nevi were confirmed histologically. The nevi, which occurred in eight patients, were found on sun-protected skin. All the freckles occurred on sun-exposed skin. Twelve patients had current or previous skin malignancies. No melanomas were present in the study population. Other skin lesions ranged from solar keratoses to squamous cell carcinomas. The majority of pigmented lesions were dendritic freckles that occurred on sun-exposed skin. None of the patients had a current or previous diagnosis of malignant melanoma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, P A; Knudsen, L; Gniadecka, M

    2013-01-01

    and skin tumour diagnostics in vivo. We obtained Raman spectra in vivo from the normal skin of 55 healthy persons with different skin pigmentation (Fitzpatrick skin type I-VI) and in vivo from 25 basal cell carcinomas, 41 pigmented nevi and 15 malignant melanomas. Increased skin pigmentation resulted...

  8. Skin flora: Differences between people affected by Albinism and those with normally pigmented skin in Northern Tanzania - cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprono, Samson K; Masenga, John E; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard

    2012-07-30

    Skin flora varies from one site of the body to another. Individual's health, age and gender determine the type and the density of skin flora. A 1  cm² of the skin on the sternum was rubbed with sterile cotton swab socked in 0.9% normal saline and plated on blood agar. This was cultured at 35 °C. The bacteria were identified by culturing on MacConkey agar, coagulase test, catalase test and gram staining. Swabs were obtained from 66 individuals affected by albinism and 31 individuals with normal skin pigmentation. Those with normal skin were either relatives or staying with the individuals affected by albinism who were recruited for the study. The mean age of the 97 recruited individuals was 30.6 (SD ± 14.9) years. The mean of the colony forming units was 1580.5 per cm2. Those affected by albinism had a significantly higher mean colony forming units (1680  CFU per cm²) as compared with 453.5  CFU per cm² in those with normally pigmented skin (p = 0.023). The skin type and the severity of sun- damaged skin was significantly associated with a higher number of colony forming units (p = 0.038). Individuals affected by albinism have a higher number of colony forming units which is associated with sun- damaged skin.

  9. N-Nicotinoyl dopamine, a novel niacinamide derivative, retains high antioxidant activity and inhibits skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Su Min; Lee, Soung-Hoon; Lee, Jin Won; Kim, Myung Kyoo; Lee, Kye Jong; Kim, Hyuk; Lee, Joo Dong; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2011-11-01

    We synthesized a novel derivative of a well-known skin-lightening compound niacinamide, N-nicotinoyl dopamine (NND). NND did not show inhibitory effects of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. However, NND retains high antioxidant activity without affecting viability of cells. In a reconstructed skin model, topical applications of 0.05% and 0.1% NND induced skin lightening and decreased melanin production without affecting the viability and morphology of melanocytes and overall tissue histology. Moreover, no evidence for skin irritation or sensitization was observed when 0.1% NND emulsion was applied onto the skin of 52 volunteers. The effect of NND on skin lightening was further revealed by pigmented spot analyses of human clinical trial. Overall, NND treatment may be a useful trial for skin lightening and treating pigmentary disorders. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onojafe, Ighovie F; Adams, David R; Simeonov, Dimitre R; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M; Sergeev, Yuri V; Dolinska, Monika B; Alur, Ramakrishna P; Brilliant, Murray H; Gahl, William A; Brooks, Brian P

    2011-10-01

    Mutation of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) causes oculocutaneous albinism, type 1 (OCA1), a condition characterized by reduced skin and eye melanin pigmentation and by vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium influences postnatal visual development. Therefore, increasing ocular pigmentation in patients with OCA1 might enhance visual function. There are 2 forms of OCA1, OCA-1A and OCA-1B. Individuals with the former lack functional tyrosinase and therefore lack melanin, while individuals with the latter produce some melanin. We hypothesized that increasing plasma tyrosine concentrations using nitisinone, an FDA-approved inhibitor of tyrosine degradation, could stabilize tyrosinase and improve pigmentation in individuals with OCA1. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mice homozygous for either the Tyrc-2J null allele or the Tyrc-h allele, which model OCA-1A and OCA-1B, respectively. Only nitisinone-treated Tyrc-h/c-h mice manifested increased pigmentation in their fur and irides and had more pigmented melanosomes. High levels of tyrosine improved the stability and enzymatic function of the Tyrc-h protein and also increased overall melanin levels in melanocytes from a human with OCA-1B. These results suggest that the use of nitisinone in OCA-1B patients could improve their pigmentation and potentially ameliorate vision loss.

  11. The effect of acidified soapstocks on feed conversion and broiler skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardio, V T; Landin, L A; Waliszewski, K N; Badillo, T C; Perez-Gil, F

    2001-08-01

    The effect of different soapstocks (corn, sunflower, canola, and soybean) on productive performance and skin broiler pigmentation was investigated. Soapstock was added to reach 1.0% polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. The addition of soybean soapstock significantly improved live body weight gain of the birds from 1 to 7 wk of age. A live body weight gain of 1,736 g/bird was calculated for broilers fed with the soybean soapstock diet. Feed conversion was significantly higher for broilers fed with the soybean soapstock diet, and no negative effect was observed. Compared to broilers fed with Pixtafil (100.0% pigmentation), those fed soybean soapstock (when added as a supplement of 1.0% polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet) reached 48.0% pigmentation, and those fed corn soapstock reached only 7.3%. When the diets were complemented with Pixtafil to reach 100% of calculated pigmentation, the soybean soapstock diet reached 100.8% pigmentation compared to a canola soapstock diet that reached 72.0% pigmentation. Acidified soybean soapstock could be a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and of xantophyl pigments in broiler feeding.

  12. Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Correlates of Confocal Descriptors in Pigmented Facial Macules on Photodamaged Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Ignacio; Moreno, Sara; Andrades-López, Evelyn; Hernández-Muñoz, Inma; Gallardo, Fernando; Barranco, Carlos; Pujol, Ramon M; Segura, Sonia

    2017-08-01

    Pigmented facial macules on photodamaged skin are a clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic challenge. To clinically and dermoscopically characterize, by means of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), ambiguous pigmented facial macules and establish a correlation between RCM, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings. A prospective study of ambiguous pigmented facial macules on photodamaged skin was conducted in a tertiary referral center for dermatology between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015. Sixty-one patients with 63 ambiguous pigmented facial macules and 12 control photodamaged facial areas were included in the study. Melanocyte density in 1-mm basal layers was determined in skin biopsy specimens from all lesions stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical markers (melan-A, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, and SRY-related HMG-box gene 10). Dermoscopic, RCM images, and histopathologic preparations were systematically evaluated for the presence of lentigo maligna (LM) criteria. Confocal evaluation was blinded to clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis. Sensitivity and specificity of RCM for LM diagnosis and κ value to establish correlations between dermoscopy, RCM, and histopathology were performed. Sensitivity and specificity of RCM for LM diagnosis. Of the 61 patients included in the study, 31 (51%) were women; mean (SD) age was 71.8 (13.1) years. Twenty-four of the 63 (38%) lesions were diagnosed as LM or LM melanoma (LMM) and 39 (62%) as benign pigmented lesions. Reflectance confocal microscopy enhanced the diagnosis of pigmented facial macules with 91.7% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. Multivariate analysis showed 2 dermoscopic and 2 confocal features associated with LM or LMM: (1) asymmetric follicular pigmentation and targetlike structures, and (2) round, large pagetoid cells and follicular localization of atypical cells, respectively. Continuous proliferation of atypical melanocytes was found in 21 (88%) LM or

  13. Key regulatory role of dermal fibroblasts in pigmentation as demonstrated using a reconstructed skin model: impact of photo-aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Duval

    Full Text Available To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3 was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3 which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the

  14. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... carcinoma and 174 matched controls, and 168 cases with cutaneous malignant melanoma and 176 matched controls. Controls were matched on age, gender and place of residence. Subjects indicated their hair colour before 7 years of age, and at 25 years of age and their skin phototype. Interviewers assessed...... the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases...

  15. Effects of Depilation-Induced Skin Pigmentation and Diet-Induced Fluorescence on In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) and far-red fluorescence imaging (FRFI) were used to investigate effects of depilation-induced skin pigmentation and diet-induced background fluorescence on fluorescent signal amplitude and lymphatic contraction frequency in C57BL6 mice. Far-red fluorescent signal amplitude, but not frequency, was affected by diet-induced fluorescence, which was removed by feeding the mice an alfalfa-free diet, and skin pigmentation further impacted the amplitude measurement. NIRFI showed minimal background fluorescence; however, skin pigmentation reduced the amplitude of fluorescent signal changes. Therefore, these effects should be taken into account when imaging mice with different states of skin pigmentation and diet-induced background fluorescence in vivo.

  16. Anaemia and skin pigmentation after excessive cupping therapy by an unqualified therapist in Korea: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Hwangbo, Min; Yang, Gi Young

    2012-09-01

    A case is reported of skin pigmentation and associated anemia resulting from persistently repeated cupping therapies performed by an unqualified practitioner in South Korea. Almost 30 sessions of excessive cupping therapies with blood loss over two months yielded little benefit but led the patient to admit a hospital and receive blood transfusion for acquired iron deficiency anemia. Skin pigmentation on the cupping-attached region remained without any subjective discomfort. We suggest the importance of qualified health professionals when receiving cupping treatments.

  17. Effects of Depilation-Induced Skin Pigmentation and Diet-Induced Fluorescence on In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) and far-red fluorescence imaging (FRFI) were used to investigate effects of depilation-induced skin pigmentation and diet-induced background fluorescence on fluorescent signal amplitude and lymphatic contraction frequency in C57BL6 mice. Far-red fluorescent signal amplitude, but not frequency, was affected by diet-induced fluorescence, which was removed by feeding the mice an alfalfa-free diet, and skin pigmentation further impacted the amplitude mea...

  18. Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anshuman; Nizammuddin, Sheikh; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Singh, Sakshi; Prakash, Satya; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Rai, Niraj; Carlus, S Justin; Sudhakar, Digumarthi V S; Tripathi, Vishnu P; Möls, Märt; Kim-Howard, Xana; Dewangan, Hemlata; Mishra, Abhishek; Reddy, Alla G; Roy, Biswajit; Pandey, Krishna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Das, Pradeep; Nath, Swapan K; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2017-03-01

    Our understanding of the genetics of skin pigmentation has been largely skewed towards populations of European ancestry, imparting less attention to South Asian populations, who behold huge pigmentation diversity. Here, we investigate skin pigmentation variation in a cohort of 1,167 individuals in the Middle Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm the association of rs1426654 with skin pigmentation among South Asians, consistent with previous studies, and also show association for rs2470102 single nucleotide polymorphism. Our haplotype analyses further help us delineate the haplotype distribution across social categories and skin color. Taken together, our findings suggest that the social structure defined by the caste system in India has a profound influence on the skin pigmentation patterns of the subcontinent. In particular, social category and associated single nucleotide polymorphisms explain about 32% and 6.4%, respectively, of the total phenotypic variance. Phylogeography of the associated single nucleotide polymorphisms studied across 52 diverse populations of the Indian subcontinent shows wide presence of the derived alleles, although their frequencies vary across populations. Our results show that both polymorphisms (rs1426654 and rs2470102) play an important role in the skin pigmentation diversity of South Asians. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pigmented guinea pig skin irradiated with Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Morphologic and histologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dover, J.S.; Margolis, R.J.; Polla, L.L.; Watanabe, S.; Hruza, G.J.; Parrish, J.A.; Anderson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Q-switched ruby laser pulses cause selective damage to cutaneous pigmented cells. Repair of this selective damage has not been well described. Therefore, using epilated pigmented and albino guinea pig skin, we studied the acute injury and tissue repair caused by 40-ns, Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Gross observation and light and electron microscopy were performed. No specific changes were evident in the albino guinea pigs. In pigmented animals, with radiant exposures of 0.4 J/cm2 or greater, white spots confined to the 2.5-mm exposure sites developed immediately and faded over 20 minutes. Delayed depigmentation occurred at seven to ten days, followed by full repigmentation by four to eight weeks. Regrowing hairs in sites irradiated at and above 0.4 J/cm2 remained white for at least four months. Histologically, vacuolation of pigment-laden cells was seen immediately in the epidermis and the follicular epithelium at exposures of 0.3 J/cm2 and greater. Melanosomal disruption was seen immediately by electron microscopy at and above 0.3 J/cm2. Over the next seven days, epidermal necrosis was followed by regeneration of a depigmented epidermis. By four months, melanosomes and melanin pigmentation had returned; however, hair follicles remained depigmented and devoid of melanocytes. This study demonstrates that selective melanosomal disruption caused by Q-switched ruby laser pulses leads to transient cutaneous depigmentation and persistent follicular depigmentation. Potential exists for selective treatment of pigmented epidermal and dermal lesions with this modality.

  20. Assessment of skin pigmentation by confocal microscopy: Influence of solar exposure and protection habits on cutaneous hyperchromias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ana Paula M; Mercurio, Daiane G; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous hyperchromias are disorders of skin pigmentation involving an increase of melanin production and its irregular accumulation in skin cells. It is known that the use of sunscreens helps to prevent changes in the skin pigmentation pattern, but the structural and morphological alterations that occur in the different types of hyperpigmentations need better elucidation. To assess the influence of solar exposure and protection habits on the pattern of skin pigmentation using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Forty volunteers aged 18-39 years with skin hyperpigmentation participated in the study. Skin characterization was performed by imaging techniques and by assessing the habits of solar exposure and protection by applying questionnaires to the volunteers. RCM was used to record sequences of confocal sections at areas of interest and to examine cell shape and brightness in the basal cell layer of the lesion and in normal perilesional skin. Furthermore, high-resolution images were obtained for analysis of the spots. Sunlight influences the number and location of spots as the face of volunteers with higher solar exposure was covered with spots, whereas volunteers with less exposure had fewer spots located in the nose and cheeks region due to greater exposure of these areas to the sun. The data showed the importance of sun protection for preventing changes in the pattern of skin pigmentation, and RCM proved to be an important tool for skin characterization. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. PDGFRa amplification in multiple skin lesions of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: A clue for intimal sarcoma metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osio, Amélie; Vignon-Pennamen, Marie-Dominique; Pedeutour, Florence; Le Maignan, Christine; Koskas, Fabien; Lebbé, Célèste; Janin, Anne; Battistella, Maxime

    2017-05-01

    A 62-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man was admitted for multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules on his lower limbs, corresponding to an undifferentiated proliferation of spindle and pleomorphic cells, with irregular nuclei and numerous mitoses. The tumor cells were negative for a large panel of immunohistochemical markers, except CD10. MDM2 immunohistochemical staining was also negative, leading to the diagnosis of Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte contre le Cancer grade III undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS). Array-comparative genomic hybridization showed a highly complex karyotype, with amplification of the 4q12 region, an area that contains only the platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRa) gene. This amplification of PDFGRa, molecular hallmark of intimal sarcoma (IS), led to the diagnosis of skin IS metastasis. A positron emission tomography showed a hypermetabolic mass protruding in the preaortic area, consistent with the diagnosis of aortic IS. Our study shows that a rare differential diagnosis in peripheral UPS can be IS skin metastasis, and underlines the importance of molecular analyses in UPS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Functional assessment of human coding mutations affecting skin pigmentation using zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurab R Tsetskhladze

    Full Text Available A major challenge in personalized medicine is the lack of a standard way to define the functional significance of the numerous nonsynonymous, single nucleotide coding variants that are present in each human individual. To begin to address this problem, we have used pigmentation as a model polygenic trait, three common human polymorphisms thought to influence pigmentation, and the zebrafish as a model system. The approach is based on the rescue of embryonic zebrafish mutant phenotypes by "humanized" zebrafish orthologous mRNA. Two hypomorphic polymorphisms, L374F in SLC45A2, and A111T in SLC24A5, have been linked to lighter skin color in Europeans. The phenotypic effect of a second coding polymorphism in SLC45A2, E272K, is unclear. None of these polymorphisms had been tested in the context of a model organism. We have confirmed that zebrafish albino fish are mutant in slc45a2; wild-type slc45a2 mRNA rescued the albino mutant phenotype. Introduction of the L374F polymorphism into albino or the A111T polymorphism into slc24a5 (golden abolished mRNA rescue of the respective mutant phenotypes, consistent with their known contributions to European skin color. In contrast, the E272K polymorphism had no effect on phenotypic rescue. The experimental conclusion that E272K is unlikely to affect pigmentation is consistent with a lack of correlation between this polymorphism and quantitatively measured skin color in 59 East Asian humans. A survey of mutations causing human oculocutaneous albinism yielded 257 missense mutations, 82% of which are theoretically testable in zebrafish. The developed approach may be extended to other model systems and may potentially contribute to our understanding the functional relationships between DNA sequence variation, human biology, and disease.

  3. Autofluorescence of pigmented skin lesions using a pulsed UV laser with synchronized detection: clinical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Svenmarker, Pontus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2010-01-01

    signal, which may in turn produce high contrast images that improve diagnosis, even in the presence of ambient room light. The synchronized set-up utilizes a compact, diode pumped, pulsed UV laser at 355 nm which is coupled to a CCD camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter. The excitation and image...... capture is sampled at 5 kHz and the resulting autofluorescence is captured with the liquid crystal filter cycling through seven wavelengths between 420 nm and 580 nm. The clinical study targets pigmented skin lesions and evaluates the prospects of using autofluorescence as a possible means...

  4. Optical properties of mice skin for optical therapy relevant wavelengths: influence of gender and pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, C. P.; Deana, A. M.; Silva, D. F. T.; França, C. M.; Yoshimura, T. M.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    Red and near-infrared light have been widely employed in optical therapies. Skin is the most common optical barrier in non-invasive techniques and in many cases it is the target tissue itself. Consequently, to optimize the outcomes brought by lightbased therapies, the optical properties of skin tissue must be very well elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the dorsal skin optical properties of albino (BALB/c) and pigmented (C57BL/6) mice using the Kubelka-Munk photon transport model. We evaluated samples from male and female young mice of both strains. Analysis was performed for wavelengths at 630, 660, 780, 810 and 905 nm due to their prevalent use in optical therapies, such as low-level light (or laser) and photodynamic therapies. Spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse transmittance and reflectance were performed using a single integrating sphere coupled to a proper spectrophotometer. Statistic analysis was made by two-way ANOVA, with Tukey as post-test and Levenne and Shapiro-Wilks as pre-tests. Statistical significance was considered when pmale mice present reduced transmittance levels for all wavelengths. The organization and abundance of skin composing tissues significantly influence its scattering optical properties although absorption remains constant. We conclude that factors such as subcutaneous adiposity and connective tissue structure can have statistically significant influence on mice skin optical properties and these factors have relevant variations among different gender and strains.

  5. Use of Curcuma longa in cosmetics: extraction of curcuminoid pigments, development of formulations, and in vitro skin permeation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Mara Silva Gonçalves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longais a ginger family aromatic herb (Zingiberaceae whose rhizomes contain curcuminoid pigments, including curcumin, a compound known for its anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to obtain curcuminoid-rich extracts, develop topical formulations thereof, and assess the stability and skin permeation of these formulations. Curcuma longa extracts were obtained and used to develop formulations. Skin permeation studies were conducted in a modified Franz diffusion cell system, and skin retention of curcuminoid pigments was quantified in pig ear membrane. Prepared urea-containing gel-cream formulations were unstable, whereas all others had satisfactory stability and pseudoplastic rheological behavior. The amount of curcuminoid pigments recovered from the receptor solution was negligible. The skin concentration of curcuminoid pigments retained was positive (>20 µg/g of skin, mostly in the stratum corneum, considering the low skin permeability of curcumin. We conclude that development of topical formulations containing curcumin or Curcuma longaextract is feasible, as long as adjuvants are added to improve preservation and durability. The formulations developed in this study enabled penetration of curcumin limited to the superficial layers of the skin and then possibly without a risk of systemic action, thus permitting local use as a topical anti-inflammatory.

  6. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne V; Philipsen, Peter A; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans C

    2010-02-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol was measured at baseline. The increase in 25(OH)D level after UVB exposure was negatively correlated with baseline 25(OH)D level (Ppigmentation. In addition, we paired a dark-skinned group with a fair-skinned group according to baseline 25(OH)D levels and found no differences in 25(OH)D increase after identical UVB exposure.

  7. Skin pigmentation provides evidence of convergent melanism in extinct marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Johan; Sjövall, Peter; Carney, Ryan M; Uvdal, Per; Gren, Johan A; Dyke, Gareth; Schultz, Bo Pagh; Shawkey, Matthew D; Barnes, Kenneth R; Polcyn, Michael J

    2014-02-27

    Throughout the animal kingdom, adaptive colouration serves critical functions ranging from inconspicuous camouflage to ostentatious sexual display, and can provide important information about the environment and biology of a particular organism. The most ubiquitous and abundant pigment, melanin, also has a diverse range of non-visual roles, including thermoregulation in ectotherms. However, little is known about the functional evolution of this important biochrome through deep time, owing to our limited ability to unambiguously identify traces of it in the fossil record. Here we present direct chemical evidence of pigmentation in fossilized skin, from three distantly related marine reptiles: a leatherback turtle, a mosasaur and an ichthyosaur. We demonstrate that dark traces of soft tissue in these fossils are dominated by molecularly preserved eumelanin, in intimate association with fossilized melanosomes. In addition, we suggest that contrary to the countershading of many pelagic animals, at least some ichthyosaurs were uniformly dark-coloured in life. Our analyses expand current knowledge of pigmentation in fossil integument beyond that of feathers, allowing for the reconstruction of colour over much greater ranges of extinct taxa and anatomy. In turn, our results provide evidence of convergent melanism in three disparate lineages of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Based on extant marine analogues, we propose that the benefits of thermoregulation and/or crypsis are likely to have contributed to this melanisation, with the former having implications for the ability of each group to exploit cold environments.

  8. Clinical studies of pigmented lesions in human skin by using a multiphoton tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Kelly, Kristen M.; Zachary, Christopher B.; Harris, Ronald M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; König, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2013-02-01

    In vivo imaging of pigmented lesions in human skin was performed with a clinical multiphoton microscopy (MPM)-based tomograph (MPTflex, JenLab, Germany). Two-photon excited fluorescence was used for visualizing endogenous fluorophores such as NADH/FAD, keratin, melanin in the epidermal cells and elastin fibers in the dermis. Collagen fibers were imaged by second harmonic generation. Our study involved in vivo imaging of benign melanocytic nevi, atypical nevi and melanoma. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify in vivo the characteristic features and their frequency in pigmented lesions at different stages (benign, atypical and malignant) and to evaluate the ability of in vivo MPM to distinguish atypical nevi from melanoma. Comparison with histopathology was performed for the biopsied lesions. Benign melanocytic nevi were characterized by the presence of nevus cell nests at the epidermal-dermal junction. In atypical nevi, features such as lentiginous hyperplasia, acanthosis and architectural disorder were imaged. Cytological atypia was present in all the melanoma lesions imaged, showing the strongest correlation with malignancy. The MPM images demonstrated very good correlation with corresponding histological images, suggesting that MPM could be a promising tool for in vivo non-invasive pigmented lesion diagnosis, particularly distinguishing atypical nevi from melanoma.

  9. The use of botanical extracts as topical skin-lightening agents for the improvement of skin pigmentation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenyuan; Gao, Jie

    2008-04-01

    Both physicians and dermatology patients are searching for long-term topical skin care solutions (both cosmetic and cosmeceutical) to address problems presented by skin hyperpigmentation. Specifically, some women often express a desire to "lighten" skin tone by achieving improved visible tone, reduction in yellowness (or sallow tone), and reduction in the appearance of hyperpigmented spots ("age" or "sun" spots). Traditional depigmenting agents, such as hydroquinone, corticosteroids, and kojic acid, although highly effective, can raise several safety concerns (for example, ochronosis, atrophy, carcinogenesis, and other local or systemic side effects) with long-term exposure. An understanding of the benefits of natural and botanical extracts provides opportunities to develop new products to address pigmentation problems. Active compounds isolated from plants, such as arbutin, aloesin, gentisic acid, flavonoids, hesperidin, licorice, niacinamide, yeast derivatives, and polyphenols, inhibit melanogenesis without melanocytotoxicity by different mechanisms. This review presents an overview of trends in the application of plant extracts as topical treatments for hyperpigmentation disorders. It highlights some of the most relevant natural extracts, providing in vitro screening results and relevant available clinical study trial findings supporting their efficacy.

  10. Teaching dermatoscopy of pigmented skin tumours to novices: comparison of analytic vs. heuristic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschandl, P; Kittler, H; Schmid, K; Zalaudek, I; Argenziano, G

    2015-06-01

    There are two strategies to approach the dermatoscopic diagnosis of pigmented skin tumours, namely the verbal-based analytic and the more visual-global heuristic method. It is not known if one or the other is more efficient in teaching dermatoscopy. To compare two teaching methods in short-term training of dermatoscopy to medical students. Fifty-seven medical students in the last year of the curriculum were given a 1-h lecture of either the heuristic- or the analytic-based teaching of dermatoscopy. Before and after this session, they were shown the same 50 lesions and asked to diagnose them and rate for chance of malignancy. Test lesions consisted of melanomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, seborrhoeic keratoses, benign vascular tumours and dermatofibromas. Performance measures were diagnostic accuracy regarding malignancy as measured by the area under the curves of receiver operating curves (range: 0-1), as well as per cent correct diagnoses (range: 0-100%). Diagnostic accuracy as well as per cent correct diagnoses increased by +0.21 and +32.9% (heuristic teaching) and +0.19 and +35.7% (analytic teaching) respectively (P for all heuristic or analytic method does not have an influence on this effect in short training using common pigmented skin lesions. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Effects of broccoli stem and leaf meal on broiler performance, skin pigmentation, antioxidant function, and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C H; Wang, D G; Pan, H Y; Zheng, W B; Zuo, A Y; Liu, J X

    2012-09-01

    Three hundred sixty 1-d-old Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the effects of broccoli stem and leaf meal (BSLM) on growth performance, skin pigmentation, antioxidant function, and meat quality. The chicks were fed 4 diets containing different levels (0, 4.0, 8.0, and 12.0%) of BSLM as partial replacement for corn and soybean meal for a period of 42 d. The results showed that dietary supplementation of BSLM had no effect (P > 0.05) on growth performance. As compared with control, dietary 4%, 8%, and 12% BSLM increased (P poultry products quality with the more skin pigmentation and the less drip loss percentage of breast meat. The more skin pigmentation mainly related to the high amount of xanthophylls in BSLM. The decreased meat drip loss fed BSLM may be caused by the antioxidative function of BSLM.

  12. Determination of the optical properties of melanin-pigmented human skin equivalents using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Dawn; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Peralta, Xomalin G.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2013-02-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) methods have been utilized in previous studies in order to characterize the optical properties of skin and its primary constituents (i.e., water, collagen, and keratin). However, similar experiments have not yet been performed to investigate whether melanocytes and the melanin pigment that they synthesize contribute to skin's optical properties. In this study, we used THz-TDS methods operating in transmission geometry to measure the optical properties of in vitro human skin equivalents with or without normal human melanocytes. Skin equivalents were cultured for three weeks to promote gradual melanogenesis, and THz time domain data were collected at various time intervals. Frequency-domain analysis techniques were performed to determine the index of refraction (n) and absorption coefficient (μa) for each skin sample over the frequency range of 0.1-2.0 THz. We found that for all samples as frequency increased, n decreased exponentially and the μa increased linearly. Additionally, we observed that skin samples with higher levels of melanin exhibited greater n and μa values than the non-pigmented samples. Our results indicate that melanocytes and the degree of melanin pigmentation contribute in an appreciable manner to the skin's optical properties. Future studies will be performed to examine whether these contributions are observed in human skin in vivo.

  13. Pigmented skin lesion detection using random forest and wavelet-based texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Yang, Tie-jun

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, a disease of worldwide distribution and is the deadliest form of skin cancer, has been rapidly increasing over the last few decades. Because advanced cutaneous melanoma is still incurable, early detection is an important step toward a reduction in mortality. Dermoscopy photographs are commonly used in melanoma diagnosis and can capture detailed features of a lesion. A great variability exists in the visual appearance of pigmented skin lesions. Therefore, in order to minimize the diagnostic errors that result from the difficulty and subjectivity of visual interpretation, an automatic detection approach is required. The objectives of this paper were to propose a hybrid method using random forest and Gabor wavelet transformation to accurately differentiate which part belong to lesion area and the other is not in a dermoscopy photographs and analyze segmentation accuracy. A random forest classifier consisting of a set of decision trees was used for classification. Gabor wavelets transformation are the mathematical model of visual cortical cells of mammalian brain and an image can be decomposed into multiple scales and multiple orientations by using it. The Gabor function has been recognized as a very useful tool in texture analysis, due to its optimal localization properties in both spatial and frequency domain. Texture features based on Gabor wavelets transformation are found by the Gabor filtered image. Experiment results indicate the following: (1) the proposed algorithm based on random forest outperformed the-state-of-the-art in pigmented skin lesions detection (2) and the inclusion of Gabor wavelet transformation based texture features improved segmentation accuracy significantly.

  14. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...... colour and skin type were found to be independent risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma; red hair vs. black/brown: OR >9.7, blond hair vs. brown/black: OR = 2.4, and skin type 11 vs. type IV: OR=2.0. There were no gender-related differences in risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous......To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  15. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total...... cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used...... to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol...

  16. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten Huus; Schmedes, Anne V; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used......UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total...... to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol...

  17. Computational methods for the image segmentation of pigmented skin lesions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Roberta B; Filho, Mercedes E; Ma, Zhen; Papa, João P; Pereira, Aledir S; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2016-07-01

    Because skin cancer affects millions of people worldwide, computational methods for the segmentation of pigmented skin lesions in images have been developed in order to assist dermatologists in their diagnosis. This paper aims to present a review of the current methods, and outline a comparative analysis with regards to several of the fundamental steps of image processing, such as image acquisition, pre-processing and segmentation. Techniques that have been proposed to achieve these tasks were identified and reviewed. As to the image segmentation task, the techniques were classified according to their principle. The techniques employed in each step are explained, and their strengths and weaknesses are identified. In addition, several of the reviewed techniques are applied to macroscopic and dermoscopy images in order to exemplify their results. The image segmentation of skin lesions has been addressed successfully in many studies; however, there is a demand for new methodologies in order to improve the efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectrophotometer is useful for assessing vitiligo and chemical leukoderma severity by quantifying color difference with surrounding normally pigmented skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Okamura, K; Araki, Y; Suzuki, M; Tanaka, T; Abe, Y; Nakano, S; Yoshizawa, J; Hozumi, Y; Inoie, M; Suzuki, T

    2017-10-22

    Acquired skin hypopigmentation has many etiologies, including autoimmune melanocyte destruction, skin aging, inflammation, and chemical exposure. Distinguishing lesions from normally pigmented skin is clinically important to precisely assess disease severity. However, no gold standard assessment method has been reported. We aimed to investigate whether spectrophotometers are useful for assessing vitiligo and rhododendrol (4-(4-hydroxyphenol)-2-butanol) (Rhododenol ® )-induced leukoderma disease severity by quantifying skin color. Mexameter ® MX18 and CM-700d spectrophotometer were used for assessing vitiligo/leukoderma by measuring melanin index, L*a*b* color space, and ΔE*ab value, which represents the color difference between two subjects and is calculated by the values of L*a*b*. MX18 and CM-700d can quantitatively distinguish vitiligo/leukoderma from normally pigmented skin based on melanin index. CM-700d consistently quantified the color of vitiligo/leukoderma lesions and surrounding normally pigmented skin in L*a*b* color spaces and ΔE*ab. ΔE*ab is well correlated with melanin index and clinical appearance. ΔE*ab has been frequently used in aesthetic dentistry; however, current study is the first to use it in the measurement of skin color. ΔE*ab seems to be a useful parameter to evaluate the color contrast between vitiligo/leukoderma and surrounding normally pigmented skin and can be used to evaluate disease severity and patient's quality of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. An algorithm for the characterization of digital images of pigmented lesions of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera-González, Laura Y.; Delgado-Atencio, José A.; Valdiviezo-Navarro, Juan C.; Cunill-Rodríguez, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer in human in all over the world with an increase number of victims yearly. One traditional form of diagnosis melanoma is by using the so called ABCDE rule which stands for Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter and Evolution of the lesion. For melanoma lesions, the color as a descriptor exhibits heterogeneous values, ranging from light brown to dark brown (sometimes blue reddish or even white). Therefore, investigating on color features from digital melanoma images could provide insights for developing automated algorithms for melanoma discrimination from common nevus. In this research work, an algorithm is proposed and tested to characterize the color in a pigmented lesion. The developed algorithm measures the hue of different sites in the same pigmented area from a digital image using the HSI color space. The algorithm was applied to 40 digital images of unequivocal melanomas and 40 images of common nevus, which were taken from several data bases. Preliminary results indicate that visible color changes of melanoma sites are well accounted by the proposed algorithm. Other factors, such as quality of images and the influence of the shiny areas on the results obtained with the proposed algorithm are discussed.

  20. Incidence of pigmented skin tumors in a population of wild Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Silvestre, Albert; Amat, Fèlix; Bargalló, Ferran; Carranza, Salvador

    2011-04-01

    We report the presence of pigmented skin tumors in three populations of the endangered amphibian Montseny brook newt, Calotriton arnoldi, one of the European amphibian species with the smallest distribution range (40 km(2) in the Montseny Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain). Examination of one of the tumors by light microscopy was consistent with chromatophoroma and was most suggestive of a melanophoroma. Tumors were not found in juveniles. In adults, only two of three populations were affected. The proportions of males and females affected were not significantly different, but there was a positive correlation between body size and presence of tumors in both sexes. The etiology of chromatophoromas remains unknown but, in our study, they do not appear to have been caused by water quality or Ultraviolet B.

  1. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total c...... was measured at baseline. The increase in 25(OH)D level after UVB exposure was negatively correlated with baseline 25(OH)D level (P......UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total...... cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used...

  2. Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental causes of variation in yellow skin pigmentation and serum carotenoids in Eurasian kestrel nestlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, Stefania; Costantini, David; Tagliavini, James; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    In the context of sexual selection and parent-offspring communication, carotenoid-based coloration operates as a dynamic condition-dependent signal, as pigments stored in the skin and in the bill can be reallocated to other tissues in accordance with physiological needs. We studied the proximate

  3. The measurement of constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation and estimation of sun exposure in Caucasians with basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1998-01-01

    In two identical and simultaneously performed case-control studies of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) with age-matched, sex-matched and residence-matched controls, skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance spectroscopy in 145 BCC patients...... by all subjects. There were no statistically significant differences in constitutive skin pigmentation at the buttocks between BCC patients and controls (P = 0.96) or between CMM patients and controls (P = 0.13). Facultative skin pigmentation in ultraviolet-exposed sites was not significantly different...

  4. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    carcinoma and 174 matched controls, and 168 cases with cutaneous malignant melanoma and 176 matched controls. Controls were matched on age, gender and place of residence. Subjects indicated their hair colour before 7 years of age, and at 25 years of age and their skin phototype. Interviewers assessed...... colour and skin type were found to be independent risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma; red hair vs. black/brown: OR >9.7, blond hair vs. brown/black: OR = 2.4, and skin type 11 vs. type IV: OR=2.0. There were no gender-related differences in risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous......To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  5. The role of natural and UV-induced skin pigmentation on low-fluence IPL-induced side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Lin, Jennifer Y; Nash, Jf

    2014-01-01

    disproportionately. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation on low-fluence intense pulsed light (IPL)-induced adverse skin effects. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one subjects with Fitzpatrick skin type II-IV were enrolled. Two buttock blocks...... were randomized to receive 0 or 8 solar simulated ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of consecutively increasing Standard Erythema Doses (2-4 SED). Each block was subdivided into four sites, randomized to receive IPL of 0, 7, 8, or 10 J/cm(2) , once a week for 3 weeks. Biopsies were taken 16...

  6. Effect of Dietary Carotenoids on Skin Color and Pigments of False Clown???sh, Amphiprion ocellaris, Cuvier

    OpenAIRE

    Yasir, Inayah; Qin, Jian G.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the role of supplemented dietary carotenoids in regulating the skin color and pigments of the false clown???sh, Amphiprion ocellaris. Three carotenoid types, such as astaxanthin, ??-carotene, and canthaxanthin, were added to the basal diet at four pigment doses (0, 20, 50, and 100 ppm). Carotenoid diets were feed for 5 wk and then withdrawn from the diet for three additional wk during an 8-wk trial. The dose of each diet did not change the overall color hue, brightness, o...

  7. Side effects from intense pulsed light: Importance of skin pigmentation, fluence level and ultraviolet radiation-A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F; Beerwerth, Frank; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans C; Paasch, Uwe; Haedersdal, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a mainstream treatment for hair removal. Side effects after IPL are known, but risk factors remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of skin pigmentation, fluence level, and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on IPL-induced side effects. The study was a blinded, randomized intra-individual controlled trial including 16 healthy subjects with Fitzpatrick Skin Types (FST) II-V. Three test areas were each divided into four sites, randomized to a single IPL exposure of 22, 34, 46 J/cm 2 or triple stacking of 46 J/cm 2 . Areas were subsequently randomized to no UVR or single solar-simulated UVR exposure of 3 Standard Erythema Dose at 30 minutes or 24 hours after IPL. Each area had a corresponding control, resulting in 15 treatment sites. Follow-up visits were scheduled up to 4 weeks after IPL. Outcome measures were: (i) blinded clinical skin reactions; (ii) objectively measured erythema and pigmentation; (iii) pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS); (iv) histology (H&E, Fontana-Masson); and (v) mRNA-expression of p53. Fifteen subjects with FST II-IV completed the protocol. IPL induced a wide range of skin reactions, including erythema (87% of subjects), purpura (27%), blisters (20%), edema (13%), crusting (13%), hyper- (60%), and hypopigmentation (20%). Darker skin pigmentation and increasing IPL fluence were determinants for IPL-induced side effects (P ≤ 0.002), while a single exposure of UVR did not exacerbate side effects (P ≥ 0.180). Clinical findings were confirmed objectively by reflectance spectrometry and qualitatively by histological changes in skin architecture, inflammatory infiltration, and pigmentation. Marker of cellular DNA damage, that is, p53, did not increase after IPL (P ≥ 0.24). Skin pigmentation and IPL fluence are major determinants of side effects after IPL exposure, while a single exposure to three SED of UVR at 30 minutes or 24 hours after IPL

  8. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Shows that Pigmentation Genes Play a Role in Skin Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Matthew H; Medland, Sarah E; Zhu, Gu; Yazar, Seyhan; Viñuela, Ana; Wallace, Leanne; Shekar, Sri Niranjan; Duffy, David L; Bataille, Veronique; Glass, Dan; Spector, Tim D; Wood, Diane; Gordon, Scott D; Barbour, Julie M; Henders, Anjali K; Hewitt, Alex W; Montgomery, Grant W; Sturm, Richard A; Mackey, David A; Green, Adèle C; Martin, Nicholas G; MacGregor, Stuart

    2017-09-01

    Loss of fine skin patterning is a sign of both aging and photoaging. Studies investigating the genetic contribution to skin patterning offer an opportunity to better understand a trait that influences both physical appearance and risk of keratinocyte skin cancer. We undertook a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of a measure of skin pattern (microtopography score) damage in 1,671 twin pairs and 1,745 singletons (N = 5,087) drawn from three independent cohorts. We identified that rs185146 near SLC45A2 is associated with a skin aging trait at genome-wide significance (P = 4.1 × 10 -9 ); to our knowledge this is previously unreported. We also confirm previously identified loci, rs12203592 near IRF4 (P = 8.8 × 10 -13 ) and rs4268748 near MC1R (P = 1.2 × 10 -15 ). At all three loci we highlight putative functionally relevant SNPs. There are a number of red hair/low pigmentation alleles of MC1R; we found that together these MC1R alleles explained 4.1% of variance in skin pattern damage. We also show that skin aging and reported experience of sunburns was proportional to the degree of penetrance for red hair of alleles of MC1R. Our work has uncovered genetic contributions to skin aging and confirmed previous findings, showing that pigmentation is a critical determinant of skin aging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin: in vitro evaluation using reconstructed pigmented human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Chen, M; Liu, J; Huang, X; Chen, J; Zhou, L; Ma, J; Sextius, P; Pena, A-M; Cai, Z; Jeulin, S

    2016-10-01

    The roots of the herb Paeonia lactiflora ('White Peony') are used in association with other herbs in traditional clinical cosmetic practice in China as oral treatment for skin pigmentary disorders, such as brown or dark pigmentary spots. However, the skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and its main ingredient paeoniflorin has been scarcely investigated by topical application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin as skin whitening agent in cosmetic application. Paeonia lactiflora root extract (containing 53.25% of paeoniflorin) and paeoniflorin (97% purity) were applied topically on reconstructed pigmented human epidermis model, a three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent, showing morphological and functional characteristics similar to those of in vivo human skin. Two specific methods were used for quantifying melanin inside the reconstructed pigmented epidermis: Fontana-Masson staining (2D quantification) and multiphoton microscopy (3D quantification). Compared to vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO), a significant decrease in 2D and 3D melanin content was observed after topical application on reconstructed pigmented epidermis of Paeonia lactiflora extract at 300 μg mL(-1) (-28% and -27%, respectively) and paeoniflorin at 120 μg mL(-1) /250 μM (-30% and -23%, respectively), which is in the same order of magnitude as the positive reference 4-n-butylresorcinol at 83 μg mL(-1) /500 μM (-26% and -40%, respectively). These results demonstrate, for the first time, the depigmenting potential of paeoniflorin and thus the potential interest of using Paeonia lactiflora root extracts containing paeoniflorin in cosmetic or dermatological applications for reducing the severity of some hyperpigmented skin disorders. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Association of the OCA2 polymorphism His615Arg with melanin content in east Asian populations: further evidence of convergent evolution of skin pigmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Edwards

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed important advances in our understanding of the genetics of pigmentation in European populations, but very little is known about the genes involved in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Here, we present the results of a study evaluating the association of 10 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs located within 5 pigmentation candidate genes (OCA2, DCT, ADAM17, ADAMTS20, and TYRP1 with skin pigmentation measured quantitatively in a sample of individuals of East Asian ancestry living in Canada. We show that the non-synonymous polymorphism rs1800414 (His615Arg located within the OCA2 gene is significantly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample. We replicated this result in an independent sample of Chinese individuals of Han ancestry. This polymorphism is characterized by a derived allele that is present at a high frequency in East Asian populations, but is absent in other population groups. In both samples, individuals with the derived G allele, which codes for the amino acid arginine, show lower melanin levels than those with the ancestral A allele, which codes for the amino acid histidine. An analysis of this non-synonymous polymorphism using several programs to predict potential functional effects provides additional support for the role of this SNP in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Our results are consistent with previous research indicating that evolution to lightly-pigmented skin occurred, at least in part, independently in Europe and East Asia.

  12. Expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase in pigment cell lesions of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, B; Van Den Oord, J J

    2000-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small molecule produced during the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline by NO synthase (NOS). Several isoforms of NOS exist, of which the Ca2+-independent, inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS2) is most prominently expressed by macrophages. iNOS activity and increased levels of iNOS have been found in various tumours and tumour cell lines but not in normal tissues; however, the precise role of NO in tumour progression has yet to be elucidated. We studied the expression of iNOS in paraffin sections of 41 benign naevi and 52 primary malignant melanomas (MM) of the skin, as well as in 13 metastatic MM. In addition, nitrotyrosine, indicative of NO production and formation of peroxynitrite, was studied in frozen sections of 13 naevi and 30 MM. Virtually all naevi expressed iNOS, but very few expressed nitrotyrosine, indicating either that iNOS in naevi is functionally inactive, or that naevus cells lack reactive oxygen radicals and thus do not form peroxynitrite. Normal melanocytes in adjacent uninvolved skin were unreactive for both markers. In MM, iNOS was most frequently expressed in the 'pure' and 'invasive' radial growth phase (RGP), whereas expression in the vertical growth phase (VGP) and metastatic phase occurred only in 76% of cases; moreover, in these latest phases of tumour progression, iNOS staining was weak and focal. We conclude that iNOS is expressed de novo in most benign pigment cell lesions. In MM (iNOS-generated) NO appears to play an important part in the early steps of invasion (i.e. the 'invasive' RGP), where it may stimulate neo-angiogenesis and may be a prerequisite for further tumour progression; this view is also supported by the finding of iNOS in the associated blood vessels in the papillary dermis. Finally, our data suggest that (iNOS-generated) NO plays a less significant part in the VGP and in metastatic melanoma.

  13. Human Pigmentation, Cutaneous Vitamin D Synthesis and Evolution: Variants of Genes (SNPs) Involved in Skin Pigmentation Are Associated with 25(OH)D Serum Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossberg, Willi; Saternus, Roman; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Kleber, Marcus; März, Winfried; Reichrath, Sandra; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and associated with higher risk for and unfavourable outcome of many diseases. Limited data exist on genetic determinants of serum 25(OH)D concentration. In a cohort of the LURIC study (n=2974, median 25(OH)D concentration 15.5 ng/ml), we tested the hypothesis that variants (SNPs, n=244) of several genes (n=15) involved in different aspects of skin pigmentation, including melanosomal biogenesis (ATP7A, DTNBP1, BLOC1S5, PLDN, PMEL), melanosomal transport within melanocytes (RAB27A, MYO5A, MLPH); or various melanocyte signaling pathways (MC1R, MITF, PAX3, SOX10, DKK1, RACK1, CNR1) are predictive of serum 25(OH)D levels. Eleven SNPs located in 6 genes were associated (ppigmentation and vitamin D for human evolution. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. The measurement of constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation and estimation of sun exposure in Caucasians with basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1998-01-01

    In two identical and simultaneously performed case-control studies of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) with age-matched, sex-matched and residence-matched controls, skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance spectroscopy in 145 BCC patients...

  15. Failed Pneumatic Retinopexy for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Repair in Ocular Albinism: Clues to the Role of Melanin in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Pump Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfeli, Tina; Mandelcorn, Mark S; Yan, Peng; Jeffery, Glen; Mandelcorn, Efrem D

    2017-12-01

    The authors report the first case, to their knowledge, of failed pneumatic retinopexy (PR) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair in a patient with ocular albinism (OA). The failure of PR to spontaneously resolve the subretinal fluid and reattach the retina in this case is suggestive of a deficiency in subretinal fluid reabsorption by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These findings suggest that in cases of RRD in OA, primary PR should be avoided since this procedure relies on an adequately functioning RPE pump to reabsorb subretinal fluid prior to laser retinopexy. The use of primary vitrectomy or scleral buckling with cryopexy may constitute a more effective strategy for RRD in OA. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:1016-1020.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Topical application of a protein kinase C inhibitor reduces skin and hair pigmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Jin; González, Salvador; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A.; Kapasi, Sameer; Peterson, Shaun; Gilchrest, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether inhibition of PKC-beta activity decreases pigmentation, paired cultures of primary human melanocytes were first pretreated with bisindolylmaleimide (Bis), a selective PKC inhibitor, or vehicle alone for 30 min, and then treated with TPA for an additional 90 min to activate PKC

  17. Photooxidative damage in retinal pigment epithelial cells via GRP78 and the protective role of grape skin polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Sun, Tao; Jiang, Yun; Wu, Lijiang; Cai, Xiangzhong; Sun, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiangjun

    2014-12-01

    Blue light induced oxidative damage and ER stress are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the mechanism of blue light-induced damage remained obscure. The objective of this work is to assess the photooxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) and oxidation-induced changes in expression of ER stress associated apoptotic proteins, and investigate the mechanism underlying the protective effects of grape skin extracts. To mimic lipofuscin-mediated photooxidation in vivo, ARPE-19 cells that accumulated A2E, one of lipofuscin fluorophores, were used as a model system to investigate the mechanism of photooxidative damage and the protective effects of grape skin polyphenols. Exposure of A2E containing ARPE-19 cells to blue light resulted in significant apoptosis and increases in levels of GRP78, CHOP, p-JNK, Bax, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3, indicating that photooxidative damage to RPE cells is mediated by the ER-stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Cells in which GRP78 had been knocked down with shRNA were more vulnerable to photooxidative damage. Pre-treatment of blue-light-exposed A2E containing ARPE-19 cells, with grape skin extracts, inhibited apoptosis, in a dose dependent manner. Knockdown GRP78 blocked the protective effect of grape skin extracts.

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation of marigold pigment on immunity, skin and meat color, and growth performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rajput

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marigold flower extract, a natural pigment, was used to determine its effect on carcass and skin pigmentation, immunity and growth performance of broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups with six replicates in a randomized block design. Birds were fed basal diet for 42 d with or without supplementation of marigold flower extract at various concentrations, i.e., 0 (MG0, control, 100 (MG100, 150 (MG150 and 200 (MG200 mg/kg of feed, respectively. Feed intake and live body weight were weekly recorded. Carcass and shank color, and antibody titers against Newcastle and Influenza viruses were measured. Results showed that marigold flower extract significantly (p<0.05 improved live body weight and relative thymus weight. However, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and spleen and bursa weights were not significantly affected. Yellowness (b* of breast and thigh muscles increased by the dietary supplementation of marigold flower extract compared with the control diet. However, lightness (L*, redness (a* and redness to yellowness ratio (a/b were not influenced by the treatments. Moreover, Roche color fan scores of the shank skin were increased at market age (d 42. The results revealed that marigold extract enhanced antibody titers against Newcastle and influenza viruses. It was possible to conclude that the dietary supplementation with marigold flower extract at the rate of 200 mg/kg of feed enhanced carcass and shank color, antibody titers against ND and AI, and growth performance of broiler chickens.

  19. Human Adipose Mesenchymal Cells Inhibit Melanocyte Differentiation and the Pigmentation of Human Skin via Increased Expression of TGF-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Agnes S; Biedermann, Thomas; Michalak, Katarzyna; Michalczyk, Teresa; Meuli-Simmen, Claudia; Scherberich, Arnaud; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2017-12-01

    There is accumulating evidence that interactions between epidermal melanocytes and stromal cells play an important role in the regulation of skin pigmentation. In this study we established a pigmented dermo-epidermal skin model, melDESS, of human origin to investigate the effects of distinct stromal cells on melanogenesis. melDESS is a complex, clinically relevant skin equivalent composed of an epidermis containing both melanocytes and keratinocytes. Its dermal compartment consists either of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, dermal fibroblasts (Fbs), or a mixture of both cell types. These skin substitutes were transplanted for 5 weeks on the backs of immuno-incompetent rats and analyzed. Gene expression and Western blot analyses showed a significantly higher expression of transforming growth factor-β1 by adipose tissue-derived stromal cells compared with dermal Fbs. In addition, we showed that melanocytes responded to the increased levels of transforming growth factor-β1 by down-regulating the expression of key melanogenic enzymes such as tyrosinase. This caused decreased melanin synthesis and, consequently, greatly reduced pigmentation of melDESS. The conclusions are of utmost clinical relevance, namely that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells derived from the hypodermis fail to appropriately interact with epidermal melanocytes, thus preventing the sustainable restoration of the patient's native skin color in bioengineered skin grafts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic disorders of pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, Thierry; Mantoux, Frédéric; Ortonne, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    More than 127 loci are actually known to affect pigmentation in mouse when they are mutated. From embryogenesis to transfer of melanin to the keratinocytes or melanocytes survival, any defect is able to alter the pigmentation process. Many gene mutations are now described, but the function of their product protein and their implication in melanogenesis are only partially understood. Each genetic pigmentation disorder brings new clues in the understanding of the pigmentation process. According to the main genodermatoses known to induce hypo- or hyperpigmentation, we emphasize in this review the last advances in the understanding of the physiopathology of these diseases and try to connect, when possible, the mutation to the clinical phenotype.

  1. A quantitative evaluation of pigmented skin lesions using the L*a*b* color coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S C; Kim, D W; Hong, J P; Rah, D K

    2000-06-01

    The evaluation of pigmentary skin lesions by clinical doctors has been based on subjective and qualitative judgements. Observations have mostly relied on visual inspection, making the effects of treatment difficult to evaluate with any precision. For this reason there is a real need for an objective method to evaluate prognosis after treatment. Recent scientific measurements such as reflectance spectrophotometry and reflectance colorimetry have provided accurate quantitative color information about skin lesions, but these techniques are costly and difficult to apply in the clinical field. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and cost-effective way of evaluating treatment results. We have developed a software program using the L*a*b* color coordinate system to quantify the effect of treatment and have successfully demonstrated its clinical usefulness. Our method compares the relative color difference between normal skin and skin lesions before and after treatment, instead of measuring the absolute color of skin lesions. The accuracy of our quantitative color analysis was confirmed by the simulated images of hemangioma and ota nevus. Clinical efficacy was also confirmed through a blind test involving 3 clinicians who were asked to grade the treatment effects of 13 cases of hemangioma and 7 cases of ota nevus. These subjective clinical grades correlated well with the treatment results obtained using the proposed color analysis system (Correlation coefficient = 0.84).

  2. Interactions Between SNP Alleles at Multiple Loci and Variation in Skin Pigmentation in 122 Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiko Anno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to clarify the molecular basis for human skin color variation and the environmental adaptability to ultraviolet irradiation, with the ultimate goal of predicting the impact of changes in future environments on human health risk. One hundred twenty-two Caucasians living in Toledo, Ohio participated. Back and cheek skin were assayed for melanin as a quantitative trait marker. Buccal cell samples were collected and used for DNA extraction. DNA was used for SNP genotyping using the Masscode™ system, which entails two-step PCR amplification and a platform chemistry which allows cleavable mass spectrometry tags. The results show gene-gene interaction between SNP alleles at multiple loci (not necessarily on the same chromosome contributes to inter-individual skin color variation while suggesting a high probability of linkage disequilibrium. Confirmation of these findings requires further study with other ethic groups to analyze the associations between SNP alleles at multiple loci and human skin color variation. Our overarching goal is to use remote sensing data to clarify the interaction between atmospheric environments and SNP allelic frequency and investigate human adaptability to ultraviolet irradiation. Such information should greatly assist in the prediction of the health effects of future environmental changes such as ozone depletion and increased ultraviolet exposure. If such health effects are to some extent predictable, it might be possible to prepare for such changes in advance and thus reduce the extent of their impact.

  3. N-Nicotinoyl dopamine inhibits skin pigmentation by suppressing of melanosome transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of a niacinamide derivative, N-Nicotinoyl dopamine (NND) on melanogenesis. NND inhibits melanosome transfer in a normal human melanocyte-keratinocyte co-culture system and through phagocytic ability without affecting viability of cells while it did not show inhibitory effects of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. In addition, safety of NND was verified through performing neural stem cell morphology assay. Our findings indicate that NND may potentially be used for cosmetic industry for improvement of skin whitening and therapies related with several skin disorders, and the effect of NND may be acquired via reduction of melanosome transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NOTE: Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lualdi, M.; Colombo, A.; Carrara, M.; Scienza, L.; Tomatis, S.; Marchesini, R.

    2006-12-01

    Different technological tools have been developed to aid in the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions, including cameras working with conventional RGB colour systems, epiluminescence microscopy and spectrophotometric methods using visible and near infrared wavelengths. All the different procedures should provide in an objective and reproducible fashion quantitative measurements of the colour and shape features of a given skin mole. At present, many devices have been introduced in experimental stages for clinical diagnosis, mainly used to provide to the clinicians an objective, computer-assisted second opinion. As for any diagnostic instruments, optical devices should also be subjected to a dedicated quality assurance protocol in order to evaluate the response repeatability of each device (intra-instrument agreement) and to check the accordance among the responses of different devices (inter-instrument agreement). The aim of this study was to design a quality assurance protocol for optical devices dedicated to image analysis of pigmented skin lesions and, in case, to detect cutaneous melanoma by using suitable tissue-like phantoms as standard references that enable testing of both hardware and software components. As an example, we report the results of intra-instrument and inter-instrument agreement when the protocol was applied on a series of 30 SpectroShade® instruments, a novel optical device based on multi-spectral image analysis of colour and shape features of pigmented skin lesion.

  5. Diagnostic and neural analysis of skin cancer (DANAOS). A multicentre study for collection and computer-aided analysis of data from pigmented skin lesions using digital dermoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K; Gambichler, T; Rick, A; Kreutz, M; Anschuetz, M; Grünendick, T; Orlikov, A; Gehlen, S; Perotti, R; Andreassi, L; Newton Bishop, J; Césarini, J-P; Fischer, T; Frosch, P J; Lindskov, R; Mackie, R; Nashan, D; Sommer, A; Neumann, M; Ortonne, J P; Bahadoran, P; Penas, P F; Zoras, U; Altmeyer, P

    2003-10-01

    Early detection of melanomas by means of diverse screening campaigns is an important step towards a reduction in mortality. Computer-aided analysis of digital images obtained by dermoscopy has been reported to be an accurate, practical and time-saving tool for the evaluation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs). A prototype for the computer-aided diagnosis of PSLs using artificial neural networks (NNs) has recently been developed: diagnostic and neural analysis of skin cancer (DANAOS). To demonstrate the accuracy of PSL diagnosis by the DANAOS expert system, a multicentre study on a diverse multinational population was conducted. A calibrated camera system was developed and used to collect images of PSLs in a multicentre study in 13 dermatology centres in nine European countries. The dataset was used to train an NN expert system for the computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma. We analysed different aspects of the data collection and its influence on the performance of the expert system. The NN expert system was trained with a dataset of 2218 dermoscopic images of PSLs. The resulting expert system showed a performance similar to that of dermatologists as published in the literature. The performance depended on the size and quality of the database and its selection. The need for a large database, the usefulness of multicentre data collection, as well as the benefit of a representative collection of cases from clinical practice, were demonstrated in this trial. Images that were difficult to classify using the NN expert system were not identical to those found difficult to classify by clinicians. We suggest therefore that the combination of clinician and computer may potentially increase the accuracy of PSL diagnosis. This may result in improved detection of melanoma and a reduction in unnecessary excisions.

  6. Haplotypes from the SLC45A2 gene are associated with the presence of freckles and eye, hair and skin pigmentation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracasso, Nádia Carolina de Aguiar; de Andrade, Edilene Santos; Wiezel, Cláudia Emília Vieira; Andrade, Claudia Caixeta Franco; Zanão, Lídia Renata; da Silva, Mateus Spinelli; Marano, Leonardo Arduino; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; C Castelli, Erick; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira

    2017-03-01

    The Solute Carrier Family 45, Member 2 (SLC45A2) gene encodes the Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP), which mediates melanin synthesis by tyrosinase trafficking and proton transportation to melanosomes. At least two SLC45A2 coding SNPs [E272K (rs26722) and L374F (rs16891982)] were reported influencing normal variation of human pigmentation. Here we aimed at evaluating the influence of haplotypes of 12 SNPs within SLC45A2 in the determination of eye, hair and skin pigmentation in a highly admixed population sample and comparing their frequencies with the ones found in data retrieved from the 1000 Genomes Project. To achieve this goal, 12 SLC45A2 SNPs were evaluated in 288 unrelated individuals from the Ribeirão Preto city area, Southeastern Brazil. SNPs were genotyped by PCR-RFLP or Allele-specific PCR, followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Haplotypes of each individual were inferred by two independent computational methods, PHASE and Partition-Ligation-Expectation-Maximization (PL-EM) algorithms, and 34 different haplotypes were identified. The hp9 haplotype was the most frequent (58.3%) and was associated with the presence of blond/red hair, pale skin, blue eyes and freckles. All haplotypes significantly associated with dark or light pigmentation features harbor the 374L and 374F alleles, respectively. These results emphasize the role played by haplotypes at SLC45A2 in the determination of pigmentation aspects of human populations and reinforce the relevance of SNP L374F in human pigmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Computer-aided epiluminescence microscopy of pigmented skin lesions: the value of clinical data for the classification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, M; Kittler, H; Dreiseitl, S; Ganster, H; Wolff, K; Pehamberger, H

    2000-12-01

    Early melanoma is often difficult to differentiate from benign pigmented skin lesions (PSLs). Digital epiluminescence microscopy (DELM) and automated image analysis could represent possible aids for inexperienced clinicians. We designed an automated computerized image analysis system that has the potential for use as an additional tool for the differentiation of melanoma from dysplastic naevi and common naevi. The PC-based pilot system was attached to a common DELM system as the image source. Digital images of PSLs were automatically segmented and a panel of 107 morphological parameters were measured. Additionally, seven clinical parameters were evaluated and used as an additional source of information. Neural networks were then trained to distinguish melanoma from benign PSLs. One class of networks was trained solely based on the morphometric features, whereas the second class of networks was trained on the combination of morphometric and clinical features. The automatic segmentation algorithm was correct in 96% of cases. Using three-way receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, for networks trained solely on morphometric features the volume under surface (VUS) was 0.617 (SD 0.036). The performance was significantly better for networks trained on the combination of both morphometric and clinical features (VUS = 0.682, SD 0.035). In a dichotomous model, distinguishing benign lesion (common naevi + dysplastic naevi) from melanoma, the area under the curve (AUC) from two-way ROC analysis was 0.942 (SD 0.018) for networks trained solely on morphometric features and 0.968 (SD 0.012) for those trained on the combination of clinical and morphometric data (P= NS). Automated feature extraction from PSLs and the training of neural networks as classifiers has thus shown satisfactory performance in a large scale experiment. The addition of clinical data significantly increases the diagnostic performance for distinguishing three classes of lesions (i.e. common naevi

  8. Synchrotron-based ν-XRF mapping and μ-FTIR microscopy enable to look into the fate and effects of tattoo pigments in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiver, Ines; Hesse, Bernhard; Seim, Christian; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Villanova, Julie; Laux, Peter; Dreiack, Nadine; Penning, Randolf; Tucoulou, Remi; Cotte, Marine; Luch, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body. We used skin and lymphatic tissues from human corpses to address local biokinetics by means of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques at both the micro (μ) and nano (ν) scale. Additional advanced mass spectrometry-based methodology enabled to demonstrate simultaneous transport of organic pigments, heavy metals and titanium dioxide from skin to regional lymph nodes. Among these compounds, organic pigments displayed the broadest size range with smallest species preferentially reaching the lymph nodes. Using synchrotron μ-FTIR analysis we were also able to detect ultrastructural changes of the tissue adjacent to tattoo particles through altered amide I α-helix to β-sheet protein ratios and elevated lipid contents. Altogether we report strong evidence for both migration and long-term deposition of toxic elements and tattoo pigments as well as for conformational alterations of biomolecules that likely contribute to cutaneous inflammation and other adversities upon tattooing.

  9. A case of early-onset obesity, hypocortisolism, and skin pigmentation problem due to a novel homozygous mutation in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene in an Indian boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Ngar; Poon, Wing-Tat; Lee, Ching-Yin; Law, Chun-Yiu; Chan, Albert Yan-Wo

    2012-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the polypeptide precursor of several biologically active melanocortin peptides that have important roles in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis, adrenal steroidogenesis, melanocyte stimulation, and immune modulation. Mutation of the POMC gene has been associated with adrenal insufficiency, early-onset obesity, and red hair pigmentation. We describe an Indian boy with secondary hypocortisolism, hyperphagia, early-onset obesity, and skin pigmentation problem. Genetics analysis revealed a novel homozygous mutation in the POMC gene (p.Arg86Term). The boy also had central hypothyroidism in addition to the secondary hypocortisolism. Genetics analysis for the POMC gene should be considered in patients with secondary hypocortisolism, early-onset obesity, and pigmentary problems.

  10. Dynamic regulation of mRNA and miRNA associated with the developmental stages of skin pigmentation in Japanese ornamental carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue; Pang, Xiaolei; Wang, Liangyan; Li, Mengrong; Dong, Chuanju; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Lei; Song, Dongying; Feng, Jianxin; Xu, Peng; Li, Xuejun

    2018-04-20

    The Japanese ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Koi) is famous for multifarious colors and patterns, making it commonly culture and trade across the world. Although functional genes and inheritance of color traits have been commonly studied, seldom attentions were focused on the genetic regulation during the developmental process of pigmentation. To better understand the mechanism of skin color development, we observed the morphogenesis of pigment cells during the post-embryonic stages and analysed the temporal expression pattern of mRNAs/miRNAs profiles in four distinct developmental stages. 59 and 103 differentially expressed genes/miRNAs (DEGs/DEMs) associated with pigmentation and skin were identified, including pax7, mitf, tyr, tyrp1, etc., and the highest DEGs were detected at 11 days post hatching (dph). In addition, the functional characteristics of mRNAs/miRNAs associated with pteridine and carotenoid pathway were also examined. Furthermore, 65 miRNA-mRNA interaction pairs related to pigmentation, pteridines and carotenoids metabolism were detected between different stages. Interestingly, the largest pairs appeared in the transition from 11 dph to 48 dph, which had the similar trend with DEGs further manifesting the importance of 11 dph. This study produced a comprehensive programme of DEGs/DEMs during color development, which will provide resources to understand the regulation mechanism in color formation. The understanding of genetic basis in color formation might promote the production and breeding of the Koi carp. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The SLC24 gene family of Na⁺/Ca²⁺-K⁺ exchangers: from sight and smell to memory consolidation and skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetkamp, Paul P M

    2013-01-01

    Members of the SLC24 gene family encode K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCKX) that utilize both the inward Na(+) and outward K(+) gradients to extrude Ca(2+) from cells. There are five human SLC24 genes that play a role in biological process as diverse as vision in retinal rod and cone photoreceptors, olfaction, skin pigmentation and at least three of the five genes are also widely expressed in the brain. Here I review the functional, physiological and structural features of NCKX proteins that have emerged in the past few years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differentiating intratumoral melanocytes from Langerhans cells in nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors in vivo by label-free third-harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei-Hung; Liao, Yi-Hua; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Wei, Ming-Liang; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2016-07-01

    Morphology and distribution of melanocytes are critical imaging information for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. However, how to image intratumoral melanocytes noninvasively in pigmented skin tumors is seldom investigated. Third-harmonic generation (THG) is shown to be enhanced by melanin, whereas high accuracy has been demonstrated using THG microscopy for in vivo differential diagnosis of nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors. It is thus desirable to investigate if label-free THG microscopy was capable to in vivo identify intratumoral melanocytes. In this study, histopathological correlations of label-free THG images with the immunohistochemical images stained with human melanoma black (HMB)-45 and cluster of differentiation 1a (CD1a) were made. The correlation results indicated that the intratumoral THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals were endogenously derived from melanocytes rather than Langerhans cells (LCs). The consistency between THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and HMB-45 melanocyte staining showed a kappa coefficient of 0.807, 84.6% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. In contrast, a kappa coefficient of -0.37, 21.7% sensitivity, and 30% specificity were noted between the THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and CD1a staining for LCs. Our study indicates the capability of noninvasive label-free THG microscopy to differentiate intratumoral melanocytes from LCs, which is not feasible in previous in vivo label-free clinical-imaging modalities.

  13. Pigmentation and vitamin D metabolism in Caucasians: low vitamin D serum levels in fair skin types in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Glass

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D may play a protective role in many diseases. Public health messages are advocating sun avoidance to reduce skin cancer risk but the potential deleterious effects of these recommendations for vitamin D metabolism have been poorly investigated.We investigated the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD, skin type and ultraviolet exposure in 1414 Caucasian females in the UK. Mean age of the cohort was 47 years (18-79 and mean 25(OHD levels were 77 nmol/L (6-289. 25(OHD levels were strongly associated with season of sampling with higher levels in the spring and summer months (p<0.0001. Light skin types (skin type 1 and 2 have lower levels of 25(OHD (mean 71 nmol/L compared to darker skin types (skin type 3 and 4 (mean 82 nmol/L after adjusting for multiple confounders (p<0.0001. The trend for increasing risk of low vitamin D with fairer skin types was highly significant despite adjustment for all confounders (p = 0.001.Contrary to previous studies across different ethnic backgrounds, this study within Caucasian UK females shows that fair skin types have lower levels of 25(OHD compared to darker skin types with potential detrimental health effects. Public health campaigns advocating sun avoidance in fair skinned individuals may need to be revised in view of their risk of vitamin D deficiency.

  14. The inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and mapping of tuber skin colour loci using RFLPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.; Jacobs, J.M.E.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Stiekema, W.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Two existing genetic models for anthocyanin pigmentation are compared: the genetic model as proposed by Lunden (1937, 1960, 1974) for tetraploid potato Solanum tuberosum group Tuberosum and the model by Dodds & Long (1955, 1956) for diploid cultivated Solanum species. By crossing well defined

  15. Ion transport in pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.

  16. The stimulatory effect of LED light spectra on genes related to photoreceptors and skin pigmentation in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Suk; Choi, Cheol Young

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to assess differences in genes related to skin color of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to light-emitting diodes (LEDs): red, green, and purple. We investigated differences in the expression of mammalian-like melanopsin (Opn4m), rhodopsin (RH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), melanin-concentrating hormone receptor (MCH-R), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in goldfish exposed to different LED light spectra. Opn4m, RH, MCH, and MCH-R mRNA levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the white fluorescent bulb (control) and red LED groups. Furthermore, skin cells were isolated to measure the MCH-R mRNA expression levels. The results show that the mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the control and red LED groups. In addition, body weights in the green and purple LED groups were significantly higher than those in the control and red LED groups. However, POMC mRNA expression levels in the green and purple LED groups were significantly lower than those in the control and red LED groups. These results suggest that specific wavelengths regulate fish skin color through neuropeptide hormones and photoreceptors, and POMC, which is related to stress hormones and melatonin, is associated with stress levels as well as skin color.

  17. Status report on CLUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandreas, D.; Bartoli, B.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Bigongiari, C.; Biral, R.; Busetto, G.; Centro, S.; Chiarelli, G.; Cocca, E.; Cresti, M.; Liello, F.; Mariotti, M.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; O'Connor, D.J.; Nicoletto, M.; Paoletti, R.; Peruzzo, L.; Pesci, A.; Pugno, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Scribano, A.; Smith, D.A.; Turini, N.; Zettti, F.

    1995-01-01

    The CLUE experiment uses a new cosmic ray detector array planned to operate for the next decade. It utilises a MWPC chambers sensitive to UV, to image Cherenkov radiation produced in cosmic ray showers. This approach is unique in that the instrument is insensitive to skylight backgrounds, has a threshold similar to that of visible Cherenkov experiments but a longer duty cycle. These features make possible a class of interesting cosmic ray physics experiments. The CLUE experiment has started operation with two of the ten telescopes that are foreseen for its beginning. These telescopes are at present at Roque de Los Muchachos in the Canary Islands, in the same site as the HEGRA experiment. A description of the telescopes is given and some data on the tests performed are presented. (orig.)

  18. Formulation of Hypopigmentation Cream and Evaluation of its Effect on Skin Pigment. Part I: Formulation of the Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hamed Alobaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis of facial skin due to various etiological factors including hormonal imbalance. Although it affects any one is particularly common in women, especially pregnant women and those who taking oral or patch contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. This research aimed to formulate stable water in oil (w/o cream containing plant extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra as active material obtained by concentrating the alcoholic extract of the plant roots, was entrapped in the inner aqueous phase of w/o cream. Base containing no active material and a formulation containing ethanolic extract of the plant which was prepared in Samarra Drugs Industry laboratories. Samples of base and formulation were stored at different accelerated conditions (8°C, 25°C, 30°C, 40°C, 40°C +75% RH for four weeks to predict the stability of the creams. It was concluded that the formulation was stable chemically and physically over the studied storage conditions and without induction of allergic or contact dermatitis.

  19. Protocol for the MoleMate™ UK Trial: a randomised controlled trial of the MoleMate system in the management of pigmented skin lesions in primary care [ISRCTN 79932379

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Edward CF

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suspicious pigmented lesions are a common presenting problem in general practice consultations; while the majority are benign a small minority are melanomas. Differentiating melanomas from other pigmented lesions in primary care is challenging: currently, 95% of all lesions referred to a UK specialist are benign. The MoleMate system is a new diagnostic aid, incorporating a hand-held SIAscopy scanner with a primary care diagnostic algorithm. This trial tests the hypothesis that adding the MoleMate system to current best primary care practice will increase the proportion of appropriate referrals of suspicious pigmented lesions to secondary care compared with current best practice alone. Methods/design The MoleMate UK Trial is a primary care based multi-centre randomised controlled trial, with randomisation at patient level using a validated block randomisation method for two age groups (45 years and under; 46 years and over. We aim to recruit adult patients seen in general practice with a pigmented skin lesion that cannot immediately be diagnosed as benign and the patient reassured. The trial has a 'two parallel groups' design, comparing 'best practice' with 'best practice' plus the MoleMate system in the intervention group. The primary outcome is the positive predictive value (PPV of referral defined as the proportion of referred lesions seen by secondary care experts that are considered 'clinically significant' (i.e. biopsied or monitored. Secondary outcomes include: the sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value (NPV of the decision not to refer; clinical outcomes (melanoma thickness, 5 year melanoma incidence and mortality; clinician outcomes (Index of Suspicion, confidence, learning effects; patient outcomes (satisfaction, general and cancer-specific worry, and cost-utility. Discussion The MoleMate UK Trial tests a new technology designed to improve the management of suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care

  20. Continuous illumination through larval development suppresses dopamine synthesis in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, causing activation of α-MSH synthesis in the pituitary and abnormal metamorphic skin pigmentation in flounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kae; Washio, Youhei; Fujinami, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Daisuke; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2012-04-01

    In order to better understand the endocrine aberrations related to abnormal metamorphic pigmentation that appear in flounder larvae reared in tanks, this study examined the effects of continuous 24-h illumination (LL) through larval development on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase-1 (th1), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), α-melanophore-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), which are known to participate in the control of background adaptation of body color. We observed two conspicuous deviations in the endocrine system under LL when compared with natural light conditions (LD). First, LL severely suppressed th1 expression in the dopaminergic neurons in the anterior diencephalon, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Second, pomc and α-MSH expression in the pars intermedia melanotrophs was enhanced by LL. Skin color was paler under LL than LD before metamorphic pigmentation, and abnormal metamorphic pigmentation occurred at a higher ratio in LL. We therefore hypothesize that continuous LL inhibited dopamine synthesis in the SCN, which resulted in up-regulation of pomc mRNA expression in the melanotrophs. In spite of the up-regulation of pomc in the melanotrophs, larval skin was adjusted to be pale by MCH which was not affected by LL. Accumulation of α-MSH in the melanotrophs is caused by uncoupling of α-MSH synthesis and secretion due to inhibitory role of MCH on α-MSH secretion, which results in abnormal metamorphic pigmentation by affecting differentiation of adult-type melanophores. Our data demonstrate that continuous illumination at the post-embryonic stage has negative effects on the neuroendocrine system and pituitary in flounder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  2. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Das Jayanta Kumar; Gangopadhyay Asok Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the on...

  3. Inhibitory effect of 5-iodotubercidin on pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Il; Jeong, Hae Bong; Ro, Hyunju; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Chang Deok; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2017-09-02

    Melanin pigments are the primary contributors for the skin color. They are produced in melanocytes and then transferred to keratinocytes, eventually giving various colors on skin surface. Although many depigmenting and/or skin-lightening agents have been developed, there is still a growing demand on materials for reducing pigmentation. We attempted to find materials for depigmentation and/or skin-lightening using the small molecule compounds commercially available, and found that 5-iodotubercidin had inhibitory potential on pigmentation. When HM3KO melanoma cells were treated with 5-iodotubercidin, pigmentation was dramatically reduced. The 5-iodotubercidin decreased the protein level for pigmentation-related molecules such as MITF, tyrosinase, and TRP1. In addition, 5-iodotubercidin decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, while increased the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. These data suggest that 5-iodotubercidin inhibits melanogenesis via the regulation of intracellular signaling related with pigmentation. Finally, 5-iodotubercidin markedly inhibited the melanogenesis of zebrafish embryos, an in vivo evaluation model for pigmentation. Together, these data suggest that 5-iodotubercidin can be developed as a depigmenting and/or skin-lightening agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory effects of salidroside and paeonol on tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis in mouse B16F10 melanoma cells and ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation in guinea pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Hua; Liu, Shuai; Xu, Shen-Yao; Chen, Lei; Shan, Ying-Hui; Wei, Wei; Liang, Wen-Quan; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2013-09-15

    Salidroside, the major active component of Rhodiola rosea, a herb with antioxidant, free radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibitory effects, has been recently reported in protecting the kerationcytes from the UV radiation, suggesting the potential of this component in depigmentation. Paeonol is isolated from Moutan Cortex Radicis with anti-inflammation/microbial activities, was reported to induce the down-regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and subsequently tyrosinase. To testify the potential of these compounds as melanin formation inhibitors for hyperpigmentation therapy, the influence of salidroside and paeonol on pigmentation was investigated. With arbutin as a positive control, salidroside and paeonol were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on the cell viability, tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells, as well as their effects in UVB-induced hyperpigmentation in brown guinea pig skins. It was demonstrated that the significant inhibition of salidroside (33.0%) and paeonol (22.2-30.9%) on the tyrosinase activity is slightly lower than that of arbutin (18.4-44.7%). However, salidroside exhibited the dose-dependent inhibition (30.6-42.0%) in melanin synthesis at a low concentration of 100 μM, paeonol and arbutin expressed inhibition rates of 27.4-37.2% and 25.8-45.6% within 500-1000 μM. The in vivo topical application of these compounds was demonstrated to obviously decrease the hyperpigmentation on UVB stimulated guinea pig skin. This study provided the original evidence for the salidroside and paeonol as therapeutic agents for pigmentation disorder and skin lightening, with further clinical investigation of these compounds in the field of depigmentation was suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. ceramic pigment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Co costs and environmental impact, most of the current research activities concerning Co-based blue pigments have been focused upon the minimization of the employed amount of Co in their formulation (thus reducing both the economic costs and the toxicity). Accordingly, several studies have been previously reported on ...

  6. ceramic pigment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sintering process). The other samples show practically the same morphology, and the mean particle size of the obtained powders is in agreement with that for inorganic pigments used in most applications (i.e., between 0.1 and 10 μm [13]). 3.3 Optical spectroscopy (powders). Since Co2SiO4 mineral owes its violet colour to ...

  7. Pigments analysis on skin tomato fruits during ripening by mean fluorescence techniques; Analisi mediante utilizzo di tecniche di fluorescenza dei pigmenti presenti sulla superficie di bacche di pomodoro durante la maturazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, A.; Fantoni, R. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Different spectroscopic techniques, based on visible fluorescence emission upon excitation in the same spectral region or in the ultraviolet, have been utilized to characterize tomato fruit ripening stages in order to analyze surface pigments which correspond to optimal conditions for fruit harvesting. The main fluorescence spectral features belonging to antochyanin, flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll a after excitation of skin tomato pigments at different laser wavelength have been identified. For tomato ripening stage LIF detection, the {lambda}{sub e}xc266nm was established as the optimal laser wavelength. [Italian] Mediante diverse tecniche spettroscopiche, basate sulla emissione di fluorescenza visibile a seguito di eccitazione nella stessa regione o nell'ultravioletto, e' stato condotto uno studio su bacche di pomodoro a diversi stadi di maturazione Lo scopo del lavoro e' quello di potere attribuire, attraverso l'analisi degli spettri di fluorescenza dei pigmenti superficiali presenti nel frutto, lo stadio ottimale di maturazione al momento della raccolta. I risultati ottenuti hanno permesso di distinguere spettri di fluorescenza attribuiti ai principali gruppi di pigmenti fluorescenti presenti nella superficie esterna del pomodoro: antociani, flavonoidi, carotenoidi e clorofilla a.

  8. Sun’s effect on skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays, which can burn the skin, and ...

  9. Expression of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and its inhibitor, protein inhibitor of nNOS, in pigment cell lesions of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, B; Van Den Oord, J J

    1999-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in many physiological processes. In cancer, low levels of NO are thought to enhance tumour progression and metastasis. NO is generated from arginine by NO synthase (NOS); the Ca2+-dependent neuronal isoform or nNOS (expressed by neurones and inhibited by the protein inhibitor of nNOS, PIN), is also expressed by cultured normal melanocytes and by all malignant melanoma (MM) cell lines. We studied the expression of nNOS and PIN in paraffin sections of 177 and 58 pigment cell lesions, respectively, using immunohistochemistry; the activity of the necessary cofactor NADPH was studied in 26 frozen cases. Normal melanocytes in situ lacked nNOS and PIN expression, but were NADPH +. Almost half of common acquired benign naevi expressed nNOS; however, halo naevi and congenital naevi expressed nNOS very frequently. Dysplastic naevi and MM showed variable nNOS immunoreactivity in 72% and 83% of cases, respectively. Early (Clark I and Clark II) MM displayed nNOS staining most frequently, and all MM with an invasive radial growth phase expressed nNOS in the papillary dermis. In contrast, only 67% of metastatic MM were nNOS +. PIN was coexpressed with nNOS in 40 of 58 lesions. NADPH activity was present in all nNOS + naevi, but in two malignant cases, NADPH activity was not accompanied by nNOS expression. We conclude that nNOS expression is induced de novo in benign and malignant pigment cell lesions which have all the requirements (NADPH, PIN) necessary for the production and modulation of NO. We postulate that the frequent expression of nNOS in the junctional part of dysplastic naevi may be responsible for their particular histological features. NO generated by the neoplastic dermal cells in the invasive radial growth phase may contribute to the increased number of blood vessels in the papillary dermis.

  10. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids) in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    F Karadas; S Erdoğan; D Kor; G Oto; M Uluman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105), with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet); T2: seleniu...

  11. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-12-16

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation.

  12. UV-B affects the immune system and promotes nuclear abnormalities in pigmented and non-pigmented bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Fanali, Lara Zácari; De Oliveira, Classius

    2018-03-01

    Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is a stressor of the immune system and causes DNA damage. Leukocytes can change in response to environmental changes in anurans, making them an important biomarker of stressful situations. The initial barrier against UV in ectothermic animals is melanin-containing cells in skin and in their internal organs. Here, we tested the effects of UV exposure on immune cells and DNA integrity in pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus. We used an inflammation model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli to test synergic effects of UV and LPS. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) DNA damage caused by UV will be more pronounced in non-pigmented than in pigmented animals; 2) LPS increases leukocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented animals by systemic inflammation; 3) The combined LPS and UV exposure will decrease the number of leukocytes. We found that the frequency of immune cells differed between pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. UV exposure increased mast cells and DNA damage in erythrocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles, while leukocytes decreased after UV exposure. Non-pigmented tadpoles experienced DNA damage and a lower lymphocyte count earlier than pigmented tadpoles. UV altered immune cells likely as a consequence of local and systemic inflammation. These alterations were less severe in pigmented than in non-pigmented animals. UV and LPS increased internal melanin in pigmented tadpoles, which were correlated with DNA damage and leukocytes. Here, we described for the first time the effects of UV and LPS in immune cells of pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. In addition, we demonstrated that internal melanin in tadpoles help in these defenses, since leukocyte responses were faster in non-pigmented animals, supporting the hypothesis that melanin is involved in the initial innate immune response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Light pigmentation phenotype is correlated with increased substantia nigra echogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Jost-Julian; Schirmer, Maria; Fricke, Christopher; Weise, David; Wagner, Justinus Aspasios; Simon, Jan; Classen, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to address the question of whether pigmentation may be mechanistically linked with Parkinson's disease. In a cross-sectional, observational study, 116 healthy subjects received transcranial sonography of the substantia nigra. Pigmentation phenotype was assessed using the Fitzpatrick skin phototype classification, and five additional phenotypic pigmentation traits as well as a photographic method (Melanin index) in a subgroup of 46 subjects. Lighter skin phototype was associated with larger echogenic substantia nigra area and increased prevalence of abnormally enlarged echogenic substantia nigra area. The strongest association of substantia nigra echogenicity and phenotypic pigmentation traits was found for hair color and facial tanning. Findings suggest an increasing prevalence of structural abnormality of substantia nigra with decreasing darkness of skin and thus may provide additional evidence in favor of a pathogenic link of pigmentation and Parkinson's disease. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma.

  15. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the onset of pigmented xerodermoid is said to be delayed till third to fourth decade of life, it seems the disease may appear earlier in the tropics. Early diagnosis and management could be life-saving.

  16. Overview of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  17. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chadwick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options.

  18. Shower reconstruction in the CLUE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C. E-mail: bigongiari@pd.infn.it; Ciocci, M.A.; Cosulich, D.; Cresti, M.; Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Liello, F.; Malakhov, N.; Mariotti, M.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Peruzzo, L.; Piccioli, A.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sartori, P.; Sbarra, C.; Scribano, A.; Smogailov, E.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N

    2001-04-01

    The CLUE experiment studies primary cosmic rays (E{>=}2 TeV) by detecting UV (190-230 nm) Cherenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Since atmospheric absorption in the UV range is higher than in the visible range, CLUE cannot apply algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic-ray direction. In this paper, we present a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. Preliminary results of the source analysis using this new method are shown.

  19. Shower reconstruction in the CLUE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C.; Ciocci, M.A.; Cosulich, D.; Cresti, M.; Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Liello, F.; Malakhov, N.; Mariotti, M.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Peruzzo, L.; Piccioli, A.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sartori, P.; Sbarra, C.; Scribano, A.; Smogailov, E.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N.

    2001-01-01

    The CLUE experiment studies primary cosmic rays (E≥2 TeV) by detecting UV (190-230 nm) Cherenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Since atmospheric absorption in the UV range is higher than in the visible range, CLUE cannot apply algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic-ray direction. In this paper, we present a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. Preliminary results of the source analysis using this new method are shown

  20. Fingernails Yield Clues to Limb Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spotlight on Research Fingernails Yield Clues to Limb Regeneration By Kirstie Saltsman, Ph.D. | January 5, 2014 ... Diseases has uncovered chemical signals that drive the regeneration of lost digit tips in mice. The findings, ...

  1. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  2. Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plensdorf, Scott; Livieratos, Maria; Dada, Nabil

    2017-12-15

    Pigmentation disorders are commonly diagnosed, evaluated, and treated in primary care practices. Typical hyperpigmentation disorders include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, ephelides (freckles), and café au lait macules. These conditions are generally benign but can be distressing to patients. Appropriate dermatologic history, skin examination, and skin biopsy, when appropriate, can help exclude melanoma and its precursors. In addition to addressing the underlying condition, hyperpigmentation is treated with topical agents, chemical peels, cryotherapy, light or laser therapy, or a combination of these methods. Café au lait macules are treated with surgical excision or laser therapy if treatment is desired. Hypopigmentation disorders include vitiligo, pityriasis alba, tinea versicolor, and postinflammatory hypopigmentation. Treatment of vitiligo depends on the distribution and extent of skin involvement, and includes topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, ultraviolet A therapy (with or without psoralens), narrowband ultraviolet B therapy, and cosmetic coverage. Patients with stable, self-limited vitiligo may be candidates for surgical grafting techniques, whereas those with extensive disease may be candidates for depigmentation therapy to make skin tone appear more even. Other hypopigmentation disorders may improve or resolve with treatment of the underlying condition.

  3. Solitary black pigment stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpers, C.; Wosiewitz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Solitary pigment stones of the gall-bladder are rare (1.7%). 82,5% are radiopaque, 17.5% radiolucent. 64,8% of radiopaque solitary pigment stones have the structure of a cockade. Such cockades take years to develop. Solitary cholesterol stones with a nucleus of a radiopaque pigment stone should not be treated for litholysis. 8% of solitary cholesterol stones with a cross diameter below 15 mm. possess a radiolucent pigment stone nucleus. X-ray diagnosis for selecting litholytic treatment remains the safest method, especially if the radiologist compares his films regularly with the specimens after surgery. (orig.) [de

  4. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal

    2017-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  5. UVR: sun, lamps, pigmentation and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, C M; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has important and significant consequences on human health. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the beneficial effects of UVR. This perspective gives an introduction to the solar spectrum, UV lamps, UV dosimetry, skin pigment and vitamin D. The hea......Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has important and significant consequences on human health. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the beneficial effects of UVR. This perspective gives an introduction to the solar spectrum, UV lamps, UV dosimetry, skin pigment and vitamin D....... The health benefits of UVR exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D pathways will be discussed in this themed issue in the following articles....

  6. Fish pigmentation and the melanocortin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Laura; Suarez-Bregua, Paula; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Braasch, Ingo; Rotllant, Josep

    2017-09-01

    The melanocortin system is a complex neuroendocrine signaling mechanism involved in numerous physiological processes in vertebrates, including pigmentation, steroidogenesis and metabolic control. This review focuses at one of its most fascinating function in fish, its regulatory role in the control of pigmentation, in which the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), its agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-Msh), and the endogenous antagonist agouti signaling protein (Asip1) are the main players. Functional control of Mc1r, which is highly expressed in fish skin and whose activation stimulates melanin production and melanosome dispersion in fish melanophores, is considered a key mechanism for vertebrate pigment phenotypes. The α-Msh peptide, the most documented Mc1r agonist involved in pigmentation, is produced in the pituitary gland, activating melanin synthesis by binding to Mc1r in fish melanophores. Finally, Asip1 is the putative factor for establishing the evolutionarily conserved dorso-ventral pigment pattern found across vertebrates. However, we are just starting to understand how other melanocortin system components are acting in this complex regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04543.001 PMID:25513726

  8. [Microbial sources of pigments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañizares-Villanueva, R O; Ríos-Leal, E; Olvera Ramírez, R; Ponce Noyola, T; Márquez Rocha, F

    1998-01-01

    Pigments from natural sources has been obtained since long time ago, and their interest has increased due to the toxicity problems caused by those of synthetic origin. In this way the pigments from microbial sources are a good alternative. Some of more important natural pigments, are the carotenoids, flavonoids (anthocyanins) and some tetrapirroles (chloropyls, phycobilliproteins). Another group less important are the betalains and quinones. The carotenoids are molecules formed by isoprenoids units and the most important used as colorant are the alpha and beta carotene which are precursors of vitamin A, and some xantophylls as astaxanthin. The pigment more used in the industry is the beta-carotene which is obtained from some microalgae and cyanobacteria. The astaxanthin another important carotenoid is a red pigment of great commercial value, and it is used in the pharmaceutical feed and acuaculture industries. This pigments is mainly obtained from Phaffia rhodozyma and Haematococcus pluvialis and other organisms. The phycobilliproteins obtained from cyanobacteria and some group of algae, have recently been increased on the food industries. In the last years it has been used as fluorescent marker in biochemical assays. Our research group have carried out studies about the factors that improve the production of these pigments obtained from different microbial species as well as the methods for their extraction and application.

  9. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  10. Pigments in Thermophilic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, T; Rao, Sanjay SR; Maheshwari, R

    1986-01-01

    UV and visible absorption spectra of thermophilic fungi were obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy. Based on these data as well as on the chem. properties and IR spectra, it is suggested that the pigments may be hydroxylated polycyclic quinones.

  11. Chlorophyll: The wonder pigment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    Chlorophyll, the green plant pigment, a 'real life force' of living beings, besides synthesizing food, is a great source of vitamins, minerals and other phytochemicals. Adding chlorophyll rich food to our diet fortifies our body against health...

  12. Prodigiosin-like pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, N N

    1975-05-01

    Prodigiosin, the bright red tripyrrole pigment from Serratia marcescens, has also been identified in Pseudomonas magnesiorubra, Vibrio psychroerythrus, and two Gram-negative rod-shaped mesophilic marine bacteria not members of the genus Serratia. Prodigiosin is sometimes bound to proteins; thus, extracts may require acid treatment before isolation of the pigment. Higher homologs of prodigiosin have been detected by mass spectroscopy. A mutant strain of S. marcescens produced nor-prodigiosin, in which the methoxy group of prodigiosin is replaced by a hydroxy group. Another mutant strain produced a blue tetrapyrrole pigment whose structure is a dimer of prodigiosin's rings A and B. Three novel biosynthetic analogs of prodigiosin have been obtained using a colorless mutant which does make rings A and B but not ring C and which can couple rings A and B with some added monopyrroles similar to ring C. The structures of three prodiginine (prodigiosin-like) pigments from streptomyces have been elucidated. All have the methoxytripyrrole aromatic nucleus of prodigiosin and all have an 11 carbon aliphatic side chain attached at carbon 2 of ring C. In two of the pigments the side chain is also linked to another carbon of ring C. The earlier literature about prodiginine pigments from actinomycetes has been interpreted and evaluated in light of the most recent findings. The structure elucidation of six prodiginine pigments from Actinomadurae (Nocardiae) has been completed. Only one, undecylprodiginine, is the same as from a streptomycete. For three of the six pigments, nine carbon side chains are observed and in four of them the side chain is attached to carbon 5 of ring A as well as carbon 2 of ring C so that a large ring is formed which includes the three pyrrole moieties. A section on identification summarized useful methods and presents information with which any known prodiginine pigment can be identified. The final step in the biosynthesis of prodigiosin was known to be

  13. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  14. Regeneration of dermal patterns from the remaining pigments after surgery in Eublepharis macularius (a case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Noriyuki

    2016-07-12

    Dermal injury of the Eublepharis macularius (leopard gecko) often results in a loss of the spotted patterns. The scar is usually well recovered, but the spots and the tubercles may be lost depending on the size and part of the lesion. This report presents a surgical attempting, in which the pigments in the edge of the remaining skin flap are partially preserved to maximally restore the natural pigmentation patterns during the course of dermal regeneration. A four-year-old female lizard E. macularius was evaluated due to a subcutaneous tumor in the occipito-pterional portion behind its right eye. A solid tumor beneath the skin was surgically enucleated under general anesthesia. Then, the ulcerated skin was dissected away together with the tumor. The necrotic edge of the remaining skin flap was carefully trimmed to leave as much of the pigmented portions as possible on the outskirt of the skin flap. The scar was covered with the remaining skin flap, and the uncovered lesion was protected with Vaseline containing gentamicin. The lesion was rapidly covered with regenerated dermis within a week, and the epidermis with round and well-oriented pigmented spots were almost completely restored in four months. The surgical suture of the skin flap after removal of the ulcerated margins resulted in the scar-free regeneration of the scales and the pigmented spots. And the pigmented spots of the remaining skin close to the lesion site might be a source of the regenerated spots.

  15. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  16. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  17. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-16

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  18. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Photoprotection in ethnic skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Al-Jamal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, sun-induced aging, dyspigmentation, sunburns, and skin cancers are reported worldwide in all skin types and races. The severity of photodamage varies from individual to individual, and is predominantly based upon genetic differences altering the body's response or susceptibility to sun damage. In addition, non-Caucasian patients are less likely to perform skin self-examinations, attend dermatologic follow-ups, and seven times less likely to apply sunscreen than Caucasian patients. Therefore, the remainder of this article will discuss the categories of photoprotective agent [environmental, biologic, physical, and UV filters, i.e., sunscreens] as well as the topics of photoaging, dyspigmentation, photocarcinogenesis, and the controversy surrounding vitamin D deficiency from photoprotection in the context of ethnic skin.

  20. Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Clinical Variant, Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    K., Deepadarshan; M., Mallikarjun; N. Abdu, Noshin

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour of skin, comprising 80% of non-melanoma cancers. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits increased pigmentation. It is a very rare variant, although its frequency can reach upto 6% of total basal cell carcinomas in Hispanics. Herein, we are reporting 2 cases of pigmented basal cell carcinoma.

  1. Effects of glycolic acid chemical peeling on facial pigment deposition: evaluation using novel computer analysis of digital-camera-captured images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Kushida, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    Chemical peeling is becoming increasingly popular for skin rejuvenation in dermatological cosmetic medicine. However, the improvements seen with chemical peeling are often very minor, and it is difficult to conduct a quantitative assessment of pre- and post-treatment appearance. We report the pre- and postpeeling effects for facial pigment deposition using a novel computer analysis method for digital-camera-captured images. Glycolic acid chemical peeling was performed a total of 5 times at 2-week intervals in 23 healthy women. We conducted a computer image analysis by utilizing Robo Skin Analyzer CS 50 and Clinical Suite 2.1 and then reviewed each parameter for the area of facial pigment deposition pre- and post-treatment. Parameters were pigmentation size and four pigmentation categories: little pigmentation and three levels of marked pigmentation (Lv1, 2, and 3) based on detection threshold. Each parameter was measured, and the total area of facial pigmentation was calculated. The total area of little pigmentation and marked pigmentation (Lv1) was significantly reduced. On the other hand, a significant difference was not observed for the total area of marked pigmentation Lv2 and Lv3. This suggests that glycolic acid chemical peeling has an effect on small facial pigment disposition or has an effect on light pigment deposition. As the Robo Skin Analyzer is useful for objectively quantifying and analyzing minor changes in facial skin, it is considered to be an effective tool for accumulating treatment evidence in the cosmetic and esthetic skin field. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Pavel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes.

  3. UVB 311 nm tolerance of vitiligo skin increases with skin photo type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron-Schreinemachers, Anne-Lou D. B.; Kingswijk, Melanie M.; Bos, Jan D.; Westerhof, Wiete

    2005-01-01

    It is assumed that skin is protected against sunburn by melanin. In patients with vitiligo, there are white patches in the normal pigmented skin. We noticed that there is a difference in burning capacity of these white patches between people with different skin types. With UVB 311 nm lamps, we

  4. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter.......Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  5. Pigmented Bowen's disease presenting with a "starburst" pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Vincenzo; Errichetti, Enzo; Roussel, Sara Laurent; Lebbé, Celeste

    2016-10-01

    Pigmented Bowen's disease (pBD) is an uncommon in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin usually presenting as a dark scaly plaque involving chronically exposed sites, which is not uncommonly mistaken for other similar pigmented lesions, such as melanoma, pigmented basal cell carcinoma or seborrheic keratosis [1,2]. Dermoscopy has been proven to improve its diagnosis by showing several findings, i.e., gray/brownish dots in linear arrangement, scales, coiled vessels, focal/multifocal amorphous hypopigmentation and bluish structureless areas [1,2]. However, pBD may sometimes display dermoscopic features which are typical of other pigmented lesions, thus making its recognition quite troublesome despite the use of dermoscopy [1,2]. We report a case of pBD with a "starburst" pattern, discussing its dermoscopic differential diagnosis.

  6. Laser-generated acoustic wave studies on tattoo pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lorna M.; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.

    1996-01-01

    A Q-switched alexandrite laser (180 ns at 755 nm) was used to irradiate samples of agar embedded with red, black and green tattoo dyes. The acoustic waves generated in the samples were detected using a PVDF membrane hydrophone and compared to theoretical expectations. The laser pulses were found to generate acoustic waves in the black and green samples but not in the red pigment. Pressures of up to 1.4 MPa were produced with irradiances of up to 96 MWcm-2 which is comparable to the irradiances used to clear pigment embedded in skin. The pressure gradient generated across pigment particles was approximately 1.09 X 1010 Pam-1 giving a pressure difference of 1.09 +/- 0.17 MPa over a particle with mean diameter 100 micrometers . This is not sufficient to permanently damage skin which has a tensile strength of 7.4 MPa.

  7. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Kenan, Samuel; Steiner, German C.; Abdul-Quader, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  8. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  9. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main focus on secondary

  10. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main  focus

  11. Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds, and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm, which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.

  12. Case studies of skin melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kozlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin melanoma is a malignant tumor originating in the cells of the melanocytic system, which is characterized by an aggressive clinical course, significant metastatic potential and unfavorable prognosis. These features of the tumor stipulate the need to improve measures to optimize early diagnosis of tumors. The article presents cases of pigmented skin melanoma to demonstrate the variability of clinical manifestations of this tumor requiring dermatologist skills in the differential diagnostics of neoplasms.

  13. Pigmentos maculares Macular pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Canovas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A luteína e a zeaxantina são pigmentos amarelos que se localizam na mácula. Devido à sua localização, diminuem e filtram a quantidade de luz principalmente azul que chega aos fotorreceptores, atuam como antioxidantes e podem melhorar a qualidade visual. Esta é uma revisão do seu mecanismo de incorporação, ação, possíveis aplicações e conhecimento científico a respeito.Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update.

  14. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone selectively stimulates human hair follicle pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáspár, Erzsébet; Nguyen-Thi, Kim T; Hardenbicker, Celine; Tiede, Stephan; Plate, Christian; Bodó, Eniko; Knuever, Jana; Funk, Wolfgang; Bíró, Tamás; Paus, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    In amphibians, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates skin melanophores by inducing secretion of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the pituitary gland. However, it is unknown whether this tripeptide neurohormone exerts any direct effects on pigment cells, namely, on human melanocytes, under physiological conditions. Therefore, we have investigated whether TRH stimulates pigment production in organ-cultured human hair follicles (HFs), the epithelium of which expresses both TRH and its receptor, and/or in full-thickness human skin in situ. TRH stimulated melanin synthesis, tyrosinase transcription and activity, melanosome formation, melanocyte dendricity, gp100 immunoreactivity, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor expression in human HFs in a pituitary gland-independent manner. TRH also stimulated proliferation, gp100 expression, tyrosinase activity, and dendricity of isolated human HF melanocytes. However, intraepidermal melanogenesis was unaffected. As TRH upregulated the intrafollicular production of "pituitary" neurohormones (proopiomelanocortin transcription and ACTH immunoreactivity) and as agouti-signaling protein counteracted TRH-induced HF pigmentation, these pigmentary TRH effects may be mediated in part by locally generated melanocortins and/or by MC-1 signaling. Our study introduces TRH as a novel, potent, selective, and evolutionarily highly conserved neuroendocrine factor controlling human pigmentation in situ. This physiologically relevant and melanocyte sub-population-specific neuroendocrine control of human pigmentation deserves clinical exploration, e.g., for preventing or reversing hair graying.

  15. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  16. Recurrent Syncope, a Clue in Amyloid Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A. Marin-Acevedo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative cardiomyopathies include a variety of disorders that lead to myocardial thickening resulting in a constellation of clinical manifestations and eventually heart failure that could be the first clue to reach the diagnosis. Among the more described infiltrative diseases of the heart is amyloid cardiomyopathy. The disease usually presents with subtle, nonspecific symptoms. Herein, we illustrate a case of recurrent syncope as the initial presenting symptom for systemic amyloid with polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy as a cause of syncope. The article illustrates the role of advanced cardiac imaging in the diagnosis of the disease with a focused literature review. We also highlight the role of early, shared decision-making between patient, family, and medical team in the management of cardiac amyloidosis.

  17. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a useful non-invasive tool in the in vivo diagnosis of pigmented basal cell carcinoma in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Sai Yee; Tee, Shang Ian; Tan, Wee Ping; Lee, Siong See Joyce; Ng, See Ket; Chua, Sze Hon; Thng, Tien Guan Steven

    2017-05-01

    The clinical differentiation between pigmented basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and other benign pigmented skin lesions can be challenging even with an additional dermoscopic evaluation, especially if the lesion is small. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an emerging, non-invasive imaging tool that allows near-microscopic evaluation of skin lesions. The features of RCM for pigmented BCC and seborrhoeic keratosis have previously been described. However, the use of RCM to differentiate between these clinically and dermoscopically challenging pigmented skin lesions among Asians has not yet been demonstrated. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of non-invasive RCM to differentiate between clinically and dermoscopically challenging pigmented skin lesions among Asians in a series of 11 lesions. Nine patients with 11 clinically and dermoscopically difficult to distinguish pigmented skin lesions were evaluated by RCM to differentiate between pigmented BCC and benign lesions. In all cases, a histological confirmation of the RCM diagnosis was obtained. The clinical or dermoscopical characteristics were non-specific in all 10 cases. RCM detected features of pigmented BCC in nine patients and seborrhoeic keratosis in one patient. These were all confirmed by histological examination. This case series shows the value of non-invasive in vivo RCM imaging in the differentiation of malignant and benign pigmented lesions. Early diagnosis of small, pigmented BCC allows earlier excision with better prognosis. Future biopsies of benign lesions in cosmetic areas could also be avoided. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  18. Malignant acanthosis nigricans: an early diagnostic clue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, M.; Shah, A.A.; Bari, A.U.

    2010-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is characterized by velvety, hyper pigmented, verrucosus, symmetric and occasionally pruritic plaques along with papillomatous lesions which have a special predilection for neck, axillae, groin, umbilicu and mucosal regions. Rarely, it presents as a para neoplastic syndrome and prompts a thorough search for an internal malignancy. We present here a case of malignant acanthosis nigricans seen in an elderly patient who was found to have underlying adenocarcinoma of the lower end of esophagus. After diagnosing associated malignancy, he was referred for further evaluation and subsequent surgical resection of tumour. (author)

  19. Aging of the hair follicle pigmentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-07-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations.

  20. Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-01-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations. PMID:20927229

  1. Influence of variation in melanin content on absorbance spectra of liquid skin phantoms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This presentation looked at the influence of variation in melanin content on absorbance spectra of liquid skin phantoms. Reasons for studying melanin, plus skin pigments, melanocytes, melanosomes, and melanin in particular, are discussed...

  2. Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olalde, Inigo; Allentoft, Morten E.; Sanchez-Quinto, Federico

    2014-01-01

    to the Mesolithic. The La Brana individual carries ancestral alleles in several skin pigmentation genes, suggesting that the light skin of modern Europeans was not yet ubiquitous in Mesolithic times. Moreover, we provide evidence that a significant number of derived, putatively adaptive variants associated...

  3. Effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on erythema and pigmentation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Lindsay R; Almutawa, Fahad; Lim, Henry W; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on cutaneous erythema, immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning are affected by a variety of factors. Some of these factors include the depth of cutaneous penetration of the specific wavelength, the individual skin type, and the absorption spectra of the different chromophores in the skin. UVB is an effective spectrum to induce erythema, which is followed by delayed tanning. UVA induces immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning. At high doses, UVA (primarily UVA2) can also induce erythema in individuals with skin types I-II. Visible light has been shown to induce erythema and a tanning response in dark skin, but not in fair skinned individuals. Infrared radiation produces erythema, which is probably a thermal effect. In this article we reviewed the available literature on the effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on the skin in regards to erythema and pigmentation. Much remains to be learned on the cutaneous effects of visible light and infrared radiation.

  4. Efficacy and safety of topical depigmenting agent in healthy human fair skin female volunteers: A single-arm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saurabh; Chew, Soon-Keong

    2017-11-28

    Skin hyperpigmentation is the darkening of skin due to the increased production of melanin in the body. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a botanical-based Rosa E pigmentation serum in healthy fair skin female volunteers with wrinkles, skin tone, and pigmentation. This was a single-arm, open label study conducted in healthy Indian females; 18 subjects aged 30-55, having fair Caucasian-like skin with at least 2 dark skin pigments with facial wrinkles diagnosed by dermatologist were selected. Rosa E pigmentation serum was applied twice a day for 84 days. Effect was evaluated by (i) instrumental technique (spectrophotometer ® 2600D), (ii) clinically by dermatologist regarding product efficacy (skin tone, antiwrinkle, pigmentation), and (iii) volunteers self-evaluation. The L* value of spectrophotometer reading represents lightness in the skin pigment. Reduction in the pigment was reported from day 14, with significant reductions observed till day 84 compared with baseline. Significant (P < .0001) skin pigmentation lightening was seen on day 14 (1.11) vastly improving on day 84 (1.94) based on photographic assessments. The significant reduction in skin pigment was 76.85%, Felix von Luschan skin color score was 30.24% (P < .0001) with a 7.38-fold reduction in skin tone and 57% reduction in facial wrinkles at day 84 from baseline. Rosa E pigmentation serum was found safe and effective in significant reduction in skin pigments, improvement of skin tone, and antiwrinkle properties instrumentally, clinically, and self-evaluation by volunteers. In these evaluations, best results were seen the longer the Rosa E was used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Tattoo Pigments Are Observed in the Kupffer Cells of the Liver Indicating Blood-Borne Distribution of Tattoo Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Sejersen, Tobias; Qvortrup, Klaus; Lerche, Catharina M; Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Tattoo pigments are deposited in the skin and known to distribute to regional lymph nodes. Tattoo pigments are small particles and may be hypothesized to reach the blood stream and become distributed to peripheral organs. This has not been studied in the past. The aim of the study was to trace tattoo pigments in internal organs in mice extensively tattooed with 2 different tattoo ink products. Three groups of mice were studied, i.e., 10 tattooed black, 10 tattooed red, and 5 untreated controls. They were tattooed on the entire back with commercial tattoo inks, black and red. Mice were sacrificed after 1 year. Samples were isolated from tattooed skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung. Samples were examined for deposits of tattoo pigments by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM identified intracellular tattoo pigments in the skin and in lymph nodes. TEM in both groups of tattooed mice showed tattoo pigment deposits in the Kupffer cells in the liver, which is a new observation. TEM detected no pigment in other internal organs. Light microscopy showed dense pigment in the skin and in lymph nodes but not in internal organs. The study demonstrated black and red tattoo pigment deposits in the liver; thus, tattoo pigment distributed from the tattooed skin via the blood stream to this important organ of detoxification. The finding adds a new dimension to tattoo pigment distribution in the body, i.e., as observed via the blood in addition to the lymphatic pathway. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  7. Skin hyperpigmentation in Indian population: Insights and best practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Nouveau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin pigmentation is one of the most strikingly variable phenotypes in humans, therefore making cutaneous pigmentation disorders frequent symptoms manifesting in a multitude of forms. The most common among them include lentigines, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, dark eye circles, and melasma. Variability of skin tones throughout the world is well-documented, some skin tones being reported as more susceptible to pigmentation disorders than others, especially in Asia and India. Furthermore, exposure to ultraviolet radiation is known to trigger or exacerbate pigmentation disorders. Preventive strategies for photoprotection and treatment modalities including topical and other medical approaches have been adopted by dermatologists to mitigate these disorders. This review article outlines the current knowledge on pigmentation disorders including pathophysiology, molecular profiling, and therapeutic options with a special focus on the Indian population.

  8. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and skin manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Qiang; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that have the ability to disrupt the production and actions of hormones through direct or indirect interaction with hormone receptors, thus acting as agonists or antagonists. Human health is affected after either individual occupation or dietary and environmental exposure to EDCs. On the other hand, skin is one of the largest organs of the body and its main function is protection from noxious substances. EDCs perturb the endocrine system, and they are also carcinogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatotoxic to human skin. In addition, their effects on keratinocytes, melanocytes, sebocytes, inflammatory and immunological cells, and skin stem cells produce inflammatory and allergic skin diseases, chloracne, disorders of skin pigmentation, skin cancer, and skin aging. Mechanisms, which EDCs use to induce these skin disorders are complicated, and involve the interference of endogenous hormones and most importantly the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signal pathway. Further studies on EDCs and skin diseases are necessary to elucidate these mechanisms.

  9. Pigmented villo nodular synovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disorder affecting joints. Methods : We reviewed 19 cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis out of 481 arthroscopic synovial biopsies over a period of ten years. A common presenting symptom was locking. Both diffuse and localized forms were diagnosed. Duration of symptoms varied from 5 months to3 years. We report our experience of patients treated by arthroscopic excision for localized villonodular synovitis and arthroscopic synovectomy for diffuse villonodular synovitis followed by intraarticular Yttrium. Results : In diffuse villonodular synovitis arthroscopic total synovectomy was done a using special angular and straight motorized shaver through different portals to reach all corners of the joint. Localized variety was treated by excising the pedicle attached to the synovium. In our series none of the patients with localized villonodular synovitis showed recurrence till date. Three cases of diffuse variety presented with effusion and swelling three to six months after treatment and were managed by arthoscopic synovial shaving. Two cases who showed recurrence after one year were subjected to intraarticular 90Y isotope injection. Conclusion : Arthroscopic synovectomy helps in reducing morbidity. Radiation and intraarticular Injection of 90 Y are alternative modes of treatment.

  10. CLUE: cluster-based retrieval of images by unsupervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Wang, James Z; Krovetz, Robert

    2005-08-01

    In a typical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system, target images (images in the database) are sorted by feature similarities with respect to the query. Similarities among target images are usually ignored. This paper introduces a new technique, cluster-based retrieval of images by unsupervised learning (CLUE), for improving user interaction with image retrieval systems by fully exploiting the similarity information. CLUE retrieves image clusters by applying a graph-theoretic clustering algorithm to a collection of images in the vicinity of the query. Clustering in CLUE is dynamic. In particular, clusters formed depend on which images are retrieved in response to the query. CLUE can be combined with any real-valued symmetric similarity measure (metric or nonmetric). Thus, it may be embedded in many current CBIR systems, including relevance feedback systems. The performance of an experimental image retrieval system using CLUE is evaluated on a database of around 60,000 images from COREL. Empirical results demonstrate improved performance compared with a CBIR system using the same image similarity measure. In addition, results on images returned by Google's Image Search reveal the potential of applying CLUE to real-world image data and integrating CLUE as a part of the interface for keyword-based image retrieval systems.

  11. Relationship between skin parameters (darkness or thickness) and photoreaction of Chinese Han skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mi-Na; Wang, Xue-Min; Liu, Yan-Qun; Yuan, Chao; Zou, Ying; Fan, Guo-Biao

    2012-12-01

    Skin pigmentation and the stratum corneum are the two primary natural factors that protect against UV damage. Although several classification systems exist to quantify the ability of the skin to protect itself from damaging UV radiation, few reports have assessed skin parameters and photoreaction in persons of Han Chinese descent. To understand the relationship between skin darkness, skin thickness, and photoreaction in Chinese Han subjects. Thirty-one subjects were exposed to UVA and UVB. Minimal persistent pigment darkening dose (MPPD) and minimal erythema dose (MED) were obtained. Before the UV irradiation, the test sites were measured by the Mexameter MX 16, Chromameter CR400, and Skin B-ultrasonic to determine skin color and thickness>. Using the ratio of J(MPPD)/J(MED), we classified the subjects into four energy skin phototypes (ESPTs) and the skin parameters for each of these groups were analyzed. Skin color and skin thickness were significantly different among the ESPTs. There was also a significant positive correlation between skin group and the skin color and thickness parameters (b*, melanin index [MI], thickness). As the ESPTs increased from ESPT A to ESPT D, the mean dose to achieve MED increased, while the MPPD decreased. As the ESPTs increased from type A to type D, there was a proclivity to tan rather than burn. Similarly, the skin became darker and thicker as the phototype increased from A to D.

  12. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures—Exoplanets—Halophiles—Pigmentation—Reflectance spectroscopy—Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341–361. PMID:25941875

  13. In vivo coherent Raman imaging of the melanomagenesis-associated pigment pheomelanin

    OpenAIRE

    Hequn Wang; Sam Osseiran; Vivien Igras; Alexander J. Nichols; Elisabeth M. Roider; Joachim Pruessner; Hensin Tsao; David E. Fisher; Conor L. Evans

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with a yearly global incidence over 232,000 patients. Individuals with fair skin and red hair exhibit the highest risk for developing melanoma, with evidence suggesting the red/blond pigment known as pheomelanin may elevate melanoma risk through both UV radiation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Although the ability to identify, characterize, and monitor pheomelanin within skin is vital for improving our understanding of the underlying bio...

  14. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  15. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G; Hawes, Norman L; Trantow, Colleen M; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W M

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among 16 mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease.

  16. A case of multiple squamous cell carcinomas arising from red tattoo pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Maxim, BS, MS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornamental tattooing involves the administration of exogenous pigments into the skin to create a permanent design. Our case focuses on a 62-year-old woman who presented with an inflamed enlarging nodule on her right proximal calf, which arose within the red pigment of an ornamental tattoo. The nodule was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and subsequently excised. Over the course of the following year, the patient was diagnosed with a total of five additional SCCs that also arose within the red pigment of the tattoo. The increased popularity of tattooing and the lack of industry safety standards for tattoo ink production, especially metal-laden red pigments, may lead to more cases of skin cancer arising within tattoos among patients of all ages.

  17. Paraneoplastic disorders of hair, nails, oral mucosa and pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kavak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this section, paraneoplastic entites of hair, nail, oral mucosa and pigmentation changes have been discussed. Some skin findings are “strong” indicator of a malignancy whereas others are not. Readers will encounter some “coincidental” or “common” entities as well as more “severe” changes for a paraneoplastic sign. In addition, it is crucial that some paraneoplastic lesions may predict for a recurrence of malignancy.

  18. Natural pigments and sacred art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  19. Glabrous skin reconstruction of palmar/plantar defects: A case for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: One basic fact about a Negroid race is that the nonglabrous skin is much more pigmented compared to the glabrous skin. A major disadvantage of nonglabrous skin grafts when used for reconstruction of palmar/plantar defects is the poor cosmetic appearance of the grafted skin. Aside from its normalcy of ...

  20. Oral melanin pigmentation in 467 Thai and Malaysian people with special emphasis on smoker's melanosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, C A; Axéll, T

    1991-01-01

    At the faculties of dentistry in Chiang Mai, Thailand (CM), and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL), 234 and 233 consecutive out-patients were interviewed concerning tobacco and chewing habits and examined for the presence of oral melanin pigmentation. Tobacco was regularly used by 32% and 28% of the studied populations in CM and KL. Cigarette smoking was the predominant habit, but the chewing of betel and tea leaves (miang) and the smoking of banana leaf cigars (khi yo) was also registered. The genetically acquired pigmentation dominated. Although nearly all non-tobacco users in the Malay and Indian populations had oral melanin pigmentation, it was found that tobacco smokers had significantly more oral surfaces pigmented than non-tobacco users. Among Thais, the percentage of pigmented individuals was significantly higher among tobacco smokers. It was concluded that tobacco smoking stimulates oral melanocytes to a higher melanin production also in dark-skinned ethnic groups.

  1. Pigmented epidermal cyst with dense collection of melanin: A rare entity - Report of a case with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmy, P S; Subitha, K; Priya, P V; Johnson, Gerald

    2012-05-01

    Epidermal cyst is a very common benign cystic lesion of the skin. It is usual to find ulceration of the lining epithelium, rupture of the cyst wall with chronic inflammation and foreign body giant cell reaction. But, it is very rare to see an epidermal cyst with marked accumulation of melanin pigment. Only a few cases of pigmented epidermal cyst with dense collection of melanin pigment have been published in the literature. Here, we are reporting a case of ruptured epidermal cyst with keratin granuloma formation and showing dense collection of melanin pigment.

  2. Snapshot RGB mapping of skin melanin and hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigulis, Janis; Oshina, Ilze

    2015-05-01

    The concept of snapshot red-green-blue (RGB) multispectral imaging was applied for skin chromophore mapping. Three monochromatic spectral images have been extracted from a single RGB image dataset at simultaneous illumination of skin by 473-, 532-, and 659-nm laser lines. The spectral images were further transformed into distribution maps of skin melanin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin, related to pigmented and vascular skin malformations. The performance and clinical potential of the proposed technique are discussed.

  3. Tattoo Pigments Are Observed in the Kupffer Cells of the Liver Indicating Blood-Borne Distribution of Tattoo Ink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Steen Sejersen, Tobias; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    tattoo pigments in internal organs in mice extensively tattooed with 2 different tattoo ink products. MATERIAL/METHODS: Three groups of mice were studied, i.e., 10 tattooed black, 10 tattooed red, and 5 untreated controls. They were tattooed on the entire back with commercial tattoo inks, black and red......AIM: Tattoo pigments are deposited in the skin and known to distribute to regional lymph nodes. Tattoo pigments are small particles and may be hypothesized to reach the blood stream and become distributed to peripheral organs. This has not been studied in the past. The aim of the study was to trace....... Mice were sacrificed after 1 year. Samples were isolated from tattooed skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung. Samples were examined for deposits of tattoo pigments by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: TEM identified intracellular tattoo pigments...

  4. Direct effects of visible and UVA light on pigment migration in erythrophores of Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masako; Ishikura, Ryo; Oshima, Noriko

    2004-10-01

    Erythrophores derived from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are sensitive to visible light of defined wavelengths in primary culture in the same manner as erythrophores in the skin. Cultured erythrophores aggregate their pigment in response to light with peak wavelengths near 400 or 600 nm, while dispersion is caused by light near 500 nm. In this study, we report that ultraviolet A (UVA) with a peak wavelength near 365 nm also induces pigment aggregation in erythrophores in the skin and in primary culture. The responses of erythrophores in the skin or in culture depend on the light intensity, although the photo-sensitivity differs among individual cells. From the results, we conclude that the action of visible light and UVA light on tilapia erythrophores is direct, and that multiple types of visual pigments may coexist in individual erythrophores.

  5. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Sagging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about the ...

  6. Basal cell carcinoma in skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Jesleen; Hadjicharalambous, Elena; Mehregan, Darius

    2012-04-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer most commonly affects Caucasians, and only rarely affects darker-skinned individuals. However, skin cancer in these groups is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Ultraviolet radiation is the major etiologic factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and likely plays a pivotal role in the development of other forms of skin cancer. Yet it is commonly thought among patients as well as physicians that darker pigmentation inherently affords complete protection from skin cancer development. This low index of suspicion results in delayed diagnoses and poorer outcomes. This review follows a detailed computer search that cross-matched the diagnosis of BCC with skin color type in a large commercial dermatopathology facility. The reported skin types, all Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, and VI, and histories were confirmed. A predominance of pigmented BCCs was found in sun-exposed areas of these older individuals. Although less common in darker-skinned ethnic groups, BCC does occur and can pose significant morbidity. Thus, it is essential that dermatologists are familiar with the epidemiology and clinical presentation of all cutaneous malignancies in darker skin so that these patients are fully aware of risks as well as prevention of the disease.

  7. Correlations Between Macular, Skin, and Serum Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Bell, James P.; Besch, Brian M.; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Farnsworth, Kelliann; Ermakov, Igor; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ocular and systemic measurement and imaging of the macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been employed extensively as potential biomarkers of AMD risk. In this study, we systematically compare dual wavelength retinal autofluorescence imaging (AFI) of macular pigment with skin resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and serum carotenoid levels in a clinic-based population. Methods Eighty-eight patients were recruited from retina and general ophthalmology practices from a tertiary referral center and excluded only if they did not have all three modalities tested, had a diagnosis of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) or Stargardt disease, or had poor AFI image quality. Skin, macular, and serum carotenoid levels were measured by RRS, AFI, and HPLC, respectively. Results Skin RRS measurements and serum zeaxanthin concentrations correlated most strongly with AFI macular pigment volume under the curve (MPVUC) measurements up to 9° eccentricity relative to MPVUC or rotationally averaged macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements at smaller eccentricities. These measurements were reproducible and not significantly affected by cataracts. We also found that these techniques could readily identify subjects taking oral carotenoid-containing supplements. Conclusions Larger macular pigment volume AFI and skin RRS measurements are noninvasive, objective, and reliable methods to assess ocular and systemic carotenoid levels. They are an attractive alternative to psychophysical and optical methods that measure MPOD at a limited number of eccentricities. Consequently, skin RRS and MPVUC at 9° are both reasonable biomarkers of macular carotenoid status that could be readily adapted to research and clinical settings. PMID:28728169

  8. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium | Chintapenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mangrove Penicillium producing red pigment was cultured in an optimized medium that was designed by the authors previously and used in this study. The purpose of this study was to identify the pigment and also to study the effect of bio elements on pigment production. Pigment from the medium was efficiently extracted ...

  9. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... A mangrove Penicillium producing red pigment was cultured in an optimized medium that was designed by the authors previously and used in this study. The purpose of this study was to identify the pigment and also to study the effect of bio elements on pigment production. Pigment from the medium was.

  10. Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Laux, Peter; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace—gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS—GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC—ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm2 skin.

  11. Pigmentary Markers in Danes – Associations with Quantitative Skin Colour, Nevi Count, Familial Atypical Multiple-Mole, and Melanoma Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Madsen, Linnea Nørgård

    2016-01-01

    pigmentation measured on the buttock area. We hypothesize that the effect of MC1R variants on arm pigmentation is primarily reflecting the inability to tan when subjected to UVR. A gender specific effect on skin pigmentation was also observed, and it was found that the skin pigmentation of females on average...... were darker than that of males (pcolour in a lightly pigmented Danish population. We did not observe any association between any pigmentary marker and the FAMMM syndrome. We suggest that the genetics of FAMMM is not related...

  12. Oral pigmentation induced by Premarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérusse, R; Morency, R

    1991-07-01

    Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity are important entities. The wide range of their clinical differential diagnosis includes such diverse systemic conditions as Addison's disease, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, malignant melanoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, as well as specific oral lesions, such as amalgam tattoo or gingival melanosis. This paper reports a very rare cause of oral pigmentation, a melanic type, related to the use of Premarin.

  13. Analysis of Indian pigment gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautray, T.R.; Vijayan, V.; Panigrahi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission and particle induced γ-ray emission spectroscopic techniques have been carried out to analyse the elemental concentrations of human pigment gallstone samples from eastern region (Orissa) and southern region (Chennai) of India. It was observed that 18 minor/trace elements namely Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were present in the pigment gallstone samples of both the regions. Our study reveals that average concentration of all elements except Ni in south Indian pigment gallstone samples is higher than that of corresponding values in east Indian pigment gallstone samples whereas elements like Al, P, S, Cl and V did not show much variation between these two regions. Fourier transform infra-red analysis was carried out to identify the functional groups and the classification of the pigment type gallstones of both the regions. The thermal behaviour of pigment gallstones was carried out by thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry analysis

  14. Drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hage Amaro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The authors make a review of drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments(DPDs, a form of retinal pigment epithelium detachment(PED that evolves from confluent and large soft drusen.Drusenoidretinal pigment epithelial detachments are a recognized element of the "dry" AMD. Until now, no treatment is indicated in drusenoid PEDs. The authors describe the clinical characteristics of drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments (DPEDs and make a review of the DPEDs related in the international literature. We related in this revision paper the multimodal advanced image exams in two cases of dusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments (DPEDs and the general characteristics of thisfinding associated with Dry Macular degeneration.Upon examination of the ocular fundusDPEDs emerge as well-circumscribed yellow or yellow–white elevations of the RPE that are usually found within the macula.They may show scalloped borders and a slightly irregular surface. When visualized using fluorescein angiography (FA,DPEDs are typically described as faint hyper-fluorescent in the early phase followed by a slow increase in fluorescence throughout the transit stage of the study without late leakage. With optical coherence tomography (OCT, drusenoid PEDs usually show a smooth contour of the detached hyperreflective RPE band that may have an undulating appearance.Drusenoid PEDs encompass far above the ground possibility type of "dry" AMD that develops in relationship with large confluent soft drusen.At this point no treatment is utilized in drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachment(DPEDs.

  15. Tattoo pigment in axillary lymph node mimicking calcification of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsika, Admire; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Gray, Janet Meryl; Galbraith, Christine Ruth

    2013-01-01

    A tattoo is defined as the intentional or accidental deposit of pigment into the skin. The phenomenon of skin tattooing is on the rise worldwide and complications of tattooing are increasingly being recognised in diagnostic and clinical medicine. We describe a case of calcification-like changes on mammography resembling that of breast malignancy as a result of tattoo pigment deposition in an axillary lymph node. Recognition of such changes in routine breast screening is crucial to avoid further unnecessary invasive investigations and surgery in such patients. PMID:23929611

  16. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs.

  17. Ultrasonographic clues for diagnosis of spina bifida occulta in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Emin; Cinar, Hasibe Gokce; Uner, Cigdem; Ucan, Berna; Eksioglu, Ayse Secil; Pala, Melek; Yildiz, Yasemin Tasci; Cakmakci, Selma; Yikmaz, Hulya Seker

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to find out if spinal ultrasonography might have a predictive potential for detection of spina bifida occulta (SBO) in pediatric nocturnal enuresis patients. A total of 108 children (58 females, 50 males) with a mean age of 8 (range, 6-15) years diagnosed for nocturnal enuresis in our tertiary care center were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Half of the cases (n=54, 50%) were found to have SBO, while the other half did not have SBO. After obtaining radiographs and computed tomography examinations of L5-S1 vertebra, patients were examined by spinal ultrasound regarding radiologic clues which may aid in the detection of SBO. The clues of "single and double echogeneous cap signs and the V-shaped tip of spine" were found useful for diagnosing SBO at levels of L5 and S1 in pediatric patients suspected for SBO. Receiver operating curve (ROC) curve analysis of CT and ultrasonographic clues for diagnosis of SBO on S1 level revealed that these clues yielded a comparable diagnostic accuracy to CT. Areas under curve for CT and studied ultrasonographic clues were are 0.667±0.053 and 0.907±0.032 (Pbifida. However, to implement our ultrasonographic criteria in routine radiological practice, further studies in larger series are warranted.

  18. Development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, R J; Edwards, Michael C; Henderson, Michael; Henderson, Terri; Olivares, Giovanna; Houts, Carrie R

    2016-08-01

    The field of optometry has become increasingly interested in patient-reported outcomes, reflecting a common trend occurring across the spectrum of healthcare. This article reviews the development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE system designed to assess patient evaluations of contact lenses. CLUE was built using modern psychometric methods such as factor analysis and item response theory. The qualitative process through which relevant domains were identified is outlined as well as the process of creating initial item banks. Psychometric analyses were conducted on the initial item banks and refinements were made to the domains and items. Following this data-driven refinement phase, a second round of data was collected to further refine the items and obtain final item response theory item parameters estimates. Extensive qualitative work identified three key areas patients consider important when describing their experience with contact lenses. Based on item content and psychometric dimensionality assessments, the developing CLUE instruments were ultimately focused around four domains: comfort, vision, handling, and packaging. Item response theory parameters were estimated for the CLUE item banks (377 items), and the resulting scales were found to provide precise and reliable assignment of scores detailing users' subjective experiences with contact lenses. The CLUE family of instruments, as it currently exists, exhibits excellent psychometric properties.

  19. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  20. Related allopolyploids display distinct floral pigment profiles and transgressive pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth W; Berardi, Andrea E; Smith, Stacey D; Litt, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Both polyploidy and shifts in floral color have marked angiosperm evolution. Here, we investigate the biochemical basis of the novel and diverse floral phenotypes seen in allopolyploids in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) and examine the extent to which the merging of distinct genomes alters flavonoid pigment production. We analyzed flavonol and anthocyanin pigments from Nicotiana allopolyploids of different ages (N. tabacum, 0.2 million years old; several species from Nicotiana section Repandae, 4.5 million years old; and five lines of first-generation synthetic N. tabacum) as well as their diploid progenitors. Allopolyploid floral pigment profiles tend not to overlap with their progenitors or related allopolyploids, and allopolyploids produce transgressive pigments that are not present in either progenitor. Differences in floral color among N. tabacum accessions seems mainly to be due to variation in cyanidin concentration, but changes in flavonol concentrations among accessions are also present. Competition for substrates within the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to make either flavonols or anthocyanins may drive the differences seen among related allopolyploids. Some of the pigment differences observed in allopolyploids may be associated with making flowers more visible to nocturnal pollinators. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  2. Identification and hazard prediction of tattoo pigments by means of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Andree, Sarah; Laux, Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The implementation of regulation for tattoo ink ingredients across Europe has generated the need for analytical methods suitable to identify prohibited compounds. Common challenges of this subject are the poor solubility and the lack of volatility for most pigments and polymers applied in tattoo inks. Here, we present pyrolysis coupled to online gas chromatography and electron impact ionization mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) as quick and reliable tool for pigment identification using both purified pigments and tattoo ink formulations. Some 36 organic pigments frequently used in tattoo inks were subjected to py-GC/MS with the aim to establish a pyrogram library. To cross-validate pigment identification, 28 commercially available tattoo inks as well as 18 self-made pigment mixtures were analyzed. Pyrograms of inks and mixtures were evaluated by two different means to work out the most reliable and fastest strategy for an otherwise rather time-consuming data review. Using this approach, the declaration of tattoo pigments currently used on the market could be verified. The pyrolysis library presented here is also assumed suitable to predict decomposition patterns of pigments when affected by other degradation scenarios, such as sunlight exposure or laser irradiation. Thus, the consumers' risk associated with the exposure to toxicologically relevant substances that originate from pigment decomposition in the dermal layers of the skin can be assessed. Differentiation between more or less harmful pigments for this field of application now will become feasible.

  3. The visual pigment cyanide effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1989-12-01

    The visual pigment of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) with its in situ absorption maximum at 521 nm has its spectral position at 500 to 505 nm when chloride-deficient digitonin is used for the extraction. In this case the addition of chloride or bromide to the extract restores the maximum to 521 nm. This property, characteristic of gecko pigments in general, does not occur with any of the rhodopsins that have been tested. Simple salts of cyanide, a pseudohalogenoid with an ionic radius close to those of chloride and bromide and/or its hydrolysis product attacks both this gecko pigment and rhodopsins in the dark. This is seen as a slow thermal loss of photopigment if (sodium) cyanide is present at concentrations above 40 mM for the gecko pigment and 150 mM for the rhodopsins of the midshipman (Porichthys notatus) and of the frog (Rana pipiens). In all cases the loss of the photopigment is accompanied by the appearance of a spectral product with maximum absorption at about 340 nm. Cyanide addition has no effect on the photosensitivity of the native pigments and neither does it alter, as do chloride, bromide and other anions, the spectral absorbance curve. The spectral product at 340 nm also appears when the visual pigments are photolyzed in the presence of cyanide salts below the threshold concentrations given above. Incubation of digitonin-solubilized all-trans-retinal with (sodium) cyanide leads to a reaction product with absorption spectrum similar to that obtained with visual pigments under comparable conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Effect of newly developed pigments and ultraviolet absorbers on the color change of pigmented silicone elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit G Kheur

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The newly developed pigment led to increased color stability as compared to commercially available pigments. Addition of UV stabilizer, Chimassorb led to a further reduction in color change of the pigmented elastomer.

  5. Differential sensitivity of pigmented and non-pigmented marine bacteria to metals and antibiotics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The response of pigmented and non-pigmented marine bacteria to metals and antibiotics was investigated. The two groups responded differently to heavy metals and antibiotics. Pigmented bacteria were more resistant to metals. Among the metals, Zn...

  6. Natural considerations for skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie; Rodriguez, David; Taylor, Susan C; Wu, Jessica

    2006-12-01

    Changing US demographics indicate that dermatologists will treat an increasing number of individuals of color. Early research on cutaneous anatomy and physiology was performed mostly in white populations. However, new research is elucidating similarities and differences in skin of color and white skin with regard to skin barrier, pigmentation, and sensitivity. Two of the most important issues are skin lightening and brightening. Products for use on skin of color typically should be gentle because of the proclivity of more deeply pigmented skin to develop pigmentary abnormalities in response to skin irritation or trauma. Increasing patient interest in natural remedies has been matched by research on the use of natural ingredients in dermatology. The relative gentleness of many of these products, coupled with excellent efficacy, makes natural ingredients such as soy and licorice excellent choices in the treatment of disorders such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and melasma. For daily skin care, ingredients such as oatmeal and feverfew are good choices for gentle cleansing and moisturizing of dry, sensitive, or ashy skin. Sun protection is an increasing concern due to rising rates of melanoma. Several botanical products are useful in augmenting photoprotection with conventional sunscreens.

  7. Standard guidelines of care: Lasers for tattoos and pigmented lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangabadkar Sanjeev

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lasers have revolutionized the treatment of pigmentary disorders and have become the mainstay of therapy for many of them. Machines: Though different laser machines are used, Quality-switched (QS lasers are considered as the gold standard for treatment of pigmented lesions. Proper knowledge of the physics of laser machine, methodology, dosage schedules, etc., is mandatory. Physician Qualification: Laser may be administered by a dermatologist, who has received adequate background training in lasers during postgraduation or later at a center that provides education and training in lasers, or in focused workshops which provide such trainings. He should have adequate knowledge of the machines, parameters, cooling systems, and aftercare. Facility: The procedure may be performed in the physician′s minor procedure room. Indications: Epidermal lesions: Cafι au lait macules (CALM, lentigines, freckles, solar lentigo, nevus spilus, pigmented seborrheic keratosis, dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN. Dermal lesions: Nevus of Ota, Blue nevus, Hori′s nevus (acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules. Tattoos: Amateur, professional, cosmetic, medicinal, and traumatic. Mixed epidermal and dermal lesions: Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH, nevus spilus, periorbital and perioral pigmentation, acquired melanocytic nevi (moles, melasma and Becker′s Nevus. Contraindications: Absolute: Active local infection, photo-aggravated skin diseases and medical conditions, tattoo granuloma, allergic reactions to tattoo pigment, unstable vitiligo and psoriasis. Relative: Keloid and keloidal tendencies, patient on isotretinoin, history of herpes simplex, patient who is not co-operative or has unrealistic expectation. Patient selection: Proper patient selection is important. Investigations to identify any underlying cause for pigmentation are important; concurrent topical and systemic drug therapy may be needed. History of scarring, response to previous

  8. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  10. Color stability of thermochromic pigment in maxillofacial silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, Lippo V.J.; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Valittu, Pekka K.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Maxillofacial silicone elastomer is usually colored intrinsically with color pigments to match skin colors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the color stability of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer, colored with a thermochromic, color changing pigment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disc-shaped maxillofacial silicone specimens were prepared and divided into 3 groups: a conventionally colored control group, one group additionally colored with 0.2 wt% thermochromic pigment , and one group with 0.6 wt% thermochromic pigment. Half of the surface of each specimen was covered with an aluminium foil. All of the specimens were exposed to UV radiation in 6 hour cycles over 46 days. In between the UV exposures, half of the specimens were stored in darkness, at room temperature, and the other half was stored in an incubator, at a humidity of 97% and a temperature of +37℃. Color measurements were made with a spectrophotometer and registered according to the CIELAB L*a*b* color model system. The changes in L*, a* and b* values during artificial aging were statistically analyzed by using paired samples t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. P-values maxillofacial prostheses. PMID:23755330

  11. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  12. Diversity and functional properties of bistable pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hisao; Terakita, Akihisa

    2010-11-01

    Rhodopsin and related opsin-based pigments, which are photosensitive membrane proteins, have been extensively studied using a wide variety of techniques, with rhodopsin being the most understood G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Animals use various opsin-based pigments for vision and a wide variety of non-visual functions. Many functionally varied pigments are roughly divided into two kinds, based on their photoreaction: bistable and monostable pigments. Bistable pigments are thermally stable before and after photo-activation, but monostable pigments are stable only before activation. Here, we review the diversity of bistable pigments and their molecular characteristics. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying different molecular characteristics of bistable and monostable pigments. In addition, the potential of bistable pigments as a GPCR model is proposed.

  13. A skin colour code for the Nigerian (Negroid) population | George ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some researchers have codified various people of different racial and pigment backgrounds into skin types. The West African native population generally falls into type VI –least likely to burn. There is a need for skin colour code in a multiethnic country like Nigeria especially for the purpose of health matters. The human eye ...

  14. A spectrofluorimetric sensor based on grape skin tissue for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluorescence of sensor could be quenched by Fe3+ due to the complexing ability of anthocyanin with the metal ions. Anthocyanin, the main pigment in the grape skin, has been found fluorescence sensing material. The sensor based on the grape skin exhibited a calibration response for Fe3+ in two concentration ...

  15. Influence of source and ratio of xanthophyll pigments on broiler chicken pigmentation and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vendrell, A M; Hernández, J M; Llauradó, L; Schierle, J; Brufau, J

    2001-03-01

    One experiment was conducted using 960 1-d-old, sexed broilers of Ross 308 strain from 1 to 43 d to evaluate if one type of chemically isomerized marigold with 25% of xanthophylls as zeaxanthin (SME-25) could produce pigmentation equivalent to the current addition of conventional marigold with 10% of xanthophylls as zeaxanthin (SME-10) plus canthaxanthin (CTX) in practical broiler diets (maize-wheat-soybean). Birds were allocated in 32 pens, in a randomized complete block design (four blocks x four treatments). The treatments consisted of a nonpigmented control (T1), a combination of 35 ppm of yellow xanthophylls (YX) from SME-10 + 5 ppm of CTX (T2), a combination of 32 ppm of YX from SME-10 + 2 ppm of CTX (T4), and one treatment with 40 ppm of YX from a new SME-25 (T3). There were no significant treatment effects on chicken performance. All color parameters (Minolta coordinates, Roche color fan scores, Rank test) presented significant differences (P pigments on shanks and breast skin. Birds fed the SME-25 diet had less pigmentation than those fed equivalent quantities of a combination of SME-10 + CTX. The Minolta coordinate "b" measured in breast skin was a good indicator of YX content in feed, whereas the "a" coordinate measured on the shank showed a linear relationship with the dietary CTX level (r = 0.61, P < 0.0001). The same visual color classification of chickens was achieved irrespective of the rank test performed (by shank or carcass color). Lutein and zeaxanthin from the SME-25 product had lower deposition rates in skin and fat tissues than those from the SME-10 product. This finding seems to be related to the ratio of zeaxanthin stereoisomer RR (optically active) vs. RS that was found in tissues from the SME-10 product (97.8%:2.2%), whereas with SME-25 this ratio was 16.0:84.0%. These results suggest that inclusion of only the SME-25 product could not replace the current addition of SME-10 and CTX combinations.

  16. Iris pigmentation and AC thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, A F; Mukherjee, D; Chumlea, W C; Siervogel, R M

    1983-03-01

    Data from 160 White children were used to analyze possible associations between iris pigmentation and AC pure-tone thresholds. Iris pigmentation was graded from iris color using glass models of eyes, and AC thresholds were obtained under carefully controlled conditions. Analyses of variance using two groupings of iris color grades showed no evidence of an association between iris color grade and AC thresholds. Furthermore, inspection of arrays of the actual glass eye models, in conjunction with the order of mean thresholds at each test frequency, did not indicate the presence of an association between iris color grades and thresholds. It was concluded that while iris pigmentation may be related to some aspects of hearing ability, it does not appear to be related to AC thresholds in children.

  17. Semi-automated non-invasive diagnostics method for melanoma differentiation from nevi and pigmented basal cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihacova, I.; Bolocko, K.; Lihachev, A.

    2017-12-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is still increasing mostly in in industrialized countries with light- skinned people. Late tumour detection is the main reason of the high mortality associated with skin cancer. The accessibility of early diagnostics of skin cancer in Latvia is limited by several factors, such as high cost of dermatology services, long queues on state funded oncologist examinations, as well as inaccessibility of oncologists in the countryside regions - this is an actual clinical problem. The new strategies and guidelines for skin cancer early detection and post-surgical follow-up intend to realize the full body examination (FBE) by primary care physicians (general practitioners, interns) in combination with classical dermoscopy. To implement this approach, a semi- automated method was established. Developed software analyses the combination of 3 optical density images at 540 nm, 650 nm, and 950 nm from pigmented skin malformations and classifies them into three groups- nevi, pigmented basal cell carcinoma or melanoma.

  18. Pigmented nodular melanoma: the predictive value of dermoscopic features using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzichetta, M A; Kittler, H; Stanganelli, I; Bono, R; Cavicchini, S; De Giorgi, V; Ghigliotti, G; Quaglino, P; Rubegni, P; Argenziano, G; Talamini, R

    2015-07-01

    Nodular melanoma (NM), representing 10-30% of all melanomas, plays a major role in global mortality related to melanoma. Nonetheless, the literature on dermoscopy of NM is scanty. To assess odds ratios (ORs) to quantify dermoscopic features of pigmented NM vs. pigmented superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), and pigmented nodular nonmelanocytic and benign melanocytic lesions. To assess the presence or absence of global patterns and dermoscopic criteria, digitized images of 457 pigmented skin lesions from patients with a histopathological diagnosis of NM (n = 75), SSM (n = 93), and nodular nonmelanocytic and benign melanocytic lesions (n = 289; namely, 39 basal cell carcinomas, 85 seborrhoeic keratoses, 81 blue naevi, and 84 compound/dermal naevi) were retrospectively collected and blindly evaluated by three observers. Multivariate analysis showed that ulceration (OR 4.07), homogeneous disorganized pattern (OR 10.76), and homogeneous blue pigmented structureless areas (OR 2.37) were significantly independent prognostic factors for NM vs. SSM. Multivariate analysis of dermoscopic features of NM vs. nonmelanocytic and benign melanocytic lesions showed that the positive correlating features leading to a significantly increased risk of NM were asymmetric pigmentation (OR 6.70), blue-black pigmented areas (OR 7.15), homogeneous disorganized pattern (OR 9.62), a combination of polymorphous vessels and milky-red globules/areas (OR 23.65), and polymorphous vessels combined with homogeneous red areas (OR 33.88). Dermoscopy may be helpful in improving the recognition of pigmented NM by revealing asymmetric pigmentation, blue-black pigmented areas, homogeneous disorganized pattern and abnormal vascular structures, including polymorphous vessels, milky-red globules/areas and homogeneous red areas. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Diffuse Pigmentation of Back and Arms: Macular Amyloidosis or Other?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Asgrai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to answer the question that how many patients with pigmentation of back and arms actually have amyloid deposits in pathology. 44 patients presenting with diffuse pigmentation of back and arms (DPOBA were selected. Skin biopsies were performed in all cases from the affected sites. On all formalin fixed and paraffin embedded specimens, the following histochemical stains were performed: Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E, Congo red and immunohistochemical staining using anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. In 9 of 44 cases (20%, amyloid deposits were found. In the remaining 35 cases (80%, H&E, Congo red and immunohistochemical staining failed to show any amyloid deposition. We were unable to find amyloid deposition in most of the patients presented with DPOBA. It seems that the signs may be attributable other disorders with similar clinical but different pathophysiologic aspects

  20. Contextual Clues Vocabulary Strategies Choice among Business Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Nurshafezan; Muhammad, Ahmad Mazli; Kasim, Aini Mohd

    2018-01-01

    New trends in vocabulary learning focus on strategic vocabulary learning to create more active and independent language learners. Utilising suitable contextual clues strategies is seen as vital in enabling and equipping language learners with the skill to guess word meaning accurately, moving away from dependency on a dictionary to improve their…

  1. Clinicoepidemiological study of pigmented purpuric dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD are a group of vascular disorders with varied manifestations which cause concern and are resistant to treatment. The literature is still lacking in clinicoepidemiological studies. Aim: To study the epidemiology, etiological, host and environmental factors, clinical manifestations, its variations, and the type prevalent in this part of the world. Materials and Methods: All cases of PPD were selected for the study from Skin and Venereal Disease, Out Patient Department between January 2008 and June 2009. Their history, examination, hematological investigations, and, in a few, histopathology findings were also recorded and data obtained were evaluated statistically. Results: There were 100 cases of PPD of total 55 323 patients (0.18%. There were 79 males and 21 females between 11 and 66 years. They were working as police men, security guards, barber, chemist, teachers, students, farmers, businessmen, and housewives. In a majority, there was a history of prolonged standing in day-to-day work. Purpuric, brownish pigmented, lichenoid or atrophic lesions were seen depending upon the type of PPD on lower parts of one or both lower limbs. Blood investigations were normal. Schamberg′s disease was seen in ninety five, Lichen aureus in three, lichenoid dermatosis and Majocchi′s disease in one case each. Discussion: Three clinical types of PPD were diagnosed which may represent different features of the same disease. Cell-mediated immunity, immune complexes, capillary fragility, gravitational forces, venous hypertension, focal infection, clothing, contact allergy to dyes, and drug intake have been incriminating factors in the past. Patient′s occupation and environmental factors may also be considered contributory in precipitating the disease. Conclusions: The study revealed the problem of PPD in this geographical area, its magnitude, clinical presentation, the type prevalent, and possible aggravating

  2. Cytoplasmic vacuoles: clue in the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liansong; Raza, Anwar S; Simental, Raul G; Iverson, Kiva T; Cobb, Camilla J

    2014-02-01

    For the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of melanoma recognition of characteristic morphologic features is key. In our practice we noted that cytoplasmic vacuoles in Romanowsky-stained FNA smears of melanoma appeared to be a frequent finding. To investigate this premise, we examined 36 consecutive melanoma FNA cases that had both adequate Papanicolaou-stained and Romanowsky-stained smears in an effort to determine the prevalence, and thereby, the potential diagnostic utility of cytoplasmic vacuoles in the diagnosis of melanoma compared to established cytomorphologic parameters of melanoma. We found pigment in 21 cases (58%) and plasmacytoid cells in 28 cases (78%), and in all 36 cases (100%) we found bi/multinucleation, intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions and prominent nucleoli. Cytoplasmic vacuoles were present in 30 cases (83%) and were found in air-dried Romanowsky-stained smears only. These findings suggest that in FNA smears of melanoma cytoplasmic vacuoles in Romanowsky-stained smears have prevalence and potential diagnostic utility that are comparable to widely recognized cytomorphologic features of melanoma. Numerous articles have focused on the cytomorphologic criteria for the FNA diagnosis of melanoma, but few have noted the presence of cytoplasmic vacuoles in FNA smears of melanoma, and rare reports suggest this finding to be a useful clue to the FNA diagnosis of melanoma. This report appears to be the first to focus on the prevalence and potential diagnostic utility of cytoplasmic vacuoles in FNA samples of melanoma. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  3. Pigmented Bowen’s disease presenting with a “starburst” pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Vincenzo; Errichetti, Enzo; Roussel, Sara Laurent; Lebbé, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented Bowen’s disease (pBD) is an uncommon in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin usually presenting as a dark scaly plaque involving chronically exposed sites, which is not uncommonly mistaken for other similar pigmented lesions, such as melanoma, pigmented basal cell carcinoma or seborrheic keratosis [1,2]. Dermoscopy has been proven to improve its diagnosis by showing several findings, i.e., gray/brownish dots in linear arrangement, scales, coiled vessels, focal/multifocal amorphous hypopigmentation and bluish structureless areas [1,2]. However, pBD may sometimes display dermoscopic features which are typical of other pigmented lesions, thus making its recognition quite troublesome despite the use of dermoscopy [1,2]. We report a case of pBD with a “starburst” pattern, discussing its dermoscopic differential diagnosis. PMID:27867748

  4. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Paronychia Pityriasis Rosea Abscess View more Partner Message ...

  5. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  6. Towards the limiting of health risks associated with tattooing: whitelists for tattoo pigments and preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Annegret; Platzek, Thomas; Vieth, Bärbel; Hutzler, Christoph; Luch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The number of pigments that could potentially be used in tattoo inks is vast. However, pigments are generally not manufactured for the purpose of being injected into subepidermal layers of the skin. Assuming 100% bioavailability after injection means that pigments can be imminently hazardous to human health. Given the ever-increasing number of pigments being circulated on the market or through the internet, a 'negative list' ('black' list) containing pigments with known adverse effects will never be finalised. If incriminated, substances could easily be replaced by structurally similar pigments that might be even more deleterious to human health. Therefore, we and others suggest the establishment of a whitelist ('positive list') that would only contain pigments that had undergone a risk assessment specifically for their application into the dermis. Some of the problems associated with such a 'positive list' are discussed. Another important issue with regard to tattoo safety is related to the preservatives used in ink preparations. Notwithstanding the demand for sterile tattoo inks, a whitelist for these compounds would be beneficial. At present, many technical preservatives are being used, despite their known detrimental effects to human health. Criteria for the inclusion of preservatives in a 'positive list' are also discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Ethnic and mouse strain differences in central corneal thickness and association with pigmentation phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Dimasi

    Full Text Available The cornea is a transparent structure that permits the refraction of light into the eye. Evidence from a range of studies indicates that central corneal thickness (CCT is strongly genetically determined. Support for a genetic component comes from data showing significant variation in CCT between different human ethnic groups. Interestingly, these studies also appear to show that skin pigmentation may influence CCT. To validate these observations, we undertook the first analysis of CCT in an oculocutaneous albinism (OCA and Ugandan cohort, populations with distinct skin pigmentation phenotypes. There was a significant difference in the mean CCT of the OCA, Ugandan and Australian-Caucasian cohorts (Ugandan: 517.3±37 µm; Caucasian: 539.7±32.8 µm, OCA: 563.3±37.2 µm; p<0.001. A meta-analysis of 53 studies investigating the CCT of different ethnic groups was then performed and demonstrated that darker skin pigmentation is associated with a thinner CCT (p<0.001. To further verify these observations, we measured CCT in 13 different inbred mouse strains and found a significant difference between the albino and pigmented strains (p = 0.008. Specific mutations within the melanin synthesis pathway were then investigated in mice for an association with CCT. Significant differences between mutant and wild type strains were seen with the nonagouti (p<0.001, myosin VA (p<0.001, tyrosinase (p = 0.025 and tyrosinase related protein (p = 0.001 genes. These findings provide support for our hypothesis that pigmentation is associated with CCT and identifies pigment-related genes as candidates for developmental determination of a non-pigmented structure.

  8. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  9. Skin optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, M. J.; Jacques, S. L.; Sterenborg, H. J.; Star, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model

  10. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie T Manipadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing′s syndrome and has characteristic gross and microscopic pathologic findings. We report a case of PPNAD in a 15-year-old boy, which was not associated with Carney′s complex. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice.

  11. Key factors for UV curable pigment dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magny, B.; Pezron, E.; Ciceron, P.H.; Askienazy, A.

    1999-01-01

    UV oligomers with good pigment dispersion are needed to allow good formulation flexibility and possibility to apply thinner films. Pigment dispersion mainly depends on three phenomena: the wetting of agglomerates, the breakage of agglomerates by mechanical stress and the stabilization of smaller agglomerates and primary particles against flocculation. It has been shown that oligomers with low viscosity and low surface tension induce a good pigment wetting. Examples of monomers and oligomers for good pigment dispersion are given

  12. The deceptive nature of UVA-tanning versus the modest protective effects of UVB-tanning on human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Yoshinori; Coelho, Sergio G.; Schlenz, Kathrin; Batzer, Jan; Smuda, Christoph; Choi, Wonseon; Brenner, Michaela; Passeron, Thierry; Zhang, Guofeng; Kolbe, Ludger; Wolber, Rainer; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The relationship between human skin pigmentation and protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important element underlying differences in skin carcinogenesis rates. The association between UV damage and the risk of skin cancer is clear, yet a strategic balance in exposure to UV needs to be met. Dark skin is protected from UV-induced DNA damage significantly more than light skin due to the constitutively higher pigmentation but an as yet unresolved and important question is what photoprotective benefit, if any, is afforded by facultative pigmentation (i.e. a tan induced by UV exposure). To address that and to compare the effects of various wavelengths of UV, we repetitively exposed human skin to suberythemal doses of UVA and/or UVB over 2 weeks after which a challenge dose of UVA&UVB was given. Although visual skin pigmentation (tanning) elicited by the different UV exposure protocols was similar, the melanin content and UV-protective effects against DNA damage in UVB-tanned skin (but not in UVA-tanned skin) were significantly higher. UVA-induced tans seem to result from the photooxidation of existing melanin and its precursors with some redistribution of pigment granules while UVB stimulates melanocytes to up-regulate melanin synthesis and increases pigmentation coverage, effects that are synergistically stimulated in UVA and UVB-exposed skin. Thus, UVA-tanning contributes essentially no photoprotection, although all types of UV-induced tanning result in DNA and cellular damage which can eventually lead to photocarcinogenesis. PMID:20979596

  13. Skin subtype categorization based on a new questionnaire for Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeong Jin; Kim, Jeong Eun; Ko, JooYeon; Kim, Myoung Shin; Park, Eun Joo; Lee, Ga Young; Lee, Jong Hee; Na, Jung Im; Chang, Sung Eun

    2018-03-02

    Several terms have been used to characterize skin types. However, these are not based on evident dermatologic definitions, which usually include subjective and psychological properties. The objective of this study is to establish a new practical questionnaire to classify skin subtypes in Korean women to establish treatment and skin care guidance. Eight experts developed consensus statements about skin types and created a questionnaire. The content was categorized into four major subtypes: dry or non-dry; oily or nonoily; sensitive or nonsensitive; and pigmented or nonpigmented. A total of 512 patients completed the questionnaire. Correlations with age, skin Fitzpatrick's phototypes, and dermatologic comorbidities were analyzed. Korean women commonly have oily skin but complain of dryness after cleansing. They are especially sensitive to skin care products and prone to developing pigmentary lesions. There was a trend in the proportion of dry skin subtype that increased as pigmented skin increased and oily skin decreased with advanced age. The proportion of sensitive skin was higher in patients with dermatologic comorbidities. The proportion of the pigmented skin was higher in darker Fitzpatrick skin phototypes. This is the first questionnaire established for Korean women to classify practical skin subtypes and may provide a basis for treating various skin conditions.

  14. RNA-seq-based evaluation of bicolor tepal pigmentation in Asiatic hybrid lilies (Lilium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuma; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Dohra, Hideo; Yamagishi, Masumi; Matsuyama, Kohei; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2016-08-11

    Color patterns in angiosperm flowers are produced by spatially and temporally restricted deposition of pigments. Identifying the mechanisms responsible for restricted pigment deposition is a topic of broad interest. Some dicots species develop bicolor petals, which are often caused by the post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. An Asiatic hybrid lily (Lilium spp.) cultivar Lollypop develops bicolor tepals with pigmented tips and white bases. Here, we analyzed the global transcription of pigmented and non-pigmented tepal parts from Lollypop, to determine the main transcriptomic differences. De novo assembly of RNA-seq data yielded 49,239 contigs (39,426 unigenes), which included a variety of novel transcripts, such as those involved in flavonoid-glycosylation and sequestration and in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Additionally, 1258 of the unigenes exhibited significantly differential expression between the tepal parts (false discovery rates 2-fold higher in the pigmented parts. Thus, LhMYB12 should be involved in the transcriptional regulation of the biosynthesis genes in bicolor tepals. Other factors that potentially suppress or enhance the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, including a WD40 gene, were identified, and their involvement in bicolor development is discussed. Our results indicate that the bicolor trait of Lollypop tepals is caused by the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and that the transcription profile of LhMYB12 provides a clue for elucidating the mechanisms of the trait. The tepal transcriptome constructed in this study will accelerate investigations of the genetic controls of anthocyanin color patterns, including the bicolor patterns, of Lilium spp.

  15. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of...

  16. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways.

  17. Seperation, identification and analysis of pigment (melanin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine strains among 180 Streptomyces isolates produce a diffusible dark brown pigment on both peptone-yeast extract agar and synthetic tyrosine-agar. They also show the positive reaction to Ltyrosine or L-dopa substrates. The pigment has been referred to be as merely as dark brown watersoluble pigment, as melanoid or ...

  18. Quantitative evaluation of enhanced laser tattoo removal by skin optical clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihua Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lasers have been widely used for tattoo removal, but the limited light penetration depth caused by high skin scattering property restricts the therapeutic outcome of deep tattoo. Skin optical clearing method, by introducing optical clearing agent (OCA into skin, has shown some improvement in the effect of laser tattoo removal. In this study, the enhanced laser tattoo removal has been quantitatively assessed. OCA was applied to the skin of tattoo animal model and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm irradiation was used to remove the tattoo. The skin evaluation instrument (Mexameter probe, MPA580 was applied to measure the content of tattoo pigment before and after laser treatment, and then the clearance rate of pigment was calculated. Further, Monte Carlo (MC method was utilized to simulate the effect of skin optical clearing on light transmission in tattoo skin model. By comparing the pigment change of tattoo areas respectively treated with OCA plus laser and single laser, it was found that pigment clearance of the former tattoo area was increased by 1.5-fold. Further, the MC simulation verified that the reduced light scattering in skin could increase the effective dose of luminous flux reaching to the deep tattoo regions. It can be concluded from both experiment and theoretical simulations that skin optical clearing technique could improve the outcome of laser tattoo removal, which should be beneficial for clinical laser tattoo removal and other laser pigment elimination.

  19. Raman spectroscopy of skin neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moryatov, A. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Kaganov, O. I.; Orlov, A. E.; Zaharov, V. P.; Batrachenko, I. A.; Artemiev, D. N.; Blinov, N. V.

    2017-09-01

    Skin melanoma is spread inhomogeneously worldwide, particularly in Samara region there are high figures of skin neoplasms sick rate as well—18.6%. Research goal: to develop a new method of early non-invasive differential diagnostics of skin neoplasms. Registration of Raman spectrum was implemented in the distance of 3-4 mm, the spectrum registration from pathologically changed zone was subsequently conducted, then from healthy skin zone. The test time for 1 patient was no longer than 3-5 min. In a range of experiments ex vivo there were the following results: melanoma—24, basal cell cancer—25, squamosus cell sarcinoma—7, nevus pigmentosis—9, other malignant neoplasms—6; in vivo: melanoma—9, basal cell cancer—8, nevus pigmentosis—2, other benign neoplasms—2. The first results of the research dedicated to studying permissive opportunities of Raman spectroscopy, with successive two-phase analysis of received parameters display high efficiency of method of differential diagnostic for skin melanoma and other malignant neoplasms, pigment and benign skin neoplasms. Safety and rapidity of the research reveal a high potential of the technique.

  20. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-02

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.

  1. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a serious case, you might need medical help. Impetigo —A skin infection caused by bacteria. Usually the ... and form a thick crust. You can treat impetigo with antibiotics. Melanoma © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Melanoma — ...

  2. Superficial Epidermolytic Ichthyosis-Hypertrichosis as a Clue to Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Ana; Cabral, Rita; Moreno, Ana; Tellechea, Oscar

    2016-11-01

    Superficial epidermolytic ichthyosis (SEI) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the keratin 2 gene and clinically characterized by mild hyperkeratosis, superficial blisters and shedding, referred to as the moulting phenomenon. We report a case of SEI in an 18-month-old girl presenting with marked hypertrichosis. Although not invariably present, we believe that hypertrichosis can be an important clue for diagnosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Preventive Effect of Coffee Compounds on Dermatitis and Epidermal Pigmentation after Ultraviolet Irradiation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamate, Yurika; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sato, Eisuke F

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is well known to promote inflammation and pigmentation of skin. UVB mainly affects dermatitis and pigmentation. Coffee contains a number of polyphenols, such as caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) but their in vivo bioactivity for photobiology remains unclear. C57BL/6j male mice were irradiated with UVB (1.0 kJ/m2/day) for 3 days. Five days after the final session of UVB irradiation, the dorsal skin, ear epidermis, and blood samples were analyzed to investigate the inflammatory factors, melanogenesis factors and related hormones. After the oral administration of CA (100 mg/day) or CGA (100 mg/day) for 8 days, only CA was found to inhibit dermatitis and pigmentation. The pathway by which CA inhibits dermatitis is related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) pathway. Otherwise, the pathway by which CA inhibits pigmentation is related to the activation of the β-endorphin-μ-opioid receptor and suppresses the cAMP-microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) pathway. It is suggested that the oral administration of CA prevented dermatitis and pigmentation after UVB irradiation in mice. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Inhibition of melanosome transfer results in skin lightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiberg, M; Paine, C; Sharlow, E; Andrade-Gordon, P; Costanzo, M; Eisinger, M; Shapiro, S S

    2000-08-01

    The chemical basis of melanogenesis is well documented, but the mechanism of melanosome transfer and the regulation of pigmentation by keratinocyte-melanocyte interactions are not well understood. Therefore we examined the effects of serine protease inhibitors on skin pigmentation and found that the protease-activated receptor 2, expressed on keratinocytes, may regulate pigmentation via keratinocyte-melanocyte interactions. Here we show that modulation of protease-activated receptor 2 activation affects melanosome transfer into keratinocytes, resulting in changes in pigment production and deposition. SLIGRL, the protease-activated receptor 2 activating peptide, enhanced melanosome ingestion by keratinocytes, thus increasing pigment deposition. RWJ-50353, a serine protease inhibitor, led to reduced pigment deposition in melanocytes and depigmentation. Electron microscopy studies illustrated an accumulation of immature melanosomes inside melanocytes and abnormal dendrite dynamics in RWJ-50353-treated epidermal equivalents. RWJ-50353 induced a visible and dose-dependent skin lightening effect in the dark-skinned Yucatan swine. Examinations by electron microscopy indicated that the in vivo transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes was affected. Our data suggest that modulation of keratinocyte-melanocyte interactions via the protease-activated receptor 2 pathway affects melanosome transfer. The use of RWJ-50353 to modulate protease-activated receptor 2 activation could lead to a new class of depigmenting agents.

  5. Land use scenarios simulation based on the CLUE-S model of the Lijiang River Basin in Guilin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qingwen; Liu, Guang; Li, Lei; He, Chengxin; Huang, Yuqing; Yao, Yuefeng

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between government policy and land use change is very important, which can provide important information for understanding of land use change and for helping in development of sustainable policy. Returning Farmland to Forest Program is simulated by the CLUE-S model. Land use maps in 1993, 2006, 2010 and 2015 in Lijiang River Basin are interpreted based on remote sensing change from 1993 to 2025 under two scenarios (i.e., Natural Growth Scenarios, Government Intervention Scenarios). In the “Natural Growth Scenarios”, the area of construction land and cultivated land are increased, the others are decreased. In the “Government Intervention Scenarios”, the area of construction land, woodland, cultivated land, and water are increased, the others is in declined. The compared results of two scenarios provide a scientific support for the government policy in the Lijiang River Basin.

  6. Morphological Characters and Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Black Skin and Red Skin in Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphology observation and illumina sequencing were performed on two different coloration skins of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus, the black zone and the red zone. Three types of chromatophores, melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores, were organized in the skins. The main differences between the two colorations were in the amount and distribution of the three chromatophores. After comparing the two transcriptomes, 9200 unigenes with significantly different expressions (ratio change ≥ 2 and q-value ≤ 0.05 were found, of which 5972 were up-regulated in black skin and 3228 were up-regulated in red skin. Through the function annotation, Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis of the differentially transcribed genes, we excavated a number of uncharacterized candidate pigment genes as well as found the conserved genes affecting pigmentation in crimson snapper. The patterns of expression of 14 pigment genes were confirmed by the Quantitative real-time PCR analysis between the two color skins. Overall, this study shows a global survey of the morphological characters and transcriptome analysis of the different coloration skins in crimson snapper, and provides valuable cellular and genetic information to uncover the mechanism of the formation of pigment patterns in snappers.

  7. Photoacoustic discrimination of vascular and pigmented lesions using classical and Bayesian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Jennifer A.; Holan, Scott H.; Feldman, Mary M.; Viator, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination of pigmented and vascular lesions in skin can be difficult due to factors such as size, subungual location, and the nature of lesions containing both melanin and vascularity. Misdiagnosis may lead to precancerous or cancerous lesions not receiving proper medical care. To aid in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of such pathologies, we develop a photoacoustic system to determine the nature of skin lesions in vivo. By irradiating skin with two laser wavelengths, 422 and 530 nm, we induce photoacoustic responses, and the relative response at these two wavelengths indicates whether the lesion is pigmented or vascular. This response is due to the distinct absorption spectrum of melanin and hemoglobin. In particular, pigmented lesions have ratios of photoacoustic amplitudes of approximately 1.4 to 1 at the two wavelengths, while vascular lesions have ratios of about 4.0 to 1. Furthermore, we consider two statistical methods for conducting classification of lesions: standard multivariate analysis classification techniques and a Bayesian-model-based approach. We study 15 human subjects with eight vascular and seven pigmented lesions. Using the classical method, we achieve a perfect classification rate, while the Bayesian approach has an error rate of 20%.

  8. Ecological-friendly pigments from fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Teixeira, Maria F S; De Conti, Roseli; Esposito, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    The dyestuff industry is suffering from the increases in costs of feedstock and energy for dye synthesis, and they are under increasing pressure to minimize the damage to the environment. The industries are continuously looking for cheaper, more environmentally friendly routes to existing dyes. The aim of this minireview is to discuss the most important advances in the fungal pigment area and its interest in biotechnological applications. Characteristic pigments are produced by a wide variety of fungi and the chemical composition of natural dyes are described. These pigments exhibit several biological activities besides cytotoxicity. The synthetic pigments authorized by the EC and in USA and the natural pigments available in the world market are discussed. The obstacle to the exploitation of new natural pigments sources is the food legislation, requesting costly toxicological research, manufacturing costs, and acceptance by consumers. The dislike for novel ingredients is likely to be the biggest impediment for expansion of the pigment list in the near future. If the necessary toxicological testing and the comparison with accepted pigments are made, the fungal pigments, could be acceptable by the current consumer. The potentiality of pigment production in Brazil is possible due to tremendous Amazonian region biodiversity.

  9. Pathological skin picking: case presentation and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabela Sarbu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathological skin picking is a condition in which patients induce skin lesions through repetitive, compulsive excoriations of normal skin or skin with minor surface irregularities and they admit their role in the production of the lesions, but are unable to stop their behavior. Psychiatric comorbidities most often associated with skin picking include obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, body dysmorphic disorders, trichotillomania and compulsive-buying disorder. We report the case of a 17 year old female patient who addressed the dermatology department of our hospital with an eruption consisting of erythematous papules and plaques. The local examination revealed several clues of paramount importance in drawing the final conclusion and the psychiatric examination helped establish the diagnosis of pathological skin picking in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  10. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics ...

  11. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help identify the cause of the infection. Treatment You can apply moist heat (such as warm compresses) to help the abscess ... if you develop new symptoms during or after treatment of a skin abscess. Prevention ... the skin around minor wounds clean and dry to prevent infection. Call your provider if you ...

  12. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  13. Optimal number of pigments in photosynthetic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenko, Simon; Žnidarič, Marko

    2012-01-01

    We study excitation energy transfer in a simple model of a photosynthetic complex. The model, described by the Lindblad equation, consists of pigments interacting via dipole–dipole interaction. The overlapping of pigments induces an on-site energy disorder, providing a mechanism for blocking the excitation transfer. Based on the average efficiency as well as the robustness of random configurations of pigments, we calculate the optimal number of pigments that should be enclosed in a pigment–protein complex of a given size. The results suggest that a large fraction of pigment configurations are efficient as well as robust if the number of pigments is properly chosen. We compare the optimal results of the model to the structure of pigment–protein complexes as found in nature, finding good agreement. (paper)

  14. Clinical scoring and instrumental analysis to evaluate skin types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, D G; Segura, J H; Demets, M B A; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2013-04-01

    The biology of the skin is very complex, and there are a number of methods used to classify the different skin types. It is possible to measure or quantify the characteristics of the specific skin types, using a variety of techniques that can objectively evaluate the properties of the skin in a noninvasive manner. To clinically characterize different skin types by dermatological evaluation and biophysical and skin imaging techniques, and to evaluate the relationship between the different characteristics. The study recruited 26 volunteers. Clinical scoring was performed by a dermatologist who classified the volunteers' skin as normal or dry (group 1) and combination or oily (group 2). Objective measurements included skin microrelief, pH, oiliness, water content of the stratum corneum and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Positive correlations were found between the level of skin oiliness and skin texture obtained from both instrumental analysis and clinical scoring. The combination and oily skin types had higher clinical scores for shine intensity, oiliness and tendency to pigmentation, and also had higher objective scores for sebum secretion, TEWL and roughness. Biophysical and skin imaging techniques are effective tools to help characterize skin type and assist in clinical dermatology. We found that different skin types had different characteristics related to skin microrelief, oiliness and TEWL, and therefore require specific dermatological treatments. © The Author(s) CED © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Hand skin reconstruction from skeletal landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, P; Van Sint Jan, S; Beauthier, J P; Rooze, M

    2007-11-01

    Many studies related to three-dimensional facial reconstruction have been previously reported. On the other hand, no extensive work has been found in the literature about hand reconstruction as an identification method. In this paper, the feasibility of virtual reconstruction of hand skin based on (1) its skeleton and (2) another hand skin and skeleton used as template was assessed. One cadaver hand and one volunteer's hand have been used. For the two hands, computer models of the bones and skin were obtained from computerized tomography. A customized software allowed locating spatial coordinates of bony anatomical landmarks on the models. From these landmarks, the spatial relationships between the models were determined and used to interpolate the missing hand skin. The volume of the interpolated skin was compared to the real skin obtained from medical imaging for validation. Results seem to indicate that such a method is of interest to give forensic investigators morphological clues related to an individual hand skin based on its skeleton. Further work is in progress to finalize the method.

  16. Production of Monascus-like azaphilone Pigment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  17. PRODUCTION OF MONASCUS-LIKE AZAPHILONE PIGMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  18. Melanin photosensitizes ultraviolet light (UVC) DNA damage in pigmented cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huselton, C.A.; Hill, H.Z.

    1990-01-01

    Melanins, pigments of photoprotection and camouflage, are very photoreactive and can both absorb and emit active oxygen species. Nevertheless, black skinned individuals rarely develop skin cancer and melanin is assumed to act as a solar screen. Since DNA is the target for solar carcinogenesis, the effect of melanin on Ultraviolet (UV)-induced thymine lesions was examined in mouse melanoma and carcinoma cells that varied in melanin content. Cells prelabeled with 14C-dThd were irradiated with UVC; DNA was isolated, purified, degraded to bases by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC. Thymine dimers were detected in all of the extracts of irradiated cells. Melanotic and hypomelanotic but not mammary carcinoma cell DNA from irradiated cells contained hydrophilic thymine derivatives. The quantity of these damaged bases was a function of both the UVC dose and the cellular melanin content. One such derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as thymine glycol. The other appears to be derived from thymine glycol by further oxidation during acid hydrolysis of the DNA. The finding of oxidative DNA damage in melanin-containing cells suggests that melanin may be implicated in the etiology of caucasian skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Furthermore, the projected decrease in stratospheric ozone could impact in an unanticipated deleterious manner on dark-skinned individuals

  19. Melanin photosensitizes ultraviolet light (UVC) DNA damage in pigmented cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huselton, C.A.; Hill, H.Z. (New Jersey Medical School, Newark (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Melanins, pigments of photoprotection and camouflage, are very photoreactive and can both absorb and emit active oxygen species. Nevertheless, black skinned individuals rarely develop skin cancer and melanin is assumed to act as a solar screen. Since DNA is the target for solar carcinogenesis, the effect of melanin on Ultraviolet (UV)-induced thymine lesions was examined in mouse melanoma and carcinoma cells that varied in melanin content. Cells prelabeled with 14C-dThd were irradiated with UVC; DNA was isolated, purified, degraded to bases by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC. Thymine dimers were detected in all of the extracts of irradiated cells. Melanotic and hypomelanotic but not mammary carcinoma cell DNA from irradiated cells contained hydrophilic thymine derivatives. The quantity of these damaged bases was a function of both the UVC dose and the cellular melanin content. One such derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as thymine glycol. The other appears to be derived from thymine glycol by further oxidation during acid hydrolysis of the DNA. The finding of oxidative DNA damage in melanin-containing cells suggests that melanin may be implicated in the etiology of caucasian skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Furthermore, the projected decrease in stratospheric ozone could impact in an unanticipated deleterious manner on dark-skinned individuals.

  20. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  1. Electron crystallography of organic pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, G

    1997-10-01

    The principle aim of this thesis is the detailing of the development and subsequent use of electron crystallographic techniques which employ the maximum entropy approach. An account is given of the electron microscope as a crystallographic instrument, along with the necessary theory involved. Also, an overview of the development of electron crystallography, as a whole, is given. This progresses to a description of the maximum entropy methodology and how use can be made of electron diffraction data in ab initio phasing techniques. Details are also given of the utilisation of image derived phases in the determination of structural information. Extensive examples are given of the use of the maximum entropy program MICE, as applied to a variety of structural problems. A particular area of interest covered by this thesis is regarding the solid state structure of organic pigments. A detailed structure review of both {beta}-naphthol and acetoacetanilide pigments was undertaken. Information gained from this review was used as a starting point for the attempted structural elucidation of a related pigment, Barium Lake Red C. Details are given of the synthesis, electron microscope studies and subsequent ab initio phasing procedures applied in the determination of structural information on Barium Lake Red C. The final sections of this thesis detail electron crystallographic analyses of three quite different structures. Common to all was the use of maximum entropy methods, both for ab initio phasing and use of image derived phases. Overall, it is shown that electron crystallographic structure analyses using maximum entropy methods are successful using electron diffraction data and do provide distinct structural information even when significant perturbations to the data exist. (author)

  2. Melanin pigmented solar absorbing surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallas, J.M.; Eisner, M.

    1980-01-01

    Selectivity enhancement is shown to result for melanin, a black biopolymer pigment, for sufficiently low sample density. The effect is proposed to follow from a consideration of the evanescent waves associated with the total internal reflection phenomenon. A relationship is discussed among powder density, pH and the paramagnetic properties of melanin; this relationship is shown to be consistent with, and offer support to an amino-acid side group proposed earlier as part of the melanin structure. A brief discussion is also presented on the optical properties of melanin and the relative importance of quinhydrone, a change transfer complex believed to exist in the polymeric structure of melanin.

  3. Pigmented poroid neoplasm mimicking nodular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Tsuyoshi; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Ueno, Takashi; Kawana, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    We reported the case of a 92-year-old woman with a pigmented and non-pigmented surface of the pedunculated nodule on her lower leg. Microscopic examination revealed that this nodule consisted of a component of small, dark, homogenous, poroid cells and cuticular cells in the dermis. The histopathological features of the lesion were consistent with poroid neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry showed that HMB-45 and Melan-A were positive in malanocytes and melanophages of the pigmented areas. Unlike most poroid neoplasms, this case showed pigmented lesion mimicked nodular melanoma.

  4. The Impact of Contextual Clue Selection on Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Barati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic information can be conveyed in the form of speech and written text, but it is the content of the message that is ultimately essential for higher-level processes in language comprehension, such as making inferences and associations between text information and knowledge about the world. Linguistically, inference is the shovel that allows receivers to dig meaning out from the text with selecting different embedded contextual clues. Naturally, people with different world experiences infer similar contextual situations differently. Lack of contextual knowledge of the target language can present an obstacle to comprehension (Anderson & Lynch, 2003. This paper tries to investigate how true contextual clue selection from the text can influence listener’s inference. In the present study 60 male and female teenagers (13-19 and 60 male and female young adults (20-26 were selected randomly based on Oxford Placement Test (OPT. During the study two fiction and two non-fiction passages were read to the participants in the experimental and control groups respectively and they were given scores according to Lexile’s Score (LS[1] based on their correct inference and logical thinking ability. In general the results show that participants’ clue selection based on their personal schematic references and background knowledge differ between teenagers and young adults and influence inference and listening comprehension. [1]- This is a framework for reading and listening which matches the appropriate score to each text based on degree of difficulty of text and each text was given a Lexile score from zero to four.

  5. Protection against summer solar lentigo over-pigmentation with a SPF30 daily cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, G; Le Digabel, J; Questel, E

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this study was to measure lentigines' pigmentation over a long period of time and evaluate if summer over-pigmentation can be avoided by the use a SPF30 day skin cream. Seventeen healthy female volunteers aged 50 and over and presenting lentigines participated in the study from spring to summer. Throughout the study, all subjects applied a SPF30 daily skin cream to only one hand. Color measurements of the target lesions were performed with a chromameter and with a color-calibrated camera. Target lesions were also imaged with in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). A specific procedure for re-registering the images was developed to ensure that the same papillae were measured over time. Both color measurement methods, chromametry and color-calibrated camera, showed that lentigines treated over time with the SPF30 day skin cream were significantly lighter than the non-treated lentigines. The RCM images showed a decrease in the papillary contrast for the treated lentigines. This study shows that this over-pigmentation can be avoided using a SPF30 day skin cream. Moreover, we have demonstrated that very fine re-registration of the RCM images is possible and ensures a more robust analysis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cribriform pattern in brain MRI: A diagnostic clue for mucopolysaccharidoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamick Biswas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS represents a heterogeneous group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders characterised by defective degradation of long-chain complex carbohydrates called glycosoaminoglycans (GAGs. To date, 11 distinct types of MPS have been described, each as a result of deficient enzymatic activity of specific lysosomal hydrolase. The most common types are Hurler and Hunter syndromes. We report a case of a child presenting with macrocephaly, clinically suspected to be due to hydrocephalus. An MRI (3 Tesla brain study demonstrated the cribriform pattern in the brain caused by dilated perivascular spaces, which is a diagnostic clue for the presence of MPS.

  7. The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakozaki, T; Minwalla, L; Zhuang, J; Chhoa, M; Matsubara, A; Miyamoto, K; Greatens, A; Hillebrand, G G; Bissett, D L; Boissy, R E

    2002-07-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentation occurs in multiple conditions. In addition, many Asian women desire a lighter skin colour. Thus, there is a need for the development of skin lightening agents. Niacinamide is a possible candidate. To investigate the effects of niacinamide on melanogenesis in vitro and on facial hyperpigmentation and skin colour in vivo in Japanese women. Melanin production was measured in a purified mushroom tyrosinase assay, cultured melanocytes, a keratinocyte/melanocyte coculture model, and a pigmented reconstructed epidermis (PREP) model. The clinical trials included 18 subjects with hyperpigmentation who used 5% niacinamide moisturizer and vehicle moisturizer in a paired design, and 120 subjects with facial tanning who were assigned to two of three treatments: vehicle, sunscreen and 2% niacinamide + sunscreen. Changes in facial hyperpigmentation and skin colour were objectively quantified by computer analysis and visual grading of high-resolution digital images of the face. Niacinamide had no effect on the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase or on melanogenesis in cultured melanocytes. However, niacinamide gave 35-68% inhibition of melanosome transfer in the coculture model and reduced cutaneous pigmentation in the PREP model. In the clinical studies, niacinamide significantly decreased hyperpigmentation and increased skin lightness compared with vehicle alone after 4 weeks of use. The data suggest niacinamide is an effective skin lightening compound that works by inhibiting melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes.

  8. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  9. Zidovudine-induced nail pigmentation in a 12-year-old boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawre, Sanjeevani M.; Pore, Shraddha M.; Nandeshwar, Manish B.; Masood, Nausheen M.

    2012-01-01

    Zidovudine is an important component of first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens used to manage pediatric HIV. Nail pigmentation with zidovudine is a well-documented occurrence in adults, especially dark-skinned individuals. But it has so far not been reported in children. Here, we report a pediatric case of zidovudine-induced nail pigmentation. A 12-year-old boy receiving ART with zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine presented to dermatology OPD with complaint of diffuse bluish-brown discoloration of all fingernails. The pigmentation was noticed by the patient after 3 months of initiating zidovudine-based regimen. It first appeared in thumb nails, gradually involved all fingernails, and increased in intensity over time. Though harmless and reversible, psychological aspects of this noticeable side effect may hamper adherence to therapy and may lead to unnecessary investigations and treatment for misdiagnosis such as cyanosis or melanoma. PMID:23248416

  10. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R, Taylor SC, Lim HW. Skin cancer and photoprotection in people of color: a review and recommendations ... 4): 663 - 672.e3 19 World Health Organization, Solar ultraviolet radiation: Global burden of disease from solar ...

  11. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  12. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy is done using a cotton swab that has been dipped into liquid nitrogen or a probe ...

  13. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. ...

  14. Skin - clammy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes of clammy skin include: Anxiety attack Heart attack Heat exhaustion Internal bleeding Low blood oxygen levels Medicine reaction Sepsis (body-wide infection) Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) Severe pain Shock (low blood pressure)

  15. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tape it closed with small strips of clear, sticky tape. If you get stitches, your doctor will ... of Your Skin Melanoma Eczema Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Impetigo Pityriasis Rosea View more Partner Message ...

  16. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  17. Morphological clues to the appropriate recognition of hereditary renal neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, Holger; Ohashi, Riuko; Gandhi, Jatin S; Amin, Mahul B

    2018-02-14

    An important emerging role of the surgical pathologist besides the traditional tasks of establishment of the diagnosis and documentation of prognostic and predictive factors, is to recognize the possibility of a hereditary condition in cases where the histology is suggestive for a familial cancer syndrome. In recent years, the knowledge regarding all of the above roles, including the role of recognition of familial cancer, has particularly expanded in renal neoplasms with the close scrutiny to morphology, molecular correlates and clinical features of the different sub-types of renal cell carcinoma. Awareness of these clinically distinctive sub-types and their associated histologic clues will prompt the pathologist for further immunohistochemical or molecular work up, to look for clinical information to support the suspected diagnosis of familial cancer, to alert managing physician/s to look for stigmata of history of familial cancer, which will permit triaging patients and their families for appropriate genetic counseling. This review provides a comprehensive review of the known sub-types of renal cell carcinoma that have a predilection to occur in the setting of hereditary disease; examples include renal cancers occurring in the background of von Hippel Lindau disease, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Birt Hogg Dube syndrome and succinate dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein we focus on diagnostic clues for renal tumors occurring in a non-pediatric setting that should prompt their correct recognition and reiterate the importance of the correct diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Photoprotection due to pigmentation and epidermal thickness after repeated exposure to ultraviolet light and psoralen plus ultraviolet A therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech-Thomsen, N.; Wulf, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    Tanning and thickening of the epidermis are cardinal defensive responses of human skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation that lead to increased photoprotection. Earlier studies have shown that skin pigmentation can be used to predict minimal erythema dose and minimal phototoxic dose. In this study it was calculated how much of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of repeated exposure to suberythemogenic doses of either UVA or UVB radiation sources or psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) therapy that was attributable to melanogenesis. The backs of 12 volunteers were exposed to 6 different UVA and UVB radiation sources 9 times during 4 weeks. Skin pigmentation was assessed by skin reflectance measuring. Photoprotection was determined from the minimal erythema dose. Melanogenesis accounted for 63-95% of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of exposure to UVA radiation. Exposure to two UVB sources induced a significant increase in photoprotection but not in pigmentation. Melanogenesis accounted only for 6-11% of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of UVB exposure. The pigmentary and photoprotective responses to PUVA therapy were followed in 14 patients. After 2 weeks of exposure, the increase in photoprotection was significantly higher than predicted form the increase in skin pigmentation. After 4 weeks, melanogenesis accounted for only 36% of the increase in photoprotection. This study shows that melanogenesis accounts for the increased photoprotection after 2 weeks of exposure to UVA radiation, but after 4 weeks other protective mechanisms occur during suberythemal UVB exposure and during PUVA therapy the importance of skin pigmentation in the overall photoprotection gradually decreases during a 4-week irradiation period. (au) 17 refs

  19. The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology.

  20. Terror from the sky: unconventional linguistic clues to the negrito past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blust, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Within recorded history, most Southeast Asian peoples have been of "southern Mongoloid" physical type, whether they speak Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Austronesian, Tai-Kadai, or Hmong-Mien languages. However, population distributions suggest that this is a post-Pleistocene phenomenon and that for tens of millennia before the last glaciation ended Greater Mainland Southeast Asia, which included the currently insular world that rests on the Sunda Shelf, was peopled by short, dark-skinned, frizzy-haired foragers whose descendants in the Philippines came to be labeled by the sixteenth-century Spanish colonizers as "negritos," a term that has since been extended to similar groups throughout the region. There are three areas in which these populations survived into the present so as to become part of written history: the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and the Andaman Islands. All Philippine negritos speak Austronesian languages, and all Malayan negritos speak languages in the nuclear Mon-Khmer branch of Austroasiatic, but the linguistic situation in the Andamans is a world apart. Given prehistoric language shifts among both Philippine and Malayan negritos, the prospects of determining whether disparate negrito populations were once a linguistically or culturally unified community would appear hopeless. Surprisingly, however, some clues to a common negrito past do survive in a most unexpected way. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  1. Analysis of ancient pigments by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jian; Xu Cunyi

    1999-01-01

    Raman microscopy can be applied for the spatial resolution, and non-destructive in situ analysis of inorganic pigments in pottery, manuscripts and paintings. Compared with other techniques, it is the best single technique for this purpose. An overview is presented of the applications of Raman microscopy in the analysis of ancient pigments

  2. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  3. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food...

  4. Quantifying Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ziabari, Omid; Shingleton, Alexander W

    2017-06-01

    Pigmentation is a morphologically simple but highly variable trait that often has adaptive significance. It has served extensively as a model for understanding the development and evolution of morphological phenotypes. Abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster has been particularly useful, allowing researchers to identify the loci that underlie inter- and intraspecific variations in morphology. Hitherto, however, D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation has been largely assayed qualitatively, through scoring, rather than quantitatively, which limits the forms of statistical analysis that can be applied to pigmentation data. This work describes a new methodology that allows for the quantification of various aspects of the abdominal pigmentation pattern of adult D. melanogaster. The protocol includes specimen mounting, image capture, data extraction, and analysis. All the software used for image capture and analysis feature macros written for open-source image analysis. The advantage of this approach is the ability to precisely measure pigmentation traits using a methodology that is highly reproducible across different imaging systems. While the technique has been used to measure variation in the tergal pigmentation patterns of adult D. melanogaster, the methodology is flexible and broadly applicable to pigmentation patterns in myriad different organisms.

  5. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation.

  6. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculating...... the cultivation medium with an inoculum of Penicillium to form a cultivation composition; d) cultivating the inoculated cultivation composition of (c); e) separating the one or more produced pigment compositions. The method of the invention may be used for producing Monascus-like pigment compositions for use...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  7. Blood supply--susceptible formation of melanin pigment in hair bulb melanocytes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shogo; Ueda, Koichi; Yamana, Hidenori; Tashiro-Yamaji, Junko; Ibata, Minenori; Mikura, Ayako; Okada, Masashi; Yasuda, Emi; Shibayama, Yuro; Yoshino, Miya; Kubota, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ryotaro

    2015-03-01

    Allogeneic skin grafts onto C57BL/6 mice are rejected, and the rejected skin is replaced by surrounding skin with black hair. In contrast, syngeneic skin grafts are tolerated, and gray hair grows on the grafts. To explore the mechanism of gray hair growing on the tolerated skin grafts, we prepared full-thickness skin (2-cm square) autografts, 2 (2 cm + 2 cm) horizontal or vertical parallel incisions, and U-shaped (2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm) flaps with or without pedicle vessels. The grafts, incisions, and flaps were fixed by suturing with string and protected by a transparent bandage. On day 14 after the operation, the bandages were removed to observe the color of the hair growing on the skin. Skin autografts from wild-type or hepatocyte growth factor-transgenic (Tg) C57BL/6 mice survived with gray hair, whereas those from steel factor (Kitl)-Tg C57BL/6 mice survived with black hair. In addition, U-shaped flaps lacking both of the 2 main feeding vessels of wild-type mice had gray hair at the tip of the flaps. Light microscopy after staining with hematoxylin and eosin or dihydroxyphenylalanine showed that the formation of melanin pigment in the follicles, but not in the interadnexal skin, was susceptible to the blood supply. Melanin pigment formation in the hair bulb melanocytes appeared to be susceptible to the blood supply, and melanocytosis was promoted in the follicles and in the epidermis of Kitl-Tg C57BL/6 mice.

  8. Exploratory multivariate spectroscopic study on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Everland, Hanne; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Nørgaard, Lars

    2003-05-01

    Spectroscopy on human skin is a field that is being adopted increasingly because of its rapidity and high reproducibility. Infrared reflectance (IR), near-infrared reflectance (NIR), and fluorescence spectroscopy have previously been applied to human skin in vivo to compare healthy and sick skin, including skin cancer, atopy, and leprosy. Exploratory data analysis/chemometrics is a tool for evaluating multivariate data such as spectroscopic measurements. The objective of this study was to explore the spectral variance spanned by people with normal integument, and to demonstrate the advantages of multivariate analysis to skin research. IR, NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy have been carried out in vivo on 216 volunteers' forearms before and after four tape strippings. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding factors suspected to influence the measurement results. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to investigate whether the population can be divided into groups on the basis of their skin chemistry. Unless otherwise stated, the results are from the measurements prior to stripping. In contrast to IR and fluorescence spectra, NIR spectra proved able to detect gender differences. By use of PCA, classifications on male and female subjects were observed from the IR and NIR measurements, and as an indication from the fluorescence measurements. The NIR and fluorescence measurements varied between elderly and young subjects. The largest variance in the fluorescence landscapes was seen between pigmented and non-pigmented skin. No connection was found between the spectroscopic measurements and smoking or drinking habits. Future spectroscopic skin investigations should be balanced as regards to gender and age, as these can possibly affect the measurement results. Chemometrics proved to be superior to traditional attempts of interpreting the spectra.

  9. Kaolin-based foliar reflectant and water deficit influence Malbec leaf and berry temperature, pigments, and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a kaolin-based foliar reflectant on traits of commercial interest in the red-skinned wine grape cultivar Malbec (Vitis vinifera L.) were evaluated over three growing seasons by measuring the surface temperatures of leaves and clusters, leaf-level assimilation, leaf and berry pigment c...

  10. Short-pulsed laser for the treatment of tattoos, pigmented lesions, scars and rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghetti, Emil A; Hoffmann, Kristina Andrea; Hoffmann, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    This review describes the use of picosecond lasers for the treatment of tattoos, pigmented lesions, scars, and their use in rejuvenation. These devices have delivered enhanced efficacy for the treatment of tattoos and pigmented lesions when compared to the older 40-50 nanosecond devices. The fractional delivery with the picosecond devices have opened up a new method of rejuvenation for photodamaged skin and the treatment of scars. The delivery of these high-energy short pulses have created zones of injury in the skin referred to as areas of laser-induced optical breakdown. These areas of damage appear to produce cytokines and chemokines which result in epidermal and dermal repair and remodeling. The dual use of these devices with the flat and the fractional optics have made these devices useful in many ways that have been unanticipated. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  11. Structure of plant bile pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  12. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications. PMID:28690593

  13. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications.

  14. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  15. SOX9 is a key player in ultraviolet B-induced melanocyte differentiation and pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, Thierry; Valencia, Julio C; Bertolotto, Corine; Hoashi, Toshihiko; Le Pape, Elodie; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Ballotti, Robert; Hearing, Vincent J

    2007-08-28

    SOX (SRY type HMG box) proteins are transcription factors that are predominantly known for their roles during development. During melanocyte development from the neural crest, SOX10 regulates microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, which controls a set of genes critical for pigment cell development and pigmentation, including dopachrome tautomerase and tyrosinase. We report here that another SOX factor, SOX9, is expressed by melanocytes in neonatal and adult human skin and is up-regulated by UVB exposure. We demonstrate that this regulation is mediated by cAMP and protein kinase. We also show that agouti signal protein, a secreted factor known to decrease pigmentation, down-regulates SOX9 expression. In adult and neonatal melanocytes, SOX9 regulates microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, dopachrome tautomerase, and tyrosinase promoters, leading to an increase in the expression of these key melanogenic proteins and finally to a stimulation of pigmentation. SOX9 completes the complex and tightly regulated process leading to the production of melanin by acting at a very upstream level. This role of SOX9 in pigmentation emphasizes the poorly understood impact of SOX proteins in adult tissues.

  16. Physiological oral melanin pigmentation in a South African sample: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilana, Aubrey; Khammissa, Razia A G; Lemmer, Johan; Feller, Liviu

    2017-11-01

    Physiological oral melanin pigmentation is genetically determined, more frequently affecting people with darker skin. It can involve any oral mucosal site, but predominantly the gingiva. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and to characterize the clinical features of physiological oral melanin pigmentation in a South African population sample. A trainee in the discipline of periodontology and oral medicine interviewed all participants and examined the oral soft tissues. The diagnosis of physiological oral melanin pigmentation was based on clinical findings and on the history reported by the patient. A predetermined list of exclusion criteria was applied. The study population comprised 430 participants, of whom 319 (74%) were black, 55 (13%) Indian, 54 (12.5%) white, and two (0.5%) were mixed race. A total of 182 participants were diagnosed with physiological oral melanin pigmentation. The overall prevalence of physiological oral melanin pigmentation in the ethnically-mixed study population was 42%: 54% of blacks were affected, 16% of Indians, and 21% of whites. The female (101): male (81) ratio was 1.2:1; the gingiva was the site most frequently affected (73%). The total number of oral mucosal sites with physiological oral melanin pigmentation in the study population was 263; 68% of participants had one, 22% had two, 7% had three, and 3% had four sites affected. There was no significant association between the number of sites affected and sex or age. In this study of a South African population sample, the prevalence of physiological oral melanin pigmentation was higher in blacks than in Indians or whites, and the gingiva was the oral mucosal site most frequently affected. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Tips and tricks in the dermoscopy of pigmented lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminska-Winciorek Grazyna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dermoscopy is a useful, widely used tool for examining pigmented lesions, especially helpful in cases of an uncertain nature. Nevertheless, doctors may experience diagnostic difficulties while using this method. An example of this may be found in the examination of subcorneal hematoma, dark nevi with black lamella or lesions of acral volar skin. In such cases, a few diagnostic tricks have proven to be helpful in achieving diagnostic accuracy. This paper reviews various methods of performing dermoscopy, suggesting a number of simple, yet helpful tests. These include the adhesive tape test, the skin scraping test and the ink furrow test. The adhesive tape test is helpful in differentiating between dark melanocytic nevi and melanoma. Hematoma may be more easily differentiated with the use of the so-called skin scraping test. The confirmation of benign and melanocytic lesions of acral volar skin, on the other hand, is more accurate when using the ink furrow test. These methods have been discussed here based upon a series of literature reviews, the authors’ own experience and, also, iconography. The present article describes novel methods used in dermoscopy, helping to bring about a faster, more accurate diagnostics of those lesions which have proven to be more difficult to recognize. Helpful tricks, such as have been known to professional literature, as well as the authors’ own experience (for instance, applying urea cream to hyperkeratotic lesions or using photographs of skin lesions taken with the aid of a mobile phone camera – all prior to surgery will surely be considered beneficial to the practitioner, be it dermatologist or any other physician.

  18. Melanocytes Sense Blue Light and Regulate Pigmentation through Opsin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzetti, Claire; Sormani, Laura; Debayle, Delphine; Bernerd, Françoise; Tulic, Meri K; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Rocchi, Stéphane; Passeron, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    The shorter wavelengths of the visible light spectrum have been recently reported to induce a long-lasting hyperpigmentation but only in melano-competent individuals. Here, we provide evidence showing that OPN3 is the key sensor in melanocytes responsible for hyperpigmentation induced by the shorter wavelengths of visible light. The melanogenesis induced through OPN3 is calcium dependent and further activates CAMKII followed by CREB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38, leading to the phosphorylation of MITF and ultimately to the increase of the melanogenesis enzymes: tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase. Furthermore, blue light induces the formation of a protein complex that we showed to be formed by tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase. This multimeric tyrosinase/tyrosinase-related protein complex is mainly formed in dark-skinned melanocytes and induces a sustained tyrosinase activity, thus explaining the long-lasting hyperpigmentation that is observed only in skin type III and higher after blue light irradiation. OPN3 thus functions as the sensor for visible light pigmentation. OPN3 and the multimeric tyrosinase/tyrosinase-related protein complex induced after its activation appear as new potential targets for regulating melanogenesis but also to protect dark skins against blue light in physiological conditions and in pigmentary disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene Expression Variations of Red—White Skin Coloration in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Min Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Teleosts have more types of chromatophores than other vertebrates and the genetic basis for pigmentation is highly conserved among vertebrates. Therefore, teleosts are important models to study the mechanism of pigmentation. Although functional genes and genetic variations of pigmentation have been studied, the mechanisms of different skin coloration remains poorly understood. The koi strain of common carp has various colors and patterns, making it a good model for studying the genetic basis of pigmentation. We performed RNA-sequencing for red skin and white skin and identified 62 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Most of them were validated with RT-qPCR. The up-regulated DEGs in red skin were enriched in Kupffer’s vesicle development while the up-regulated DEGs in white skin were involved in cytoskeletal protein binding, sarcomere organization and glycogen phosphorylase activity. The distinct enriched activity might be associated with different structures and functions in erythrophores and iridophores. The DNA methylation levels of two selected DEGs inversely correlated with gene expression, indicating the participation of DNA methylation in the coloration. This expression characterization of red—white skin along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology.

  20. Melanocyte stem cells as potential therapeutics in skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Hee; Fisher, David E

    2014-11-01

    Melanocytes produce pigment granules that color both skin and hair. In the hair follicles melanocytes are derived from stem cells (MelSCs) that are present in hair bulges or sub-bulge regions and function as melanocyte reservoirs. Quiescence, maintenance, activation and proliferation of MelSCs are controlled by specific activities in the microenvironment that can influence the differentiation and regeneration of melanocytes. Therefore, understanding MelSCs and their niche may lead to use of MelSCs in new treatments for various pigmentation disorders. We describe here pathophysiological mechanisms by which melanocyte defects lead to skin pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo and hair graying. The development, migration and proliferation of melanocytes and factors involved in the survival, maintenance and regeneration of MelSCs are reviewed with regard to the biological roles and potential therapeutic applications in skin pigmentation diseases. MelSC biology and niche factors have been studied mainly in murine experimental models. Human MelSC markers or methods to isolate them are much less well understood. Identification, isolation and culturing of human MelSCs would represent a major step toward new biological therapeutic options for patients with recalcitrant pigmentary disorders or hair graying. By modulating the niche factors for MelSCs, it may one day be possible to control skin pigmentary disorders and prevent or reverse hair graying.

  1. Skin manifestations of POEMS and AESOP syndrome in the same patient revealing plasma cell dyscrasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongioletti, Franco; Failla, Maria C; Atzori, Laura; Ferreli, Caterina

    2016-12-01

    POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein and skin signs) and AESOP (adenopathy and extensive skin patch overlying a plasmacytoma) syndromes are rare paraneoplastic conditions due to an underlying plasma cell dyscrasia. We report a 70-year-old patient with the rare coexistence of POEMS and AESOP syndromes and in whom skin signs, that differ both clinically and histologically, were the clues to the diagnosis of a plasma cell disorder. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A overexpression seems to be the common pathogenetic link of the different clinicopathological presentations of the skin lesions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ultraviolet radiation directly induces pigment production by cultured human melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, P.S.; Gilchrest, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    In humans the major stimulus for cutaneous pigmentation is ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Little is known about the mechanism underlying this response, in part because of the complexity of interactions in whole epidermis. Using a recently developed culture system, human melanocytes were exposed daily to a physiologic range of UVR doses from a solar simulator. Responses were determined 24 hours after the last exposure. There was a dose-related increase in melanin content per cell and uptake of 14 C-DOPA, accompanied by growth inhibition. Cells from donors of different racial origin gave proportionately similar increases in melanin, although there were approximately tenfold differences in basal values. Light and electron microscopy revealed UVR-stimulated increases in dendricity as well as melanosome number and degree of melanization, analogous to the well-recognized melanocyte changes following sun exposure of intact skin. Similar responses were seen with Cloudman S91 melanoma cells, although this murine cell line required lower UVR dosages and fewer exposures for maximal stimulation. These data establish that UVR is capable of directly stimulating melanogenesis. Because cyclic AMP elevation has been associated in some settings with increased pigment production by cultured melanocytes, preliminary experiments were conducted to see if the effects of UVR were mediated by cAMP. Both alpha-MSH and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), as positive controls, caused a fourfold increase in cAMP level in human melanocytes and/or S91 cells, but following a dose of UVR sufficient to stimulate pigment production there was no change in cAMP level up to 4 hours after exposure. Thus, it appears that the UVR-induced melanogenesis is mediated by cAMP-independent mechanisms

  3. [Skin defect coverage with micro skin graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Nazim; Kaya, Yalçin; Karakaya, Sadik; Camci, Cemalettin

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study is to coverage of the large skin defect with microskin graft. The wound coverage of the large skin defect may be difficult with auto skin graft. In these patients, split thickness skin graft may be used in a bloc shape or expanded skin graft shape and a stamp skin graft shape or expanded stamp skin graft shape. On the other hand, split thickness skin graft may be used as a micrograft shape after the mincing process, which reduces of the graft size in a few millimeters. In this study, 6 patients with skin defect was admitted in our clinic, and their skin defect was treated with micro skin graft. Expansion ratio was 1:15. Epithelialization on the wound surface was completed in 4 to 6 weeks and cobblestone appearance was observed after the wound coverage. Skin defect coverage with micrograft is an effective technique like the other skin graft coverage methods.

  4. Extensive Pigmented Bowen's Disease of Genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Şengezer, Mustafa; Şengezer, Naki; Deveci, Mustafa

    1993-01-01

    Genital bölgenin yaygın pigmente bowen hastalığı. Pigmente Bowen hastalığı oldukça nadirdir. Burada genital yörede yerleşimli yaygın bir bowen olgusu sunulmuş, klinik ve histolojik özellikleriyle pigmentasyon mekanizması ve tedavi yaklaşımları tartışılmıştır. Bowen hastalığı pigmente lezyonların ayrıca tanısında dikkate alınması gereken bir durumdur.

  5. Basis for the gain and subsequent dilution of epidermal pigmentation during human evolution: The barrier and metabolic conservation hypotheses revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Peter M; Williams, Mary L

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of human skin pigmentation must address both the initial evolution of intense epidermal pigmentation in hominins, and its subsequent dilution in modern humans. While many authorities believe that epidermal pigmentation evolved to protect against either ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation-induced mutagenesis or folic acid photolysis, we hypothesize that pigmentation augmented the epidermal barriers by shifting the UV-B dose-response curve from toxic to beneficial. Whereas erythemogenic UV-B doses produce apoptosis and cell death, suberythemogenic doses benefit permeability and antimicrobial function. Heavily melanized melanocytes acidify the outer epidermis and emit paracrine signals that augment barrier competence. Modern humans, residing in the cooler, wetter climes of south-central Europe and Asia, initially retained substantial pigmentation. While their outdoor lifestyles still permitted sufficient cutaneous vitamin D3 (VD3) synthesis, their marginal nutritional status, coupled with cold-induced caloric needs, selected for moderate pigment reductions that diverted limited nutritional resources towards more urgent priorities (=metabolic conservation). The further pigment-dilution that evolved as humans reached north-central Europe (i.e., northern France, Germany), likely facilitated cutaneous VD3 synthesis, while also supporting ongoing, nutritional requirements. But at still higher European latitudes where little UV-B breaches the atmosphere (i.e., present-day UK, Scandinavia, Baltic States), pigment dilution alone could not suffice. There, other nonpigment-related mutations evolved to facilitate VD3 production; for example, in the epidermal protein, filaggrin, resulting in reduced levels of its distal metabolite, trans-urocanic acid, a potent UV-B chromophore. Thus, changes in human pigmentation reflect a complex interplay between latitude, climate, diet, lifestyle, and shifting metabolic priorities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Advances in understanding the genetic basis of inherited single gene skin barrier disorders: new clues to key genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis Avanços no entendimento da base genética de doenças hereditárias monogênicas da barreira epidérmica: novas pistas para os principais genes que podem estar envolvidos na patogênese da dermatite atópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey E Lai-Cheong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing knowledge of genomic DNA sequences and genetic databases has led to the characterization of the molecular basis of several inherited skin disorders. In this review we summarize some of the major recent discoveries that have been made in defining the pathogenic mutations that cause inherited disorders of the skin barrier leading to skin scaling or increased transepidermal water loss in either rare disorders (Netherton’s syndrome or harlequin ichthyosis or more common genodermatoses (ichthyosis vulgaris. These molecular breakthroughs have led to more accurate diagnoses, better genetic counselling and, where appropriate, the feasibility of DNA-based prenatal diagnosis, as well as the possibility of developing newer forms of treatment, including gene or protein therapy. Identifying the molecular basis of these conditions, especially ichthyosis vulgaris, has also provided dramatic new insight into the genetic abnormalities in the common disorder, atopic dermatitis. Thus research on the relatively rare single gene inherited skin disorders not only has benefits for patients and their families with these uncommon conditions but also has the potential to yield fresh and significant new information about very common skin diseases.O maior conhecimento sobre as de sequências genômicas de DNA e as bases de dados genéticas levou à caracterização da base molecular de várias doenças hereditárias de pele. Nesta revisão resumimos algumas das descobertas recentes mais importantes quanto à definição das mutações patogênicas que causam as doenças hereditárias da barreira cutânea, levando a descamação ou aumento da perda hídrica transepidérmica, seja em doenças raras, (síndrome de Netherton ou ictiose em Arlequim ou genodermatoses mais comuns (ictiose vulgar. Estas descobertas moleculares têm conduzido a diagnósticos mais acurados, melhor aconselhamento genético e, quando apropriado, à possibilidade de diagnóstico pr

  7. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  8. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  9. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  10. [Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Mannagetta, J; Hutarew, G

    2012-09-01

    The oral mucosa contains melanocytes, even though one might not suspect this when examining white subjects. Drug-induced pigmentation is usually irregularly distributed over the oral mucosa; typical causes are contraceptives and tetracyclines. Localized traumatic pigmentation can be due to injuries contaminated by foreign material (dust). Not infrequently an amalgam tattoo can be seen, caused by introduction of amalgam during dental treatment with rotating instruments. Focal melanosis is harmless. Neoplastic pigmentation is rare. Melanotic nevi are small with indistinct borders. Malignant melanoma occurs predominantly on the maxilla or hard palate. Frequently it has already metastasized by the time of diagnosis. Verification by biopsy is essential if a lesion has suddenly appeared, is extensive, elevated, with irregular pigmentation and has no obvious cause.

  11. Pigment Production Analysis in Human Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, Amelia Soto; Paterson, Elyse K; Ruiz, Rolando; Ganesan, Anand K

    2016-05-25

    The human epidermal melanocyte is a highly specialized pigmented cell that serves to protect the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) damage through the production of melanin, or melanogenesis. Misregulation in melanogenesis leading to either hyper- or hypo-pigmentation is found in human diseases such as malasma and vitiligo. Current therapies for these diseases are largely unsuccessful and the need for new therapies is necessary. In order to identify genes and or compounds that can alter melanogenesis, methods are required that can detect changes in pigment production as well as expression of key melanogenesis transcription factors and enzymes. Here we describe methods to detect changes in melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line, MNT-1, by (1) analyzing pigment production by measuring the absorbance of melanin present by spectrophotometry, (2) analyzing transcript expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by qunatitative reverse-transcription (RT)PCR and (3) analyzing protein expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by Western blot (WB).

  12. Quantitative assessment of skin, hair, and iris variation in a diverse sample of individuals and associated genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Heather L; Edwards, Melissa; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Werren, Elizabeth A; Parra, Esteban J

    2016-08-01

    The main goals of this study are to 1) quantitatively measure skin, hair, and iris pigmentation in a diverse sample of individuals, 2) describe variation within and between these samples, and 3) demonstrate how quantitative measures can facilitate genotype-phenotype association tests. We quantitatively characterize skin, hair, and iris pigmentation using the Melanin (M) Index (skin) and CIELab values (hair) in 1,450 individuals who self-identify as African American, East Asian, European, Hispanic, or South Asian. We also quantify iris pigmentation in a subset of these individuals using CIELab values from high-resolution iris photographs. We compare mean skin M index and hair and iris CIELab values among populations using ANOVA and MANOVA respectively and test for genotype-phenotype associations in the European sample. All five populations are significantly different for skin (P color (P iris and hair pigmentation reinforces the continuous, rather than discrete, nature of these traits. We confirm the association of three loci (rs16891982, rs12203592, and rs12913832) with skin pigmentation and four loci (rs12913832, rs12203592, rs12896399, and rs16891982) with hair pigmentation. Interestingly, the derived rs12203592 T allele located within the IRF4 gene is associated with lighter skin but darker hair color. The quantitative methods used here provide a fine-scale assessment of pigmentation phenotype and facilitate genotype-phenotype associations, even with relatively small sample sizes. This represents an important expansion of current investigations into pigmentation phenotype and associated genetic variation by including non-European and admixed populations. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:570-581, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Preparation, characterization and application of some anti- corrosive molybdate pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghaffar, M.A.; El-Sawy, S.M.; Ahmed, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some molybdate pigments of single and mixed metal ions, namely, zinc, calcium and zinc-calcium molybdates were prepared, characterized and evaluated according to international standard methods. The evaluated pigments were incorporated in some paint formulations. The physicomechanical, chemical and corrosion protective properties of the paint films were measured; this was done in comparison with a commercial imported molybdate pigment. It was found that, the prepared pigments under investigation are fine white crystalline powders of suitable pigment properties. They can be successfully used as environmentally acceptable anti corrosive pigments. They can replace satisfactorily the similar commercial imported pigment and possess adequate or superior properties against corrosion

  14. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.; Yaroslavskii, I. V.

    2008-06-01

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%—40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency.

  15. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Micrococcus luteus Cartenoid pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Z. Majeed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartenoids are group of pigments, with enormous types different structurally and functionally, have colors range from red to yellow found in a wide variety of plants, fungi, algae and bacteria. The animals took from food because they cannot make it, on contrary, the plants and microbes produce them due to subjection to environment. The aim of the study is to isolate and characterize the cartenoid pigment from Micrococcus luteus. The pigment extraction was done by acetone, and then was characterized with UltraViolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Then, it was tested for antibacterial activity against five different bacterial isolates and antifungal activity tests against six different fungal isolates by well diffusion method. The results found that, the extracted pigment having antibacterial activity and antifungal activity and having the ability to absorb UVA rays within the range of 300-500 nm. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial effect of pigment, even when the extraction and isolation were done by two culture mediums (Nutrient Broth and Luria Bertani Broth. There were considerable inhibition percentages of adhesion after subjection to Cartenoid pigment ranged between (5.71, 23.84 % for Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively and all the 11 isolate changed from Biofilm producer to non-producer. The isolated compound can be used against different bacterial and fungal infections. So they had a great future in medicine, cosmetics and as a sun protecting agent.

  17. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  18. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutiérrez, P.C. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Miserque, F. [CEA, DEN, DPC/SCCME/LECA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomé, L. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2013-07-15

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings.

  19. Skin colour typology and suntanning pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, A; Cretois, I; Hourseau, C

    1991-08-01

    Synopsis The evaluation of sun-product efficacy, with laboratory solar simulators or in actual sun, implicates clinical and subjective assessment of the various skin responses in terms of wavelengths constitutive of solar light. These photobiological responses vary according to skin types and particularly to basic skin melanic content, i.e. with skin colour. Now, the instrumental measurement of live skin colour has become easier to perform, fast and reliable. Based on the standard CIE-L*a*b* colour system and correlated with the human eye, this technique was used to define the skin colour domain of the caucasian population, to propose a skin colour classification, and then to objectively follow, over a three week period, the dynamics and kinetics of tanning induced by UVB, UVA and UVB +/- A multi-exposures on the three skin categories. The specific directions in the three-dimensional L*a*b* colour space of the tanning components, i.e. erythema, immediate pigmentation and constitutional melanization, as well as the resulting tanning pathways, were analysed and defined in the three-dimensional colour space, using a vectorial method. The UVB, UVA and UVB +/- A tannings were differentiated by their intensity, their hue and especially their lasting capacity: UVA tanning clearly appeared more lasting than UVB. In addition, the UVA*UVB interaction on tanning intensity was not found to be significant. With the skin colour classification and the tanning models, this comprehensive study supplies a basic tool for the colorimetric interpretation of the skin phenomena involved, provided that this interpretation is always considered in the three dimensions of the colour space. It also suggests some useful practical applications for sun product formulation and evaluation.

  20. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UVB Skin of Color Tanning Teacher Resources Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | Window Film | Healthy Lifestyle | True Stories Skin Cancer Information Actinic Keratosis Atypical Moles Basal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer ...

  1. Studying the stabilization of vegetable pigments using 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inanejshvili, Zh.A.; Prokof'eva, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    With the help of labeled cathine tea-leaf substance it has been discovered that the later forms a specific complex with the red beet pigment. This obviously appears to be the reason for the pigment stability. An increase of the labeled cathine substance portion taken to stabilize the red pigment leads to lowering down the portion of the labeled pigment taking part in the reaction. The results from the experiment can be practically used in food industry for plant pigments

  2. Pigment Production from Immobilized Monascus sp. Utilizing Polymeric Resin Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Patrick J.; Wang, Henry Y.

    1984-01-01

    Pigment production by the fungus Monascus sp. was studied to determine why Monascus sp. provides more pigment in solid culture than in submerged culture. Adding a sterilized nonionic polymeric adsorbent resin directly to the growing submerged culture did not enhance the pigment production, thus indicating that pigment extraction is probably not a factor. Monascus cells immobilized in hydrogel were studied and exhibited decreased pigment production as a result of immobilization. This result is...

  3. Clues to patients' explanations and concerns about their illnesses. A call for active listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, F; Floyd, M R; Beine, K L

    2000-03-01

    Most patients who experience illness symptoms develop an explanatory model. More frequently than physicians realize, these attributions involve serious and potentially life-threatening medical conditions. Only a minority of patients spontaneously disclose or "offer" their ideas, concerns, and expectations. Often patients suggest or imply their ideas through "clues." Active listening is a skill for recognizing and exploring patients' clues. Without this communication skill, patients' real concerns often go unrecognized by health care professionals. Qualitative techniques including videotape analysis, postinterviewing debriefing, and interpersonal process recall were used to identify types of clues. We propose a taxonomy of clues that includes (1) expression of feelings (especially concern or worry), (2) attempts to understand or explain symptoms, (3) speech clues that underscore particular concerns of the patient, (4) personal stories that link the patient with medical conditions or risks, and (5) behaviors suggestive of unresolved concerns or unmet expectations. This clue taxonomy will help physicians recognize patients' clues more readily and thereby improve their active listening skills. A deeper understanding of the true reasons for the visit should result in increased patient satisfaction and improved outcomes.

  4. Pigmented cutaneous papillomatosis (pigmented epidermal nevus) in three pug dogs; histopathology, electron microscopy and analysis of viral DNA by the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, I; Kobayashi, Y; Yamagami, T; Ozaki, K; Ueda, Y

    2005-01-01

    Canine pigmented epidermal nevus (CPEN) is a skin disorder of some breeds of dog characterized by multiple black plaques of the haired and non-haired skin. Three cases of pigmented cutaneous papillomatosis (previously described also as CPEN) in pug dogs were investigated histopathologically, immunohistochemically and electron microscopically. Additionally, DNA analyses with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed in two cases. Many nuclei of the stratum granulosa were diffusely immunolabelled for specific structural antigens of bovine papillomavirus (subgroup A), but nuclear inclusion bodies were not detected by retrospective examination of haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the affected skin. Aggregates of small numbers of viral particles (ranging from 37 to 43 nm in diameter) with a hexagonal structure were sparsely scattered throughout the nuclei of some of the superficial keratinocytes. PCR amplification targeted for the L1 gene of papillomavirus cloned from a case of CPEN yielded an expected fragment of 194-bp in the two CPEN cases examined but not in a case of canine oral papilloma.

  5. A novel transcript for DNA repair gene Ercc1 in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L; Winter, A G; Selfridge, J; Melton, D W

    2011-02-01

    The nucleotide excision repair pathway deals with UV-induced DNA damage. The tissue that receives by far the greatest exposure to UV is the skin and we have investigated the possibility that expression of the nucleotide excision repair gene, Ercc1, may display different properties in the skin to deal with a more demanding role in that tissue. ERCC1, in a complex with XPF, is the structure--specific endonuclease responsible for incising 5' to the UV-induced lesion. We identified a novel Ercc1 mRNA in mouse skin that originates from an alternative upstream promoter. Levels of this skin-specific transcript were low in embryonic skin and increased rapidly after birth, but there was no induction by UV, either in adult skin, or in a cultured keratinocyte model. Levels of the skin-specific Ercc1 transcript were higher in albino than pigmented mouse strains, but there was no difference in ERCC1 protein levels and the expression of the skin-specific transcript was found to be determined by the Ercc1 gene sequence rather than by coat pigmentation. Using an Ercc1 transgene the promoter for the skin-specific transcript was mapped to a region around 400 bp upstream of the normal promoter, where a transposable element with known promoter activity was found in albino but not in pigmented strains.

  6. Improved Screening Method for the Selection of Wine Yeasts Based on Their Pigment Adsorption Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caridi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to improve an existing low-cost and simple but consistent culturing technique for measuring the adsorption of grape skin pigments on yeasts, comprising: (i growing yeasts in Petri dishes on chromogenic grape-skin-based medium, (ii photographing the yeast biomass, (iii measuring its red, green, and blue colour components, and (iv performing the statistical analysis of the data. Twenty strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were grown on different lots of the chromogenic medium, prepared using grape skins from dark cultivars Greco Nero, Magliocco and Nero d’Avola. Microscale wine fermentation trials were also performed. Wide and significant differences among wine yeasts were observed. The chromogenic grape-skin-based medium can be prepared using any grape cultivar, thus allowing the specific selection of the most suitable strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for each grape must, mainly for red winemaking. The research provides a useful tool to characterize wine yeasts in relation to pigment adsorption, allowing the improvement of wine colour.

  7. In vivo coherent Raman imaging of the melanomagenesis-associated pigment pheomelanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hequn; Osseiran, Sam; Igras, Vivien; Nichols, Alexander J.; Roider, Elisabeth M.; Pruessner, Joachim; Tsao, Hensin; Fisher, David E.; Evans, Conor L.

    2016-11-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with a yearly global incidence over 232,000 patients. Individuals with fair skin and red hair exhibit the highest risk for developing melanoma, with evidence suggesting the red/blond pigment known as pheomelanin may elevate melanoma risk through both UV radiation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Although the ability to identify, characterize, and monitor pheomelanin within skin is vital for improving our understanding of the underlying biology of these lesions, no tools exist for real-time, in vivo detection of the pigment. Here we show that the distribution of pheomelanin in cells and tissues can be visually characterized non-destructively and noninvasively in vivo with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, a label-free vibrational imaging technique. We validated our CARS imaging strategy in vitro to in vivo with synthetic pheomelanin, isolated melanocytes, and the Mc1re/e, red-haired mouse model. Nests of pheomelanotic melanocytes were observed in the red-haired animals, but not in the genetically matched Mc1re/e; Tyrc/c (“albino-red-haired”) mice. Importantly, samples from human amelanotic melanomas subjected to CARS imaging exhibited strong pheomelanotic signals. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that pheomelanin has been visualized and spatially localized in melanocytes, skin, and human amelanotic melanomas.

  8. Berberine-induced pigment dispersion in Bufo melanostictus melanophores by stimulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sharique A; Naaz, Ishrat; Choudhary, Ram Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Reduced production of melanin by decreased or the absence of melanocytes leads to various hypopigmentation disorders, and the development of melanogenetic agents for photoprotection and hypopigmentation disorders is one of the top priority areas of research. Hence, the present study was carried out to elucidate the ability of berberine, a principal active ingredient present in the roots of the herb Berberis vulgaris to stimulate pigment dispersion in the isolated skin melanophores of the toad Bufo melanostictus. In the present study, mean melanophore size index of the isolated skin melanophores of B. melanostictus was assayed after treating with various concentrations of berberine. A marked melanin dispersion response leading to skin darkening was observed in the isolated melanophores of toad in response to berberine, which was found to be mediated through beta-2 adrenergic receptors. The physiologically significant dose-related melanin dispersion effects of berberine per se were found to be completely abolished by propranolol, which is a specific beta-2 adrenergic receptor blocker. These per se melanin dispersal effects were also found to be markedly potentiated by isoprenaline, which is a specific beta-adrenoceptor agonist. The results indicate that berberine causes a tremendous, dose-dependent, physiologically significant pigment dispersing in the isolated skin melanophores of B. melanostictus.

  9. Focal Atrichia: A Diagnostic Clue in Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Elise A; Whiting, David A

    2017-10-07

    Focal atrichia is a common clinical finding in female pattern hair loss whose specificity and histologic findings need further clarification. To determine the frequency of focal atrichia in various types of hair loss and its histologic characteristics in female pattern hair loss. Part 1: Review of 250 consecutive female patients seen with hair loss for the presence of focal atrichia and Part 2: paired biopsies of haired areas vs focal atrichia in 18 subjects with female pattern hair loss RESULTS: Focal atrichia was seen in 46/104 (44%) of women with female pattern hair loss, including 67% of late onset vs 15% of early onset, compared to 3/146 (2%) of those with other hair disorders Biopsy findings of focal atrichia in female pattern hair loss showed primarily a more progressive miniaturization process than that of haired areas of the scalp. Some women with female pattern hair loss may have had concomitant chronic telogen effluvium CONCLUSIONS: When present, focal atrichia is a clinical clue to the diagnosis of female pattern hair loss, particularly late onset subtype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Dreaming experience as a useful diagnostic clue for syncopal episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, V; Terranova, P; Vignoli, A; Canevini, M P

    2011-11-01

    The differential diagnosis between epileptic seizures and syncopes is a common occurrence in clinical practice. The manifestations of seizure and syncope sometimes overlap, and available diagnostic testing often not provides a conclusive answer. Syncope is often preceded by a symptom complex characterized by lightheadedness, generalized muscle weakness, giddiness, visual blurring, tinnitus, and gastrointestinal symptoms. These subjective symptoms are very important in guiding the diagnosis. In our experience, the impression of coming out of a dream after the syncopal episode is a subjective symptom commonly reported by patients, if questioned. To verify the occurrence of dreaming experience after syncope and after generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and its diagnostic value in differential diagnosis, we asked 100 patients with GTCS and diagnosis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (Group 1) and 100 patients with a certain diagnosis of syncope (Group 2) whether they have never felt the impression of coming out of a dream after the loss of consciousness (GTCS or syncope, respectively). In Group 1, nobody referred the dreaming experience, whereas in the syncope group, 19% of patients referred this subjective symptom. Dreaming experience seems to be an additional useful diagnostic clue for syncopal episodes, helping the clinician to differentiate them from seizures. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  11. Characterization of hair follicle development in engineered skin substitutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penkanok Sriwiriyanont

    Full Text Available Generation of skin appendages in engineered skin substitutes has been limited by lack of trichogenic potency in cultured postnatal cells. To investigate the feasibility and the limitation of hair regeneration, engineered skin substitutes were prepared with chimeric populations of cultured human keratinocytes from neonatal foreskins and cultured murine dermal papilla cells from adult GFP transgenic mice and grafted orthotopically to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Non-cultured dissociated neonatal murine-only skin cells, or cultured human-only skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts without dermal papilla cells served as positive and negative controls respectively. In this study, neonatal murine-only skin substitutes formed external hairs and sebaceous glands, chimeric skin substitutes formed pigmented hairs without sebaceous glands, and human-only skin substitutes formed no follicles or glands. Although chimeric hair cannot erupt readily, removal of upper skin layer exposed keratinized hair shafts at the skin surface. Development of incomplete pilosebaceous units in chimeric hair corresponded with upregulation of hair-related genes, LEF1 and WNT10B, and downregulation of a marker of sebaceous glands, Steroyl-CoA desaturase. Transepidermal water loss was normal in all conditions. This study demonstrated that while sebaceous glands may be involved in hair eruption, they are not required for hair development in engineered skin substitutes.

  12. Effects of air pollution on the skin: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Poonam; Nandar, Shashi Kumar; Kathuria, Sushruta; Ramesh, V

    2017-01-01

    The increase in air pollution over the years has had major effects on the human skin. Various air pollutants such as ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, oxides, particulate matter, ozone and cigarette smoke affect the skin as it is the outermost barrier. Air pollutants damage the skin by inducing oxidative stress. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemicals and physical air pollutants, prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation has been associated with extrinsic skin aging and skin cancers. Cigarette smoke contributes to premature aging and an increase in the incidence of psoriasis, acne and skin cancers. It is also implicated in allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and eczema. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are associated with extrinsic skin aging, pigmentation, cancers and acneiform eruptions. Volatile organic compounds have been associated with atopic dermatitis. Given the increasing levels of air pollution and its detrimental effects on the skin, it is advisable to use strategies to decrease air pollution.

  13. Betalain: a particular class of antioxidant pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gharras, Hasna

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the stability of betalains in juices prepared from Moroccan yellow cactus pears (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.) as a function of temperature and pH. The experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 80 to 100 degrees C with juices at pH 3.5, 5 and 6.5. The degree of pigment retention decreased when the temperature increased. The degradation constant rates were determined for thermal degradation rates of pseudo-first order. The Arrhenius plot obtained for the degradation of betaxanthin from the yellow fruits was not linear. Regardless of the temperature of treatment, the lowest degradation was obtained for pH 5. When some stabilizers were tested for the protection of pigments, the results showed that ascorbic acid was a better protective agent at pH 3.5, increasing the protection by 40%. The inhibitive action of betalain pigments extracted from cactus pears towards corrosion of stainless steel in phosphoric acid was investigated using electrochemical polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. It was found that the presence of natural pigments reduces the corrosion rate of the tested metal, especially on addition of the red pigments (97%). The inhibition efficiency increases as the pigment concentration of extracts increases. It was also found that the pigments tested act as mixed inhibitors. The inhibitive action of the extracts is discussed in term of adsorption and that such adsorption follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated values of the free energy of adsorption indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous.

  14. Dermatoscopy-guided therapy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma with imiquimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husein-ElAhmed, Husein; Fernandez-Pugnaire, Maria Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic tool used to examine skin lesions with an optical magnification. It has been suggested as a useful tool for monitoring therapeutic response in lentigo maligna patients treated with imiquimod. To examine the accuracy of dermatoscopy as a tool to monitor the therapeutic response of pigmented basal cell carcinoma treated with imiquimod. The authors designed a prospective study. Patients with pigmented basal cell carcinoma were included and data regarding the dermatoscopy features were collected following the Menzies criteria, prior to initiating the imiquimod treatment. Subsequent dermatoscopic evaluations were performed at weeks 4 and 8, following imiquimod discontinuation. Twenty lesions were included. The most common pigmented dermatoscopy features were large blue-grey ovoid nests (80%), followed by blue-grey globules (50%) and leaf-like areas (30%). No spoke wheel areas were observed. In 17 out of 20 patients, a response was noted during the first evaluation at 4 weeks, while the clearance was noted at the second check-up after 8 weeks. In two patients, the clearance was found at the initial evaluation at 4 weeks, while in one patient, the response remained unchanged. Blue-grey globules were the fastest to exhibit clearance (50% at week 4), followed by leaf-like areas (15%) and large blue-grey ovoid nests (6.25%). According to our results, dermatoscopic evaluation enhances the accuracy in the assessment of the clinical response to imiquimod in pigmented basal cell carcinoma.

  15. Cushing syndrome in a young woman due to primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Kathryn L; Davis, Anna L; Curnow, Paul A; Serpell, Jonathan W; McLean, Catriona A; Topliss, Duncan J

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of Cushing syndrome due to apparently sporadic primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease in a young woman. We describe the clinical, biochemical, radiologic, and histologic findings of Cushing syndrome due to the rare condition of primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of worsening itch without rash over her shoulders and arms and weight gain, particularly around the abdomen and face. Careful questioning did not elicit any history of exogenous glucocorticoid use (systemic or topical), including hydrocortisone. On examination, the patient had a slightly rounded and plethoric face, a small buffalo hump, central adiposity, and thin skin with a few small striae on her inner thighs. No features of the Carney complex were observed. Investigations showed hypercortisolism with suppressed corticotropin and normal adrenal imaging despite documentation of enlarged adrenal glands at removal. High-dose dexamethasone administration was followed by a decrease in urinary free cortisol excretion rather than a paradoxical rise as previously reported in primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease. No mutations were detected in the PRKAR1A gene. Primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease should be suspected in patients with corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome who have normal adrenal imaging. The role of genetic testing in apparently sporadic cases is not established, but cumulative experience may be helpful in defining the frequency of PRKAR1A mutations.

  16. Melanocyte pigmentation inversely correlates with MCP-1 production and angiogenesis-inducing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, Irit; Adini, Avner; Bazinet, Lauren; Watnick, Randolph S; Bielenberg, Diane R; D'Amato, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of certain angiogenesis-dependent diseases is higher in Caucasians than in African Americans. Angiogenesis is amplified in wound healing and cornea models in albino C57 mice compared with black C57 mice. Moreover, mouse and human melanocytes with low pigmentation stimulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration in vitro more than melanocytes with high pigmentation. This effect is due, in part, to the secretion of an angiogenic protein called fibromodulin (FMOD) from lowly pigmented melanocytes. Herein, we expand upon the mechanism contributing to increased angiogenesis in lighter skin and report that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is secreted by nonpigmented mouse melanocytes by 5- to 10-fold more than pigmented melanocytes. MCP-1 protein stimulates EC proliferation and migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. Mechanistic studies determine that FMOD is upstream of MCP-1 and promotes its secretion from both melanocytes and activated ECs via stimulation of NF-κB activity. Mice injected with FMOD-neutralizing antibodies show 2.3-fold decreased levels of circulating MCP-1. Human studies confirmed that, on average, Caucasians have 2-fold higher serum levels of MCP-1 than African Americans. Taken together, this study implicates the FMOD/MCP-1 pathway in the regulation of angiogenesis by local melanocytes and suggests that melanogenic activity may protect against aberrant angiogenic diseases. © FASEB.

  17. The Delimitation of Urban Growth Boundaries Using the CLUE-S Land-Use Change Model: Study on Xinzhuang Town, Changshu City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, urban growth boundaries (UGBs have been regarded as effective tools applied by planners and local governments to curb urban sprawl and guide urban smart growth. The UGBs help limit urban development to suitable areas and protect surrounding agricultural and ecological landscapes. At present, China’s Town and Country Planning Act officially requires the delimitation of UGBs in a city master planning outline and in central urban area planning. However, China’s practices in UGBs are usually determined by urban planners and local authorities, and lack a sound analytical basis. Consequently, Chinese UGBs are often proven to be inefficient for controlling urban expansion. In this paper, take the fast-growing Xinzhuang town of Changshu city, eastern China as an example, a new method towards establishing UGBs is proposed based on land-use change model (the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent, CLUE-S. The results of our study show that the land-use change and urban growth simulation accuracy of CLUE-S model is high. The expansion of construction land and the decrease of paddy field would be the main changing trends of local land use, and a good deal of cultivated land and ecological land would be transformed into construction land in 2009–2027. There is remarkable discordance in the spatial distribution between the simulated UGBs based on the CLUE-S model and the planned UGBs based on the conventional method, where the simulated results may more closely reflect the reality of urban growth laws. Therefore, we believe that our method could be a useful planning tool for the delimitation of UGBs in Chinese cities.

  18. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  19. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  20. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  1. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solis, C.; Sanchez-Hernandez, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytan, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  2. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gruijl, F R

    1999-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin. The sun-seeking habits of white Caucasians in developed countries are likely to have contributed strongly to the increase in skin cancer observed over the last century. Skin cancer is by far the most common type of cancer in the U.S.A. and Australia, which appears to be the result of an 'unnatural displacement' of people with sun-sensitive skin to sub-tropical regions. Although campaigns have been successful in informing people about the risks of sun exposure, general attitudes and behaviour do not yet appear to have changed to the extent that trends in skin cancer morbidity and the corresponding burden on public healthcare will be reversed. The relationship between skin cancer and regular sun exposure was suspected by physicians in the late 19th century, and subsequently substantiated in animal experiments in the early part of the 20th century. UV radiation was found to be highly genotoxic, and DNA repair proved to be crucial in fending off detrimental effects such as mutagenesis and cell death. In fact, around 1940 it was shown that the wavelength dependence of mutagenicity paralleled the UV absorption by DNA. In the 1970s research on UV carcinogenesis received a new impetus from the arising concern about a possible future depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer: the resulting increases in ambient UV loads were expected to raise skin cancer incidences. Epidemiological studies in the last decades of the 20th century have greatly refined our knowledge on the aetiology of skin cancers. Analyses of gene mutations in skin carcinomas have identified UV radiation as the cause

  3. A UV-Independent Topical Small-Molecule Approach for Melanin Production in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisma Mujahid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dark melanin (eumelanin within human epidermis represents one of the strongest predictors of low skin cancer risk. Topical rescue of eumelanin synthesis, previously achieved in “redhaired” Mc1r-deficient mice, demonstrated significant protection against UV damage. However, application of a topical strategy for human skin pigmentation has not been achieved, largely due to the greater barrier function of human epidermis. Salt-inducible kinase (SIK has been demonstrated to regulate MITF, the master regulator of pigment gene expression, through its effects on CRTC and CREB activity. Here, we describe the development of small-molecule SIK inhibitors that were optimized for human skin penetration, resulting in MITF upregulation and induction of melanogenesis. When topically applied, pigment production was induced in Mc1r-deficient mice and normal human skin. These findings demonstrate a realistic pathway toward UV-independent topical modulation of human skin pigmentation, potentially impacting UV protection and skin cancer risk.

  4. Observation of {gamma}-sources using a new reconstruction technique in the CLUE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C.; Biral, R.; Ciocci, M.A.; Cresti, M.; Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Liello, F.; Malakhov, N.; Mariotti, M.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Peruzzo, L.; Piccioli, A.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Scribano, A.; Smogailov, E.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N

    2001-04-01

    The CLUE experiment, located in La Palma island at 2200 m a.s.l., is an array of 3x3 telescope, detecting the UV (190 - 230 nm) Cherenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Since atmospheric absorption in the UV range is higher than in the visible range, CLUE cannot apply existing algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic ray direction. In this paper we present a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. Using the new technique, preliminary results of last two years observational campaigns on the Crab Nebula and on Markarian 421 are presented, showing a clear signal on both sources. The CLUE experiment collected also data with the telescopes aiming directly at the Moon: we expect improvements also on the Moon Shadow measurement adopting the new method.

  5. Observation of the Moon shadow using a new reconstruction technique in the CLUE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Malakhov, N.; Menzione, A.; Smogailov, E.; Marsella, G.; Bartoli, B.; Bastieri, D.; Cresti, M.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Saggion, A.; Mariotti, M.; Biral, R.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F.; Ciocci, M. A.; Scribano, A.; Paoletti, R.; Turini, N.; Stammerra, A.; Liello, F.

    2001-01-01

    The CLUE experiment, located in La Palma island at 2200 m a.s.l., is an array of 3 x 3 telescope, detecting the UV (190-230 nm) Cerenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Due to the higher atmospheric absorption in the UV range than in the visible one, CLUE cannot apply existing algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic ray direction. In this paper it is presented a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. CLUE experiment collected data in the last two years pointing to AGN sources and to Moon. The preliminary results obtained using the new technique on Crab Nebula and on Markarian 421 were presented in a previous paper. Here, it is presented the preliminary observation of Moon Shadow employing the new method. As described in the paper, it is expected in a near future improvements on AGN sources and on Moon Shadow measurement

  6. Observation of γ-sources using a new reconstruction technique in the CLUE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C.; Biral, R.; Ciocci, M.A.; Cresti, M.; Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Liello, F.; Malakhov, N.; Mariotti, M.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Peruzzo, L.; Piccioli, A.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Scribano, A.; Smogailov, E.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N.

    2001-01-01

    The CLUE experiment, located in La Palma island at 2200 m a.s.l., is an array of 3x3 telescope, detecting the UV (190 - 230 nm) Cherenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Since atmospheric absorption in the UV range is higher than in the visible range, CLUE cannot apply existing algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic ray direction. In this paper we present a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. Using the new technique, preliminary results of last two years observational campaigns on the Crab Nebula and on Markarian 421 are presented, showing a clear signal on both sources. The CLUE experiment collected also data with the telescopes aiming directly at the Moon: we expect improvements also on the Moon Shadow measurement adopting the new method

  7. Observation of the Moon shadow using a new reconstruction technique in the CLUE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Malakhov, N.; Menzione, A.; Smogailov, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Marsella, G. [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Bartoli, B. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Cresti, M.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Saggion, A.; Mariotti, M. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy); Biral, R.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Ciocci, M. A.; Scribano, A.; Paoletti, R.; Turini, N. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Siena (Italy); Stammerra, A. [Turin Univ., Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Liello, F. [Trieste Univ., Trieste (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    The CLUE experiment, located in La Palma island at 2200 m a.s.l., is an array of 3 x 3 telescope, detecting the UV (190-230 nm) Cerenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Due to the higher atmospheric absorption in the UV range than in the visible one, CLUE cannot apply existing algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic ray direction. In this paper it is presented a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. CLUE experiment collected data in the last two years pointing to AGN sources and to Moon. The preliminary results obtained using the new technique on Crab Nebula and on Markarian 421 were presented in a previous paper. Here, it is presented the preliminary observation of Moon Shadow employing the new method. As described in the paper, it is expected in a near future improvements on AGN sources and on Moon Shadow measurement.

  8. TV Crime Reporter Missed Clues | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women and Heart Disease TV Crime Reporter Missed Clues Past Issues / Spring 2016 ... age of 36. A crime reporter for WJLA-TV in Washington, D.C., her life revolved around ...

  9. Neutrino oscillation provides clues to dark matter and signals from the chilled universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The new verification that oscillations exists and neutrinos have mass though not detectible easy provides the first clue to extra dimensions, dark matter, hyperspace and chilled universe acting as a platform below it. (1/2 page)

  10. Bacterial vaginosis (clue cell-positive discharge) : diagnostic, ultra-structural and therapeutic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.I. van der Meijden (Willem)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with several aspects of (abnormal) vaginal discharge, focusing especially on clue cell-positive discharge (bacterial vaginosis, nonspecific vaginitis). It reports data on epidemiology and clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatment of this vaginal disease entity,

  11. The Family Constellation: A Clue to the Behavior of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Bill W.

    1972-01-01

    This article presents information about the family constellation concept which can provide clues to understanding the sometimes perplexing behavior of children. It has also been suggested how this information can be used by the elementary school counselors. (Author)

  12. Clues to occult cancer in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Jae Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hidden malignancy could be detected in patients with cryptogenic stroke without active cancer when they showed the distinctive characteristics of cancer-related stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Among 2,562 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, patients with cryptogenic stroke were analyzed and categorized into two groups according to the presence of active cancer: cryptogenic stroke with active cancer (cancer-related stroke, CA-stroke group and without active cancer (CR-stroke group. Patients with active lung cancer without stroke were also recruited for comparison purposes (CA-control. Clinical factors, lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI, and laboratory findings were analyzed among groups. A total of 348 patients with cryptogenic stroke were enrolled in this study. Among them, 71 (20.4% patients had active cancer at the time of stroke. The D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients with CA-stroke than those with CR-stroke or CA-control (both p<0.001. Regarding lesion patterns, patients with CA-stroke mostly had multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories, while more than 80% of patients with CR-stroke had single/multiple lesions in a single vascular territory (P<0.001. D-dimer levels (OR 1.11 per 1 µg/mL increase; 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P<0.001 and DWI lesion patterns (OR 7.13; 95% CI 3.42-14.87; P<0.001 were independently associated with CA-stroke. Workup for hidden malignancy was performed during hospitalization in 10 patients who showed elevated D-dimer levels and multiple infarcts involving multiple vascular territories but had no known cancer, and it revealed hidden malignancies in all the patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with CA-stroke have distinctive D-dimer levels and lesion patterns. These characteristics can serve as clues to occult cancer in patients with cryptogenic stroke.

  13. Inhibitory effect of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) on melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells and on pigmentation in brown guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takashi; Ikeda, Katsumi; Saito, Morio

    2011-01-01

    The compounds present in rose hips exerting an inhibitory action against melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells were investigated by dividing an aqueous extract of rose hips (RE) into four fractions. The 50% ethanol eluate from a DIAION HP-20 column significantly reduced the production of melanin and was mainly composed of procyanidin glycosides. We also found that this 50% ethanol eluate reduced the intracellular tyrosinase activity and also had a direct inhibitory effect on tyrosinase obtained as a protein mixture from the melanoma cell lysate. We also investigated the effect of orally administering RE on skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs, and found that the pigmentation was inhibited together with the tyrosinase activity in the skin. These data collectively suggest that proanthocyanidins from RE inhibited melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells and guinea pig skin, and could be useful as a skin-whitening agent when taken orally.

  14. Attractive skin coloration: harnessing sexual selection to improve diet and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Ross D; Ozakinci, Gözde; Perrett, David I

    2012-12-20

    In this paper we review the mechanisms through which carotenoid coloration could provide a sexually selected cue to condition in species with elaborate color vision. Skin carotenoid pigmentation induced by fruit and vegetable consumption may provide a similar cue to health in humans (particularly light-skinned Asians and Caucasians). Evidence demonstrates that carotenoid-based skin coloration enhances apparent health, and that dietary change can perceptibly impact skin color within weeks. We find that the skin coloration associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption benefits apparent health to a greater extent than melanin pigmentation. We argue that the benefits to appearance may motivate individuals to improve their diet and that this line of appearance research reveals a potentially powerful strategy for motivating a healthy lifestyle.

  15. Ultrastructure: effects of melanin pigment on target specificity using a pulsed dye laser (577 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, A.K.; Tan, O.T.; Boll, J.; Parrish, J.A.; Murphy, G.F.

    1987-06-01

    It has been shown recently that brief pulses of 577 nm radiation from the tunable dye laser are absorbed selectively by oxyhemoglobin. This absorption is associated with highly specific damage to superficial vascular plexus blood vessels in those with lightly pigmented (type I-II) skin. To determine whether pigmentary differences in the overlying epidermis influence this target specificity, we exposed both type I (fair) and type V (dark) normal human skin to varying radiant exposure doses over 1.5-microsecond pulse durations from the tunable dye laser at a wavelength of 577 nm. Using ultrastructural techniques, we found in type I skin that even clinical subthreshold laser exposures caused reproducible alterations of erythrocytes and adjacent dermal vascular endothelium without comparable damage to the overlying epidermis. In contrast, degenerated epidermal basal cells represented the predominant form of cellular damage after laser exposure of type V skin at comparable doses. We conclude that epidermal melanin and vascular hemoglobin are competing sites for 577 nm laser absorption and damage, and that the target specificity of the 577 nm tunable dye laser is therefore influenced by variations in epidermal pigmentation. This finding is relevant to the clinical application of the tunable dye laser in the ablative treatment of vascular lesions. We also found on ultrastructure that the presence of electron-lucent circular structures of approximately 800 A in diameter were observed only at and above clinical threshold doses in those with type I skin and at the highest dose of 2.75 J/cm2 in type V skin. It has been proposed that these structures might be heat-fixed molds of water vapor. Both this and ultrastructural changes of epidermal basal cells demonstrate mechanisms responsible for alteration of tissue after exposure to 577 nm, which are discussed.

  16. Skin Whitening Cosmetics: Feedback and Challenges in the Development of Natural Skin Lighteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Burger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the public’s growing interest in skin whitening, lightening ingredients only used under dermatological supervision until recently, are more and more frequently incorporated into cosmetic formulas. The active agents that lighten skin tone are either natural or synthetic substances, and may act at various levels of melanogenesis. They are used to treat various skin pigmentation disorders or simply to obtain a lighter skin tone as whiter skin may be synonymous of wealth, health, youth, and/or beauty in different cultures. However, recent studies demonstrated the adverse effects of some of these ingredients, leading to their interdiction or restricted use under the European Directive and several other international regulations. After an overview of skin whitening practices and the associated risks, this article provides insight into the mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and the biological assays available to attest the lightening activity of individual ingredients. The legislation dealing with the use of skin lighteners is then discussed. As traditional depigmenting agents such as hydroquinone and corticosteroids are of safety concern, the potential of natural extracts has been investigated more and more; finally, a synthesis of three years of research in our laboratory for such plant extracts will be given.

  17. Nanomechanical analysis of pigmented human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Michal; Zadlo, Andrzej; Pilat, Anna; Olchawa, Magdalena; Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Burda, Kvetoslava; Böhm, Markus; Sarna, Tadeusz

    2013-09-01

    Based on hitherto measurements of elasticity of various cells in vitro and ex vivo, cancer cells are generally believed to be much softer than their normal counterparts. In spite of significant research efforts on the elasticity of cancer cells, only few studies were undertaken with melanoma cells. However, there are no reports concerning pigmented melanoma cells. Here, we report for the first time on the elasticity of pigmented human melanoma cells. The obtained data show that melanin significantly increases the stiffness of pigmented melanoma cells and that the effect depends on the amount of melanin inside the cells. The dramatic impact of melanin on the nanomechanical properties of cells puts into question widely accepted paradigm about all cancer cells being softer than their normal counterparts. Our findings reveal significant limitations of the nanodiagnosis approach for melanoma and contribute to better understanding of cell elasticity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  19. Gingival pigmentation beneath a metallic crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Hirayasu, R.; Sakai, H.; Hashimoto, N.

    1988-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclosed that the essential cause of gingival discoloration following the placement of a metallic crown, was marked deposition of melanin pigment. Deposition of melanin pigment was observed in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and in fibroblasts, macrophages and among intercellular ground substance of the proprial layer. Brown or dark brown colored granules were observed in the deep portion of the proprial layer. Some metallic elements as silver and sulfur were detected. It was presumed that these materials were dental metals accidentally implanted in gingival tissues during the therapeutic procedure. The deposition of melanin pigment closely corresponded with mucosal tissue where these materials were present in the deep portion of the proprial layer. These findings suggested that these materials influenced the physiological metabolism of melanin and induced its pathological deposition in the proprial tissue. (author)

  20. Effects of ozone on plant pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of ozone on plants were studied, with emphasis on leaf bleaching, chlorosis, and appearance of reddish flecks on leaves. Leaves were analyzed with emphasis on ozone-induced destruction of chlorophyll and the formation of red anthrocyanin pigments. Leaves were exposed to 20 pphm to O/sub 3/. Pigments in Brassica pekinensis, morning glory, Zelkova serrata, and Prunus yedonensis were analyzed. Exposure to O/sub 3/ decreased the amount of chlorophyll, lowered the ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b, and caused anthrocyanin to form. From these results and from symptoms of O/sub 3/ injury to broad leaves (such as early appearance of yellow or red pigments in the leaves and premature fall of leaves), and published microscopic observations of chloroplast, it was deduced that O/sub 3/ accelerated the senescence of leaves and of the plant itself. 15 references.

  1. Photoprotective role of epidermal melanin granules against ultraviolet damage and DNA repair in guinea pig skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T.; Kodama, K.; Matsumoto, J.; Takayama, S.

    1984-11-01

    We previously developed a quantitative autoradiographic technique with special forceps for measuring unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mouse skin after treatment with ultraviolet light in vivo. By this method, we investigated the relationship between the protective role of melanin and UV-induced DNA repair in black-and-white guinea pigs. Flat areas containing a sharp border between pigmented and unpigmented skin were selected. The skin of the selected areas was shaved and irradiated with short-wave UV (254 nm) or UV-AB (270 to 440 nm, emission peak at 312 nm) at various doses. Immediately after irradiation, the skin was clamped off with forceps, and an isotonic aqueous solution of (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine was injected s.c. into the clamped off portion. UDS was clearly demonstrated as silver grains in this portion of the skin after irradiation with 254 nm UV or UV-AB. Errors due to individual differences were avoided by comparing the intensities of UDS in basal cells from pigmented skin and unpigmented skin of the same animals. Unexpectedly, in groups of animals treated with 254 nm UV or UV-AB, no difference in UDS in pigmented and unpigmented skin was seen at any UV dose. These results suggested that epidermal melanin granules do not significantly protect DNA of basal cells against 254 nm UV or UV-AB irradiation. Results of a study on the effect of the wavelength of irradiation on the UDS response of albino guinea pigs are also reported.

  2. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE DYE AND PIGMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This risk assessment calculates the maximum loadings of constituents found in dyes and pigment industries waste streams which can be disposed in different types of waste management units without causing health benchmarks to be exceeded at plausible receptor locations. The assessment focuses on potential risks from volatilization and leaching to groundwater of constituents disposed in surface impoundments and landfills with either clay liners or composite liners. This product will be used by EPA decision makers to assist in determining whether certain waste streams generated by the dyes and pigments industries should be designated as hazardous.

  3. Skin photoprotection and consumption of coffee and polyphenols in healthy middle-aged Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yoichi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Hori, Yusuke; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Shiga, Kaedeko; Tanaka, Yuiko; Masunaga, Erika; Tani, Mariko; Yokoyama, Mihoko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species are known to mediate skin photoaging, which results in the formation of pigmented spots and wrinkles. Coffee is the largest source of polyphenols, which supplies a large number of antioxidants in one's daily life. However, little is known about how much coffee and polyphenol consumption influences skin health. In this study, a cross-sectional survey of the diet, environmental factors, and skin conditions was conducted in healthy Japanese females to explore the influence of coffee and polyphenol consumption on skin conditions. Non-smoking, healthy female subjects with moderate sun exposure in their daily lives were recruited for this study (n = 131, age range: 30-60 years old) and recorded their food and beverage intake and life circumstances using questionnaires. The skin water content, transepidermal water loss, and elasticity were measured on the cheek of each subject using non-invasive methods: a Corneometer, a Tewameter, and a Cutometer, respectively. Wrinkles and pigmented spots were evaluated using digital photograph images. Consumption of coffee and total polyphenols from all sources and from coffee showed a statistically significant correlation towards a decrease in pigmented spot scores (P < 0.05). Subjects with high total polyphenol consumption from coffee or chlorogenic acids (the third tertile group) showed the lowest score of ultraviolet pigmented spots (P < 0.05). Coffee and polyphenol consumption was associated with low facial pigmented spots in Japanese middle-aged females. We speculated that coffee helps protect human skin from photoaging, and polyphenols, including chlorogenic acids, may contribute to the decreased hyperpigmentation of pigmented spots. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Paraneoplastic addisonian pigmentation and acquired ichthyosis as presenting features of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, N.R.; Raza, N.

    2010-01-01

    Black brown hyperpigmentation of the mucosae, sun exposed skin, palmar creases and frictional sites (Addisonian pigmentation) is characteristic of Addison disease. However, it can also occur as a para neoplastic manifestation of tumours like bronchogenic carcinoma. Acquired ichthyosis starts later in life and can also be a para neoplastic presentation.We report a unique combination of para neoplastic Addisonian pigmentation and acquired ichthyosis as presenting features in a patient with undiagnosed multiple myeloma. To the best of our knowledge this combination of para neoplastic dermatosis has not been documented before in multiple myeloma. It is concluded that the presence of more than one suspicious dermatosis may be an indicator of being para neoplastic requiring necessary work-up. (author)

  5. Age influences the skin reaction pattern to mechanical stress and its repair level through skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Elewa, Rana; Ottaviani, Monica; Fluhr, Joachim; Picardo, Mauro; Bernois, Armand; Heusèle, Catherine; Camera, Emanuela

    2018-03-01

    Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and the objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24h and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13). In addition, casual surface lipid composition was studied under the same conditions at the baseline and day 7 after mechanical stress induction. Evaluations were also performed in stressed skin areas treated daily with skin care products and the subjective opinion of the volunteers was additionally documented. The tested groups exhibited age-associated baseline skin functions as well as casual surface lipid composition and different reaction patterns to mechanical stress. Skin care was more effective in normalizing skin reaction to stress in the young than in the aged group. The subjective volunteer opinion correlated with the objective measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics ...

  7. Effects of Cream Containing Ficus carica L. Fruit Extract on Skin Parameters: In vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H; Akhtar, N; Ali, A

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit (Fig) extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion) containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle.

  8. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Musashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation.

  9. Cross-Linked Fluorescent Supramolecular Nanoparticles as Finite Tattoo Pigments with Controllable Intradermal Retention Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Sil; Zhu, Yazhen; Li, Hongsheng; Peyda, Parham; Nguyen, Thuy Tien; Shen, Mo Yuan; Yang, Yang Michael; Zhu, Jingyi; Liu, Mei; Lee, Mandy M; Sun, Shih-Sheng; Yang, Yang; Yu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Kai; Chuang, Gary S; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2017-01-24

    Tattooing has been utilized by the medical community for precisely demarcating anatomic landmarks. This practice is especially important for identifying biopsy sites of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to the long interval (i.e., up to 3 months) between the initial diagnostic biopsy and surgical treatment. Commercially available tattoo pigments possess several issues, which include causing poor cosmesis, being mistaken for a melanocytic lesion, requiring additional removal procedures when no longer desired, and potentially inducing inflammatory responses. The ideal tattoo pigment for labeling of skin biopsy sites for NMSC requires (i) invisibility under ambient light, (ii) fluorescence under a selective light source, (iii) a finite intradermal retention time (ca. 3 months), and (iv) biocompatibility. Herein, we introduce cross-linked fluorescent supramolecular nanoparticles (c-FSNPs) as a "finite tattoo" pigment, with optimized photophysical properties and intradermal retention time to achieve successful in vivo finite tattooing. Fluorescent supramolecular nanoparticles encapsulate a fluorescent conjugated polymer, poly[5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopropoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MPS-PPV), into a core via a supramolecular synthetic approach. FSNPs which possess fluorescent properties superior to those of the free MPS-PPV are obtained through a combinatorial screening process. Covalent cross-linking of FSNPs results in micrometer-sized c-FSNPs, which exhibit a size-dependent intradermal retention. The 1456 nm sized c-FSNPs display an ideal intradermal retention time (ca. 3 months) for NMSC lesion labeling, as observed in an in vivo tattoo study. In addition, the c-FSNPs induce undetectable inflammatory responses after tattooing. We believe that the c-FSNPs can serve as a "finite tattoo" pigment to label potential malignant NMSC lesions.

  10. A method to assess the protective efficacy of sunscreens against visible light-induced pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duteil, Luc; Esdaile, Jane; Maubert, Yves; Cathelineau, Anne-Claire; Bouloc, Anne; Queille-Roussel, Catherine; Passeron, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Until now, photoprotection of human skin has involved the development of sunscreens effective in the ultraviolet (UV) domain. During the last ten years, several studies have shown that besides the well-known damaging effects of UV, visible (400-700 nm) and even infrared light (> 700 nm) can induce damage which contributes to photoaging. Furthermore, many photodermatoses are also known to be triggered by visible light (VL). An in vivo method is proposed to assess the protective efficacy of sunscreens in the VL domain. This method is based on the intensity of pigmentation induced by four repeated daily doses of VL, each equivalent to about one hour of midday sun. Exposures are performed using a solar simulator (xenon lamp) equipped with appropriate filters, and pigmentation is measured both clinically and by chromametry. Three commercially available sunscreens designed to protect in the visible range were evaluated. The results indicate that the VL-induced pigmentation was already significantly detectable visually and by chromametry 24 hours after the first exposure on the unprotected zone. Two products with moderate protective activity could be differentiated from the untreated zone from Day 3 to Day 5 and were also significantly less effective than a third tested product within the same study period. The method is simple, based on a clinical end point of VL-induced skin pigmentation, and can be performed within a 5-day period. It allows discrimination between products of different protective capacities. VL protection factor is also discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  12. Photoacclimation in microphytobenthos and the role of xanthophyll pigments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Brotas, Vanda; Consalvey, Mireille; Forster, Rodney M.; Gillespie, David; Jesus, Bruno; Roggeveld, Jan; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2008-01-01

    Estuarine microphytobenthos are frequently exposed to excessively high irradiances. Photoinhibition in microalgae is prevented by various photophysiological responses. We describe here the role of the xanthophyll pigments in photoacclimation. The pigment composition of the microphytobenthos was

  13. Pigmentary Markers in Danes--Associations with Quantitative Skin Colour, Nevi Count, Familial Atypical Multiple-Mole, and Melanoma Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johansen

    Full Text Available To investigate whether pigmentation genes involved in the melanogenic pathway (melanogenesis contributed to melanoma predisposition, we compared pigmentary genetics with quantitative skin pigmentation measurements, the number of atypical nevi, the total nevus count, and the familial atypical multiple mole and melanoma (FAMMM syndrome. We typed 32 pigmentary SNP markers and sequenced MC1R in 246 healthy individuals and 116 individuals attending periodic control for malignant melanoma development, 50 of which were diagnosed with FAMMM. It was observed that individuals with any two grouped MC1R variants (missense, NM_002386:c. 456C > A (p.TYR152*, or NM_002386:c.83_84insA (p.Asn29Glnfs*14 had significantly (p<0.001 lighter skin pigmentation of the upper-inner arm than those with none or one MC1R variant. We did not observe any significant association of the MC1R variants with constitutive pigmentation measured on the buttock area. We hypothesize that the effect of MC1R variants on arm pigmentation is primarily reflecting the inability to tan when subjected to UVR. A gender specific effect on skin pigmentation was also observed, and it was found that the skin pigmentation of females on average were darker than that of males (p<0.01. We conclude that MC1R variants are associated with quantitative skin colour in a lightly pigmented Danish population. We did not observe any association between any pigmentary marker and the FAMMM syndrome. We suggest that the genetics of FAMMM is not related to the genetics of the pigmentary pathway.

  14. Pigmented Nodular Basal Cell Carcinomas in Differential Diagnosis with Nodular Melanomas: Confocal Microscopy as a Reliable Tool for In Vivo Histologic Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casari, A.; Pellacani, G.; Seidenari, S.; Pepe, P.; Longo, C.; Cesinaro, A. M.; Beretti, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nodular basal cell carcinoma, especially when pigmented, can be in differential diagnosis with nodular melanomas, clinically and dermoscopically. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a relatively new imaging technique that permits to evaluate in vivo skin tumors with a nearly histological resolution. Here, we present four cases of challenging nodular lesions where confocal microscopy was able to clarify the diagnosis.

  15. Skin Examination: An Important Diagnostic Tool in Renal Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde-Kossmann, Karen M

    2018-01-26

    Renal failure is common in the United States with an estimated prevalence of 660,000 treated end-stage renal disease patients in 2015 [1]. Causes of renal failure are many, and complications from renal failure, underlying disease, and treatment are not infrequent. Examples of common skin manifestations include xerosis, pigmentary change, and nail dystrophies. Frequent disease-specific skin changes may be helpful in the diagnosis of primary disorders leading to renal disease or severity of disease including bullosis diabeticorum, sclerodactyly, or leukoctoclastic vasculitis. Some cutaneous changes, such as the multiple angiokeratomas of Fabry disease or the plexiform neurofibromas of neurofibromatosis, are pathognomonic of genetic disorders, which often lead to renal failure. Careful examination of the skin can provide crucial clues to diagnosis of renal failure causation and aid in monitoring complications. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Color Change After Paramedical Pigmentation of the Nipple-Areola Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Shoichi; Mori, Katsuya; Miyawaki, Takeshi

    2018-01-04

    Reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex is the final process in breast reconstruction. Local flaps and paramedical pigmentation is one of the major procedures for this. However, fading after paramedical pigmentation leads to a color difference between the selected pigment and its color in the skin. The aim of this study is to make a proposition in color choice of paramedical pigmentation for nipple-areola complex. Our research focused on investigating the color changes over time after unilateral nipple-areola complex reconstruction using paramedical pigmentation in 25 patients to propose suitable color selections. We measured the color by spectrometer and conducted comparisons using the hue, saturation, and value (HSV) color space and the color space defined by the Commission International de L'eclairage based on one channel for luminance (lightness) (L) and two color channels (a and b) (L*a*b*). A comparison of the hue, value, and saturation of the reconstructed areola compared to the normal areolae was conducted using HSV color space; the value and saturation were satisfactory after 3 months and beyond, but the reconstructed areola tended to have stronger red hues. The color difference (ΔE 00 ) calculated in L*a*b* color space showed slow fading after the scab was peeled off. This result indicates that a color with less redness and more yellowness, particularly 4-5 degrees of yellowness on the color wheel, than the normal side is the most appropriate color selection for this technique. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. (2)Maintaining Beauty Through Skin Care(Well-aging-Present State of Rejuvenation Medicine, The 73rd General Meeting of the Society of Tokyo Women's Medical University)

    OpenAIRE

    川島, 眞; Makoto, KAWASHIMA

    2008-01-01

    Dry skin, senile freckles and wrinkles are major symptoms of aged skin. Dry skin is caused by the decrease of skin surface lipids, natural moisturizing factors and intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum. Senile freckles are the deposition of melanin pigments on the basal layer of the epidermis which is brought about by the activation of melanocytes through UV exposure and the delay in the turnover rate of epidermal cells due to aging. Wrinkles are caused by UV-induced damage to collagen ...

  19. Gingival pigmentation reduction: A novel therapeutic modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H V Mahesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present clinical study was to compare the effectiveness of radiofrequency de-epithelialization and conventional (slicing method in reducing gingival pigmentation on long term basis by split mouth design. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 maxillary gingival units from 4 subjects aged between 15-30 years were considered for this clincal study and the selected gingival units were made plaque free and clinically healthy before subjectiing these sites to one of the procedures. The selected sites were abraded by either the conventional (slicing method (14 gingival units of 21, 22, 23, 24 or by radiofrequency (14 gingival units of 11, 12, 13, 14. After the procedure periodontal dressing was applied to protect the operated area. After 1 week periodontal dressing was removed and the area was irrigated with saline. Follow up examination was done on 30th, 60th and 90 th days to evaluate the recurrence of pigmentation, if any. Results: It was obsereved that, sites operated with conventional (slicing method, showed higher mean pigmentation than the sites treated with the radioablation during the follow up period of 90 days. Conclusion: When used judiciously, radiofrequency can be clinically valuable, safe and effective method to reduce pigmentation of gingiva.

  20. Gingival Pigmentation Reduction: A Novel Therapeutic Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, H V; Harish, M R; Shashikumar, B M; Ramya, K S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present clinical study was to compare the effectiveness of radiofrequency de-epithelialization and conventional (slicing) method in reducing gingival pigmentation on long term basis by split mouth design. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 maxillary gingival units from 4 subjects aged between 15-30 years were considered for this clincal study and the selected gingival units were made plaque free and clinically healthy before subjectiing these sites to one of the procedures. The selected sites were abraded by either the conventional (slicing) method (14 gingival units of 21, 22, 23, 24) or by radiofrequency (14 gingival units of 11, 12, 13, 14). After the procedure periodontal dressing was applied to protect the operated area. After 1 week periodontal dressing was removed and the area was irrigated with saline. Follow up examination was done on 30th, 60th and 90th days to evaluate the recurrence of pigmentation, if any. Results: It was obsereved that, sites operated with conventional (slicing) method, showed higher mean pigmentation than the sites treated with the radioablation during the follow up period of 90 days. Conclusion: When used judiciously, radiofrequency can be clinically valuable, safe and effective method to reduce pigmentation of gingiva. PMID:23060709

  1. The mechanism of gingiva metallic pigmentations formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Joska, L.; Venclíková, Z.; Poddaná, M.; Benada, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-7 ISSN 1432-6981 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : pigmentation * gingiva * electrochemistry Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.233, year: 2009

  2. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculati...

  3. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  4. Fluorescent pigment distinguishes between sibling snail species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Keiichi; Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Asami, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    Traditional taxonomy of shell-bearing molluscs does not generally use soft-body coloration. However, the land snails Bradybaena pellucida and B. similaris have been distinguished only on the basis of the color of the soft-body visible through the shell. Thus, the taxonomic status of the two species has traditionally been questionable. We found that dense spots of pigments embedded in the dorsal mantle are responsible for the yellow coloration of B. pellucida . Similar spots in B. similaris are white and less densely aggregated in whorls further from the apex, and the brown color of the hepatopancreas is visible through the shell. The yellow pigments of B. pellucida seep out with mucus from the body in natural and laboratory conditions. The two species became externally indistinguishable after 30 days of laboratory feeding, because the yellow spots disappeared in B. pellucida and the color of the hepatopancreas changed from dark brown to pale brown in both species. Irradiation with ultraviolet A demonstrated that the yellow pigment of B. pellucida fluoresces. Adult specimens of the two species were distinct in penial microsculpture, with F(1) hybrids intermediate in form. Populations of the two species differed significantly in allelic frequencies at four allozyme loci. Therefore, B. pellucida and B. similaris are morphologically and genetically distinct. The fluorescent yellow pigment distinguishes B. pellucida from B. similaris under natural conditions despite its environmental dependence.

  5. INHERITANCE OF PIGMENTATION PATTERNS IN TALINUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biologia Plantarum42, 621-624. Maekawa, M. 1996. Recent information on anthocyanin pigmentation. Rice Genetics. Newsletter13, 25-26. Mustapha, Y. 2007. Inheritance of flower colour in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). International Journal of Pure and Applied. Sciences1(1), 10-19. Nya, E.J. and Eka M.J. 2007.

  6. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  7. Renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jayaprakash; Chandrika; Laxman, Prabhu

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been steadily increasing. There are several morphological types of renal cell carcinoma. Recognizing histologic patterns of renal cell carcinoma is important for correct diagnosis and subsequent medical care for the patient. Melanotic tumors in the kidney are very rare. Here, we present an unusual case of renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment. PMID:20877613

  8. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    formation of photo-electrons; this can cause a variety of chemical reactions leading to mutations. Upon irradiation, the cells begin to synthsise carotenoids and quantity of carotenoids produced depends on the intensity of UV radiation. Concerning UV effect on the photosynthetic pigments of plants and algae, some studies ...

  9. Flower pigment analysis of Melastoma malabathricum | Janna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to analyse the colour pigment, anthocyanin, that can be detected in flower and their stability in extracted form. All the analysed results will be used in the next study for the production of new food colouring material. From the observation, it shows that S3 flower developmental stage contains the ...

  10. New applications for polychromatic effect pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maile, F. J.; Filip, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2016), s. 35-38 ISSN 1468-1412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : pigments * texture * appearance * effect * polychromatic Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/RO/filip-0458988.pdf

  11. Quantitative X-ray analysis of pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M. Marrocos de

    1987-01-01

    The 'matrix-flushing' and the 'adiabatic principle' methods have been applied for the quantitative analysis through X-ray diffraction patterns of pigments and extenders mixtures, frequently used in paint industry. The results obtained have shown the usefulness of these methods, but still ask for improving their accuracy. (Author) [pt

  12. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii 124y-1 showed that mutagenic activity was observed significantly in both Tekeli River and Pavlodar Oil Refinery in Kazakhstan; the waste water of the Pavlodar Oil Refinery had high-toxicity while the water of the Tekeli River had medium-toxicity.

  13. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... genic pollution of the natural environment. Therefore, detection of mutagenic compounds in .... offers many advantages such as less pollution, simple operation and sterile cultivation condition ..... UV radiation on photothynsis and pigment composition of the alpine snow alga Chlamydomonas nivalis and the.

  14. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to the wild CC-124, these mutants are characterized by a decrease in chlorophyll a & b content and an increase in carotenoids. The lowest decrease in chlorophyll a was 3 to 4 folds, while the highest increase in carotenoids was 2 to 4 folds. The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii ...

  15. Pigments produced by the bacteria belonging to the genus Arthrobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthiwong , Nuthathai; Caro , Yanis; Fouillaud , Mireille; Laurent , Philippe; Valla , A.; Dufossé , Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Poster communication, 7th International Congress of Pigments in Food – New technologies towards health, through colors, Novara, Italy, June 18-21, 2013.; International audience; Since several decades, pigments have been used as a taxonomic tool for the identification and classification of bacteria. Nowadays, pigment producing microorganisms have been also widely interested in scientific disciplines because of their biotechnological potential. With the growing interest in microbial pigments be...

  16. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Neuromodulators for Aging Skin Treatment Options Learn more ...

  17. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  18. Pigment patterns in adult fish result from superimposition of two largely independent pigmentation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceinos, Rosa M; Guillot, Raúl; Kelsh, Robert N; Cerdá-Reverter, José M; Rotllant, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Dorso-ventral pigment pattern differences are the most widespread pigmentary adaptations in vertebrates. In mammals, this pattern is controlled by regulating melanin chemistry in melanocytes using a protein, agouti-signalling peptide (ASIP). In fish, studies of pigment patterning have focused on stripe formation, identifying a core striping mechanism dependent upon interactions between different pigment cell types. In contrast, mechanisms driving the dorso-ventral countershading pattern have been overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that, in fact, zebrafish utilize two distinct adult pigment patterning mechanisms - an ancient dorso-ventral patterning mechanism, and a more recent striping mechanism based on cell-cell interactions; remarkably, the dorso-ventral patterning mechanism also utilizes ASIP. These two mechanisms function largely independently, with resultant patterns superimposed to give the full pattern. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a...-based pearlescent pigments may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable...

  20. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.3128 Section... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or iron... pigments listed in paragraph (a) of this section may be used as a color additive in contact lenses in...

  1. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a... pearlescent pigments may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in...

  2. Effect of pigment concentration on fastness and color values of thermal and UV curable pigment printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Gulcin; Kalav, Berdan; Karagüzel Kayaoğlu, Burçak

    2017-10-01

    In the current study, it is aimed to determine the effect of pigment concentration on fastness and colour values of thermal and ultraviolet (UV) curable pigment printing on synthetic leather. For this purpose, thermal curable solvent-based and UV curable water-based formulations were prepared with different pigment concentrations (3, 5 and 7%) separately and applied by screen printing technique using a screen printing machine. Samples printed with solvent-based formulations were thermally cured and samples printed with water-based formulations were cured using a UV curing machine equipped with gallium and mercury (Ga/Hg) lamps at room temperature. The crock fastness values of samples printed with solvent-based formulations showed that increase in pigment concentration was not effective on both dry and wet crock fastness values. On the other hand, in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations, dry crock fastness was improved and evaluated as very good for all pigment concentrations. However, increasing the pigment concentration affected the wet crock fastness values adversely and lower values were observed. As the energy level increased for each irradiation source, the fastness values were improved. In comparison with samples printed with solvent-based formulations, samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations yielded higher K/S values at all pigment concentrations. The results suggested that, higher K/S values can be obtained in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations at a lower pigment concentration compared to samples printed with solvent-based formulations.

  3. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  4. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Khai C; Ngu, Mee S; Reid, Katherine P; Teh, Mei S; Aida, Zamzuraida S; Koh, Danny Xr; Berg, Arthur; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Salleh, Hood; Clyde, Mahani M; Md-Zain, Badrul M; Canfield, Victor A; Cheng, Keith C

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest) to 75 (darkest); both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively). Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  5. Q-switched ruby laser irradiation of normal human skin. Histologic and ultrastructural findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruza, G J; Dover, J S; Flotte, T J; Goetschkes, M; Watanabe, S; Anderson, R R

    1991-12-01

    The Q-switched ruby laser is used for treatment of tatoos. The effects of Q-switched ruby laser pulses on sun-exposed and sun-protected human skin, as well as senile lentigines, were investigated with clinical observation, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A pinpricklike sensation occurred at radiant exposures as low as 0.2 J/cm2. Immediate erythema, delayed edema, and immediate whitening occurred with increasing radiant exposure. The threshold for immediate whitening varied inversely with skin pigmentation, ranging from a mean of 1.4 J/cm2 in lentigines to 3.1 J/cm2 in sun-protected skin. Transmission electron microscopy showed immediate alteration of mature melanosomes and nuclei within keratinocytes and melanocytes, but stage I and II melanosomes were unaffected. Histologically, immediate injury was confined to the epidermis. There was minimal inflammatory response 1 day after exposure. After 1 week, subthreshold exposures induced hyperpigmentation, with epidermal hyperplasia and increased melanin staining noted histologically. At higher radiant exposures, hypopigmentation occurred with desquamation of a pigmented scale/crust. All sites returned to normal skin color and texture without scarring within 3 to 6 months. These observations suggest that the human skin response to selective photothermolysis of pigmented cells is similar to that reported in animal models, including low radiant exposure stimulation of melanogenesis and high radiant exposure lethal injury to pigmented epidermal cells.

  6. Dermatologic Diseases Presenting with Pigmentation Disorders in Children: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Akbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the incidence and demographic characteristics of skin diseases presenting with hyperpigmentation in children applying to the dermatology department. Methods: A total of 2815 children between the ages of 0 to 16 who applied to the dermatology clinic with the complaints of hyperpigmentation disorders were evaluated. The age, gender, socioeconomic status, place of residence and demographic characteristics of children with abnormal pigmentation skin lesions were investigated. Results: A total of 2815 children applied to the dermatology clinic during the study period. Of these patients 1491 were female (53% and 1324 were male (47%. Of these 266 (9.4% were diagnosed with skin disorders presenting with hyperpigmention. The causes of hyperpigmentation in these patients were was follows; pityriasis alba (2.6%, melanocytic nevus (2.1%, vitiligo (1.8% postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (0.5%, and postinflammatory hypopigmentation (0.5%. According to the gender, p.alba, vitiligo, Becker nevus, acanthosis nigricans, tuberosclerosis and albinism were seen more in boys and nevus depigmentosus ephelis, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation/hypopigmentation and melanocytic nevus were seen more in the girls. Pitriyazis versicolor was seen equally in both genders. According to age groups, melanocytis nevus were found to be more frequent between the ages of 0-2 and 12-16, whereas pityrsasis versicolor was more frequent in ages 12-16 and P. alba in the 3-11 age group. Conclusions: There are quite a substantial number of pigmentation diseases occurring in children. Early diagnosis and treatment are important because although these diseases mainly cause cosmetic problems, they can decrease the quality of life. Here, we attempted to define the demographic characteristics of diseases presenting with disorders in pigmentation in children.

  7. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yong-Han; Huang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Yao-Cheng; Tsai, Pi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV) exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE) on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cel...

  8. Tattoo ink nanoparticles in skin tissue and fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Peter C; Baker, Richard; Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tattooing has long been practised in various societies all around the world and is becoming increasingly common and widespread in the West. Tattoo ink suspensions unquestionably contain pigments composed of nanoparticles, i.e., particles of sub-100 nm dimensions. It is widely acknowledged that nanoparticles have higher levels of chemical activity than their larger particle equivalents. However, assessment of the toxicity of tattoo inks has been the subject of little research and ink manufacturers are not obliged to disclose the exact composition of their products. This study examines tattoo ink particles in two fundamental skin components at the nanometre level. We use atomic force microscopy and light microscopy to examine cryosections of tattooed skin, exploring the collagen fibril networks in the dermis that contain ink nanoparticles. Further, we culture fibroblasts in diluted tattoo ink to explore both the immediate impact of ink pigment on cell viability and also to observe the interaction between particles and the cells. PMID:26171294

  9. Tattoo ink nanoparticles in skin tissue and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Colin A; Twigg, Peter C; Baker, Richard; Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Tattooing has long been practised in various societies all around the world and is becoming increasingly common and widespread in the West. Tattoo ink suspensions unquestionably contain pigments composed of nanoparticles, i.e., particles of sub-100 nm dimensions. It is widely acknowledged that nanoparticles have higher levels of chemical activity than their larger particle equivalents. However, assessment of the toxicity of tattoo inks has been the subject of little research and ink manufacturers are not obliged to disclose the exact composition of their products. This study examines tattoo ink particles in two fundamental skin components at the nanometre level. We use atomic force microscopy and light microscopy to examine cryosections of tattooed skin, exploring the collagen fibril networks in the dermis that contain ink nanoparticles. Further, we culture fibroblasts in diluted tattoo ink to explore both the immediate impact of ink pigment on cell viability and also to observe the interaction between particles and the cells.

  10. Tattoo ink nanoparticles in skin tissue and fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Grant

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing has long been practised in various societies all around the world and is becoming increasingly common and widespread in the West. Tattoo ink suspensions unquestionably contain pigments composed of nanoparticles, i.e., particles of sub-100 nm dimensions. It is widely acknowledged that nanoparticles have higher levels of chemical activity than their larger particle equivalents. However, assessment of the toxicity of tattoo inks has been the subject of little research and ink manufacturers are not obliged to disclose the exact composition of their products. This study examines tattoo ink particles in two fundamental skin components at the nanometre level. We use atomic force microscopy and light microscopy to examine cryosections of tattooed skin, exploring the collagen fibril networks in the dermis that contain ink nanoparticles. Further, we culture fibroblasts in diluted tattoo ink to explore both the immediate impact of ink pigment on cell viability and also to observe the interaction between particles and the cells.

  11. Skin manifestations of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Mendez, J C; Vazquez-Martinez, O; Ocampo-Candiani, J

    2015-10-01

    Skin manifestations associated with chronic kidney disease are very common. Most of these conditions present in the end stages and may affect the patient's quality of life. Knowledge of these entities can contribute to establishing an accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Severe renal pruritus is associated with increased mortality and a poor prognosis. Nail exploration can provide clues about albumin and urea levels. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a preventable disease associated with gadolinium contrast. Comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus and secondary hyperparathyroidism, can lead to acquired perforating dermatosis and calciphylaxis, respectively. Effective and innovative treatments are available for all of these conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Benign Pigmented Dermal Basal Cell Tumor in a Namibian Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja K. Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3.5-year-old wild born cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, living in a large enclosure on a private Namibian farm, developed a large exophytic nodular neoplasm in its skin at the height of the left shoulder blade. We describe the clinical appearance, the surgical removal, and histological examination of the tumor, which was diagnosed as a moderately pigmented benign basal cell tumor. A three-year follow-up showed no evidence of recurrence after the surgery. Although neoplasia is reported in nondomestic felids, only very few concern cheetahs. So far, no case of basal cell tumor was described in this species.

  13. Wing-Pigments of Butterflies as Reviewed from the Systematic and Taxonomic Points of View

    OpenAIRE

    梅鉢, 幸重; Yoshishige, UMEBACHI; 金沢大学理学部生物学教室; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kanazawa University

    1988-01-01

    Wing-pigments of butterflies are reviewed especially from the standpoint of distribution. The pigments include pteridine pigments, ommochromes, papiliochromes, tetrapyrrolic pigments, flavonoids, and others. Chemistry and biochemistry of these pigments are briefly described, and their distributions are described in detail, especially in the Pieridae, Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, and Satyridae. Interestingly, some pigments are characteristic of some taxonomic groups such as family, subsfamily, a...

  14. Intertriginous bullous morphea: A clue for the pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavala Mukaddes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullae occurring in lesions of morphea are uncommon. The cause of bullae formation in morphea is multifactorial, although lymphatic obstruction from the sclerodermatous process is considered the likeliest cause. Bullous morphea may be confused clinically with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus since both diseases may cause bullae in sclerodermatous plaques. A 69-year-old woman presented with a history of generalized morphea diagnosed 9 years earlier; and a 1-month history of pruritic bullae on her inframammary folds, axillary regions, lower abdomen, upper extremities and inguinal folds. Physical examination revealed multiple erythematous erosions, hemorrhagic vesicles and eroded bullae with slight scale or crusts overlying hypopigmented, indurated, shiny plaques. Skin biopsy revealed prominent edema in the papillary dermis, resulting in bulla formation and thickening of collagen fibers within the dermis. Direct immunofluorescence was negative. According to histologic and clinical features, the diagnosis of bullous morphea was established.

  15. Introduction of a rod pigment aromatic cluster does not improve the structural stability of the human green cone pigment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.E.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Bovee-Geurts, P.H.M.; Grip, W.J. de

    2007-01-01

    In the course of our studies on the structure/function relationship of visual pigments, we have expressed the human green cone pigment in the baculovirus/insect cell expression system. Purification of the human green cone pigment, however, has so far proven to be severely hampered by the low thermal

  16. [Clues in pedestrian-vehicle collisions and their significance for reconstruction of accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metter, D

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of clues in 87 fatal pedestrian-car accidents which took place with erect posture of the body are reported. Traces of paint proved to be most important clues transferred from the vehicle to the pedestrian's clothing. They derived from the outer paint layer of the collision sites at the front of the vehicle and occurred in 49% of the cases investigated. As has been shown by light and scanning electron microscopic investigations, there is intensive contact between the textile fibers and the paint traces which can be explained by action of heat in the collision. The higher the collision speed, the more readily paint is rubbed off. Because traces of rubbed off paint mark the site of the vehicle impact and indicate the color of the vehicle, they have a high evidence value for reconstruction of the accident. This also applies to traces of molten plastic material as well as to rubbed off chrome and rubber. In contrast to the prevalent view, paint splitters are unsuitable for determining the impact direction. Textile microtraces, traces of blood, hair and tissue occur as transferred clues from the pedestrian to the vehicle. These clues do not permit any statements with regard to the impact direction. They must be evaluated in connection with the remaining clues and the injuries.

  17. Prevalence and clinical features of pigmented oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassona, Yazan; Sawair, Faleh; Al-Karadsheh, Omar; Scully, Crispian

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relative prevalence, types, and clinical features of pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa in 1275 patients attending a university hospital for dental care. Patients attending dental clinics at The University of Jordan Hospital over a 1-year period were examined for the presence of oral pigmentations. Histopathological examination was performed on focally pigmented lesions with a suspicious or uncertain clinical diagnosis. A total of 386 (30.2%) patients were found to have oral pigmentations. Of these, racial pigmentation (39.9%) and smokers' melanosis (32.9%) were the most common causes of oral pigmentations. Other causes included amalgam tattoo (18.9%), focal melanotic macules (5.7%), postinflammatory pigmentation (1.6%), pigmentation due to medications or systemic disease (0.52%), heavy metal deposits (0.26%), and oral nevus (0.26%). Gingivae and buccal mucosae were the most common sites for oral pigmentations. Pigmentations of the oral mucosa are common. Gingivae and buccal mucosae are the most common sites for oral pigmentations. Proper history and recognition of clinical features are important for effective management. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Comparative study on the incidence and outcomes of pigmented versus non pigmented keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the incidence, outcomes and establish factors determining visual prognosis of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi in comparison with nonpigmented fungi. Materials and Methods: All culture-proven cases of fungal keratitis from January 2006 to August 2008 were drawn from a computerized database and cases with adequate documentation were analyzed for predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, microbiology and treatment methods. Outcomes of keratitis due to pigmented and nonpigmented fungi were compared using t-test and χ2 test. Results: Of 373 cases of keratomycosis during the study period, pigmented fungi were etiological agents in 117 eyes (31.3% and nonpigmented fungi in 256 eyes (68.7%. Eyes with nonpigmented keratitis had significantly larger ulcers (14.96 mm 2 and poorer vision (1.42 logMAR at presentation compared to those with keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi (P=0.01. The characteristic macroscopic pigmentation was seen in only 14.5% in the pigmented keratitis group. Both groups responded favorably to medical therapy (78.1% vs. 69.1% with scar formation (P=0.32 and showed a significant improvement in mean visual acuity compared with that at presentation (P<0.01. Visual improvement in terms of line gainers and losers in the subgroup of eyes that experienced healing was also similar. Location of the ulcer was the only factor that had significant predictive value for visual outcome (P=0.021. Conclusion: Incidence of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi may be increasing as compared to previous data. These eyes have similar response to medical therapy and similar visual outcome compared to nonpigmented keratitis. Central ulcers have a poor visual outcome.

  19. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Cancer Institute. What You Need To Know About Melanoma and Other Skin Cancers: How To Check Your Skin. (NIH Publication No. ...

  20. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  1. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-04

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type.

  2. Pigment reduction in nevus of Ota following leech therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Rastogi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a congenital blue-gray color nevus afflicting unilaterally, the area near the eyes. It poses a huge cosmetic concern besides being a potential threat for developing melanoma sometime in the course of the disease. The treatment options are neither many nor promising besides they are too expensive. We have treated a case of nevus of Ota with leech therapy where leech was applied upon the lesion for five times spanned in a period of 2 months. The results in terms of change in the color of lesion were evaluated with the help of serial photographs following every treatment session to mark the level of color changes in the lesion. A substantial reduction in color of the nevus was reported following the completion of the therapy. The results were demonstrated with the photographs. Although, recommended as the classical Ayurvedic management for skin diseases, leech therapy is not reported earlier in such conditions. It proposes a novel approach to deal with such congenital pigment lesions where other options are not promising.

  3. Application of genetic algorithm to land use optimization for non-point source pollution control based on CLUE-S and SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingrui; Liu, Ruimin; Men, Cong; Guo, Lijia

    2018-05-01

    The genetic algorithm (GA) was combined with the Conversion of Land Use and its Effect at Small regional extent (CLUE-S) model to obtain an optimized land use pattern for controlling non-point source (NPS) pollution. The performance of the combination was evaluated. The effect of the optimized land use pattern on the NPS pollution control was estimated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and an assistant map was drawn to support the land use plan for the future. The Xiangxi River watershed was selected as the study area. Two scenarios were used to simulate the land use change. Under the historical trend scenario (Markov chain prediction), the forest area decreased by 2035.06 ha, and was mainly converted into paddy and dryland area. In contrast, under the optimized scenario (genetic algorithm (GA) prediction), up to 3370 ha of dryland area was converted into forest area. Spatially, the conversion of paddy and dryland into forest occurred mainly in the northwest and southeast of the watershed, where the slope land occupied a large proportion. The organic and inorganic phosphorus loads decreased by 3.6% and 3.7%, respectively, in the optimized scenario compared to those in the historical trend scenario. GA showed a better performance in optimized land use prediction. A comparison of the land use patterns in 2010 under the real situation and in 2020 under the optimized situation showed that Shennongjia and Shuiyuesi should convert 1201.76 ha and 1115.33 ha of dryland into forest areas, respectively, which represented the greatest changes in all regions in the watershed. The results of this study indicated that GA and the CLUE-S model can be used to optimize the land use patterns in the future and that SWAT can be used to evaluate the effect of land use optimization on non-point source pollution control. These methods may provide support for land use plan of an area.

  4. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your skin ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin less ...

  5. Phytochemicals in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment: An Updated Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Yee Ng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the largest human organ, our protection against various environmental assaults and noxious agents. Accumulation of these stress events may lead to the formation of skin cancers, including both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Although modern targeted therapies have ameliorated the management of cutaneous malignancies, a safer, more affordable, and more effective strategy for chemoprevention and treatment is clearly needed for the improvement of skin cancer care. Phytochemicals are biologically active compounds derived from plants and herbal products. These agents appear to be beneficial in the battle against cancer as they exert anti-carcinogenic effects and are widely available, highly tolerated, and cost-effective. Evidence has indicated that the anti-carcinogenic properties of phytochemicals are due to their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects. In this review, we discuss the preventive potential, therapeutic effects, bioavailability, and structure–activity relationship of these selected phytochemicals for the management of skin cancers. The knowledge compiled here will provide clues for future investigations on novel oncostatic phytochemicals and additional anti-skin cancer mechanisms.

  6. Differentially expressed genes associated with tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Malassezia furfur--a comparison with the recently published genome of Malassezia globosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S K; Hort, W; Mayser, P

    2011-07-01

    Malassezia (M.) furfur, a commensal organism found on the human skin, produces a wide range of pigments and fluorochromes when cultured with tryptophan as a sole nitrogen source. Some compounds of this pigment metabolism may provide an explanation for clinical characteristics of pityriasis versicolor (PV), a frequent skin disease in humans characterised by long-lasting pigmentary changes. Malassezia globosa is currently regarded as the causative agent of PV, but tryptophan-dependent pigment production has not yet been demonstrated in this species. In a previous study, we identified M. furfur genes that were differentially expressed 3 and 5 h, respectively, after induction of tryptophan-dependent pigment production. The recent publication of the genome of M. globosa prompted us to check the M. furfur sequences for homologues in M. globosa. The 3-h pool contained 79 sequences and the 5-h pool contained 91 sequences. A translated vs. translated BLAST search resulted in 62 sequences (78%) of the 3-h pool and 61 sequences (67%) of the 5-h pool showing similarity to a sequence from M. globosa. It appears that M. globosa possesses homologues to most of the genes that are differentially expressed during pigment production in M. furfur. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Sequences associated with human iris pigmentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Frudakis, Tony; Thomas, Matthew; Gaskin, Zach; Venkateswarlu, K; Chandra, K Suresh; Ginjupalli, Siva; Gunturi, Sitaram; Natrajan, Sivamani; Ponnuswamy, Viswanathan K; Ponnuswamy, K N

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether and how common polymorphisms are associated with natural distributions of iris colors, we surveyed 851 individuals of mainly European descent at 335 SNP loci in 13 pigmentation genes and 419 other SNPs distributed throughout the genome and known or thought to be informative for certain elements of population structure. We identified numerous SNPs, haplotypes, and diplotypes (diploid pairs of haplotypes) within the OCA2, MYO5A, TYRP1, AIM, DCT, and TYR genes and the CYP1A2...

  8. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, B.; O'Connor, S.; Pittelkow, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people

  9. An Assessment of Normalized Difference Skin Index Robustness in Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    sensors, and magnetic sensors, placed along the US border. The system was implemented as a force-multiplication measure; with over 6000 miles to cover...Distributed spacing stochastic feature selection and its application to textile classification [7], • Dismount threat recognition through automatic pose...to Textile Classification”. 2011. [8] Costin, Gertrude-E and Vincent J. Hearing. “Human skin pigmentation: melanocytes modulate skin color in

  10. Detecting early stage pressure ulcer on dark skin using multispectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Wang, Fengtao; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fuhan; Adibi, Ali; Tummala, Rao

    2010-02-01

    We are developing a handheld multispectral imaging device to non-invasively inspect stage I pressure ulcers in dark pigmented skins without the need of touching the patient's skin. This paper reports some preliminary test results of using a proof-of-concept prototype. It also talks about the innovation's impact to traditional multispectral imaging technologies and the fields that will potentially benefit from it.

  11. Tetrapyrrole pigments in the geologic record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louda, J.W.; Baker, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of our ongoing studies on the fossilization of biotic tetrapyrrole pigments and is directed at revealing the utility of such study in assessing pre-, syn- and post-depositional processes. Diagenesis is found to become fated during oxic or anoxic deposition as to pigment destruction or fossilization, respectively. The progress of organic maturation has been followed in suited of oceanic sediments as well as shales and petroleum crudes from various basins in the US and Canada. Early catagenesis is witnessed by the release (ex kerogen.) of large quantities, re bitumen, of C28 to C34 V=O porphyrins. As catagenesis continues pigment concentration decreases, due to dilution, and higher C number porphyrins (C34-C45+) are added. Once the source is depleted or divorced from the bitumen, maturation leads to dealkylation which ends in the destruction of all tetrapyrrole structure. These changes are in concert with a shift from DPEP to ETIO dominance and parallel overall organic maturation in strict fashions. Organic source and paleoenvironment may also be addressed through porphyrin studies. Patterns of tetrapyrroles can differentiate the more allochthonous nature of black shale OM in the N. Atlantic from the autochthonous materials in these sequences in the margins of N.W. Africa and the S. Atlantic (high yield, DPEP).

  12. Treatment of gingival pigmentation : A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of ′black gums′ are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  13. Marine algae as attractive source to skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, Jean-Yves; Nachat-Kappes, Rachida; Bey, Mathieu; Cadoret, Jean-Paul; Renimel, Isabelle; Filaire, Edith

    2017-06-01

    As the largest organ in the human body, the skin has multiple functions of which one of the most important is the protection against various harmful stressors. The keratinised stratified epidermis and an underlying thick layer of collagen-rich dermal connective tissues are important components of the skin. The environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and pollution increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to clinical manifestations such as wrinkle formation and skin aging. Skin aging is related to the reduction of collagen production and decrease of several enzymatic activities including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade collagen structure in the dermis; and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), which inhibit the action of MMPs. In addition to alterations of DNA, signal transduction pathways, immunology, UVR, and pollution activate cell surface receptors of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the skin. This action leads to a breakdown of collagen in the extracellular matrix and a shutdown of new collagen synthesis. Therefore, an efficient antioxidants strategy is of major importance in dermis and epidermis layers. Marine resources have been recognised for their biologically active substances. Among these, marine algae are rich-sources of metabolites, which can be used to fight against oxidative stress and hence skin aging. These metabolites include, among others, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), polysaccharides, sulphated polysaccharides, glucosyl glycerols, pigments, and polyphenols. This paper reviews the role of oxidative processes in skin damage and the action of the compounds from algae on the physiological processes to maintain skin health.

  14. A New Clue in the Mystery of Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    .Bassa and collaborators also found that the properties of the host galaxy are consistent with those of a type of galaxy known as extreme emission line galaxies. This provides a tantalizing clue, as these galaxies are known to host both hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae and long-duration gamma-ray bursts.Linking to the CauseWhat can this tell us about the cause of FRB 121102? The fact that this burst repeats already eliminates cataclysmic events as the origin. But the projected location of FRB 121102 within a star-forming region especially in a host galaxy thats similar to those typically hosting superluminous supernovae and long gamma-ray bursts strongly suggests theres a relation between these events.Artists impression of a gamma-ray burst in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]The authors propose that this observed coincidence, supported by models of magnetized neutron star birth, indicate an evolutionary link between fast radio bursts and neutron stars. In this picture, neutron stars or magnetars are born as long gamma-ray bursts or hydrogen-poor supernovae, and then evolve into fast-radio-burst-emitting sources.This picture may finally explain the cause of fast radio bursts but Bassa and collaborators caution that its also possible that this model applies only to FRB 121102. Since FRB 121102 is unique in being the only burst discovered to repeat, its cause may also be unique. The authors suggest that targeted searches of star-forming regions in galaxies similar to FRB 121102s host may reveal other repeating burst candidates, helping us to unravel the ongoing mystery of fast radio bursts.CitationC. G. Bassa et al 2017 ApJL 843 L8. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa7a0c

  15. Biology and genetics of oculocutaneous albinism and vitiligo - common pigmentation disorders in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Prashiela; Kerr, Robyn; Ramsay, Michèle; Kromberg, Jennifer G R

    2013-07-29

    Pigmentation disorders span the genetic spectrum from single-gene autosomal recessive disorders such as oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), the autosomal dominant disorder piebaldism to X-linked ocular albinism and multifactorial vitiligo. OCA connotes a group of disorders that result in hypopigmented skin due to decreased melanin production in melanocytes and loss of visual acuity. There are four non-syndromic forms, OCA1-4, which are classified based on the gene that is mutated (tyrosinase, OCA2, tyrosinase-related protein 1 and SLC45A2, respectively). Despite the fact that multiple genes account for the various forms of OCA, the phenotypes of all four forms result from disruption in the maturation and trafficking of the enzyme tyrosinase. OCA2 is the most prevalent autosomal recessive disorder among southern African blacks, affecting 1/3 900 individuals; while OCA3, although rare, is most prevalent in southern Africa. Another common pigmentation disorder in southern Africa is vitiligo, which affects 1 - 2% of people worldwide. Vitiligo is a complex, acquired disorder in which melanocytes are destroyed due to an autoimmune response. The aetiology underlying this disorder is poorly understood, although recent genetic association studies have begun to shed light on the contributing factors. Pigmentation disorders have significant psychosocial implications and co-morbidities, yet therapies are still lacking. Recent progress in our understanding of the pathobiology of both albinism and vitiligo may herald novel treatment strategies for these disorders. 

  16. Localization and seasonal variation of blue pigment (sandercyanin) in walleye (Sander vitreus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Wayne; Schmitz, Mark; Blazer, Vicki S.; Ehlinger, Tim; Berges, John

    2015-01-01

    Several fish species, including the walleye (Sander vitreus), have “yellow” and “blue” color morphs. In S. vitreus, one source of the blue color has been identified as a bili-binding protein pigment (sandercyanin), found in surface mucus of the fish. Little is known about the production of the pigment or about its functions. We examined the anatomical localization and seasonal variation of sandercyanin in S. vitreus from a population in McKim Lake, northwestern Ontario, Canada. Skin sections were collected from 20 fish and examined histologically. Mucus was collected from 306 fish over 6 years, and the amount of sandercyanin was quantified spectrophotometrically. Sandercyanin was found solely on dorsal surfaces of the fish and was localized to novel cells in the epidermis, similar in appearance to secretory sacciform cells. Sandercyanin concentrations were significantly higher in fish collected in summer versus other seasons. Yellow and blue morphs did not differ in amounts of sandercyanin, suggesting that the observed blue color, in fact, arises from lack of yellow pigmentation in blue morphs. The function of the sandercyanin remains unclear, but roles in photoprotection and countershading are consistent with available data.

  17. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrastructural assessment of cellulite morphology: clues to a therapeutic strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Tokuya; Sato, Shigeru; Kawana, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Cellulite is a problematic condition affecting mostly women, characterized by a bumpy or nodular skin surface. Recent approaches with laser treatment have offered some promise. The present study sought to identify possible targets for laser treatment or light therapy through an ultrastructural investigation of the condition. Study subjects comprised 7 healthy Japanese female volunteers (Age range 37-46 yr, average 38.4) with cellulite, graded on the 4-point Nurnberger-Muller cellulite severity scale. Four patients were at grade 2 and 3 at grade 3. Three millimeter punch biopsies were obtained and routinely processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. Microphotography of specimens from cellulite patients demonstrated the presence of fibrotic septa which divided up larger clusters of adipose tissue into smaller packets, with the septa acting as a tethering system, thus producing the typical dimpling pattern. Ultrastructural findings showed proliferation of collagen and elastic fibers down into the cellulite tissue with compression of capillaries and congestion of arterioles, resulting in poor blood flow. The histological and ultrastructural findings of cellulite clearly distinguish the condition from simple fat deposition. The remodeling of the fat layer into lobulated packets of lipocytes sequestered by fibrotic septa with a high proportion of elastic fibers would suggest the use of a fiber-based interstitial laser-assisted lipolysis system at an appropriate wavelength which might offer benefits through disruption of the septae through a photomechanical effect and lipolysis of the sequestered lipocytes. This could be followed by a course of near-infrared phototherapy to accelerate clearance of freed lipid and debris and reestablish the vascular system.

  19. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parichy, David M; Spiewak, Jessica E

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage, and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve-associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development of the springbok skin — colour pattern, hair slope and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the foetal springbok skin, identifiable melanocytes are present before colour patterns are established. These pigment cells fail to appear in the pouch and belly areas, indicating that these zones are piebald and not albinotic. Areas of regional colour differences are sharply separated. Their distinctiveness is caused by a ...

  1. Patched mutations and hairy skin patches: a new sign in Gorlin syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Louise C.; Ajayi-Obe, Ekundayo; Bernhard, Birgitta; Maas, Saskia M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of discrete patches of unusually long pigmented hair on the skin of three patients with Gorlin syndrome from two unrelated families with confirmed heterozygous mutations in the Patched (PTCH) gene. The PTCH protein is a negative regulator of Hedgehog signaling, and the

  2. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia’s virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Objective: Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Method: Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 – 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Results: Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H2O2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Conclusion: Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens. PMID:28567147

  3. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dana M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Results Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusion A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms, our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  4. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia 's virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 - 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H 2 O 2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens .

  5. A novel role for pigment genes in the stress response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Uniza Wahid; Øverli, Øyvind; Hinkle, Patricia M.; Pasha, Farhan Ahmad; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Berget, Ingunn; Silva, Patricia I. M.; Kittilsen, Silje; Höglund, Erik; Omholt, Stig W.; Våge, Dag Inge

    2016-01-01

    In many vertebrate species visible melanin-based pigmentation patterns correlate with high stress- and disease-resistance, but proximate mechanisms for this trait association remain enigmatic. Here we show that a missense mutation in a classical pigmentation gene, melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R), is strongly associated with distinct differences in steroidogenic melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA expression between high- (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also show experimentally that cortisol implants increase the expression of agouti signaling protein (ASIP) mRNA in skin, likely explaining the association between HR-traits and reduced skin melanin patterning. Molecular dynamics simulations predict that melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP), needed for MC2R function, binds differently to the two MC1R variants. Considering that mRNA for MC2R and the MC1R variants are present in head kidney cells, we hypothesized that MC2R activity is modulated in part by different binding affinities of the MC1R variants for MRAP. Experiments in mammalian cells confirmed that trout MRAP interacts with the two trout MC1R variants and MC2R, but failed to detect regulation of MC2R signaling, possibly due to high constitutive MC1R activity. PMID:27373344

  6. A novel role for pigment genes in the stress response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Uniza Wahid

    2016-07-04

    In many vertebrate species visible melanin-based pigmentation patterns correlate with high stress- and disease-resistance, but proximate mechanisms for this trait association remain enigmatic. Here we show that a missense mutation in a classical pigmentation gene, melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R), is strongly associated with distinct differences in steroidogenic melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA expression between high- (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also show experimentally that cortisol implants increase the expression of agouti signaling protein (ASIP) mRNA in skin, likely explaining the association between HR-traits and reduced skin melanin patterning. Molecular dynamics simulations predict that melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP), needed for MC2R function, binds differently to the two MC1R variants. Considering that mRNA for MC2R and the MC1R variants are present in head kidney cells, we hypothesized that MC2R activity is modulated in part by different binding affinities of the MC1R variants for MRAP. Experiments in mammalian cells confirmed that trout MRAP interacts with the two trout MC1R variants and MC2R, but failed to detect regulation of MC2R signaling, possibly due to high constitutive MC1R activity.

  7. Reconstruction of showers at TeV energy by the CLUE Experiment and its application to recent data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Cresti, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Bigongiari, C.; Cocca, E.; Lucchesi, D.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Scribano, A.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N.; Zetti, F.; Liello, F.

    1999-01-01

    The CLUE UV Cerenkov telescope array has started to take data with 8 telescopes in January 1998. The UV Cerenkov images obtained by the CLUE experiment are very different with respect to the visible case, and a new method for reconstructing the shower direction has been worked out. The shower reconstruction is shown and an application to recent data is given

  8. Reconstruction of showers at TeV energy by the CLUE Experiment and its application to recent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Cresti, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Bigongiari, C.; Cocca, E.; Lucchesi, D.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Scribano, A.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N.; Zetti, F.; Liello, F

    1999-03-01

    The CLUE UV Cerenkov telescope array has started to take data with 8 telescopes in January 1998. The UV Cerenkov images obtained by the CLUE experiment are very different with respect to the visible case, and a new method for reconstructing the shower direction has been worked out. The shower reconstruction is shown and an application to recent data is given.

  9. Can net photosynthesis and water relations provide a clue on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... clue on the forest decline of Quercus suber in North. Tunisia? Lee, S. H.1, Woo, S.Y.1*, Nasr, Z.2, ... Quercus suber forest in north Tunisia in an attempt to explain the forest decline. In general, sap flow was positively .... The increased drought stress on the trees with high radiation on the soil was attributed to ...

  10. Joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue to improve reading comprehension skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vina Anggia Nastitie Ariawan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are (1 to describe steps in the implementation of joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue to improve reading comprehension skill for the fourth grade students of elementary school; (2 to improve reading comprehension skill for the fourth grade students of elementary school by implementing joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue. This research is collaborative Classroom Action Research (CAR and implemented within two cycles. Each cycle implemented within two meetings. This research impelemented at one of elementary school in Kuningan. Subjects of this research are 31 students of the fourth grade of elementary school. Techniques of collecting data were observation, interview, an document analysis. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis meanwhile data were validated using triangulation, member checking, and reflectivity. The results of this research show that joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue can increase students’ reading comprehension skill . The results proved by the increase of reading comprehension outcomes in each cycles. Passing grade percentage of students result in the first cycle is 73,86% and in the second cycle is 87,56%. Therefore, students’ learning outcomes has passed performance indicator research of 85%. The conclusion of this research is the implementation of joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue can improve reading comprehension skill for the fourth grade students of elementary school.

  11. Performance on Middle School Geometry Problems with Geometry Clues Matched to Three Different Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen L.; Casey, M. Beth; Thompson, William L.; Burrage, Marie S.; Pezaris, Elizabeth; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between 3 ability-based cognitive styles (verbal deductive, spatial imagery, and object imagery) and performance on geometry problems that provided different types of clues. The purpose was to determine whether students with a specific cognitive style outperformed other students, when the geometry problems…

  12. Oily skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. 'How do you know what Aunt Martha looks like?' A video elicitation study exploring tacit clues in doctor-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G; Forman, Jane H; Fetters, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    Theory suggests that tacit clues inform clinical judgements, but the prevalence and role of tacit clues during clinical interactions is unknown. This study explored whether doctors and patients identify information likely to be tacit clues or judgements based on tacit clues during health maintenance examinations. Qualitative analysis of video elicitation interview transcripts involving 18 community-based primary care doctors and 36 patients. Outcomes were description and analysis of tacit clues and judgements based on tacit clues mentioned by participants. A total of 57 references to tacit clues and 53 references to judgements based on tacit clues were identified from patient and doctor transcripts. Non-verbal behaviours comprised the most common category of tacit clues (53% of doctor comments; 42% of patient comments). Patients mostly discussed judgements based on tacit clues that related to the doctor-patient relationship. Doctors discussed actively using non-verbal behaviours to provide patients with tacit clues about the doctor-patient relationship. They also mentioned tacit clues that informed medical judgements and decision making. Gestalt judgements based on tacit clues were common (33% of doctor comments). Several participants identified instances in which they had difficulty articulating their rationale for specific judgements. Doctors varied widely in how frequently they mentioned tacit clues. During video elicitation interviews, patients and doctors identified tacit clues and judgements based on these clues as playing a role during health maintenance examinations. Future research should further elucidate the role of tacit clues in medical judgements and doctor-patient relationships. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Pigment and terracotta analyses of Hellenistic figurines in Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.

    2003-01-01

    The results of the analyses performed on blue, black, brown, orange, white and purple pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, excavated in a rock-cut tomb in the archaeological zone of Chania, Crete, Greece, are presented. Different spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence identified the compounds present in the chromatic layers. X-ray diffraction analysis gave complementary information and further support to the spectral assignments. Optical microscopy revealed the nature and sequence of the pigmented layer on the terracotta. Several precious pigments, such as Egyptian blue for the bluish areas, Tyrian purple for the purple ones, and the rare huntite for the white-pigmented areas were identified among the studied pigmented areas. The pigment analysis provides information on the technical aspects related to terracotta manufacture and preservation, and promotes historical indications on cultural and commercial changes among the Mediterranean civilisations

  15. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  16. Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy with which relevant atmospheric parameters must be estimated to derive photoplankton pigment concentrations of a given accuracy, from measurements of the ocean's apparent spectral radiance at satellite altitudes, is examined. A phytoplankton pigment algorithm is developed which relates the pigment concentration (c) to the three ratios of upwelling radiance just beneath the sea surface which can be formed from wavelengths (lambda) 440, 520 and 550 nm.

  17. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  18. Post-embryonic nerve-associated precursors to adult pigment cells: genetic requirements and dynamics of morphogenesis and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erine H Budi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The pigment cells of vertebrates serve a variety of functions and generate a stunning variety of patterns. These cells are also implicated in human pathologies including melanoma. Whereas the events of pigment cell development have been studied extensively in the embryo, much less is known about morphogenesis and differentiation of these cells during post-embryonic stages. Previous studies of zebrafish revealed genetically distinct populations of embryonic and adult melanophores, the ectotherm homologue of amniote melanocytes. Here, we use molecular markers, vital labeling, time-lapse imaging, mutational analyses, and transgenesis to identify peripheral nerves as a niche for precursors to adult melanophores that subsequently migrate to the skin to form the adult pigment pattern. We further identify genetic requirements for establishing, maintaining, and recruiting precursors to the adult melanophore lineage and demonstrate novel compensatory behaviors during pattern regulation in mutant backgrounds. Finally, we show that distinct populations of latent precursors having differential regenerative capabilities persist into the adult. These findings provide a foundation for future studies of post-embryonic pigment cell precursors in development, evolution, and neoplasia.

  19. Regulation of eumelanin/pheomelanin synthesis and visible pigmentation in melanocytes by ligands of the melanocortin 1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Elodie; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Wolber, Rainer; Hearing, Vincent J

    2008-08-01

    The production of melanin in the hair and skin is tightly regulated by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) whose activation is controlled by two secreted ligands, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) and agouti signal protein (ASP). As melanin is extremely stable, lasting years in biological tissues, the mechanism underlying the relatively rapid decrease in visible pigmentation elicited by ASP is of obvious interest. In this study, the effects of ASP and alphaMSH on the regulation of melanin synthesis and on visible pigmentation were assessed in normal murine melanocytes and were compared with the quick depigmenting effect of the tyrosinase inhibitor, phenylthiourea (PTU). alphaMSH increased pheomelanin levels prior to increasing eumelanin content over 4 days of treatment. Conversely, ASP switched off the pigment synthesis pathway, reducing eu- and pheo-melanin synthesis within 1 day of treatment that was proportional to the decrease in tyrosinase protein level and activity. These results demonstrate that the visible depigmentation of melanocytes induced by ASP does not require the degradation of existing melanin but rather is due to the dilution of existing melanin by melanocyte turnover, which emphasizes the importance of pigment distribution to visible color.

  20. Development of waste-based ceramic pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, G.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation of ceramic pigments using industrial wastes as primary sources. In this context, the use of Al-rich sludge generated in the wastewater treatment unit of an anodising or surface coating industrial plant, and a galvanizing sludge from the Cr/Ni plating process, will be detailed. The ceramic pigments reported here were prepared using typical solid state reactions involving the metal rich sludge. The main focus will be on the synthesis of chrome-tin orchid cassiterite (Sn,CrO2, chrome-tin red malayaite Ca(Cr,SnSiO5, victoria green garnet Ca3Cr2Si3O12, and chrome alumina pink/green corundum (Cr,Al2O3 pigments. The pigments were fully characterised and then were tested in a standard ceramic glaze after. Typical working conditions and colour development will be reported.

    Se presenta la preparación de pigmentos cerámicos empleando residuos industriales como fuente de materias primas. Se detallan el uso de barros ricos en aluminio obtenidos en los tratamientos de depuración de aguas de plantas industriales de anodizado y barros de galvanizados de chapados de Cr/Ni. Los pigmentos cerámicos se prepararon empleando reacción en estados sólido a partir del barro rico en metal. Los principales pigmentos estudiados son orquídea casiterita de cromo-estaño (Sn,CrO2, malayita rojo de cromo-estaño Ca(Sn,CrSiO3, granate verde victoria Ca3Cr2Si3O12, y corindón rosa/verde de cromo alúmina (Cr,Al2O3. Los pigmentos fueron caracterizados y ensayados después de ser vidriados en cerámicas estándares. Se presentan las condiciones de trabajo y el desarrollo de color.

  1. Erythema persists longer than one year in split-thickness skin graft donor sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Jorgensen, Lars N; Jørgensen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of skin function and appearance after harvest of split-thickness skin autografts is incompletely described. We followed the kinetics of skin restoration after a partial-thickness skin excision relative to adjacent normal skin over 12 months. Standardized donor site wounds were made o....... The macroscopically healed wound was compared with adjacent normal skin at 1, 3 and 12 months. At 1 month postoperatively, TEWL was 108% (p = 0.003), erythema 145% (p ......The recovery of skin function and appearance after harvest of split-thickness skin autografts is incompletely described. We followed the kinetics of skin restoration after a partial-thickness skin excision relative to adjacent normal skin over 12 months. Standardized donor site wounds were made...... on the thigh using a pneumatic dermatome in 19 consecutive Caucasian patients, median age 70 years, age range 44-86 years, who were undergoing skin graft surgery for leg ulcers. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema and pigmentation were measured quantitatively using non-invasive devices...

  2. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  3. Pigments and oligomers for inks - moving towards the best combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.; Smith, S.; Grierson, W.; Devine, E.

    1999-01-01

    The formulation of UV curable printing inks depends on several complex factors. If the individual components of the ink are not complementary, then performance problems can arise. One critical combination is that between the pigment and the oligomer. In a new approach to improve understanding of pigment/oligomer interactions, the resources of a pigment manufacturer and an oligomer manufacturer have been combined to investigate the problem. Initial screening of process yellow pigments and several oligomer types highlighted performance variations which were then examined in more detail

  4. The sensitivity of Turing self-organization to biological feedback delays: 2D models of fish pigmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    © The authors 2013. Turing morphogen models have been extensively explored in the context of large-scale self-organization in multicellular biological systems. However, reconciling the detailed biology of morphogen dynamics, while accounting for time delays associated with gene expression, reveals aberrant behaviours that are not consistent with early developmental self-organization, especially the requirement for exquisite temporal control. Attempts to reconcile the interpretation of Turing\\'s ideas with an increasing understanding of the mechanisms driving zebrafish pigmentation suggests that one should reconsider Turing\\'s model in terms of pigment cells rather than morphogens (Nakamasu et al., 2009, PNAS, 106, 8429-8434; Yamaguchi et al., 2007, PNAS, 104, 4790-4793). Here the dynamics of pigment cells is subject to response delays implicit in the cell cycle and apoptosis. Hence we explore simulations of fish skin patterning, focussing on the dynamical influence of gene expression delays in morphogen-based Turing models and response delays for cell-based Turing models. We find that reconciling the mechanisms driving the behaviour of Turing systems with observations of fish skin patterning remains a fundamental challenge.

  5. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: February 7, 2018 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  6. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that freckles and burns easily, does not ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that ...

  7. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that freckles and burns easily, does not ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that ...

  8. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin in good health. Eating a balanced diet will help you maintain a healthy weight and ... for your skin and your overall health. A balanced diet: Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free ...

  9. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  10. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features on ... should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. Causes External radiation therapy uses high-powered x- ...

  11. Allergic Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 28 days to go away, even with treatment. Nickel, perfumes, dyes, rubber (latex) products and cosmetics also ... or swollen skin, you may have a skin allergy. • Urticaria (hives) are red, itchy, raised areas of ...

  12. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not well controlled with medicine Hives and angioedema Food allergies Skin rashes ( dermatitis ), in which the skin becomes ... prick test may also be used to diagnose food allergies. Intradermal tests are not used to test for ...

  13. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hay fever (allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin ... and dust mites. Skin testing may help diagnose food allergies. But because food allergies can be complex, you ...

  14. Update on the use of confocal microscopy in melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, S; Longo, C; Casari, A; Ciardo, S; Manfredini, M; Reggiani, C; Pellacani, G; Farnetani, F

    2015-10-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new technique enabling the visualization of the skin at a quasi-histological resolution, allowing the identification of clues for the diagnosis of skin diseases. The aim of this analysis was to provide new insights into the role of RCM in the diagnosis of skin cancers. Data comes from the most recent literature, taking into account previous essential reported information in this field. The study eligibility criteria were: studies providing update information, focusing on RCM findings in melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), without restrictions for age, sex, ethnicity. Duplicated studies and single case report were excluded from this study. A search concerning the role of RCM in melanoma and NMSC was performed on the Medline. RCM clues were analyzed for different skin cancers, in particular melanoma and NMSC, in association with clinical, dermoscopic and histopathologic findings. Diagnostic accuracy, sensibility and specificity of the technique were reviewed. Furthermore, some new findings have been described and recent applications have been discussed. The selection of articles was limited in order to provide an up-to-date revision. In conclusion, several RCM features were implemented for the diagnosis of melanoma and NMSC, leading to a confocal-based classification in most cases.

  15. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  16. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during pregnancy. For most skin changes, however, health care providers are not sure of the exact cause. Why do dark spots and patches appear on the skin during pregnancy? Dark spots and patches are caused by an increase in the body’s melanin—a natural substance that gives color to the skin and ...

  17. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  18. Zinc deficiency leads to lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Julien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult Long Evans (LE rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4-3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane.

  19. Stem Cell Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The Role of Pigmentation as Maturation Marker and Gene Expression Profile Comparison with Human Endogenous Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, A; Jacobs, J G; Catsburg, L A E; Ten Brink, J B; Koster, C; Schlingemann, R O; van Meurs, J; Gorgels, T G M F; Moerland, P D; Heine, V M; Bergen, A A

    2017-10-01

    In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deteriorates, leading to photoreceptor decay and severe vision loss. New therapeutic strategies aim at RPE replacement by transplantation of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived RPE. Several protocols to generate RPE have been developed where appearance of pigmentation is commonly used as indicator of RPE differentiation and maturation. It is, however, unclear how different pigmentation stages reflect developmental stages and functionality of PSC-derived RPE cells. We generated human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) cells and investigated their gene expression profiles at early pigmentation (EP) and late pigmentation (LP) stages. In addition, we compared the hESC-RPE samples with human endogenous RPE. We used a common reference design microarray (44 K). Our analysis showed that maturing hESC-RPE, upon acquiring pigmentation, expresses markers specific for human RPE. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that EP and LP hESC-RPE do not differ much in gene expression. Our data further showed that pigmented hESC-RPE has a significant lower expression than human endogenous RPE in the visual cycle and oxidative stress pathways. In contrast, we observed a significantly higher expression of pathways related to the process adhesion-to-polarity model that is typical of developing epithelial cells. We conclude that, in vitro, the first appearance of pigmentation hallmarks differentiated RPE. However, further increase in pigmentation does not result in much significant gene expression changes and does not add important RPE functionalities. Consequently, our results suggest that the time span for obtaining differentiated hESC-RPE cells, that are suitable for transplantation, may be greatly reduced.

  20. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S; Busheva, Mira C; Stoitchkova, Katerina V; Tzonova, Iren K, E-mail: katys@phys.uni-sofia.b

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ss-carotene (ss-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ss-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  1. Enamel ultrastructure in pigmented hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J T; Lord, V; Robinson, C; Shore, R

    1992-10-01

    Hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary condition of enamel that is presumed to result from defects during the maturation stage of enamel development. This study characterized the enamel ultrastructure and enamel crystallite morphology, as well as the distribution of organic material in enamel affected with pigmented hypomaturation AI. Enamel exhibiting autosomal recessive pigmented hypomaturation AI was sectioned or fractured and examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Enamel samples were treated with 30% NaOCl or 8 M urea to remove organic components and determine the effect of deproteinization on crystallite morphology. These were compared with untreated normal enamel samples. The enamel crystallites in hypomaturation AI exhibited considerable variability in size and morphology. Examination of deproteinized tissue indicated that the AI crystallites had a thick coating, presumably of organic or partially mineralized material, which was not visible in normal enamel. The results of this investigation provide further evidence that hypomaturation AI is associated with the retention of organic material that is most probably enamel protein. Enamel protein retention is likely to be involved in the inhibition of normal crystallite growth resulting in the morphological crystallite abnormalities associated with this disorder.

  2. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Ryter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, are endogenously-derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  3. Epigenetic’s role in fish pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cal Delgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti coat colour gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule whose differential expression produces the characteristic dorsal-ventral pigment pattern observed in most mammals. We have recently demonstrated that this well-characterised mechanism from mammals also applies to fish with their much more complex pigment patterns. However, the developmental mechanism through which agouti acts to establish these colour differences remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate agouti gene expression by in-vivo functional characterization of the agouti promoter and identification of possible putative regulatory elements that govern basal promoter activity. Specifically, the investigation was focused on the occurrence and role of CpG dinucleotides methylation in the agouti putative promoter sequence and on a possible epigenetic level of regulation of agouti expression. We report here expression analyses of eGFP expression from transgenic zebrafish containing an 8kb-agouti-Tol2-eGFP construct. eGFP expression was specifically found in the brain area and neural tube of Tol2 transposon vector transgenic embryos. Computer-based analysis revealed a putative CpG island immediately proximal to the translation start site. Global inhibition of methylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine promoted agouti production in association with decreasing CpG methylation. Taken together, these data identify a contributory role for DNA methylation in regulating agouti expression in zebrafish embryogenesis.

  4. Spontaneous Large Serous Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voraporn Chaikitmongkol

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report cases of spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE tear complicating serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED. Methods: The records of 3 Asian patients with spontaneous giant RPE tear were reviewed retrospectively by including clinical presentation, angiography, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and visual outcome. Results: Three patients (4 eyes were included in this study, with a mean age of 48.3 (42–56 years, and a mean follow-up period of 7.75 (4–18 months. Fundus examination in all patients showed giant RPE tear associated with bullous PED. Two cases had a history of prior corticosteroid use, and 1 had no history of medication use. All 3 patients developed spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid with no treatment. However, in patients who used corticosteroids, initial progression of the tear and subretinal fluid were observed despite ceasing medication. On subsequent follow-up, an incomplete RPE regeneration was demonstrated by fundus autofluorescence imaging, and choroidal neovascularization developed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Large PED with RPE tear is a rare manifestation. When the fovea is spared, visual prognosis is favorable. No specific treatment is required, but careful choroidal neovascularization monitoring should be performed.

  5. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V; Yaroslavskii, I V; Altshuler, G B

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%-40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  6. Modelling terahertz radiation absorption and reflection with computational phantoms of skin and associated appendages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilagosh, Zoltan; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Wood, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computational phantoms aid the analysis of THz radiation interaction with human skin. The presented computational phantoms have accurate anatomical layering and electromagnetic properties. A novel "large sheet" simulation technique is used allowing for a realistic representation of lateral absorption and reflection of in-vivo measurements. Simulations carried out to date have indicated that hair follicles act as THz propagation channels and confirms the possible role of melanin, both in nevi and skin pigmentation, to act as a significant absorber of THz radiation. A novel freezing technique has promise in increasing the depth of skin penetration of THz radiation to aid diagnostic imaging.

  7. The gecko visual pigments. The behavior of opsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F

    1979-05-01

    The 521-pigment extracted out of the retina of the Tokay gecko has the typical stereospecificity of the vertebrate visual pigments. This is true for the pigment in the chloride-depleted, "blue-shifted" state as well as for the normal pigment with added chloride. While in the chloride-deficient state, pigment regeneration occurred with both 11-cis- and 9-cis-retinals and the regenerated photopigments were also in the blue-shifted, chloride-depleted state. As with the native pigment, these regenerated pigments were bathochromically shifted to their normal positions by the addition of chloride. Chloride-deficient opsin by itself also responded to chloride for the pigment regenerated with 11-cis-retinal from such chloride-treated opsin was in the normal 521-position. Regeneration was always rapid, reaching completion in less than 5 min, and was significantly faster than for cow rhodopsin regenerating under the same conditions. This rapid rate was found with or without chloride, with both 11-cis- and 9-cis-retinals and in the presence of the sulfhydryl poison, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (PMB). Like the native chloride-deficient pigment, the regenerated chloride-depleted photopigments responded to PMB by a blue shift beyond the position of the chloride-deficient state. The addition of chloride to these "poisoned" regenerated pigments caused a bathochromic shift of such magnitude as to indicate a repair of both the PMB and chloride-deficient blue shift. In this discussion the possible implications of these results to phylogenetic considerations are considered as well as to some molecular properties of the 521-pigment.

  8. Total body photography for skin cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengel, Lynn T; Petroni, Gina R; Judge, Joshua; Chen, David; Acton, Scott T; Schroen, Anneke T; Slingluff, Craig L

    2015-11-01

    Total body photography may aid in melanoma screening but is not widely applied due to time and cost. We hypothesized that a near-simultaneous automated skin photo-acquisition system would be acceptable to patients and could rapidly obtain total body images that enable visualization of pigmented skin lesions. From February to May 2009, a study of 20 volunteers was performed at the University of Virginia to test a prototype 16-camera imaging booth built by the research team and to guide development of special purpose software. For each participant, images were obtained before and after marking 10 lesions (five "easy" and five "difficult"), and images were evaluated to estimate visualization rates. Imaging logistical challenges were scored by the operator, and participant opinion was assessed by questionnaire. Average time for image capture was three minutes (range 2-5). All 55 "easy" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 100%, 90% CI 95-100%), and 54/55 "difficult" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 98%, 90% CI 92-100%). Operators and patients graded the imaging process favorably, with challenges identified regarding lighting and positioning. Rapid-acquisition automated skin photography is feasible with a low-cost system, with excellent lesion visualization and participant acceptance. These data provide a basis for employing this method in clinical melanoma screening. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    barrier integrity, factors influencing the penetration of the skin, influence of wet work, and guidance for prevention and saving the barrier. Distinguished researchers have contributed to this book, providing a comprehensive and thorough overview of the skin barrier function. Researchers in the field...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  10. Dermatologic conditions in skin of color: part I. Special considerations for common skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Roopal V; Patterson, Stavonnie

    2013-06-15

    Skin of color traditionally refers to that of persons of African, Asian, Native American, Middle Eastern, and Hispanic backgrounds. Differences in cutaneous structure and function can result in skin conditions with distinct presentations and varying prevalence that require unique treatment. Skin cancers have different presentations in these populations. The ability to recognize and diagnose skin cancer in a timely manner is important for reducing morbidity and mortality. Basal cell carcinoma often is pigmented, squamous cell carcinoma occurs in areas of chronic scarring and inflammation, and melanoma presents in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the soles and nail beds. Diagnosis requires biopsy, with the technique depending on size and location of the lesion. Treatment options range from topical to surgical. Acne commonly results in postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and keloids. Combination therapy with topical antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide is generally more effective than monotherapy for treating acne. Use of retinoids at lower concentrations and at less frequent dosing can help prevent postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians.

  11. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  12. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML. PMID:27023575

  13. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-03-24

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML.

  14. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  15. A long-term time course of colorimetric evaluation of ultraviolet light-induced skin reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S B; Suh, D H; Youn, J I

    1999-07-01

    Many attempts have been made to quantify ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced erythema and pigmentation. However, most of these studies were concerned with the early changes of reactions and neglected events occurring in later stages. The long-term course of skin colour changes in pigmented skin, induced by broad band UVA and UVB radiation, was evaluated in 30 Korean male volunteers by means of a tri-stimulus colorimeter for 10 weeks. The L*a*b* system recommended by the Commission International de l'Eclairage was used to measure skin colour. The L* value (luminance) gives the relative lightness ranging from total black to total white. The a* value represents the balance between red and green and the b* value the balance between yellow and blue. The mean individual typology angle of our subjects was 47.3 degrees, indicating 'light' group of constitutional skin colour category. One day after UV exposure, the L* and b* values decreased significantly, following the colour direction of persistent pigment darkening. They then changed in opposite directions persistently until week 1, when maximum tanning was obtained. Then, a shift toward the original values was observed parallel to the constitutive melanization axis. The a* index showed a significant increase toward the mean colour of haemoglobin on day 1. It returned to its original value following the pathway of constitutive melanization axis. This promising quantitative method may enable objective measurement of dermatophysiologic changes to be made, and allow evaluation of the efficacy of therapeutic modalities on skin disorders without the inherent errors associated with subjective judgement. Our results would provide standard data for long-term UV-induced skin erythema and pigmentation.

  16. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.

    2003-01-01

    the colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red...... wine....

  17. Free radical scavenging activities of pigment extract from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The macroporous resin adsorption method was used to purify the pigment from Hibiscus syriacus L. petals. Through the comparison of the adsorption and desorption rates of six types of macroporous resins including AB-8, S-8, NKA-9, DM-130, D101 and 860021 to the pigment, 860021 resin was selected as the most ...

  18. The role of pigmentation on the development of chloroquine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... administered and duration of therapy. It is concluded that the effect of chloroquine on pigmentation depends on total amount of drug used, which would predispose to retinal pathology. Keywords: Chloroquine, pigmentation, melanin, retinopathy, retinotoxic. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  19. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  20. Eggshell pigmentation in the blue tit : Male quality matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badas, E. P.; Martinez, J.; Rivero-de Aguilar, J.; Stevens, M.; van der Velde, M.; Komdeur, J.; Merino, S.

    Many passerines lay protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs, and the degree of spotting seems to be related to female condition and environmental characteristics. However, most studies have ignored the relationship between the male's quality and eggshell pigmentation. Because ornaments can act as honest