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Sample records for skin lightening effect

  1. The phenomenon of skin lightening: Is it right to be light?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester M. Davids

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemicals capable of lightening the skin variously known as skin-bleaching, skin-lightening, depigmenting, skin-evening and skin-brightening agents are among the most commonly used skin preparations in the world. Globally, Africa reportedly exhibits a high prevalence of skin lightener use. In this review, we provide both clinical and social perspectives on skin lightener use in Africa, with particular emphasis on South Africa. We narratively explore the timeline associated with skin lightener use in South Africa and attempt to interweave the social rhetoric of this specific paradigm. Despite the risks associated with exposing the skin to known constituents of these formulations, such as hydroquinone and mercury, chronic use continues. In spite of legislation banning hydroquinone and mercury in cosmetics in South Africa, these ingredients are present in widely available products. We recommend better implementation of policies and greater ethical responsibility of multinational cosmetic companies in addition to the initiation of a system of random product testing and penalties that could improve industry compliance.

  2. A Fairer Face, a Fairer Tomorrow? A Review of Skin Lighteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levashni Naidoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From light-skinned deities depicted in ancient religious tableaux, pearl-swallowing practices in China, turmeric ceremonies in India to clay application in Africa, history has been coloured by our questionable aversion to the darker shades. Complexion has assumed psychological, economic and political currency with continued growth in the desire for skin lighteners sweeping the boundaries of country, race, cultural and socioeconomic status. This review explores our early associations with the symbolism of colour through religion, the ideals of complexion across cultures and time, the motivations behind the use of skin lightening practices, and the use of colour within political and economic agendas. Skin-lightening agents with regard to content, adverse effect profile and regulation are discussed and safe skin care practices in assisting with an individual’s adoption of a more tolerable spectrum of shades are alluded to.

  3. Fifty Shades of African Lightness: A Bio-psychosocial Review of the Global Phenomenon of Skin Lightening Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Meagan; Levine, Susan; Abney, Kate; Davids, Lester

    2016-12-31

    Skin-lightening is an aesthetic practice of global concern. By adopting a biopsycho-social approach, we consider the interplay between the biological, psychological and social factors that underpin the circulation and consumption of skin lighteners in South Africa. This paper reflects on biological aspects of skin lightening, interpersonal relationships, individual beliefs and expectations about the maintenance of health and well being that informs cosmetic practices. The paper seeks to examine claims made by historians (Thomas) and political philosophers and activists (Biko) that colonialism and apartheid in South Africa historically reinforced the use of skin lightening products in the country. The paper also investigates the role of media in staking out the boundaries of beauty. We argue that men and women practice skin-lightening not only as a complex result of the internalization of global standards of beauty, but meshed with a national politics of race and colorism. Banning skin lightening products without understanding the biological effects but also the social forces that underlie their increased popularity will prove futile. Moreover, we must consider the immeasurable pleasures associated with lightening, and the feelings with achieving visibility in South Africa, a country that continues to wrestle with blackness.

  4. Skin lighteners, Black consumers and Jewish entrepreneurs in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the rise and decline of South Africa's lucrative and controversial skin-lighteners market through examination of the business history of the largest manufacturers, Abraham and Solomon Krok, and their evolving personas as millionaires and philanthropists. Such examination reveals how the country's skin-lighteners trade emerged as part of the broader growth of a black consumer market after the Second World War and how elements of that market became the target of anti-apartheid protests in subsequent decades. It also demonstrates how the Kroks' experiences as second-generation Jewish immigrants shaped their involvement in the trade and how, later, their self-identification as Jewish philanthropists informed their efforts to rehabilitate their reputations following South Africa's 1990 ban on all skin lighteners. Such efforts include the building of Johannesburg's highly acclaimed Apartheid Museum, modelled after the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This article explores the profound ironies that some South Africans see in the fact that a museum dedicated to commemorating those who suffered under and, ultimately, triumphed against state racism was financed by a family fortune generated through the sale of skin lighteners to black consumers.

  5. Mercury content in skin-lightening creams and potential hazards to the health of Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Saleh, I; al-Doush, I

    1997-06-06

    It seems evident from a wealth of scientific research that mercury is toxic. Because of the nature of the Saudi markets, different brands of skin-lightening creams are widely available. In this study, 38 skin-lightening cream samples were collected and analyzed for mercury by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry after an acid digestion procedure. About 45% of the tested skin-lightening cream samples contained mercury at levels well above the FDA's acceptable limit of 1 ppm. These findings are alarming and have wide legal and educational implications for Saudi Arabia in particular and developing countries in general. Further investigation for possible adverse health effects is also needed.

  6. Prevalence of use of skin lightening agents amongst University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of skin lightening 'bleaching' agents has adverse effects on the skin. Cosmetic manufacturers in the country in advertising their products have exploited beautification with the use of these “bleaching” agents. The resultant increase in the use of these agents is likely to lead to a concomitant rise in the incidence of ...

  7. Fifty shades of African lightness: a bio-psychosocial review of the global phenomenon of skin lightening practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan Jacobs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin-lightening is an aesthetic practice of global concern. By adopting a biopsycho-social approach, we consider the interplay between the biological, psychological and social factors that underpin the circulation and consumption of skin lighteners in South Africa. This paper reflects on biological aspects of skin lightening, interpersonal relationships, individual beliefs and expectations about the maintenance of health and well being that informs cosmetic practices. The paper seeks to examine claims made by historians (Thomas and political philosophers and activists (Biko that colonialism and apartheid in South Africa historically reinforced the use of skin lightening products in the country. The paper also investigates the role of media in staking out the boundaries of beauty. We argue that men and women practice skinlightening not only as a complex result of the internalization of global standards of beauty, but meshed with a national politics of race and colorism. Banning skin lightening products without understanding the biological effects but also the social forces that underlie their increased popularity will prove futile. Moreover, we must consider the immeasurable pleasures associated with lightening, and the feelings with achieving visibility in South Africa, a country that continues to wrestle with blackness.

  8. Skin lightening practices: an epidemiological study of South African women of African and Indian ancestries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlova, N C; Hamed, S H; Tsoka-Gwegweni, J; Grobler, A

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous adverse sequelae of skin lightening creams present with myriad skin complications and affect dermatology practice, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where such products are widely used, with a prevalence of 25-67%. To examine the skin lightening practices of both African and Indian women living in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in the general outpatient departments of two regional university hospitals in Durban, South Africa. All consenting African and Indian women aged 18-70 years were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire. Six hundred women completed the questionnaire, of whom 32·7% reported using skin lightening products. The main reasons cited were treatment of skin problems (66·7%) and skin lightening (33·3%). Products were purchased from a variety of sources. Twenty-five percent reported using sunscreen. The use of skin lightening cosmetics is common among darkly pigmented South African women, including those of both African and Indian ancestries. Despite more than 20 years of governmental regulations aimed at prohibiting both the sale of cosmetics containing mercury, hydroquinone and corticosteroids, and the advertising of any kind of skin lightener, they are far from having disappeared. The main motivations for using these products are the desire to treat skin disorders and to achieve a lighter skin colour. Television and magazine advertisements seem to influence women's choice of these products and, thus, would be efficient channels for raising public awareness about the dangers of using uncontrolled skin lighteners. © 2015 The Authors BJD © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Examining the Impact of Skin Lighteners In Vitro

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    James V. Gruber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cosmetically important skin lightening agents, hydroquinone (HQ, kojic acid (KA, and niacinamide (NA, consume the bulk of successful skin lightening ingredients in cosmetic applications. However, the mechanisms by which these ingredients work are still unclear. In this study, melanocytes and keratinocytes were treated with high, nontoxic doses of HQ, KA, and NA and the cells were examined by human microarrays and protein assays for several important targets including cytotoxicity, melanin expression, tyrosinase gene (TYR and protein expression, melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R gene and protein expression, cytochrome c oxidase-1 (COX1 gene and protein expression, and ferritin (FTH1 gene and protein expression. It was found that all the skin lighteners examined showed marked increases in TYR, COX1, and FTH1 gene and protein expression, but not in MC1R expression in melanocytes. Upregulation of COX1 and FTH1 genes and proteins was common across both cell lines, melanocytes and keratinocytes. The results of the tyrosinase expression were somewhat unexpected. The role of iron in the expression of melanin is somewhat unexplored, but common and strong upregulation of ferritin protein in both types of cells due to the treatments suggests that iron plays a more pivotal role in melanin synthesis than previously anticipated.

  10. Mercury contamination in facial skin lightening creams and its health risks to user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yu Bin; Abdullah, Nor Hidayu; Hamsan, Hazwanee; Tan, Eugenie Sin Sing

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to determine concentrations of mercury in facial skin lightening cream according to different price categories (category I: mercury in samples were less than the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) permitted trace levels (mercury in facial skin lightening creams ranged from not detected to 1.13 mg kg -1 . There was no significant association between concentrations of mercury with price categories (p = 0.12). There was no significant non-carcinogenic health risk due to daily application of the facial skin lightening creams based on assumption of 30 years exposure period (HQ < 1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intravenous glutathione for skin lightening: Inadequate safety data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein thiol that protects mammalian cells from oxidative stress. Intravenous (IV) GSH for skin lightening is advertised by clinics in South Africa and internationally online, yet to date no published review on the subject exists. Methods.

  12. Accumulation of mercury in ovaries of mice after the application of skin-lightening creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune; Al-Amodi, Mona

    2009-10-01

    Skin-lightening creams are being increasingly used by women in particular, worldwide in an attempt to whiten their skin. Men and older people use these creams to remove age spots or other pigmentation disorders. Several studies have reported the presence of high mercury levels in skin-lightening cream. Women, especially pregnant and nursing mothers, who use these creams are at risk of mercury toxicity because long-term exposure can cause permanent neurological damage, nephrological disorders, fertility problems, and birth defects. Early exposure usually has no clinical symptoms. Mercury levels were measured in a total of 49 ovary tissue samples. The mean mercury contents in the ovaries of non-treated mice (11.70 +/- 13.38 ng/g) were compared to mice treated with Rose skin-lightening cream samples (2,471.92 +/- 1,336.31 ng/g) and those treated with Fair & Lovely skin-lightening creams (58.47 +/- 39.51 ng/g). The mercury content in the ovary tissues increased with number of cream applications and were highest in the ovaries of mice treated twice a day with Fair & Lovely (87.79 +/- 26.20 ng/g) and once a day with Rose (3,515.61 +/- 1,099.78 ng/g). Our data indicate that dermal exposure to mercury can result in a significant accumulation in the ovaries of mice following the application of skin-lightening cream. This may cause alterations in reproductive behavior and contribute to infertility or ovarian failure. Of course, these results need to be confirmed by further research. Imported or locally made skin-lightening creams are widely available in Saudi market. It would be ideal to ban the sale of these creams but unfortunately, advertisements in the mass media presenting celebrities and beauty specialists make these products more popular. Alternatively, public health authorities should encourage more reliance on prescribed creams for the treatment of skin pigmentation problems.

  13. Appreciating the image of God in all humanity: Towards a pastoral response to skin lightening as image enhancement to exit dark skin

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    Noah K. Tenai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The practice of skin lightening is prevalent amongst dark-skinned people globally. Various current studies that map this practice and that seek motivations behind the practice are examined. It is observed that through shrewd marketing, dark-skinned people are offered a promise of a better quality of life, obtained by a lighter skin, through the use of skin lighteners. In spite of the severe health risks involved, the promise is ostensibly irresistible to some dark-skinned persons. A pastoral response is offered that affirms the full personhood and complete humanity of dark-skinned people as fully human and whole in their dark skins. Keywords: Skin lightening, Dark skin, Image of God

  14. Preliminary study on the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusmadi, Siti Zulaikha; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2015-01-01

    Many cases of dermatologic complication were reported with the use of skin lightening products. This study assessed the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students. Self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 104 female students (56 undergraduates and 48 postgraduates) aged 24 ± 2 years in Universiti Putra Malaysia. A total of 60.6% (N = 63) of the female students used skin lightening products (61.9% of undergraduates and 38.1% of postgraduates). Reasonable price (N = 35, 55.6%) and ingredients (N = 29, 46%) were considered the most important factors in the product selection. Most respondents purchased the product from drugstores (N = 39, 61.9%). Twenty-two respondents (34.9%) in this study experienced skin problem from the products they used. Skin peeling (N = 13, 12.5%) and acne (N = 9, 8.7%) were the most frequent symptoms experienced. Most of the respondents have the perception that lighter skin provides high self-esteem (N = 56, 53.8%) and looks beautiful and healthier (N = 54, 51.9%). The use of skin lightening products is common among female students in this study and some of these products can cause skin problems such as skin peeling, acne, and itching.

  15. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams

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    Luz O. Leal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS. A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

  16. Preliminary Study on the Skin Lightening Practice and Health Symptoms among Female Students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zulaikha Rusmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cases of dermatologic complication were reported with the use of skin lightening products. This study assessed the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students. Self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 104 female students (56 undergraduates and 48 postgraduates aged 24±2 years in Universiti Putra Malaysia. A total of 60.6% (N=63 of the female students used skin lightening products (61.9% of undergraduates and 38.1% of postgraduates. Reasonable price (N=35, 55.6% and ingredients (N=29, 46% were considered the most important factors in the product selection. Most respondents purchased the product from drugstores (N=39, 61.9%. Twenty-two respondents (34.9% in this study experienced skin problem from the products they used. Skin peeling (N=13, 12.5% and acne (N=9, 8.7% were the most frequent symptoms experienced. Most of the respondents have the perception that lighter skin provides high self-esteem (N=56, 53.8% and looks beautiful and healthier (N=54, 51.9%. The use of skin lightening products is common among female students in this study and some of these products can cause skin problems such as skin peeling, acne, and itching.

  17. The globalization of whitening: prevalence of skin lighteners (or bleachers) use and its social correlates among university students in 26 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; James, Caryl

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of skin lighteners and its social correlates in university students from 26 low, middle income, and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 19,624 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic, social, health risk, mental health and abuse, and the use of skin lighteners. Overall, the prevalence of previous 12-month skin lightener use was 24.5, and 16.7% in male and 30.0% in female students. The use of skin lighteners varied by country, ranging from 0% in Turkey to 83.8% in Thailand. In multivariate logistic regression analysis among both men and women, social variables (highly-organized religious activity and lack of personal mastery) and health variables (inconsistent condom use) were associated with skin lightening use. In addition, male students from a lower income country, having a lack of social support, and a history of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to use skin lighteners, and women aged 20-21 years old, residing on the university campus, being a student of health and welfare, and having a lack of personal control, inadequate physical activity, and depressive symptoms were more likely users of skin-lightening products. A high prevalence of skin lightener use was found in this large sample of university students, and social and health-related risk factors were identified. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Overall skin tone and skin-lightening-improving effects with oral supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin isomers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

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    Juturu V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vijaya Juturu,1 James P Bowman,2 Jayant Deshpande1 1Department of Scientific and Clinical Affairs, OmniActive Health Technologies Inc., Morristown, NJ, 2James P Bowman & Associates LLC, Loveland, OH, USA Purpose: Carotenoids, especially lutein and zeaxanthin isomers (L/Zi, filter blue light and protect skin from environmental factors including high-energy sources. These carotenoids may be able to block the formation of melanin pathways, decrease cytokines, and increase antioxidants.Subjects and methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial over a 12-week supplementation period. Fifty healthy people (50 healthy subjects were recruited and 46 subjects completed the study (males and females, age: 18–45 years with mild-to-moderate dry skin were included in this study. Skin type of the subjects was classified as Fitzpatrick skin type II–IV scale. Subjects were administered with either an oral dietary supplement containing 10 mg lutein (L and 2 mg zeaxanthin isomers (Zi (L/Zi: RR-zeaxanthin and RS (meso-zeaxanthin or a placebo daily for 12 weeks. The minimal erythemal dose and skin lightening (L* were measured via the Chromameter®. The individual typological angle was calculated. Subjective assessments were also recorded.Results: Overall skin tone was significantly improved in the L/Zi group compared to placebo (P<0.0237, and luminance (L* values were significantly increased in the L/Zi group. Mean minimal erythemal dose was increased with L/Zi supplementation after 12 weeks of supplementation. L/Zi supplementation significantly increased the individual typological angle.Conclusion: L/Zi supplementation lightens and improves skin conditions. Keywords: lutein, zeaxanthin isomers, skin lightening, minimal erythemal dose, individual typological angle, overall skin tone

  19. Deoxyarbutin Possesses a Potent Skin-Lightening Capacity with No Discernible Cytotoxicity against Melanosomes.

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    Fang Miao

    Full Text Available Safe and effective ingredients capable of removing undesired hyperpigmentation from facial skin are urgently needed for both pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes. Deoxyarbutin (4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl oxy] phenol, D-Arb is a glucoside derivative of hydroquinone. Here, we investigated the toxicity and efficacy of D-Arb at the sub-cellular level (directly on melanosomes and skin pigmentation using in vivo and in vitro models to compare with its parent compound hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol, HQ. At first, we examined the ultrastructural changes of melanosomes in hyperpigmented guinea pig skin induced by 308-nm monochromatic excimer lightand/or treated with HQ and D-Arb using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that prominent changes in the melanosomal membrane, such as bulb-like structure and even complete rupture of the outer membranes, were found in the skin after topical application of 5% HQ for 10 days. These changes were barely observed in the skin treated with D-Arb. To further clarify whether membrane toxicity of HQ was a direct result of the compound treatment, we also examinedultrastructural changes of individual melanosomes purified from MNT1 human melanoma cells. Similar observations were obtained from the naked melanosome model in vitro. Finally, we determined the effects of melanosomal fractions exposed to HQ or D-Arb on hydroxyl radical generation in the Fenton reaction utilizing an electron spin resonance assay. D-Arb-treated melanosomesexhibit a moderate hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas HQ-treated melanosomessignificantly generate more hydroxyl free radicals. This study suggests that D-Arb possesses a potent ability in skin lightening and antioxidation with less melanosome cytotoxicity.

  20. Deoxyarbutin Possesses a Potent Skin-Lightening Capacity with No Discernible Cytotoxicity against Melanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Fang; Shi, Ying; Fan, Zhi-Feng; Jiang, Shan; Xu, Shi-Zheng; Lei, Tie-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Safe and effective ingredients capable of removing undesired hyperpigmentation from facial skin are urgently needed for both pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes. Deoxyarbutin (4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) oxy] phenol, D-Arb) is a glucoside derivative of hydroquinone. Here, we investigated the toxicity and efficacy of D-Arb at the sub-cellular level (directly on melanosomes) and skin pigmentation using in vivo and in vitro models to compare with its parent compound hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol, HQ). At first, we examined the ultrastructural changes of melanosomes in hyperpigmented guinea pig skin induced by 308-nm monochromatic excimer lightand/or treated with HQ and D-Arb using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that prominent changes in the melanosomal membrane, such as bulb-like structure and even complete rupture of the outer membranes, were found in the skin after topical application of 5% HQ for 10 days. These changes were barely observed in the skin treated with D-Arb. To further clarify whether membrane toxicity of HQ was a direct result of the compound treatment, we also examinedultrastructural changes of individual melanosomes purified from MNT1 human melanoma cells. Similar observations were obtained from the naked melanosome model in vitro. Finally, we determined the effects of melanosomal fractions exposed to HQ or D-Arb on hydroxyl radical generation in the Fenton reaction utilizing an electron spin resonance assay. D-Arb-treated melanosomesexhibit a moderate hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas HQ-treated melanosomessignificantly generate more hydroxyl free radicals. This study suggests that D-Arb possesses a potent ability in skin lightening and antioxidation with less melanosome cytotoxicity.

  1. Knowledge about, attitude toward, and practice of skin lightening products use and its social correlates among university students in five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries.

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    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge about, attitude toward, and use of skin lightening products (SLP) and its social and psychological correlates among university students from five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. In a cross sectional survey, 3259 undergraduate university students (Mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.6) from five ASEAN countries responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, poor mental health, and SLP use. Overall, 79.1% of the students were aware that the use of SLP can harm the skin, and 30.1% knew the active ingredients of SLP. Most students had a positive perception of having a lighter skin tone and SLP. Overall, the prevalence of SLP use over the past 12 months was 30.7%, 16.7% of male, and 30.0% of female students, ranging from 13.4% in Myanmar to 69.4% in Thailand. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, among women, older age, coming from a poorer family, residing in an upper middle income country, awareness of active skin lightening ingredients, and poor mental health were associated with SLP, while among men, not aware of the negative effects of SLP and awareness of active skin lightening ingredients and poor mental health were associated with SLP use. A high prevalence of SLP use was found in a large sample of ASEAN university students, and several social and mental health-related risk factors were found that may help in guiding interventions. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Combinations of potent topical steroids, mercury and hydroquinone are common in internationally manufactured skin-lightening products: a spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneli, M H; Wiesner, L; Tinguely, C; Davids, L M; Spengane, Z; Smith, P; van Wyk, J C; Jardine, A; Khumalo, N P

    2016-03-01

    The topical steroids betamethasone (BM) and clobetasol propionate (CP) are illegal in cosmetics. Hydroquinone (HQ) and mercury (Hg) are either illegal or allowed only in limited concentrations (2% and 1 ppm, respectively). To investigate active ingredients and countries of origin of popular skin-lightening products available in Cape Town, South Africa. In total, 29 products were examined; of these, 22 products were purchased from informal vendors, and 2 products (out of a total of 29) were purchased over the counter. HQ, Hg(2+) and steroids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Of the 29 products, 22 (75.9%), all imported and bought from informal vendors, contained illegal or banned ingredients: 13 (44.8%) contained steroids (9 CP, 4 BM), 12 (41.4%) contained Hg (30-2300 ppm), and 11 (37.9%) contained HQ. Sequentially, the products originated from Italy (27.3%, n = 6), India (22.7%, n = 5), the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (22.7%, n = 5), Cote d'Ivoire (9.1%, n = 2), USA (9.1%, n = 2), UK (4.5%, n = 1) and France (4.5%, n = 1). Two products, one from India and one from the DRC, contained all four ingredients (HQ, Hg, BM, CP). Of the 12 products containing Hg, 10 also contained HQ and/or a steroid, yet none listed Hg as an ingredient. A significant proportion of the steroid-containing products (76.9%) also contained at least one other skin-lightening agent. Not all internationally available products were tested, which is a limitation of the study. In spite of a European Union ban on skin lighteners, a third of the products tested were from Europe. Combinations of Hg and ultrapotent steroids were prominent. International law enforcement and random testing is needed to encourage industry compliance and help protect consumers. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  4. Lightening protection, techniques, applied codes and standards. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.; Shaaban, H.; Lamey, S.

    1996-01-01

    Lightening is the only natural disaster that protection against is highly effective. Therefore for the safety of critical installations specifically nuclear, an effective lightening protection system (LPS) is required. The design and installation of LPS's have been addressed by many international codes and standards. In this paper, the various LPS's are discussed and compared, including radioactive air terminals, ionizing air terminals, and terminals equipped with electrical trigging devices. Also, the so-called dissipation array systems are discussed and compared to other systems technically and economically. Moreover, the available international codes and standards related to the lightening protection are discussed. such standards include those published by the national fire protection association (NFPA), lightening protection institute (LPI), underwriters laboratories (UL), and british standards Finally, the possibility of developing an egyptian national standards is discussed

  5. Oral tranexamic acid lightens refractory melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron Wei Min; Sen, Priya; Chua, Sze Hon; Goh, Boon Kee

    2017-08-01

    Melasma is a common acquired hyperpigmentary disorder, particularly among Asians and Hispanics, but its exact pathomechanism is poorly understood. Tranexamic acid has been found to lighten melasma by interfering with the interaction of melanocytes and keratinocytes by inhibiting the plasminogen/plasmin system. The aim was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of oral tranexamic acid in the treatment of melasma refractory to topical skin-lightening agents. This retrospective study analyses patients with melasma recruited from a tertiary dermatological centre in Singapore between 1 August 2009 and 31 March 2011. The patients chosen had refractory melasma treated with oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice daily in addition to pre-existing combination topical therapy. Objective assessment using the physician's global assessment and melasma area and severity index (MASI) scores were performed based on a post-hoc analysis of photographic records by three independent physicians. A paired t-test was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI scores pre-therapy and post-treatment. Statistical significance was defined as P tranexamic acid for a mean period of 3.7 ± 0.33 months, in addition to combination topical therapy. Their mean age was 47.2 ± 1.61 years. The mean MASI scores after tranexamic acid treatment (2.7 ± 1.6) were significantly lower (P tranexamic acid can serve as a safe and useful adjunct in the treatment of refractory melasma. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  6. Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. essential oil slows hair-growth and lightens skin in axillae; a randomised, double blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Jaisabai, Jiraporn; Luangtoomma, Nantakarn; Waranuch, Neti; Khorana, Nantaka; Wisuitiprot, Wudtichai; Scholfield, C Norman; Champachaisri, Katechan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2017-02-15

    Androgenic hair-growth contributes to secondary gender characteristics but can be troublesome in women. Inhibiting axillary hair-growth via 5-α-reductases using the Thai medicinal plant, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. is an attractive treatment strategy. C. aeruginosa essential oil (CA-oil) formulated as a lotion is an efficacious and safe inhibitor of axillary hair growth. This trial was a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 10 weeks, intervention in 60 women (18-23 years) and 2 weeks washout with axillary hair length was the primary end-point. Bioactive-enriched essential oil of C. aeruginosa was formulated with a base lotion. All participants were pre-challenged with lotions by 4-h patch irritation tests to exclude skin reactions. Participants were randomly allocated to use either 1 or 5%w/w CA-oil lotion on one axilla and base-lotion (placebo) to the other for 10 weeks followed by placebo in both axillae for 2 weeks. Every week, the axillae were photographed to measure hair lengths, shaved, and roll-on applicators containing appropriate lotion replaced. Also, skin melanin by spectrophotometry and hair density were measured. From weeks 5-11 of trial, 1 and 5%w/w CA-oil retarded growth by 13 ± 1.5% and 16 ± 0.9% respectively, while placebo was ineffective. CA-oil had no influence on hair density. Both concentrations of CA-oil rapidly and equally effectively brightened skin within 3 weeks which persisted 2 weeks after treatment ceased while placebo darkened the skin. Adherence appeared good as judged by consistency of lotion consumption and between axillae. Participants were satisfied with the treatment and reported reduced hairiness, freedom from any discomforts, but product odour attracted some negative comment. No adverse reactions ascribed to CA-oil were detected or reported. This study points to a safe and efficacious dual action on retarding hair-growth and skin lightening by CA-oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  7. Light and lightened mirrors for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fappani, Denis

    2008-07-01

    For ground-based astronomy, more and more large telescopes are emerging all around the world. Similarly to space borne telescopes, for which the use of lightened optics has always been a baseline for purpose of mass reduction of payloads, same kinds of lightened/light mirrors are then now more and more intensively used also for ground-based instrumentation for astronomy, requiring larger and larger components. Through several examples of typical past realizations (class 0.5m-1m) for different astronomical projects requiring light or lightened mirrors for different reasons (optimisation of mass and stiffness, reduction of thermal inertia, increasing of dynamic performance for fast scanning purpose,....), the presentation will point out issues for lightening design, manufacturing and control of such parts, as well as brief overview of the corresponding existing "state of the art" for these technologies in SESO.

  8. Skin bleaching: A neglected form of injury and threat to global skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin bleaching: A neglected form of injury and threat to global skin. JC Street, K Gaska, KM Lewis, ML Wilson. Abstract. Skin bleaching is the use of creams, gels, or soaps to lighten the skin and is known to cause a number of injuries, many of which are potentially life-threatening. Despite the growing body of research ...

  9. Screening of some commonly used skin-lightening creams and soaps: a case study in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, C.T.; Maaku, B.T.; Akaho, E.H.K.

    2003-01-01

    Seven commonly used skin lightening creams (Body Claire, Peau claire, Akagni sivoclaire, Top gel, Tenovate and Movate) and five medicated soaps (Tura, Sukisa Bango, Crusader Safety, Movate Germicidal and Silver Rose) were investigated for the presence and levels of trace/heavy metals and hydroquinone in them. Instrumental Neutron Activation analysis (INAA) was used to identify and quantify the level of trace/heavy metals in these creams and soap samples. The analysis showed the presence in the creams of significant concentrations of Mn, Cd, Au, Sn, In, Sc, Hf, Ta, Ba, Nd, Sb, Al and Co. The medicated soaps contained significant concentrations of Hg, Co, Ce, Al, Hf and Ti. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) investigations revealed the presence of hydroquinones in Akagni and confirmed its presence also in Body Claire, Peau Claire and Sivoclaire but its absence in Tenovate, Top gel and Movate creams. Titration of the creams against Ce (IV) solution showed that hydroquinone levels in the Body Claire is 2.47%. Akagni is 4.92%, Peau Claire is 3.84% and Sivoclaire contains 4.03%. These levels are higher than the maximum 2% allowed by the Ghana Standards Board, the EEC directives of 1976 and the Cosmetic Production Regulation 1978 (UK) for product safety. (author)

  10. [Complications of cosmetic skin bleaching in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, J J; Ly, F; Lightburn, E; Mahé, A

    2007-12-01

    Use of cosmetic products to bleach or lighten the skin is common among dark-skinned women in some sub-Saharan African countries. Long-term use of some pharmacologic compounds (e.g. hydroquinone, glucocorticoids and mercury) can cause adverse effects including dermatologic disorders such as dyschromia, exogenous ochronosis, acne and hypertrichosis, prominent striae, tinea corporis, pyoderma, erysipelas, scabies, and contact dermatitis and systemic complications such as hypertension, hypercorticism or surrenal deficiency, and mercurial nephropathy.

  11. Chloroplatinum(II) complex-modified MWCNTs paste electrode for electrochemical determination of mercury in skin lightening cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Illyas Md; Saidin, Mohamad Idris; Ahmad, Mustaffa; Hashim, Norhayati; Bakar, Suriani Abu; Ali, Noorshida Mohd; Si, Suyanta M.

    2017-01-01

    The chemically modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) paste electrode with chloroplatinum(II) complex for the determination of mercury is presented. The chloroplatinum(II) complex was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The capability of the electron transfer rate on the surface of modified electrode evaluated is by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The square wave stripping voltammetry (SWSV) technique was employed to investigate the performance of chloroplatinum(II) complex-MWCNTs paste electrode for determination of mercury. Several operational parameters such as the composition ratios of the electrode, type of supporting electrolyte, pH of the solution, and the SWSV parameters were thoroughly investigated. Under optimal conditions, the linear range obtained was from 5.0 μM to 0.1 mM with limit detection of 3.7 μM. The interference from other heavy metals such as Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Co 2+ , Ba 2+ , Mn 2+ , and Ce 3+ did not influence the electrochemical response. The chloroplatinum(II) complex-MWCNTs paste electrode was successfully applied to determine mercury in skin lightening cosmetics with a good recovery (98.9%–101.1%).

  12. Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, F.R.; Schwankoff, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in which visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals

  13. The evaluation of total mercury and arsenic in skin bleaching creams commonly used in Trinidad and Tobago and their potential risk to the people of the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Mohammed; Elisabeth Mohammed; Shermel Bascombe

    2017-01-01

    Background. Skin lightening is very popular among women and some men of the Caribbean, and its popularity appears to be growing. The lightening of skin colour is done to produce a lighter complexion which is believed to increase attractiveness, social standing and improves one’s potential of being successful. Design and Methods. Fifteen (15) common skin lightening creams found in pharmacies and cosmetic retailers throughout Trinidad and Tobago were evaluated for Mercury by Cold Vapor Atomic A...

  14. [Effect of microneedle combined with Lauromacrogol on skin capillary network: experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sida; Wei, Qiang; Fan, Youfen; Chen, Shihai; Liu, Qingfeng; Yin, Guoqiang; Liao, Mingde; Sun, Yu

    2014-11-01

    To explore the effect of microneedle combined with Lauromacrogol on skin capillary network. 24 male Leghone (1.5-2.0 kg in weight) were randomly divided into three groups as group A (microneedle combined with Lauromacrogol), B (microneedle combined with physiological saline) , and C(control). The cockscombs were treated. The specimens were taken on the 7th, 14th, 21th , and 28th day postoperatively. HE staining, immunohistochemical staining and special staining were performed for study of the number of capillary and collagen I/III , as well as elastic fibers. The color of cockscombs in group A became lightening after treatment. The number of capillary decreased as showing by HE staining. The collagen I and III in group B was significantly different from that in group A and C (P microneedle combined with Lauromacrogol could effectively reduce the capillary in cockscomb without any tissue fibrosis. Microneedle can stimulate the proliferation of elastic fiber, so as to improve the skin ageing process.

  15. THE AUTOMATIC LIGHTENING LOCATION SYSTEM AND ITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    systems. The implications of the lightening location system for the Nigerian electric power system are also highlighted. ... system (the LLP type) is currently operating in may countries .... (iii) Real time lightning maps will aid service restoration.

  16. Split-face comparison of intense pulsed light and nonablative 1,064-nm Q-switched laser in skin rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Meng-Hua; Wang, Yong-Qian; Yang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple nonablative skin rejuvenation techniques have been used to improve facial aging. To compare rejuvenation efficiency of intense pulsed light (IPL) with nonablative 1,064-nm Q-switched laser in Asian patients. Twelve female subjects were enrolled and received five sessions of treatments at 2-week intervals. A split-face study was performed, with IPL applied to the left side of the face and nonablative 1,064-nm Q-switched laser to the right side. All assessments showed significant skin rejuvenation. For the improvement of skin texture, pore size, and sebum secretion, similar efficiency from laser and IPL was observed. For lightening of skin tone and macula, the IPL was more efficient than the laser after the first treatment, although no further clinical improvement resulted after three treatments. The laser gradually lightened the skin tone and macula and was ultimately more efficient than the IPL after five treatments. A series of IPL and nonablative 1,064-nm Q-switched laser treatments were performed with similar efficiency and safety for the improvement in skin texture, pore size, and sebum secretion. IPL was faster, but nonablative 1,064-nm Q-switched laser was more effective in improving skin tone and macula. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  17. Overview of Skin Whitening Agents: Drugs and Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Couteau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Depigmentation and skin lightening products, which have been in use for ages in Asian countries where skin whiteness is a major esthetic criterion, are now also highly valued by Western populations, who expose themselves excessively to the sun and develop skin spots as a consequence. After discussing the various possible mechanisms of depigmentation, the different molecules that can be used as well as the status of the products containing them will now be presented. Hydroquinone and derivatives thereof, retinoids, alpha- and beta-hydroxy acids, ascorbic acid, divalent ion chelators, kojic acid, azelaic acid, as well as diverse herbal extracts are described in terms of their efficacy and safety. Since a genuine effect (without toxic effects is difficult to obtain, prevention by using sunscreen products is always preferable.

  18. Deoxyarbutin Possesses a Potent Skin-Lightening Capacity with No Discernible Cytotoxicity against Melanosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Fang; Shi, Ying; Fan, Zhi-Feng; Jiang, Shan; Xu, Shi-Zheng; Lei, Tie-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Safe and effective ingredients capable of removing undesired hyperpigmentation from facial skin are urgently needed for both pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes. Deoxyarbutin (4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) oxy] phenol, D-Arb) is a glucoside derivative of hydroquinone. Here, we investigated the toxicity and efficacy of D-Arb at the sub-cellular level (directly on melanosomes) and skin pigmentation using in vivo and in vitro models to compare with its parent compound hydroquinone (1,4-benzened...

  19. Government instability shifts skin tone representations of and intentions to vote for political candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; Balcetis, Emily; Cole, Shana; West, Tessa V; Caruso, Eugene M

    2016-01-01

    Does government stability shift the way White and Black Americans represent and make voting decisions about political candidates? Participants judged how representative lightened, darkened, and unaltered photographs were of a racially ambiguous candidate ostensibly running for political office (Studies 1-3). When the governmental system was presented as stable, White participants who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a lightened photo as more representative of the candidate, and Black participants who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a darkened photo as more representative (Studies 1-3). However, under conditions of instability, both Whites and Blacks who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a lightened photo as more representative (Study 3). Representations of (Studies 2 and 3) and actual differences in (Studies 4a and 4b) skin tone predicted intentions to vote for candidates, as a function of government stability and participants' race. Further evidence suggested that system stability shifted the motivations that guided voting decisions (Study 4a and 4b). When the system was stable, the motivation to enhance one's group predicted greater intentions to vote for lighter skinned candidates among Whites, and greater intentions to vote for darker skinned candidates among Blacks. When the system was unstable, however, lacking confidence in the sociopolitical system predicted intentions to vote for lighter skinned candidates among both Whites and Blacks. Implications for political leadership and social perception are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Natural ingredients for darker skin types: growing options for hyperpigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Andrew F; Blackcloud, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Dyschromia is one of the most common dermatological concerns in patients with darker skin.1 Disorders of hyperpigmentation, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, and miscellaneous causes of facial hyperpigmentation, are the most frequently treated dyschromias and can have a considerable psychosocial impact. Given the high prevalence of hyperpigmentation and the considerable demand for an even complexion, newer treatment options for hyperpigmentation are of growing interest among consumers, manufacturers, and dermatologists. Blinded, controlled studies demonstrating skin lightening effects in soy, niacinamide, n-acetylglucosamine, licorice extract, arbutin, vitamin c, kojic acid, emblica extract, lignin peroxidase, and glutathione have led to the development of a growing list of non-prescription skin care products that can be incorporated (mostly as adjuncts) in the management of hyperpigmentation.

  1. Active agents in common skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-02-01

    Skin care products are numerous and perplexing, yet the majority fall into the moisturizer category. Moisturizers are substances designed to improve and maintain the skin barrier. They serve as a vehicle for the delivery of active ingredients that minimize facial lines of dehydration, deliver photoprotection, and provide antioxidant properties. Moisturizers are based on occlusive substances, such as petrolatum and dimethicone, and humectant substances, such as glycerin, with a variety of sunscreens and botanicals for added functionality and marketing impact. This article reviews these common active agents. The plethora of over-the-counter skin care products available for patient purchase is overwhelming, yet there is certain commonality among 80 percent of the formulations. The majority of the products are moisturizers with added ingredients to support marketing claims. Whether the product is a facial foundation, an antiaging night cream, a sunscreen, a topical antioxidant, or a skin-lightening serum, the formulation is basically a moisturizer. Sunscreen is the most biologically active antiaging ingredient in skin care products, but the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of botanicals possess tremendous marketing appeal.

  2. Treatment modalities for hyperpigmented skin lesions: A brief overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Teng Khoo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin hyperpigmentation involves a broad range of skin conditions, including epidermal pigmented lesions, dermal pigmented lesions, and mixed pigmented lesions. Treatment includes various modalities such as brightening cream, chemical peeling, and laser therapy. Responses to various treatment modalities can be quite varied depending on the type of treatment and the degree of pigmentation. Sometimes a lesion can lighten or even partially disappear, while other lesions may recur. This paper provides a brief overview of treatment modalities available for hyperpigmented skin lesions including the importance of photoprotection, various types of brightening creams, suitable types of chemical peels, specific laser therapies targeted for skin hyperpigmentation, and surgery.

  3. Topical microemulsion containing Punica granatum extract: its control over skin erythema and melanin in healthy Asian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Rashida; Akhtar, Naveed; Mahmood, Tariq

    2014-12-01

    Punica granatum is apotent source of polyphenolic compounds with strong free radicals scavenging activity. The skin lightening effects of Punica granatum are assumed due to ellagic acid which acts by chelating copper at the active site of tyrosinase. To explore a topical microemulsion (O/W) of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract for its control on skin erythema and melanin. Microemulsions were formulated using a polysorbate surfactant (Tween 80(®)) along with cosurfactant (propylene glycol) and were characterized regarding their stability. The placebo microemulsion (without extract) and the active microemulsion (containing Punica extract) were applied in a split face fashion by the volunteers (n = 11) for a period of 12 weeks. Skin erythema and melanin were measured at baseline and after every 15 days to determine any effect produced by these formulations. Active formulation showed a significant impact on skin erythema and melanin (p Punica granatum extract for conditions where elevated skin melanin and erythema have significantly prone skin physiology.

  4. Comparison between sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate reducer in lightening of overexposed working length radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ezoddini Ardakani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study were to test whether lightening of the overexposed radiographs improve determination of endodontic files length and whether lightened radiographs are comparable with ideally exposed radiographs. Material and Methods: Four dried human skull coated with soft tissue-equivalent wax used for exposing radiographs of the upper molars. First, the endodontic file was placed in full length of the root and four series of radiographs obtained. The time to expose the first series was unchanged (standard group but increased for the other three series.  Two series of overexposed radiographs set as test groups (one lightened with copper sulfate reducer and the other lightened with sodium hypochlorite and one series set as control group. Then the endodontic file placed 2mm short in the root and four series of radiographs obtained like the former. A viewer evaluated radiographs. ROC curves were obtained and areas under the curves were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity and Cohen’s kappa was calculated. Results: The average area under ROC curves was 1, 0.995,1 and 0.643 for the standard, Copper sulfate, sodium hypochlorite and the control group, respectively. Sodium hypochlorite show a better performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity compared to Copper sulfate. Differences between the test radiographs and standard and control radiographs were significant (p

  5. The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerajani, Hemangi R; Mizoguchi, Haruko; Li, James; Whittenbarger, Debora J; Marmor, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The B vitamins niacinamide and panthenol have been shown to reduce many signs of skin aging, including hyperpigmentation and redness. To measure the facial skin effects in Indian women of the daily use of a lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopherol acetate using quantitative image analysis. Adult women 30-60 years of age with epidermal hyperpigmentation were recruited in Mumbai and randomly assigned to apply a test or control lotion to the face daily for 10 weeks. Effects on skin tone were measured using an image capturing system and associated software. Skin texture was assessed by expert graders. Barrier function was evaluated by transepithelial water loss measurements. Subjects and evaluators were blinded to the product assignment. Of 246 women randomized to treatment, 207 (84%) completed the study. Women who used the test lotion experienced significantly reduced appearance of hyperpigmentation, improved skin tone evenness, appearance of lightening of skin, and positive effects on skin texture. Improvements versus control were seen as early as 6 weeks. The test lotion was well tolerated. The most common adverse event was a transient, mild burning sensation. Daily use of a facial lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate improved skin tone and texture and was well tolerated in Indian women with facial signs of aging.

  6. The evaluation of total mercury and arsenic in skin bleaching creams commonly used in Trinidad and Tobago and their potential risk to the people of the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Terry; Mohammed, Elisabeth; Bascombe, Shermel

    2017-12-13

    Background. Skin lightening is very popular among women and some men of the Caribbean, and its popularity appears to be growing. The lightening of skin colour is done to produce a lighter complexion which is believed to increase attractiveness, social standing and improves one's potential of being successful. Design and Methods. Fifteen (15) common skin lightening creams found in pharmacies and cosmetic retailers throughout Trinidad and Tobago were evaluated for Mercury by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (CVAAS) and Arsenic by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (HGAAS). The results obtained were compared to global standards and previous research. Results. Fourteen (14) of the fifteen samples analysed contained Mercury in the range of 0.473 μg/g to 0.766 μg/g. One sample had a Mercury content of 14,507.74±490.75 μg/g which was over 14,000 times higher than the USFDA limit for mercury in cosmetics of 1 μg/g. All samples contained Arsenic in the range 1.016 μg/g to 6.612 μg/g, which exceeds the EU limit for cosmetics of 0 μg/g. Conclusions. All the samples analysed contained significant amounts of Mercury and Arsenic and none of them can be considered safe for prolonged human use. The samples that contained Mercury levels which were lower than the USFDA limit contained Arsenic levels which exceeded the EU standard of 0 μg/g in cosmetics. The popularity of these skin lightening creams in the Caribbean region places the population at elevated risk of chronic Mercury and Arsenic poisoning and possibly acute Mercury Poisoning.

  7. The evaluation of total mercury and arsenic in skin bleaching creams commonly used in Trinidad and Tobago and their potential risk to the people of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Mohammed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin lightening is very popular among women and some men of the Caribbean, and its popularity appears to be growing. The lightening of skin colour is done to produce a lighter complexion which is believed to increase attractiveness, social standing and improves one’s potential of being successful. Design and Methods. Fifteen (15 common skin lightening creams found in pharmacies and cosmetic retailers throughout Trinidad and Tobago were evaluated for Mercury by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (CVAAS and Arsenic by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (HGAAS. The results obtained were compared to global standards and previous research. Results. Fourteen (14 of the fifteen samples analysed contained Mercury in the range of 0.473 μg/g to 0.766 μg/g. One sample had a Mercury content of 14,507.74±490.75 μg/g which was over 14,000 times higher than the USFDA limit for mercury in cosmetics of 1 μg/g. All samples contained Arsenic in the range 1.016 μg/g to 6.612 μg/g, which exceeds the EU limit for cosmetics of 0 μg/g. Conclusions. All the samples analysed contained significant amounts of Mercury and Arsenic and none of them can be considered safe for prolonged human use. The samples that contained Mercury levels which were lower than the USFDA limit contained Arsenic levels which exceeded the EU standard of 0 μg/g in cosmetics. The popularity of these skin lightening creams in the Caribbean region places the population at elevated risk of chronic Mercury and Arsenic poisoning and possibly acute Mercury Poisoning.

  8. EnLightenment: High resolution smartphone microscopy as an educational and public engagement platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Laura C.; Cairns, Gemma S.; Melnyk, Jacob; Bryce, Scott; Duncan, Rory R.; Dalgarno, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    We developed a simple, cost-effective smartphone microscopy platform for use in educational and public engagement programs. We demonstrated its effectiveness, and potential for citizen science through a national imaging initiative, EnLightenment. The cost effectiveness of the instrument allowed for the program to deliver over 500 microscopes to more than 100 secondary schools throughout Scotland, targeting 1000’s of 12-14 year olds. Through careful, quantified, selection of a high power, low-cost objective lens, our smartphone microscope has an imaging resolution of microns, with a working distance of 3 mm. It is therefore capable of imaging single cells and sub-cellular features, and retains usability for young children. The microscopes were designed in kit form and provided an interdisciplinary educational tool. By providing full lesson plans and support material, we developed a framework to explore optical design, microscope performance, engineering challenges on construction and real-world applications in life sciences, biological imaging, marine biology, art, and technology. A national online imaging competition framed EnLightenment ; with over 500 high quality images submitted of diverse content, spanning multiple disciplines. With examples of cellular and sub-cellular features clearly identifiable in some submissions, we show how young public can use these instruments for research-level imaging applications, and the potential of the instrument for citizen science programs. PMID:29623296

  9. Natural considerations for skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie; Rodriguez, David; Taylor, Susan C; Wu, Jessica

    2006-12-01

    Changing US demographics indicate that dermatologists will treat an increasing number of individuals of color. Early research on cutaneous anatomy and physiology was performed mostly in white populations. However, new research is elucidating similarities and differences in skin of color and white skin with regard to skin barrier, pigmentation, and sensitivity. Two of the most important issues are skin lightening and brightening. Products for use on skin of color typically should be gentle because of the proclivity of more deeply pigmented skin to develop pigmentary abnormalities in response to skin irritation or trauma. Increasing patient interest in natural remedies has been matched by research on the use of natural ingredients in dermatology. The relative gentleness of many of these products, coupled with excellent efficacy, makes natural ingredients such as soy and licorice excellent choices in the treatment of disorders such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and melasma. For daily skin care, ingredients such as oatmeal and feverfew are good choices for gentle cleansing and moisturizing of dry, sensitive, or ashy skin. Sun protection is an increasing concern due to rising rates of melanoma. Several botanical products are useful in augmenting photoprotection with conventional sunscreens.

  10. The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: A randomized, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerajani Hemangi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The B vitamins niacinamide and panthenol have been shown to reduce many signs of skin aging, including hyperpigmentation and redness. Aims : To measure the facial skin effects in Indian women of the daily use of a lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopherol acetate using quantitative image analysis. Methods : Adult women 30-60 years of age with epidermal hyperpigmentation were recruited in Mumbai and randomly assigned to apply a test or control lotion to the face daily for 10 weeks. Effects on skin tone were measured using an image capturing system and associated software. Skin texture was assessed by expert graders. Barrier function was evaluated by transepithelial water loss measurements. Subjects and evaluators were blinded to the product assignment. Results : Of 246 women randomized to treatment, 207 (84% completed the study. Women who used the test lotion experienced significantly reduced appearance of hyperpigmentation, improved skin tone evenness, appearance of lightening of skin, and positive effects on skin texture. Improvements versus control were seen as early as 6 weeks. The test lotion was well tolerated. The most common adverse event was a transient, mild burning sensation. Conclusions : Daily use of a facial lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate improved skin tone and texture and was well tolerated in Indian women with facial signs of aging.

  11. Skin bleaching: highlighting the misuse of cutaneous depigmenting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadzie, O E; Petit, A

    2009-07-01

    Hydroquinone and other cutaneous depigmenting agents are widely used by dermatologists to treat pigmentary disorders. On 29 August 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a monograph in the US Federal Register proposing to ban all hydroquinone products that have not been approved via a New Drug Application process. Reports in the scientific literature on the occurrence of exogenous ochronosis, in relation to the use of hydroquinone, was one of the concerns expressed by the FDA in relation to this agent. However, a review of the English-language scientific literature reveals that most of the reported cases of hydroquinone-induced exogenous ochronosis occurs in Africa, where the cultural practice of skin bleaching is highly prevalent. Skin bleaching is the practice of applying hydroquinone and/or other depigmenting agents to specific or widespread areas of the body, the primary function being to lighten normally dark skin. This practice typically occurs in men and women with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV to VI. It is a dangerous practice associated with a diverse range of side-effects, including mercury poisoning. Thus, this current discussion within the dermatological community on the safety of hydroquinone provides a unique opportunity to raise awareness about skin bleaching.

  12. comparative analysis of mercury content in human hair and cosmetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin lightening creams and soaps containing mercury manufactured in Europe is a multibillion-dollar industry, which is used for lightening skin, making the black skin light coloured. The products have colourful names, which associate royalty, romance and even religion with a white or pale skin, but many contain harmful ...

  13. Social marketing self-esteem: a socio-medical approach to high-risk and skin tone alteration activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelas, Gregory D

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes social marketing as a tool to build individual self-esteem and thus prevent the uptake of activities that pose risk to health. Evidence supporting this approach can be drawn from pioneer social marketing campaigns of the last 30 years that successfully addressed the prevention, treatment and stigmatization of skin cancer and leprosy with a fraction of the communication and media tools available today. Focusing primarily on the practices of skin tanning and lightening, this paper builds on studies that validate the ties between self-esteem and behavior, and addresses popular conceptions of skin color as drivers for individual behavior. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Colourism: a global adolescent health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Nadia; Dlova, Ncoza; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2018-05-08

    Colourism, a form of prejudice and discrimination based solely upon skin colour, stands to jeopardize the physical health, wellbeing and life chances of adolescents of colour, globally. Research shows that adolescents can experience colourism at school and college, in the criminal justice system, at work and in the media they consume. It is therefore unsurprising that adolescents of colour often express a desire for lighter skin tones and/or are dissatisfied with their skin tone. Although research is scarce, some studies include older adolescents in their samples of skin-lightening product users. This is significant as the evidence is clear that the unmonitored use of skin-lightening products can be harmful to physical and psychological health, with evidence linking skin-lightening use to skin damage, kidney failure and depression. Although it is evident that colourism is central to the lives of adolescents of colour, more research is needed concerning the use of skin-lightening products among adolescents. Media literacy and critical race theory offer avenues in helping attenuate the harmful impact of colourism for adolescents of colour.

  15. EnLightenment: High resolution smartphone microscopy as an educational and public engagement platform [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Wicks

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed a simple, cost-effective smartphone microscopy platform for use in educational and public engagement programs. We demonstrated its effectiveness, and potential for citizen science through a national imaging initiative, EnLightenment. The cost effectiveness of the instrument allowed for the program to deliver over 500 microscopes to more than 100 secondary schools throughout Scotland, targeting 1000’s of 12-14 year olds. Through careful, quantified, selection of a high power, low-cost objective lens, our smartphone microscope has an imaging resolution of microns, with a working distance of 3 mm. It is therefore capable of imaging single cells and sub-cellular features, and retains usability for young children. The microscopes were designed in kit form and provided an interdisciplinary educational tool. By providing full lesson plans and support material, we developed a framework to explore optical design, microscope performance, engineering challenges on construction and real-world applications in life sciences, biological imaging, marine biology, art, and technology. A national online imaging competition framed EnLightenment; with over 500 high quality images submitted of diverse content, spanning multiple disciplines. With examples of cellular and sub-cellular features clearly identifiable in some submissions, we show how young public can use these instruments for research-level imaging applications, and the potential of the instrument for citizen science programs.

  16. EnLightenment: High resolution smartphone microscopy as an educational and public engagement platform [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Wicks

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a simple, cost-effective smartphone microscopy platform for use in educational and public engagement programs. We demonstrated its effectiveness, and potential for citizen science through a national imaging initiative, EnLightenment. The cost effectiveness of the instrument allowed for the program to deliver over 500 microscopes to more than 100 secondary schools throughout Scotland, targeting 1000’s of 12-14 year olds. Through careful, quantified, selection of a high power, low-cost objective lens, our smartphone microscope has an imaging resolution of microns, with a working distance of 3 mm. It is therefore capable of imaging single cells and sub-cellular features, and retains usability for young children. The microscopes were designed in kit form and provided an interdisciplinary educational tool. By providing full lesson plans and support material, we developed a framework to explore optical design, microscope performance, engineering challenges on construction and real-world applications in life sciences, biological imaging, marine biology, art, and technology. A national online imaging competition framed EnLightenment; with over 500 high quality images submitted of diverse content, spanning multiple disciplines. With examples of cellular and sub-cellular features clearly identifiable in some submissions, we show how young public can use these instruments for research-level imaging applications, and the potential of the instrument for citizen science programs.

  17. Lightened plaster: alternative solutions to cellular solids addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Río, M.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The following paper pretends to analyze different processes in order to lightweighters gypsum as an alternative way at the cellular fillers addition, in order to establish the most suitable ones for the manufacture of plasterboard. Outstanding the process which uses foamings addition to lighten gypsum uses nowdays only to manufacture cellular concrete.

    En este artículo se presenta el análisis de diferentes procedimientos para aligerar la escayola, como alternativas a la adición de sólidos celulares, determinando los más adecuados para la realización de prefabricados. Dentro de estos procedimientos cabe destacar la adición de espumantes, hasta ahora sólo utilizados para la fabricación de hormigones celulares.

  18. Efficacy and safety of topical depigmenting agent in healthy human fair skin female volunteers: A single-arm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saurabh; Chew, Soon-Keong

    2017-11-28

    Skin hyperpigmentation is the darkening of skin due to the increased production of melanin in the body. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a botanical-based Rosa E pigmentation serum in healthy fair skin female volunteers with wrinkles, skin tone, and pigmentation. This was a single-arm, open label study conducted in healthy Indian females; 18 subjects aged 30-55, having fair Caucasian-like skin with at least 2 dark skin pigments with facial wrinkles diagnosed by dermatologist were selected. Rosa E pigmentation serum was applied twice a day for 84 days. Effect was evaluated by (i) instrumental technique (spectrophotometer ® 2600D), (ii) clinically by dermatologist regarding product efficacy (skin tone, antiwrinkle, pigmentation), and (iii) volunteers self-evaluation. The L* value of spectrophotometer reading represents lightness in the skin pigment. Reduction in the pigment was reported from day 14, with significant reductions observed till day 84 compared with baseline. Significant (P < .0001) skin pigmentation lightening was seen on day 14 (1.11) vastly improving on day 84 (1.94) based on photographic assessments. The significant reduction in skin pigment was 76.85%, Felix von Luschan skin color score was 30.24% (P < .0001) with a 7.38-fold reduction in skin tone and 57% reduction in facial wrinkles at day 84 from baseline. Rosa E pigmentation serum was found safe and effective in significant reduction in skin pigments, improvement of skin tone, and antiwrinkle properties instrumentally, clinically, and self-evaluation by volunteers. In these evaluations, best results were seen the longer the Rosa E was used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Lactic acid peeling in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Silonie

    2010-09-01

    Chemical peeling with both alpha and beta hydroxy acids has been used to improve acne scarring with pigmentation. Lactic acid, a mild alpha hydroxy acid, has been used in the treatment of various dermatological indications but no study is reported in acne scarring with pigmentation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of full strength pure lactic acid 92% (pH 2.0) chemical peel in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin. Seven patients, Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V, in age group 20-30 years with superficial acne scarring were enrolled in the study. Chemical peeling was done with lactic acid at an interval of 2 weeks to a maximum of four peels. Pre- and post-peel clinical photographs were taken at every session. Patients were followed every month for 3 months after the last peel to evaluate the effects. At the end of 3 months, there was definite improvement in the texture, pigmentation, and appearance of the treated skin, with lightening of scars. Significant improvement (greater than 75% clearance of lesions) occurred in one patient (14.28%), good improvement (51-75% clearance) in three patients (42.84%), moderate improvement (26-50% clearance) in two patients (28.57%), and mild improvement (1-25% clearance) in one patient (14.28%). © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  1. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of a new complex skin cream in Asian women: A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu Seok; Lee, Ji Hae; Bae, Jung Min; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Gyong Moon

    2017-06-01

    Medical products such as hydroquinone and tretinoin have been widely used to treat various types of skin hyperpigmentation. However, these products are limited in daily use given their adverse effects. Other alternative agents with fewer adverse side effects have been developed. However, single agents often do not produce satisfactory results. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new brightening complex cream containing niacinamide, tranexamic acid, oxyresveratrol, glutathione disulfide, and linoleic acid. A total of 26 Korean women seeking to lighten their skin were enrolled. The product was applied on the face two times per day for 12 weeks. Standardized photographs were taken at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using melanin index (MI), erythema index (EI), and chromatic aberration values (L*, a*, and b*). Improvement perceived by investigators and patients was measured as well. The L*-value was increased at 8 weeks (0.7±2.5, PAsian women. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. TECHNOLOGY FOR INSTALLATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS LIGHTENED BY CORE DRIVERS WITH PRELIMINARY REINFORCEMENT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents technology for installation of floor slabs lightened by plastic core drivers which are preliminary stressed under construction conditions.  Efficiency of such constructive solution is justified by the action of preliminary concrete compression in the tensile zone while reducing structure dead weight due to void arrangement.  The paper provides classification of systems for preliminary stress and contains recommendations on selection of the system depending on peculiariar features of the designed construction.  Main products and materials required for execution of works , requirements to stressed wire rope reinforcement, its main characteristics have been considered in the paper.Principal diagram of the lightened preliminary stressed slab stipulates arrangement of so called  dummy caisson. Strands of reinforcement ropes are located within the framework of bars passing over supporting structures (over vertical bearing structures of  the framework and voids are formed in the cells between bars by laying hollow plastic items joined together by a cage. The paper presents technological sequence of operations required for arrangement of the lightened preliminary stressed slab, schemes for equipment arrangement and characteristics of the applied devices and units (pushing device for reinforcement ropes, hydraulic jack with delivery hydraulic pump, mixing station, injection pump and others.  Recommendations have been given for execution of works in cold weather. The paper considers problems pertaining to control quality of the materials and items which are supplied to a construction site and directly execution of works on preliminary stress of a cellular slab.The executed analysis of technology permits to conclude that it is characterized by high level of applicability for import substitution. It is necessary to consider the possibility to apply the technology at objects of various application while comparing it with other

  3. Population-based inorganic mercury biomonitoring and the identification of skin care products as a source of exposure in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Wendy; Jeffery, Nancy; Clark, Nancy; Kass, Daniel; Parsons, Patrick J

    2011-02-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal that has been used for centuries as a constituent of medicines and other items. We assessed exposure to inorganic mercury in the adult population of New York City (NYC). We measured mercury concentrations in spot urine specimens from a representative sample of 1,840 adult New Yorkers in the 2004 NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cases with urine concentrations ≥ 20 µg/L were followed up with a telephone or in-person interview that asked about potential sources of exposure, including ritualistic/cultural practices, skin care products, mercury spills, herbal medicine products, and fish. Geometric mean urine mercury concentration in NYC was higher for Caribbean-born blacks [1.39 µg/L; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.70] and Dominicans (1.04 µg/L; 95% CI, 0.82-1.33) than for non-Hispanic whites (0.67 µg/L; 95% CI, 0.60-0.75) or other racial/ethnic groups. It was also higher among those who reported at least 20 fish meals in the past 30 days (1.02 µg/L; 95% CI, 0.83-1.25) than among those who reported no fish meals (0.50 µg/L; 95% CI, 0.41-0.61). We observed the highest 95th percentile of exposure (21.18 µg/L; 95% CI, 7.25-51.29) among Dominican women. Mercury-containing skin-lightening creams were a source of exposure among those most highly exposed, and we subsequently identified 12 imported products containing illegal levels of mercury in NYC stores. Population-based biomonitoring identified a previously unrecognized source of exposure to inorganic mercury among NYC residents. In response, the NYC Health Department embargoed products and notified store owners and the public that skin-lightening creams and other skin care products that contain mercury are dangerous and illegal. Although exposure to inorganic mercury is not a widespread problem in NYC, users of these products may be at risk of health effects from exposure.

  4. Technique of experimental definition of optical thickness of the plasma channel by the method of lightening and possibilities of its application for pulsing discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorovich, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    Results of development and application of a technique of experimental definition of optical thickness τ of the plasma channel in water by the method of lightening are given. Plasma of the discharge in water managed to be lighten through on a stage of relaxation and the logarithm of coefficient of passage of radiation from an extraneous radiation source have been determined. The basic contribution to size of optical thickness gives absorption of radiation, instead of dispersion. But this value is not real optical thickness. Calculation of atoms N a concentration in the channel on values τ, received by the lightening through method, at 4 - 15 times is overestimated in comparison to the values of concentration, received by other independent method. Results of direct measurements of τ by illumination of the plasma channel by reference source EhV-45 are overestimated because of features of passage of appearing through radiation through the channel of the discharge in water of the cylindrical form as it represents a disseminating lens. The reasons of this distinguish of the received by lightening through method values of τ in cylindrical plasma channel in liquids are given. The technique of definition of time of a delay of the beginning of expansion of the channel concerning the moment of submission of a voltage on a digit interval is developed

  5. Effects of radiation on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on pig skin are described, comparing and contrasting the effects seen in human and rodent skin. It is concluded that, anatomically, pig skin is the best animal model for human skin. The applications of the 'pig skin model' to investigations of the problems of radiation therapy and radiological protection of human skin are discussed. (U.K.)

  6. TECHNOLOGY FOR INSTALLATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS LIGHTENED BY CORE DRIVERS WITH PRELIMINARY REINFORCEMENT STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Leonovich; I. I. Peredkov

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents technology for installation of floor slabs lightened by plastic core drivers which are preliminary stressed under construction conditions.  Efficiency of such constructive solution is justified by the action of preliminary concrete compression in the tensile zone while reducing structure dead weight due to void arrangement.  The paper provides classification of systems for preliminary stress and contains recommendations on selection of the system depending on peculiariar fe...

  7. The Standardized Extract of Juniperus communis Alleviates Hyperpigmentation in Vivo HRM-2 Hairless Mice and in Vitro Murine B16 Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegal, Jonghwan; Chung, Ki Wung; Chung, Hae Young; Jeong, Eun Ju; Yang, Min Hye

    2017-01-01

    In European folk medicine, the fruits of Juniperus communis are used in the treatment of skin-related disorders such as skin infection, itching, and psoriasis. Previously, we reported that the EtOAc fraction of J. communis (EAJC) contained tyrosinase inhibition properties in vitro non-cellular experiment. The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-melanogenic effect of standardized EAJC on a hyperpigmentation animal model. Therapeutic effects of EAJC toward skin hyperpigmentation were confirmed by both in vivo experiment and in vitro cell-based assay. Skin depigmenting effect was detected by topical treatment of EAJC for 11 d to HRM-2 melanin-possessing hairless mice. Histologic findings including significantly decreased melanin depositions could be observed in dorsal skin samples of EAJC-treated group. In addition, the EAJC (50 µg/mL) attenuated melanin production through down-regulation of tyrosinase activity and protein expression in B16 murine melanoma cells. According to the phytochemical analysis, EAJC was found to contain hypolaetin-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside and isoscutellarein-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside as main components. Hypolaetin-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside was responsible for the skin-lightening effect of EAJC by reducing the number of melanocytes in dorsal skins of HRM-2 mice. The present study provided direct experimental evidence for skin-lightening effect of EAJC in UV-irradiated hairless mouse model. Therapeutic attempts with the J. communis might be useful in the management of skin pigmentation-related diseases.

  8. Interaction and developmental activation of two neuroendocrine systems that regulate light-mediated skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Gabriel E; Song, Yi N; Atkinson-Leadbeater, Karen; Yang, Jung-Lynn J; McFarlane, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Lower vertebrates use rapid light-regulated changes in skin colour for camouflage (background adaptation) or during circadian variation in irradiance levels. Two neuroendocrine systems, the eye/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the pineal complex/melatonin circuits, regulate the process through their respective dispersion and aggregation of pigment granules (melanosomes) in skin melanophores. During development, Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised on a black background or in the dark perceive less light sensed by the eye and darken in response to increased α-MSH secretion. As embryogenesis proceeds, the pineal complex/melatonin circuit becomes the dominant regulator in the dark and induces lightening of the skin of larvae. The eye/α-MSH circuit continues to mediate darkening of embryos on a black background, but we propose the circuit is shut down in complete darkness in part by melatonin acting on receptors expressed by pituitary cells to inhibit the expression of pomc, the precursor of α-MSH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Evidence That Loss-of-Function Filaggrin Gene Mutations Evolved in Northern Europeans to Favor Intracutaneous Vitamin D3 Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Bikle, Daniel D; Elias, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Skin pigmentation lightened progressively to a variable extent, as modern humans emigrated out of Africa, but extreme lightening occurred only in northern Europeans. Yet, loss of pigmentation alone cannot suffice to sustain cutaneous vitamin D3 (VD3) formation at the high latitudes of northern...

  10. Greenhouse effect in double-skin facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, E.; Herde, A. de [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Architecture et Climat, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    In these last years, a great deal of interest has been devoted to double-skin facades due to the advantages claimed by this technology (in terms of energy saving in the cold season, high-tech image, protection from external noise and wind loads). One of the great characteristics of the double-skin facade is the greenhouse effect. We identify the factors that influence the greenhouse effect. The identified parameters are solar radiation level, orientation and shading devices use, opaque wall/window proportion of the interior facade, wind speed, colour of shading devices and of interior facade, depth of the cavity of the double-skin, glazing type in the interior facade and openings in the double-skin. We analyze the impact of these parameters on the mean air temperature evolution in the cavity. After that analyse, the article answers the question: is greenhouse effect favourable? The answer is moderate according to the double-skin orientation. (author)

  11. Electrocutaneous sensitivity: effects of skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, W D; Reilly, J P

    1986-01-01

    The effect of human skin temperature on electrocutaneous sensitivity was examined using brief capacitive discharges. Stimuli were designed to ensure that sensory effects would be independent of skin resistance and would reflect underlying neural excitability as closely as possible. Skin temperature was manipulated by immersing the forearm in circulating hot or cold air. Detection thresholds on the arm and fingertip were raised by cooling, but were not altered by heating. Temperature-related sensitivity shifts were described by the same multiplicative factors for both threshold and suprathreshold levels. The temperature coefficient (Q10) for cutaneous sensitivity under these conditions was approximately 1.3.

  12. Effects of air pollution on the skin: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Poonam; Nandar, Shashi Kumar; Kathuria, Sushruta; Ramesh, V

    2017-01-01

    The increase in air pollution over the years has had major effects on the human skin. Various air pollutants such as ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, oxides, particulate matter, ozone and cigarette smoke affect the skin as it is the outermost barrier. Air pollutants damage the skin by inducing oxidative stress. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemicals and physical air pollutants, prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation has been associated with extrinsic skin aging and skin cancers. Cigarette smoke contributes to premature aging and an increase in the incidence of psoriasis, acne and skin cancers. It is also implicated in allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and eczema. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are associated with extrinsic skin aging, pigmentation, cancers and acneiform eruptions. Volatile organic compounds have been associated with atopic dermatitis. Given the increasing levels of air pollution and its detrimental effects on the skin, it is advisable to use strategies to decrease air pollution.

  13. Study of the skin effect in superconducting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeftel, Jacob, E-mail: jszeftel@lpqm.ens-cachan.fr [ENS Cachan, LPQM, 61 avenue du Président Wilson, 94230 Cachan (France); Sandeau, Nicolas [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, F-13013 Marseille (France); Khater, Antoine [Université du Maine, UMR 6087 Laboratoire PEC, F-72000 Le Mans (France)

    2017-05-03

    Highlights: • Comprehensive theoretical study of the skin effect in superconductors. • Based on Newton and Maxwell's equations. • Usual and anomalous skin effects dealt with in the same framework. - Abstract: The skin effect is analyzed to provide the numerous measurements of the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in superconducting materials with a theoretical basis. Both the normal and anomalous skin effects are accounted for within a single framework, focusing on frequencies less than the superconducting gap. The emphasis is laid on the conditions required for the penetration depth to be equal to London's length, which enables us to validate an assumption widely used in the interpretation of all current experimental results.

  14. Skin-effect in a dense ionizing plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenkov, G.V.; Taranenko, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of multiple ionization and radiation (bremmstrahlung and photorecombination) on skin effect in a dense plasma is investigated. Limiting cases are considered: 1) fast skin-effect, when plasma movement and any types of losses (radiation, electron thermal conductivity) have no time to manifest themselves during short heating times; 2) deceleration of skinning under effect of radiation achieving equilibrium with Joule heating. Self-simulating solutions of the problem for half-space are investigated. The results are applied to analysing experiments with exploding wires. It is shown that under conditions, typical of heavy-current decelerators tubular structures are produced as a result of heat and current skinning under free dispersion of plasma produced during the explosion. Their dimensions are of the order of dozens of microns, and the temperature exceeds 50 eV. The linear power and complete ''tube'' radiation yield at this stage are able to make a substantial contribution to the energy balance in the group

  15. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on skin of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenwen; Chen Qiang; Li Peng; Ling Ling; Lin Xiaochen; Ren Shuping; Liu Yajuan; Li Yun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the adverse effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) on the skin of guinea pig. Methods: Guinea pig skin was irradiated with UV-B, the skin changes in external appearance, pathology, and the contents of OH and O 2 - produced in the skin were determined to study the adverse effects of UV-B on the guinea pig skin. Results: UV-B caused red swelling and desquamation of skin, with the increasing of the UV-B irradiation, the cells in stratum spinosum began to proliferate vigorously, the MDA and ROS contents in UVB radiation group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: UV-B can cause injury to guinea pig skin and has the potential to produce skin cancer. (authors)

  16. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  17. Downstream lightening and upward heavying, sorting of sediments of uniform grain size but differing in density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viparelli, E.; Solari, L.; Hill, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Downstream fining, i.e. the tendency for a gradual decrease in grain size in the downstream direction, has been observed and studied in alluvial rivers and in laboratory flumes. Laboratory experiments and field observations show that the vertical sorting pattern over a small Gilbert delta front is characterized by an upward fining profile, with preferential deposition of coarse particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The present work is an attempt to answer the following questions. Are there analogous sorting patterns in mixtures of sediment particles having the same grain size but differing density? To investigate this, we performed experiments at the Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. During the experiments a Gilbert delta formed and migrated downstream allowing for the study of transport and sorting processes on the surface and within the deposit. The experimental results show 1) preferential deposition of heavy particles in the upstream part of the deposit associated with a pattern of "downstream lightening"; and 2) a vertical sorting pattern over the delta front characterized by a pattern of "upward heavying" with preferential deposition of light particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The observed downstream lightening is analogous of the downstream fining with preferential deposition of heavy (coarse) particles in the upstream part of the deposit. The observed upward heavying was unexpected because, considering the particle mass alone, the heavy (coarse) particles should have been preferentially deposited in the lowermost part of the deposit. Further, the application of classical fractional bedload transport relations suggests that in the case of mixtures of particles of uniform size and different densities equal mobility is not approached. We hypothesize that granular physics mechanisms traditionally associated with sheared granular flows may be responsible for the observed upward heavying and for the

  18. UV-radiation and skin cancer dose effect curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, T.; Dahlback, A.; Larsen, S.H.

    1988-08-01

    Norwegian skin cancer data were used in an attempt to arrive at the dose effect relationship for UV-carcinogenesis. The Norwegian population is relatively homogenous with regard to skin type and live in a country where the annual effective UV-dose varies by approximately 40 percent. Four different regions of the country, each with a broadness of 1 o in latitude (approximately 111 km), were selected . The annual effective UV-doses for these regions were calculated assuming normal ozone conditions throughout the year. The incidence of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (mainly basal cell carcinoma) in these regions were considered and compared to the annual UV-doses. For both these types of cancer a quadratic dose effect curve seems to be valid. Depletions of the ozone layer results in larger UV-doses which in turn may yield more skin cancer. The dose effect curves suggest that the incidence rate will increase by an ''amplification factor'' of approximately 2

  19. Effect of interstitial low level laser stimulation in skin density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.

  20. Biophysical effects of water and synthetic urine on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, H N; Sims, N

    2001-01-01

    Pressure ulcers often occur at sites subjected to pressure and wetness. Although skin wetness is a risk factor for pressure ulcers,the mechanisms and effects of wetness versus urine constituents on skin breakdown is unclear. The hypothesis that wetness reduces skin hardness and, thereby, increases vulnerability of underlying blood vessels to pressure-induced flow reductions was tested in this study. Pads saturated with water and with a water solution mixed with the main chemical constituents of urine (synthetic urine; s-urine) were applied to forearm skin of 10 healthy subjects for 5.5 hours. Skin hardness, blood flow change caused by 60 mm Hg of pressure, erythema, and temperature were compared among dry, water, and s-urine test sites. 10 healthy women. Research Center, Nova Southeastern University, Health Professions Division, Fort Lauderdale, FL. S-urine and water caused significant reductions in initial hardness and caused greater initial perfusion decreases during pressure load when compared with dry sites. Skin temperature and erythema were lower at wet sites when compared with dry sites. The findings of this study are consistent with the concept that sustained skin wetness increases vulnerability to pressure-induced blood flow reduction. The effect appears to be mainly dependent on wetness, but urine constituents may exacerbate the effect. In addition, wetness-related skin cooling may play a role. In the healthy subjects studied, the blood flow decrease was not sustained due to perfusion recovery under pressure. Skin wetness would likely have more sustained effects in patients with compromised recovery mechanisms. Measures to diminish skin exposure to wetness in these patients, whatever the wetness source, are an important consideration in a multifaceted strategy to reduce the risk of pressure ulcers.

  1. Antibacterial effect of glycerol as preservative on donor skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baare, J.; Ligtvoet, E.E.J.; Middelkoop, E.

    1999-01-01

    Glycerolised cadavetic allografts have been used widely since 1984 in the treatment of bum wounds. Rejections reaction to glycerolised skin were reported to be attenuated. Structural integrity of the skin was maintained and antiviral and antibacterial effects were noted. The Euro Skin Bank has gathered approximately 2000 data since 1987 concerning bacteriology cultures of glycerolised skin. These data are presented. Bacteriological data from skin donors were examined from 1987 till 1995 (1927 data). Donor skin sent to the laboratory and found to be positive for bacteria was quarantined and another container with skin samples was sent to the laboratory at a later time point. This was repeated until all cultures were negative. In 1987, 25 donors were processed without using antibiotics. These results were compared with donor skin treated with antibiotics. The average day for first culture was 19.7 ? 17.2. The average percentage of contaminated skin was 10.1? 3.7%. Antibiotics reduced contamination of glycerolised skin from 80% to 10.1%. Glycerol treatment also showed an antibacterial effect as all contaminated skin eventually became negative. Of the contaminated skin Staphylococcus epidermidis was found most frequently: in 70.7 ? 10.8% of the cases. Not all bacteria are equally sensitive to glycerol: Staphylococcus epidennidis contaminated skin became sterile after 48?24 days, whereas for Bacillus species it took 195? 1 37.9 days. We show that glycerol preservation of donor skin has important advantages over conservative methods such as cryopreservation. Initial contamination of the skin is no longer a reason to discard the material. Prolonged storage in glycerol will eliminate bacterial contamination. This allows an increase in yield of at least 10%

  2. PPF-reinforced, ESP-lightened gypsum plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Santos, A.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new construction material has been obtained by adding aggregate to gypsum plaster which, without reducing the bending strength of plain gypsum plaster without aggregates, lowers its density, and consequently the weight of the construction elements made from the agglomerated material, by half.The aggregates used were expanded polystyrene beads and short polypropylene fibre.The new material addresses one of the issues of cardinal interest in construction materials and construction element research, namely the need to lighten materials so as to ease the burden on buildings’ bearing structures while facilitating assembly of construction units, by a single worker wherever possible.With a water / binder ratio of 0.7 and 2% (by weight of plaster of expanded polystyrene and 2% of polypropylene fibre aggregates, the decline in density achieved was 50,88% over plain gypsum plaster and 32.88% over plasterboard.Se ha obtenido un nuevo material de construcción aditivando el yeso o la escayola, mediante la incorporación de agregados, de modo que sin reducir la resistencia a flexotracción de una escayola sin ningún tipo de adición, reduce su densidad a la mitad, y por tanto, el peso de los elementos constructivos que puedan realizarse basándose en él.El material está compuesto por una adición de gránulos de poliestireno expandido y fibras cortadas de polipropileno.El nuevo material incide sobre aquellos aspectos de más interés en el campo de la investigación en construcción, en donde se intenta reducir el peso de los materiales, de modo que se grave lo menos posible la estructura resistente de las edificaciones, a la par que se facilitan los procedimientos de montaje de las unidades constructivas, al poder ser manejadas por un solo operario.La escayola, con relación de agua/conglomerante de 0,7, y con adiciones del 2% en peso (sobre la cantidad de escayola, tanto de poliestireno expandido como de fibras de polipropileno, permite reducir la

  3. Field enhancement due to anomalous skin effect inside a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, G.; Tan, W.

    1996-01-01

    A new method based on Fourier transformation to study the skin effects is presented. Using this method, the field amplitude in plasma is represented in terms of electric conductivity, and the normal and anomalous skin effects are described through one formula by omitting the plasma dispersion or not. The results are in agreement with other publications [e.g., J. P. Matte and K. Aguenaou, Phys. Rev. A 45, 2558 (1992)] for equivalent parameters. But for deeper positions inside a target, which have not been studied by others, it is found that the field amplitude is considerably enhanced due to an anomalous skin effect, even for constant collision frequency. In addition, the skin absorptions and some calculations on an anomalous skin effect for different collision frequencies are also presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. CONVECTIVE DRYING OF CHERRY TOMATO: STUDY OF SKIN EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A whole single cherry tomato was dried in a forced convective micro-dryer. The experiments were carried out at constant air velocity and humidity and temperatures of 50, 60, 70 °C. In order to study the effect of the skin, two sets of experiments were performed using a tomato with and without skin (easily removed. Shorter drying times were obtained when increasing drying temperatures as well as when removing sample skin. X-ray microtomography, a non-destructive 3D imaging technique was used to follow shrinkage of the samples. This phenomenon was introduced in the modelling part of this study. Analytical solutions of the Fick’law were used to determine the diffusion coefficient at the three temperatures studied, and then the activation energy was obtained through fitting the Arrhenius equation. The skin effect was clearly evidenced by showing that the mass transfer parameter values of an original tomato with skin were largely smaller than the one without skin. Indeed, the moisture effective diffusivity ranged from 2.56×10-11 to 7.67×10-11 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 50430 J·mol-1 for tomato with skin an ranged from 4.59×10-10 m2·s-1 to 6.73×10-10 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 17640 J.mol-1 for tomato without skin.

  5. Effect of radiation on rat skin collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Akira

    1980-01-01

    I. Albino male rats were exposed for 16 weeks to ultraviolet light (UVL) which has principle emission at 305 nm. There were no significant changes between control and UVL-exposed skins in the total hydroxyproline content. However, a little increase of citrate-soluble collagen, a little decrease of insoluble collagen and a decrease of aldehyde content in soluble collagen were observed with UVL exposure. Total acid glycosaminoglycan in skin increased 30% or more from control. These results show that the effect of UVL on rat skin in vivo was merely inflammation phenomenon and that the 'aging' process of skin was not caused in our experimental conditions. II. The effects of radiation on the solubility of rat skin collagen were examined under various conditions. 1) When intact rats were exposed to a single dose of radiation from 43 kVp X-ray source, the solubility in skin collagen did not change at 4,000 R dosage, while in irradiation of 40,000 R a decreased solubility in collagen was observed. When rats were given 400 R a week for 12 weeks, there was no changes in the solubility of collagen during experimental period. 2) In vitro exposure to skins, an irradiation of 40,000 R from 43 kVp X-ray source caused a decrease in the solubility of collagen. While an irradiation of 40,000 R of dosage from 200 kVp X-ray source resulted in the increase in soluble collagen and the decrease in insoluble collagen. 3) When intact rats were given a single dose of 40,000 R from 60 Co- gamma -ray, insoluble collagen decreased in both young and adult rats. Similar changes in collagen solubility were observed in vitro gamma -irradiation. (author)

  6. [Effects of aroma massage on pruritus, skin pH, skin hydration and sleep in elders in long-term care hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, So Young; Kim, Kye Ha

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aroma massage on pruritus, skin pH, skin hydration and sleep in elders in long-term care hospitals. The participants were elders over 65 years old admitted to long-term care. They were assigned to the experimental group (26) or control group (28). Data were collected from May to August, 2012. Visual Analogue Scale and Verran and Snyder-Halpern Sleep scale were used to identify levels of pruritus and sleep. A skin-pH meter and moisture checker were used to measure skin pH and skin hydration. Aroma massage was performed three times a week for 4 weeks for elders in the experimental group. The data were analyzed using the SPSS Win 17.0 program. There were significant differences in pruritus, skin pH and skin hydration between the two groups. However there was no significant difference in sleep. The results indicate that aroma massage is effective in reducing pruritus, skin pH and increasing skin hydration in elders. Therefore, this intervention can be utilized in clinical practice as an effective nursing intervention to reduce pruritus in elders in long-term care hospitals.

  7. Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite reg-sign and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone

  8. Inhibitory effect of corn silk on skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Lee, Yeonmi; Kim, Sung Soo; Ju, Hyun Min; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Dong-Hyuk

    2014-03-03

    In this study, the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production was evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production in Melan-A cells by measuring melanin production and protein expression. The corn silk extract applied on Melan-A cells at a concentration of 100 ppm decreased melanin production by 37.2% without cytotoxicity. This was a better result than arbutin, a positive whitening agent, which exhibited a 26.8% melanin production inhibitory effect at the same concentration. The corn silk extract did not suppress tyrosinase activity but greatly reduced the expression of tyrosinase in Melan-A cells. In addition, corn silk extract was applied to the human face with hyperpigmentation, and skin color was measured to examine the degree of skin pigment reduction. The application of corn silk extract on faces with hyperpigmentation significantly reduced skin pigmentation without abnormal reactions. Based on the results above, corn silk has good prospects for use as a material for suppressing skin pigmentation.

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Corn Silk on Skin Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production was evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production in Melan-A cells by measuring melanin production and protein expression. The corn silk extract applied on Melan-A cells at a concentration of 100 ppm decreased melanin production by 37.2% without cytotoxicity. This was a better result than arbutin, a positive whitening agent, which exhibited a 26.8% melanin production inhibitory effect at the same concentration. The corn silk extract did not suppress tyrosinase activity but greatly reduced the expression of tyrosinase in Melan-A cells. In addition, corn silk extract was applied to the human face with hyperpigmentation, and skin color was measured to examine the degree of skin pigment reduction. The application of corn silk extract on faces with hyperpigmentation significantly reduced skin pigmentation without abnormal reactions. Based on the results above, corn silk has good prospects for use as a material for suppressing skin pigmentation.

  10. Effect of alcohol on skin permeation and metabolism of an ester-type prodrug in Yucatan micropig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Makiko; Ohara, Rieko; Matsumi, Azusa; Ohura, Kayoko; Koizumi, Naoya; Imai, Teruko; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2017-11-15

    We studied the effect that three alcohols, ethanol (EA), propanol (PA), and isopropanol (IPA), have on the skin permeation of p-hydroxy benzoic acid methyl ester (HBM), a model ester-type prodrug. HBM was applied to Yucatan micropig skin in a saturated phosphate buffered solution with or without 10% alcohol, and HBM and related materials in receptor fluid and skin were determined with HPLC. In the absence of alcohol, p-hydroxy benzoic acid (HBA), a metabolite of HBM, permeated the skin the most. The three alcohols enhanced the penetration of HBM at almost the same extent. The addition of 10% EA or PA to the HBM solution led to trans-esterification into the ethyl ester or propyl ester of HBA, and these esters permeated skin as well as HBA and HBM did. In contrast, the addition of 10% IPA promoted very little trans-esterification. Both hydrolysis and trans-esterification in the skin S9 fraction were inhibited by BNPP, an inhibitor of carboxylesterase (CES). Western blot and native PAGE showed the abundant expression of CES in micropig skin. Both hydrolysis and trans-esterification was simultaneously catalyzed by CES during skin permeation. Our data indicate that the alcohol used in dermal drug preparations should be selected not only for its ability to enhance the solubility and permeation of the drug, but also for the effect on metabolism of the drug in the skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of skin thermistor fixation method on weighted mean skin temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, Christopher James

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three different skin thermistor attachment methods on weighted mean skin temperature (WMT sk ) at three different ambient temperatures (∼24 °C (TEMP); ∼30 °C (WARM); ∼35 °C (HOT)) compared to uncovered thermistors. Eleven, non-acclimated, volunteers completed three 5 min bouts of submaximal cycling (∼70 W mechanical work)—one at each environmental condition in sequential order (TEMP, WARM, HOT). One thermistor was fixed to the sternal notch whilst four skin thermistors were spaced at 3 cm intervals on each of the sites on the limbs as per the formula of Ramanathan (1964 J. Appl. Physiol. 19 531–3). Each thermistor was either held against the skin uncovered (UC) or attached with surgical acrylic film dressing (T); surgical acrylic film dressing and hypoallergenic surgical tape (TT) or surgical acrylic film dressing, hypoallergenic surgical tape and surgical bandage (TTC). The WMT sk calculated was significantly lower in UC compared to T, TT and TTC (p < 0.001, d = 0.46), in T compared to TT and TTC (p < 0.001, d = 0.33) and in TT compared to TTC (p < 0.001; d = 0.25). The mean differences (across the three temperatures) were + 0.27 ±0.34 °C, + 0.52 ± 0.35 °C and + 0.82 ± 0.34 °C for T, TT and TTC, respectively. The results demonstrate that the method of skin thermistor attachment can result in the significant over-estimation of weighted mean skin temperature

  12. Supplemental Material, PWQ42_2_747845_Choma_and_Prusaczyk - The Effects of System Justifying Beliefs on Skin-Tone Surveillance, Skin-Color Dissatisfaction, and Skin-Bleaching Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Choma, Becky L.; Prusaczyk, Elvira

    2018-01-01

    Supplemental Material, PWQ42_2_747845_Choma_and_Prusaczyk for The Effects of System Justifying Beliefs on Skin-Tone Surveillance, Skin-Color Dissatisfaction, and Skin-Bleaching Behavior by Becky L. Choma, and Elvira Prusaczyk in Psychology of Women Quarterly

  13. Effect of skin tumor properties on laser penetration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer modeling can be a valuable tool to determine the absorption of laser light in different skin layers. For this study, the optical properties of three different skin tumors were used in the model to evaluate the effect on penetration depth...

  14. Analysis of effect of different construction methods of piles on the end effect on skin friction of piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hongbo; CHEN Zhuchang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the comparative analysis of end effect on skin friction of displacement-pile (driven pile),the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is studied.The end effect on skin friction between driven pile and bored pile is different and the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is reduce of skin friction in the soil layer adjacent to the pile end.The degradation degree of skin friction is deduced with the increase of the distance from pile end.The concept of additional mud cake formed by the effect of cushion at the bottom of borehole during pouring concrete is introduced to explain the mechanism of end effect on skin friction of the bored pile.The test results of post-grouting piles indicate that the post-grouting technique is an effective way to improve the end effect on skin friction of bored pile.

  15. Skin Protective Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a catechin and an abundant polyphenol in green tea. Although several papers have evaluated EGCG as a cosmetic constituent, the skin hydration effect of EGCG is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the mechanism by which EGCG promotes skin hydration by measuring hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS and hyaluronidase (HYAL gene expression and antioxidant and anti-pigmentation properties using cell proliferation assay, Western blotting analysis, luciferase assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis. RT-PCR showed that EGCG increased the expression of natural moisturizing factor-related genes filaggrin (FLG, transglutaminase-1, HAS-1, and HAS-2. Under UVB irradiation conditions, the expression level of HYAL was decreased in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, we confirmed the antioxidant activity of EGCG and also showed a preventive effect against radical-evoked apoptosis by downregulation of caspase-8 and -3 in HaCaT cells. EGCG reduced melanin secretion and production in melanoma cells. Together, these results suggest that EGCG might be used as a cosmetic ingredient with positive effects on skin hydration, moisture retention, and wrinkle formation, in addition to radical scavenging activity and reduction of melanin generation.

  16. The risks of external oculotoxicity in the usage of hydroquinone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the dark skinned, it is described as a skin lightening substance when added to creams, soaps, lotions, gels and ointments. ... In addition, 25% became exposed to hydroquinone-containing products through personal knowledge while (65%) were through encouragement by friends and relations and 3.0% through the ...

  17. Skin banking in the United States - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenleaf, G.

    1999-01-01

    Utilizing skin from a suicide victim to treat bums of a young boy struck by lightening, Girdner introduced skin transplantation to the United States in 1881. In the 1930's Padgett introduced the first instrument designed specifically to procure split thickness skin grafts. Padgett's dermatome allowed for reproducible recovery of large areas of fairly uniform skin grafts. This opened the way for the coverage of large wound areas. Fundamental advances in cryopreservation methodologies by the US Navy Tissue Bank in the 1950's paved the way for the preservation and storage of tissues for transplant. In the 60's and 70's the development of dedicated bum units to treat the complexity of bum injuries resulted in an increase demand for allograft skin. To supply local needs, numerous hospital based skin banks began operating throughout the US. By the early 1980's, there were approximately 50 skin banks operating in the U.S. Interestingly, as interest in transplantation of other musculoskeletal tissues increased, many tissue banks chose to focus their attention on the recovery of bone and ligaments and curtailed or eliminated skin recovery programs. Additionally, as the cost of operating tissue banks began to increase, many banks elected to consolidate their services, procure multiple tissues from each donor, and to supply these tissues to centers outside their immediate community The 1990's has revealed the emergence of M ega-Tissue Banks, as smaller, independent banks, faced with ever increasing regulations and pressure for cost containment, merged together or contracted with others for processing or distribution services. Currently, an estimated 120 musculoskeletal tissue banks operate in the U.S. Of these, less than 10 could be considered dedicated skin banks. While the number of skin banks has dwindled, the need to treat large integumental injuries remains. In the US, many biotechnology companies have recognized this need and have focused on the development of allograft

  18. Effects of various vehicles on skin hydration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedersberg, S; Leopold, C S; Guy, R H

    2009-01-01

    The stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, regulates the passive loss of water to the environment. Furthermore, it is well accepted that drug penetration is influenced by skin hydration, which may be manipulated by the application of moisturizing or oleaginous vehicles. Measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and of skin hydration using a corneometer, were used to assess the effect of different vehicles on stratum corneum barrier function in vivo in human volunteers. A microemulsion significantly increased skin hydration relative to a reference vehicle based on medium chain triglycerides; in contrast, Transcutol(R) lowered skin hydration. TEWL measurements confirmed these observations. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Clinical picture of delayed radiation effects in the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundeiker, M.

    1987-01-01

    Chronic radiation injuries of the skin develop over years or decades. Gradually increasing atrophy, sclerosis, telangiectasis, possibly - in highly exposed parts of the skin - keratosis due to radiation ulcers, carcinomas and basilomas occur after a latency period of decades, not so much in X-ray-injured skin after tumour therapy as in diffusely altered X-ray-injured skin after multiple exposure to low doses. Radiotherapy is indispensable, but like other effective methods of treatment it requires stringent indications, accurate execution and careful after-treatment. (TRV) [de

  20. L-carnitine mitigates UVA-induced skin tissue injury in rats through downregulation of oxidative stress, p38/c-Fos signaling, and the proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Samir A; Arab, Hany H; Omar, Hany A; Gad, Hesham S; Abd-Allah, Gamil M; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A; Al Robaian, Majed M

    2018-04-01

    UVA comprises more than 90% of the solar UV radiation reaching the Earth. Artificial lightening lamps have also been reported to emit significant amounts of UVA. Exposure to UVA has been associated with dermatological disorders including skin cancer. At the molecular level, UVA damages different cellular biomolecules and triggers inflammatory responses. The current study was devoted to investigate the potential protective effect of L-carnitine against UVA-induced skin tissue injury using rats as a mammalian model. Rats were distributed into normal control group (NC), L-carnitine control group (LC), UVA-Exposed group (UVA), and UVA-Exposed and L-carnitine-treated group (UVA-LC). L-carnitine significantly attenuated UVA-induced elevation of the DNA damage markers 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) as well as decreased DNA fragmentation and the activity of the apoptotic marker caspase-3. In addition, L-carnitine substantially reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation marker (TBARS) and protein oxidation marker (PCC) and significantly elevated the levels of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) in the skin tissues. Interestingly, L-carnitine upregulated the level of the DNA repair protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Besides it mitigated the UVA-induced activation of the oxidative stress-sensitive signaling protein p38 and its downstream target c-Fos. Moreover, L-carnitine significantly downregulated the levels of the early response proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. Collectively, our results highlight, for the first time, the potential attenuating effects of L-carnitine on UVA-induced skin tissue injury in rats that is potentially mediated through suppression of UVA-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Skin Effect of Reversely Switched Dynistor in Short Pulse Discharge Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Liang; Yue-Hui Yu

    2009-01-01

    The skin effect in the reversely switched dynistor (RSD) devices is investigated in this paper. Based on the plasma bipolar drift model of the RSD, the current density distributions on the chip are simulated with considering the skin effect. The results indicate that the current density on the border can be several hundred to a thousand A/cm2 higher than that in the center of the chip. The skin effect becomes more prominent as the voltage increases and the inductance decreases in the main circuit. The phenomenon that most of a certain group of chips break over on the border has proved the existence of the skin effect.

  2. Evaluation of skin moisturizer effects using terahertz time domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Meza, L. H.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Castro-Camus, E.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.

    2018-02-01

    We use terahertz time domain imaging for the evaluation of the effects of skin-moisturizers in vivo. We evaluate three principal substances used in commercial moisturizers: glycerin, hyaluronic acid and lanolin. We image the interaction of the forearm with each of the substances taking terahertz spectra at sequential times. With this, we are able to measure the effect of the substances on the hydration level of the skin in time, determining the feasibility of using THz imaging for the evaluation of the products and their effects on the hydration levels of the skin.

  3. Mercury Toxicity and Contamination of Households from the Use of Skin Creams Adulterated with Mercurous Chloride (Calomel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Copan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic mercury, in the form of mercurous chloride, or calomel, is intentionally added to some cosmetic products sold through informal channels in Mexico and the US for skin lightening and acne treatment. These products have led to multiple cases of mercury poisoning but few investigations have addressed the contamination of cream users’ homes. We report on several cases of mercury poisoning among three Mexican-American families in California from use of mercury-containing skin creams. Each case resulted in widespread household contamination and secondary contamination of family members. Urine mercury levels in cream users ranged from 37 to 482 µg/g creatinine and in non-users from non-detectable to 107 µg/g creatinine. Air concentrations of up to 8 µg/m3 of mercury within homes exceeded the USEPA/ATSDR health-based guidance and action level of <1.0 μg/m3. Mercury contamination of cream users’ homes presented a multi-pathway exposure environment to residents. Homes required extensive decontamination, including disposal of most household items, to achieve acceptable air levels. The acceptable air levels used were not designed to consider multi-pathway exposure scenarios. These findings support that the calomel is able to change valence form to elemental mercury and volatilize once exposed to the skin or surfaces in the indoor environment.

  4. Topical isoflavones provide effective photoprotection to skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Tournas, Joshua A; Burch, James A; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Zielinski, Jan

    2008-04-01

    Isoflavones, one main group of phytoestrogens, have antioxidative and photoprotective effects in cellular and mouse studies. The aim of this study is to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the isoflavone-mediated photoprotection with the pig skin model, a more human-resembling model. The pig skin was treated with five well-known isoflavone compounds (genistein, equol, daidzein, biochanin A, and formononetin) and one antioxidant combination solution of 15% vitamin C and 1% vitamin E and 0.5% ferulic acid (CEF) daily for 4 days. Skin was irradiated with solar-simulated UV irradiation, 1 to 5 minimal erythema dose (MED) at 1-MED intervals. Evaluation was carried out 24 h later by colorimeter-measured erythema and sunburn cell numbers. Topical application of 0.5% solutions of three individual phytoestrogens - genistein, daidzein, biochanin A - are better than similar solutions of equol or formononetin in protecting pig skin from solar-simulated ultraviolet (SSUV)-induced photodamage, as measured by sunburn cell formation and/or erythema. However, the protection was less than that provided by a topical combination antioxidant standard containing 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1%alpha-tocopherol, and 0.5% ferulic acid. Isoflavones provide effective photoprotection and are good candidate ingredients for protection against ultraviolet (UV) photodamage.

  5. Clinical and histological effects of blue light on normal skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinpenning, M.M.; Smits, T.; Frunt, M.H.A.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Phototherapy with visible light is gaining interest in dermatological practice. Theoretically, blue light could induce biological effects comparable to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of blue light on normal skin in terms of photodamage, skin ageing and

  6. Effect of emulsification on the skin permeation and UV protection of catechin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Sachie; Mitoma, Tomoaki; Tsuruta, Keiko; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2014-06-01

    An anti-aging effect may be obtained by skin application of tea catechins (Camellia sinensis) since they have high ultraviolet (UV)-protection activity. In this study, the skin permeation of catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECg) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was determined and compared, and the effect of emulsification on the skin permeation of C was measured. The UV-protective effect of C was also determined. The in vitro skin permeability of each catechin derivative was determined using side-by-side diffusion of cells. The UV-protective effect of C was determined by applying different concentrations of C to the solution or emulsion on a three-dimensional cultured human skin model or normal human epidermal keratinocytes with UV-irradiation. ECg and EGCg with gallate groups showed lower skin permeability than C, EC and EGC without gallate groups, suggesting that the skin permeability of catechin derivatives may be dependent on the existence of a gallate group. Interestingly, the skin permeation of C was increased by an o/w emulsification. In addition, the C emulsion showed a significantly higher UV-protective effect by C than that with its aqueous solution. These results suggest that the o/w emulsion of catechin derivatives is probably useful as a cosmetic formulation with anti-aging efficacy.

  7. Cosmetotextiles with Gallic Acid: Skin Reservoir Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Martí

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant gallic acid (GA has been incorporated into cotton (CO and polyamide (PA through two different vehicles, that is, liposomes and mixed micelles, and their respective absorption/desorption processes have been studied. Moreover, in vitro percutaneous absorption tests of different cosmetotextiles have been performed to demonstrate antioxidant penetration within the layers of the skin. When GA was embedded into the cosmetotextiles, it always promoted a reservoir effect that was much more marked than that observed for polyamide. Similar penetration was observed in the textiles treated with GA in mixed micelles or liposomes in such compartments of the skin as the stratum corneum, epidermis, and even the dermis. GA was detected in receptor fluid only when CO was treated with MM. This methodology may be useful in verifying how encapsulated substances incorporated into textile materials penetrate human skin. Indeed, such materials can be considered strategic delivery systems that release a given active compound into the skin at specific doses.

  8. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects on human skin allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourroul, Selma Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The skin has a fundamental role in the viability of the human body. In the cases of extensive wounds, allograft skin provides an alternative to cover temporarily the damaged areas. After donor screening and preservation in glycerol (above 85%), the skin can be stored in the Skin Banks. The glycerol at this concentration has a bacteriostatic effect after certain time of preservation. On the other hand, skin sterilization by ionizing radiation may reduces the quarantine period for transplantation in patients and its safety is considered excellent. The objectives of this work were to establish procedures using two sources of ionizing radiation for sterilization of human skin allograft, and to evaluate the skin after gamma and electron beam irradiation. The analysis of stress-strain intended to verify possible effects of the radiation on the structure of preserved grafts. Skin samples were submitted to doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy in an irradiator of 60 Co and in an electron beam accelerator. Morphology and ultra-structure studies were also accomplished. The samples irradiated with a dose of 25 kGy seemed to maintain the bio mechanic characteristics. The gamma irradiated samples with a dose of 50 kGy and submitted to an electron beam at doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy presented significant differences in the values of the elasticity modulus, in relation to the control. The analysis of the ultramicrographies revealed modifications in the structure and alterations in the pattern of collagen fibrils periodicity of the irradiated samples. (author)

  9. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2011-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a 60 Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  10. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d' Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia, E-mail: sgcbraza@usp.b, E-mail: tvieira@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: mabra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: macdomin@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2011-07-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a {sup 60}Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  11. Glutathione and its antiaging and antimelanogenic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weschawalit S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinee Weschawalit,1 Siriwan Thongthip,2 Phanupong Phutrakool,3 Pravit Asawanonda1 1Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, 2Chula Clinical Research Center, 3Chula Data Management Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Previous studies showed that supplementation of reduced form of glutathione (GSH, 500 mg/d has a skin-lightening efficacy in humans. This study was designed to evaluate the influences of both GSH and oxidized form (GSSG, at doses lower than 500 mg/d, on improving skin properties. Patients and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, three-arm study was conducted. Healthy female subjects were equally randomized into three groups and took GSH (250 mg/d, GSSG (250 mg/d, or placebo orally for 12 weeks. At each visit at baseline and for 12 weeks, skin features including melanin index, wrinkles, and other relevant biophysical properties were measured. Blood samples were collected for safety monitoring. Results: In generalized estimating equation analyses, melanin index and ultraviolet spots of all sites including face and arm when given GSH and GSSG tended to be lower than placebo. At some sites evaluated, subjects who received GSH showed a significant reduction in wrinkles compared with those taking placebo. A tendency toward increased skin elasticity was observed in GSH and GSSG compared with placebo. There were no serious adverse effects throughout the study. Conclusion: We showed that oral glutathione, 250 mg/d, in both reduced and oxidized forms effectively influences skin properties. Overall, glutathione in both forms are well tolerated. Keywords: glutathione, melanin, pigment, aging, wrinkle, whitening

  12. Exogenous Ochronosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi A Bhattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous ochronosis (EO is a cutaneous disorder characterized by blue-black pigmentation resulting as a complication of long-term application of skin-lightening creams containing hydroquinone but may also occur due to topical contact with phenol or resorcinol in dark-skinned individuals. It can also occur following the use of systemic antimalarials such as quinine. EO is clinically and histologically similar to its endogenous counterpart viz., alkaptonuria, which, however, exhibits systemic effects and is an inherited disorder. Dermoscopy and in vivo skin reflectance confocal microscopy are noninvasive in vivo diagnostic tools. It is very difficult to treat EO, a cosmetically disfiguring and troubling disorder with disappointing treatment options.

  13. Sun’s effect on skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays, which can burn the skin, and ...

  14. Investigation on the effect of developed product and new food for radiation-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Chun; Bae, Chun Sik; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Hae Jun; Bang, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Joong Sun; Ki, Sun Ah; Song, Myung Seop [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    In vivo evaluation of the developed pilot product on the skin protection against UV irradiation and screening of new candidate materials. Project Results are Establishment of experimental methods for 3 morphological indices of UV-induced skin damages -Establishment of experimental methods for whitening effect evaluation -Evaluation of HemoHIM administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 1 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 2 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 3 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the anti-wrinkle effects in the skin -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tissue (epidermal thickening, dermal cellularity, dermal cyst) -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tumor development

  15. Investigation on the effect of developed product and new food for radiation-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Chun; Bae, Chun Sik; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Hae Jun; Bang, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Joong Sun; Ki, Sun Ah; Song, Myung Seop

    2007-07-01

    In vivo evaluation of the developed pilot product on the skin protection against UV irradiation and screening of new candidate materials. Project Results are Establishment of experimental methods for 3 morphological indices of UV-induced skin damages -Establishment of experimental methods for whitening effect evaluation -Evaluation of HemoHIM administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 1 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 2 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 3 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the anti-wrinkle effects in the skin -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tissue (epidermal thickening, dermal cellularity, dermal cyst) -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tumor development

  16. [Effect of heijiang pill on radiation skin ulcer in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Yang, Yang; Xu, Yong-Mei

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between single dosage of 60Co radiation and the degree of radiation-induced skin ulcers, and to evaluate the curative effect of Heijiang Pill (HJP) on skin ulcer induced by various dosages of radiation in rats. Sixty-six Wistar female rats were randomly divided into three groups, the blank control group (n = 6) and the two radiation groups, each 30 rats, with their right hind leg exposed respectively to 60 Gy and 40 Gy of 60 Co radiation. The time of emergence and degree of skin ulcer were recorded. Then rats in the two radiation groups were subdivided into the HJP group, the Ethacridine group and the model group, 10 in each group, they received corresponding treatment after ulceration, and the incidence, pathology, cure rate and cure time of skin ulcer were observed in the 90 days of observation. The incidence of skin ulcer was higher and occurred earlier in rats radiated with 60 Gy than that with 40 Gy (P ulcer healing rate in rats treated with HJP was higher than that treated with Ethacridine (P cure time in the HJP group was shorter (P ulcers. HJP can effectively cure radiation skin ulcer, and the effect is especially significant on the ulcer induced by low dose radiation.

  17. Consequences of 'load-lightening' for future indirect fitness gains by helpers in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Jessica; Nam, Ki-Baek; Beckerman, Andrew P; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2010-05-01

    1. Helpers that invest energy in provisioning the offspring of related individuals stand to gain indirect fitness benefits from doing so. First, if the helper's effort is additional to that of the parents (additive) the productivity of the current breeding attempt can be increased. Secondly, if the parents reduce their workload (compensation) this can result in future indirect fitness gains to the helper via increased breeder survival; termed 'load-lightening'. 2. Long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus) have a cooperative breeding system in which helpers assist kin and parents exhibit both additive and compensatory reactions in the presence of helpers. Offspring from helped nests are heavier and more likely to recruit into the breeding population, thus helpers gain indirect fitness benefits from increasing the productivity of the current breeding attempt. Despite breeders' reduction of feeding effort in the presence of helpers, previous investigations found no subsequent increase in breeder survival. 3. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that load-lightening resulted in indirect fitness benefits for helpers. We used data from a 14-year study to investigate the provisioning rate, survival and future fecundity of male and female long-tailed tits that did and did not receive help at the nest. 4. We found an asymmetrical response to the presence of helpers at large brood sizes. Males reduced their feeding rate more than females, and this differential response was reflected in a significant increase in male survival when provisioning large broods assisted by helpers. We found no evidence of any increase in future fecundity for helped breeders. 5. The finding that males reduce their provisioning rate in the presence of helpers (at large brood sizes) to a greater degree than females, and that this is reflected in an increase in survival rate for males only, implies that the survival increase is caused by the reduction in work-rate rather than a non

  18. The effect of skin surface topography and skin colouration cues on perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; Brauckmann, C; Gundlach, S

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of skin surface topography and colouration cues on the perception of female faces reported a differential weighting for the perception of skin topography and colour evenness, where topography was a stronger visual cue for the perception of age, whereas skin colour evenness was a stronger visual cue for the perception of health. We extend these findings in a study of the effect of skin surface topography and colour evenness cues on the perceptions of facial age, health and attractiveness in males. Facial images of six men (aged 40 to 70 years), selected for co-expression of lines/wrinkles and discolouration, were manipulated digitally to create eight stimuli, namely, separate removal of these two features (a) on the forehead, (b) in the periorbital area, (c) on the cheeks and (d) across the entire face. Omnibus (within-face) pairwise combinations, including the original (unmodified) face, were presented to a total of 240 male and female judges, who selected the face they considered younger, healthier and more attractive. Significant effects were detected for facial image choice, in response to skin feature manipulation. The combined removal of skin surface topography resulted in younger age perception compared with that seen with the removal of skin colouration cues, whereas the opposite pattern was found for health preference. No difference was detected for the perception of attractiveness. These perceptual effects were seen particularly on the forehead and cheeks. Removing skin topography cues (but not discolouration) in the periorbital area resulted in higher preferences for all three attributes. Skin surface topography and colouration cues affect the perception of age, health and attractiveness in men's faces. The combined removal of these features on the forehead, cheeks and in the periorbital area results in the most positive assessments. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Toxic effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N.

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation present in sunlight is an environmental human carcinogen. The toxic effects of UV from natural sunlight and therapeutic artificial lamps are a major concern for human health. The major acute effects of UV irradiation on normal human skin comprise sunburn inflammation (erythema), tanning, and local or systemic immunosuppression. At the molecular level, UV irradiation causes DNA damage such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts, which are usually repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Chronic exposure to UV irradiation leads to photoaging, immunosuppression, and ultimately photocarcinogenesis. Photocarcinogenesis involves the accumulation of genetic changes, as well as immune system modulation, and ultimately leads to the development of skin cancers. In the clinic, artificial lamps emitting UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm) radiation in combination with chemical drugs are used in the therapy of many skin diseases including psoriasis and vitiligo. Although such therapy is beneficial, it is accompanied with undesirable side effects. Thus, UV radiation is like two sides of the same coin--on one side, it has detrimental effects, and on the other side, it has beneficial effects

  20. Effects of a skin neuropeptide (substance p on cutaneous microflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Mijouin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skin is the largest human neuroendocrine organ and hosts the second most numerous microbial population but the interaction of skin neuropeptides with the microflora has never been investigated. We studied the effect of Substance P (SP, a peptide released by nerve endings in the skin on bacterial virulence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bacillus cereus, a member of the skin transient microflora, was used as a model. Exposure to SP strongly stimulated the cytotoxicity of B. cereus (+553±3% with SP 10(-6 M and this effect was rapid (<5 min. Infection of keratinocytes with SP treated B. cereus led to a rise in caspase1 and morphological alterations of the actin cytoskeleton. Secretome analysis revealed that SP stimulated the release of collagenase and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, we also noted a shift in the surface polarity of the bacteria linked to a peel-off of the S-layer and the release of S-layer proteins. Meanwhile, the biofilm formation activity of B. cereus was increased. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor (Ef-Tu was identified as the SP binding site in B. cereus. Other Gram positive skin bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis also reacted to SP by an increase of virulence. Thermal water from Uriage-les-Bains and an artificial polysaccharide (Teflose® were capable to antagonize the effect of SP on bacterial virulence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SP is released in sweat during stress and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous skin diseases through neurogenic inflammation. Our study suggests that a direct effect of SP on the skin microbiote should be another mechanism.

  1. Anomalous Skin Effect for Anisotropic Electron Velocity Distribution Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Gennady Shvets

    2004-01-01

    The anomalous skin effect in a plasma with a highly anisotropic electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) is very different from skin effect in a plasma with the isotropic EVDF. An analytical solution was derived for the electric field penetrated into plasma with the EVDF described as a Maxwellian with two temperatures Tx >> Tz, where x is the direction along the plasma boundary and z is the direction perpendicular to the plasma boundary. The skin layer was found to consist of two distinctive regions of width of order nTx/w and nTz/w, where nTx,z/w = (Tx,z/m)1/2 is the thermal electron velocity and w is the incident wave frequency

  2. Evaluating the Effect of Mother – Baby Skin- to- Skin Care on Neonatal Outcomes in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kalhor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Involving the parents in caring of premature newborns is one of the best and effective manners for preventing the hospitalization of premature newborns. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of mother – baby skin- to- skin care on neonatal outcomes in preterm infants, in Kosar hospital. Methods: This was a descriptive comparative study conducted on 400 nulliparous women with premature infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of Kosar hospital during April 2012 and March 2015. Sampling was performed via convenience sampling. Sample population divided into two groups, one of them 200, the kangaroo care and non- care groups. The data were obtained by a researcher prepared check list, including mother’s demographic characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Both descriptive and statistical analysis methods were applied. For analyzing the data, chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression tests was applied (P 0.05. In the intervention group, the relationship between maternal variables and neonatal outcome was significant (P <0.05. Conclusion: Mother – baby skin- to- skin care has a positive effect on neonatal outcomes. Thus, supporting and awareness of premature infants’ mothers in order to implement this type of care can reduce the neonatal complications. Moreover, it is effective in decreasing the treatment costs.

  3. Effect of fluocinolone acetonide cream on human skin blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimoskey, J.E.; Holloway, A. Jr.; Flanagan, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Blood flow rate was measured in the forearm skin of human subjects exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Blood flow was determined by the 133 Xe disappearance technique 18 hr after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with a Westinghouse RS sunlamp held 10 inches from the skin for 10 min. Ultraviolet irradiation caused skin blood flow to increase. Application of fluocinolone acetonide cream, 0.025 percent, 4 times in the 16 hr following UV irradiation had no effect on either control skin blood flow or the UV-induced hyperemia

  4. Effects of hair removal alexandrite laser on biometric parameters of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-04-01

    The effects of alexandrite laser (AL) on skin parameters such as melanin content, skin layer depth, elasticity, and density have not been investigated through biometric methods. We aim to assess the effect of AL on the skin parameters through biometric devices to determine whether it has positive effects on treated region. In this pretest-posttest study, we recruited patients who attended Laser Clinic of Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from January through December 2014. Patients had to be free of any dermatologic conditions and lesion at the site of treatment or any contraindication to laser therapy. Baseline measurements were performed and patients received four sessions of AL therapy (spot size, 12 mm; fluence, 12 J/cm(2); and pulse width, 5 Hz) with 4-week intervals. Four weeks after the last treatment session, the same parameters were assessed that included skin color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), dermis and epidermis density and depth (through skin ultrasonography), melanin content, erythema intensity, and skin elasticity. Biometric parameters of 33 patients (27 females [81.8%]), with mean (SD) age of 35.7 (9.5) years were evaluated. The mean percent changes of skin parameters were as follows: skin color, 5.88% through Visioface and by 56.8% through Colorimeter devices (became lighter); melanin content, -15.95%; TEWL, -2.96%; elasticity, +14.88%; dermis depth -19.01%; and dermis density, +1580.11% (P < 0.001 for changes in each parameter). AL could decrease melanin content of the skin and make the skin thinner while it could increase elasticity and density of epidermis and dermis, which might indicate increased collagen content of skin.

  5. [Effect of dibunol liniment on posttraumatic skin regeneration in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutova, T V; Efimov, E A; Korman, D B

    1984-10-01

    The effect of dibunol liniment (5-50 mg/kg) on excised mouse skin was studied. The liniment caused complete skin regeneration with hair and gland formation in the majority of treated mice. Application of the liniment led to a considerable increase in proliferative activity of skin epithelial cells and inhibition of wound area reduction within the first day of healing as compared with controls.

  6. Skin color and tissue thickness effects on transmittance, reflectance, and skin temperature when using 635 and 808 nm lasers in low intensity therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Barros, Leanna; Dhaidan, Ghaith; Maunula, Mikko; Solomon, Vaeda; Gabison, Sharon; Lilge, Lothar; Nussbaum, Ethne L

    2018-04-01

    To examine the role of skin color and tissue thickness on transmittance, reflectance, and skin heating using red and infrared laser light. Forty volunteers were measured for skin color and skin-fold thickness at a standardized site near the elbow. Transmittance, reflectance and skin temperature were recorded for energy doses of 2, 6, 9, and 12 Joules using 635 nm (36 mW) and 808 nm (40 mW) wavelength laser diodes with irradiances within American National Standards Institute safety guidelines (4.88 mm diameter, 0.192 W/cm 2 and 4.88 mm diameter, 0.214 W/cm 2 , respectively). The key factors affecting reflectance to an important degree were skin color and wavelength. However, the skin color effects were different for the two wavelengths: reflectance decreased for darker skin with a greater decrease for red light than near infrared light. Transmittance was greater using 808 nm compared with 635 nm. However, the effect was partly lost when the skin was dark rather than light, and was increasingly lost as tissue thickness increased. Dose had an increasing effect on temperature (0.7-1.6°C across the 6, 9, and 12 J doses); any effects of wavelength, skin color, and tissue thickness were insignificant compared to dose effects. Subjects themselves were not aware of the increased skin temperature. Transmittance and reflectance changes as a function of energy were very small and likely of no clinical significance. Absorption did not change with higher energy doses and increasing temperature. Skin color and skin thickness affect transmittance and reflectance of laser light and must be accounted for when selecting energy dose to ensure therapeutic effectiveness at the target tissue. Skin heating appears not to be a concern when using 635 and 808 nm lasers at energy doses of up to 12 J and irradiance within American National Standards Institute standards. Photobiomodulation therapy should never exceed the American National Standards Institute

  7. The effect of pregnancy on paternal skin allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Elucidation of maternal-fetal tolerance mechanisms clarifies the role of regulatory T cells (Treg) in transplant tolerance. This study aim to investigate the effect of pregnancy on paternal skin allograft survival. Flow cytometry techniques, mixed lymphocytes reaction (MLR), PCR, real-time PCR and skin transplantation were key methods. Treg increased significantly from 4.2% before pregnancy to peak at 6.8% day 8 after pregnancy. Both heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mRNA express high in placenta while low in spleen (P<0.05). Although Treg increased during pregnancy, and splenocytes from the pregnant mice showed lower MLR response toward the paternal stimulator, single time pregnancy showed no significant protective effect on paternal skin allograft survival in the tested condition.

  8. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  9. Effect of age on leather and skin traits of slaughter ostriches | Cloete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the factors affecting leather and skin traits in ostriches. The effect of age on physical skin traits of slaughter ostriches was consequently investigated. Forty skins representing slaughter ages ranging from five to 14 months were selected to represent means of the respective age groups with regard to skin ...

  10. Effects of industrial detergents on the barrier function of human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2000-01-01

    Detergents are involved in the causation of contact dermatitis and in promoting percutaneous absorption of toxic chemicals, but limited information is available to allow an assessment of their relative effects on the skin barrier function. The effect of detergents on skin permeability to water...

  11. Skin hydration and cooling effect produced by the Voltaren® vehicle gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Agnes M; Schmidts, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Jens; Segger, Dörte; Fotopoulos, Grigorios; Heinzerling, Johanna

    2012-05-01

    Voltaren vehicle gel is the carrier substance of the topical Voltaren products. This vehicle gel is especially formulated to be easily applied on the skin, while providing some sensory benefits. The present study aims to substantiate the widely perceived hydrating and cooling effect of Voltaren vehicle gel. Volar forearm skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured and user satisfaction was evaluated by questionnaires, after application in 31 healthy, female volunteers. The cooling effect was investigated for 40 min with thermal imaging on 12 forearm sites of six healthy subjects. Voltaren vehicle gel application increased skin hydration by 13.1% (P = 0.0002) when compared with the untreated site, 8 h after the final treatment after 2 weeks. TEWL decreased on both treated (0.37 g/m(2) /h) and untreated (0.74 g/m(2) /h) forearm sites after 2 weeks (8 h after last treatment), demonstrating a relative increase of 6.5% in water loss. Voltaren vehicle gel application resulted in a rapid reduction of skin surface temperature by 5.1°C after only 3 min with an average maximum reduction of 5.8°C after 10 min. The cooling effect was experienced by 94% subjects, while 74% felt that their skin became softer. No adverse events, including skin irritation, were reported during the study and by the 37 participants. This study showed a statistically significant increase in skin hydration as well as a rapid cooling effect lasting approximately 30 min, after application of Voltaren vehicle gel. The small relative increase in water loss may be attributed to an additional skin surface water loss secondary to the increased water content brought into the skin by the Voltaren vehicle gel. The use did not induce any skin irritation and was found acceptable to use by the majority of participants. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. The effect of a daily facial cleanser for normal to oily skin on the skin barrier of subjects with acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2006-07-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that affects many people every year, especially the teenaged population. People with acne find the condition especially difficult to manage because of the disease's chronicity and variability in response to treatment. Acne is the result of pores clogged with shed skin cells combined with sebum in the hair follicle. Successful treatment of acne is important because acne has the potential to result in lasting physical and emotional scarring. For many years, physicians have agreed that although cleansing is not effective on its own, effective cleansing is an important part of any acne treatment regimen. However, patients have not been satisfied with the types of cleansers available. In addition to containing dyes and perfumes that can irritate and exacerbate acne, these cleansers often are too harsh and can result in excessive drying of the skin, which leads to overcompensation by the oil glands and ultimately to more oil on the surface of the skin. This study examined the use of a daily facial cleanser formulated for normal to oily skin in subjects with mild facial acne. The cleanser was studied for 2 weeks in the absence of additional treatments to eliminate the confounding effects of various treatments. Subjects were monitored for skin barrier function through transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry, sebum level, and lesion counts. The results of the study indicate that the facial cleanser is gentle and does not damage the skin barrier or result in sebum overcompensation; additionally, the cleanser is effective at deep-pore cleansing, which may help to manage some acne-associated symptoms.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Skin Awareness Intervention for Early Detection of Skin Cancer Targeting Men Older Than 50 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Brynes, Joshua; Baade, Peter D; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C; Youl, Philippa H; Aitken, Joanne F; Janda, Monika

    2017-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of an educational intervention encouraging self-skin examinations for early detection of skin cancers among men older than 50 years. A lifetime Markov model was constructed to combine data from the Skin Awareness Trial and other published sources. The model incorporated a health system perspective and the cost and health outcomes for melanoma, squamous and basal cell carcinomas, and benign skin lesions. Key model outcomes included Australian costs (2015), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years, and counts of skin cancers. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address parameter uncertainty. The mean cost of the intervention was A$5,298 compared with A$4,684 for usual care, whereas mean QALYs were 7.58 for the intervention group and 7.77 for the usual care group. The intervention was thus inferior to usual care. When only survival gain is considered, the model predicted the intervention would cost A$1,059 per life-year saved. The likelihood that the intervention was cost-effective up to A$50,000 per QALY gained was 43.9%. The model was stable to most data estimates; nevertheless, it relies on the specificity of clinical diagnosis of skin cancers and is subject to limited health utility data for people with skin lesions. Although the intervention improved skin checking behaviors and encouraged men to seek medical advice about suspicious lesions, the overall costs and effects from also detecting more squamous and basal cell carcinomas and benign lesions outweighed the positive health gains from detecting more thin melanomas. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of friction on vibrotactile sensation of normal and dehydrated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Ge, S; Tang, W; Zhang, J

    2016-02-01

    Vibrotactile sensation mediated is highly dependent on surface mechanical and frictional properties. Dehydration of skin could change these properties. To investigate the relationship between friction and vibrotactile sensation of normal and dehydrated skin. Vibrations were firstly measured during surface exploration using a biomimetic sensor. Piglet skin was used as human skin model to study frictional properties for both normal and dehydrated skin using an atomic force microscope on nanoscale and a pin-on-disk tribometer on macroscale. Effect of vibrational frequency on friction and vibrotactile perception was also observed on nano and macro scale for normal and dehydrated skin. The result indicated that dehydrated skin was less sensitive than normal skin. The coefficient of friction of dehydrated skin is smaller than that of normal skin on both nano and macro scale. The coefficient of friction increases as increasing scanning frequencies. There is a positive correlation between coefficient of friction and vibrotactile sensation on nanoscale and macroscale. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of Fermented Dairy Products on Skin: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-07-01

    Fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, have been proposed as a natural source of probiotics to promote intestinal health. Growing evidence shows that modulation of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota can modulate skin disease as well. This systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of ingested fermented dairy products to modulate skin health and function. We also sought to review the effects of the topical application of dairy products. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for clinical studies involving humans only that examined the relationship between fermented dairy products and skin health. A total of 312 articles were found and a total of 4 studies met inclusion criteria. Three studies evaluated the effects of ingestion, while one evaluated the effects of topical application. All studies noted improvement with the use of fermented dairy. Overall, there is early and limited evidence that fermented dairy products, used both topically and orally, may provide benefits for skin health. However, existing studies are limited and further studies will be important to better assess efficacy and the mechanisms involved.

  17. Natural options for management of melasma, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomakhosi, Mpofana; Heidi, Abrahamse

    2018-02-20

    A blemish free, even-toned skin is universally associated with healthy skin. This reasoning makes people desire to have a flawless skin. Melanin is a naturally occurring pigment in humans. This pigment is responsible for skin, hair, and eye color, therefore determines our race and phenotypic appearance. On darker skin types, it is common that melanin production processes malfunctions. These malfunctions often lead to overproduction and secretion of melanin. As a result, unwanted pigmentary problems such melasma occur. Due to unknown etiology and its recurrence in nature, melasma is challenging to treat. The current available melasma treatment options often produce undesired side effects and suboptimum results. First-line topical treatments usually involve hydroquinone or topical steroids. Apart from the irritant reactions, this treatment mode is not suitable for all skin types. Skin care specialists are in search of an effective long-term cosmetics and cosmeceuticals to address hypermelanosis problems. Understanding of naturally occurring depigmenting agents provides an opportunity for more effective ways to manage melasma in all skin types. This review considers the benefits of naturally occurring ingredients which could help address skin pigmentation problems and broaden the choice for skin-lightening treatments.

  18. The effect of vitamin E on acute skin reaction caused by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirier, A; Akmansu, M; Bora, H; Gurer, M

    2007-09-01

    Ionizing radiation affects healthy organs and tissues as well as diseased tissues during radiation therapy. Skin reactions varying from acute erythema to necrosis can be seen. It has been found that vitamin E can prevent mutagenic and/or carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation in both animals and cell cultures. This study investigated the preventative effect of antioxidant vitamin E on irradiation-induced acute skin reactions. No protective effect of vitamin E was demonstrated. It is possible that the vehicle induced free radical exposure in the irradiated skin.

  19. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  20. The moisturizing effects of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants, such as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced by different yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma and have been attracting much attention as new cosmetic ingredients owing to their unique liquid-crystal-forming and moisturizing properties. In this study, the effects of different MEL derivatives on the skin were evaluated in detail using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model and an in vivo human study. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were evaluated on the basis of cell viability. Most MEL derivatives efficiently recovered the viability of the cells and showed high recovery rates (over 80%) comparable with that of natural ceramide. It is interesting that the recovery rate with MEL-A prepared from olive oil was significantly higher than that of MEL-A prepared from soybean oil. The water retention properties of MEL-B were further investigated on human forearm skin in a preliminary study. Compared with the control, the aqueous solution of MEL-B (5 wt%) was estimated to considerably increase the stratum corneum water content in the skin. Moreover, perspiration on the skin surface was clearly suppressed by treatment with the MEL-B solution. These results suggest that MELs are likely to exhibit a high moisturizing action, by assisting the barrier function of the skin. Accordingly, the yeast glycolipids have a strong potential as a new ingredient for skin care products.

  1. Effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding status: a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, I.; Jamal, M.; Khan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding behavior of infants. Study Design: A randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from November to December 2009. Methodology: Eligible mothers were assessed for the successful breast feeding by using IBFAT tool. The time to initiate the first feed, time to effective breast feeding, maternal satisfaction with the care provided, preference for the same care in future and level of exclusive breast feeding at the age of one month were also noted. The data was compared by using X2 and t-test. Significant p-value was taken as < 0.05. Results: A total of 183 mother-infant pairs (92 in skin-to-skin care [SSC] group and 91 in conventional care [CC] group) were analyzed for breast feeding behavior of the infants. The first breast feed was 26.25% more successful in SSC group (58.8% in SSC group as compared to 32.5% in CC group with p-value of 0.001). In SSC group, the mean time to initiate first breast feed was 61.6 minutes shorter than CC group (40.62 vs. 101.88; p < 0.001). Mean time to achieve effective breast feeding was 207 minutes earlier in SSC group (149.69 vs. 357.50; p < 0.001). The level of satisfaction in the mothers of SSC group was significantly high as compared to controls (56% vs. 6.2%). Similarly, 53.8% mothers of SSC group showed reference for similar care in future as compared to 5% in CC group. In SSC group 85.3% infants were exclusively breast fed at one month as compared to 65.7% in CC group (p=0.025). Conclusion: Maternal-infant early skin-to-skin contact significantly enhanced the success of first breast feed and continuation of exclusive breast feeding till one month of age. It also reduced the time to initiate first feed and time to effective breast feeding. (author)

  2. Fractional nonablative laser resurfacing: is there a skin tightening effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauvar, Arielle N B

    2014-12-01

    Fractional photothermolysis, an approach to laser skin resurfacing that creates microscopic thermal wounds in skin separated by islands of spared tissue, was developed to overcome the high incidence of adverse events and prolonged healing times associated with full coverage ablative laser procedures. To examine whether fractional nonablative laser resurfacing induces skin tightening. A literature review was performed to evaluate the clinical and histologic effects of fractional nonablative laser resurfacing and full coverage ablative resurfacing procedures. Fractional nonablative lasers produce excellent outcomes with minimal risk and morbidity for a variety of clinical conditions, including photodamaged skin, atrophic scars, surgical and burn scars. Efforts to induce robust fibroplasia in histologic specimens and skin tightening in the clinical setting have yielded inconsistent results. A better understanding of the histology of fractional laser resurfacing will help to optimize clinical outcomes.

  3. Effects of UV irradiation on a living skin equivalent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D; Gay, R J [Organogenesis Incorporated, Camton, MA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Living Skin Equivalent is an organotypic coculture composed of human dermal fibroblasts interspersed in a collagen-containing matrix and overlaid with human keratinocytes forming a stratified epidermis. The LSE has a dry, air-exposed epidermal surface suitable for the application of oils, creams and emulsions. The protective effects of an 8% homosylate standard and of five UV-A sunscreens, topically applied to the LSE, were determined and compared with their reported protection factors in human skin. Morphological changes and the release of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-1-''alpha, tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] and prostaglandin E2) implicated in UV-induced erythema were also demonstrated in the LSE exposed to UV-A or UV-B. The data suggest that the LSE can be used for studying the effects of UV radiation on skin and may have utility for assessing the efficacy of certain sunscreens against UV-B and UV-A. (Author).

  4. Effects of UV irradiation on a living skin equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.; Gay, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Living Skin Equivalent is an organotypic coculture composed of human dermal fibroblasts interspersed in a collagen-containing matrix and overlaid with human keratinocytes forming a stratified epidermis. The LSE has a dry, air-exposed epidermal surface suitable for the application of oils, creams and emulsions. The protective effects of an 8% homosylate standard and of five UV-A sunscreens, topically applied to the LSE, were determined and compared with their reported protection factors in human skin. Morphological changes and the release of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-1-''alpha, tumor necrosis factor-α and prostaglandin E2) implicated in UV-induced erythema were also demonstrated in the LSE exposed to UV-A or UV-B. The data suggest that the LSE can be used for studying the effects of UV radiation on skin and may have utility for assessing the efficacy of certain sunscreens against UV-B and UV-A. (Author)

  5. Effects of a Novel Whitening Formulation on Dental Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesh, Thair; Sargsyan, Anik; Anbarani, Afarin; Ho, Jessica; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the enamel whitening effects of 2 new test formulations, one of which was a rinse, and the other a whitening strip. Forty enamel chips were prepared from 20 healthy extracted teeth (2 from each tooth). After pre-staining and colorimetry to measure L* and b* values, 20 matched samples were immersed in either test or control rinses, and then colorimetry was performed again after 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr and 48 hrs (Each hour equates to one month of clinical use at the recommended dosage of 1 minute exposure 2 times a day). The remaining 20 matched samples were exposed to the test or control whitening strips and colorimetry was performed every 30 minutes for a total of 10 treatments. Overall, the whitening performance of test and control strips was similar. The test and control rinses had a similar lightening effect over the first 3 hours (equivalent to 3 months of clinical use). Subsequently, the control rinse continued to lighten samples, whereas the test rinse had little further effect. Test and control-whitening strips showed similar effects; over time whitening strips showed a greater lightening effect than whitening rinses.

  6. The Effects of Yin, Yang and Qi in the Skin on Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James David

    2016-01-29

    The most effective and safe treatment site for pain is in the skin. This chapter discusses the reasons to treat pain in the skin. Pain is sensed in the skin through transient receptor potential cation channels and other receptors. These receptors have endogenous agonists (yang) and antagonists (yin) that help the body control pain. Acupuncture works through modulation of these receptor activities (qi) in the skin; as do moxibustion and liniments. The treatment of pain in the skin has the potential to save many lives and improve pain therapy in most patients.

  7. The Effects of Yin, Yang and Qi in the Skin on Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James David Adams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective and safe treatment site for pain is in the skin. This chapter discusses the reasons to treat pain in the skin. Pain is sensed in the skin through transient receptor potential cation channels and other receptors. These receptors have endogenous agonists (yang and antagonists (yin that help the body control pain. Acupuncture works through modulation of these receptor activities (qi in the skin; as do moxibustion and liniments. The treatment of pain in the skin has the potential to save many lives and improve pain therapy in most patients.

  8. Physiological and Molecular Effects of in vivo and ex vivo Mild Skin Barrier Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannes, Eva K B; Weiss, Lina; Hadam, Sabrina; Gonnet, Jessica; Combardière, Béhazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2018-01-01

    The success of topically applied treatments on skin relies on the efficacy of skin penetration. In order to increase particle or product penetration, mild skin barrier disruption methods can be used. We previously described cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping as an efficient method to open hair follicles, enhance particle penetration, and activate Langerhans cells. We conducted ex vivo and in vivo measurements on human skin to characterize the biological effect and quantify barrier disruption-related inflammation on a molecular level. Despite the known immunostimulatory effects, this barrier disruption and hair follicle opening method was well accepted and did not result in lasting changes of skin physiological parameters, cytokine production, or clinical side effects. Only in ex vivo human skin did we find a discrete increase in IP-10, TGF-β, IL-8, and GM-CSF mRNA. The data underline the safety profile of this method and demonstrate that the procedure per se does not cause substantial inflammation or skin damage, which is also of interest when applied to non-invasive sampling of biomarkers in clinical trials. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Effects of Radon and UV Exposure on Skin Cancer Mortality in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vienneau, Danielle; de Hoogh, Kees; Hauri, Dimitri D.; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Schindler, Christian; Huss, Anke; Röösli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin cancer incidence in Switzerland is among the highest in the world. In addition to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, radon alpha particles attached to aerosols can adhere to the skin and potentially cause carcinogenic effects. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of radon

  10. Effect of microneedle geometry and supporting substrate on microneedle array penetration into skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Jaspreet Singh; Quek, Ten Cheer; Soon, Wei Jun; Choi, Jaewoong; Zou, Shui; Kang, Lifeng

    2013-11-01

    Microneedles are being fast recognized as a useful alternative to injections in delivering drugs, vaccines, and cosmetics transdermally. Owing to skin's inherent elastic properties, microneedles require an optimal geometry for skin penetration. In vitro studies, using rat skin to characterize microneedle penetration in vivo, require substrates with suitable mechanical properties to mimic human skin's subcutaneous tissues. We tested the effect of these two parameters on microneedle penetration. Geometry in terms of center-to-center spacing of needles was investigated for its effect on skin penetration, when placed on substrates of different hardness. Both hard (clay) and soft (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) substrates underneath rat skin and full-thickness pig skin were used as animal models and human skins were used as references. It was observed that there was an increase in percentage penetration with an increase in needle spacing. Microneedle penetration with PDMS as a support under stretched rat skin correlated better with that on full-thickness human skin, while penetration observed was higher when clay was used as a substrate. We showed optimal geometries for efficient penetration together with recommendation for a substrate that could better mimic the mechanical properties of human subcutaneous tissues, when using microneedles fabricated from poly(ethylene glycol)-based materials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. lipolytic effect of calotropis procera in the skin of wistar rats.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    used as an antiseptic for skin infection. Several studies have been carried out on the effects of various extracts of Calotropis procera on different organs of animals (Al-Robai et al, 1993a, 1993b;. Jam et al, 1996; Basu et al, 1997). On the contrar), there is little or no information on the effect of the plant extract on the skin.

  12. Observation of radiation effects on skin clinical roentgenologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weizhong; Liu Yunling

    1987-01-01

    The clinical observation of the effects of chronic irradiation on skin in 158 cases of clinical roentgenologists was reported. The results revealed that the incidence of morphological changes of microcirculaton in finger nail fold was as high as 47.6% for roentgenologists in contract to 5.2% for healthy adults. Other positive signs for skin injury were found in about 10.8-46.2% of roentgenologists. Two cases with typical chronic dermatitis were reported in this paper as well. These resuls attracted our attention to the radiation protection for clinical roentgenologists

  13. Non-ablative skin tightening with radiofrequency in Asian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushikata, Nobuharu; Negishi, Kei; Tezuka, Yukiko; Takeuchi, Kaori; Wakamatsu, Shingo

    2005-02-01

    The recent successful application of radiofrequency (RF) in non-ablative skin tightening for skin laxity has attracted attention worldwide. The efficacy and clinical effect of RF were assessed in Asian skin, with additional study on the duration of the effect and any complications. Eighty-five Japanese females were enrolled in the study for treatment of nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and sagging jowls with 6-month follow-up. RF treatment was effective for nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and jowls. Objective physician evaluation found relatively good improvement at 3 months post-treatment, and even better improvement at the 6-month evaluation. RF treatment was very satisfactory for skin tightening in Asian facial skin. When compared with published literature from the United States, the results suggested that there might be race-related differences in the treatment parameters. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Effect of heme oxygenase-1 on radiation-induced skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chuanjun; Meng Xingjun; Xie Ling; Chen Qing; Zhou Jundong; Zhang Shuyu; Wu Jinchang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on the acute radiation-induced skin injury by gene transfer. Methods: Thirty-three male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups as PBS-injected group, Ad-EGFP-injected group and Ad-HO-1-injected group (n=11). In each group, three rats were used for determining the expression of target gene and the other rats were irradiated on the buttock skin with 40 Gy electron beam generated by a linear accelerator. Immediately after irradiation, rats were administered with a subcutaneous injection of PBS, Ad-EGFP or Ad-HO-1, respectively. Subsequently, the skin reactions were measured twice a week using the semi-quantitative skin injury scale. Results: The strong positive expression of HO-1 was observed in subcutaneous dermal tissue after injection of Ad-HO-1. Compared to the PBS-injected group or the Ad-EGFP-injected group, a significant mitigation of skin injury was observed in Ad-HO-1-injected mice 14 d after irradiation (q=0.000-0.030, P<0.05). Conclusions: HO-1 could significantly mitigate radiation-induced acute skin injury and Ad-HO-1 could be used to treat radiation-induced skin injury. (authors)

  15. An Effective Algorithm for Management of Noses with Thick Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyuron, Bahman; Lee, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    Thicker nasal skin blunts the definition of the underlying osseocartilaginous frame and the delicate topography of the nose posing additional challenges in producing desirable tip definition. Despite the recognized challenge in this patient population, there is a paucity of literature on how to overcome this problem. The goal of this article is to provide a systematic algorithm to manage patients with thick nasal skin. Approach to the thick nasal skin patient begins with an evaluation of the etiology of their skin thickness. Skin thickness secondary to sebaceous overactivity is diminished with the use of retinoic acid derivatives, lasers or isotretinoin (Accutane), commonly under the advice of the dermatologist. Rhinoplasty maneuvers include open technique, raising a healthy and reasonably thick skin flap overlying the tip, removing the remaining fat overlying and between the domes, creating a firm cartilaginous frame and eliminating dead space using the supratip suture reported by the senior author, and trimming redundant nasal skin envelope when indicated. This systematic approach has been greatly effective in achieving often predictable and aesthetically pleasing rhinoplasty results. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  16. Effectiveness of an employee skin cancer screening program for secondary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Ugur; Hees, Felix; Winnik, Eva; Uter, Wolfgang; Sticherling, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Incidences of UV-induced skin cancer are continuously increasing. For this reason, early diagnosis is becoming more important. In this study, 783 employees of a technical company participated in an employee skin cancer screening program, which consisted of a physical examination for benign and malignant skin lesions and premalignant conditions. To ensure the quality of the examinations, screening was only performed by 5 trained dermatologists. Participants also were asked to complete a standardized questionnaire prior to examination. A total of 661 skin lesions were diagnosed among 48% of participants; 12.8% of participants exhibited 50 or more melanocytic nevi and the risk for developing skin cancer was categorized as at least moderate for 64.9%. Additionally, 84.4% of participants with at least 1 skin lesion were advised to have a checkup within 1 year. The high rate of suspicious nevi detected in this study suggested that employee skin cancer screening programs are effective and also should be recommended at companies where employees are not at increased risk for developing skin cancer due to the nature of their work (eg, those who work outdoors). Despite the comparatively selective and young study population, these examinations provide evidence of the importance of skin cancer screening for the wider population.

  17. Trait Positive Affect Buffers the Effects of Acute Stress on Skin Barrier Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Pressman, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examines the role of self-reported trait positive affect (PA) on skin barrier recovery after skin disruption, and whether the role of trait PA in wound healing is consistent with the direct effects model or the stress-buffering model of PA and health. Design Sixty healthy participants (mean age 22.7 ± 3.9 years) completed a self-report measure of trait positive and negative affect, underwent a “tape-stripping” procedure that disrupts normal skin barrier function, and were randomly assigned to a Stress (Trier Social Stress Test) or No Stress (reading task) condition. Main Outcome Measures Skin barrier recovery was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss up to 2 hr after skin disruption. Results Multilevel modeling indicated that greater trait PA was related to faster skin barrier recovery (p < .05). The effects of PA on skin barrier recovery were independent of levels of trait NA. Conclusion These findings suggest that trait PA may influence skin barrier recovery following a brief stressor. In addition, these results provide additional evidence that trait PA can positively impact objective health outcomes. PMID:19450044

  18. Effects of turning on skin-bed interface pressures in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew J; Schwab, Wilhelm; van Oostrom, Johannes H; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Caruso, Lawrence J

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the effects of lateral turning on skin-bed interface pressures in the sacral, trochanteric and buttock regions, and its effectiveness in unloading at-risk tissue. Minimizing skin-support surface interface pressure is important in pressure ulcer prevention, but the effect of standard patient repositioning on skin interface pressure has not been objectively established. Data were collected from 15 healthy adults from a university-affiliated hospital. Mapped 24-inch x 24-inch (2304 half-inch sensors) interface pressure profiles were obtained in the supine position, followed by lateral turning with pillow or wedge support and subsequent head-of-bed elevation to 30 degrees . Raising the head-of-bed to 30 degrees in the lateral position statistically significantly increased peak interface pressures and total area > or = 32 mmHg. Comparing areas > or = 32 mmHg from all positions, 93% of participants had skin areas with interface pressures > or = 32 mmHg throughout all positions (60 +/- 54 cm(2)), termed 'triple jeopardy areas'. The triple jeopardy area increased statistically significantly with wedges as compared to pillows (153 +/- 99 cm(2) vs. 48 +/- 47 cm(2), P turning by experienced intensive care unit nurses does not reliably unload all areas of high skin-bed interface pressures. These areas remain at risk for skin breakdown, and help to explain why pressure ulcers occur despite the implementation of standard preventive measures. Support materials for maintaining lateral turned positions can also influence tissue unloading and triple jeopardy areas.

  19. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, B R M; Frijns, A J H; Saris, W H M; van Steenhoven, A A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2010-07-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have been studied. Here, we tested the hypotheses that at hand sites (a) elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling and (b) elderly show reduced response to noradrenergic stimuli. Skin perfusion and mean arterial pressure were measured in 16 young adults (Y: 18-28 years) and 16 elderly (E: 68-78 years). To study the effect of local vasoconstriction mechanisms local sympathetic nerve terminals were blocked by bretylium (BR). Baseline local skin temperature was clamped at 33 degrees C. Next, local temperature was reduced to 24 degrees C. After 15 min of local cooling, noradrenaline (NA) was administered to study the effect of neural vasoconstriction mechanisms. No significant age effect was observed in vasoconstriction due to local cooling at BR sites. After NA, vasoconstriction at the forearm showed a significant age effect; however, no significant age effect was found at the hand sites. [Change in CVC (% from baseline): Forearm Y: -76 +/- 3 vs. E: -60 +/- 5 (P forearm, elderly did not show a blunted response to local cooling and noradrenaline at hand skin sites. This indicates that at hand skin the noradrenergic mechanism of vasoconstriction is maintained with age.

  20. Is Kinesio Taping to Generate Skin Convolutions Effective for Increasing Local Blood Circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Man; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2018-01-14

    BACKGROUND It is unclear whether traditional application of Kinesio taping, which produces wrinkles in the skin, is effective for improving blood circulation. This study investigated local skin temperature changes after the application of an elastic therapeutic tape using convolution and non-convolution taping methods (CTM/NCTM). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-eight pain-free men underwent CTM and NCTM randomly applied to the right and left sides of the lower back. Using infrared thermography, skin temperature was measured before, immediately after application, 5 min later, 15 min later, and after the removal of the tape. RESULTS Both CTM and NCTM showed a slight, but significant, decrease in skin temperature for up to 5 min. The skin temperature at 15 min and after the removal of the tape was not significantly different from the initial temperature for CTM and NCTM. There were also no significant differences in the skin temperatures between CTM and NCTM. CONCLUSIONS Our findings do not support a therapeutic effect of wrinkling the skin with elastic tape application as a technique to increase local blood flow.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols with protective effects against skin photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Park, Jun Seong; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-05-24

    Whereas green tea has historically been consumed in high quantities in Northeast Asia, its popularity is also increasing in many Western countries. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols exhibiting numerous effects that are potentially beneficial for human health. Accumulating evidence suggests that green tea polyphenols confer protective effects on the skin against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging, involving antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as prevention of immunosuppression. Melanin pigmentation in the skin is a major defense mechanism against UV irradiation, but pigmentation abnormalities such as melasma, freckles, senile lentigines, and other forms of melanin hyperpigmentation can also cause serious health and aesthetic issues. Furthermore, UV irradiation initiates the degradation of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, promoting the process of skin aging through deep wrinkle formation and loss of tissue elasticity. UV irradiation-induced formation of free radicals also contributes to accelerated photoaging. Additionally, immunosuppression caused by UV irradiation plays an important role in photoaging and skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and immunosuppression preventive mechanisms of green tea polyphenols that have been demonstrated to protect against UV irradiation-stimulated skin photoaging, and gauge the quality of evidence supporting the need for clinical studies using green tea polyphenols as anti-photoaging agents in novel cosmeceuticals.

  2. Environmental and Host Effects on Skin Bacterial Community Composition in Panamanian Frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Varela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the amphibian skin microbiota has focused on identifying bacterial taxa that deter a pathogenic chytrid fungus, and on describing patterns of microbiota variation. However, it remains unclear how environmental variation affects amphibian skin bacterial communities, and whether the overall functional diversity of the amphibian skin microbiota is associated to such variation. We sampled skin microbial communities from one dendrobatoid frog species across an environmental gradient along the Panama Canal, and from three dendrobatoid frog species before and after the onset of the wet season in one site. We found frog skin microbial alpha diversity to be highest in frogs from sites with low soil pH, but no clear effect of the onset of the wet season. However, we found frog skin microbial community structure to be affected by soil pH and the onset of the wet season, which also resulted in a decrease in between-sample variation. Across the sampled frog species, bacterial functional groups changed with the onset of the wet season, with certain bacterial functional groups entirely disappearing and others differing in their relative abundances. In particular, we found the proportion of Bd-inhibitory bacteria to correlate with mean soil pH, and to increase in two of the frog species with the onset of the wet season. Taken together, our results suggest that structure and predicted function of amphibian bacterial skin communities may be influenced by environmental variables such as pH and precipitation, site effects, and host effects.

  3. Pulse testing in the presence of wellbore storage and skin effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogbe, D.O.; Brigham, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    A pulse test is conducted by creating a series of short-time pressure transients in an active (pulsing) well and recording the observed pressure response at an observation (responding) well. Using the pressure response and flow rate data, the transmissivity and storativity of the tested formation can be determined. Like any other pressure transient data, the pulse-test response is significantly influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of wellbore storage and skin effects on interference testing in general and on pulse-testing in particular, and to present the type curves and procedures for designing and analyzing pulse-test data when wellbore storage and skin effects are active at either the responding well or the pulsing well. A mathematical model for interference testing was developed by solving the diffusivity equation for radial flow of a single-phase, slightly compressible fluid in an infinitely large, homogeneous reservoir. When wellbore storage and skin effects are present in a pulse test, the observed response amplitude is attenuated and the time lag is inflated. Consequently, neglecting wellbore storage and skin effects in a pulse test causes the calculated storativity to be over-estimated and the transmissivity to be under-estimated. The error can be as high as 30%. New correlations and procedures are developed for correcting the pulse response amplitude and time lag for wellbore storage effects. Using these correlations, it is possible to correct the wellbore storage-dominated response amplitude and time lag to within 3% of their expected values without wellbore storage, and in turn to calculate the corresponding transmissivity and storativity. Worked examples are presented to illustrate how to use the new correction techniques. 45 references.

  4. Effect of glove occlusion on the skin barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedemann, Daniel; Clausen, Maja Lisa; John, Swen Malthe

    2016-01-01

    that the negative effect of occlusion in itself is limited, and that only extensive and long-term occlusion will cause barrier impairment. However, studies investigating combined effect of occlusion and exposure to soaps/detergents indicate that occlusion significantly enhances the skin barrier damage caused...... by detergents/soaps in a dose-response fashion....

  5. Effects of radiation on the skin blood volume pulse in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanelli, G D [Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (UK)

    1977-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the changes in skin blood volume pulse (BVP) in the irradiated skin of three patients (two female, one male) during and up to 250 days after radiotherapy for malignant disease. The instrumentation comprised a modified commercial finger photo-plethysmograph probe with associated electronics, and a survey of the literature revealed that the consensus of opinion seems to be that the recorded pulsations arise from small 'muscular' arteries and arterioles in the 40 to 300 ..mu..m size range. The results show that, as expected, normal, untreated skin shows sizeable variations in BVP. The BVP of irradiated skin became significantly greater than that of normal skin when a dose of 1000 to 1500 rad has been accumulated. The maximum amplitude of the BVP of the irradiated skin seemed to correlate well with the overall severity of the erythema, but increases in BVP preceded erythema flare-ups. In two patients, elevated BVP were recorded for irradiated areas even when most visual signs of erythema had disappeared. Mild cooling of irradiated and non-irradiated skin had differing effects in the BVP. The measurement of the BVP of irradiated skin is a simple, reliable and completely atraumatic method for investigating vascular damage to superficial tissues in humans.

  6. Supplementation with Eskimo Skin Care improves skin elasticity in women. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segger, Dörte; Matthies, Andreas; Saldeen, Tom

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the question of whether supplementation with an oral oil formulation rich in natural stable fish oil can alter skin elasticity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin roughness in healthy women. Twenty-four healthy women aged 40-60 years participated in a single-blind randomized trial for testing the effect of a proprietary oral supplement for skin nutrition (Eskimo Skin Care) on skin elasticity, TEWL, and skin roughness. Skin elasticity was measured by an optical cutometer, TEWL by a water-loss module based upon the vapour gradient principle, and skin roughness with a three-dimensional microtopography imaging system. Skin elasticity increased by 10% after 3 months of treatment with the supplement, a statistically significant increase in comparison with the control group (p=0.0298). There was a trend, though not statistically significant, towards a positive influence on the skin's barrier function. No effect on the skin roughness was observed. Eskimo Skin Care, an oral preparation rich in natural stable fish oil, can improve skin elasticity.

  7. Effect of blood transfusion and skin grafting on rats with combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1990-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of escharectomy and skin grafting at different times on rats with combined radiation-burn injuries (5 Gy total body irradiation plus flash radiation from a 5 kW bromotungstenic lamp to induce a 15% TBSA full thickness burn on back) treated with blood transfusion (BT) were studied. The treatment with BT and escharectomy plus skin grafting at 24, 48, and 72 h after injury showed significant therapeutic effects. In these treated groups, early recovery of WBC counts, the granulocytes and total lymphocytes, T, B-cells, bone marrow cells or CFU-F counts were evident within 30 days after injury. The 30-day survival rates of the skin grafts in the group treated with BT and skin grafting at 24 h after injury was 80%, in the group with skin grafting alone was 50%, while all the skin grafts sloughted within 30 days when the grafting was performed 48 and 72 h after injury. The 30-day survival rate of the recipients treated with skin grafting plus BT was higher than that of the animals with skin grafting alone. The results showed that satisfactory results were achieved with BT plus escharectomy and skin grafting within 24 h after injury, while skin grafting performed at 48 or 72 h after injury was ineffective for the survival of skin grafts

  8. Protective effect of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate from salmon skin on UV irradiation-induced photoaging of mice skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiejun; Hou, Hu; Lu, Jiaohan; Zhang, Kai; Li, Bafang

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of gelatin (SG) isolated from salmon skin and its hydrolysate (SGH) on photoaging skin, and the mechanism responsible for anti-photoaging. The average molecular weights of SG and SGH were 65 kDa and 873 Da, respectively. The amino acid compositions of SG and SGH were similar. Both of them were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. Twenty-five peptides were identified from SGH. SG and SGH could improve UV irradiation-induced pathological changes of macroscopical tissue texture and skin morphology. Hydroxyproline content is an indicator of matrix collagen content, SG and SGH could inhibit the decrease of hydroxyproline content in photoaging skin in a dose dependent manner. In addition, SG and SGH could alleviate UV irradiation-induced oxidative damages to skin by increasing the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), increasing the content of glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the content of malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, SG and SGH could enhance immune regulation system by increasing the thymus index. Thus, the anti-photoaging mechanisms of SG and SGH were by inhibiting the depletion of antioxidant defense components, involving in the synthesis of collagen and enhancing the function of immune system. Besides, SGH showed a better result in protecting skin from photoaging than SG.

  9. Dual Effects of Alpha-Hydroxy Acids on the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Chung Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AHAs are organic acids with one hydroxyl group attached to the alpha position of the acid. AHAs including glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid are often used extensively in cosmetic formulations. AHAs have been used as superficial peeling agents as well as to ameliorate the appearance of keratoses and acne in dermatology. However, caution should be exercised in relation to certain adverse reactions among patients using products with AHAs, including swelling, burning, and pruritus. Whether AHAs enhance or decrease photo damage of the skin remains unclear, compelling us to ask the question, is AHA a friend or a foe of the skin? The aim of this manuscript is to review the various biological effects and mechanisms of AHAs on human keratinocytes and in an animal model. We conclude that whether AHA is a friend or foe of human skin depends on its concentration. These mechanisms of AHAs are currently well understood, aiding the development of novel approaches for the prevention of UV-induced skin damage.

  10. Clinical use of radiation sterile porcine skin and Ag-skin of porcine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaobo

    1995-01-01

    Clinical examination revealed that either radiation sterilized skin or Ag-skin of pig are effective biologic dressing. When used as temporary skin coverage for fresh burn wound, for wound after escharectomy, and for wounds among skin grafts, they are effective in preventing infection and loss of body fluid. They can also be used for covering the infected granulation wound to control bacterial growth and further contamination

  11. Effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation on skin hydroxyproline contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Semra Tepe; Seyhan, Nesrin; Kavaklı, Cengiz; Çelikbıçak, Ömür

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on rat skin hydroxyproline content, since skin is the first target of external electromagnetic fields. Skin hydroxyproline content was measured using liquid chromatography mass spectrometer method. Two months old male wistar rats were exposed to a 900 MHz pulse-modulated RFR at an average whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.35 W/kg for 20 min/day for 3 weeks. The radiofrequency (RF) signals were pulse modulated by rectangular pulses with a repetition frequency of 217 Hz and a duty cycle of 1:8 (pulse width 0.576 ms). A skin biopsy was taken at the upper part of the abdominal costa after the exposure. The data indicated that whole body exposure to a pulse-modulated RF radiation that is similar to that emitted by the global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones caused a statistically significant increase in the skin hydroxyproline level (p = 0.049, Mann-Whitney U test). Under our experimental conditions, at a SAR less than the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection safety limit recommendation, there was evidence that GSM signals could alter hydroxyproline concentration in the rat skin.

  12. The Relative Utility of Skin Resistance and Skin Conductance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barland, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of two circuits (constant current = skin resistance; constant voltage = skin conductance) used for measuring electrodermal activity during a psychophysiological detection of deception...

  13. Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, J T; Donnelly, A E; Karki, A; Selfe, J

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to (a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of -110 °C whole body cryotherapy and 8 °C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and (b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (cryotherapy (19.0±0.9 °C) compared to cold water immersion (20.5±0.6 °C). However, from 10 to 60 min post, the average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were lower (p<0.05) following the cold water treatment. Finally, neither protocol achieved a skin temperature believed to be required to elicit an analgesic effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. [Effect of ionizing radiation and other factors on the thermal sensitivity of mouse skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpeshev, O K; Konopliannikov, A G

    1987-03-01

    A study was made of the effect of various agents on skin injury by hyperthermia in experiments on noninbred albino mice. The effects of heating were assessed by the frequency of skin necrosis development. The results of the study showed that irradiation of the skin (30 Gy) before heating did not influence its thermosensitivity whereas heating 45-180 days after irradiation proved more effective. Ethanol, metronidazole, thyrocalcitonin and actinomycin D decreased skin thermosensitivity, and cyclohexamide, serotonin, hyperglycemia and applying a tourniquet increased it. The DMF value for actinomycin D depended on the temperature of heating. One should distinguish between true modification of tissue thermosensitivity (determined by cellular factors) and indirect modification (associated with change in volumetric circulation rate).

  15. Evaluation of effects of platelet-rich plasma on human facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Esra Pancar; Sahin, Gokhan; Aydin, Fatma; Senturk, Nilgun; Turanli, Ahmet Yasar

    2014-10-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used for rapid healing and tissue regeneration in many fields of medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PRP application procedure on human facial skin. PRP was applied thrice at 2-week intervals on the face of ten healthy volunteers. It was applied to individual's forehead, malar area, and jaw by a dermaroller, and injected using a 27-gauge injector into the wrinkles of crow's feet. Participants were asked to grade on a scale from 0 to 5 for general appearance, skin firmness-sagging, wrinkle state and pigmentation disorder of their own face before each PRP procedure and 3 months after the last PRP procedure. While volunteers were evaluating their own face, they were also assessed by three different dermatologists at the same time by the same five-point scale. There was statistically significant difference regarding the general appearance, skin firmness-sagging and wrinkle state according to the grading scale of the patients before and after three PRP applications. Whereas there was only statistically significant difference for the skin firmness-sagging according to the assessment of the dermatologists. PRP application could be considered as an effective procedure for facial skin rejuvenation.

  16. Chyawanprash, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows a protective effect on skin photoaging in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takauji, Yuki; Morino, Kyoko; Miki, Kensuke; Hossain, Mohammad; Ayusawa, Dai; Fujii, Michihiko

    2016-11-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces skin photoaging (premature skin aging). UV irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are shown to play a pivotal role in skin photoaging. Ayurveda is a holistic traditional medical system, and Chyawanprash is one of the most popular formulations in Ayurveda. Since maintenance of the function and appearance of skin is important, we examined whether Chyawanprash has a protective effect on skin photoaging. To examine the effect of Chyawanprash on skin photoaging, hairless mice were administered with Chyawanprash in drinking water for 3 weeks, and then repeatedly exposed to ultraviolet light B (UVB) irradiation (225 or 450 mJ/cm 2 ) to induce skin photoaging. To further examine the function of Chyawanprash, its effects were examined in cells cultured in vitro. Chyawanprash was added in culture medium, and examined for the effect on the growth of human keratinocytes, and for the ability to eliminate ROS which generated by paraquat (50 μmol/L) in HeLa cells. UVB irradiation caused symptoms such as rough skin, erythema, and edema on the skin in hairless mice, but administration of Chyawanprash relieved these symptoms. Further, Chyawanprash significantly suppressed epidermal thickening, a typical marker of skin photoaging, in mice. We then analyzed the effect of Chyawanprash in human cells in culture, and found that Chyawanprash enhanced the growth of human keratinocytes, and efficiently eliminated ROS, which are causally involved in skin photoaging, in HeLa cells. These findings suggested that Chyawanprash may have beneficial effects on slowing skin photoaging.

  17. An evaluation of costs and effects of a nutrient-based skin care program as a component of prevention of skin tears in an extended convalescent center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Marjorie; Shannon, Ronald J; Chakravarthy, Debashish; Fleck, Cynthia A

    2010-01-01

    A decision model was developed in a pilot study comparing a regimen using a skin care product line containing active ingredients and nutrients with a commercially available alternative skin care regimen in an elderly convalescent care hospital-based center. Using a decision-tree model, skin treatment with a nutrient-based skin care (NBSC) formulation was compared with products without nutrients. The number of skin-tear-free days was the primary outcome measure. A cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each skin treatment as the average cost for reaching a particular outcome. Incidence of skin tear data was collected from residents in a convalescent center from 2004 to 2005. An independent t test was used to compare differences in the number of skin tears between periods when NBSC and other formulations were used. All costs in the decision model were adjusted to 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis was used to test uncertain data. The NBSC provided more skin-tear-free days and was less costly than the use of non-NBSC products. The expected skin-tear-free days for a patient in the model treated with NBSC were 179.7 days compared with 154.6 days for non-NBSC products, yielding an incremental effect of 25.1 days. The expected cost of preventing skin tears and treatment via skin treatment per patient in the NBSC group was $281.00 versus $324.10 for periods when other products were used. The NBSC had a lower projected cost for prevention of skin tears and more skin-tear-free days when compared with non-NBSC products.

  18. Hairy skin exposure to VX in vitro: effectiveness of delayed decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Josse, D; Briançon, S

    2013-02-01

    The chemical warfare agents such as VX represent a threat for both military and civilians, which involves an immediate need of effective decontamination systems. Since human scalp is usually unprotected compared to other body regions covered with clothes, it could be a preferential site of exposure in case of terrorist acts. The purpose of this study was to determine if skin decontamination could be efficient when performed more than 1h after exposure. In addition, the impact of hairs in skin contamination was investigated. By using in vitro skin models, we demonstrated that about 75% of the applied quantity of VX was recovered on the skin surface 2h after skin exposition, which means that it is worth decontaminating even if contamination occurred 2h before. The stratum corneum reservoir for VX was quickly established and persistent. In addition, the presence of hairs modified the percutaneous penetration of the nerve agent by binding of VX to hairs. Hair shaft has thus to be taken into account in the decontamination process. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and Fuller's Earth (FE) were active in the skin decontamination 45min post-exposure, but RSDL was more efficient in reducing the amount of VX either in the skin or in the hair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding the Effects of Host Evolution and Skin Bacteria Composition on Disease Vector Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 14-04-2016 1-Sep-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria ...S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 mosquito, skin, bacteria , primate REPORT...reviewed journals: Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria composition on disease vector choices Report Title Here

  20. Acute mucocutaneous and systemic adverse effects of Etretinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Mortazavi H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study was carried out between 1993 to 1998 at Razi Skin Hospital, the affiliated Dermatology Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Eight hundred patients receiving etretinate for various skin diseases took part in this study. Among them, 457 patients with first admission to dermatologic clinic who had at least four regular sequential visits and responding to our questionnaire were selected to enter the study for evaluating acute toxicity of etretinate. Cheilitis with a frequency of 88 percent was the most frequent side effect. Hair loss (22.97%, dry mouth with thirst (15.09%, dryness of mucous membranes (13.12%, xerosis with pruritus (11.15%, nose bleeding (8.31%, paronychia (5.47%, facial dermatitis (3.06%, conjunctivitis (2.84% and in addition to mucocutaneous ones, chills (2.63%, headache (2.19%, mental depression (2.19%, urinary frequency (1.53% and papilledema (0.44% were among the other observed toxicities, The relationship between mucocutaneous side effect with dosage of etretinate, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucoctaneous toxicities and sex was significant, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucocutaneous toxicities and sex was significant (P<0.05. We observed four rare side effect in the patients including hair color lightening appering as whitening or blondness, hair waving, dyspareunia and gynecomastia. In conclusion, females were more to acute mucocutaneous toxicities of etretinate.

  1. Protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage due to UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhicheng; Zhao Hongguang; Du Xiang; Li Yanbo; Guo Wei; Gong Shouliang; Xiao Jian; Yao Chongshun; Li Xiaokun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage exposed to UVB and its mechanism, and to provide the experimental basis for the protection of skin damage exposed to UVB. Methods: The skin of guinea pigs was exposed to UVB (28.38 J/cm 2 · 30 d) to establish the oxidative damage model. The skin erythema and the rough were observed during the experiment; the thickness of epiderm and the number of fibroblast were observed under light microscope after the experiment. The activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC and the contain of MDA in the supernate of skin homogenate were detected with biochemical methods. Results: The epiderm in UVB exposure group and blank group thickened, but that in protective group weren't observed; the number of fibroblast in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, while that in protective group increased, but that in control group didn't. The content of MDA in the supemate of skin homogenate in UVB exposure group and blank group increased, but that in protective group deceased, and the activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, but those in protective group increased, and control group had no change. Conclusions: Oleum curcumae wenchowensis has the protective effects on skin damage exposed to UVB, which may be mediated by increasing the contain of antioxidases and eliminating the flee radical. (authors)

  2. The GMD Method for Inductance Calculation Applied to Conductors with Skin Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Aebischer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The GMD method (geometric mean distance to calculate inductance offers undoubted advantages over other methods. But so far it seemed to be limited to the case where the current is uniformly distributed over the cross section of the conductor, i.e. to DC (direct current. In this paper, the definition of the GMD is extended to include cases of nonuniform distribution observed at higher frequencies as the result of skin effect. An exact relation between the GMD and the internal inductance per unit length for infinitely long conductors of circularly symmetric cross section is derived. It enables much simpler derivations of Maxwell’s analytical expressions for the GMD of circular and annular disks than were known before. Its salient application, however, is the derivation of exact expressions for the GMD of infinitely long round wires and tubular conductors with skin effect. These expressions are then used to verify the consistency of the extended definition of the GMD. Further, approximate formulae for the GMD of round wires with skin effect based on elementary functions are discussed. Total inductances calculated with the help of the derived formulae for the GMD with and without skin effect are compared to measurement results from the literature. For conductors of square cross section, an analytical approximation for the GMD with skin effect based on elementary functions is presented. It is shown that it allows to calculate the total inductance of such conductors for frequencies from DC up to 25 GHz to a precision of better than 1 %.

  3. Development and evaluation of a skin organ model for the analysis of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meineke, V.; Mueller, K.; Ridi, R.; Cordes, N.; Beuningen, D. van; Koehn, F.M.; Ring, J.; Mayerhofer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: the reaction of tissues to ionizing radiation involves alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions mediated by cellular adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an artificial skin organ model for the analysis of radiation effects. Material and methods: a human co-culture system consisting of the spontaneously immortalized keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and primary HDFa fibroblasts embedded into a collagen sponge was established. This skin organ model has been characterized and evaluated for its suitability for radiobiological investigations. For that purpose, expression of β 1 -integrin following irradiation was compared in the skin organ model and in HaCaT monolayer cells (FACScan and immunohistochemistry). Furthermore, the influence of ionizing radiation on DNA fragmentation was investigated in the skin organ model (TUNEL assay). Results: the novel skin organ model showed characteristics of human skin as demonstrated by cytokeratin and Ki-67 immunoreactivity and by electron microscopy. A single dose of 5 Gy X-irradiation induced an upregulation of β 1 -integrin expression both in the skin organ model and in HaCaT cells. Following irradiation, β 1 -integrin immunoreactivity was intensified in the upper layers of the epidermis equivalent whereas it was almost absent in the deeper layers. Additionally, irradiation of the skin organ model also caused a marked increase of DNA fragmentation. Conclusion: these results demonstrate that the novel skin organ model is suitable to investigate cellular radiation effects under three-dimensional conditions. This allows to investigate radiation effects which cannot be demonstrated in monolayer cell cultures. (orig.)

  4. Effect of repeated ultraviolet irradiation on skin of hairless mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpermann, H.; Vogel, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of repeated UV-irradiation on mechanical and biochemical parameters was studied in skin of hairless mice. uV-A irradiation for a period of 1 h daily over 8 weeks caused only a slight increase in skin thickness and a decrease in ultimate strain. The changes induced by UV-B and C, however, were quite remarkable. Skin thickness was increased depending on the daily dose exposure time (15-90 s at an irradiation rate of 20mW/cm 2 UV-B and A and of 14mW/cm 2 UV-C) and the duration of treatment (1-6 weeks). Ultimate load, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity showed an increase following medium dosages after 1 and 2 weeks, however, a decrease after high dosages and longterm treatment. Ultimate strain was found to be the most sensitive parameter being decreased depending on exposure time and duration of treatment. Insoluble collagen and total collagen were decreased after long-term treatment thus being correlated with the mechanical parameters. The elastin content was only barely influenced and not correlated with the mechanical data, e.g. the modulus of elasticity. Thus, a favourable effect of short-treatment with low doses of UV-irradiation of mechanical parameters of skin could be demonstrated. Long-term treatment with relatively high doses of UV-B, however, resulted in unfavourable effects, whereby first ultimate strain, then ultimate load, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength were decreased. (orig.) [de

  5. In vivo effect of carbon dioxide laser-skin resurfacing and mechanical abrasion on the skin's microbial flora in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Evangelos N; Tsakris, Athanassios; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Markogiannakis, Antonios; Siomos, Konstadinos

    2006-03-01

    Although beam-scanning carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers have provided a highly efficient tool for esthetic skin rejuvenation there has been no comprehensive animal studies looking into microbial skin changes following CO2 laser skin resurfacing. To evaluate the in vivo effects of CO2 laser skin resurfacing in an experimental rat model in comparison with mechanical abrasion on the skin microbial flora. Four separate cutaneous sections of the right dorsal surface of 10 Wistar rats were treated with a CO2 laser, operating at 18 W and delivering a radiant energy of 5.76 J/cm2, while mechanical abrasions of the skin were created on four sections of the left dorsal surface using a scalpel. Samples for culture and biopsies were obtained from the skin surfaces of the rats on day 1 of application of the CO2 laser or mechanical abrasion, as well as 10, 30, and 90 days after the procedure. The presence of four microorganisms (staphylococci, streptococci, diphtheroids, and yeasts) was evaluated as a microbe index for the skin flora, and colony counts were obtained using standard microbiological methods. Skin biopsy specimens, following CO2 laser treatment, initially showed epidermal and papillary dermal necrosis and later a re-epithelization of the epidermis as well as the generation of new collagen on the upper papillary dermis. The reduction in microbial counts on day 1 of the CO2 laser-inflicted wound was statistically significant for staphylococci and diphtheroids compared with the baseline counts (p=.004 and pSkin resurfacing using CO2 lasers considerably reduces microbial counts of most microorganisms in comparison with either normal skin flora or a scalpel-inflicted wound. This might contribute to the positive clinical outcome of laser skin resurfacing.

  6. The effect of repeated laser stimuli to ink-marked skin on skin temperature—recommendations for a safe experimental protocol in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Madden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nd:YAP laser is widely used to investigate the nociceptive and pain systems, generating perpetual and laser-evoked neurophysiological responses. A major procedural concern for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli in experimental research is the risk of skin damage. The absorption of Nd:YAP laser stimuli is greater in darker skin, or in pale skin that has been darkened with ink, prompting some ethics boards to refuse approval to experimenters wishing to track stimulus location by marking the skin with ink. Some research questions, however, require laser stimuli to be delivered at particular locations or within particular zones, a requirement that is very difficult to achieve if marking the skin is not possible. We thoroughly searched the literature for experimental evidence and protocol recommendations for safe delivery of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over marked skin, but found nothing.Methods. We designed an experimental protocol to define safe parameters for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over skin that has been marked with black dots, and used thermal imaging to assess the safety of the procedure at the forearm and the back.Results. Using thermal imaging and repeated laser stimulation to ink-marked skin, we demonstrated that skin temperature did not increase progressively across the course of the experiment, and that the small change in temperature seen at the forearm was reversed during the rest periods between blocks. Furthermore, no participant experienced skin damage due to the procedure.Conclusion. This protocol offers parameters for safe, confident and effective experimentation using repeated Nd:YAP laser on skin marked with ink, thus paving the way for investigations that depend on it.

  7. Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments can cause skin to become dry, itchy, red, or peel. Nails may become dark, yellow, or cracked. Learn about signs of skin problems that may need urgent medical care. Get a helpful list of questions to ask your doctor.

  8. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Jiang, L.; Silvain, J.-F.; Lu, Y. F.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0-10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm2. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  9. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F., E-mail: ylu2@unl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); Jiang, L. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Silvain, J.-F. [Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB-CNRS) 87, Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France)

    2015-10-21

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm{sup 2}. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  10. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F.; Jiang, L.; Silvain, J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm 2 . The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films

  11. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    dismutase or catalase. Likewise, no effect was found on 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) residues, a plasma protein oxidation product, or on malondialdehyde in plasma or in LDL, which are markers of lipoprotein oxidation. A marginal effect of grape-skin intervention was observed on plasma ascorbate levels...

  12. Histologic evaluation of skin damage after overlapping and nonoverlapping flashlamp pumped pulsed dye laser pulses: A study on normal human skin as a model for port wine stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P. H.; van der Horst, C. M.; van Gemert, M. J.; van der Wal, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of port wine stains (PWS) with the flashlamp pumped pulsed dye laser (FPPDL), no consensus exists about overlapping of pulses. The advantage of overlapping pulses is homogeneous lightening of the PWS; the risk is redundant tissue damage. The aim of this

  13. Effects of Radon and UV Exposure on Skin Cancer Mortality in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogh, Kees; Hauri, Dimitri; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M.; Schindler, Christian; Huss, Anke; Röösli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer incidence in Switzerland is among the highest in the world. In addition to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, radon alpha particles attached to aerosols can adhere to the skin and potentially cause carcinogenic effects. Objectives: We investigated the effects of radon and UV exposure on skin cancer mortality. Methods: Cox proportional hazard regression was used to study the association between exposures and skin cancer mortality in adults from the Swiss National Cohort. Modeled radon exposure and erythemal-weighted UV dose were assigned to addresses at baseline. Effect estimates were adjusted for sex, civil status, mother tongue, education, job position, neighborhood socioeconomic position, and UV exposure from outdoor occupation. Results: The study included 5.2 million adults (mean age 48 y) and 2,989 skin cancer deaths, with 1,900 indicating malignant melanoma (MM) as the primary cause of death. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for MM at age 60 were 1.16 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.29) per 100Bq/m3 radon and 1.11 (1.01, 1.23) per W/m2 in UV dose. Radon effects decreased with age. Risk of MM death associated with residential UV exposure was higher for individuals engaged in outdoor work with UV exposure (HR 1.94 [1.17, 3.23]), though not statistically significantly different compared to not working outdoors (HR 1.09 [0.99, 1.21], p=0.09). Conclusions: There is considerable variation in radon and UV exposure across Switzerland. Our study suggests both are relevant risk factors for skin cancer mortality. A better understanding of the role of the UV radiation and radon exposure is of high public health relevance. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP825 PMID:28686556

  14. Surgical treatment of delayed radiation effects in the skin and its indication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilkorn, H.; Drepper, H.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1960 a total of 1200 patients with skin disease as delayed radiation effects were treated at the Hornheide special clinic, 40% of whom received plastic surgery. This requires knowledge of the type of radiation applied and when it was applied, additional harmful influences, exposure, differentiation in cases of ulcers between primary, cumulative, and combination effect, early radiation effects, and late radiation effects. Secondary factors leading possibly to necrosis may be: recidivation of the primary tumours, benign or malignant neoplasms, traumatic injuries such as injections, sampling, tight clothing, chemical factors like therapeuticals for local application, allergies, infections of the skin with bacteria or fungi, osteomyelitis, non-infections skin disease, and internal disease. A precondition for successful dermatological and surgical treatment are a careful review of the previous case history and exact diagnosis. Some clinical cases serve to illustrate the theoretical explanations and point out possibilities for surgical treatment. (TRV) [de

  15. The effect of ceramide-containing skin care products on eczema resolution duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2008-01-01

    Eczema is a common dermatologic condition that affects children as well as adults and is related to a defective skin barrier, which is most commonly caused by damage to the intercellular lipids from improper selection of skin cleansers and moisturizers. A new concept in skin care is the incorporation of ceramides into therapeutic cleansers and moisturizers. Ceramides are important components of the intercellular lipids that are necessary to link the protein-rich corneocytes into a waterproof barrier that is capable of protecting the underlying skin tissues and regulating body homeostasis. This study evaluated the effect of both a multilamellar vesicular emulsion (MVE) ceramide-containing liquid cleanser and moisturizing cream plus fluocinonide cream 0.05% compared with a bar cleanser plus fluocinonide cream 0.05% in the treatment of mild to moderate eczema. The addition of an MVE ceramide-containing liquid cleanser and moisturizing cream to a high-potency corticosteroid enhanced the treatment outcome of mild to moderate eczema compared with the use of a bar cleanser and high-potency corticosteroid in reducing disease duration, time to disease clearance, and symptoms. Thus, skin care product selection can have an important clinical effect on the clearance of mild to moderate eczema.

  16. Radiation Effects of Mobile Phones and Tablets on the Skin: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keykhosravi, A; Neamatshahi, M; Mahmoodi, R; Navipour, E

    2018-01-01

    Skin health has become a worldwide concern. Most of the studies investigated the effect of mobile phone radiation on DNA and animals, but a few studies were carried out about skin diseases in mobile phone and tablet users. Few systematic studies have examined the relationship between mobile phone exposure and skin diseases. We evaluated the association between mobile phones and tablets and skin diseases. We checked databases including PubMed, Scopus, Springer, Cochrane, and Google Scholar from 1995 to 2013. The eligibility criteria were descriptive, and observational studies were in English and Persian language, and the subjects were of all ages and reported skin disease. Most of the studies focused on signs and less on skin cancer. In total, 6 studies were included with 392119 participants with age over 25 years. In a nationwide cohort study in Denmark for BCC, the IRR (incidence rate ratios) estimates remained near unity among men and women. In the other studies, they reported an increase in temperature, hypersensitivity of warmth, facial dermatitis, angiosarcoma of the scalp, and burning sensations in the facial skin after mobile phone use on the exposed side and more within the auricle and behind/around the ear. Overall evaluations showed that the level of evidence associated with the effects of radiation from the mobile phone and tablet on the skin is poor. This review shows a necessity for more studies in this area.

  17. Radiation Effects of Mobile Phones and Tablets on the Skin: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Keykhosravi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin health has become a worldwide concern. Most of the studies investigated the effect of mobile phone radiation on DNA and animals, but a few studies were carried out about skin diseases in mobile phone and tablet users. Few systematic studies have examined the relationship between mobile phone exposure and skin diseases. Methods. We evaluated the association between mobile phones and tablets and skin diseases. We checked databases including PubMed, Scopus, Springer, Cochrane, and Google Scholar from 1995 to 2013. The eligibility criteria were descriptive, and observational studies were in English and Persian language, and the subjects were of all ages and reported skin disease. Results. Most of the studies focused on signs and less on skin cancer. In total, 6 studies were included with 392119 participants with age over 25 years. In a nationwide cohort study in Denmark for BCC, the IRR (incidence rate ratios estimates remained near unity among men and women. In the other studies, they reported an increase in temperature, hypersensitivity of warmth, facial dermatitis, angiosarcoma of the scalp, and burning sensations in the facial skin after mobile phone use on the exposed side and more within the auricle and behind/around the ear. Conclusions. Overall evaluations showed that the level of evidence associated with the effects of radiation from the mobile phone and tablet on the skin is poor. This review shows a necessity for more studies in this area.

  18. Effect of compositions in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) on skin hydration and occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Ch; Basri, M; Ismail, R; Lau, Hln; Tejo, Ba; Kanthimathi, Ms; Hassan, Ha; Choo, Ym

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of varying lipid concentrations, lipid and oil ratio, and the addition of propylene glycol and lecithin on the long-term physical stability of nanostructured lipid nanocarriers (NLC), skin hydration, and transepidermal water loss. The various NLC formulations (A1-A5) were prepared and their particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, and stability were analyzed. The formulations were applied on the forearms of the 20 female volunteers (one forearm of each volunteer was left untreated as a control). The subjects stayed for 30 minutes in a conditioned room with their forearms uncovered to let the skin adapt to the temperature (22°C ± 2°C) and humidity (50% ± 2%) of the room. Skin hydration and skin occlusion were recorded at day one (before treatment) and day seven (after treatment). Three measurements for skin hydration and skin occlusion were performed in each testing area. NLC formulations with the highest lipid concentration, highest solid lipid concentration, and additional propylene glycol (formulations A1, A2, and A5) showed higher physical stability than other formulations. The addition of propylene glycol into an NLC system helped to reduce the particle size of the NLC and enhanced its long-term physical stability. All the NLC formulations were found to significantly increase skin hydration compared to the untreated controls within 7 days. All NLC formulations exhibited occlusive properties as they reduced the transepidermal water loss within 7 days. This effect was more pronounced with the addition of propylene glycol or lecithin into an NLC formulation, whereby at least 60% reduction in transepidermal water loss was observed. NLCs with high lipid content, solid lipid content, phospholipid, and lecithin are a highly effective cosmetic delivery system for cosmetic topical applications that are designed to boost skin hydration.

  19. Effect of skin hydration on the dynamics of fingertip gripping contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, T; Lévesque, V; Hayward, V; Lefèvre, P; Thonnard, J-L

    2011-11-07

    The dynamics of fingertip contact manifest themselves in the complex skin movements observed during the transition from a stuck state to a fully developed slip. While investigating this transition, we found that it depended on skin hydration. To quantify this dependency, we asked subjects to slide their index fingertip on a glass surface while keeping the normal component of the interaction force constant with the help of visual feedback. Skin deformation inside the contact region was imaged with an optical apparatus that allowed us to quantify the relative sizes of the slipping and sticking regions. The ratio of the stuck skin area to the total contact area decreased linearly from 1 to 0 when the tangential force component increased from 0 to a maximum. The slope of this relationship was inversely correlated to the normal force component. The skin hydration level dramatically affected the dynamics of the contact encapsulated in the course of evolution from sticking to slipping. The specific effect was to reduce the tendency of a contact to slip, regardless of the variations of the coefficient of friction. Since grips were more unstable under dry skin conditions, our results suggest that the nervous system responds to dry skin by exaggerated grip forces that cannot be simply explained by a change in the coefficient of friction.

  20. The effect of skin thickness determined using breast CT on mammographic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shihying; Boone, John M.; Yang, Kai; Kwan, Alexander L. C.; Packard, Nathan J.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of breast skin thickness on dosimetry in mammography was investigated. Breast computed tomography (CT) acquisition techniques, combined with algorithms designed for determining specific breast metrics, were useful for estimating skin thickness. A radial-geometry edge detection scheme was implemented on coronal reconstructed breast CT (bCT) images to measure the breast skin thickness. Skin thickness of bilateral bCT volume data from 49 women and unilateral bCT volume data from 2 women (10 healthy women and 41 women with BIRADS 4 and 5 diagnoses) was robustly measured with the edge detection scheme. The mean breast skin thickness (±inter-breast standard deviation) was found to be 1.45±0.30 mm. Since most current published normalized glandular dose (D gN ) coefficients are based on the assumption of a 4-mm breast skin thickness, the D gN values computed with Monte Carlo techniques will increase up to 18% due to the thinner skin layers (e.g., 6-cm 50% glandular breast, 28 kVp Mo-Mo spectrum). The thinner skin dimensions found in this study suggest that the current D gN values used for mammographic dosimetry lead to a slight underestimate in glandular dose

  1. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of

  2. Heat effects on drug delivery across human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jinsong; Ghosh, Priyanka; Li, S. Kevin; Newman, Bryan; Kasting, Gerald B.; Raney, Sam G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to heat can impact the clinical efficacy and/or safety of transdermal and topical drug products. Understanding these heat effects and designing meaningful in vitro and in vivo methods to study them are of significant value to the development and evaluation of drug products dosed to the skin. Areas covered This review provides an overview of the underlying mechanisms and the observed effects of heat on the skin and on transdermal/topical drug delivery, thermoregulation and heat tolerability. The designs of several in vitro and in vivo heat effect studies and their results are reviewed. Expert opinion There is substantial evidence that elevated temperature can increase transdermal/topical drug delivery. However, in vitro and in vivo methods reported in the literature to study heat effects of transdermal/topical drug products have utilized inconsistent study conditions, and in vitro models require better characterization. Appropriate study designs and controls remain to be identified, and further research is warranted to evaluate in vitro-in vivo correlations and the ability of in vitro models to predict in vivo effects. The physicochemical and pharmacological properties of the drug(s) and the drug product, as well as dermal clearance and heat gradients may require careful consideration. PMID:26808472

  3. Measuring the effects of topically applied skin optical clearing agents and modeling the effects and consequences for laser therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkruysse, Wim; Khan, Misbah; Choi, Bernard; Svaasand, Lars O.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2005-04-01

    Human skin prepared with an optical clearing agent manifests reduced scattering as a result of de-hydration and refractive index matching. This has potentially large effects for laser therapies of several skin lesions such as port wine stain, hair removal and tattoo removal. With most topically applied clearing agents the clearing effect is limited because they penetrate poorly through the intact superficial skin layer (stratum corneum). Agent application modi other than topical are impractical and have limited the success of optical clearing in laser dermatology. In recent reports, however, a mixture of lipofylic and hydrofylic agents was shown to successfully penetrate through the intact stratum corneum layer which has raised new interest in this field. Immediately after application, the optical clearing effect is superficial and, as the agent diffuses through the skin, reduced scattering is manifested in deeper skin layers. For practical purposes as well as to maximize therapeutic success, it is important to quantify the reduced scattering as well as the trans-cutaneous transport dynamics of the agent. We determined the time and tissue depth resolved effects of optically cleared skin by inserting a microscopic reflector array in the skin. Depth dependent light intensity was measured by quantifying the signal of the reflector array with optical coherence tomography. A 1-dimensional mass diffusion model was used to estimate a trans-cutaneous transport diffusion constant for the clearing agent mixture. The results are used in Monte Carlo modeling to determine the optimal time of laser treatment after topical application of the optical clearing agent.

  4. Effect of seasonal and geographical differences on skin and effect of treatment with an osmoprotectant: Sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muizzuddin, Neelam; Ingrassia, Michael; Marenus, Kenneth D; Maes, Daniel H; Mammone, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Human skin maintains an optimal permeability barrier function in a terrestrial environment that varies considerably in humidity. Cells cultured under hyperosmotic stress accumulate osmolytes including sorbitol. Epidermal keratinocytes experience similar high osmolality under dry environmental conditions because of increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and concomitant drying of the skin. This study was designed to determine if epidermal keratinocytes, in vitro, could be protected from high osmotic stress, with the exogenous addition of sorbitol. In addition, we evaluated the effect of a formulation containing topical sorbitol on skin barrier and moisturization of subjects living in arid and humid regions in summer as well as in winter. Results from in vitro experiments showed that 50 mM sorbitol protected epidermal keratinocytes from osmotic toxicity induced by sodium chloride. Clinical studies indicated that skin chronically exposed to hot, dry environment appeared to exhibit stronger skin barrier and a lower baseline TEWL. In addition, skin barrier was stronger in summer than in winter. Sorbitol exhibited significant improvement in both barrier repair and moisturization, especially in individuals subjected to arid environmental conditions.

  5. [In vitro percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of skin cleanser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostin, F; Crosera, M; Adami, G; Malvestio, A; Rosani, R; Bovenzi, M; Maina, G; Filon, F Larese

    2007-01-01

    Occupational chromium dermatitis occurs frequently among cement and metal workers, workers dealing with leather tanning and employees in the ceramic industry. The present study, using an in-vitro system, evaluated percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of rapid skin decontamination with a common detergent. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and a suspension of chromium powder in synthetic sweat was used as donor phase. The tests were performed without or with decontamination using the cleanser 30 minutes after the start of exposure. The amount of chromium permeated through the skin was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Speciation analysis and measurements of chromium skin content were also performed. We calculated a permeation flux of 0.843 +/- 0.25 ng cm(-2) h(-1) and a lag time of 1.1 +/- 0.7 h. The cleaning procedure significantly increased chromium skin content, whereas skin passage was not increased. These results showed that chromium powder can pass through the skin and that skin decontamination did not decrease skin absorption. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent skin contamination when using toxic agents.

  6. Skin effect suppression for Cu/CoZrNb multilayered inductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Noriyuki; Endo, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-04-01

    The Cu/Co85Zr3Nb12 multilayer is studied as a conductor of a spiral inductor to suppress the skin effect at the 5 GHz range (matches IEEE 802.11 a standard) using negative-permeability in CoZrNb films beyond the ferromagnetic resonance frequency. The skin effect suppression becomes remarkable when the thickness of Cu in each period of the multilayer, tCu, is less than the skin depth of Cu at the targeting frequency. For the 5 GHz operation, tCu ≤ 750 nm. The resistance of the Cu/CoZrNb multilayered spiral inductor decreases as much as 8.7%, while keeping the same inductance of 1.1 nH as that of a similar air core. Accordingly, Q = 16. Therefore, the proposed method can contribute to realize a high-Q spiral inductor. We also study the potentially applicable frequency of this method. Given a soft magnetic material with Ms = 105 emu/cc and Hk = 5 Oe, the method can be applied at 700 MHz, the lowermost carrier frequency band for the 4th generation cellular phone system.

  7. Chimney Effect Assessment of the Double-skin Facade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhong-zhu; LI Peng; CHOW Tin-tai; REN Jian-xing; WANG Wen-huan

    2009-01-01

    The mathematic model of heat transfer through ventihted double glazing was verified with themeasured data,which were from a test chamber equipped with glass face temperature,solar radiation,ambient temperature,and wind speed measurement facility.Mter the model validation,the double-skin facade assess-ment was carried out through simulation with ESP-r software integrating thermal simulation and air low net work module.The air flow situation in the air gap was analyzed on the basis of the hourly air velocity simulation data within typical winter week,summer week,spring week and autumn week.The differences of chimney ef-fect in different seasons were discussed,and the thermal loads resulted from the ventilated and unventihted dou-ble skin facade were presented.

  8. The role of natural and UV-induced skin pigmentation on low-fluence IPL-induced side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Lin, Jennifer Y; Nash, Jf

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The risk of adverse skin effects following light-based hair removal is greater in pigmented skin based on the theory of selective photothermolysis. Thus sunlight-induced pigment i.e., facultative pigmentation, increases the risk of adverse skin effects, perhaps dispropo...... pigmentation regardless of the origin, i.e., constitutive versus UV induced....

  9. Shining Light on Skin Pigmentation: The Darker and the Brighter Side of Effects of UV Radiation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddodi, Nityanand; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2012-01-01

    The term barrier function as applied to human skin often connotes the physical properties of this organ that provide protection from its surrounding environment. This term does not generally include skin pigmentation. However, skin pigmentation, which is the result of melanin produced in melanocytes residing the basal layer of the skin and exported to the keratinocytes in the upper layers, serves equally important protective function. Indeed, changes in skin pigmentation are often the most readily recognized indicators of exposure of skin to damaging agents, especially to natural and artificial radiation in the environment. Several recent studies have shed new light on a) the mechanisms of involved in selective effects of subcomponents of UV radiation on human skin pigmentation and b) the interactive influences between keratinocytes and melanocytes, acting as ‘epidermal melanin unit’, that manifest as changes in skin pigmentation in response to exposure to various forms of radiation. This article provides a concise review of our current understanding of the effects of the non-ionizing solar radiation, at cellular and molecular levels, on human skin pigmentation. PMID:22404235

  10. The effect of compressed air massage on skin blood flow and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice; Maharaj, Sunil S; Tufts, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Compressed air massage is a new treatment modality that uses air under pressure to massage skin and muscle. It is claimed to improve skin blood flow but this has not been verified. Several pilot studies were undertaken to determine the effects of compressed air massage on skin blood flow and temperature. Skin blood flow (SBF), measured using laser Doppler fluxmetry and skin temperature was recorded under several different situations: (i) treatment, at 1 Bar pressure using a single-hole (5-mm) applicator head, for 1 min at each of several sites on the right and left lower legs, with SBF measured on the dorsum of the left foot; (ii) at the same treatment pressure, SBF was measured over the left tibialis anterior when treatment was performed at different distances from the probe; (iii) SBF and skin temperature of the lower leg were measured with treatment at 0 or 1 Bar for 45 min, using two different applicator heads; (iv) SBF was measured on the dorsum of the foot of 10 subjects with treatment for 1 min at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Bar using three different applicator heads. (i) SBF of the left foot was not altered by treatment of the right leg or chest, but was significantly increased during treatment of the left sole and first web, p Compressed air massage causes an immediate increase in SBF, and an immediate fall in SBF when treatment is stopped. The effect appears to be locally and not centrally mediated and is related to the pressure used. Treatment cools the skin for at least 15 min after a 45-min treatment.

  11. Effect of a desogestrel-containing oral contraceptive on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, H I; Kempers, S; Akin, M D; Dunlap, F; Whiting, D; Norbart, T C

    2000-12-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effects of a desogestrel-containing oral contraceptive (DSG-OC) on facial seborrhea (oiliness), acne and related factors in otherwise healthy women with moderate facial acne vulgaris. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 41 women received DSG-OC (50/100/150 microg desogestrel plus 35/30/30 microg ethinylestradiol given in a 7/7/7 day regimen) and 41 received placebo for six cycles. Seborrhea and skin assessments, and hormone analyses were performed regularly. Analyses of sebum output (measured using Sebutape) indicated that the effect of DSG-OC on the skin varied with facial area. Compared with placebo, DSG-OC had a statistically significant effect on the cheeks (60% relative reduction in sebum output; p = 0.02), and a non-significant effect on the forehead (30% relative reduction in sebum output). Acne lesion counts did not differ significantly between groups. Both patient and investigator assessments of skin condition (visual analog scale) indicated significant improvements with DSG-OC compared with placebo. The reduced sebum output with DSG-OC is associated with a three-fold increase in sex hormone binding globulin, as well as an expected decrease in free testosterone and other androgens that were found in this group. These results suggest that DSG-OC reduces facial oiliness and may be a useful contraceptive choice for women with this problem.

  12. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  13. Is Kinesio Taping to Generate Skin Convolutions Effective for Increasing Local Blood Circulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jae-Man; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether traditional application of Kinesio taping, which produces wrinkles in the skin, is effective for improving blood circulation. This study investigated local skin temperature changes after the application of an elastic therapeutic tape using convolution and non-convolution taping methods (CTM/NCTM). Material/Methods Twenty-eight pain-free men underwent CTM and NCTM randomly applied to the right and left sides of the lower back. Using infrared thermography, skin ...

  14. Pred-Skin: A Fast and Reliable Web Application to Assess Skin Sensitization Effect of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodolpho C; Alves, Vinicius M; Muratov, Eugene N; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Trospsha, Alexander; Andrade, Carolina Horta

    2017-05-22

    Chemically induced skin sensitization is a complex immunological disease with a profound impact on quality of life and working ability. Despite some progress in developing alternative methods for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemical substances, there is no in vitro test that correlates well with human data. Computational QSAR models provide a rapid screening approach and contribute valuable information for the assessment of chemical toxicity. We describe the development of a freely accessible web-based and mobile application for the identification of potential skin sensitizers. The application is based on previously developed binary QSAR models of skin sensitization potential from human (109 compounds) and murine local lymph node assay (LLNA, 515 compounds) data with good external correct classification rate (0.70-0.81 and 0.72-0.84, respectively). We also included a multiclass skin sensitization potency model based on LLNA data (accuracy ranging between 0.73 and 0.76). When a user evaluates a compound in the web app, the outputs are (i) binary predictions of human and murine skin sensitization potential; (ii) multiclass prediction of murine skin sensitization; and (iii) probability maps illustrating the predicted contribution of chemical fragments. The app is the first tool available that incorporates quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based on human data as well as multiclass models for LLNA. The Pred-Skin web app version 1.0 is freely available for the web, iOS, and Android (in development) at the LabMol web portal ( http://labmol.com.br/predskin/ ), in the Apple Store, and on Google Play, respectively. We will continuously update the app as new skin sensitization data and respective models become available.

  15. Radioprotective effect of c-ski on rat skin fibroblast in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xia; Li Ping; Zhang En; Liu Ping; Zhou Ping; Zhou Yuanguo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine radioprotective effect of c-ski on rat skin fibroblast in vitro and explore its possible mechanism. Methods: The effect of soft X-ray irradiation at dose varied from 2 to 8 Gy on cell apoptosis in rat skin fibroblast were determined by flow cytometry with Annexin-V-FITC-PI labelling. The effect of c-ski gene transfection on cell apoptosis was evaluated after soft X-ray irradiation of 4 Gy. The protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 after c-ski gene transfection were measured with the Western blot method. Results: Soft X-ray irradiation increases cell apoptosis, and the increase is proportional to the irradiation dose. Apoptosis ratio increases with time since the irradiation, and reaches its peak at 36h after the irradiation, c-ski gene was observed to markedly decrease apoptosis index at 24 h after soft X-ray irradiation of 4 Gy compared to the control group, significant increase of the protein expression of Bcl-2 was observed. C-ski gene was found no significant effect on the protein expression of Bax. Conclusion: c-ski gene can decrease radiation sensitivity of skin fibroblast, promoting Bcl-2 protein expression is one of its possible mechanism for this radioprotective effects. (authors)

  16. Skin hydration, microrelief and greasiness of normal skin in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsankov, N; Mateev, D; Darlenski, R

    2018-03-01

    The skin is the primary defence of the human body against external factors from physical, chemical, mechanical and biologic origin. Climatic factors together with low temperature and sun radiation affect the skin. The effect of climatic conditions in Antarctica on healthy skin has not been previously addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the skin hydration, greasiness and microrelief due to the extreme climatic environmental factors during the stay of the members of the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition. Fifty-nine Caucasian healthy subjects, 42 men and 17 women with mean age 50.9 years (27-68), were enrolled. The study was performed in five consecutive years from 2011 to 2016 at the Bulgarian Antarctic base camp at Livingston Island. The study protocol consisted of two parts: study A: duration of 15 days with measurement of skin physiology parameters on a daily basis, and study B: five measurements at baseline and at days 14, 30, 45 and 50 upon arrival in Antarctica. We measured three biophysical parameters related to skin physiology at cheek skin by an impedance measuring device. No statistically significant difference between parameters at the different measurement points. There is a variation in skin hydration reaching its lower point at day 11 and then returning to values similar to baseline. Initially, an increase in skin greasiness was witnessed with a sharp depression at day 11 and final values at day 15 resembling the ones at baseline. An increase, although not statistically significant, in skin roughness was observed in the first 15 days of the study. Study B showed no statistically significant variances between values of the three parameters. Our studies show the pioneer results of the effect of Antarctic climate on human skin physiology. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Predictors of topical steroid misuse among patrons of pharmacies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The misuse of topical steroids, i.e. the usage of these products for skin lightening, is a widespread phenomenon among African men and women. Studies have reported prevalence rates of 18.5% to 70% among participants. Though women constitute the majority of users, people of various age groups, ...

  18. A new method for skin color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  19. Elastin hydrolysate derived from fish enhances proliferation of human skin fibroblasts and elastin synthesis in human skin fibroblasts and improves the skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, Eri; Nakaba, Misako; Yamada, Michio

    2016-03-30

    Recent studies have shown that certain peptides significantly improve skin conditions, such as skin elasticity and the moisture content of the skin of healthy woman. This study aimed to investigate the effects of elastin hydrolysate on human skin. Proliferation and elastin synthesis were evaluated in human skin fibroblasts exposed to elastin hydrolysate and proryl-glycine (Pro-Gly), which is present in human blood after elastin hydrolysate ingestion. We also performed an ingestion test with elastin hydrolysate in humans and evaluated skin condition. Elastin hydrolysate and Pro-Gly enhanced the proliferation of fibroblasts and elastin synthesis. Maximal proliferation response was observed at 25 ng mL(-1) Pro-Gly. Ingestion of elastin hydrolysate improved skin condition, such as elasticity, number of wrinkles, and blood flow. Elasticity improved by 4% in the elastin hydrolysate group compared with 2% in the placebo group. Therefore, elastin hydrolysate activates human skin fibroblasts and has beneficial effects on skin conditions. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Vascular effects of leukotriene D4 in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1987-01-01

    Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) increased the blood flow rate in human skin, equipotent to histamine in the dose range of 3.1-200 pmol. The vasodilatation lasted for up to 60 min, and no late reactions occurred. Indomethacin did not affect the LTD4-induced blood flow rate. H1 and H2 antagonists reduced...... as a mediator of the axon reflex, and show that LTD4 causes a direct vasodilatory effect that is not mediated via histamine or cyclooxygenase products. The laser-Doppler flowmeter was applied for dynamic studies of the vasopressor response in the skin during a Valsalva maneuver, and the relative changes...

  1. Novel Inhibitory Effect of N-(2-Hydroxycyclohexylvaliolamine on Melanin Production in a Human Skin Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum-Ho Bin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyper-pigmentation causes skin darkness and medical disorders, such as post-inflammatory melanoderma and melasma. Therefore, the development of anti-melanogenic agents is important for treating these conditions and for cosmetic production. In our previous paper, we demonstrated that the anti-diabetic drug voglibose, a valiolamine derivative, is a potent anti-melanogenic agent. In addition, we proposed an alternative screening strategy to identify valiolamine derivatives with high skin permeability that act as anti-melanogenic agents when applied topically. In this study, we synthesized several valiolamine derivatives with enhanced lipophilicity and examined their inhibitory effects in a human skin model. N-(2-hydroxycyclohexylvaliolamine (HV possesses a stronger inhibitory effect on melanin production than voglibose in a human skin model, suggesting that HV is a more potent anti-melanogenic agent for the skin.

  2. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  3. The effects of using a moldable skin barrier on peristomal skin condition in persons with an ostomy: results of a prospective, observational, multinational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Maria Teresa; Majewska, Grazyna; Cabral, Mary V; Hölzel-Piontek, Karin

    2014-12-01

    Peristomal skin problems are the most commonly experienced physical complication following ostomy surgery and often are caused by leakage or a poorly fitting skin barrier. A prospective, multicenter, observational evaluation of persons with a colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy was conducted to assess the incidence of peristomal lesions and level of patient satisfaction with moldable skin barriers. Peristomal skin was assessed using the Studio Alterazoni Cutanee Stomale (SACS™) scale, and patients were asked to rate barrier application and usage variables. During a period of 12 months, and using convenience sampling, 561 patients from 90 centers in 3 countries were enrolled: 28 in Germany, 48 in Poland, and 14 in the United States. Participants included 277 new stoma patients (average time since surgery 0.3 months; average age 64.7 ± 12.86 years) who had a colostomy (174), ileostomy (72), or urostomy (10); and 284 patients with an existing stoma (average time since surgery 18.2 months; average age 66 ± 12.62 years) who had a colostomy (174), ileostomy (88), or urostomy (22) who experienced skin complications using a traditional skin barrier (ie, a solid or flexible barrier with precut opening or one requiring cutting an opening to accommodate the stoma). All patients were assessed at baseline and after 1 and 2 months. In the patients with a new stoma, 225 (90.4%) had intact skin at baseline, 239 (95.6%) had intact skin after 2 months, and 98% rated overall satisfaction with the barrier as good or excellent. In the patients with an existing stoma, intact skin was observed in 103 patients (39.5%) at baseline and 225 (86.2%) after 2 months, with 96.5% of patients rating overall satisfaction with the barrier as good or excellent. In this group, the proportion of patients who used accessory products (eg, belt, deodorants, powder) was 73% at baseline and 64.2% at the 2-month follow-up. The moldable skin barriers evaluated were effective in preventing and healing

  4. Thermal diffusivity effect in opto-thermal skin measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, P; Imhof, R E; Cui, Y; Ciortea, L I; Berg, E P

    2010-01-01

    We present our latest study on the thermal diffusivity effect in opto-thermal skin measurements. We discuss how thermal diffusivity affects the shape of opto-thermal signal, and how to measure thermal diffusivity in opto-thermal measurements of arbitrary sample surfaces. We also present a mathematical model for a thermally gradient material, and its corresponding opto-thermal signal. Finally, we show some of our latest experimental results of this thermal diffusivity effect study.

  5. Characterization of oily mature skin by biophysical and skin imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, M O; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2018-02-13

    The skin is a complex biological system and may suffer change according to the environmental factors, as higher temperatures can increase sebum excretion, presenting oiliness and acne. These alterations can persist during the aging and provoke more changes in aged skin. In this study we evaluated the mature oily skin characteristics using biophysical and skin imaging techniques. Sixty healthy female subjects, aged between 39 and 55 years old were recruited and separated into 2 groups according to their skin type: normal/dry and oily skin. The skin was evaluated in terms of stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) sebum content, dermis thickness and echogenicity, skin microrelief, and pores content. The mature oily skin presented no significant differences when compared to the normal/dry skin on the stratum corneum water content and TEWL parameters. The sebum content was significantly higher on the oily skin group. The microrelief analysis showed an increase of skin roughness values in the oily skin and increase of scaliness in the normal/dry skin. The oily skin showed lower dermis echogenicity mainly in the frontal region and higher dermis thickness when compared to normal/dry skin. The mature oily skin showed different characteristics from normal/dry skin in terms of sebum content, microrelief parameters, and dermis thickness. This way, the characterization of mature oily skin in an objective way is very important to development of dermocosmetic products for more effective treatments focused specially on this type of skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of compositions in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC on skin hydration and occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo CH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CH Loo,1,2 M Basri,2 R Ismail,1 HLN Lau,1 BA Tejo,2 MS Kanthimathi,3 HA Hassan,1 YM Choo11Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Bandar Baru Bangi, 2Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 3Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaPurpose: To study the effects of varying lipid concentrations, lipid and oil ratio, and the addition of propylene glycol and lecithin on the long-term physical stability of nanostructured lipid nanocarriers (NLC, skin hydration, and transepidermal water loss.Methods: The various NLC formulations (A1–A5 were prepared and their particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, and stability were analyzed. The formulations were applied on the forearms of the 20 female volunteers (one forearm of each volunteer was left untreated as a control. The subjects stayed for 30 minutes in a conditioned room with their forearms uncovered to let the skin adapt to the temperature (22°C ± 2°C and humidity (50% ± 2% of the room. Skin hydration and skin occlusion were recorded at day one (before treatment and day seven (after treatment. Three measurements for skin hydration and skin occlusion were performed in each testing area.Results: NLC formulations with the highest lipid concentration, highest solid lipid concentration, and additional propylene glycol (formulations A1, A2, and A5 showed higher physical stability than other formulations. The addition of propylene glycol into an NLC system helped to reduce the particle size of the NLC and enhanced its long-term physical stability. All the NLC formulations were found to significantly increase skin hydration compared to the untreated controls within 7 days. All NLC formulations exhibited occlusive properties as they reduced the transepidermal water loss within 7 days. This effect was more pronounced with the addition of propylene glycol or lecithin into an NLC formulation, whereby at least 60% reduction in transepidermal water loss was observed

  7. Effect of chemical peeling on the skin in relation to UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaka, Yoko; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Kawana, Seiji; Nishigori, Chikako

    2012-07-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin. However, it needs to be clarified whether the repetitive procedure of chemical peeling on photodamaged skin is safe and whether the different chemicals used for peeling results in similar outcomes or not. In this article, we reviewed the effect of peeling or peeling agents on the skin in relation to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The pretreatment of peeling agents usually enhance UV sensitivity by inducing increased sunburn cell formation, lowering minimum erythematous dose and increasing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. However, this sensitivity is reversible and recovers to normal after 1-week discontinuation. Using animals, the chronic effect of peeling and peeling agents was shown to prevent photocarcinogenesis. There is also an in vitro study using culture cells to know the detailed mechanisms of peeling agents, especially on cell proliferation and apoptotic changes via activating signalling cascades and oxidative stress. It is important to understand the effect of peeling agents on photoaged skin and to know how to deal with UV irradiation during the application of peeling agents and treatment of chemical peeling in daily life. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Effects of wall temperature on skin-friction measurements by oil-film interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottini, H; Kurita, M; Iijima, H; Fukagata, K

    2015-01-01

    Wind-tunnel skin-friction measurements with thin-oil-film interferometry have been taken on an aluminum sample to investigate the effects of wall temperature on the accuracy of the technique. The sample has been flush-mounted onto a flat plate with an electric heater at its bottom and mirror-smooth temperature-sensitive paint sprayed on its top. The heater has varied the sample temperature from ambient to 328 K, and the paint has permitted wall temperature measurements on the same area of the skin-friction measurements and during the same test. The measured wall temperatures have been used to calculate the correct oil viscosities, and these viscosities and the constant nominal viscosity at 298 K have been used to calculate two different sets of skin-friction coefficients. These sets have been compared to each other and with theoretical values. This comparison shows that the effects of wall temperature on the accuracy of skin-friction measurements are sensible, and more so as wall temperature differs from 298 K. Nonetheless, they are effectively neutralized by the use of wall temperature measurements in combination with the correct oil viscosity–temperature law. In this regard, the special temperature-sensitive paint developed for this study shows advantages with respect to more traditional wall temperature measurement techniques. (paper)

  9. Skin rejuvenating effects of chemical peeling: a study in photoaged hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung Hyup; Kim, Hong Jig; Kim, Si Yong; Kim, You Chan; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeong Hyun

    2011-09-01

    Chemical peeling is a dermatologic treatment for skin aging. However, the mechanism by which the chemical peel achieves its results is not clear. We investigated the effects of chemical peeling and the mechanism of wrinkle reduction in photoaged hairless mice skin. After inducing photoaged skin in hairless mice by repetitive ultraviolet-B irradiation applied over 14 weeks, we applied trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 30%, TCA 50%, and phenol on areas of the same size on the backs of the mice. Punch biopsies were obtained 7, 14, 28, and 60 days after the procedure for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Histologic examination showed an increase in dermal thickness, collagen fibers, and elastic fibers in the dermis of intervention groups compared with control groups. These increases were maintained significantly for 60 days. This study demonstrates that chemical peeling reduces wrinkles and regenerates skin by increasing dermal thickness and the amount of collagen and elastic fibers in photoaged skin. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Nutrition and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Apostolos; Liakou, Aikaterini; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health. Although the subject could be vast, the intention of this review is to provide the most relevant and the most well-documented information on the role of nutrition in common skin conditions and its impact on skin biology.

  11. Friction and durability of virgin and damaged skin with and without skin cream treatment using atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Skin can be damaged by the environment easily. Skin cream is an effective and rapid way to moisten the skin by changing the skin surface properties. Rat skin and pig skin are common animal models for studies and were used as skin samples in this study. The nano- and macroscale friction and durability of damaged skin were measured and compared with those of virgin (intact/undamaged skin. The effect of skin cream on friction and durability of damaged and virgin skin samples is discussed. The effects of velocity, normal load, relative humidity and number of cycles were studied. The nanoscale studies were performed by using atomic force microscope (AFM, and macroscale studies were performed by using a pin-on-disk (POD reciprocating tribometer. It was found that damaged skin has different mechanical properties, surface roughness, contact angle, friction and durability compared to that of virgin skin. But similar changes occur after skin cream treatment. Rat and pig skin show similar trends in friction and durability.

  12. FALLOUT RADIATION: EFFECTS ON THE SKIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R. A.; Cronkite, E. P.; Bond, V. P.

    1963-02-06

    Until recently it has been generally assumed that injury to the skin from ionizing radiation was not a serious hazard associated with the detonation of nuclear dcvices. However, in 1954 the importance of this hazard became apparent when widespread lesions of the skin developed in a large group of people accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in the Marshall Islands following the experimental detonation of a large nuclear device. The accident in the Marshall Islands affords an example of large numbers of lesions of the skin in human beings from the fallout. Studies have been documented and will be referred to frequently in this chapter. The possibility of such accidents must be considered seriously in view of the increasingly widespread use of radioisotopes.

  13. The effects of mucopolysaccharide polysulphate on hydration and elasticity of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Eimpunth, Sasima; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2011-01-01

    Background. Mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS) has been used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent for over 50 years. Its chemical structure permits considerable hydrogen bonding with adjacent water molecules, which effectively leads to hydration of the surrounding tissue. In addition, it stimulates endogenous hyaluronate synthesis, resulting in an increase in water-binding capacity and viscoelasticity of the skin. Objective. To study the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on hydration and elasticity of human skin. Methods. The first part of this study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study which included 60 female volunteers aged 30-45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825. The volunteers were treated with either 0.1% MPS or vehicle control. All subjects were asked to apply 1 g of cream to their face twice daily for a total period of 4 weeks. Skin hydration and elasticity were measured at baseline and week 4 with Corneometer CM 825 and cutometer MPA 580, respectively, at forehead and both cheeks. The second part of this study focused on the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on skin hydration after single application. 20 female volunteers aged 30-45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825, were recruited to the study. All subjects were asked to apply 2 g of 0.1% MPS cream on entirely randomly selected forearm. Skin hydration at the middle of both forearms was measured at baseline, immediately after application, and every 1 hour after application for a period of 10 hours. Results. 57 subjects (28 in vehicle control group, 29 in MPS) completed treatment protocol. The baseline skin hydration of both groups was not significantly different (P = 0.47). Hower, there was a statistically significant difference in skin hydration at 4 weeks between MPS and placebo group (P = 0.01). Skin elasticity was significantly improved at week 4 in both groups (vehicle-control, P skin elasticity between MPS and vehicle-control group

  14. Chronic effects of UV on human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarini, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Chronic exposures and acute accidents of the skin to UV has been recognized as an important risk for skin cancers in human. Attempts have been made with mathematical models to correlate the ambient UV dose and occupational irradiations with the risk of skin cancers. Development of accurate global measurements of solar irradiance and personal dosimetry is expected in the future in order to reduce the exposure of the general population, to precise the measures to be taken for indoor and outdoor workers. (author)

  15. Reducing the Harmful Effects of Infrared Radiation on the Skin Using Bicosomes Incorporating β-Carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Fajarí, Lluís; Rodríguez, Gelen; Cócera, Mercedes; Moner, Verónica; Barbosa-Barros, Lucyanna; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; de la Maza, Alfonso; López, Olga

    2016-01-01

    In this work the effect of infrared (IR) radiation, at temperatures between 25 and 30°C, on the formation of free radicals (FRs) in the skin is studied. Additionally, the influence of IR radiation at high temperatures in the degradation of skin collagen is evaluated. In both experiments the protective effect against IR radiation of phospholipid nanostructures (bicosomes) incorporating β-carotene (Bcb) is also evaluated. The formation of FRs in skin under IR exposure was measured near physiological temperatures (25-30°C) using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin trap and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The study of the collagen structure was performed by small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation. EPR results showed an increase in the hydroxyl radical in the irradiated skin compared to the native skin. The skin collagen was degraded by IR exposure at high temperatures of approximately 65°C. The treatment with Bcb reduced the formation of FRs and kept the structure of collagen. The formation of FRs by IR radiation does not depend on the increase of skin temperature. The decrease of FRs and the preservation of collagen fibers in the skin treated with Bcb indicate the potential of this lipid system to protect skin under IR exposure. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Shining light on skin pigmentation: the darker and the brighter side of effects of UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddodi, Nityanand; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2012-01-01

    The term barrier function as applied to human skin often connotes the physical properties of this organ that provides protection from its surrounding environment. This term does not generally include skin pigmentation. However, skin pigmentation, which is the result of melanin produced in melanocytes residing in the basal layer of the skin and exported to the keratinocytes in the upper layers, serves equally important protective function. Indeed, changes in skin pigmentation are often the most readily recognized indicators of exposure of skin to damaging agents, especially to natural and artificial radiation in the environment. Several recent studies have shed new light on (1) the mechanisms involved in selective effects of subcomponents of UV radiation on human skin pigmentation and (2) the interactive influences between keratinocytes and melanocytes, acting as "epidermal melanin unit," that manifest as changes in skin pigmentation in response to exposure to various forms of radiation. This article provides a concise review of our current understanding of the effects of the nonionizing solar radiation, at cellular and molecular levels, on human skin pigmentation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. Compensation of the skin effect in low-frequency potential drop measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Corcoran, J; Nagy, PB

    2016-01-01

    Potential drop measurements are routinely used in the non-destructive evaluation of component integrity. Potential drop measurements use either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC), the latter will have superior noise performance due to the ability to perform phase sensitive detection and the reduction of flicker noise. AC measurements are however subject to the skin effect where the current is electromagnetically constricted to the surface of the component. Unfortunately, the skin...

  18. Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Skin Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kimura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng roots (Panax ginseng CA Meyer have been used traditionally for the treatment, especially prevention, of various diseases in China, Korea, and Japan. Both experimental and clinical studies suggest ginseng roots to have pharmacological effects in patients with life-style-related diseases such as non-insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The topical use of ginseng roots to treat skin complaints including atopic suppurative dermatitis, wounds, and inflammation is also described in ancient Chinese texts; however, there have been relatively few studies in this area. In the present paper, we describe introduce the biological and pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rb1 isolated from Red ginseng roots on skin damage caused by burn-wounds using male Balb/c mice (in vivo and by ultraviolet B irradiation using male C57BL/6J and albino hairless (HR-1 mice (in vivo. Furthermore, to clarify the mechanisms behind these pharmacological actions, human primary keratinocytes and the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT were used in experiments in vitro.

  19. Improved treatment of radiation effects on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandl, E.O.; Kaercher, K.H.; Wandl-Hainberger, I.

    1985-01-01

    The treatment concept developed by K.H. Kaercher was extended by a therapy using Elasten S cream. In the course of a highvoltage therapy using fast electrons or cobalt-60, interesting aspects in the treatment and progression of the radiation reactions of the skin were established. The dermato-therapeutic principles layed down by K.H. Kaercher with the treatment palette used hitherto, have without doubt invariably proven their value. The exclusive powder treatment, however, may be made more practical by application of the new treatment cream in accordance with the intervals in radiation treatment or as a basic treatment towards the end of therapy. Furthermore it is ideally suited for the care and after-treatment of skin, strained by radiation. It reduces considerably the remaining visible radiation reactions. The treatment with powder and emulsion has for more than 10 years proven effective. After the excellent results of the new cream during radiation treatment, additional positive effects are expected in a long-term trial which will be reported on separately. (orig.) [de

  20. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Zhong, Lily; Santiago, Juan Luis

    2017-12-27

    Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  1. Effect of Different Skin Penetration Promoters in Halobetasol Propionate Permeation and Retention in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Carvajal-Vidal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Halobetasol propionate (HB is a potent synthetic corticosteroid used against inflammatory skin diseases, such as dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis, among others. The aim of this study is to define how the presence of different skin penetration enhancers (nonane, menthone, limonene, azone, carene, decanol, linoleic acid and cetiol affects the penetration and retention in skin of HB. To determine drug penetration through skin, 5% of each promoter was used in an ex vivo system with human skin on Franz cells. The results showed that the highest permeation occurs in the presence of menthone, followed by nonane. Permeation parameters were determined. The in vivo test was assessed, and the formulation containing HB-menthone presented better anti-inflammatory efficacy. These results are useful to generate a specific treatment according to each patient’s needs, and the inflammatory characteristics of the disease.

  2. Skin photoprotective and antiageing effects of a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Michelotti, Angela; Cestone, Enza; Caturla, Nuria; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Micol, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Background Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin alterations. A dietary approach based of these compounds could be a safe and effective method to provide a continuous adjunctive photoprotection measure. In a previous study, a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) extracts has exhibited potential photoprotective effects both in skin cell model and in a human pilot trial. Objective We investigated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure (redness and lipoperoxides) and in improving skin wrinkledness and elasticity. Design A randomised, parallel group study was carried out on 90 subjects. Furthermore, a pilot, randomised, crossover study was carried out on five subjects. Female subjects having skin phototype from I to III and showing mild to moderate chrono- or photoageing clinical signs were enrolled in both studies. Skin redness (a* value of CIELab colour space) after UVB exposure to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED) was assessed in the pilot study, while MED, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde) skin content, wrinkle depth (image analysis), and skin elasticity (suction and elongation method) were measured in the main study. Results Treated subjects showed a decrease of the UVB- and UVA-induced skin alterations (decreased skin redness and lipoperoxides) and an improvement of skin wrinkledness and elasticity. No differences were found between the 100 and 250 mg extracts doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 100 mg extracts dose. Some of the positive effects were noted as short as 2 weeks of product consumption. Conclusions The long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun™ can be considered to be a complementary nutrition strategy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The putative mechanism for these effects is most likely to take place through the

  3. Skin photoprotective and antiageing effects of a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Nobile

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing ultraviolet radiation (UVR-induced skin alterations. A dietary approach based of these compounds could be a safe and effective method to provide a continuous adjunctive photoprotection measure. In a previous study, a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi extracts has exhibited potential photoprotective effects both in skin cell model and in a human pilot trial. Objective: We investigated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis and grapefruit (C. paradisi in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure (redness and lipoperoxides and in improving skin wrinkledness and elasticity. Design: A randomised, parallel group study was carried out on 90 subjects. Furthermore, a pilot, randomised, crossover study was carried out on five subjects. Female subjects having skin phototype from I to III and showing mild to moderate chrono- or photoageing clinical signs were enrolled in both studies. Skin redness (a* value of CIELab colour space after UVB exposure to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED was assessed in the pilot study, while MED, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde skin content, wrinkle depth (image analysis, and skin elasticity (suction and elongation method were measured in the main study. Results: Treated subjects showed a decrease of the UVB- and UVA-induced skin alterations (decreased skin redness and lipoperoxides and an improvement of skin wrinkledness and elasticity. No differences were found between the 100 and 250 mg extracts doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 100 mg extracts dose. Some of the positive effects were noted as short as 2 weeks of product consumption. Conclusions: The long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun™ can be considered to be a complementary nutrition strategy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The putative mechanism for these effects is most likely to take place

  4. Effectiveness of skin protection creams in the prevention of occupational dermatitis: results of a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Robert; Salameh, Bayda; Stolkovich, Sabine; Nikl, Michael; Barth, Alfred; Ponocny, Elisabeth; Drexler, Hans; Tappeiner, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the trial was to investigate whether the publicized effects of skin protection creams can be replicated in a real occupational setting during activities that expose the skin. A prospective, randomized, four-tailed controlled pilot trial was performed to compare the effect of skin protection and skin care alone or in combination with cleansing against a control group (only cleansing). Two branches were selected for the investigation: the building industry and the timber industry. A total of 1,006 workers from these two branches were recruited, and out of these 485 workers were examined longitudinally for at least three time points over 1 year (lost for follow-up: 430 workers, exclusion: 91 workers). At each time point, as a primary outcome measure, we assessed the condition of the skin at both hands in a blinded manner and the individual was assigned to one of the following categories: no eczema, mild, moderate and severe eczema. As a secondary outcome measure, the worker's transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured under standardized conditions at the back of both hands. In addition, the workers were asked to evaluate their skin condition during the study. With regard to differences in the occurrence of eczemas, we found only in workers in building industry without application of skin protection or skin care creams a statistical significant increase in the incidence between the first and the second visit and a statistical significant decrease in the incidence between the second and third visit. When evaluating the secondary outcome-measurement changes in the TEWL values, an improvement was found for the group skin protection and skin care in combination and by skin care alone. Females in the timber industry started with better TEWL values than males, which may be due to better overall skin care. In this group we found an improvement for the group skin protection and skin care in combination and by skin protection alone. For skin protection alone, we

  5. What is the effect of different skin types on the required dose for photodynamic therapy?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For effective laser treatment it is very important to provide the correct dose at the required treatment depth. In South Africa we have a richness of ethnic groups contributing to a large variety in skin tones. Effective laser treatment of skin...

  6. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age

    OpenAIRE

    Kingma, B.R.M.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Saris, W.H.M.; Steenhoven, van, A.A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have been studied. Here, we tested the hypotheses that at hand sites (a) elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling and (b) elderly show reduced response to noradrenergic stimuli. Skin perfus...

  7. Effect of Acer tegmentosum bark on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gabsik; An, Duckgun; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Bumjung; Suman, Chinannai Khanita; Ham, Inhye; Choi, Ho-Young

    2016-01-11

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory condition characterized by pruritic and eczematous skin lesions that requires safe and effective pharmacological therapy. The bark of Acer tegmentosum Maxim trees has been used in Korean folk and traditional medicine to treat abscesses, surgical bleeding, liver diseases, and AD. To investigate the therapeutic effect of A. tegmentosum, on a mouse model of Dermatophagoides farinae (Df)-induced AD. Development of AD-like skin lesions was induced by repetitive skin contact with barrier-disrupted backs of NC/Nga mice with Df body ointment, and the effects of A. tegmentosum were evaluated on the basis of histopathological skin assessment results, ear swelling, and cytokine production in the dorsal skin. The component of A. tegmentosum, salidroside, inhibited the production of TSLP in KCMH-1 cells, which indicated that its production could be pharmacologically regulated. Topical application of A. tegmentosum for 1 week after Df body ointment challenge significantly reduced ear swelling and improved dorsal skin lesions. Suppression of dermatitis by combined therapy was accompanied by a decrease in the skin level of Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13, plasma levels of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and IgE. Induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which leads to a systemic Th2 response, was also reduced in in vivo and in vitro by A. tegmentosum and salidroside. Our findings suggest that A. tegmentosum treatment has a significant therapeutic effect on Df-induced AD-like skin lesions on NC/Nga mice through inhibition of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IgE via a mechanism that may inhibit Th2-mediated immune responses. These results suggest that A. tegmentosum and salidroside may be useful tools for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2014-03-01

    The skin effect in a round wire is an important electromagnetic phenomenon with practical consequences; however, it is usually not presented in any detail at the undergraduate level but reserved for graduate study. The purpose of this paper is to remedy this situation by providing a simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire that only requires background usually familiar to these students: Maxwell’s equations in integral form, integral calculus (specifically integration of a power) and some elementary properties of series. Graphical results are used to clearly show the current concentrating near the surface as the frequency increases and the accompanying increase in the resistance and decrease in the inductance of the wire. A brief review of the history of the subject shows that several of the scientists familiar to students made contributions to our understanding of the skin effect in a round wire; they include J C Maxwell, Lord Rayleigh, Lord Kelvin, O Heaviside and J J Thomson. The validity of the theory is demonstrated by comparing results from the theory with resistances and inductances measured by some of the early pioneers of wireless communication.

  9. A simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Glenn S

    2014-01-01

    The skin effect in a round wire is an important electromagnetic phenomenon with practical consequences; however, it is usually not presented in any detail at the undergraduate level but reserved for graduate study. The purpose of this paper is to remedy this situation by providing a simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire that only requires background usually familiar to these students: Maxwell’s equations in integral form, integral calculus (specifically integration of a power) and some elementary properties of series. Graphical results are used to clearly show the current concentrating near the surface as the frequency increases and the accompanying increase in the resistance and decrease in the inductance of the wire. A brief review of the history of the subject shows that several of the scientists familiar to students made contributions to our understanding of the skin effect in a round wire; they include J C Maxwell, Lord Rayleigh, Lord Kelvin, O Heaviside and J J Thomson. The validity of the theory is demonstrated by comparing results from the theory with resistances and inductances measured by some of the early pioneers of wireless communication. (paper)

  10. Psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on skin dendritic cell functions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Mezard, Pierre; Chavagnac, Cyril; Bosset, Sophie; Ionescu, Marius; Peyron, Eric; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Bérard, Frédéric

    2003-10-15

    Psychological stress affects the pathophysiology of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which stress could modulate immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we report that application of a psychological stress before immunization exerts an adjuvant effect on dendritic cell (DC), resulting in increased primary and memory Ag-specific T cell immune responses. Acute stress dramatically enhanced the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to haptens, which is mediated by CD8(+) CTLs. This effect was due to increased migration of skin DCs, resulting in augmented CD8(+) T cell priming in draining lymph nodes and enhanced recruitment of CD8(+) T cell effectors in the skin upon challenge. This adjuvant effect of stress was mediated by norepinephrine (NE), but not corticosteroids, as demonstrated by normalization of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and DC migratory properties following selective depletion of NE. These results suggest that release of NE by sympathetic nerve termini during a psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on DC by promoting enhanced migration to lymph nodes, resulting in increased Ag-specific T cell responses. Our findings may open new ways in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g., psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  11. Metabolism of skin-absorbed resveratrol into its glucuronized form in mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuo Murakami

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RESV is a plant polyphenol, which is thought to have beneficial metabolic effects in laboratory animals as well as in humans. Following oral administration, RESV is immediately catabolized, resulting in low bioavailability. This study compared RESV metabolites and their tissue distribution after oral uptake and skin absorption. Metabolomic analysis of various mouse tissues revealed that RESV can be absorbed and metabolized through skin. We detected sulfated and glucuronidated RESV metabolites, as well as dihydroresveratrol. These metabolites are thought to have lower pharmacological activity than RESV. Similar quantities of most RESV metabolites were observed 4 h after oral or skin administration, except that glucuronidated RESV metabolites were more abundant in skin after topical RESV application than after oral administration. This result is consistent with our finding of glucuronidated RESV metabolites in cultured skin cells. RESV applied to mouse ears significantly suppressed inflammation in the TPA inflammation model. The skin absorption route could be a complementary, potent way to achieve therapeutic effects with RESV.

  12. Effectiveness of Fibrin Glue in Adherence of Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Konda Sireesha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Babu, Preethitha; Marimuthu, Senthil Kumaran; Kumar, Sudhanva Hemanth; Subbarayan, Elan Kumar; Chavan, Vinayak; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Sivakumar, Dinesh Kumar; Friji, M T

    2017-01-01

    Graft fixation is important for graft take. Fibrin glue has been proposed as an ideal material, because of its human origin and it provides firm adhesion in seconds or minutes. To evaluate the efficiency of fibrin glue, in increasing the take of skin graft. Assessment includes surgical time taken for graft fixation, haematoma/seroma formation, engraftment and wound closure by day 14. The study is an observational prospective study conducted in the Department of Plastic Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, from January 2016 to June 2016. Sixteen patients who underwent split skin grafting were assessed during the study period. Fibrin glue was used on the recipient bed before grafting. Better haemostasis and graft adhesion, with a significant reduction of surgical time, were noted. The safety profile of fibrin glue was excellent as indicated by the lack of any related serious adverse experiences. These findings demonstrate that it is safe and effective for attachment of skin grafts, with outcomes at least as good as conventional methods.

  13. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, B.R.M.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Saris, W.H.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van W.D.

    2010-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have

  14. Light-enabled reversible self-assembly and tunable optical properties of stable hairy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihuang; Wang, Zewei; He, Yanjie; Yoon, Young Jun; Jung, Jaehan; Zhang, Guangzhao; Lin, Zhiqun

    2018-02-01

    The ability to dynamically organize functional nanoparticles (NPs) via the use of environmental triggers (temperature, pH, light, or solvent polarity) opens up important perspectives for rapid and convenient construction of a rich variety of complex assemblies and materials with new structures and functionalities. Here, we report an unconventional strategy for crafting stable hairy NPs with light-enabled reversible and reliable self-assembly and tunable optical properties. Central to our strategy is to judiciously design amphiphilic star-like diblock copolymers comprising inner hydrophilic blocks and outer hydrophobic photoresponsive blocks as nanoreactors to direct the synthesis of monodisperse plasmonic NPs intimately and permanently capped with photoresponsive polymers. The size and shape of hairy NPs can be precisely tailored by modulating the length of inner hydrophilic block of star-like diblock copolymers. The perpetual anchoring of photoresponsive polymers on the NP surface renders the attractive feature of self-assembly and disassembly of NPs on demand using light of different wavelengths, as revealed by tunable surface plasmon resonance absorption of NPs and the reversible transformation of NPs between their dispersed and aggregated states. The dye encapsulation/release studies manifested that such photoresponsive NPs may be exploited as smart guest molecule nanocarriers. By extension, the star-like block copolymer strategy enables the crafting of a family of stable stimuli-responsive NPs (e.g., temperature- or pH-sensitive polymer-capped magnetic, ferroelectric, upconversion, or semiconducting NPs) and their assemblies for fundamental research in self-assembly and crystallization kinetics of NPs as well as potential applications in optics, optoelectronics, magnetic technologies, sensory materials and devices, catalysis, nanotechnology, and biotechnology.

  15. Effects of irradiation of skin flaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Y.; Ueda, M.; Oka, T.; Torii, S.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction of skin flaps to irradiation and the optimum postoperative time for irradiation was studied in the rat. Flaps showed different reactions depending on the time of irradiation. There was a correlation between the radiosensitivity and the vascularity of the flap. Those flaps in the marginal hypovascular stage of revascularization showed reactions similar to normal skin. However, severe adverse reactions were observed in the marginal hypervascular stage

  16. Contrasting effects of ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet B exposure on induction of contact sensitivity in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lone; Hansen, Henrik; Barker, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB), in addition to direct effects on DNA, induces immunological changes in the skin that predispose to the development of skin cancer. Whether ultraviolet-A (UVA) induces similar changes is unknown. This effect can be investigated in humans in vivo using epicutaneous antigens...... as a model of tumour antigens. Volunteers (n = 46) were randomly assigned to received no sensitization, sensitization with the allergen diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) on non-UV-exposed normal skin, or sensitization with DPCP on skin exposed to three minimal erythema doses (MED) of either UVA or UVB radiation...... the immunization rate compared with sensitization on non-irradiated skin (P UVA radiation did not result in a decreased immunization rate compared with non-irradiated skin. These results indicate that in humans erythemagenic...

  17. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Kai Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter. Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  18. Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, J. T.; Donnelly, A. E.; Karki, A.; Selfe, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of −110°C whole body cryotherapy and 8°C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (

  19. Effect of Enhancers on in vitro and in vivo Skin Permeation and Deposition of S-Methyl-L-Methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Taek; Kim, Ji Su; Kim, Min-Hwan; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Young; Lee, WooIn; Min, Kyung Kuk; Song, Min Gyu; Choi, Choon-Young; Kim, Won-Serk; Oh, Hee Kyung; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2017-07-01

    S-methyl- L -methionine (SMM), also known as vitamin U, is commercially available as skin care cosmetic products for its wound healing and photoprotective effects. However, the low skin permeation expected of SMM due to its hydrophilic nature with a log P value of -3.3, has not been thoroughly addressed. The purpose of this study thus was to evaluate the effect of skin permeation enhancers on the skin permeation/deposition of SMM. Among the enhancers tested for the in vitro skin permeation and deposition of SMM, oleic acid showed the most significant enhancing effect. Moreover, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol further enhanced in vitro permeation and deposition of SMM through hairless mouse skin. Furthermore, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol significantly increased the in vivo deposition of SMM in the epidermis/dermis for 12 hr, which was high enough to exert a therapeutic effect. Therefore, based on the in vitro and in vivo studies, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol was shown to be effective in improving the topical skin delivery of SMM, which may be applied in the cosmetic production process for SMM.

  20. Cutaneous annular sarcoidosis developing on a background of exogenous ochronosis: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, M J; Glassman, S J; Modi, D; Grayson, W

    2010-06-01

    Exogenous (cosmetic) ochronosis is caused by the long term use of skin-lightening creams containing hydroquinone. Three cases of systemic sarcoidosis with cutaneous sarcoidal granulomas, which developed on ochronotic skin were last described by Jacyk in 1995. Dogliotti and Leibowitz previously reported cases of granulomatous ochronosis with sarcoid-like histological changes but with no associated systemic sarcoidosis. We report two additional cases of cutaneous sarcoidal granulomas, which developed on a background of cosmetic ochronosis in patients recently diagnosed with systemic sarcoidosis.

  1. Effect of piracetam and nimodipine on full-thickness skin burns in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elif; Dincel, Gungor C

    2016-08-01

    The potential of several drugs for full-thickness skin burns has been investigated, but the treatment of such burns remains a challenge in plastic surgery. The present study was designed to determine the effect of systemic and topical administration of piracetam and nimodipine on full-thickness skin burn wound healing. A total of 36 New Zealand male rabbits were divided into six groups. Full-thickness skin burns were produced in all the groups, except the control group. Piracetam was administered systemically (piracetam-IV) and topically (piracetam-C) for 14 days, and nimodipine was administered systemically (nimodipine-IV) and topically (nimodipine-C) over the burn wounds for 14 days. The sham group underwent burn injury but was not administered any drug. After 21 days, gross examination and histopathological analysis were performed and the results were compared statistically. Nimodipine-C and nimodipine-IV had no effect on burn wound healing. However, both piracetam-IV and piracetam-C significantly enhanced the healing of the full-thickness skin burn wounds, although the latter was more effective, useful and practical in burn wound healing. The histopathological features of the wounds in the piracetam-C group were closer to those of the control group than those of the other groups. Piracetam-C rather than piracetam-IV may promote full-thickness burn wound healing in rabbits. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Synthetic Effect of Vivid Shark Skin and Polymer Additive on Drag Reduction Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural shark skin has a well-demonstrated drag reduction function, which is mainly owing to its microscopic structure and mucus on the body surface. In order to improve drag reduction, it is necessary to integrate microscopic drag reduction structure and drag reduction agent. In this study, two hybrid approaches to synthetically combine vivid shark skin and polymer additive, namely, long-chain grafting and controllable polymer diffusion, were proposed and attempted to mimic such hierarchical topography of shark skin without waste of polymer additive. Grafting mechanism and optimization of diffusion port were investigated to improve the efficiency of the polymer additive. Superior drag reduction effects were validated, and the combined effect was also clarified through comparison between drag reduction experiments.

  3. Emu oil-based lotion effects on neonatal skin barrier during transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanardo V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vincenzo Zanardo,1 David Giarrizzo,2 Francesca Volpe,1 Lara Giliberti,1 Gianluca Straface1 1Division of Perinatal Medicine, Policlinico Abano Terme, Abano Terme, 2CALANTHA Physiology of Lactation Laboratory, Padua, Italy Abstract: Both appropriate hydration and skin surface pH are fundamental in preventing baby skin barrier damage during transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life. However, effects of topical moisturizers on neonatal stratum corneum temperature, pH, hydration, and elasticity have not been scientifically evaluated in vivo. We checked 31 full-term breastfeeding neonates by non-invasive bioengineering method, which is able to evaluate the basal skin barrier (left heel, and assessed at 6±1 hours after birth, and at 1 and 24 hours after emu oil-based topical treatment. The basal skin barrier of right heel (no oil exposure of each newborn was considered as control. We found that a single application of an emu oil-based lotion was effective in improving heel stratum corneum hydration, which increases both skin pH and elasticity without any effect on temperature. Further studies are needed to confirm long-term beneficial effects of this treatment in a very sensitive patient population. Keywords: skin barrier, neonate, emu oil-based lotion, topical treatment

  4. The effect of dietary and/or cosmetic argan oil on postmenopausal skin elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiraouani Boucetta K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta,1 Zoubida Charrouf,2 Hassan Aguenaou,3 Abdelfattah Derouiche,4 Yahya Bensouda1 1Research Team on Formulation and Biopharmacy, Research Center for Drug, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 2Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 3Mixed Unit of Research in Nutrition, ITU / CNESTEN, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco; 4Faculty of Sciences, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco Background: During menopause, the decrease of estrogenic secretion induces the disruption of skin functioning, thus causing the decline in skin elasticity characteristic of skin aging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin elasticity.Materials and methods: Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group of 30 participants received dietary argan oil, the control group of 30 participants received olive oil, and both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a 60-day period. Assessments of skin elasticity parameters, ie, the three R-parameters (R2 or gross-elasticity of the skin, R5 or net elasticity of the skin, and R7 or biological elasticity, and the resonance running time (RRT at both volar forearms of the two groups were performed during three visits: before starting oils consumption and application, after 30 days of oils consumption and application, and after 60 days of oils consumption and application.Results: The consumption of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net elasticity of the skin (R5 (P<0.001, biological elasticity (R7 (P<0.001, and a significant decrease of RRT (P=0.002. The application of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net

  5. An improved modelling of asynchronous machine with skin-effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional method of analysis of Asynchronous machine fails to give accurate results especially when the machine is operated under high rotor frequency. At high rotor frequency, skin-effect dominates causing the rotor impedance to be frequency dependant. This paper therefore presents an improved method of ...

  6. Development of effective skin cancer treatment and prevention in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, W Clark; Lambert, Muriel W

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare, recessively transmitted genetic disease characterized by increasingly marked dyspigmentation and xerosis (dryness) of sun-exposed tissues, especially skin. Skin cancers characteristically develop in sun-exposed sites at very much earlier ages than in the general population; these are often multiple and hundreds or even thousands may develop. Eight complementation groups have been identified. Seven groups, XP-A…G, are associated with defective genes encoding proteins involved in the nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) pathway that recognizes and excises mutagenic changes induced in DNA by sunlight; the eighth group, XP-V, is associated with defective translesion synthesis (TLS) bypassing such alterations. The dyspigmentation, xerosis and eventually carcinogenesis in XP patients appear to be due to their cells' failure to respond properly to these mutagenic DNA alterations, leading to mutations in skin cells. A subset of cases, especially those in some complementation groups, may develop neurological degeneration, which may be severe. However, in most XP patients, in the past the multiple skin cancers have led to death at an early age due to either metastases or sepsis. Using either topical 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod, we have developed a protocol that effectively prevents most skin cancer development in XP patients. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  7. Radiation effects control: eyes, skin. Final report, 1 October 1969--31 December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, D.; Smathers, J.B.

    1974-12-01

    Adverse effects on the lens of the eye and the skin due to exposure to proton radiation during manned space flight were evaluated. Actual proton irradiation which might be encountered in space was simulated. Irradiation regimes included single acute exposures, daily fractionated exposures, and weekly fractionated exposures. Animals were exposed and then maintained and examined periodically until data sufficient to meet the objective were obtained. No significant skin effects were noted and no serious sight impairment was exhibited. (auth)

  8. Using a Cell Phone to Investigate the Skin Depth Effect in Salt Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the skin depth effect for electromagnetic waves in salt water using a cell phone that is immersed to a critical depth where it no longer responds when called. We show that this critical depth is directly proportional to the theoretical skin depth for a range of salt concentrations.

  9. Skin effect modifications of the Resistive Wall Mode dynamics in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villone, Fabio, E-mail: villone@unicas.it [Ass. Euratom/ENEA/CREATE, DIEI, Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); Pustovitov, Vladimir D. [Institute of Tokamak Physics, National Research Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Pl. Kurchatova 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-22

    We present the first evidence of the skin-effect modification of the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) dynamics in a tokamak. The computations are performed with the CarMa code, using its unique ability of treating volumetric 3D conducting structures. The results prove that conventional thin-wall models and codes, assuming the thin equivalent wall located on the inner side of a real (thick) wall, may fail to get accurate estimates of RWM growth rates, since the inclusion of the skin effect makes the growth rates always larger than otherwise. The difference is noticeable even for the conventional slow RWMs and becomes substantial for faster modes. Some possible equivalent thin-wall modeling approaches are also discussed.

  10. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama; Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P; Orlicky, David J; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8 h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. - Highlights: • Phosgene oxime cutaneous exposure causes skin blanching, edema and urticaria. • Penetration of phosgene oxime causes dilation of vasculature in internal organs. • Mast cells could play an important role in phosgene oxime-induced skin injury. • Phosgene oxime could induce low blood pressure and hypoxia leading to mortality. • Data is

  11. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.tewari-singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Orlicky, David J [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8 h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. - Highlights: • Phosgene oxime cutaneous exposure causes skin blanching, edema and urticaria. • Penetration of phosgene oxime causes dilation of vasculature in internal organs. • Mast cells could play an important role in phosgene oxime-induced skin injury. • Phosgene oxime could induce low blood pressure and hypoxia leading to mortality. • Data is

  12. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  13. Using Raman Spectroscopy in Studying the Effect of Propylene Glycol, Oleic Acid, and Their Combination on the Rat Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atef, Eman; Altuwaijri, Njoud

    2018-01-01

    The permeability enhancement effect of oleic acid (OA) and propylene glycol (PG) as well as their (1:1 v/v) combined mixture was studied using rat skin. The percutaneous drug administration is a challenge and an opportunity for drug delivery. To date, there is limited research that illustrates the mechanism of penetration enhancers and their combinations on the skin. This project aims to explore the skin diffusion and penetration enhancement of PG, OA, and a combination of PG-OA (1:1 v/v) on rat skin and to identify the potential synergistic effect of the two enhancers utilizing Raman spectroscopy. Dissected dorsal skin was treated with either PG or OA or their combination for predetermined time intervals after which the Raman spectra of the treated skin were collected with the enhancer. A spectrum of the wiped and the washed skin were also collected. The skin integrity was tested before and after exposure to PG. The skin histology proved that the skin integrity has been maintained during experiments and the results indicated that OA disrupted rat skin lipid as evident by changes in the lipid peak. The results also showed that PG and OA improved the diffusion of each other and created faster, yet reversible changes of the skin peaks. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy is a potential tool for ex vivo skin diffusion studies. We also concluded that PG and OA have potential synergistic reversible effect on the skin.

  14. Effectiveness of Alkali and Acid to Produce Collagen from Fish Skin of Striped Catifish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Lu’lu’in Nanda Alfira Devi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin is one of the alternative sources contained high protein  to isolate collagen. Fish skin generally extracted by the method of acid, alkali and enzymes. The study aim to determine the effectiveness of NaOHand acetic acid on catfish (Pangasius sp. skin extraction  process.  The concentrations of alkaline pretreatment were 0,05; 0,1; 0,15 and 0,2 M with the soaking time of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h by NaOH replacement in every 2 h. The concentrations of acetic acid for hydrolisis process were 0.05; 0.1; 0.15 and 0.2 M with the soaking time of 1, 2, and 3 h. The experimental design used for pretreatment process is split splot, while for the hydrolysis process is factorial completely randomized design. The results showed that pretreatment with a concentration of 0.05 M NaOH for 4 h has a significant effect for eliminating non-collagen protein (p<0.05. The acetic acid concentration of 0.15 M for 1 h also has a significant effect on fish skin swelling. The yield of striped catfish collagen was 17.272%, the protein content was 86%, and the viscosity was 12 cP. Fish skin extract was identified as type I collagen by functional groups and electrophoretic analysis. Collagen from striped catfish skin has α1 and α2 and protein structure with the molecular weight of α chain were 94 and 98 kDa, meanwhile the molecular wheight of β chain was 204 kD.

  15. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosera, Matteo; Prodi, Andrea; Mauro, Marcella; Pelin, Marco; Florio, Chiara; Bellomo, Francesca; Adami, Gianpiero; Apostoli, Pietro; De Palma, Giuseppe; Bovenzi, Massimo; Campanini, Marco; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-08-07

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L) in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue(®) and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays) was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm(2)) while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm(2)). Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10(-4) M (MTT assay), 3.8 × 10(-5) M (AlamarBlue(®) assay), and 7.6 × 10(-4) M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death). Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure.

  16. The deceptive nature of UVA tanning versus the modest protective effects of UVB tanning on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Yoshinori; Coelho, Sergio G; Schlenz, Kathrin; Batzer, Jan; Smuda, Christoph; Choi, Wonseon; Brenner, Michaela; Passeron, Thierry; Zhang, Guofeng; Kolbe, Ludger; Wolber, Rainer; Hearing, Vincent J

    2011-02-01

    The relationship between human skin pigmentation and protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important element underlying differences in skin carcinogenesis rates. The association between UV damage and the risk of skin cancer is clear, yet a strategic balance in exposure to UV needs to be met. Dark skin is protected from UV-induced DNA damage significantly more than light skin owing to the constitutively higher pigmentation, but an as yet unresolved and important question is what photoprotective benefit, if any, is afforded by facultative pigmentation (i.e. a tan induced by UV exposure). To address that and to compare the effects of various wavelengths of UV, we repetitively exposed human skin to suberythemal doses of UVA and/or UVB over 2 weeks after which a challenge dose of UVA and UVB was given. Although visual skin pigmentation (tanning) elicited by different UV exposure protocols was similar, the melanin content and UV-protective effects against DNA damage in UVB-tanned skin (but not in UVA-tanned skin) were significantly higher. UVA-induced tans seem to result from the photooxidation of existing melanin and its precursors with some redistribution of pigment granules, while UVB stimulates melanocytes to up-regulate melanin synthesis and increases pigmentation coverage, effects that are synergistically stimulated in UVA and UVB-exposed skin. Thus, UVA tanning contributes essentially no photoprotection, although all types of UV-induced tanning result in DNA and cellular damage, which can eventually lead to photocarcinogenesis. 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  18. SKIN CARE IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is a complex organ in its structure. Numerous functions of the skin may be impaired in its pathology. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the skin in children predispose to common diseases of the skin. Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. Diapered skin is exposed to friction and excessive hydration, has a higher pH than nondiapered skin, and is repeatedly soiled with feces that contains enzymes with high irritation potential for the skin. Diaper dermatitis may vary in clinical severity and course. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important. Appropriate skin care can help to prevent the occurrence of diaper dermatitis and to speed up the healing of affected skin. This includes frequent diaper changes and aeration, gentle cleansing, and the use of a barrier cream. For the treatment of diaper dermatitis agents selected depending on the presence and severity of complications. For prevention and treatment of uncomplicated diaper dermatitis effective means of containing dexpantenol.

  19. Safety of long-term subcutaneous free flap skin banking after skin-sparing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstappen, Ralph; Djedovic, Gabriel; Morandi, Evi Maria; Heiser, Dietmar; Rieger, Ulrich Michael; Bauer, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    A persistent problem in autologous breast reconstruction in skin-sparing mastectomies is skin restoration after skin necrosis or secondary oncological resection. As a solution to facilitate reconstruction, skin banking of free-flap skin has been proposed in cases where the overlying skin envelope must be resected, as this technique spares the patient an additional donor site. Herein, we present the largest series to date in which this method was used. We investigated its safety and the possibility of skin banking for prolonged periods of time. All skin-sparing mastectomies and immediate autologous breast reconstructions from December 2009 until June 2013 at our institution were analysed. We identified 31 patients who underwent 33 free flap reconstructions in which skin banking was performed. Our median skin banking period was 7 days, with a maximum duration of 171 days. In 22.5% of cases, the banked skin was used to reconstruct overlying skin defects, and in 9.6% of cases to reconstruct the nipple-areolar complex. Microbiological and histological investigations of the banked skin revealed neither clinical infections nor malignancies. In situ skin banking, even for prolonged periods of time, is a safe and cost-effective method to ensure that skin defects due to necrosis or secondary oncological resection can be easily reconstructed.

  20. A case of granulomatous rosacea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Study: A case of granulomatous rosacea. 133. Vol 52 No 2. SA Fam Pract 2010. Clinical Quiz. A 49-year-old housewife had complained of an itchy facial rash for four years. She denied using steroid creams and skin lighteners. On examination, dark grey papules were found on her face, with some coalescing into ...

  1. Synchronization of skin ablation and microjet injection for an effective transdermal drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hun-jae; Yeo, Seonggu; Yoh, Jack J.

    2016-04-01

    An Er:YAG laser with 2940-nm wavelength and 150-µs pulse duration was built for the purpose of combined ablation and microjet injection. A shorter pulse duration compared to common erbium lasers in dentistry is desirable for a synchronization of skin ablation and subsequent microjet injection into target skin for transdermal injection of liquid dose. A single laser beam is split into two for an optimal energy of pre-ablation of skin and the residual energy allocated to a microjet ejection. A newly designed injector consists of an L-shaped chamber and a parabolic mirror in a single unit, and the handheld laser is a part of an integrated system requiring no optical fiber. Through various injection tests using the porcine skin, the effectiveness of the new delivery system is herein evaluated.

  2. Iontophoresis of monomeric insulin analogues in vitro: effects of insulin charge and skin pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkjaer, L; Brange, J; Grodsky, G M; Guy, R H

    1998-01-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of association state and net charge of human insulin analogues on the rate of iontophoretic transport across hairless mouse skin, and the effect of different skin pretreatments on said transport. No insulin flux was observed with anodal delivery probably because of degradation at the Ag/AgCl anode. The flux during cathodal iontophoresis through intact skin was insignificant for human hexameric insulin, and only low and variable fluxes were observed for monomeric insulins. Using stripped skin on the other hand, the fluxes of monomeric insulins with two extra negative charges were 50-100 times higher than that of hexameric human insulin. Introducing three additional charges led to a further 2-3-fold increase in flux. Wiping the skin gently with absolute alcohol prior to iontophoresis resulted in a 1000-fold increase in transdermal transport of insulin relative to that across untreated skin, i.e. to almost the same level as stripping the skin. The alcohol pretreatment reduced the electrical resistance of the skin, presumably by lipid extraction. In conclusion, monomeric insulin analogues with at least two extra negative charges can be iontophoretically delivered across hairless mouse skin, whereas insignificant flux is observed with human, hexameric insulin. Wiping the skin with absolute alcohol prior to iontophoresis gave substantially improved transdermal transport of monomeric insulins resulting in clinically relevant delivery rates for basal treatment.

  3. Comparison of the effect of fatty alcohols on the permeation of melatonin between porcine and human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andega, S; Kanikkannan, N; Singh, M

    2001-11-09

    Melatonin (MT) is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that plays an important role in the regulation of the circadian sleep-wake cycle. It would be advantageous to administer MT using a transdermal delivery system for the treatment of sleep disorders such as delayed sleep syndrome, jet lag in travelers, cosmonauts and shift workers. The porcine skin has been found to have similar morphological and functional characteristics as human skin. The elastic fibres in the dermis, enzyme pattern of the epidermis, epidermal tissue turnover time, keratinous proteins and thickness of epidermis of porcine skin are similar to human skin. However, the fat deposition and vascularisation of the cutaneous glands of porcine skin are different from human skin. In addition, porcine skin has been found to have a close permeability character to human skin. However, the comparative effect of chemical penetration enhancers on the permeation of drugs between porcine and human skin has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of fatty alcohols on the permeability of porcine and human skin using MT as a model compound. The effect of saturated fatty alcohols (octanol, nonanol, decanol, undecanol, lauryl alcohol, tridecanol, myristyl alcohol) and unsaturated fatty alcohols (oleyl alcohol, linoleyl alcohol, linolenyl alcohol) at 5% concentration was tested across dermatomed porcine and human skin. Our studies showed a parabolic relationship between the carbon chain length of saturated fatty alcohols and permeation enhancement of MT with both porcine and human skin. Maximum permeation of MT was observed when fatty alcohol carbon chain length was 10. In general, as the level of unsaturation increased from one to two double bonds, there was an increase in the permeation of MT both in porcine and human skin. However, a decrease in the permeation was observed with three double bonds. Regression analysis using the steady state flux data showed a significant positive

  4. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T; Murata, M; Iwabuchi, N; Odamaki, T; Wakabayashi, H; Yamauchi, K; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative effect on skin photoaging induced by short term UV irradiation, however, the underlying mechanisms and the effect of probiotics on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in hairless mice. Mice were irradiated with UVB three times weekly and orally administered B. breve B-3 (2×10(9) cfu/mouse /day) for 7 weeks. Nonirradiated mice and UVB-irradiated mice without probiotic treatment were used as controls. B. breve B-3 significantly suppressed the changes of transepidermal water loss, skin hydration, epidermal thickening and attenuated the damage to the tight junction structure and basement membrane induced by chronic UVB irradiation. Administration of B. breve B-3 tended to suppress the UV-induced interleukin-1β production in skin (P=0.09). These results suggest that B. breve B-3 could potentially be used to prevent photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation.

  5. The development of criteria for limiting the non-stochastic effects of non-uniform skin exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 1977) have underlined the lack of knowledge relating to small area skin exposures and have highlighted the difficulties of integrating stochastic and nonstochastic effects into a unified radiation protection philosophy. A system of limitation is suggested which should be appropriate to the wide range of skin irradiation modes which are met in practice. It is proposed for example, that for large area exposures, the probability of skin cancer induction should be considered as the limiting factor. For partial-body skin exposures the probability of the stochastic response will be reduced and late nonstochastic effects will become limiting as the area exposed is reduced. Highly non-uniform exposures such as from small sources or radioactive particulates should be limited on the basis of early rather than late effects. A survey of epidemiological and experimental work is used to show how detailed guidance for limitation in these cases can be provided. Due to the detailed morphology of the skin the biological response depends critically upon the depth dose. In the case of alpha and beta radiation this should be reflected in a less restrictive limitation system, particularly for non-stochastic effects. Up-to-date and on-going experimental studies are described which can provide guidance in this field. (author)

  6. Cost-effectiveness of a Ceramide-Infused Skin Barrier Versus a Standard Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ariel; Inglese, Gary; Skountrianos, George; Karlsmark, Tonny; Oguz, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of a ceramide-infused skin barrier (CIB) versus other skin barriers (standard of care) among patients who have undergone ostomy creation. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis, based on a decision-analytic model that was estimated using data from the ADVOCATE (A Study Determining Variances in Ostomy Skin Conditions And The Economic Impact) trial, which investigated stoma-related healthcare costs over 12 weeks among patients who recently underwent fecal ostomy, and from other sources. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Analysis was based on a hypothetical cohort of 1000 patients who recently underwent fecal ostomy; over a 1-year period, 500 patients were assumed to use CIB and 500 were assumed to use standard of care. METHODS: We adapted a previous economic model to estimate expected 1-year costs and outcomes among persons with a new ostomy assumed to use CIB versus standard of care. Outcomes of interest included peristomal skin complications (PSCs) (up to 2 during the 1-year period of interest) and quality-adjusted life days (QALDs); QALDs vary from 1, indicating a day of perfect health to 0, indicating a day with the lowest possible health (deceased). Subjects were assigned QALDs on a daily basis, with the value of the QALD on any given day based on whether the patient was experiencing a PSC. Costs included those related to skin barriers, ostomy accessories, and care of PSCs. The incremental cost-effectiveness of CIB versus standard of care was estimated as the incremental cost per PSC averted and QALD gained, respectively; net monetary benefit of CIB was also estimated. All analyses were run using the perspective of an Australian payer. RESULTS: On a per-patient basis, use of CIB was expected over a 1-year period to result in 0.16 fewer PSCs, an additional 0.35 QALDs, and a savings of A$180 (Australian dollars, US $137) in healthcare costs all versus standard of care. Management with CIB provided a net monetary benefit (calculated as

  7. Stem cell recovering effect of copper-free GHK in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye-Ryung; Kang, Youn-A; Ryoo, Sun-Jong; Shin, Jung-Won; Na, Jung-Im; Huh, Chang-Hun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2012-11-01

    The peptide Gly-His-Lys (GHK) is a naturally occurring copper(II)-chelating motifs in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In industry, GHK (with or without copper) is used to make hair and skin care products. Copper-GHK plays a physiological role in the process of wound healing and tissue repair by stimulating collagen synthesis in fibroblasts. We also reported that copper-GHK promotes the survival of basal stem cells in the skin. However, the effects of copper-free GHK (GHK) have not been investigated well. In this study, the effects of GHK were studied using cultured normal human keratinocytes and skin equivalent (SE) models. In monolayer cultured keratinocytes, GHK increased the proliferation of keratinocytes. When GHK was added during the culture of SE models, the basal cells became more cuboidal than control model. In addition, there was linear and intense staining of α6 and β1 integrin along the basement membrane. The number of p63 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive cells was also significantly increased in GHK-treated SEs than in control SEs. Western blot and slide culture experiment showed that GHK increased the expression of integrin by keratinocytes. All these results showed that GHK increased the stemness and proliferative potential of epidermal basal cells, which is associated with increased expression of integrin. In conclusion, copper-free GHK showed similar effects with copper-GHK. Thus, it can be said that copper-free GHK can be used in industry to obtain the effects of copper-GHK in vivo. Further study is necessary to explore the relationship between copper-free GHK and copper-GHK. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Crosera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue® and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm2 while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm2. Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10−4 M (MTT assay, 3.8 × 10−5 M (AlamarBlue® assay, and 7.6 × 10−4 M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death. Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure.

  9. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  10. Safety of long-term subcutaneous free flap skin banking after skin-sparing mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Verstappen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background A persistent problem in autologous breast reconstruction in skin-sparing mastectomies is skin restoration after skin necrosis or secondary oncological resection. As a solution to facilitate reconstruction, skin banking of free-flap skin has been proposed in cases where the overlying skin envelope must be resected, as this technique spares the patient an additional donor site. Herein, we present the largest series to date in which this method was used. We investigated its safety and the possibility of skin banking for prolonged periods of time. Methods All skin-sparing mastectomies and immediate autologous breast reconstructions from December 2009 until June 2013 at our institution were analysed. Results We identified 31 patients who underwent 33 free flap reconstructions in which skin banking was performed. Our median skin banking period was 7 days, with a maximum duration of 171 days. In 22.5% of cases, the banked skin was used to reconstruct overlying skin defects, and in 9.6% of cases to reconstruct the nipple-areolar complex. Microbiological and histological investigations of the banked skin revealed neither clinical infections nor malignancies. Conclusions In situ skin banking, even for prolonged periods of time, is a safe and cost-effective method to ensure that skin defects due to necrosis or secondary oncological resection can be easily reconstructed.

  11. The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compound K (CK is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng. There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient. Methods: To assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting. Melanin content, melanin secretion, and tyrosinase activity assays were performed. Results: CK treatment reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in UVB irradiated NIH3T3 cells and recovered type I collagen expression level. Expression of skin hydrating factors—filaggrin, transglutaminase, and hyaluronic acid synthases-1 and -2—were augmented by CK and were modulated through the inhibitor of κBα, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. In the melanogenic response, CK did not regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin secretion, but increased melanin content in B16F10 cells was observed. Conclusion: Our data showed that CK has antiaging and hydrating effects. We suggest that CK could be used in cosmetic products to protect the skin from UVB rays and increase skin moisture level. Keywords: compound K, melanogenesis, Panax ginseng, skin protection, UVB irradiation

  12. Protective effect of transparent film dressing on proton therapy induced skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, Jonathan T; Kirk, Maura; Cengel, Keith; McDonough, James; Bekelman, Justin; Christodouleas, John P

    2013-01-01

    Proton therapy can result in clinically significant radiation dermatitis. In some clinical scenarios, such as lung or breast cancer, the risk of severe radiation dermatitis may limit beam arrangement and prescription doses. Patients undergoing proton therapy for prostate cancer commonly develop mild radiation dermatitis. Herein, we report the outcomes of two prostate cancer patients whose radiation dermatitis appears to have been substantially diminished by transparent film dressings (Beekley stickers). This is a descriptive report of the skin toxicity observed in two patients undergoing proton therapy for prostate cancer at a single institution in 2011. A phantom dosimetric study was performed to evaluate the impact of a transparent film dressing on a beam’s spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). Two patients with low risk prostate cancer were treated with proton therapy to a total dose of 79.2Gy (RBE) in 1.8 Gy (RBE) fractions using two opposed lateral beams daily. Both patients had small circular (2.5 cm diameter) transparent adhesive markers placed on their skin to assist with daily alignment. Patient 1 had markers in place bilaterally for the entirety of treatment. Patient 2 had a marker in place for three weeks on one side and six weeks on the other. Over the course of therapy, both men developed typical Grade 1 radiation dermatitis (asymptomatic erythema) on their hips; however, in both patients, the erythema was substantially decreased beneath the markers. Patient 2 demonstrated less attenuation and thus greater erythema in the skin covered for three weeks compared to the skin covered for six weeks. The difference in skin changes between the covered and uncovered skin persisted for at least 1 month. A phantom study of double scattered beam SOBP with and without the marker in the beam path showed no gross dosimetric effect. Transparent adhesive markers appear to have attenuated radiation dermatitis in these two patients without affecting the SOBP. One patient may

  13. Effects of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Hydroxyacids on Sun-Exposed Skin: Current Applications and Future Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kornhauser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented.

  14. Effect of Tension and Curvature of Skin on Insertion Characteristics of Microneedle Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Takano, Naoki; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki; Miki, Norihisa; Ami, Yoshimichi

    Recent MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) fabrication techniques have made it possible to produce painless microneedles precisely enough to be inserted into epidermis layer penetrating the stratum corneum of human skin. This paper presents a testing procedure to evaluate the insertion characteristics of microneedle array using cultured human skin considering the tension and the curvature. First, the biaxial strain applied to the cultured human skin was measured by optical technique with image processing. It was found that almost constant strain could be successfully given within a certain area and that error factors in the experiment except the thickness variation of the cultured skin were negligible. Next, using a microneedle square array for brain machine interface (BMI) application, the effects of biaxial tension and the curvature on insertion characteristics were discussed. Within the above mentioned area with high strain, the needles were successfully inserted.

  15. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumoulin M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C, luminosity (L, brightness (B, and transparency (T involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement.Results: Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (P<0.0001. Luminosity was increased by 25.9% (P<0.0001 whereas brightness and transparency were not affected by the supplementation. Facial skin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: –18.0%; P<0.0001. Indeed, dark circles, redness, and spots significantly diminished after oral treatment. Firmness and elasticity have been shown to be improved. Subjects were globally satisfied by the product (82.4% and have found improvements on their facial skin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look

  16. General considerations of the choice of dose limits, averaging areas and weighting factors for the skin in the light of revised skin cancer risk figures and experimental data on non-stochastic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent biological data from man and pig on the non-stochastic effects following exposure with a range of β-emitters are combined with recent epidemiological analyses of skin cancer risks in man to form a basis for suggested improved protection criteria following whole- or partial-body skin exposures. Specific consideration is given to the choice of an organ weighting factor for evaluation of effective dose-equivalent. Since stochastic and non-stochastic end-points involve different cell types at different depths in the skin, the design of an ideal physical dosemeter may depend on the proportion of the body skin exposed and the radiation penetrating power. Possible choices of design parameters for skin dosemeters are discussed. Limitation of skin exposure from small radioactive sources ('hot particles') is addressed using animal data. (author)

  17. The morphological effect of electron irradiation on the healing of skin wounds and skin grafts in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.

    1995-01-01

    Current oncological practice frequently uses pre-, intra- or post-operative radiotherapy/chemotherapy. Before such treatment can begin it is imperative to establish that satisfactory wound healing will occur. Many previous studies have examined the response of wound healing to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In general, clinical and experimental reports indicate that ionizing radiation produces poor to difficult healing of wounds, and can even prevent healing altogether. It is for this reason that the effect of radiation on wound repair has been a long standing concern for surgeons, radiotherapists and radiobiologists. Electron irradiation produces large differences in depth-dose distributions. This enables the delivery of a constant maximal dose throughout the superficial layer of tissue, for example, the total depth of skin, with less damage in deeper tissue layers, compared to that produced by the use of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays. It is for this reason that electron beam irradiation has been selected as a radiation source for radiation of the graft bed. To date there have been few morphological examinations of the effect of electron radiation on the healing of skin wounds in rats. A review of the literature shows no information on the use of radiation of the graft bed in skin graft surgery. In the present work the processes involved in wound repair in response to radiation were studied, morphologically, using two experimental models, incisional wounds combined with pre-operative radiation and skin autografts combined with radiation of the wound bed. In the latter case an unirradiated skin graft was surgically attached to an irradiated wound bed. Light microscopy (LM), backscattered electron imaging (BEI), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used as investigative tools. These repair processes include inflammation, re-epithelialization, re-formation of the dermo-epidermal junction, re

  18. The morphological effect of electron irradiation on the healing of skin wounds and skin grafts in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q

    1995-07-01

    Current oncological practice frequently uses pre-, intra- or post-operative radiotherapy/chemotherapy. Before such treatment can begin it is imperative to establish that satisfactory wound healing will occur. Many previous studies have examined the response of wound healing to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In general, clinical and experimental reports indicate that ionizing radiation produces poor to difficult healing of wounds, and can even prevent healing altogether. It is for this reason that the effect of radiation on wound repair has been a long standing concern for surgeons, radiotherapists and radiobiologists. Electron irradiation produces large differences in depth-dose distributions. This enables the delivery of a constant maximal dose throughout the superficial layer of tissue, for example, the total depth of skin, with less damage in deeper tissue layers, compared to that produced by the use of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays. It is for this reason that electron beam irradiation has been selected as a radiation source for radiation of the graft bed. To date there have been few morphological examinations of the effect of electron radiation on the healing of skin wounds in rats. A review of the literature shows no information on the use of radiation of the graft bed in skin graft surgery. In the present work the processes involved in wound repair in response to radiation were studied, morphologically, using two experimental models, incisional wounds combined with pre-operative radiation and skin autografts combined with radiation of the wound bed. In the latter case an unirradiated skin graft was surgically attached to an irradiated wound bed. Light microscopy (LM), backscattered electron imaging (BEI), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used as investigative tools. These repair processes include inflammation, re-epithelialization, re-formation of the dermo-epidermal junction, re

  19. Studies on the protection effects of functional foods for skin immune system from radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Shin, Seong Hae; Kim, Do Sun; Heo, Ji Yun; Kang, Hye In

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of pilot products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) on the UV-induced skin immune damages as the following. · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic against UV using contact hypersensitivity model - Protection against depression of contact hypersensitivity by administration and skin application of HemoHIM and HemoTonic - Induction of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment - Improvement of antigen-presenting activity of dedritic cells by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic on skin immune system against UV-irradiation - Protection of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells under UV-irradiation - In vivo protection of antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells in UV-irradiated mice · Protective effects of HemoHIM on UV-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells - Inhibition of cell membrane change, mitochondrial potential change, SubG1 cell population, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation in UV-irradiated dendritic cells · Anti-allergic effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic in human adipocyte HMC-1 cells - Inhibition of allergic histamine release from adipocytes - Inhibition of secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, GM-CSF) - Inhibition of c-kit, tryptase, FcεRI mRNA expression From these results, the developed functional food products (HemoHIM, HemoTonic) showed the protection and recovery of the immune functions in the UV-irradiated skin. It is suggested that these products may be used as a new functional food or cosmetic material for the protection of skin damage and the promotion of recovery

  20. The effect of the moisture content of a local heat source on the blood flow response of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Bains, Gurinder; Raju, Chinna; Lohman, Everett; Berk, Lee; Prowse, Michelle; Gunda, Shashi; Madani, Piyush; Batt, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of local and global heating of the body on skin blood flow. However, the effect of the moisture content of the heat source on the skin blood flow response has not been examined. Thirty-three subjects, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease, between the ages of 22 and 32 were examined to determine the relationship between the effects of dry vs. moist heat applied for the same length of time and with the skin clamped at the same skin temperature on the blood flow response of the skin. The skin, heated with an infrared heat lamp (skin temperature monitored with a thermocouple) to 40 degrees C for 15 min, was either kept moist with wet towels or, in a separate experiment, kept dry with Drierite (a desiccant) between the towels to remove any moisture. Before and after heat exposure of the forearm, blood pressure, heart rate, skin moisture content, skin temperature, and skin blood flow were recorded. The results of the experiment showed that there was no change in skin moisture after 15 min exposure to dry heat at 40 degrees C. However, with moist heat, skin moisture increased by 43.7%, a significant increase (P heat, blood flow increased from the resting value by 282.3% whereas with moist heat, blood flow increased by 386% over rest, a significant increase over dry heat (P heat was a better heating modality than dry heat. The reason may be linked to moisture sensitivity in calcium channels in the vascular endothelial cell.

  1. Characterization of atopic skin and the effect of a hyperforin-rich cream by laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Martina C.; Richter, Heike; Kleemann, Anke; Lademann, Juergen; Tscherch, Kathrin; Rohn, Sascha; Schempp, Christoph M.

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease that affects both children and adults in an increasing manner. The treatment of AD often reduces subjective skin parameters, such as itching, dryness, and tension, but the inflammation cannot be cured. Laser scanning microscopy was used to investigate the skin surface, epidermal, and dermal characteristics of dry and atopic skin before and after treatment with an ointment rich in hyperforin, which is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. The results were compared to subjective parameters and transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum moisture, and stratum corneum lipids. Using biophysical methods, in particular laser scanning microscopy, it was found that atopic skin has distinct features compared to healthy skin. Treatment with a hyperforin-rich ointment resulted in an improvement of the stratum corneum moisture, skin surface dryness, skin lipids, and the subjective skin parameters, indicating that the barrier is stabilized and improved by the ointment. But in contrast to the improved skin surface, the inflammation in the deeper epidermis/dermis often continues to exist. This could be clearly shown by the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) measurements. Therefore, RCM measurements could be used to investigate the progress in treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  2. Thermal Effect of Pulsed Laser on Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    N. C. Majumdar; V. K. Kochhar

    1985-01-01

    An attempt has been made to derive from theoretical considerations, some idea about safety limits of exposure with regard to radiant energy skin burns. This may be regarded as a preliminary enquiry in respect of thermal tissue damage by pulsed laser radiation, since the effects of isolated single pulses from ruby laser only have been considered. The study needs to be extended to other wavelengths as well as to trains of pulses.

  3. The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Kim, Donghyun; Yoo, Sulgi; Hong, Yo Han; Han, Sang Yun; Jeong, Seonggu; Jeong, Deok; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Junseong

    2018-04-01

    Compound K (CK) is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng . There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient. To assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting. Melanin content, melanin secretion, and tyrosinase activity assays were performed. CK treatment reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in UVB irradiated NIH3T3 cells and recovered type I collagen expression level. Expression of skin hydrating factors-filaggrin, transglutaminase, and hyaluronic acid synthases-1 and -2-were augmented by CK and were modulated through the inhibitor of κBα, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. In the melanogenic response, CK did not regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin secretion, but increased melanin content in B16F10 cells was observed. Our data showed that CK has antiaging and hydrating effects. We suggest that CK could be used in cosmetic products to protect the skin from UVB rays and increase skin moisture level.

  4. Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgueiro, Maria J.; Medina, Vanina; Zubillaga, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the biological effects of the 32 P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32 P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32 P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in two main groups in order to perform the contact brachytherapy treatment using schemes of single (SD40 and SD60) and fractionated (FD40 and FD60) doses, with their respective control groups (CSD and CFD). Additionally, a control group without carcinogenic treatment was included in order to apply the 32 P-patch in normal skin. The endpoint to evaluate treatment effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days and finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis. Additionally, PCNA staining was evaluated in all groups and the biologically effective dose (BED) of each scheme was calculated taken into account the linear-quadratic model. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of groups in the single dose scheme resulted higher for control than for treated tumors, and the same pattern was observed for groups of the fractionated dose scheme. This radioactive 32 P-silicone-patch which, is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases and seems promissory as a radioactive device for clinical use. (author)

  5. Radiation protection guidelines for the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of radiation protection standards for the skin with particular reference to past recommendations of the ICRP concerning dose limits to the skin and the work of the ICRP Task Group appointed in 1987. Data are also presented on the effect of radiation on Langerhans cells in the skin, and the effect of interaction of ultraviolet radiation and x-rays and of protraction of radiation on skin cancer induction in mice. (UK)

  6. Effects of endothelium-derived nitric oxide on skin and digital blood flow in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, J D

    1994-12-01

    The effects of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) on total finger and forearm, and dorsal finger and forearm skin, blood flows were studied in the basal state and during reflex sympathetic vasoconstriction in normal subjects. Total flows were measured by venous occlusion plethysmography and skin flows by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). L-NMMA in doses of 2, 4, and 8 microM/min given by constant infusion via a brachial artery catheter significantly decreased finger blood flow, forearm blood flow, and vascular conductances. At 8 microM/min, total finger blood flow decreased 38.4% and forearm blood flow decreased 24.8%. Dorsal finger and forearm skin LDF were also significantly decreased (25 and 37% at 8 microM/min). Body cooling significantly decreased finger blood flow (73.6%), vascular conductance, and finger LDF (59.7%). L-NMMA had no effect on total finger blood flow or dorsal finger LDF during body cooling. Nitric oxide or related compounds contribute to the basal dilator tone of the dorsal finger and forearm skin but not during reflex sympathetic vasoconstriction.

  7. Treatment of Mesh Skin Grafted Scars Using a Plasma Skin Regeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Higashimori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Several modalities have been advocated to treat traumatic scars, including surgical techniques and laser resurfacing. Recently, a plasma skin regeneration (PSR system has been investigated. There are no reports on plasma treatment of mesh skin grafted scars. The objective of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of plasma treatment of mesh skin grafted scars in Asian patients. Materials and Methods. Four Asian patients with mesh skin grafted scars were enrolled in the study. The plasma treatments were performed at monthly intervals with PSR, using energy settings of 3 to 4 J. Improvement was determined by patient questionnaires and physician evaluation of digital photographs taken prior to treatment and at 3 months post treatment. The patients were also evaluated for any side effects from the treatment. Results. All patients showed more than 50% improvement. The average pain score on a 10-point scale was 6.9 +/− 1.2 SD and all patients tolerated the treatments. Temporary, localized hypopigmentation was observed in two patients. Hyperpigmentation and worsening of scarring were not observed. Conclusions. Plasma treatment is clinically effective and is associated with minimal complications when used to treat mesh skin grafted scars in Asian patients.

  8. Modelling the effect of mixture components on permeation through skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafourian, T; Samaras, E G; Brooks, J D; Riviere, J E

    2010-10-15

    A vehicle influences the concentration of penetrant within the membrane, affecting its diffusivity in the skin and rate of transport. Despite the huge amount of effort made for the understanding and modelling of the skin absorption of chemicals, a reliable estimation of the skin penetration potential from formulations remains a challenging objective. In this investigation, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was employed to relate the skin permeation of compounds to the chemical properties of the mixture ingredients and the molecular structures of the penetrants. The skin permeability dataset consisted of permeability coefficients of 12 different penetrants each blended in 24 different solvent mixtures measured from finite-dose diffusion cell studies using porcine skin. Stepwise regression analysis resulted in a QSAR employing two penetrant descriptors and one solvent property. The penetrant descriptors were octanol/water partition coefficient, logP and the ninth order path molecular connectivity index, and the solvent property was the difference between boiling and melting points. The negative relationship between skin permeability coefficient and logP was attributed to the fact that most of the drugs in this particular dataset are extremely lipophilic in comparison with the compounds in the common skin permeability datasets used in QSAR. The findings show that compounds formulated in vehicles with small boiling and melting point gaps will be expected to have higher permeation through skin. The QSAR was validated internally, using a leave-many-out procedure, giving a mean absolute error of 0.396. The chemical space of the dataset was compared with that of the known skin permeability datasets and gaps were identified for future skin permeability measurements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Multi-Wavelength Opto-Electronic Patch Sensor to Effectively Detect Physiological Changes against Human Skin Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liangwen; Hu, Sijung; Alzahrani, Abdullah; Alharbi, Samah; Blanos, Panagiotis

    2017-06-21

    Different skin pigments among various ethnic group people have an impact on spectrometric illumination on skin surface. To effectively capture photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals, a multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS) together with a schematic architecture of electronics were developed to overcome the drawback of present PPG sensor. To perform a better in vivo physiological measurement against skin pigments, optimal illuminations in OEPS, whose wavelength is compatible with a specific skin type, were optimized to capture a reliable physiological sign of heart rate (HR). A protocol was designed to investigate an impact of five skin types in compliance with Von Luschan's chromatic scale. Thirty-three healthy male subjects between the ages of 18 and 41 were involved in the protocol implemented by means of the OEPS system. The results show that there is no significant difference ( p: 0.09, F = 3.0) in five group tests with the skin types across various activities throughout a series of consistent measurements. The outcome of the present study demonstrates that the OEPS, with its multi-wavelength illumination characteristics, could open a path in multiple applications of different ethnic groups with cost-effective health monitoring.

  10. A Multi-Wavelength Opto-Electronic Patch Sensor to Effectively Detect Physiological Changes against Human Skin Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangwen Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different skin pigments among various ethnic group people have an impact on spectrometric illumination on skin surface. To effectively capture photoplethysmographic (PPG signals, a multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS together with a schematic architecture of electronics were developed to overcome the drawback of present PPG sensor. To perform a better in vivo physiological measurement against skin pigments, optimal illuminations in OEPS, whose wavelength is compatible with a specific skin type, were optimized to capture a reliable physiological sign of heart rate (HR. A protocol was designed to investigate an impact of five skin types in compliance with Von Luschan’s chromatic scale. Thirty-three healthy male subjects between the ages of 18 and 41 were involved in the protocol implemented by means of the OEPS system. The results show that there is no significant difference (p: 0.09, F = 3.0 in five group tests with the skin types across various activities throughout a series of consistent measurements. The outcome of the present study demonstrates that the OEPS, with its multi-wavelength illumination characteristics, could open a path in multiple applications of different ethnic groups with cost-effective health monitoring.

  11. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  12. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complete chart of side effects. Side effects of Skin Cancer Treatment OrganSystem General Body • cTo ( i D rme ... scrilineesnr/ desbuaoocrnfettedhh) e( ersatkrrieena) tment HELPFUL WEBSITES ON SKIN CANCER TARG E T I NG C A NC ...

  13. Non-ablative fractionated laser skin resurfacing for the treatment of aged neck skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencini, Pier Luca; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Galimberti, Michela; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Aging of the neck skin includes poikiloderma of Civatte, skin laxity and wrinkles. While the vascular alterations of poikiloderma of Civatte can be effectively treated with lasers or intense pulsed light, a successful treatment of dyschromia, skin laxity and wrinkles is still difficult to achieve. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of non-ablative fractional 1540 erbium glass laser for the treatment of aged neck skin, also by means of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). A prospective study for neck resurfacing in 18 women with aged neck skin. Six laser treatments were performed in 4-week intervals with a 1540-nm erbium-glass fiber laser. By using a 6-point grading scale, the mean score (±SD; range) at baseline was 3.6 (±1.5; 1-6) for skin dyschromia, 2.9 (±1.4; 1-6) for laxity and 3.3 (±1.3; 1-5) for wrinkles. Three months after the last laser session, we found a significant clinical improvement of dyschromia (p = 0.0002; Wilcoxon test), and wrinkles (p = 0.0004; Wilcoxon test), with a mean (±SD) reduction of 2.5 (±1.0) and 1.9 (±1.1) points in the 6-point grading scale, respectively. No change was observed in laxity. These results were also supported by structural changes documented by RCM. Non-ablative fractional 1540 erbium glass laser was both safe and effective for the treatment of dyschromia and wrinkles, but not effective for the laxity of the neck skin.

  14. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J. William O.; Le Couteur, David G.; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K. M.; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance. PMID:27832138

  15. Experimental study on tissue phantoms to understand the effect of injury and suturing on human skin mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Arnab; Unnikrishnan, Vinu; Flynn, Zachary; Lackey, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Skin injuries are the most common type of injuries occurring in day-to-day life. A skin injury usually manifests itself in the form of a wound or a cut. While a shallow wound may heal by itself within a short time, deep wounds require surgical interventions such as suturing for timely healing. To date, suturing practices are based on a surgeon's experience and may vary widely from one situation to another. Understanding the mechanics of wound closure and suturing of the skin is crucial to improve clinical suturing practices and also to plan automated robotic surgeries. In the literature, phenomenological two-dimensional computational skin models have been developed to study the mechanics of wound closure. Additionally, the effect of skin pre-stress (due to the natural tension of the skin) on wound closure mechanics has been studied. However, in most of these analyses, idealistic two-dimensional skin geometries, materials and loads have been assumed, which are far from reality, and would clearly generate inaccurate quantitative results. In this work, for the first time, a biofidelic human skin tissue phantom was developed using a two-part silicone material. A wound was created on the phantom material and sutures were placed to close the wound. Uniaxial mechanical tests were carried out on the phantom specimens to study the effect of varying wound size, quantity, suture and pre-stress on the mechanical behavior of human skin. Also, the average mechanical behavior of the human skin surrogate was characterized using hyperelastic material models, in the presence of a wound and sutures. To date, such a robust experimental study on the effect of injury and sutures on human skin mechanics has not been attempted. The results of this novel investigation will provide important guidelines for surgical planning and validation of results from computational models in the future.

  16. A novel method for real-time skin impedance measurement during radiofrequency skin tightening treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Yoram; Lischinsky, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    The thermal effects of monopolar and bipolar radiofrequency (RF) have been proven to be beneficial in skin tightening. Nevertheless, these effects were frequently partial or unpredictable because of the uncontrolled nature of monopolar or unipolar RF and the superficial nature of energy flow for bipolar or tripolar configurations. One of the hypotheses for lack or predictability of efficacy of the first-generation RF therapy skin tightening systems is lack of adaptation of delivered power to differences in individual skin impedance. A novel multisource phase-controlled system was used (1 MHz, power range 0-65 W) for treatment and real-time skin impedance measurements in 24 patients (EndyMed PRO™; EndyMed, Cesarea, Israel). This system allows continuous real-time measurement of skin impedance delivering constant energy to the patient skin independent of changes in its impedance. More than 6000 unique skin impedance measurements on 22 patients showed an average session impedance range was 215-584 Ohm with an average of 369 Ohm (standard deviation of 49 Ohm). Analyzing individual pulses (total of 600 readings) showed a significant decrease in impedance during the pulse. These findings validate the expected differences in skin impedance between individual patients and in the same patients during the treatment pulse. Clinical study on 30 patients with facial skin aging using the device has shown high predictability of efficacy (86.7% of patients had good results or better at 3 months' follow-up [decrease of 2 or more grades in Fitzpatrick's wrinkle scale]). The real-time customization of energy according to skin impedance allows a significantly more accurate and safe method of nonablative skin tightening with more consistent and predictable results. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnuaikit T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanaporn Amnuaikit, Toon Chusuit, Panithi Raknam, Prapaporn BoonmeDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandBackground: Cellulose masks obtained from natural sources such as bacteria are of interest as cosmetic devices for the treatment of dry skin because they not only improve hydration of the skin, but have low toxicity and are biodegradable. The aims of this study were to determine the in vivo effects of a cellulose mask obtained from Acetobacter xylinum on skin characteristics and to evaluate user satisfaction with the product.Methods: Thirty healthy Thai volunteers aged 21–40 years participated in the study. The volunteers were randomly separated into a control group and an experimental group. For the control group, volunteers were assigned to apply moist towels to the face for 25 minutes. For the experimental group, the volunteers were assigned to apply the masks, ie, translucent patches which could be fitted onto the face for the same period. The following week, the groups were changed over to the alternative treatment. Skin moisture, sebum, elasticity, texture, dullness, and desquamation levels were assessed using a system used for routine skin counseling before applying the trial product and five minutes after its removal. Degree of satisfaction with use of the cellulose mask was investigated using a five-point rating scale.Results: The cellulose mask increased moisture levels in the skin significantly more than moist towels (P < 0.05 after a single application. No obvious effects on other skin characteristics were found. The cellulose mask product rated around 4/5 on the satisfaction rating scale.Conclusions: A single application of the trial cellulose mask enhanced moisture uptake by facial skin. Users also reported being satisfied with the trial product.Keywords: bacterial cellulose, facial mask, skin characteristics, skin hydration, user

  18. TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective UV-B radiation skin-protective compound in sunscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A P; Priezzhev, A V; Lademann, J; Myllylae, R

    2005-01-01

    Protecting human skin against harmful UV-B radiation coming from the sun is currently a problem. Due to the decreased thickness of the ozone layer, a more dangerous amount of UV-B light reaches the surface of our planet. This causes increased frequency of skin diseases. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) fine particles are embedded with sunscreens into the skin to effectively attenuate UV-B radiation. This study evaluates the most appropriate size of such particles assuming they are spheres. The distribution of TiO 2 particles within the skin, achieved with topically applied sunscreens, is determined experimentally by the tape-stripping technique. Computer code implementing the Monte Carlo method is used to simulate photon migration within the plain 20 μm thick horny layer matrix partially filled with nano-sized TiO 2 particles. Dependences of harmful UV-B radiation of 307-311 nm absorbed by, backscattered from and transmitted through the horny layer on the concentration of TiO 2 particles are obtained and analysed. As a result, particles of 62 nm are found to be the most effective in protecting skin against UV-B light

  19. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Murine Gene Expression in Skin and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Alwood, Joshua; Tahimic, Candice; Sowa, Marianne B.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2017-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight causes a negative calcium balance and reduces bone density in astronauts. The potential for exposure to space radiation to contribute to lasting decrements in bone mass is not yet understood. Sustained changes to bone mass have a relatively long latency for development, however skin is a radiation sensitive organ and changes in skin gene expression may serve as an early radiation biomarker of exposures and may correlate with adverse effects on skeletal tissue. Previous studies have shown that FGF18 gene expression levels of hair follicles collected from astronauts on the ISS rose over time. In the hair follicle, FGF18 signaling mediates radioresistance in the telogen by arresting the cell cycle, and FGF18 has the potential to function as a radioprotector. In bone, FGF18 appears to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation positively during osteogenesis and negatively during chondrogenesis. Cellular defense responses to radiation are shared by a variety of organs, hence in this study, we examined whether radiation induced gene expression changes in skin may be predictive of the responses of skeletal tissue to radiation exposure. We have examined oxidative stress and growth arrest pathways in mouse skin and long bones by measuring gene expression levels via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after exposure to total body irradiation (TBI). To investigate the effects of irradiation on gene expression, we used skin and femora (cortical shaft) from the following treatment groups: control (normally loaded, sham-irradiated), and TBI (0.5 Gy Fe-56 600 MeV/n and 0.5 Gy H-1 150 MeV/n). Animals were euthanized one and 11 days post-IR. Statistical analysis was performed via a Student's ttest. In skin samples one day after IR, skin expression of FGF18 was significantly greater (3.8X) than sham-irradiated controls (3.8X), but did not differ 11 days post TBI. Expression levels of other radiation related genes (Nfe2l2, Trp53, Cdkn1a, FoxO3

  20. Influence of Clothing Fabrics on Skin Microcirculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ling; PAN Ning; ZHAO Lian-ying; HUAUNG Gu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of clothing fabric on human skin microcirculation. Once skin is covered with a clothing fabric, human sensations, namely, coolness, warmth, softness, and roughness, are amused immediately, and the cutaneous micrecireulation may be changed consequently. Since the complex relationships of the human skin, the environment, and the clothing, there is few publication focusing on the physiological responses of the skin to the fabrics. In this paper, a Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) was used to test the dynamic responses of the skin blood flow when the fabric was placed on the skin. Effects of different fabrics on the skin blood flux were investigated. The results show that cold stimulation of fabric has remarkable influences on the skin blood flux, and the surface properties of fabric are of importance to affect the human skin blood flow.

  1. The role of natural and UV-induced skin pigmentation on low-fluence IPL-induced side effects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Lin, Jennifer Y; Nash, Jf; Beerwerth, Frank; Wulf, Hans C; Philipsen, Peter A; Haedersdal, Merete

    2014-02-01

    The risk of adverse skin effects following light-based hair removal is greater in pigmented skin based on the theory of selective photothermolysis. Thus sunlight-induced pigment i.e., facultative pigmentation, increases the risk of adverse skin effects, perhaps disproportionately. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation on low-fluence intense pulsed light (IPL)-induced adverse skin effects. Twenty-one subjects with Fitzpatrick skin type II-IV were enrolled. Two buttock blocks were randomized to receive 0 or 8 solar simulated ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of consecutively increasing Standard Erythema Doses (2-4 SED). Each block was subdivided into four sites, randomized to receive IPL of 0, 7, 8, or 10 J/cm(2) , once a week for 3 weeks. Biopsies were taken 16-24 hours after the first IPL exposure and subjects were seen 1 and 4 weeks after the last IPL exposure. Outcome measures were: (i) skin reactions, (ii) pain, (iii) mRNA expression of pigment-markers microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and (iv) clinical appearance of biopsy wounds. Skin pigmentation increased after UVR (baseline median 13.8%, after UVR 28.1%, P = 0.0001) in all skin types. Subjects reported low pain intensities (median 1.5, scale 0-10) and experienced transient erythema immediately after IPL exposure. No persistent erythema, blisters, crusting, textual, or pigment changes were observed. The risk of erythema and pain intensities increased with IPL dose and skin pigmentation (P skin reactions in skin with similar degree of natural and facultative pigmentation (P ≥ 0.104). Expression of cellular pigment-markers was not influenced by IPL exposure, neither in constitutive nor in facultative pigmented skin. Clinical appearance of biopsy wounds was unaffected by IPL exposure. The prevalence and intensity of low-fluence IPL-induced adverse skin effects depended on IPL

  2. In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiushuo; Parrott, Edward P J; He, Yuezhi; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2018-02-01

    In vivo terahertz (THz) imaging of human skin needs to be done in reflection geometry due to the high attenuation of THz light by water in the skin. To aid the measurement procedure, there is typically an imaging window onto which the patient places the area of interest. The window enables better pulse alignment and helps keep the patient correctly positioned during the measurement. In this paper, we demonstrate how the occlusion caused by the skin contact with the imaging window during the measurement affects the THz response. By studying both rapid point measurements and imaging over an area of a human volar forearm, we find that even 5 seconds of occlusion affects the THz response. As the occlusion time increases, the skin surface water content increases, resulting in the reduction of the amplitude of the reflected THz pulse, especially in the first 3 minutes. Furthermore, it was found that the refractive index of the volar forearm increased by 10% to 15% after 20 minutes of occlusion. In this work, we examine and propose a model for the occlusion effects due to the quartz window with a view to compensating for its influence. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effect of Mechanical Stretching of the Skin on Collagen Fibril ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stabilization of collagen fibres during development and through growth to maturation has now become fairly documented. In vitro effect of mechanical stretching of ratsf skin on oxidative deamination of ε-NH2-groups of lysine and hydroxylysine, and functional properties of its type . collagen were studied. Experiments were ...

  4. Effects of permafrost microorganisms on skin wound reparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenova, L F; Novikova, M A; Subbotin, A M

    2015-02-01

    Local application of ointment with Bacillus spp. strain MG8 (15,000-20,000 living bacterial cells), isolated from permafrost specimens, on the skin wound of about 60 mm(2) stimulated the reparation processes in experimental mice. A possible mechanism stimulating the regeneration of the damaged tissues under the effect of MG8 could be modulation of the immune system reactivity with more rapid switchover to humoral immunity anti-inflammatory mechanisms aimed at de novo synthesis of protein.

  5. Effect of atopic skin stressors on natural moisturizing factors and cytokines in healthy adult epidermis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, K A; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2018-01-01

    : To explore the effect of selected exogenous skin stressors on NMF and skin cytokines levels in healthy adult epidermis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 healthy volunteers (18-49 years) were exposed to hard, soft, and chlorinated water, 0.5% SLS, house dust mite, cat allergen, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB...... of various skin cytokines in healthy individuals. Our data highlight environmental factors that might play a role in AD pathophysiology, but needs confirmation in AD patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  6. Response-surface models for deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {beta}/{gamma} -emitting sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Individuals who work at nuclear reactor facilities can be at risk for deterministic effects in the skin from exposure to discrete {Beta}- and {gamma}-emitting ({Beta}{gamma}E) sources (e.g., {Beta}{gamma}E hot particles) on the skin or clothing. Deterministic effects are non-cancer effects that have a threshold and increase in severity as dose increases (e.g., ulcer in skin). Hot {Beta}{gamma}E particles are {sup 60}Co- or nuclear fuel-derived particles with diameters > 10 {mu}m and < 3 mm and contain at least 3.7 kBq (0.1 {mu}Ci) of radioactivity. For such {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin, it is the beta component of the dose that is most important. To develop exposure limitation systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for evaluating the risk of deterministic effects of localized {Beta} irradiation of the skin. The purpose of this study was to develop dose-rate and irradiated-area dependent, response-surface models for evaluating risks of significant deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources and to use modeling results to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure to such sources. The significance of the research results as follows: (1) response-surface models are now available for evaluating the risk of specific deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin; (2) modeling results have been used to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure of workers to {Beta} radiation from {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin or on clothing; and (3) the generic irradiated-volume, weighting-factor approach to limiting exposure can be applied to other organs including the eye, the ear, and organs of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and can be used for both deterministic and stochastic effects.

  7. Response-surface models for deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete β/γ -emitting sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Individuals who work at nuclear reactor facilities can be at risk for deterministic effects in the skin from exposure to discrete Β- and γ-emitting (ΒγE) sources (e.g., ΒγE hot particles) on the skin or clothing. Deterministic effects are non-cancer effects that have a threshold and increase in severity as dose increases (e.g., ulcer in skin). Hot ΒγE particles are 60 Co- or nuclear fuel-derived particles with diameters > 10 μm and < 3 mm and contain at least 3.7 kBq (0.1 μCi) of radioactivity. For such ΒγE sources on the skin, it is the beta component of the dose that is most important. To develop exposure limitation systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete ΒγE sources, models are needed for systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete ΒγE sources, models are needed for evaluating the risk of deterministic effects of localized Β irradiation of the skin. The purpose of this study was to develop dose-rate and irradiated-area dependent, response-surface models for evaluating risks of significant deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete ΒγE sources and to use modeling results to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure to such sources. The significance of the research results as follows: (1) response-surface models are now available for evaluating the risk of specific deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin; (2) modeling results have been used to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure of workers to Β radiation from ΒγE sources on the skin or on clothing; and (3) the generic irradiated-volume, weighting-factor approach to limiting exposure can be applied to other organs including the eye, the ear, and organs of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and can be used for both deterministic and stochastic effects

  8. Studies on the protection effects of functional foods for skin immune system from radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Shin, Seong Hae; Kim, Do Sun; Heo, Ji Yun; Kang, Hye In [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    We evaluated the protective effects of pilot products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) on the UV-induced skin immune damages as the following. centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic against UV using contact hypersensitivity model - Protection against depression of contact hypersensitivity by administration and skin application of HemoHIM and HemoTonic - Induction of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment - Improvement of antigen-presenting activity of dedritic cells by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic on skin immune system against UV-irradiation - Protection of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells under UV-irradiation - In vivo protection of antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells in UV-irradiated mice centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM on UV-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells - Inhibition of cell membrane change, mitochondrial potential change, SubG1 cell population, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation in UV-irradiated dendritic cells centre dot Anti-allergic effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic in human adipocyte HMC-1 cells - Inhibition of allergic histamine release from adipocytes - Inhibition of secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF) - Inhibition of c-kit, tryptase, FcepsilonRI mRNA expression From these results, the developed functional food products (HemoHIM, HemoTonic) showed the protection and recovery of the immune functions in the UV-irradiated skin. It is suggested that these products may be used as a new functional food or cosmetic material for the protection of skin damage and the promotion of recovery

  9. Effect of controlled laser microporation on drug transport kinetics into and across the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhav, Y G; Summer, S; Heinrich, A; Bragagna, T; Böhler, C; Kalia, Y N

    2010-08-17

    The objectives of this study were to investigate a novel laser microporation technology ( P.L.E.A.S.E. Painless Laser Epidermal System) and to determine the effect of pore number and depth on the rate and extent of drug delivery across the skin. In addition, the micropores were visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy and histological studies were used to determine the effect of laser fluence (energy applied per unit area) on pore depth. Porcine ear skin was used as the membrane for both the pore characterization and drug transport studies. Confocal images in the XY-plane revealed that the pores were typically 150-200 microm in diameter. Histological sections confirmed that fluence could be used to effectively control pore depth - low energy application (4.53 and 13.59 J/cm(2)) resulted in selective removal of the stratum corneum (20-30 microm), intermediate energies (e.g., 22.65 J/cm(2)) produced pores that penetrated the viable epidermis (60-100 microm) and higher application energies created pores that reached the dermis (>150-200 microm). The effects of pore number and pore depth on molecular transport were quantified by comparing lidocaine delivery kinetics across intact and porated skin samples. After 24h, cumulative skin permeation of lidocaine with 0 (control), 150, 300, 450 and 900 pores was 107+/-46, 774+/-110, 1400+/-344, 1653+/-437 and 1811+/-642 microg/cm(2), respectively; there was no statistically significant difference between 300, 450 and 900 pore data - probably due to the effect of drug depletion since >50% of the applied dose was delivered. Importantly, increasing fluence did not produce a statistically significant increase in lidocaine permeation; after 24h, cumulative lidocaine permeation was 1180+/-448, 1350+/-445, 1240+/-483 and 1653+/-436 microg/cm(2) at fluences of 22.65, 45.3, 90.6 and 135.9 J/cm(2), respectively. Thus, shallow pores were equally effective in delivering lidocaine. Increasing lidocaine concentration in the

  10. Green tea moisturizer improves skin hydration in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Oentarini Tjandra; Linda J Wijayadi; Marcella E Rumawas

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dry skin is a major skin health problem in elderly. Green tea, which has an antioxidant effect, has recently been used as an active ingredient in moisturizing creams; yet the effect has not been well studied. This study compares the skin hydration effect of green tea and vitamin E moisturizer among elderly. METHODS This quasi-experimental study involved 60 elderly living in Tresna Werda Budi Mulia 4 Social Institution, Jakarta. Using the Runve HL 611 skin analyzer, skin c...

  11. Sparing effect of x-ray fractionation in mammary tumours and skin reactions of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.; Denekamp, J.; Sheldon, P.W.; Smith, A.M.; Begg, A.C.; Harris, S.R.; Page, A.L.

    1975-01-01

    The increase in total dose with number of fractions of x-rays between 2 and 15 was found to be similar for local control of tumours (TCD 50 ) and for skin reactions. This result could be explained if the gain from reoxygenation of hypoxic tumour cells was the same for two fractions as for larger numbers, and the dose-sparing effect of repair and repopulation was similar for the tumour and for skin. In addition, a split-dose experiment was carried out with the tumours clamped off to make them acutely hypoxic during irradiation. The resulting value of (D 2 -D 1 )sub(24h) was not significantly smaller than the value previously found for skin reactions. 1290 rad was found in anoxic conditions, corresponding to a dose increment for repair in oxygenated conditions of 430 to 520 rad, assuming an oxygen enhancement ratio of 3 to 2.5. Reduced values have been found from regrowth experiments on two other types of tumour in mice. These results are consistent with no significant difference in the sparing effect of x-ray fractionation on skin or C 3 H mammary tumours in mice for up to 15 equal fractions given in 18 days; but reduced repair plus more proliferation in tumours than in skin cannot be excluded. (author)

  12. Skin barrier response to occlusion of healthy and irritated skin: differences in trans-epidermal water loss, erythema and stratum corneum lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Occlusion of the skin is a risk factor for development of irritant contact dermatitis. Occlusion may, however, have a positive effect on skin healing. No consensus on the effect of occlusion has been reached.......Occlusion of the skin is a risk factor for development of irritant contact dermatitis. Occlusion may, however, have a positive effect on skin healing. No consensus on the effect of occlusion has been reached....

  13. The effect of skin temperature on performance during a 7.5-km cycling time trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, K.; de Koning, J.J.; Foster Jr., C.C.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise performance is seriously compromised in the heat. Possibly, a high skin temperature causes a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-mediated decrease in exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of skin temperature on power output during a 7.5-km cycling

  14. Modelling the effect of hydration on skin conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L; Chappell, P; Melvin, T

    2017-08-01

    Electrical signals are recorded from and sent into the body via the skin in a number of applications. In practice, skin is often hydrated with liquids having different conductivities so a model was produced in order to determine the relationship between skin impedance and conductivity. A model representing the skin was subjected to a variety of electrical signals. The parts of the model representing the stratum corneum were given different conductivities to represent different levels of hydration. The overall impedance and conductivity of the cells did not vary at frequencies below 40 kHz. Above 40 kHz, levels of increased conductivity caused the overall impedance to decrease. The variation in impedance with conductivity between 5 and 50 mSm -1 can be modelled quadratically while variation in impedance with conductivity between 5 and 5000 mSm -1 can be modelled with a double exponential decay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Antioxidant effects of an ozonized theobroma oil formulation on damaged-inflammatory rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Y.; Diaz, M.F.; Hernandez, F.; Gila, D.; Ga, G.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a cosmetic formulation elaborated with ozonized theobroma oil may exert beneficial effects in the restoring of the antioxidant activity on the skin of rats previously irradiated with ultraviolet light. 0.5 g of the formulation was applied on the skin of rats for five days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined in a homogenate of rat skin. Malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD) and total hydroperoxide (THP) content were determined as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Using these parameters, antioxidant and oxidant activity, redox index and oxidative stress grade were determined. The total antioxidant activity was significantly increased while the redox index, total oxidant activity and oxidative stress grade decreased significantly in damaged rats treated with the formulation. These results show the antioxidant properties of the cosmetic formulation due to the stimulation of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPx, preventing skin injury induced by ultraviolet irradiation. (Author).

  16. Nutritional skin care : health effects of micronutrients and fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2001-01-01

    Human skin is continuously exposed to internal and external influences that may alter its condition and functioning. As a consequence, the skin may undergo alterations leading to photoaging, inflammation, immune dysfunction, imbalanced epidermal homeostasis, or other skin disorders. Modern

  17. Biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Xu; T.J.Lu; K.A.Seffen

    2008-01-01

    Advances in laser,microwave and similar tech nologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments involving skin tissue.The effectiveness of these treatments is governed by the coupled thermal,mechanical,biological and neural responses of the affected tissue:a favorable interaction results in a procedure with relatively little pain and no lasting side effects.Currently,even though each behavioral facet is to a certain extent established and understood,none exists to date in the interdisciplinarv area.A highly interdisciplinary approach is required for studying the biothermomechanical behavior of skin,involving bioheat transfer.biomechanics and physiology.A comprehensive literature review penrtinent to the subject is presented in this paper,covering four subject areas:(a)skin structure,(b)skin bioheat transfer and thermal damage,(c)skin biomechanics,and(d)skin biothermomechanics.The major problems,issues,and topics for further studies are also outlined.This review finds that significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in recent years.Although focus is placed upon the biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue,the fundamental concepts and methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for studying other soft tissues.

  18. Effect of saline iontophoresis on skin barrier function and cutaneous irritation in four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Gross, M; Sage, B; Davis, H T; Maibach, H I

    2000-08-01

    The effect of saline iontophoresis on skin barrier function and irritation was investigated in four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Hispanics, Blacks and Asians). Forty healthy human volunteers were recruited according to specific entry criteria. Ten subjects, five males and five females, were assigned to each ethnic group. Skin barrier function was examined after 4 hours of saline iontophoresis at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm(2) on a 6.5 cm(2) area in terms of the measured responses: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, skin temperature and visual scores. There were significant differences in TEWL among the ethnic groups prior to patch application. TEWL at baseline in ethnic groups was in the rank order: Caucasian>Asian>Hispanic>Black. Iontophoresis was generally well tolerated, and skin barrier function was not irreversibly affected by iontophoresis in any group. There was no significant skin temperature change, compared to baseline, in any ethnic groups at any observation point. Edema was not observed. At patch removal, the erythema score was elevated in comparison to baseline in all ethnic groups; erythema resolved within 24 hours. Thus, saline iontophoresis produced reversible changes in skin barrier function and irritation in healthy human subjects.

  19. The co-application effects of fullerene and ascorbic acid on UV-B irradiated mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shinobu; Itoga, Kazuyoshi; Yamato, Masayuki; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Okano, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    The role of fullerene as a pro-oxidant or anti-oxidant in Ultraviolet B ray (UV-B)-induced disorders in mouse skin was investigated. Fullerene gave no photo-toxic effect to UV-B-irradiated mouse skin. Since erythema was concentrated at the pore circumference in a UV-B irradiation experiment in mouse skin, the sebaceous gland pairs was strongly implicated as a site for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In a histological evaluation of the skin stained with CH 3 MDFDA (ROS index) and YO-Pro-1 (apoptosis index), the fluorescence intensity of a sebaceous gland significantly increased with UV-B irradiation. With the application of fullerene to UV-irradiated mouse skin, no toxicity was recognized in comparison with the control, and erythema, the ROS index, and the apoptosis index decrease with the application of fullerene. Ascorbyl radical (AA·) increased with the application of ascorbate (AA) to UV-B-irradiated mouse skin, and AA· decreased with the application of fullerene. The co-application of AA and fullerene, which suppressed AA· in vitro, significantly suppressed erythema, and also suppressed both the ROS index and apoptosis index in mouse skin after UV-B irradiation. In both mouse skin at 48 h after UV-B irradiation and in an attempt to reproduce this phenomenon artificially in vitro, a similar high AA· peak (AA·/H· > 4) was observed in electron spin resonance (ESR) charts. The binding of fullerene with AA impairs the Fenton reaction between AA and Fe-protein based on the observation of ascorbate-specific UV absorption and a linear equation for the calibration curve. Therefore, fullerene may impair the intercalation of AA to a heme pocket by binding with AA. These results suggest that the co-application of AA and fullerene is effective against oxidative skin damage caused by UV-B irradiation, and the development of an AA· inhibitor such as fullerene should be useful for reducing organ damage associated with Fe-protein oxidation.

  20. The Effect in Topical Use of Lycogen(TM) via Sonophoresis for Anti-aging on Facial Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin-Ti, Lai; Wen-Sheng, Liu; Yi-Chia, Wu; Ya-Wei, Lai; Wen, Zhi-Hong; David, Wang Hui-Min; Su-Shin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Anti-aging skin care is a growing popular topic in cosmetic and aesthetic fields, and skin care rather then makeup tips draw more attention nowadays. The phenomenon of skin aging includes thinning of skin losses of elasticity and moisture, pigmented spot formation, and wrinkle development. Along with growth in age, the decreased rates of epithelium renewal and cellular recovery as well as the reduced contents of elastin, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans all contribute to creases or folds of skin. Available strategies for wrinkle treatments include topical use of skin care products with anti-aging contents, dermabrasion, laser, Botox injection, fillers injection, and facelift. Though all of these above options can provide different degrees of improvement in facial wrinkles, the cost-effect, pain of intervention therapy, and necessity of repetitive treatment may impact on choices made. Topical use of anti-aging skin products is the most convenient and cheap way to achieve skin anti-aging effect. Lycogen(TM) is an antioxidant, which can prevent the downregulation of pro-collagen I, intracellular accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and achieve the aim of skin rejuvenation. Twenty-six female patients were included in our study with ages between 30 and 45. They were randomly assigned to two groups: the vehicle control group and the experimental group. Patients in the control group applied a skin care product without Lycogen(TM)to the face via sonophoresis after facial cleanser use in the morning and at night. The experimental group applied a Lycogen(TM) -containing skin care product via sonophoresis in the same time schedule. We evaluated results, including pigmented spots, wrinkles, texture, pores, and red area by VISIA on weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 respectively. In the aspect of pigmented spots, the experimental group showed significant difference in comparison with the vehicle control group on weeks 2, 6, 8, and 10. For wrinkles, the experimental group had

  1. Combined effects of treatment with vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium on the skin of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokmen, B B; Basaraner, H; Yanardag, R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium (Se) on the skin tissue of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups: control, control + antioxidants, diabetic, diabetic + antioxidants groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin. Vitamin C (250 mg/kg), vitamin E (250 mg/kg) and Se (0.2 mg/kg) were given by gavage technique to rats of one diabetic and one control group for 30 days. In the diabetic group, the levels of serum urea and creatinine, skin lipid peroxidation and nonenzymatic glycosylation levels increased, but skin glutathione levels decreased. Treatment with vitamin C, vitamin E and Se reversed these effects. The present study showed that vitamin C, vitamin E and Se exerted antioxidant effects and consequently may prevent skin damage caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

  2. Natural advances in eczema care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Fowler, Joseph F; Rigel, Darrell S; Taylor, Susan C

    2007-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing dermatitis characterized by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and subjective symptoms of pruritus, inflammation, skin sensitivity, and dryness. AD is a frequent issue for individuals of color, though it may be underrecognized. Therapy for AD is based on reducing pruritus and inflammation, and normalizing skin surface lipids, particularly ceramides. Topical corticosteroids are the gold-standard treatment for controlling disease flares, but a variety of active natural ingredients can be used adjunctively to help control itch, inflammation, and dryness. Oatmeal, particularly avenanthramides, a newly discovered oat fraction, may be of particular value in restoring the cutaneous barrier and reducing symptoms of AD. Feverfew, licorice, and dexpanthenol also have been shown to be effective in the management of inflammation. Licorice, which has some skin-lightening activity, may be helpful in patients with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The compromised skin barrier in AD is especially vulnerable to UV radiation exposure. Several new long-lasting photostable sunscreen ingredients provide longer durations of protection with improved cosmetic attributes.

  3. A Simple Device For Measuring Skin Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A.B

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple device for measuring skin friction in vivo is described. The frictional coefficient of normal Indian skin and the effect of hydration and application of talc and glycerol on the frictional coefficient and also the friction of ichthyotic skin have been determined with its help. The average value of friction of friction of normal India skin at forearm is found to be 0.41 +- 0.08, the hydration raises the value to 0.71 +- 0.11 and the effect of glycerol is also to school it up to 0.70+- 0.05, almost equal to that of water. The effect of talc however is opposite and its application lowers the friction to 0.21+-0.07. The mean coeff of friction for ichthyotic skin is found to be 0.21+- 0.0.5, which closely agrees with talc-treated normal skin. A good positive correlation (p<0.01 between friction and sebum level at skin site, with r = 0.64, has been observed.

  4. Synergetic skin targeting effect of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin combined with microemulsion for ketoconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Junxiu; Wu, Zushuai; Shao, Weiyan; Guo, Penghao; Lin, Yuanyuan; Pan, Wenhui; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Guoguang; Wu, Chuanbin; Xu, Yuehong

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to develop a ternary skin targeting system for ketoconazole (KET) using a combined strategy of microemulsion (ME) and cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), i.e., KET-CD-ME, which exploits both virtues of cyclodextrin complex and ME to obtain the synergetic effect. KET-CD-ME was formulated using Labrafil M 1944 CS as oil phase, Solutol HS 15 as surfactant, Transcutol P as cosurfactant, and HP-β-CD solution as aqueous phase. The formulation of KET-CD-ME was optimized and the optimal formulation was characterized in terms of particle size, size distribution, pH value, and viscosity. Long term stability experiment showed that HP-β-CD could increase the physical stability of ternary system and KET chemical stability. Percutaneous permeation of KET from KET-CD-ME in vitro through rat skin was investigated in comparison with KET microemulsion (KET-ME), KET HP-β-CD inclusion solution (KET-CD), KET aqueous suspension, and commercial KET cream; the results showed that the combination of ME with HP-β-CD exhibited significantly synergistic effect on KET deposition within the skin (29.38 ± 1.79 μg/cm(2)) and a slightly synergistic effect on KET penetration through the skin (11.3 μg/cm(2)/h). The enhancement of the combination on skin deposition was further visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). In vitro sensitivity against Candida parapsilosis test indicated that KET-CD-ME enhanced KET antifungal activity mainly owing to the solubilization of HP-β-CD on KET in the ternary system. Moreover, the interactions between HP-β-CD and KET in the ternary system were elucidated through microScale thermophoresis (MST) and 2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The profiles from MST confirmed the host-guest interactions of HP-β-CD with KET in the ternary system and a deep insight into the interactions between KET and HP-β-CD were obtained by means of 2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the ternary system of ME combination with HP-β-CD may be a promising

  5. Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Branum, Amy; Sivamani, Raja K

    2016-08-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a commonly used spice throughout the world, has been shown to exhibit antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-neoplastic properties. Growing evidence shows that an active component of turmeric, curcumin, may be used medically to treat a variety of dermatologic diseases. This systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of both topical and ingested turmeric/curcumin to modulate skin health and function. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for clinical studies involving humans that examined the relationship between products containing turmeric, curcumin, and skin health. A total of 234 articles were uncovered, and a total of 18 studies met inclusion criteria. Nine studies evaluated the effects of ingestion, eight studies evaluated the effects of topical, and one study evaluated the effects of both ingested and topical application of turmeric/curcumin. Skin conditions examined include acne, alopecia, atopic dermatitis, facial photoaging, oral lichen planus, pruritus, psoriasis, radiodermatitis, and vitiligo. Ten studies noted statistically significant improvement in skin disease severity in the turmeric/curcumin treatment groups compared with control groups. Overall, there is early evidence that turmeric/curcumin products and supplements, both oral and topical, may provide therapeutic benefits for skin health. However, currently published studies are limited and further studies will be essential to better evaluate efficacy and the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Assessing the impacts of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.; Guo, Yuming

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet radiation exposure during an individuals' lifetime is a known risk factor for the development of skin cancer. However, less evidence is available on assessing the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Objectives: This study aims to assess the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive measure of exposure. Methods: We recruited 180 participants (73 males, 107 females) aged 18–83 years. Digital imaging of skin hyperpigmentation (skin damage) and skin wrinkling (skin aging) on the facial region was measured. Lifetime sun exposure (presented as hours) was calculated from the participants' age multiplied by the estimated annual time outdoors for each year of life. We analyzed the effects of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging. We adjust for the influence of age, sex, occupation, history of skin cancer, eye color, hair color, and skin color. Results: There were non-linear relationships between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Younger participant's skin is much more sensitive to sun exposure than those who were over 50 years of age. As such, there were negative interactions between lifetime sun exposure and age. Age had linear effects on skin damage and skin aging. Conclusion: The data presented showed that self reported lifetime sun exposure was positively associated with skin damage and skin aging, in particular, the younger people. Future health promotion for sun exposure needs to pay attention to this group for skin cancer prevention messaging. - Highlights: ► This is the first study finding the non-linear relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. ► This study finds there is negative interaction between lifetime sun exposure and age for skin damage and aging. ► This study suggests that future health promotion for sun exposure needs to pay attention to youth group for skin cancer

  7. Assessing the impacts of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimlin, Michael G., E-mail: m.kimlin@qut.edu.au; Guo, Yuming, E-mail: guoyuming@yahoo.cn

    2012-05-15

    Background: Ultraviolet radiation exposure during an individuals' lifetime is a known risk factor for the development of skin cancer. However, less evidence is available on assessing the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Objectives: This study aims to assess the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive measure of exposure. Methods: We recruited 180 participants (73 males, 107 females) aged 18-83 years. Digital imaging of skin hyperpigmentation (skin damage) and skin wrinkling (skin aging) on the facial region was measured. Lifetime sun exposure (presented as hours) was calculated from the participants' age multiplied by the estimated annual time outdoors for each year of life. We analyzed the effects of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging. We adjust for the influence of age, sex, occupation, history of skin cancer, eye color, hair color, and skin color. Results: There were non-linear relationships between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Younger participant's skin is much more sensitive to sun exposure than those who were over 50 years of age. As such, there were negative interactions between lifetime sun exposure and age. Age had linear effects on skin damage and skin aging. Conclusion: The data presented showed that self reported lifetime sun exposure was positively associated with skin damage and skin aging, in particular, the younger people. Future health promotion for sun exposure needs to pay attention to this group for skin cancer prevention messaging. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study finding the non-linear relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study finds there is negative interaction between lifetime sun exposure and age for skin damage and aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study suggests that future

  8. The amelioration effect of tranexamic acid in wrinkles induced by skin dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medical amino acid widely used as an anti-inflammatory and a whitening agent. This study examined the effect of tranexamic acid administration in wrinkle formation following skin dryness. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In these NOA mice, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), generation of wrinkles, decrease of collagen type I, and increases in mast cell proliferation and tryptase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) release were observed. However, these symptoms were improved by tranexamic acid treatment. Moreover, the increase in the β-endorphin level in the blood and the expression of μ-opioid receptor on the surface of fibroblasts increased by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, when the fibroblasts induced by tranexamic acid treatment were removed, the amelioration effect by tranexamic acid treatment was halved. On the other hand, tranexamic acid treated NOA mice and mast cell removal in tranexamic acid treated NOA mice did not result in changes in the wrinkle amelioration effect. Additionally, the amelioration effect of mast cell deficient NOA mice was half that of tranexamic acid treated NOA mice. These results indicate that tranexamic acid decreased the proliferation of mast cells and increases the proliferation of fibroblasts, subsequently improving wrinkles caused by skin dryness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental research of "microcable in a microconduct" system stability to effect of freezing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Nikulina, Tatiana G.; Alekhin, Ivan N.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Nikulin, Aleksey G.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.

    2011-12-01

    Results of experimental researches of "optical microcable in a microduct" system stability to effect of freezing water are presented. It is shown this system is steadier to water freezing in comparison to lighten optical cable in protective polymer tube.

  10. The isolated perfused human skin flap model: A missing link in skin penetration studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Development of effective (trans)dermal drug delivery systems requires reliable skin models to evaluate skin drug penetration. The isolated perfused human skin flap remains metabolically active tissue for up to 6h during in vitro perfusion. We introduce the isolated perfused human skin flap as a close-to-in vivo skin penetration model. To validate the model's ability to evaluate skin drug penetration the solutions of a hydrophilic (calcein) and a lipophilic (rhodamine) fluorescence marker were applied. The skin flaps were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH7.4). Infrared technology was used to monitor perfusion and to select a well-perfused skin area for administration of the markers. Flap perfusion and physiological parameters were maintained constant during the 6h experiments and the amount of markers in the perfusate was determined. Calcein was detected in the perfusate, whereas rhodamine was not detectable. Confocal images of skin cross-sections shoved that calcein was uniformly distributed through the skin, whereas rhodamine accumulated in the stratum corneum. For comparison, the penetration of both markers was evaluated on ex vivo human skin, pig skin and cellophane membrane. The proposed perfused flap model enabled us to distinguish between the penetrations of the two markers and could be a promising close-to-in vivo tool in skin penetration studies and optimization of formulations destined for skin administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Age influences the skin reaction pattern to mechanical stress and its repair level through skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Elewa, Rana; Ottaviani, Monica; Fluhr, Joachim; Picardo, Mauro; Bernois, Armand; Heusèle, Catherine; Camera, Emanuela

    2018-03-01

    Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and the objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24h and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13). In addition, casual surface lipid composition was studied under the same conditions at the baseline and day 7 after mechanical stress induction. Evaluations were also performed in stressed skin areas treated daily with skin care products and the subjective opinion of the volunteers was additionally documented. The tested groups exhibited age-associated baseline skin functions as well as casual surface lipid composition and different reaction patterns to mechanical stress. Skin care was more effective in normalizing skin reaction to stress in the young than in the aged group. The subjective volunteer opinion correlated with the objective measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biostimulative effects of 809 nm diode laser on cutaneous skin wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Hakan; Gülsoy, Murat; Ülgen, Yekta

    2015-03-01

    The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for therapeutic purposes in medicine has become widespread recently. There are many studies in literature supporting the idea of therapeutic effects of laser irradiation on biological tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate the biostimulative effect of 809nm infrared laser irradiation on the healing process of cutaneous incisional skin wounds. 3-4 months old male Wistar Albino rats weighing 300 to 350 gr were used throughout this study. Lowlevel laser therapy was applied through local irradiation of 809nm infrared laser on open skin incisional wounds of 1 cm length. Each animal had six identical incisions on their right and left dorsal region symmetrical to each other. The wounds were separated into three groups of control, 1 J/cm2 and 3 J/cm2 of laser irradiation. Two of these six wounds were kept as control group and did not receive any laser application. Rest of the incisions was irradiated with continuous diode laser of 809nm in wavelength and 20mW power output. Two of them were subjected to laser irradiation of 1 J/cm2 and the other two were subjected to laser light with energy density of 3 J/cm2. Biostimulation effects of irradiation were studied by means of tensile strength tests and histological examinations. Wounded skin samples were morphologically examined and removed for mechanical and histological examinations at days 3, 5 and 7 following the laser applications. Three of the six fragments of skin incisions including a portion of peripheral healthy tissue from each animal were subjected to mechanical tests by means of a universal tensile test machine, whereas the other three samples were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological examinations. The findings of the study show that tissue repair following laser irradiation of 809nm has been accelerated in terms of tissue morphology, strength and cellular content. These results seem to be consistent with the results of many

  13. Effect of adjuvants on responses to skin immunization by microneedles coated with influenza subunit vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Weldon

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of vaccine delivery to the skin by vaccine-coated microneedles; however there is little information on the effects of adjuvants using this approach for vaccination. Here we investigate the use of TLR ligands as adjuvants with skin-based delivery of influenza subunit vaccine. BALB/c mice received 1 µg of monovalent H1N1 subunit vaccine alone or with 1 µg of imiquimod or poly(I:C individually or in combination via coated microneedle patches inserted into the skin. Poly(I:C adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine induced similar antigen-specific immune responses compared to vaccine alone when delivered to the skin by microneedles. However, imiquimod-adjuvanted vaccine elicited higher levels of serum IgG2a antibodies and increased hemagglutination inhibition titers compared to vaccine alone, suggesting enhanced induction of functional antibodies. In addition, imiquimod-adjuvanted vaccine induced a robust IFN-γ cellular response. These responses correlated with improved protection compared to influenza subunit vaccine alone, as well as reduced viral replication and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs. The finding that microneedle delivery of imiquimod with influenza subunit vaccine induces improved immune responses compared to vaccine alone supports the use of TLR7 ligands as adjuvants for skin-based influenza vaccines.

  14. A new device for vein localization and effect of application of disinfectant spray on its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyer Jan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A functional device was developed to immediately show the localization of veins by detecting a temperature increase on the skin directly above them. Our new idea, compared to other developments, is the comparison of temperatures between a small, ideally punctiform, skin area, and a larger circularly surrounding area. This is realized by two infrared temperature sensors, one with a small field of view, and the other one with a larger field of view. The position of the vein is indicated by two laser modules, which beams cross in one spot, when the device is held in a defined distance to the skin. If the device is held over a vein, the laser spot lightens up. The device was tested in ten study participants. Cooling of the skin by disinfectant spray prior to the measurements increases the temperature gradient and thereby improves the efficiency of the device. Temperature profiles of four skin areas of each study participant were measured before and one minute after application of disinfectant spray. After application of disinfectant spray, a temperature difference of more than 0.3 K between a measuring point above a vein and points 15 mm next to this could be found in 36 out of 40 measurements (90%, compared to 26 out of 40 (65% before disinfection. The mean temperature gradient could be increased from 0.476 K to 1.03 K (p < 0.001.

  15. Penicillin skin testing is a safe and effective tool for evaluating penicillin allergy in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Stephanie J; Park, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin skin testing has been validated in the evaluation of adult patients with penicillin allergy. However, the commercially available benzylpenicilloyl polylysine (Pre-Pen) is not indicated in the pediatric population. Moreover, the safety and validity of penicillin skin testing in the pediatric population has not been well studied. We describe the safety and validity of penicillin skin testing in the evaluation of children with a history of penicillin allergy. Children (penicillin allergy were evaluated with penicillin skin tests and were reviewed for basic demographics, penicillin skin test results, adverse drug reaction to penicillin after penicillin skin test, and adverse reaction to penicillin skin test. By using the χ(2) test, we compared the differences in the proportion of children and adults with a positive penicillin skin test. P value (penicillin skin testing; 703 of 778 patients had a negative penicillin skin test (90.4%), 66 had a positive test (8.5%), and 9 had an equivocal test (1.1%). Children were more likely to have a positive penicillin skin test (P penicillin skin test (52%) were challenged with penicillin, and 14 of 369 patients (3.8%) had an adverse drug reaction. No adverse reactions to penicillin skin testing were observed. Penicillin skin testing was safe and effective in the evaluation of children with a history of penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effectiveness of using a bath oil to reduce signs of dry skin: A randomized controlled pragmatic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Kanti, Varvara; Dobos, Gabor; Hahnel, Elisabeth; Lichterfeld-Kottner, Andrea; Richter, Claudia; Hillmann, Kathrin; Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Dry skin (xerosis cutis) is increasingly recognized as a relevant health problem in daily life and in health and nursing care. The use of bath additives such as oils is common to reduce dry skin, but empirical evidence supporting this practice is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a bath oil additive in improving skin barrier function and ameliorating dry skin in comparison to non-oil containing skin cleansers for bathing or showering. Single centre randomized observer blind pragmatic parallel group trial. Outpatient/community care. Volunteers showing clinically mild to moderate dry skin recruited from the city of Berlin. Healthy children and adults were randomly assigned to use either a commercially available bath oil or to continue using their regular non-oil containing skin cleansers every other day over a study period of 28days. Skin barrier parameters and the severity of dry skin were assessed at baseline and at two follow-up visits at the study centre. Transepidermal water loss was the primary outcome. All sixty participants randomized completed the trial. Median age was 32.5 (IQR 8.3 to 69) years. At the end of study the mean transepidermal water loss in the intervention group was statistically significant lower compared to the control group (mean difference -1.9 (95% CI -3.1 to -0.8) g/m 2 /h). Stratum corneum hydration was statistically significantly higher in the intervention group at the end of the study. Skin surface pH and roughness were comparable in both groups and remained unchanged, while both groups showed a trend to improvement in dry skin symptoms CONCLUSIONS: This pragmatic trial provides empirical evidence that the regular use of the investigated bath oil is effective in improving the skin barrier function in children and adults with mild dry skin when used in routine skin care and supports its use as a basic element for the management of a broad spectrum of dry skin conditions. Clinical

  17. Skin perfusion measurement: the normal range, the effects of ambient temperature and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Malone, J.M.; Daly, M.J.; Hughes, J.H.; Moore, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitation of skin perfusion provides objective criteria to determine the optimal amputation level in ischemic limb disease, to assess the maturation of pedicle flaps in reconstructive surgery, and to select appropriate treatment for chronic skin ulcers. A technique for measurement of skin perfusion using intradermal (ID) Xe-133 and a gamma camera/minicomputer system was previously reported. An update of this procedure is now reported, the normal range for the lower extremity in men, observations on the effects of ambient temperature, and an experience using the procedure to determine amputation level

  18. Cutaneous effects of topical indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, on uv-damaged skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    Topical application of a 2.5 percent indomethacin (IM) solution to the sunburned skin of humans and guinea pigs resulted in a marked decrease in ultraviolet light (UVL)-induced erythema. In humans, a decrease in skin temperature and hyperalgesia to near normal levels was also observed. Epidermal responses to UVL injury such as keratinocyte cell death and altered DNA synthesis proceeded unmodified by IM. Repeated applications of IM in the 48-hr period following UVL exposure did not improve upon the results obtained following a single treatment. Guinea-pig skin provides a relevant model system for evaluating the effects of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on sunburn

  19. dermaOXY skin assay: effect and evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menov, Lasse; Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria

    2015-01-01

    of the instrument set DermaLab®Combo, which is used for the physical characterization of skin status after treatment. The report consists of four main parts, dedicated to 1. the properties of human skin 2. the anti-aging methods applied by the dermaOXY treatment 3. the analytical methods applied by derma......This text is a videnkupon report supported by the Danish Innovation Fonds and conducted by L.M. and B.K. for dermaOXY (by MedicTinedic ApS, Varde, Denmark). It involves two dermaOXY products: dermaOXY HYALURON SERUM and dermaOXY SYN SERUM. These are applied to the facial skin in combination....... This knowledge is important for assessing the dermaOXY approach to slow down (or better yet inhibit) the phenotypical signs of aging. Professor Beate Klösgen and B.Sc. Lasse Menov performed the study and wrote this report. Lars Melgaard, COO of dermaOXY, provided the information on the dermaOXY approach. Doris...

  20. Effect of Skin Protection and Skin Irritation on the Internal Exposure to Carbon Disulfide in Employees of the Viscose Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilo, Sonja; Zonnur, Nina; Uter, Wolfgang; Göen, Thomas; Drexler, Hans

    2015-10-01

    Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) leads to inhalative and dermal uptake and thereby to internal exposure. In order to prevent occupational contact dermatitis, gloves and skin protection creams are used at the workplace. The aim of the study was the evaluation of the influence of personal skin protection and irritation on the internal exposure to CS2 of employees in the viscose industry. One hundred and eighty-two male CS2-exposed employees were included in the study and were examined regarding working conditions, use of personal protective measures und skin status. Personal air monitoring and biological monitoring was performed and the 'relative internal exposure' (RIE, internal exposure in relation to external exposure) calculated. A multiple regression analysis calculated the influence of skin protection and irritation on CS2 uptake. Usage of skin protection creams and gloves (and both in combination) while working was associated with a significantly higher RIE indicating a higher dermal penetration of CS2. Equally, irritated skin and younger age was associated with a higher internal burden. Gloves and skin protection creams are useful for preventing occupational skin diseases. However, when handling skin-resorptive substances like CS2, they can increase internal exposure or skin irritation. Therefore, we recommend the careful consideration of benefits and risks of protective creams and gloves at the workplace. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  1. Skin-to-skin contact is associated with earlier breastfeeding attainment in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oras, Paola; Thernström Blomqvist, Ylva; Hedberg Nyqvist, Kerstin; Gradin, Maria; Rubertsson, Christine; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Funkquist, Eva-Lotta

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of skin-to-skin contact on breastfeeding attainment, duration and infant growth in preterm infants, as this has not been sufficiently explored. A prospective longitudinal study on Kangaroo mother care was carried out, comprising 104 infants with a gestational age of 28 + 0 to 33 + 6 and followed up to one year of corrected age. Parents and staff recorded the duration of skin-to skin contact during the stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Medical data were collected through patient records, and follow-up questionnaires were filled in by parents. The 53 infants who attained full breastfeeding in the NICU did so at a median (range) of 35 + 0 (32 + 1 to 37 + 5) weeks of postmenstrual age, and skin-to-skin contact was the only factor that influenced earlier attainment in the regression analysis (R(2) 0.215 p skin-to-skin contact during the stay in the NICU did not affect the duration of breastfeeding or infant growth after discharge. Furthermore, infant growth was not affected by the feeding strategy of exclusive, partial breastfeeding or no breastfeeding. A longer daily duration of skin-to-skin contact in the NICU was associated with earlier attainment of exclusive breastfeeding. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Topical treatment with coenzyme Q10-containing formulas improves skin's Q10 level and provides antioxidative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Anja; Achterberg, Volker; Smuda, Christoph; Mielke, Heiko; Sperling, Gabi; Dunckelmann, Katja; Vogelsang, Alexandra; Krüger, Andrea; Schwengler, Helge; Behtash, Mojgan; Kristof, Sonja; Diekmann, Heike; Eisenberg, Tanya; Berroth, Andreas; Hildebrand, Janosch; Siegner, Ralf; Winnefeld, Marc; Teuber, Frank; Fey, Sven; Möbius, Janne; Retzer, Dana; Burkhardt, Thorsten; Lüttke, Juliane; Blatt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10, Q10) represents an endogenously synthesized lipid-soluble antioxidant which is crucial for cellular energy production but is diminished with age and under the influence of external stress factors in human skin. Here, it is shown that topical Q10 treatment is beneficial with regard to effective Q10 replenishment, augmentation of cellular energy metabolism, and antioxidant effects. Application of Q10-containing formulas significantly increased the levels of this quinone on the skin surface. In the deeper layers of the epidermis the ubiquinone level was significantly augmented indicating effective supplementation. Concurrent elevation of ubiquinol levels suggested metabolic transformation of ubiquinone resulting from increased energy metabolism. Incubation of cultured human keratinocytes with Q10 concentrations equivalent to treated skin showed a significant augmentation of energy metabolism. Moreover, the results demonstrated that stressed skin benefits from the topical Q10 treatment by reduction of free radicals and an increase in antioxidant capacity. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Effect of a neutron skin on collective dipoles modes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.D.; Van Isacker, P.; Nagarajan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the principal motivations for accelerated radioactive beams is to probe nuclear structure at the limits of nuclear stability. For neutron-rich nuclei, an indication of the new phenomena which may occur has already appeared, in the guise of the neutron halo discovered in very light nuclei. More generally, a steadily increasing neutron skin thickness is expected as the neutron excess increases. The presence of such a mantle of dominantly neutron matter will then particularly affect the properties of collective modes involving the out-of-phase motion of neutrons and protons. This paper explores the effect of the neutron skin thickness on the isovector M1 and E1 modes in medium and heavy mass nuclei. A simple model is used, couched in terms of classical oscillations of neutron and proton densities. The treatment includes the open-quotes pygmyclose quotes E1 mode, which corresponds to motion of the core against the loosely-bound neutrons in the mantle and predicts a significant lowering of this mode, even at relatively modest values of the skin thickness

  4. Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgueiro, M.J.; Collia, N.; Duran, H.; Palmieri, M.; Medina, V.; Ughetti, R.; Nicolini, J.; Zubillaga, M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biological effects of the 32 P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32 P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32 P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in six groups. Four groups received the contact brachytherapy treatments using a scheme of a single session of 40 and 60 Gy (SD40 and SD60) and a scheme of two sessions of 40 and 60 Gy each (FD40 and FD60). The other two groups were used as controls of the single (CSD) and the fractionated (CFD) treatments. Radiation doses were estimated with equations derived from the MIRD DOSE scheme, and biologically effective doses (BED) were calculated according to equations derived from the linear-quadratic model. The endpoint to evaluate the treatments effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days. Finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis and PCNA staining. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of control groups were higher than for treated groups, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. This radioactive 32 P-silicone-patch which is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases, seems promising as a radioactive device for clinical use.

  5. Exploring cucumber extract for skin rejuvenation | Akhtar | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to develop a topical skin-care cream water in oil (w/o) ... versus its vehicle (Base) as control and evaluates its effects on skin-melanin, skin erythema, skin moisture, skin sebum and transepidermal water loss (TEWL).

  6. Beyond UV radiation: a skin under challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, E; Gomez, J; Bilodeau, D

    2013-06-01

    Since ancient times, human beings have been trying to protect their skin against the adverse effects of the sun. From the first mineral sunscreens used by Egyptians, to the current more sophisticated ultraviolet (UVA/UVB) organic sunscreens, progress has been made in terms of sun protection and deeper knowledge of skin physiology has been acquired in the process. The solar spectrum is composed of radiations of various wavelengths having specific, as well as overlapping effects on skin. UVB is mainly responsible for sunburn and DNA dimer formation that can lead to mutation. UVA generates oxidative reactions affecting DNA, proteins and lipids, and is also immunosuppressive. Recently, visible light and infrared radiation (IR) have been associated with oxidative damage and IR has been additionally linked to adverse heat effects on skin. Numerous other extrinsic factors, related to environment and lifestyle, also affect the appearance of skin, precipitating ageing. New molecular mechanisms linking sun and environmental factors to skin ageing have been identified: IR affects mitochondrial integrity and specific heat receptors also mediate some of its effects, tryptophan is a chromophore for UVB, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is activated by light and xenobiotics to alter skin physiology. Integrating all these new elements is changing the way we think about skin extrinsic ageing. Is UVA/UVB sunscreen protection still enough for our skin? © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Contamination and decontamination of skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    In external contamination the beta radiation dose is the prevalent component of the total dose absorbed by the skin. There exist four types of radionUclide bonds to the skin: mechanical retention of solid particles or solution on the surface and in the pores, physical adsorption of nondissociated molecules or colloids, the ion exchange effect, and chemisorption. Radionuclides then penetrate the skin by transfollicular transfer. The total amount of radioactive substances absorbed into the skin depends on the condition of the skin. Skin is decontaminated by washing with lukewarm water and soap or with special decontamination solutions. The most widely used components of decontamination solutions are detergents, chelaton, sodium hexametaphosphate, oxalic acid, citric acid. The main principles of the decontamination of persons are given. (M.D.)

  8. Effects of Vehicles and Enhancers on the Skin Permeation of Phytoestrogenic Diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiyasawasdikul, Sarunya; Limpongsa, Ekapol; Jaipakdee, Napaphak; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2017-04-01

    Curcuma comosa (C. comosa) is widely used in traditional medicine as a dietary supplement for health promotion in postmenopausal women in Thailand. It contains several diarylheptanoids, which are considered to be a novel class of phytoestrogens. However, the diarylheptanoids isolated from the plant rhizome are shown to have low oral bioavailability and faster elimination characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the permeation behavior of the active compounds of diarylheptanoids. The effects of binary vehicle systems and permeation enhancers on diarylheptanoids permeation and accumulation within the skin were studied using side-by-side diffusion cells through the porcine ear skin. Among the tested binary vehicle systems, the ethanol/water vehicle appeared to be the most effective system for diarylheptanoids permeation with the highest flux and shortest lag time. The presence of transcutol in the vehicle system significantly increased diarylheptanoid's permeation and accumulation within the skin in a concentration-dependent manner. Although the presence of terpenes in formulation decreased the flux of diarylheptanoids, it raised the amount of diarylheptanoids retained within the skin substantially. Based on the feasibility of diarylheptanoid permeation, C. comosa extract should be further developed into an effective transdermal product for health benefits and hormone replacement therapy.

  9. Constituents from the roots of Taraxacum platycarpum and their effect on proliferation of human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Umehara, Kaoru; Miyase, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A MeOH extract from the roots of Taraxacum platycarpum has shown significant effects on the proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts. Chemical analysis of the extract resulted in the isolation of 26 compounds, including eight new triterpenes, one new sesquiterpene glycoside, and seventeen known compounds. The structure of each new compound was established using NMR spectroscopy. Some triterpenes had a significant effect on the proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts.

  10. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical–Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  11. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R 2 = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q 2 ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin sensitization and

  12. Effect of flexing and massage on in vivo human skin penetration and toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Silva, Vânia R; Liu, David C; Sanchez, Washington Y; Studier, Hauke; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Holmes, Amy; Becker, Wolfgang; Grice, Jeffrey E; Benson, Heather Ae; Roberts, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    We assessed the effects of flexing and massage on human skin penetration and toxicity of topically applied coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles (˜75 nm) in vivo. Noninvasive multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging was used to evaluate the penetration of nanoparticles through the skin barrier and cellular apoptosis in the viable epidermis. All nanoparticles applied to skin with flexing and massage were retained in the stratum corneum or skin furrows. No significant penetration into the viable epidermis was seen and no cellular toxicity was detected. Exposure of normal in vivo human skin to these nanoparticles under common in-use conditions of flexing or massage is not associated with significant adverse events.

  13. Skin disease prevalence study in schoolchildren in rural Côte d'Ivoire: Implications for integration of neglected skin diseases (skin NTDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsu, Rie Roselyne; Kouadio, Kouamé; Vagamon, Bamba; N'guessan, Konan; Akpa, Amari Jules; Yao, Aubin; Aké, Julien; Abbet Abbet, Rigobert; Tchamba Agbor Agbor, Barbine; Bedimo, Roger; Ishii, Norihisa; Fuller, L Claire; Hay, Roderick; Mitjà, Oriol; Drechsler, Henning; Asiedu, Kingsley

    2018-05-01

    Early detection of several skin-related neglected tropical diseases (skin NTDs)-including leprosy, Buruli ulcer, yaws, and scabies- may be achieved through school surveys, but such an approach has seldom been tested systematically on a large scale in endemic countries. Additionally, a better understanding of the spectrum of skin diseases and the at-risk populations to be encountered during such surveys is necessary to facilitate the process. We performed a school skin survey for selected NTDs and the spectrum of skin diseases, among primary schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. This 2-phase survey took place in 49 schools from 16 villages in the Adzopé health district from November 2015 to January 2016. The first phase involved a rapid visual examination of the skin by local community healthcare workers (village nurses) to identify any skin abnormality. In a second phase, a specialized medical team including dermatologists performed a total skin examination of all screened students with any skin lesion and provided treatment where necessary. Of a total of 13,019 children, 3,504 screened positive for skin lesions and were listed for the next stage examination. The medical team examined 1,138 of these children. The overall prevalence of skin diseases was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9%). The predominant diagnoses were fungal infections (n = 858, prevalence: 22.3%), followed by inflammatory skin diseases (n = 265, prevalence: 6.9%). Skin diseases were more common in boys and in children living along the main road with heavy traffic. One case of multi-bacillary type leprosy was detected early, along with 36 cases of scabies. Our survey was met with very good community acceptance. We carried out the first large-scale integrated, two-phase pediatric multi-skin NTD survey in rural Côte d'Ivoire, effectively reaching a large population. We found a high prevalence of skin diseases in children, but only limited number of skin NTDs. With the lessons learned

  14. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Emile; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Masen, Marc Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowska, J; Zakowiecki, D; Cal, K

    2010-08-01

    A thorough examination of the skin is essential to screen various diseases accurately, evaluate the effectiveness of topically applied drugs and assess the results of dermatological surgeries such as skin grafts. The assessment of skin properties is also crucial in the cosmetics industry, where it is important to evaluate the effects skin care products have on these properties. The simplest and most widely used method of skin evaluation, the 'naked eye' assessment, enables researchers to assess only the skin surface and involves a large amount of inter-observer variability. Thanks to a great progress that has been made in physics, electronics and computer engineering in recent years, sophisticated imaging methods are increasingly available in day-to-day studies. The aim of this review was to present one of these techniques, namely the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to discuss its possible use in skin examination and analysis. We present basic principles of MRI, as well as several interesting applications in the field of dermatology, and discuss the advantages and limitations of this method.

  16. Effects of ultraviolet radiations on the human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarini, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Skin cancers and, particularly, malignant melanomas are the end product of a long chain of events which start with the very first exposure to sunlight. The genetic program which directs the capacity to develop a protective tan has failed when a skin cancer arises. The price to pay before building an efficient defense is already too high for those who develop skin cancers. Less exposures to solar or artificial UVR and larger use of complementary efficient sunscreens should reduce the cutaneous damages to a level compatible with the repair capacity. Nevertheless, care should be taken to discourage individuals at high risk for cancers to develop a tan since increasing phaeomelanic content of the epidermis is equivalent to increase the risk

  17. Effectiveness of hand washing on the removal of iron oxide nanoparticles from human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Berthet, Aurélie; Maurizi, Lionel; Eisenbeis, Antoine; Hopf, Nancy B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) or maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing. In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact. Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

  18. Skin hydration analysis by experiment and computer simulations and its implications for diapered skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, M; Stone, K J; Vega, V N; Felter, S; Ventura, S; Kasting, G; Jaworska, J

    2017-11-01

    Experimental work on skin hydration is technologically challenging, and mostly limited to observations where environmental conditions are constant. In some cases, like diapered baby skin, such work is practically unfeasible, yet it is important to understand potential effects of diapering on skin condition. To overcome this challenge, in part, we developed a computer simulation model of reversible transient skin hydration effects. Skin hydration model by Li et al. (Chem Eng Sci, 138, 2015, 164) was further developed to simulate transient exposure conditions where relative humidity (RH), wind velocity, air, and skin temperature can be any function of time. Computer simulations of evaporative water loss (EWL) decay after different occlusion times were compared with experimental data to calibrate the model. Next, we used the model to investigate EWL and SC thickness in different diapering scenarios. Key results from the experimental work were: (1) For occlusions by RH=100% and free water longer than 30 minutes the absorbed amount of water is almost the same; (2) Longer occlusion times result in higher water absorption by the SC. The EWL decay and skin water content predictions were in agreement with experimental data. Simulations also revealed that skin under occlusion hydrates mainly because the outflux is blocked, not because it absorbs water from the environment. Further, simulations demonstrated that hydration level is sensitive to time, RH and/or free water on skin. In simulated diapering scenarios, skin maintained hydration content very close to the baseline conditions without a diaper for the entire duration of a 24 hours period. Different diapers/diaper technologies are known to have different profiles in terms of their ability to provide wetness protection, which can result in consumer-noticeable differences in wetness. Simulation results based on published literature using data from a number of different diapers suggest that diapered skin hydrates within

  19. Effect of a new moisturizing lotion on immediate and cumulative skin hydration: Two randomized, intra-individual, vehicle- and comparator-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Alessandra; Sidou, Farzaneh; Brocard, Sylvie

    2011-08-01

    Moisturizers increase skin hydration and can serve as adjunctive care in dermatologic conditions such as xerosis, psoriasis vulgaris, atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis, in which dry skin is implicated. A non-irritating hydrating lotion (CDA lotion) was recently developed. We assessed the effect of CDA lotion on skin hydration in two randomized, evaluator-blind and intra-individual comparison studies. After a single application, CDA lotion induced significantly greater hydration than the non-treated control for at least 24 hours (p skin hydration up to 3 days after treatment cessation (p skin dryness score up to 7 days after treatment cessation (p hydration effects of CDA lotion were also compared to those of several currently available moisturizing products. In summary, application of CDA lotion increases skin hydration and alleviates the condition of skin dryness.

  20. Hydrocortisone Diffusion Through Synthetic Membrane, Mouse Skin, and Epiderm™ Cultured Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, John Mark; Chuong, Monica Chang; Le, Hang; Pham, Loan; Bendas, Ehab

    2011-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The penetration of hydrocortisone (HC) from six topical over-the-counter products along with one prescription cream through cultured normal human-derived epidermal keratinocytes (Epiderm™), mouse skin and synthetic nylon membrane was performed as well as the effect hydrating the skin by pre-washing was explored using the Upright Franz Cell. METHOD AND RESULTS: Permeation of HC through EpiDerm™, mouse skin and synthetic membrane was highest with the topical HC gel formulation with prewash treatment of the membranes among seven products evaluated, 198 ± 32 µg/cm(2), 746.32 ± 12.43 µg/cm(2), and 1882 ± 395.18 µg/cm(2), respectively. Pre-washing to hydrate the skin enhanced HC penetration through EpiDerm™ and mouse skin. The 24-hour HC released from topical gel with prewash treatment was 198.495 ± 32 µg/cm(2) and 746.32 ± 12.43 µg/cm(2) while without prewash, the 24-h HC released from topical gel was 67.2 ± 7.41 µg/cm(2) and 653.43 ± 85.62 µg/cm(2) though EpiDerm™ and mouse skin, respectively. HC penetration through synthetic membrane was ten times greater than through mouse skin and EpiDerm™. Generally, the shape, pattern, and rank order of HC diffusion from each commercial product was similar through each membrane.

  1. Understanding effects of topical ingredients on electrical measurement of skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, J M

    2016-12-01

    Methods that assess skin hydration based on changes in its electrical properties are widely used in both cosmetic and medical research. However, the devices themselves often give results which are significantly different to each other. Although some work has previously been carried out to try and understand what these devices are actually reading, it was based on a technique for measuring the devices' responses to filter discs impregnated with different liquids, which could in itself be influencing the measurements. Presented here is a new method for measuring the devices' direct responses to different materials and solutions which removes any other confounding effects, thereby providing a clearer insight into their operation. The responses of a variety of different liquids and solutions were measured using the Corneometer ® and Skicon ® . A new method is presented, based on the use of a custom-designed PTFE block to hold the liquids, allowing their measurement without using a filter paper. This method was developed and tested against the existing filter paper-based approach. Differences were observed in results between filter paper- and PTFE block-based approach, indicating that the filter paper itself is capable of influencing the measurements and as such is not to be recommended for assessing how different liquids impact on results from the devices. A positive correlation was observed between Corneometer ® and Skicon ® readings for certain solutions and under certain conditions. A large influence of salt concentration was noted for the Skicon ® device with no or minimal impact from the actual water itself, humectants and emollients. Salts, emollients, water and humectants were observed to have an effect on Corneometer ® readings. Both the Corneometer ® and Skicon ® were influenced to different extents by chemicals other than water and therefore cannot be seen purely as measures of skin 'hydration'. Although there is strong evidence that the devices do

  2. Ingestion of an Oral Hyaluronan Solution Improves Skin Hydration, Wrinkle Reduction, Elasticity, and Skin Roughness: Results of a Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllner, Imke; Voss, Werner; von Hehn, Ulrike; Kammerer, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    Intake of oral supplements with the aim of a cutaneous antiaging effect are increasingly common. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a promising candidate, as it is the key factor for preserving tissue hydration. In our practice study, we evaluated the effect of an oral HA preparation diluted in a cascade-fermented organic whole food concentrate supplemented with biotin, vitamin C, copper, and zinc (Regulatpro Hyaluron) on skin moisture content, elasticity, skin roughness, and wrinkle depths. Twenty female subjects with healthy skin in the age group of 45 to 60 years took the product once daily for 40 days. Different skin parameters were objectively assessed before the first intake, after 20 and after 40 days. Intake of the HA solution led to a significant increase in skin elasticity, skin hydration, and to a significant decrease in skin roughness and wrinkle depths. The supplement was well tolerated; no side effects were noted throughout the study.

  3. Mechanisms of Xenon Effect on Skin and Red Blood Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponomarev, Alexander; Rodin, V.; Gurevich, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    The usage of Xenon (Xe) is known in anesthesia and biobanking areas. It is considered preservation effect of Xe is associated either with clathrate formation - solid gaseous structures or dissolution of Xe molecules in liquid phase without physical state modification (so-called hyperbarium) [1......]. This study is addressed to establish differences between hyberbarium or clathrate Xe actions as well as its applications on various bioobjects with anaerobic - red blood cells (RBCs) and aerobic (skin fragments) metabolism. Xe clathrates and hyperbarium storage were simulated under 277 K and 620-725 k...... to control (15.68 ± 1.11, CI95%). Skin fragments were harvested from rat tails and divided on hyberbarium, clathrate and dimetylsulfoxide cryopreserved as control group and stored for 7 days. Assessment was performed by point-score method including epidermal-dermal integrity various assays and engraftment...

  4. Effects of tretinoin on wound healing in aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Peseto, Danielle; Carmona, Erica Vilaça; Silva, Kellyn Cristina da; Guedes, Flavia Roberta Valente; Hummel Filho, Fernando; Martinez, Natalia Peres; Pereira, José Aires; Rocha, Thalita; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Aged and adult populations have differences in the structural, biological, and healing properties of skin. Comparative studies of healing under the influence of retinoids in both these populations are very important and, to the best of our knowledge, have not been performed to date. The purpose of this study was to compare the activities of topical tretinoin in aged and adult animal models of wound healing by secondary intention. Male aged rats (24 months old, n = 7) and adult rats (6 months old, n = 8) were used. The rats were assigned to the following groups according to the dates on which wound samples were excised (day 14 or 21 after model creation): treated group, control group, and naive group. Topical application of tretinoin cream was used only on the proximal wound and was applied daily for 7 days. Wound healing areas were measured using metal calipers, and morphological analysis was performed. Slides were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Statistical analysis adopted a 5% coefficient for rejection of the null hypothesis. Although aged animals showed skin repair, complete reepithelialization was found on day 21 in some animals of both groups (treated and control). In aged rats, the wound area was significantly smaller in treated wounds than in untreated wounds, resulting in a larger scar area compared with the adult group. When treated wounds were compared, no differences were found between the wound areas in adult and aged rats. As expected, the collagen concentration was higher in normal skin from adult rats than in normal skin from aged animals, but there was no difference when aged skin was treated with tretinoin. These results indicate that tretinoin increases collagen synthesis in aged skin and returns the healing process to a normal state of skin healing. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  5. Exposure to Non-Extreme Solar UV Daylight: Spectral Characterization, Effects on Skin and Photoprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Marionnet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV rays (UVA, 320–400 nm and UVB, 280–320 nm. The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1 the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2 description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3 analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure.

  6. Exposure to non-extreme solar UV daylight: spectral characterization, effects on skin and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-12-23

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320-400 nm and UVB, 280-320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1) the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2) description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3) analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure.

  7. Clinical efficacy of artificial skin combined with vacuum sealing drainage in treating large-area skin defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jin; GUO Wei-chun; YU Ling; ZHAO Sheng-hao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of artificial skin combined with vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) in treating large-area skin defects.Methods: Totally 18 patients with skin defects, treated with artificial skin combined with VSD from September 2008to May 2009 in our hospital, were retrospectively analyzed in this study. There were 15 males and 3 females, aged 7-66years, 34.3 years on average. Among them, 10 cases had skin laceration caused by traffic accidents (7 with open fractures), 1 mangled injury, 1 blast injury, 1 stump infection combined with skin defects after amputation and 5 heel ulcers.Results: All skin grafts in 16 cases survived after being controlled by VSD for one time. For the rest 2 patients,one with skin avulsion on the left foot was given median thickness skin grafts after three times of VSD, the other with open fractures in the left tibia and fibula caused by a traffic accident was given free flap transplantation. Skin grafts of both patients survived, with normal color and rich blood supply.Conclusion: Skin grafting in conjunction with artificial skin and VSD is much more effective than traditional dressing treatment and worth wide application in clinic.

  8. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  9. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry ) and skin roughness (Ra ) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (Pskin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (Pskin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects.

  10. Skin effect of microwaves and transverse pseudowaves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazuo

    1977-09-01

    Using linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations, the skin effect of microwaves and transverse pseudowaves excited by an idealized grid antenna in plasmas are analyzed. It is shown that the latter is predominant over the former, in such a plasma that ω sub(p) v sub(t)/ωc >= 1, where ω sub(p) and ω are the plasma and microwave angular frequencies, v sub(t) and c are the electron thermal and light velocities, respectively. (auth.)

  11. Nanocarriers for skin delivery of cosmetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand of natural skin care products is steadily growing since consumers perceive them as safe. Currently, cosmetic manufacturers are focusing their efforts on developing innovative natural products to address skin-aging signs, thus meeting consumers’ needs of healthy appearance and well-being. To prevent or treat skin aging, topical supplementation with antioxidant is regarded as one of the most promising strategies. However, most antioxidants presently used in skin care formulations show unfavorable physicochemical properties such as excessive lipophilicity or hydrophilicity, chemical instability and poor skin penetration that actively limit their effectiveness after topical application. Therefore, nanocarriers such as liposomes, niosomes, microemulsions and nanoparticles have been widely investigated as delivery systems for antioxidants to improve their beneficial effects in the treatment of skin aging. In this article, the antioxidants most commonly used in anti-aging cosmetic products will be reviewed along with the nanocarriers designed to improve their safety and effectiveness.

  12. Effects of non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser treatment on gene regulation in human three-dimensional skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Philipp M; Marquardt, Yvonne; Steiner, Timm; Hölzle, Frank; Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Heise, Ruth; Baron, Jens M

    2016-04-01

    Clinical experiences with non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser therapy have demonstrated promising results for dermal remodelling and for the indications of striae, surgical scars and acne scars. So far, molecular effects on human skin following treatment with these laser systems have not been elucidated. Our aim was to investigate laser-induced effects on skin morphology and to analyse molecular effects on gene regulation. Therefore, human three-dimensional (3D) organotypic skin models were irradiated with non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser systems enabling qRT-PCR, microarray and histological studies at same and different time points. A decreased mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 3 and 9 was observed 3 days after treatment. MMP3 also remained downregulated on protein level, whereas the expression of other MMPs like MMP9 was recovered or even upregulated 5 days after irradiation. Inflammatory gene regulatory responses measured by the expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands (CXCL1, 2, 5, 6) and interleukin expression (IL8) were predominantly reduced. Epidermal differentiation markers such as loricrin, filaggrin-1 and filaggrin-2 were upregulated by both tested laser optics, indicating a potential epidermal involvement. These effects were also shown on protein level in the immunofluorescence analysis. This novel standardised laser-treated human 3D skin model proves useful for monitoring time-dependent ex vivo effects of various laser systems on gene expression and human skin morphology. Our study reveals erbium glass laser-induced regulations of MMP and interleukin expression. We speculate that these alterations on gene expression level could play a role for dermal remodelling, anti-inflammatory effects and increased epidermal differentiation. Our finding may have implications for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of erbium glass laser-induced effects on human skin.

  13. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination.

  14. Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaq, F; Katiyar, S K

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring plant products and are widely distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc. These polyphenols contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary products. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of the skin to environmental factors/pollutants, such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induce harmful effects and leads to various skin diseases including the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, comprising of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, is a significant public health concern world-wide. Exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. The regular intake of natural plant products, especially polyphenols, which are widely present in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes and beverages have gained considerable attention as protective agents against the adverse effects of UV radiation. In this article, we first discussed the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans.

  15. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  16. Acute skin reactions observed in fractionated proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Takuro; Maruhashi, Noboru; Takada, Yoshihisa; Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Inada, Tetsuo; Kitagawa, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    Between May 1985 and July 1987, 49 skin reactions of 43 patients treated by proton irradiation were observed at the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center (PARMS), the University of Tsukuba. Taking the peak skin score as an endpoint, the radiobiological effects [relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and time-dose relationship] of the proton beam in multi-fractionated treatments were estimated. Factors influencing the skin dose, such as the prescribed tumor dose, tumor site, and number of applied fields, were also analyzed. The following conclusions regarding acute skin reactions to the clinical use of proton irradiation were obtained: 1) the physical skin-sparing effect of proton irradiation in single-field irradiation, especially in superficial regions, is not large compared with that of high-energy photon irradiation; 2) multidirectional proton irradiation significantly reduced the skin dose and severity of acute reasons; 3) the radiobiological effects of the proton beam, RBE and the time factor, estimated in human skin in multi-fractional treatment were slightly smaller than those of X-rays, i.e., 0.92 and -0.25±0.09, respectively. (author)

  17. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R2=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q2ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  18. Enhancement of Skin Permeation and Skin Immunization of Ovalbumin Antigen via Microneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamornpathomkul, Boonnada; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of different types of microneedles and doses of ovalbumin antigen for in vitro skin permeation and in vivo immunization. In vitro skin permeation experiments and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that hollow microneedles had a superior enhancing effect on skin permeation compared with a solid microneedle patch and untreated skin by efficiently delivering ovalbumin-fluorescein conjugate into the deep skin layers. The flux and cumulative amount of ovalbumin-fluorescein conjugate at 8 h after administering with various conditions could be ranked as follows: hollow MN; high dose > medium dose > low dose > MN patch; high dose > medium dose > low dose > untreated skin; high dose > medium dose > low dose > without ovalbumin-fluorescein conjugate. As the dose of ovalbumin-fluorescein conjugate was increased to 500 μg, the antigen accumulated in the skin to a greater extent, as evidenced by the increasing green fluorescence intensity. When the hollow microneedle was used for the delivery of ovalbumin into the skin of mice, it was capable of inducing a stronger immunoglobulin G immune response than conventional subcutaneous injection at the same antigen dose. Immunoglobulin G levels in the hollow MN group were 5.7, 11.6, and 13.3 times higher than those of the subcutaneous injection group for low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Furthermore, the mice immunized using the hollow microneedle showed no signs of skin infection or pinpoint bleeding. The results suggest that the hollow MN is an efficient device for delivering the optimal dose of antigen via the skin for successful immunization.

  19. Neutron-skin effect in direct-photon and charged-hadron production in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helenius, Ilkka [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Tuebingen University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Paukkunen, Hannu [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki (Finland); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Galicia (Spain); Eskola, Kari J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-03-15

    A well-established observation in nuclear physics is that in neutron-rich spherical nuclei the distribution of neutrons extends farther than the distribution of protons. In this work, we scrutinize the influence of this so called neutron-skin effect on the centrality dependence of high-p{sub T} direct-photon and charged-hadron production. We find that due to the estimated spatial dependence of the nuclear parton distribution functions, it will be demanding to unambiguously expose the neutron-skin effect with direct photons. However, when taking a ratio between the cross sections for negatively and positively charged high-p{sub T} hadrons, even centrality-dependent nuclear-PDF effects cancel, making this observable a better handle on the neutron skin. Up to 10% effects can be expected for the most peripheral collisions in the measurable region. (orig.)

  20. Enhanced barrier functions and anti-inflammatory effect of cultured coconut extract on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soomin; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Jihee; Lee, Young In; Lee, Dong Won; Song, Seung Yong; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-08-01

    Natural plant oils have been used as a translational alternative to modern medicine. Particularly, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has gained popularity because of its potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications. Cultured coconut extract (CCE) is an alternative end product of VCO, which undergoes a further bacterial fermentation process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCE on human skin. We analyzed the expression of skin barrier molecules and collagens after applying CCE on human explanted skin. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of CCE, the expression of inflammatory markers was analyzed after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The CCE-treated group showed increased expression of cornified cell envelope components, which contribute to protective barrier functions of the stratum corneum. Further, the expression of inflammatory markers was lower in the CCE-treated group after exposure to UVB radiation. These results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of CCE against UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. Additionally, the CCE-treated group showed increased collagen and hyaluronan synthase-3 expression. In our study, CCE showed a barrier-enhancing effect and anti-inflammatory properties against ex vivo UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. The promising effect of CCE may be attributed to its high levels of polyphenols and fatty acid components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human reconstructed skin xenografts on mice to model skin physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Giorgiana; Ng, Yi Zhen; Koh, Li Fang; Goh, Christabelle S M; Common, John E

    Xenograft models to study skin physiology have been popular for scientific use since the 1970s, with various developments and improvements to the techniques over the decades. Xenograft models are particularly useful and sought after due to the lack of clinically relevant animal models in predicting drug effectiveness in humans. Such predictions could in turn boost the process of drug discovery, since novel drug compounds have an estimated 8% chance of FDA approval despite years of rigorous preclinical testing and evaluation, albeit mostly in non-human models. In the case of skin research, the mouse persists as the most popular animal model of choice, despite its well-known anatomical differences with human skin. Differences in skin biology are especially evident when trying to dissect more complex skin conditions, such as psoriasis and eczema, where interactions between the immune system, epidermis and the environment likely occur. While the use of animal models are still considered the gold standard for systemic toxicity studies under controlled environments, there are now alternative models that have been approved for certain applications. To overcome the biological limitations of the mouse model, research efforts have also focused on "humanizing" the mice model to better recapitulate human skin physiology. In this review, we outline the different approaches undertaken thus far to study skin biology using human tissue xenografts in mice and the technical challenges involved. We also describe more recent developments to generate humanized multi-tissue compartment mice that carry both a functioning human immune system and skin xenografts. Such composite animal models provide promising opportunities to study drugs, disease and differentiation with greater clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Topical steroid-damaged skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

  3. Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds, and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm, which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.

  4. Effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin cancer development in mice and its possible mechanism of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Guillermo, Ruth; Zhang, Xiaoying; Kaushik, Radhey S; Young, Alan; Zeman, David; Hildreth, Michael B; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2011-01-01

    Magnolol, a plant lignan isolated from the bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis, has been shown to have chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin cancer development. The objectives of this investigation are to study the anticarcinogenic effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 mice, a model relevant to humans, and determine the possible role of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest involved in the skin tumor development. UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis model in SKH-1 mice was used for determining the preventive effects of magnolol on skin cancer development. Western blottings and flow cytometric analysis were used to study the effects of magnolol on apoptosis and cell cycle. Magnolol pretreated groups (30, 60 μ g) before UVB treatments (30 mJ/cm 2 , 5 days/week) resulted in 27-55% reduction in tumor multiplicity as compared to control group in SKH-1 mice. Magnolol pretreatment increased the cleavage of caspase-8 and poly-(-ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), increased the expression of p21, a cell cycle inhibitor, and decreased the expression of proteins involved in the G2/M phase of cell cycle in skin samples from SKH-1 mice. Treatment of A431 cells with magnolol decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. Magnolol induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in A431 cells at 12 h with a decreased expression of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin B1, cyclin A, CDK4, Cdc2 and simultaneous increase in the expression of Cip/p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Magnolol induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro with an increased cleavage of caspase-8 and PARP. Phospho-signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Tyr 705 ), B-Raf, p-MEK, and p-AKT were down-regulated, whereas phosphorylation of ERK was induced by magnolol in A431 cells. Magnolol pretreatments prevent UVB-induced skin cancer development by enhancing apoptosis, causing cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and affecting various

  5. Antimicrobial and Anti-Proliferative Effects of Skin Mucus Derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Fuochi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to chemotherapy occurs in various diseases (i.e., cancer and infection, and for this reason, both are very difficult to treat. Therefore, novel antimicrobial and chemotherapic drugs are needed for effective antibiotic therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative effects of skin mucus derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758. Our results showed that skin mucus exhibited a significant and specific antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria but not against Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, we also observed a significant antifungal activity against some strains of Candida spp. Concerning anti-proliferative activity, we showed that fish mucus was specifically toxic for acute leukemia cells (HL60 with an inhibition of proliferation in a dose dependent manner (about 52% at 1000 μg/mL of fish skin mucous, FSM. Moreover, we did not observe effects in healthy cells, in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y, and multiple myeloma cell lines (MM1, U266. Finally, it exhibited strong expression and activity of chitinase which may be responsible, at least in part, for the aforementioned results.

  6. Oncogenic Radiation Abscopal Effects In Vivo: Interrogating Mouse Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, Mariateresa; Leonardi, Simona; Giardullo, Paola; Pasquali, Emanuela; Tanori, Mirella; De Stefano, Ilaria; Casciati, Arianna; Naus, Christian C.; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the tissue dependence in transmission of abscopal radiation signals and their oncogenic consequences in a radiosensitive mouse model and to explore the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in mediating radiation tumorigenesis in off-target mouse skin. Methods and Materials: Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1 +/− ) mice were irradiated at postnatal day 2 (P2) with 10 Gy of x-rays. Individual lead cylinders were used to protect the anterior two-thirds of the body, whereas the hindmost part was directly exposed to radiation. To test the role of GJICs and their major constituent connexin43 (Cx43), crosses between Ptch1 +/− and Cx43 +/− mice were similarly irradiated. These mouse groups were monitored for their lifetime, and skin basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were counted and recorded. Early responses to DNA damage - Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis - were also evaluated in shielded and directly irradiated skin areas. Results: We report abscopal tumor induction in the shielded skin of Ptch1 +/− mice after partial-body irradiation. Endpoints were induction of early nodular BCC-like tumors and macroscopic infiltrative BCCs. Abscopal tumorigenesis was significantly modulated by Cx43 status, namely, Cx43 reduction was associated with decreased levels of DNA damage and oncogenesis in out-of-field skin, suggesting a key role of GJIC in transmission of oncogenic radiation signals to unhit skin. Conclusions: Our results further characterize the nature of abscopal responses and the implications they have on pathologic processes in different tissues, including their possible underlying mechanistic bases

  7. Oncogenic Radiation Abscopal Effects In Vivo: Interrogating Mouse Skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, Mariateresa, E-mail: mariateresa.mancuso@enea.it [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); Leonardi, Simona [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); Giardullo, Paola; Pasquali, Emanuela [Department of Radiation Physics, Guglielmo Marconi University, Rome (Italy); Tanori, Mirella [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); De Stefano, Ilaria [Department of Radiation Physics, Guglielmo Marconi University, Rome (Italy); Casciati, Arianna [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); Naus, Christian C. [Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, The Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the tissue dependence in transmission of abscopal radiation signals and their oncogenic consequences in a radiosensitive mouse model and to explore the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in mediating radiation tumorigenesis in off-target mouse skin. Methods and Materials: Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1{sup +/−}) mice were irradiated at postnatal day 2 (P2) with 10 Gy of x-rays. Individual lead cylinders were used to protect the anterior two-thirds of the body, whereas the hindmost part was directly exposed to radiation. To test the role of GJICs and their major constituent connexin43 (Cx43), crosses between Ptch1{sup +/−} and Cx43{sup +/−} mice were similarly irradiated. These mouse groups were monitored for their lifetime, and skin basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were counted and recorded. Early responses to DNA damage - Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis - were also evaluated in shielded and directly irradiated skin areas. Results: We report abscopal tumor induction in the shielded skin of Ptch1{sup +/−} mice after partial-body irradiation. Endpoints were induction of early nodular BCC-like tumors and macroscopic infiltrative BCCs. Abscopal tumorigenesis was significantly modulated by Cx43 status, namely, Cx43 reduction was associated with decreased levels of DNA damage and oncogenesis in out-of-field skin, suggesting a key role of GJIC in transmission of oncogenic radiation signals to unhit skin. Conclusions: Our results further characterize the nature of abscopal responses and the implications they have on pathologic processes in different tissues, including their possible underlying mechanistic bases.

  8. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  9. Neutron skin effect of some Mo isotopes in pre-equilibrium reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It can help to investigate nuclear surface properties (and also neutron skin thickness effects) depending on the incident nucleon en- ergy PEQ reactions and it gives more information about new nuclear reaction mechanism studies [11,12]. We study molybdenum in the present work because Mo and Mo containing alloys are.

  10. Joining strength performances of metal skin and CFRP core laminate structures realized by compression-curing process, with supporting experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliato, Luca; Jang, Changsoon; Kim, Naksoo

    2018-05-01

    In the recent years, the trend of lightening vehicles and structures of every kind has become an ever-growing issue, both for university and industrial researchers. As demonstrated in previous authors' works, laminate structures made of metal skin (MS) and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) core show high specific bending strength properties while granting considerable weight reduction but, so far, no investigations have been carried out on the hole sensitivity and joinability of these hybrid structures. In the present research work, the hole size sensitivity of MS-CFRP structure has been studied by means of uniaxial tensile test on 160mm (length), 25mm (width), 2.0mm (average thickness) specimens bored with Ø06mm, Ø9mm, and Ø12mm holes. The specimen thickness is composed of two metal skins of 0.4mm thickness each, 8×0.2mm CFRP stacked layers and two thin epoxy-based adhesive layers. The specimens have been manufactured by means of a compression-curing process in which the different materials are stacked and, thanks to die pressure and temperature, the curing process is completed in a relatively short time (15˜20 minutes). The specimens have been tested by means of simple tension test showing that, for the MS-CFRP material, the smaller the hole the smaller the maximum bearable load. Moreover, specimens with the same hole sizes have been bolted together with class 12 resistance bolts and tested by means of tensile test, allowing to determine the maximum transferable load between the two MS-CFRP plates. Aiming to prove the improvement in the specific transferable load, experiments on only-steel specimens with the same weight of the MS-CFRP ones and joined with the same method and bolts have been carried out, allowing to conclude that, for the 9mm hole bolted plates, the proposed material has a specific maximum transferable 27% higher than that of the steel composing their skins.

  11. Anti-ageing effects of a new synthetic sphingolipid (K6EAA-L12) on aged murine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minyoung; Lee, Sanghoon; Park, Hwa-young; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Jeong, Sekyoo; Bae, Jonghwan; Kwon, Mi Jung; Park, Byeong Deog; Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Eung Ho

    2011-04-01

    Recently, we reported on the anti-ageing effects of K6PC-5. This compound induced keratinocyte differentiation and fibroblast proliferation by increasing sphingosine-1 phosphate synthesis. We performed this study to confirm the anti-ageing effects of new synthetic products (the K6EAA series) derived from K6PC-5 through an amino group induction. Cellular responses such as differentiation, proliferation and calcium mobilization were investigated using cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Also, we measured the expressions of collagen mRNA and protein using real time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The K6EAA-L12 product, selected by in vitro screening, was evaluated for anti-ageing effects on intrinsically and extrinsically (photo) aged models of hairless mice. In the intrinsically aged murine skin, K6EAA-L12 showed anti-ageing effects by activating collagen synthesis, eventually causing dermal thickening. Also, in the photo-aged skin, the dermal collagen density and dermal thickness were increased. In photo-aged murine skin, K6EAA-L12 increased stratum corneum integrity by increasing corneodesmosome density and improved the barrier recovery rate. However, there were no changes in the expressions of epidermal differentiation maker proteins. In conclusion, topical K6EAA-L12, a new synthetic K6PC-5 derivative, improves intrinsically and extrinsically (photo) aged skin by increasing the collagen density and improving the skin barrier function. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. The Glutathione Derivative, GSH Monoethyl Ester, May Effectively Whiten Skin but GSH Does Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Chung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione in its reduced form (GSH is an antioxidant and also is involved in pheomelanin formation. Thus, it has been long believed that GSH has a skin whitening effect. However, its actual or direct effect is unproven. We evaluated the anti-melanogenic effects of GSH and its derivatives in vitro. We examined change of melanogenesis and its related proteins by GSH itself and its derivatives, including GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE, GSH diethyl ester (GSH-DEE and GSH monoisopropyl ester (GSH-MIPE in Melan-A cells, Mel-Ab cells, and B16F10 cells. GSH and GSH-MEE did not display cytotoxic activity, but GSH-MIPE and GSH-DEE did. Intriguingly, GSH itself had no inhibitory effect on melanin production or intracellular tyrosinase activity. Rather, it was GSH-MEE and GSH-MIPE that profoundly reduced the amount of melanin and intracellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, GSH-MEE was selected as a suitable candidate skin-whitening agent and it did not alter melanogenesis-associated proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP-1, and TRP-2, but it did increase the amount of suggested pheomelanin and suggested pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. GSH-MEE was effective for anti-melanogenesis, whereas GSH itself was not. GSH-MEE could be developed as a safe and efficient agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation skin disorders.

  13. Effects of water activity and low molecular weight humectants on skin permeability and hydration dynamics - a double-blind, randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albèr, C; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Kocherbitov, V; Saleem, S; Lodén, M; Engblom, J

    2014-10-01

    The mammalian skin is a barrier that effectively separates the water-rich interior of the body from the normally dryer exterior. Changes in the external conditions, for example ambient humidity, have been shown to affect the skin barrier properties. The prime objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of water activity of a topical formulation on skin hydration and permeability. A second objective was to gain more understanding on how two commonly used humectants, urea and glycerol, affect skin barrier function in vivo. Simple aqueous formulations were applied under occlusion to the volar forearm of healthy volunteers. Following 4-h exposure, skin water loss (by transepidermal water loss measurements), skin hydration (by Corneometry) and skin permeability (by time to vasodilation due to benzyl nicotinate exposure) were monitored. The results demonstrate that a relatively small change in the water activity of a topical formulation is sufficient to induce considerable effects on stratum corneum hydration and permeability to exogenous substances. Exposing the skin to high water activity leads to increased skin hydration and also increased permeability. Furthermore, urea and glycerol promote skin hydration and permeability even at reduced water activity of the applied formulation. These results highlight the importance of considering the water activity in topically applied formulations and the potential benefit of using humectants. The results may impact formulation optimization in how to facilitate skin hydration and to modify skin permeability by temporarily open and close the skin barrier. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Effects of Creating Awareness Through Photographs and Posters on Skin Self-Examination in Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkin, Özüm; Ardahan, Melek; Temel, Ayla Bayık

    2018-02-01

    Nurses can have an influence on primary and secondary prevention of skin cancer. Therefore, it is important to help them acquire knowledge and skills necessary to modify behavior in relation to skin cancers. The aim of this study was to examine effects of creating awareness through photographs and posters on knowledge and skills of skin self-examination in nursing students. The study had a quasi-experimental design with a pretest and a posttest in a single group. The study population included 249 last-year nursing students in Turkey. Non-probability sampling was used to reach the population. The study sample was composed of 201 students volunteering to participate in the study, and the response rate was 81 %. Of the students, 85.1 % (n = 171) were female and the mean age of the students was 22.18 ± 0.78 years. Of the students, 94.5 % did not know the asymmetry, border, color, diameter, evolution (ABCDE) criteria on the pretest, but this rate decreased to 20.9 % on the posttest. The mean score for knowledge of symptoms of skin cancer was 10.95 ± 1.37 on the pretest and 11.48 ± 0.90 on the posttest. There was a significant linear increase in the scores for knowledge of the symptoms (F = 7.874, p < 0.001) after the intervention with photographs and posters. The students were observed to learn the ABCDE criteria and had increased knowledge of skin cancer symptoms after the intervention using photographs and posters. Photographs and posters are effective tools which can be used to increase awareness of skin self-examination.

  15. Friction coefficient of skin in real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamani, Raja K; Goodman, Jack; Gitis, Norm V; Maibach, Howard I

    2003-08-01

    Friction studies are useful in quantitatively investigating the skin surface. Previous studies utilized different apparatuses and materials for these investigations but there was no real-time test parameter control or monitoring. Our studies incorporated the commercially available UMT Series Micro-Tribometer, a tribology instrument that permits real-time monitoring and calculation of the important parameters in friction studies, increasing the accuracy over previous tribology and friction measurement devices used on skin. Our friction tests were performed on four healthy volunteers and on abdominal skin samples. A stainless steel ball was pressed on to the skin with at a pre-set load and then moved across the skin at a constant velocity of 5 mm/min. The UMT continuously monitored the friction force of the skin and the normal force of the ball to calculate the friction coefficient in real-time. Tests investigated the applicability of Amonton's law, the impact of increased and decreased hydration, and the effect of the application of moisturizers. The friction coefficient depends on the normal load applied, and Amonton's law does not provide an accurate description for the skin surface. Application of water to the skin increased the friction coefficient and application of isopropyl alcohol decreased it. Fast acting moisturizers immediately increased the friction coefficient, but did not have the prolonged effect of the slow, long lasting moisturizers. The UMT is capable of making real-time measurements on the skin and can be used as an effective tool to study friction properties. Results from the UMT measurements agree closely with theory regarding the skin surface.

  16. Nonstochastic effects of different energy beta emitters on pig skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, D.M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Wells, J.; Charles, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Circular areas of pig skin from 1- to 40-mm diameter were irradiated with β emitters of high, medium, and low energies, 90 Sr, 170 Tm, and 147 Pm, respectively. The study provides information for radiological protection problems of localized skin exposures. During the first 16 weeks after irradiation 90 Sr produced a first reaction due to epithelial cell death followed by a second reaction attributable to damage to the dermal blood vessels. 170 Tm and 147 Pm produced the epithelial reaction only. The epithelial dose response varied as a function of β energy. The doses required to produce moist desquamation in 50% of 15- to 22.5-mm fields (ED 50 ) were 30-45 Gy from 90 Sr, approx.80 Gy from 170 Tm, and approx.500 Gy from 147 Pm. An area effect was observed in the epithelial response to 90 Sr irradiation. The ED 50 for moist desquamation ranged from approx.25 Gy for a 40-mm source to approx.450 Gy for a 1-mm source. It is also suggested that the area effects could be explained by different modes of epithelial repopulation after irradiation

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF A COGNITIVE SOCIAL PROGRAM TO PREVENT SKIN CANCER IN ADOLESCENT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO ALFONSO SANABRIA FERRAND

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Differential effect of three components of a social cognitive program, e.g., information, self-evaluation of risk andsubjective norms, influencing sun protective practices was established in a group of 57 female teenagers. The componentswere defined as three independent variables consisting of (i Oral information about skin cancer, (ii Self-evaluation ofthe risk of acquiring skin cancer and identification and modification of the barriers, and finally (iii Identification andrestructure of subjective norms that favor exposure and sun tanning behavior. The study design was intrasubject withmeasurements pre- and pos-test and twelve weeks of following-up after finalizing the preventive program. It wasfound that the given information about skin cancer favours negative attitudes towards sun tanning behavior, althoughcontrary to was expected, there was an increase of sunbathing and sun tanning, which just diminished after theimplementation of the preventive program’s second component. The third component was related with the decreasedof the perceived benefits of protection and the increased of severity perception towards foto-ageing. The followed-upand correlations among the psycho-social model ´s variables with protection habits reckon the effectiveness of themodel to increment the sun protection practices

  18. The biological basis for dose limitation to the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause deterministic effects and cancer. It has been the policy to base dose limits for radiation protection of the skin on the prevention of deterministic effects (1). In the case of cancer in general, dose limitation for radiation protection is based on limiting excess cancer mortality to low levels of radiation. Since skin cancers are seldom lethal, the general radiation protection standards will protect against an increase in excess mortality from skin cancer. However, with the dose limits selected to prevent deterministic effects, there is a significant probability of an excess incidence of skin cancer occurring as a result of exposure during a working lifetime. The induction of skin cancer by radiation is influenced significantly by subsequent exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight. This finding raises not only interesting questions about the mechanisms involved, but also about the differences in risk of skin cancer in different populations. The amount and distribution of melanin in the skin determines the degree of the effect of UVR. This paper discusses the mechanisms of the induction of both deterministic and stochastic effects in skin exposed to radiation in relation to radiation protection. (author)

  19. Protective effects of fermented honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) extract (HU-018) against skin aging: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Young; Hong, Ji Yeon; Ko, Eun Jung; Kim, Beom Joon; Hong, Sung-Woon; Lim, Mi Hyoung; Yeon, Sung Hum; Son, Rak Ho

    2018-02-01

    Oxidative stress and photodamage resulting from ultraviolet radiation exposure play key roles in skin aging. Fermented Cyclopia intermedia, which is used to brew honeybush tea, exerts antioxidant and anti-wrinkle effects by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production and downregulating matrix metalloproteinase activity. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fermented honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) extract (HU-018) for skin rejuvenation. 120 Korean subjects with crow's feet wrinkles were randomized to receive either low-dose extract (400 mg/day), high-dose extract (800 mg/day), or placebo (negative control, only dextran) for 12 weeks. Wrinkles were evaluated using JANUS ® and PRIMO pico ® . Skin elasticity, hydration and transepidermal water loss were measured. Global skin wrinkle grade was significantly improved in both low-dose and high-dose groups compared to placebo group, as well as for skin hydration and elasticity. Both the low- and high-dose groups showed significantly decreased TEWL compared to the placebo group. There were no adverse effects during the entire study period. Our data indicate that HU-018 is effective for improving skin wrinkles, elasticity, and hydration. Therefore, daily supplementation with fermented honeybush could be helpful for protecting against skin aging.

  20. Effects of a turmeric extract (Curcuma longa) on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in melanin-possessing hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2009-12-01

    Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L., Zingiberacease) is widely used as a dietary pigment and spice, and has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, skin wounds and hepatic disorders in Ayurvedic, Unani and Chinese medicine. Although the topical application or oral administration of turmeric is used to improve skin trouble, there is no evidence to support this effect. The aim of this study was to clarify whether turmeric prevents chronic ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated skin damage. We examined the effects of a turmeric extract on skin damage including changes in skin thickness and elasticity, pigmentation and wrinkling caused by long-term, low-dose ultraviolet B irradiation in melanin-possessing hairless mice. The extract (at 300 or 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) prevented an increase in skin thickness and a reduction in skin elasticity induced by chronic UVB exposure. It also prevented the formation of wrinkles and melanin (at 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels and in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Prevention of UVB-induced skin aging by turmeric may be due to the inhibition of increases in MMP-2 expression caused by chronic irradiation.

  1. Application of the aqueous porous pathway model to quantify the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on ultrasound-induced skin structural perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Baris E; Seto, Jennifer E; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on skin structural perturbation when utilized simultaneously with low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS). Pig full-thickness skin (FTS) and pig split-thickness skin (STS) treated with LFS/SLS and LFS were analyzed in the context of the aqueous porous pathway model to quantify skin perturbation through changes in skin pore radius and porosity-to-tortuosity ratio (ε/τ). In addition, skin treatment times required to attain specific levels of skin electrical resistivity were analyzed to draw conclusions about the effect of SLS on reproducibility and predictability of skin perturbation. We found that LFS/SLS-treated FTS, LFS/SLS-treated STS, and LFS-treated FTS exhibited similar skin perturbation. However, LFS-treated STS exhibited significantly higher skin perturbation, suggesting greater structural changes to the less robust STS induced by the purely physical enhancement mechanism of LFS. Evaluation of ε/τ values revealed that LFS/SLS-treated FTS and STS have similar transport pathways, whereas LFS-treated FTS and STS have lower ε/τ values. In addition, LFS/SLS treatment times were much shorter than LFS treatment times for both FTS and STS. Moreover, the simultaneous use of SLS and LFS not only results in synergistic enhancement, as reflected in the shorter skin treatment times, but also in more predictable and reproducible skin perturbation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. An effective dose assessment technique with NORM added consumer products using skin-point source on computational human phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Do Hyeon; Shin, Wook-Geun; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Choi, Hyun Joon; Testa, Mauro; Lee, Jae Kook; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Min, Chul Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the assessment technique of the effective dose by calculating the organ equivalent dose with a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and a computational human phantom for the naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) added consumer products. In this study, we suggests the method determining the MC source term based on the skin-point source enabling the convenient and conservative modeling of the various type of the products. To validate the skin-point source method, the organ equivalent doses were compared with that by the product modeling source of the realistic shape for the pillow, waist supporter, sleeping mattress etc. Our results show that according to the source location, the organ equivalent doses were observed as the similar tendency for both source determining methods, however, it was observed that the annual effective dose with the skin-point source was conservative than that with the modeling source with the maximum 3.3 times higher dose. With the assumption of the gamma energy of 1 MeV and product activity of 1 Bq g"−"1, the annual effective doses of the pillow, waist supporter and sleeping mattress with skin-point source was 3.09E-16 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, 1.45E-15 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, and 2,82E-16 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, respectively, while the product modeling source showed 9.22E-17 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, 9.29E-16 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, and 8.83E-17 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, respectively. In conclusion, it was demonstrated in this study that the skin-point source method could be employed to efficiently evaluate the annual effective dose due to the usage of the NORM added consumer products. - Highlights: • We evaluate the exposure dose from the usage of NORM added consumer products. • We suggest the method determining the MC source term based on the skin-point source. • To validate the skin-point source, the organ equivalent doses were compared with that the modeling source. • The skin-point source could

  3. Advanced tools for in vivo skin analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Krzysztof; Zakowiecki, Daniel; Stefanowska, Justyna

    2010-05-01

    A thorough examination of the skin is essential for accurate disease diagnostics, evaluation of the effectiveness of topically applied drugs and the assessment of the results of dermatologic surgeries such as skin grafts. Knowledge of skin parameters is also important in the cosmetics industry, where the effects of skin care products are evaluated. Due to significant progress in the electronics and computer industries, sophisticated analytic devices are increasingly available for day-to-day diagnostics. The aim of this article is to review several advanced methods for in vivo skin analysis in humans: magnetic resonance imaging, electron paramagnetic resonance, laser Doppler flowmetry and time domain reflectometry. The molecular bases of these techniques are presented, and several interesting applications in the field are discussed. Methods for in vivo assessment of the biomechanical properties of human skin are also reviewed.

  4. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy; Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy; Melasma - pregnancy; Prenatal skin changes ... during pregnancy may have other effects on your skin. Some women get brownish or yellowish patches around ...

  5. Penetration of radionuclides across skin barriers of animal skin models in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.; Harangozo, M.; Bohacik, L.; Kassai, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper: (i) the time dependence of permeation of 137 Cs + , 60 Co 2+ , and 147 Pm 3+ from aqueous solution through animal skin model has been studied, (ii) the biologic structure mostly responsible for the barrier effect was selected and proved, (iii) the relative importance of the main diffusion pathways for 137 Cs + , 60 Co 2+ and 147 Pm 3+ (the diffusion across the intact skin and the diffusion through the hair channels) was assessed. All experiments were done using radioactive tracers. Experimental arrangement consisted of Franz-type vertical permeation cells used with fresh skin from abdominal region of 5 day old rats (5DR) of Wistar strain (Breeding Farm Dobra Voda, SK) and 9 day old rats (9DR), respectively. 5DR are still hairless, and 9DR are just short haired. The 5DR skin was used in full form (intact), and then with decreasing thickness of horny layer after the skin had been stripped with Scotch type (3M) 5-20 times respectively, or the skin was splitted under 60 degC hot water so that the whole epidermis was removed. The penetrated amounts of ions were found to be proportional to the time at least in the first 7 hours. The permeation resistance of the skin is proportional to the thickness of the horny layer, the principal barrier mostly restricting the flux of ions. The more the skin is stripped, the more enhanced is the penetration of ions. This corroborates the fact that stratum corneum represents the most important barrier function of the whole skin (of rats). The additional diffusion through channels along hairs (follicules) can be of important value also in case of human skin where hair density is many times lower than in the case of the animal models used

  6. Biological effects of brachytherapy using a {sup 32}P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgueiro, M.J. [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 Piso Bajo, 1113-Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: jsalgueiro@ffyb.uba.ar; Collia, N. [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 Piso Bajo, 1113-Buenos Aires (Argentina); Duran, H. [CONICET, San Martin (Argentina); School of Science and Technology, University of San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Radiobiology Department, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Palmieri, M. [CONICET, San Martin (Argentina); Biodiversity and Experimental Biology Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); School of Science and Technology, University of San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Medina, V. [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 Piso Bajo, 1113-Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ughetti, R.; Nicolini, J. [Research and Development Department, Laboratorios Bacon SAIC, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zubillaga, M. [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 Piso Bajo, 1113-Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biological effects of the {sup 32}P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a {sup 32}P-patch was prepared with Chromic {sup 32}P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in six groups. Four groups received the contact brachytherapy treatments using a scheme of a single session of 40 and 60 Gy (SD40 and SD60) and a scheme of two sessions of 40 and 60 Gy each (FD40 and FD60). The other two groups were used as controls of the single (CSD) and the fractionated (CFD) treatments. Radiation doses were estimated with equations derived from the MIRD DOSE scheme, and biologically effective doses (BED) were calculated according to equations derived from the linear-quadratic model. The endpoint to evaluate the treatments effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days. Finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis and PCNA staining. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of control groups were higher than for treated groups, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. This radioactive {sup 32}P-silicone-patch which is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases, seems promising as a radioactive device for clinical use.

  7. Effects of pressure, cold and gloves on hand skin temperature and manual performance of divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Joanna; Morrison, James

    2008-09-01

    Cold water immersion and protective gloves are associated with decreased manual performance. Although neoprene gloves slow hand cooling, there is little information on whether they provide sufficient protection when diving in cold water. Nine divers wearing three-fingered neoprene gloves and dry suits were immersed in water at 25 and 4 degrees C, at depths of 0.4 msw (101 kPa altitude adjusted) and 40 msw (497 kPa) in a hyperbaric chamber. Skin temperatures were measured at the fingers, hand, forearm, chest and head. Grip strength, tactile sensitivity and manual dexterity were measured at three time intervals. There was an exponential decay in finger and back of hand skin temperatures with exposure time in 4 degrees C water. Finger and back of hand skin temperatures were lower at 40 msw than at 0.4 msw (P effect of pressure or temperature on grip strength. Tactile sensitivity decreased linearly with finger skin temperature at both pressures. Manual dexterity was not affected by finger skin temperature at 0.4 msw, but decreased with fall in finger skin temperature at 40 msw. Results show that neoprene gloves do not provide adequate thermal protection in 4 degrees C water and that impairment of manual performance is dependent on the type of task, depth and exposure time.

  8. The injury and cumulative effects on human skin by UV exposure from artificial fluorescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Liu, Wei; Niu, TianHui; Dai, CaiHong; Li, Xiaoxin; Cui, Caijuan; Zhao, Xinyan; E, Yaping; Lu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The injury and cumulative effects of UV emission from fluorescence lamp were studied. UV intensity from fluorescence lamp was measured, and human skin samples (hips, 10 volunteers) were exposed to low-dose UV irradiation (three times per week for 13 consecutive weeks). Three groups were examined: control group without UV radiation; low-dose group with a cumulative dose of 50 J cm(-2) which was equivalent to irradiation of the face during indoor work for 1.5 years; and high-dose group with 1000 J cm(-2) cumulative dose equivalent to irradiation of the face during outdoor activities for 1 year. Specific indicators were measured before and after UVA irradiation. The findings showed that extending the low-dose UVA exposure decreased the skin moisture content and increased the transepidermal water loss as well as induced skin color changes (decreased L* value, increased M index). Furthermore, irradiated skin showed an increased thickness of cuticle and epidermis, skin edema, light color and unclear staining collagen fibers in the dermis, and elastic fiber fragmentation. In addition, MMP-1, p53 and SIRT1 expression was also increased. Long-term exposure of low-dose UVA radiation enhanced skin photoaging. The safety of the fluorescent lamp needs our attention. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. The Effects of Advertising Strategies on Consumer Trust: A Case of Skin Care Products in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velly Anatasia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to develop advertising strategies in order to increase consumer trust. Four advertising elements: celebrity endorsement, branding, product attribute, and third party certification were investigated. Data were collected to answer two research questions: (1 To investigate the advertising strategies of skin care products leading to consumer trust, (2 To know the effects of advertising strategies in skin care products on consumer trust. A 5-point Likert scale survey was distributed to the female population in Taipei area. Via online and personal approaches, 266 questionnaires were returned. Targeting on 18-30 years old female skin care product users who stay in Taipei area more than six months, 240 qualified questionnaires were analyzed. The four independent variables are found having a significant relationship with trust in skin care advertising, in which branding has the greatest influence on increasing consumer trust. The control variable which is financial status is not found having statistically significant effect on consumer trust. To conclude, this study is dedicated to the communities in order to optimize their marketing strategies.

  10. Skin permeation enhancement effects of the gel and whole-leaf materials of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii and Aloe ferox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle T; Gerber, Minja; du Preez, Jan L; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Hamman, Josias H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro permeation enhancement effects of the gel and whole-leaf materials of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii and Aloe ferox using ketoprofen as a marker compound. The permeation studies were conducted across excised female abdominal skin in Franz diffusion cells, and the delivery of ketoprofen into the stratum corneum-epidermis and epidermis-dermis layers of the skin was investigated using a tape-stripping technique. A. vera gel showed the highest permeation-enhancing effect on ketoprofen (enhancement ratio or ER = 2.551) when compared with the control group, followed by A. marlothii gel (ER = 1.590) and A. ferox whole-leaf material (ER = 1.520). Non-linear curve fitting calculations indicated that the drug permeation-enhancing effect of A. vera gel can be attributed to an increased partitioning of the drug into the skin, while A. ferox whole leaf modified the diffusion characteristics of the skin for ketoprofen. The tape stripping results indicated that A. marlothii whole leaf delivered the highest concentration of the ketoprofen into the different skin layers. Of the selected aloe species investigated, A. vera gel material showed the highest potential as transdermal drug penetration enhancer across human skin. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. [The effects of multimedia-assisted instruction on the skin care learning of nurse aides in long-term care facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ling; Kao, Yu-Hsiu

    2014-08-01

    Skin care is an important responsibility of nurse aides in long-term care facilities, and the nursing knowledge, attitudes, and skills of these aides significantly affects quality of care. However, the work schedule of nurse aides often limits their ability to obtain further education and training. Therefore, developing appropriate and effective training programs for nurse aides is critical to maintaining and improving quality of care in long-term care facilities. This study investigates the effects of multimedia assisted instruction on the skin care learning of nurse aides working in long-term care facilities. A quasi-experimental design and convenient sampling were adopted in this study. Participants included 96 nurse aides recruited from 5 long-term care facilities in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. The experimental group received 3 weeks of multimedia assisted instruction. The control group did not receive this instruction. The Skin Care Questionnaire for Nurse Aides in Long-term Care Facilities and the Skin Care Behavior Checklist were used for assessment before and after the intervention. (1) Posttest scores for skin care knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and the skin care checklist were significantly higher than pretest scores for the intervention group. There was no significant difference between pretest and posttest scores for the control group. (2) A covariance analysis of pretest scores for the two groups showed that the experimental group earned significantly higher average scores than their control group peers for skin care knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and the skin care checklist. The multimedia assisted instruction demonstrated significant and positive effects on the skin care leaning of nurse aides in long-term care facilities. This finding supports the use of multimedia assisted instruction in the education and training of nurse aides in long-term care facilities in the future.

  12. Protective effects of black rice bran against chemically-induced inflammation of mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of black rice (cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1) bran against 12-O-tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema and 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in inflammatory mouse models. We also determined the effects of the bran...

  13. Effectiveness of the Healthy Skin Clinic – a randomized clinical trial of nurse-led patient counselling in hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Annette; Veien, Niels K; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is a common disease, and continuous preventive skin protection and skin care must be adopted to prevent a chronic course. Hand eczema is not a uniform disease, and counselling must therefore be individually tailored. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse-led...... or burden of disease were found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: A tailored nurse-led programme of skin protection counselling may be recommended as an essential part of hand eczema treatment.......BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is a common disease, and continuous preventive skin protection and skin care must be adopted to prevent a chronic course. Hand eczema is not a uniform disease, and counselling must therefore be individually tailored. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse......-led counselling programme, the Healthy Skin Clinic, emphasizing the patient's self-management, resources, and risks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 306) referred for diagnostic work-up and treatment of hand eczema were randomized and allocated either to the programme or to usual care. The primary outcome...

  14. The effects of continuous application of sunscreen on photoaged skin in Japanese elderly people – the relationship with the usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Mizuno,1,2 Kayo Kunimoto,1 Eiji Naru,2 Koichi Kameyama,2 Fukumi Furukawa,1 Yuki Yamamoto1,3 1Department of Dermatology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan; 2Fundamental Research Laboratories, KOSÉ Corporation, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Cosmetic Dermatology and Photomedicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan Abstract: Since photoaging of skin is caused by chronic sun exposure, it is well-recognized that regular sunscreen use can help prevent photoaging of skin in fair-skinned people. Therefore, application of sunscreen is recommended for the prevention of photoaging in many countries. However, the relationship between UV exposure and photoaging has rarely been investigated in clinical studies in Japan. In addition, there have been almost no long-term interventional studies in Japanese people. We have previously conducted a study where Japanese actinic keratosis patients were instructed to continuously apply sunscreen. The results indicated that long-term application of sunscreen is effective in suppressing actinic keratosis progression and generation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sunscreen on photoaged skin in 14 elderly Japanese people. Skin conditions such as water content, transepidermal water loss, the number of spots, wrinkles, and skin color tone uniformity were measured and compared before and after the study. A statistically significant difference was observed only in skin surface hydration. There were large inter-individual differences in amount of sunscreen used throughout the study. The changes in the number of spots and skin color tone uniformity during the 18 months showed good correlation with amount of sunscreen being used. These results suggest an increase in the number of spots and deterioration in skin color tone uniformity in the 18-month non-sunscreen application period, and that such skin conditions improved with increasing use of sunscreen. In this study, we suggested

  15. The choice of sensitive skin layer responsible for aftereffects of daily irradiation of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1992-01-01

    The choice of sensitive human skin layer manifesting in delayed period after daily irradiation of the human skin (stochastic and determined effects) was evaluated. It was established that delayed aftereffects of daily radiation of the skin manifested as epidem damages. This layer of papilla derma of 10-15 mg/cm 2 thick situated at the great part of body surface, 15 mg/cm 2 on dorsal side of hands and 40 mg/cm 2 on palms and pillows of the fingers. Sensitive layer of skin dosimeter for a control of daily irradiation of people must have the same geometry

  16. Electrical circuit modeling of conductors with skin effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerst, D.W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The electrical impedance of a lossy conductor is a complicated function of time (or frequency) because of the skin effect. By solving the diffusion equation for magnetic fields in conductors of several prototypical shapes, the impedance can be calculated as a function of time for a step function of current. The solution suggests an electrical circuit representation that allows calculation of time-dependent voltages and currents of arbitrary waveforms. A technique using an operational amplifier to determine the current in such a conductor by measuring some external voltage is described. Useful analytical approximations to the results are derived

  17. Sacha Inchi Oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.), effect on adherence of Staphylococus aureus to human skin explant and keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aspajo, German; Belkhelfa, Haouaria; Haddioui-Hbabi, Laïla; Bourdy, Geneviève; Deharo, Eric

    2015-08-02

    Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a domesticated vine distributed from the high-altitude Andean rain forest to the lowlands of the Peruvian Amazon. Oil from the cold-pressed seeds, sold under the commercial name of Sacha Inchi Oil (SIO) is actually much in favour because it contains a high percentage of omega 3 and omega 6, and is hence used as a dietary supplement. SIO is also used traditionally for skin care, in order to maintain skin softness, and for the treatment of wounds, insect bites and skin infections, in a tropical context where the skin is frequently damaged. This study was designed in order to verify whether the traditional use of SIO for skin care would have any impact on Staphylococcus aureus growth and skin adherence, as S. aureus is involved in many skin pathologies (impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles and subcutaneous abscesses) being one if the main pathogens that can be found on the skin. Therefore, our objective was to assess SIO bactericidal activity and interference with adherence to human skin explants and the keratinocyte cell line. Cytotoxicity on that cells was also determined. The activity of SIO was compared to coconut oil (CocO), which is widely used for skin care but has different unsaturated fatty acids contents. Laboratory testing with certified oil, determined antibacterial activity against radio labelled S. aureus. Cytotoxic effects were measured with XTT on keratinocyte cells and with neutral red on human skin explants; phenol was used as cytotoxic control. Adherence assays were carried out by mixing H3-labelled S. aureus bacteria with keratinocyte cells and human skin explants, incubated with oils 2h before (to determine the inhibition of adherence, assimilated to a preventive effect) or 2h after the contact of the biological material with S. aureus (to assess the detachment of the bacteria, assimilated to a curative effect). Residual radioactivity measured after washings made it possible to determine the adherence

  18. Core body temperature, skin temperature, and interface pressure. Relationship to skin integrity in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, D M

    1999-06-01

    To ascertain the effects of 1-, 1 1/2-, and 2-hour turning intervals on nursing home residents' skin over the sacrum and trochanters. (1) the higher the core body temperature, the higher the skin surface temperature; (2) the 2-hour turning interval would have significantly higher skin surface temperature; (3) there would be no relationship between skin surface temperature and interface pressure; and (4) the sacrum would have the lowest skin surface temperature. Modified Latin-square. For-profit nursing home. Convenience sample of 26 residents who scored bedridden. First Temp measured core temperature; a disposable thermistor temperature probe, skin temperature; and a digital interface pressure evaluator, the interface pressure. Negative correlation (r = -.33, P = .003) occurred between core body temperature and skin surface temperature. Skin surface temperature rose at the end of the 2-hour turning interval but was not significant (F = (2.68) = .73, P = .49). Weak negative relationship (r = -12, P = .29) occurred between skin surface temperature and interface pressure, and sacral skin surface temperature was significantly lower for the left trochanter only (F = (8.68) = 7.05, P = .002). Although hypotheses were not supported, more research is needed to understand how time in position and multiple chronic illnesses interact to affect skin pressure tolerance.

  19. Effects of Locally Applied Glycerol and Xylitol on the Hydration, Barrier Function and Morphological Parameters of the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korponyai, Csilla; Szél, Edit; Behány, Zoltán; Varga, Erika; Mohos, Gábor; Dura, Ágnes; Dikstein, Shabtay; Kemény, Lajos; Erős, Gábor

    2017-02-08

    Glycerol and xylitol hydrate the skin and improve its barrier function over a short period. We studied the effects of glycerol and xylitol on the physiological properties and morphology of the skin after longer-term application. Twelve volunteers with dry skin were examined. Three areas on the arms were determined. Area 1 served as untreated control. The vehicle was applied to area 2, while area 3 was treated twice daily with a formulation containing glycerol (5%) and xylitol (5%) for 14 days. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration and biomechanical properties of the skin were monitored. Biopsies were taken for routine histology and immunohistochemistry for filaggrin and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). The polyols increased the skin hydration and protein quantity of filaggrin, elevated the interdigitation index, decreased the TEWL and improved the biomechanical properties of the skin, but did not change the protein expression of MMP-1. A combination of glycerol and xylitol can be useful additional therapy for dry skin.

  20. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressing combined with negative-pressure wound therapy increases split-thickness skin graft engraftment: a simple effective technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Chew, Khong-Yik; Chen, Chien-Chang; Kuo, Yur-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Immobilization and adequate surface contact to wounds are critical for skin graft take. Techniques such as the tie-over dressing, cotton bolster, and vacuum-assisted closure are used to address this, but each has its limitations. This study is designed to assess the effect of antimicrobial-impregnated dressing (AMD) combined with negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on skin graft survival. Retrospective case-control study : Patients with chronic or contaminated wounds treated with split-thickness skin graft. A broad spectrum of wounds was included, from causes such as trauma, burns, chronic diabetic ulcers, and infection. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressing, which contains 0.2% polyhexamethylene biguanide, with NPWT MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:: Success of skin graft : In the AMD group, all skin grafts achieved 100% take without secondary intervention. No infection or graft failure was observed in any patients, and no complications, such as hematoma or seroma formation, were noted, although in the control group partial loss of skin grafts was noted in 3 patients. Infection and inadequate immobilization were thought to be the main reasons. There were no hematoma or seroma formations in the control group. Use of an AMD dressing with NPWT after split-thickness skin grafting can be an effective method to ensure good graft to wound contact and enhances skin graft take in chronic and contaminated wounds.

  1. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Methods Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a χ2-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. Results More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. Conclusions The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the

  2. [Acne in adult female patients: A comparative study in France and sub-Saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, F; Faye, O; Ly, F; Le Thuaut, A

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of acne in adult women in France and in sub-Saharan Africa. Women aged 25 years and over consulting for acne in hospital dermatology departments in Créteil, Dakar and Bamako were included. The data collected concerned a health questionnaire, previous history of acne, clinical examination and use of skin lighteners. Patient characteristics were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages for qualitative variables and as means and standard deviations or medians, and first and third quartiles, for quantitative variables based on distribution. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of body mass index, tobacco smoking, age at first period and use of contraceptives. The presence of a lozenge-shaped area of abdominal hyperpilosity was more common in women of dark phototype, with no other signs of hyperandrogenism being seen. Acne was more severe in Dakar and in Bamako than in Créteil. Post-inflammatory pigmentation and involvement of the cheeks and forehead occurred significantly more frequently in patients of dark phototype. Involvement of the chin was more common in light-skinned subjects. While none of the women not of African origin performed voluntary skin lightening, this practice was recorded in half of women of African origin in Créteil and in Africa. This study shows clinical differences in acne in adult women according to phototype and geographical zone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of dermal-epidermal skin equivalents ('composite-skin') of human keratinocytes in a collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix(Integra artificial skin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, M; Lang, E; Berger, A C

    2000-09-01

    origin. These experimental results demonstrate the establishment of an effective cell cultivation process which may be suitable for scale-up production of the epidermal component as large-scale composite-skin grafts. When seeded into Integratrade mark and grafted onto the nude mouse a replacement skin with normal functioning dermal-epidermal components was developed. These results encourage the design of a clinical trial to assess the function of this composite graft in man.

  4. Skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  6. ATR-IR study of skin components: Lipids, proteins and water. Part I: Temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsztyńska-Janus, S.; Pietruszka, A.; Kiełbowicz, Z.; Czarnecki, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report the studies of the effect of temperature on skin components, such as lipids, proteins and water. Modifications of lipids structure induced by increasing temperature (from 20 to 90 °C) have been studied using ATR-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool for characterization of the molecular structure and properties of tissues, such as skin. Due to the small depth of penetration (0.6-5.6 μm), ATR-IR spectroscopy probes only the outermost layer of the skin, i.e. the stratum corneum (SC). The assignment of main spectral features of skin components allows for the determination of phase transitions from the temperature dependencies of band intensities [e.g. νas(CH2) and νs(CH2)]. The phase transitions were determined by using two methods: the first one was based on the first derivative of the Boltzmann function and the second one employed tangent lines of sigmoidal, aforementioned dependencies. The phase transitions in lipids were correlated with modifications of the structure of water and proteins.

  7. Occupational skin cancer and precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifinela Raissa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesions are skin disorders caused by exposure to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and arsenic, or radiation, such as ultraviolet light and ionizing light in the workplace. Annual increase in skin cancer incidence is believed to be related to various factors such as frequent intense sunlight exposure (i.e. at work, recreational activities, and sun-tanning habit, ozone depletion, an increase in number of geriatric population, and an increase of public awareness in skin cancer. The most common occupational skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Examples of occupational precancerous lesion of the skin are actinic keratosis and Bowen’s disease. Particular diagnostic criteria to diagnose occupational diseases has been developed. Early detection of occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesion is necessary. An effective prevention program consists of primary prevention such as prevention of hazardous material exposure, secondary prevention such as early detection of disease for early intervention, and tertiary prevention such as minimizing long-term impact of the disease.

  8. [Skin hydration and hydrating products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplan, H; Nocera, T

    2018-05-01

    One of the skin's principal functions is to protect the body against its environment by maintaining an effective epidermal barrier, not only against external factors, but also to prevent water loss from the body. Indeed, water homeostasis is vital for the normal physiological functioning of skin. Hydration levels affect not only visible microscopic parameters such as the suppleness and softness of skin, but also molecular parameters, enzyme activities and cellular signalling within the epidermis. The body is continually losing some of its water, but this phenomenon is limited and the optimal hydration gradient in skin is ensured via a set of sophisticated regulatory processes that rely on the functional and dynamic properties of the uppermost level of the skin consisting of the stratum corneum. The present article brings together data recently acquired in the fields of skin hydration and the characterisation of dehydrated or dry skin, whether through study of the regulatory processes involved or as a result of changes in the techniques used for in situ measurement, and thus in optimisation of management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF SOLASODINE RHAMNOSYL GLYCOSIDES FOR LARGE SKIN CANCERS: TWO CLINICAL CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill E. Cham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solasodine rhamnosyl glycosides (BEC are a new class of antineoplastics, the efficiency of which administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intratumoral routes is higher than that of many other antitumor agents. Early investigations have established the efficiency of topical BEC applications as a treatment option for non-melanoma skin cancers. There have recently been two clinical cases that count in favor of the fact that the cream formulation Curaderm containing BEC has a very high efficacy in the treatment of large non-melanoma skin cancers that are incurable by other existing methods. Also, Curaderm treatment shows a splendid cosmetic effect

  10. Protective effects of B vitamins and antioxidants on the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B; Chen, Yu; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; van Geen, Alexander; Howe, Geoffrey R; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-08-01

    An estimated 25-40 million of the 127 million people of Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic from drinking groundwater. The mitigating effects of diet on arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the vitamin B group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin) and antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E) on arsenic-related skin lesions. We performed a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), 2000-2002, with individual-level, time-weighted measures of arsenic exposure from drinking water. A total of 14,828 individuals meeting a set of eligibility criteria were identified among 65,876 users of all 5,996 tube wells in the 25-km(2) area of Araihazar, Bangladesh; 11,746 were recruited into the study. This analysis is based on 10,628 subjects (90.5%) with nonmissing dietary data. Skin lesions were identified according to a structured clinical protocol during screening and confirmed with further clinical review. Riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid, and vitamins A, C, and E significantly modified risk of arsenic-related skin lesions. The deleterious effect of ingested arsenic, at a given exposure level, was significantly reduced (ranging from 46% reduction for pyridoxine to 68% for vitamin C) for persons in the highest quintiles of vitamin intake. Intakes of B-vitamins and antioxidants, at doses greater than the current recommended daily amounts for the country, may reduce the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

  11. Cosmeceutical effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Kombucha tea by intradermal administration in the skin of aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Nafiseh; Mahmoudi, Elaheh; Hashemi, Seyed-Ali; Kamali, Jamal; Hajiaghayi, Reza; Rahimzadeh, Mitra; Mahmoodi, Vajiheh

    2017-11-19

    Natural ingredients have been always an interesting approach to prolong youthful appearance of skin. One of the natural compounds is Kombucha tea (KT), which has been mainly used as an energy drink in Asian countries for a long time. Previous reports indicated that it has pharmaceutical and favorable wound repairing effects. The beneficial properties of KT are thought to be mainly due to the presence of fermentation products such as flavonoids and other polyphenols with inhibition of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and anti-inflammatory effects. These properties prompted us to study the anti-aging potential of KT and investigate its effective fraction in aged mice, METHODS: Kombucha tea was fractionated into chloroform, butanol, and ethyl acetate, and flavonoid content was determined. Young and old mice were used as control. KT ethyl acetate fraction (KEAf), which had the highest flavonoid content, was intradermally administered to old mice. Administration of KEAf significantly increased the collagen content, NAD + /NADH level, and concomitantly improved skin connective tissue abnormalities in the aged skin. No sensitivity or irritation was observed. This finding suggested that KEAf can be a suitable candidate as a cosmetic product to improve aging-related skin abnormalities and regeneration of aged skin. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of bathing on skin exposed to Cobalt-60 teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohannan, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of this study was to determine the effects of bathing or not bathing on the degree of skin reaction occurring in patients receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy to the chest, back, or head and neck. A quasi experimental study was done using a 2 x 7 repeated measures design. Sixty-seven subjects receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy at the Moncrief Radiation Center in Fort Worth, Texas, were randomly assigned to an experimental group who did not bathe during therapy and a control group who did bathe with water during therapy. Observations were made after each 1000 rads of therapy and two weeks after the final treatment. Erythema and pigmentation measurements were taken using the Photovolt 670 and rates were assigned using the Baker-Leith Rating Scale. Findings from the study suggest that bathing the portal of entry with water during the treatment period does not influence the degree of skin response that occurs from Cobalt-60 teletherapy

  13. Effect of Alpinia zerumbet components on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes

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    Chompoo Jamnian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin is chronically exposed to endogenous and environmental pro-oxidant agents, leading to the harmful generation of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant is vital substances which possess the ability to protect the body from damage cause by free radicals induce oxidative stress. Alpinia zerumbet, a traditionally important economic plant in Okinawa, contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this regard, we carried out to test the inhibitory effect of crude extracts and isolated compounds from A. zerumbet on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Methods The antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH radical scavenging. Collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase were designed for enzymatic activities to investigate the inhibitory properties of test samples using a continuous spectrophotometric assay. The inhibitory capacity of test samples was presented at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. Results The results showed that aqueous extract of the rhizome was found to have greater inhibitory effects than the others on both of antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Furthermore, 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK, dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK and 8(17,12-labdadiene-15,16-dial (labdadiene, isolated from rhizome, were tested for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitions. We found that DK showed higher inhibitory activities on DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH scavenging (IC50 = 122.14 ± 1.40, 110.08 ± 3.34 and 127.78 ± 4.75 μg/ml, respectively. It also had stronger inhibitory activities against collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase (IC50 = 24.93 ± 0.97, 19.41 ± 0.61, 19.48 ± 0.24 and 76.67 ± 0.50 μg/ml, respectively than DDK and labdadiene. Conclusion Our results indicate that the rhizome aqueous extract proved to be the source of bioactive compounds against enzymes responsible for

  14. Effects of pore size, implantation time, and nano-surface properties on rat skin ingrowth into percutaneous porous titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Brad J; Prilutsky, Boris I; Ritter, Jana M; Kelley, Sean; Popat, Ketul; Pitkin, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The main problem of percutaneous osseointegrated implants is poor skin-implant integration, which may cause infection. This study investigated the effects of pore size (Small, 40-100 μm and Large, 100-160 μm), nanotubular surface treatment (Nano), and duration of implantation (3 and 6 weeks) on skin ingrowth into porous titanium. Each implant type was percutaneously inserted in the back of 35 rats randomly assigned to seven groups. Implant extrusion rate was measured weekly and skin ingrowth into implants was determined histologically after harvesting implants. It was found that all three types of implants demonstrated skin tissue ingrowth of over 30% (at week 3) and 50% (at weeks 4-6) of total implant porous area under the skin; longer implantation resulted in greater skin ingrowth (p skin integration with the potential for a safe seal. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Skin Delivery of EGCG and Silibinin: Potential of Peptide Dendrimers for Enhanced Skin Permeation and Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pallavi Krishna; Manikkath, Jyothsna; Tupally, Karnaker; Kokil, Ganesh; Hegde, Aswathi R; Raut, Sushil Y; Parekh, Harendra S; Mutalik, Srinivas

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the peptide dendrimers to facilitate transdermal delivery of antioxidants, silibinin, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Drug-peptide dendrimer complexes were prepared and evaluated for their ability to permeate across the skin. The data revealed the ready formation of complexes between drug and peptide dendrimer in a molar ratio of 1:1. In vitro permeation studies using excised rat skin and drug-peptide dendrimer complexes showed highest values for cumulative drug permeation at the end of 12 h (Q 12 ), with corresponding permeability coefficient (Kp) and enhancement ratio values also determined at this time point. With silibinin, 3.96-, 1.81-, and 1.06-fold increase in skin permeation was observed from silibinin-peptide dendrimer complex, simultaneous application of silibinin + peptide dendrimer, and pretreatment of skin with peptide dendrimer, respectively, in comparison with passive diffusion. With EGCG, 9.82-, 2.04-, and 1.72-fold increase in skin permeation was observed from EGCG-peptide dendrimer complex, simultaneous application of EGCG + peptide dendrimer, and pretreatment of skin with peptide dendrimer, respectively, in comparison with passive diffusion. The present study demonstrates the application of peptide dendrimers in effectively delivering antioxidants such as EGCG and silibinin into the skin, thus offering the potential to provide antioxidant effects when delivered via appropriately formulated topical preparations.

  16. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to a lesser extent prevent mortality. Current recommendations from professional societies regarding screening for skin cancer vary. To examine published data on the effectiveness of routine screening for skin cancer by a primary care provider, as part of an assessment for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality reviews. We used reference lists and expert recommendations to locate additional articles. Two reviewers independently reviewed a subset of 500 abstracts. Once consistency was established, the remainder were reviewed by one reviewer. We included studies if they contained data on yield of screening, screening tests, risk factors, risk assessment, effectiveness of early detection, or cost effectiveness. We abstracted the following descriptive information from full-text published studies of screening and recorded it in an electronic database: type of screening study, study design, setting, population, patient recruitment, screening test description, examiner, advertising targeted at high-risk groups or not targeted, reported risk factors of participants, and procedure for referrals. We also abstracted the yield of screening data including probabilities and numbers

  17. The effect of ultraviolet on direct current potentials of the human skin

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    A. O. Lazarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. investigation of the suntan on the level of omnipresent electrical potential of skin in frames of development of the hypothesis about the melanocyte participation in skin electrical activity formation. Material and methods. 11 men and 11 women on summer holyday took part in investigation. The relationship between the levels of skin omnipresent electrical potential and the reflection factor were investigated. The omnipresent electrical potentials were registered as the potential differences between the two areas on skin using the Orion 261S pH meter and the liquid Ag/AgCl electrodes of the same company. The reflecting factor was estimated with the help of the spectroradiometer LI-1800 (“LI-COR” using the included intgrational sphere 1800-12 coated with barium sulfate. Hole size was 1,45 cm. The reflection factor was estimated at the wave band 375-800 nanometers with the scanning pitch 1 nm. Main results. There is a mathematical relation between the magnitudes of potential differences and the reflection factors of the areas of sunburnt skin and the areas of the skin not affected with sun at wave light 620-729 nm. The relationship could be approximated in linear equation. Spearman correlation factor between these two parameters was -0,43 (p = 0,045, between the differences in levels of skin omnipresent electrical potential and the reflection factors of the sunburnt skin was r = -0,52 (p = 0,01, between the differences of the electrical potentials of sunburnt skin and the skin not affected with sun was r = -0,28 (p = 0,2. The presented results of investigation and the data from literature allow to conclude that there is a positive correlation between the level of omnipresent electrical potential of skin and the quantity of melanosomes filled with melanin. Conclusion. It is suggested that melanocytes take part in formation of the skin electrical activity via melanosomes filled with melanin. At the same time the melanocyte

  18. Short duration of skin-to-skin contact: effects on growth and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Jamli, Faizah Mohamed

    2007-12-01

    To compare weight gain and head growth in very-low-birthweight (VLBW, skin-to-skin contact (STSC) during their stay in a neonatal intensive care unit. Stable VLBW infants were randomised into either STSC or control group. Parents of the STSC group were encouraged to provide STSC for at least 1 h daily. One hundred and forty-six infants were randomised, but only 126 were enrolled (STSC group: n = 64; n = 62). Infants in the STSC group had better mean weekly increase in head circumference (1.0 cm (SD = 0.3) vs. 0.7 cm (SD = 0.3); P milk at enrollment (adjusted OR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4, 11.7; P = 0.009) and receiving expressed breast milk during intervention period (adjusted OR: 8.3; 95% CI: 2.8, 24.4; P < 0.0001); exposure to STSC and maternal education were not significant predictors. Exposure to short duration of STSC may promote head growth in VLBW infants.

  19. Advances in plasma skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K Wade; Moy, Ronald L; Fincher, Edgar F

    2008-09-01

    Plasma skin regeneration (PSR) is a novel method of resurfacing that uses plasma energy to create a thermal effect on the skin. PSR is different from lasers, light sources, and ablative lasers in that it is not chromophore dependent and does not vaporize tissue, but leaves a layer of intact, desiccated epidermis that acts as a natural biologic dressing and promotes wound healing and rapid recovery. Histological studies performed on plasma resurfacing patients have confirmed continued collagen production, reduction of elastosis, and progressive skin rejuvenation beyond 1 year after treatment. PSR has received US Food and Drug Administration 510 (k) clearance for treatment of rhytides of the body, superficial skin lesions, actinic keratoses, viral papillomata, and seborrheic keratoses. PSR also has beneficial effects in the treatment of other conditions including dyschromias, photoaging, skin laxity, and acne scars. The safety profile of PSR is excellent, and there have been no reports of demarcation lines in perioral, periorbital, or jawline areas, as can sometimes be observed following CO2 resurfacing. PSR is effective in improving facial and periorbital rhytides and can be used on nonfacial sites, including the hands, neck, and chest. Numerous treatment protocols with variable energy settings allow for individualized treatments and provide the operator with fine control over the degree of injury and length of subsequent recovery time.

  20. Exposure to Non-Extreme Solar UV Daylight: Spectral Characterization, Effects on Skin and Photoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Fran?oise

    2014-01-01

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320–400 nm and UVB, 280–320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinic...

  1. Phototoxic and modulatory effects of natural products from the skin of Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel V. Brito

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The skin of amphibians possesses a large diversity of biologically active compounds that are associated with the natural defenses of these animals against pathogens. Five different extracts and fractions were obtained from the skin of Rhinella jimi: methanol extract (ME, methanol fractions (MF, chloroform extract of methanol extract (CF, aqueous alkaloid fraction (AAF and aqueous non-alkaloid fraction (ANAF. All fractions were evaluated with respect to their antibiotic modifying activity in standard bacterial strains and multiresistant clinical isolates. Antagonism was detected with kanamycin and gentamicin when combined with substances obtained from the skin of R. jimi. Phototoxic activity was observed in the methanol and chlorophorm fractions, as well as the aqueous non-alkaloid fraction. The antagonistic action was apparently associated with the protection afforded by the bacterial populations that inhabit the skin of this amphibian, preventing colonization by pathogenic fungi. The phototoxic activity demonstrated by natural products from the skin of R. jimi showed an interruption of the bacterial growth after UV exposure. This could indicate an antibacterial effect activated by the UV light, opening a path for carrying the attack by pathogenic fungi, causing the disease related with the amphibian decline.

  2. Phototoxic and modulatory effects of natural products from the skin of Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel V. Brito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The skin of amphibians possesses a large diversity of biologically active compounds that are associated with the natural defenses of these animals against pathogens. Five different extracts and fractions were obtained from the skin of Rhinella jimi: methanol extract (ME, methanol fractions (MF, chloroform extract of methanol extract (CF, aqueous alkaloid fraction (AAF and aqueous non-alkaloid fraction (ANAF. All fractions were evaluated with respect to their antibiotic modifying activity in standard bacterial strains and multiresistant clinical isolates. Antagonism was detected with kanamycin and gentamicin when combined with substances obtained from the skin of R. jimi. Phototoxic activity was observed in the methanol and chlorophorm fractions, as well as the aqueous non-alkaloid fraction. The antagonistic action was apparently associated with the protection afforded by the bacterial populations that inhabit the skin of this amphibian, preventing colonization by pathogenic fungi. The phototoxic activity demonstrated by natural products from the skin of R. jimi showed an interruption of the bacterial growth after UV exposure. This could indicate an antibacterial effect activated by the UV light, opening a path for carrying the attack by pathogenic fungi, causing the disease related with the amphibian decline.

  3. Effects of Depilation-Induced Skin Pigmentation and Diet-Induced Fluorescence on In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) and far-red fluorescence imaging (FRFI) were used to investigate effects of depilation-induced skin pigmentation and diet-induced background fluorescence on fluorescent signal amplitude and lymphatic contraction frequency in C57BL6 mice. Far-red fluorescent signal amplitude, but not frequency, was affected by diet-induced fluorescence, which was removed by feeding the mice an alfalfa-free diet, and skin pigmentation further impacted the amplitude mea...

  4. Acute effects of coffee on skin blood flow and microvascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesselaar, Erik; Nezirevic Dernroth, Dzeneta; Farnebo, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Studies on the acute effects of coffee on the microcirculation have shown contradicting results. This study aimed to investigate if intake of caffeine-containing coffee changes blood flow and microvascular reactivity in the skin. We measured acute changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) in the forearm and the tip of the finger, the microvascular response to transdermal iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in the skin, after intake of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Vasodilatation during iontophoresis of ACh was significantly stronger after intake of caffeinated coffee compared to after intake of decaffeinated coffee (1.26±0.20PU/mmHg vs. 1.13±0.38PU/mmHg, Pcoffee. After intake of caffeinated coffee, a more pronounced decrease in CVC in the fingertip was observed compared to after intake of decaffeinated coffee (-1.36PU/mmHg vs. -0.52PU/mmHg, P=0.002). Caffeine, as ingested by drinking caffeinated coffee acutely improves endothelium-dependent microvascular responses in the forearm skin, while endothelium-independent responses to PORH and SNP iontophoresis are not affected. Blood flow in the fingertip decreases markedly during the first hour after drinking caffeinated coffee compared to decaffeinated coffee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

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    Renan Bezerra Lira

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

  6. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana Tran, Joshua P Townley, Tanya M Barnes, Kerryn A Greive Ego Pharmaceuticals, Braeside, Victoria, Australia Background: The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods: Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry and skin roughness (Ra were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity, R5 (net elasticity, R6 (viscoelastic portion, and R7 (recovery after deformation were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001 and 42.9% (P<0.0001, respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001 and 12.5% (P=0.0449, respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001 after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion: An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. Keywords: alpha hydroxy acids, antiaging, nicotinamide, vitamin C, vitamin E, profilometry, cutometer

  7. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908

  8. In vitro skin permeation and decontamination of the organophosphorus pesticide paraoxon under various physical conditions--evidence for a wash-in effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Jan; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Josse, Denis; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2012-09-01